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( . 214-215 , ;
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1981

81.2 -9
20

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. ., . ., . .
20
: ./ .: . , 1981. 285 .
90 .


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70104-409 155-81 4602010000
81 2 -9
001(01)81
4 ()
, 1981.



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put on, take hold, (),
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: (he) puts on, took hold.
: put it on, take firm hold.
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blackish, blacken). black-.
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, , , fresh, refreshment,
freshen, speaker, actor (//), great-ly,
quick-ly, nice-ly. : ,
, physic physician /'fizik fi'ziSn/,
come came; quiet-ude, serv-itude, dreamed /d/, walk-ed /t/, load-ed /id/.
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street street; walk ,
walked, walking,
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man men, child children,
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(, ; hand, hands). ,
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teacher,
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ox-en, childr-en.
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(1.2.6).
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( )
keep kept, ride rode ridden,
men's.
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(1.2.6) (1.2.6).
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10


() ()
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(, )
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: The
oak is a tree. The mouse is a rodent.
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( ): Oaks are trees. Mice are rodents. ,
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(1.2.5.1, 1.6.20.2), , ,
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11

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: tables, boys;
: Tisch-e, Knabe-n;
-, -: , .
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(,

): . . . .; . der Brief . .; . la
lettre . .; . . .; . das Haus . .; . la maison . .
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, (
), (gold,
silver, oxygen, gratitude). , ,
,
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(was jumping, was shooting, was winking).

,
. ,
gold, silver, hydrogen,

12

gratitude, ,
.
, , ,
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. (
, );
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;
- .
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1.0.5. .

, , .
:
1) , . e. ;
, . e. , : street-s,
approach-ed; , : foot
feet; find found.
, , , , . e.
: aunt and uncle's arrival.
e. : uncle's arrival.
, ,
(1.2.6).
2) ;
, , ,
: to be am was; good letter the best.
3) . ,
.
13

,
: is coming, has been asked, is being built.
,
:
1)
, ;
(
), ,
. ,
, ,
. , has given ,
had, been, sent.
2)
, .
,
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. :
.
3)
;
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the car ; had often
remembered often ,
.
1.
1.1.
1.1.1. .
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14

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(declinables)
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(indeclinables).
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(noun-pronouns), (noun-numerals),
; , ,

(adjective-pronouns),

(adjective-numerals) .
;
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(tense) .
,

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15

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, must, the, then, for, enough
; ,
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(
). (primary), . e.
, ;
(secondary), . e. ,
(tertiary), . e. . , a furiously
barking dog dog , barking,
, , furiously .
;
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(2.2.6).
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() , ;
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(Ch. Fries. The Structure of English).
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16

, , . , 1
, concert
The concert was good tax The clerk
remembered the tax; 2 is/was, remembered
; 3 good The
(good)concert was good, 4 there
31
2
3 4
The
is/was
there
, .
, , ,
1 ,
. ,
concert , 1; ,
1 ,
2, . e. ; , man, he, the others,
another 1,
came.
, 15 .
,
". function words, ,
, , ,
, (1.1115).
, , the, .
e. , .
, : the, no, your, their, both, few, much, John's, our,
four, twenty...
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1, ;
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( , , N not, there there is, please ).
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17

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. , beautiful
, *beautifuller, *beautifullest.
, ,
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. , beautiful, ,
fine, ; ,
adjectivals,
(adjectives). pronominals ,
pronouns. , ,
(constituent) .
; ,
, , , .
, , ,
, :
, ;
.
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.
: nominals, verbals, adjectivals, adverbials;
: , , ,
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18

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(, ),
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1.1.2.

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1.1.3.

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(E. . E. . , . . , . . ), ,
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19

, , ..
: table, dog, joy, strength; to bring, to cry, to enumerate; big,
difficult; soon, well. , .
,
, . e.
,
. ,
.
:
.
;
.
, . e.
. ,
, of, and, since, the,
(. , relation, meaning . .,
).

, ,
: the colour of the sky,
dogs and cats, the dog, a dog.
, , ,
; ,
(, ,
, , );
, , .
,
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;
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;
.
.
,

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. ,
, , have
I have a new television set.
, : I have lost my
gloves. ,
.
20

1.2.
1.2.1.
.
,
. ,
, -
( , , . .)
.
,
, , . .
: movement, strangeness, activity.
.
:
.
.
1.2.2.
.
.
, ,
, (
) , . ,
,
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
: .
: -er, -ist, -ess, - singer,
naturalist, authoress, legatee.
: -ness, -ion, (-ation, -ition), -ity, -ism, -ance, -ment lateness,
rotation, ignition, security, socialism, elegance, movement.
:
.
(., 1975).
1.2.3.
.
.
,
: river , dog , pleasure
. ,
, ;
21

, ,
,
. , John , ,
, , . .; Spot
, , . .; the Cutty Sark
( ),
, , .
,
;
, .

,
. ,
.

. .
.
.
:
1.2.4. .
.
,
: boy girl, cock hen, bull
cow; waiter waitress, lion lioness; he-goat she-goat. To
:
-, -, -; . Lwe Lwin, Lehrer Lehrerin.
. , Modern English Structure,
,
,
, :
he, she, it. ,

,
.
.
1.2.5. .
.
.
, . e. ,
(1.0.1.)
-s, /z/, /s/, /iz/

22

(dogs /z/, potatoes /z/; books, cats /s/; classes, bushes /iz/).
;
, , ,
.
, ,
,
.
, . e. ,
(1.0.1). , ,
(1.0.1) .
, ;

. ,
: ) -,
oxen, children; ) ,
,
: -i (nucleus nuclei); -a (stratum strata); -ae (antenna antennae).
, , ,
, , : termini terminuses; antennae
antennas. ,
- () s/z,
; , ,
.
,
,
. ,
(1.0.1). ,
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
: /u:/ /i:/ tooth teeth, foot feet;
/au/ /ai/ mouse mice, louse lice; /u/ /i/ woman women; /ae/
/e/ man men. /ai/ /i/ child
children, .
, ,
.
,
: sheep, deer, swine. , The sheep fell
into the ditch sheep ,
.

23

1.2.5.1. .

,
/.
,
- : e
(countables uncountables).
,
() , , , :
bench, girl, storm, breakfast, departure, illness, joy, wish.
. 1) ,
, : air, brass, oxygen, sugar ..; 2)
, ,
: greatness, validity, anger, gratitude.
:
, ..,
. ,
; ,
, :
the horrors of the war; his rages (= fits of rage) were terrible; the wines of Armenia;
the snows of Kilimanjaro.

(1.0.4). ,
.
:

, .
.

, . e. .
: a crowd crowds, an army armies.
;
: the peasantry, the cavalry, the
gentry. , .
, ,
, , ;
-
: The group works well ( ), The group
were assigned different tasks ( ); The jury consists of
twelve members ( ), The jury were divided
concerning the verdict ( ).
24

pluralia tantum,
, , ; pluralia tantum
: shorts, scissors, spectacles, trousers (. .
, , ).
1.2.5.2. .
, ,
, /,
.
, , .
, pluralia tantum,
.
,
(),
.
;
: ,
(, )
(attentions, joys) (1.2.5.1).
.
-
, .
,
: The badger, for example,
builds the most complicated burrow. He ,
, , ,
. ,
,
;
, : Badgers
build complicated burrows.
1.2.6. .
, ,
.
,
,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
. , (,
),
. ,
(1.0.4).
25

:
(Common Case) (Possessive Case).
,
.
: ,
. .
. .
. .
the boy
the boys
. . the boy's the boys'
;
(1.0.1) ;
,
. : the house was comfortable;
the walls of the house; we approached the house; behind the house.
house ; ,
- .
, / , ,
,
, , .
, , ,
() ,

,
, : a week's notice; at a mile's distance; a shilling's worth of sugar.1

(. . , . .
.). -'s,
, . . .
-'s ,
.

,
. ,
(1.0.2).
, ,
, ,
.
, .
1

, St. Paul's, at the baker's . ., .


.
; , ,
a week's respite . .
26

. . . .

. ,
-'s, ,
, .
-, ;
, ,
: the girl's voice, the dog's bark.

: the car's roof, the door's support.
: *his action's result.
-, : ,
(it was not my idea, it
was Tom's);
, : an idea of Tom's,
this idea of Tom's.
-, : . ,
,
: . the
boy's room the boys' room. , . . ,
his mother's voice, the boys' heads,
. boy's,
boys, boys'. men's, children's,
, children
.
(1.2.5).
, . .
, ; -'s
,
John and Tom's room, the Prime Minister of England's speech,
, : somebody else's car.

. ,

. , ,
( ).
:
,
, -
.
, : friend's arrival,
Shakespeare's sonnets, Ibsen's plays.
27


;
, : the Shakespeare National
Theatre, the Ibsen manner.

, ; ,
,
: . the car's roof ' ' the car roof '
() '.
,
.
.

. ,

, ,
.
, , .
.
, , , ,
( and Harry's room), ,
: ,
, , ,
, ,
: the children's voices.

; ,
, ,
, ,
.
, .
, ,
,

.

; .
, ,
.
1.2.7. .

.
: The dog wagged its tail. I like d g s.

: She is a singer.

28

,
,
(. 1.2.6) : a
stone wall, the speed limit, the sea breeze.
-.

(. . ); ,
.
,
: stone, n., ., & v. t.; brick, n., . The Concise Oxford
Dictionary,

,
, . ,

: (1.3.3),
. . , ,

, ,

.
, , stone wall
.
1.2.8. . , ,
(the) (a, an);
.

,
.
:

,

. ,
, .
:
;
. ;
.
,
,
, , , .
, , . e.
,

.
29

:
- this, that,
some;
. ,
, .

.
.
: ,
( ).
, ,
(. 1.0.1). , . e.
, ,
, , . e.
,
.
,
(a question an important question an
urgent important question)
(some important question, that question).

,
: the violence of the storm. ,

,
.
, , .
. , , ,
.
, ,
,
.

.
, , . . , :
, . e. , .
, , ,
: CONGRESSMAN MAKES STATEMENT.
, ,
/.
,
,
.
30

, ,
.
,
: the leaves, the green leaves; the glossy dark green leaves.
: those
glossy dark green leaves, its glossy dark leaves...
, . .
, ; ,
,
( ).
, :
is here he -
, is , here ,
. he, is, here
. ,
, ,
(). . . ,
,
:
, , .
.
,
.
:
A sharp stinging drizzle fell, billowing into opaque grey sheets... (G. Durrell)
Behind the wheel sat a short, barrel-bodied individual... (G. Durrell) I heard an edge
coming into my voice. (Snow) This table was covered with a most substantial tea...
(Snow).
;
A notice came round, summoning a college meeting... The meeting was called for
4.30... (Snow) A peasant had tethered his donkey just over the hedge. At regular
intervals the beast would throw out its head... (G. Durrell)

. ,

; . . .
,
,
.
.
,

31

,
, .
,
. , , . The
Masters: "The snow had only just stopped and in the court below my room all
sounds were dulled." : "The boys, as they
talked to the girls from Marcia lain School, stood on the far side of their
bicycles..." (M. Spark. The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie).
,
, ,
:
We walked along Sidney Street in the steady rain. Water was swirling, ... in the
gutters; except by the walls, the pavements were clear of snow by now, and they
mirrored the lights from the lamps and shop-fronts on both sides of the narrow
street. (Snow) The large map had been rolled down over the blackboard because
they had started the geography lesson. (M. Spark)
, ,
, ,
, (), . e.
, : The door was
open. The doors were open. The child is playing. The children are playing.
, , ,
, : I thought we
were going to get a car... (G. Durrell) He said the forests were full of serpents... (G.
Durrell). , . . ,
some,
: . I have read a novel by Thackeray I have read
some novel's by Thackeray.
, . e. ,

.
. ,

(, ,
- ):
I couldn't help showing the resentment which flared up within me. (Holt) He was
immersed in the drama, showing the frankness which embarrassed so many. (Snow)
,
- (). :
32

That will be all for this morning, I said with dignity (Holt). She looked several
years younger and there was a new dignity about her. (Holt)
My sympathy was tinged with impatience. (Holt) When I arrived that afternoon
it was to find them awaiting me and I sensed a n impatience in them both. (Holt)
,
: The (a) nightingale is a singing
bird. .
, ,
: An elephant is very dangerous when
wounded.
. ,
man (),
in summer, in spring . ,
, ,
,
:
The sun was shining out of a gentian-blue s k y. (G. Durrell) But it was a changed
w i n d, a mad, bellowing, hooting wind. (G. Durrell). The shallow sea in the bay...
(G. Durrell)
.
;
, ;
, , ,
.
, ,
.

.
.
( ),
:
We had dined with the Qaifes several times before. (Snow) It was the David
Rubin I knew very well. (Snow)

( ):
There have been two telephone calls... And the other was a foreigner, a Mr. H e r
l e P i r t. (Christie) Mrs. Gulliver, was that it? But she didn't remember a
Mrs. Gulliver. (Christie) A mademoiselle M add was there, I think. (Christie)
2 . . .

33

1.2.9. .
,
.
:
;
, ;
, ,
,
.
,

. , ,
,
. -,

.
,
-
(. 1.2.5.1). ,
,
: .
1.3.
1.3.1. .
, ,
: a clean dress, a high hill.
, , ,
, : . a
fast train an approaching train;
.
, ,
,

, : red redness, brief


brevity, long length.

: ice icy, industry
industrial, week weekly, wood wooden.
,
, , much, many, little, few.
,
. ,
.
34

. ,
,
(1.4), (1.5).
1.3.2. .
,
. :
-al, -ial national, residential; -ful doubtful; -less
needless; -y dusty. : -ive progressive; -able
understandable.
1.3.3.
.
,
, .

. ,
,
.
,
, (: blind, dead).

,
: ,
-r, -est: short,
shorter, the shortest.
: lovelier, more lovely; the
loveliest, the most lovely. ,
: direct, rapt;
,
strict stricter, the strictest.
,
more, the most: more difficult, the most difficult.

,
. , -, more
most , , ,
less, least, ,
, .
;
,
. ,
more, most
a most important point, ,
-.
35

, ,
, very, extremely,
, ,
, ( * bravest action),
most: a
most brave action. , ,
. ,
.
more, most
r
most.
(1.0.5); , r most
,
: . more attractive, less attractive, very attractive, rather
attractive.
1.3.4. .
;
; ,
,
, ,
: the bitter cold; there a light glowed, warm,
tawny, against the stark brightness of the night. (Snow).
: was grave and tense with
his news. (Snow). , ,
,
. , joint, live, lone, daily, weekly, monthly, woollen .
: a joint enterprise, a lone wolf, her daily visits.
, - ,
: glad, averse (to), bound for, concerned.
certain, ill ,
: . a certain
person I am certain the report is ready; ill tidings She is ill.
, ,
, ill
(. 1.3.6). ill

: ill news; it's an ill wind that blows nobody any good.
1.3.5. .
,
.
, ,
:
36

be a "good" writer needs organization too, even if those most capable of


organizing their books may be among the least competent at projecting the same
skill into their lives. (Powell)
, , ,
:
I am going to do the unforgivable, said Professor Searle. (Wilson)
, ,
, ;
;
( )
.
, (. e.
) ;

,
,

,
. , , . e.
, ,
, ;
: a private
(soldier), a native (inhabitant). ,
,
.

-s: shorts, essentials.
1.3.6. . . . .
,
, . .

.
,
, , a-:
awake, awry, asleep . ,
, , , ,
, ,
. ,
, :

(1.0.5). -,
, .

37


: . is awake is gay. ,


. ,
(1.3.4),
.
, ,
. ,
, : angry, expectant,
hopeful, sad.
, ,
, .
, ,

. : ashore.

. , . .
,
. . . ,
,
. . .
.
1.3.7.

,
,
;
, ,
(. 1.3.5).
;
: ,
*more electrical, *the most astronomical. ,
, ,
; , , manly, orderly, dogmatical,
weekly, atmospherical,
,
.
.

; ,
, -
:
.
.

38


(. 1.3.4, 1.3.6).
1.4.

, ,
(1.3.3),
(. 1.1.1).
;
, (one, two ...)
(the first, the second ...).
; ,
, :
She might be thirty or forty-five. (Christie) Two Italian primitives on the wall.
(Christie) She had not seen me for four days. (Snow)
; , ,
, , ,
: after a minute or two...
,
: Two and two is four.
E
: one day two days.
, ,

: two thirds.
,
, : in ten sixty-six; Chapter
seven.
, ,
,
(, )
, . ,
,
, , ;
, , , ,
:
-teen,
-ty, , , -th.
hundred, thousand, million ,
: two thousand five hundred and ten.

, ,
: hundreds of people, by twos
and threes.

39

1.5.
1.5.1.
.
: ,
, , .
, , ,

.
,
.
,
, .
: , ,
, , , , ,
, -. ,
. . , .
-
. ,
, , ,
() .
1.5.2.
.
. .
, .
I, we,
you, ;
he, she, it, they
, (it, they) (he,
she, it, they) , , :
Charles sighed as he stuffed the tickets into his waistcoat pocket. (Waine)

(. . , . . ); ;

. ,
. :
it:
Nom. I he she it we you they Obj. me him her it us you them
. .
, ,
, -,
, -,
40,

,
.

( ) (
).
.
;

It's me,
,
: It is I who did it.
him, her, us, them
, .
, : could not decide if
it was her or not. Twins who were only three years older than her. (Bruno's
Dreams) . , : But he was better off than us, in
one respect. (Realms of Gold)
,
, "
.
, , it, you
. , ,
.
we, you, they
, . e.
- - , ,
, .
. We : Stendhal, we know, consciously wrote
for a public yet unborn. (R. Fox) You :
Of course, it was all silly talk, but you couldn't help liking him. (Wilson) They
, ;
:
You're cold, sir ... No, no, said Mr. Treves. Just someone walking over my grave,
as they say. (Christie) They say it's certain to be over in six months. (Snow)
it,
, .
:
must be the only person on this earth who regards you as an irresponsible
schoolboy. It gives me great pleasure. (Snow)
it
.

41

,
,
: It is raining. It is warm today. it.
,
,
:
It was something like a blow to prestige, then, when the dance seemed to hang
fire. (Wilson) It was difficult to snap your fingers when your head was going round.
(Wilson)
, , , it

. .
, ,
(, it, ).
, we, you, they , it E
.
1.5.3.
. , his, her, its, our,
your, their ;
,
: a dress, my dress, a (the) new dress, new dress.
, ,
: mine, his, hers, ours,
yours, theirs. ' Yours must be a tiring life, nurse,' said Lois. (Wilson)
, . . , .
. , ,
:
(), .


: a dress of mine, that
friend of yours.
1.5.4.

: this, these ,
: My department would be
quite willing to take over these first discussions, I said. (Snow) that,
those ,
: Now I was getting older, I could realise those mistakes in the past.
(Snow) I hate to think of you up there in those dreadful smoky streets. (Wilson)
4S


, :
this girl, this young girl, the girl, the young girl.
: this these, that
those.

. that
(those) ,
: His tone was different from that of his friends. (Snow)
1.5.5.
.
who, whom, what, which. Whom
who,
whom. , . ,
whom /hu:/. ,
, ; who
: Who is there?
Whom : Whom do you see?/'hu: du ju 'si:?/.
What which
: What is your favourite
pastime? What do you mean? What book are you reading? Which book are you
reading? Which author do you prefer?
1.5.6.
.
: I saw myself ten, twenty years hence...
growing sour because life had passed me by. (Holt)

,
: In the morning I wash (myself), dress (myself) and have my breakfast.
, ,
, , .
, ,
; , amuse oneself, enj
oneself, collect oneself. He was enjoying himself, we were sharing a bottle of wine.
(Snow)
, ,
; to absent oneself, to
busy oneself, to pride oneself (on), to avail oneself (of).
,
;
, ,
: I saw it myself.
43

,
: ,
, self,
: myself, yourself, ourselves,
yourselves; himself, itself, themselves. ,
her herself,
, .
,

yourself, yourselves.
.
;
that; what.
.
: ,
, ,
. . 1.13.
1.5.7.

.
, .
; some, any,
something, anything, nothing; somebody, anybody, nobody;
someone,
anyone,
no
one.

-.

/; ,
-body, -one :
, , , Is there
anybody in your room? There is nobody there,
. some any

; :
1.5.8.

This is not the first time that Mr. Pilbrow has represented to some of us the claims
of decent feeling. (Snow) 'N change,' said Chrystal. (Snow) She made some excuse
and came towards us. (Powell) 'I don't suppose he had any option.' (Snow) 'Do a n
of you share my view?' (Snow)
some, any, no, every
( somewhere, anyhow . .,
.):
'They need to feel that they are doing something new. I've got a feeling that if
anyone gives them a lead, they'll forgive him a lot. They may not like everything he's
doing, but they'll be ready to forgive him.' (Snow)

'Nothing whatever was said?' 'Not a word.' (Powell)


44

, ,

; .
,
,
(. ; . . , . . , . . .).
,
; , . ,
, ,
. . ,
, all, each,
every, everything, everybody, everyone, several .
, ,
(., , all each).
, other,
others; certain
a certain person,
, .
, certain ; other, ,
,
.
much, many, little, few.

,
. ,
:
,
, (. 1.3.5),
: There is much to do. There is little doubt about it.
: . There had been
so much activity in the last few years. (Wilson) We walked a few yards further.
(Snow)
. . ,
.
1.5.9. . ,

.
,

45

(. 1.5.2). -body, -one,


other :
The subject of everybody's talk.; ...to try to win anyone's favour.} ... looked into
the other's face. (Poutsma)
other,
: The others, who had been listening soberly, did not
want to argue. (Snow)
.
: ,
, ,
some, any, no, every.
, ,
every. , ,
some, any, each, other.


.
,
. ,
, ,
. :
,
. , ,
,
, .
.

,
; ,
.
; .
; .
().
,
(My brother works in a hospital; he is a surgeon),
.

.
1.6.
1.6.1. . . .
,
46

, . . , .
:
,
, ,
(): A chair is a piece of furniture. He wrote
a letter. He will soon recover. ,
, () , ,
- ( )
. ;
(Finite)
,
: .
,
;
, . . ,
. ,
, ; ,

more, most
(1.2.8, 1.3.3).
1.6.2.
. ,
:
,
, , ,
( . . ), . .
: to blackmail ( blackmailing);
to seabatke ( sea-bathing).
.
: -en: to redden, to strengthen.
: -fy: to magnify, to dignify; -ise: to fraternise, to
mobilise.
1.6.3.
.

, :
.
,
( )
, ,
: /d/ saved /seivd/,
echoed /'ekoud/; / t / looked /lukt/ /id/
loaded /'loudid/. -ed.
,
.

47

,
. , , ,
, . .
,
, .
, ,
.
: to put, to let, to hit, to
cast.
, ,
: to keep kept kept,
to weep wept wept.
: am is are; was were.
1.6.4. .


.
, ,
.
,
.
.

; ,
o ,

, - : . I have
lost my umbrella, to lose have

,

(1.0.5).
.
, . . ,
() - .
,
-

.
-
. to be, to keep
to become, to get, to turn .

, . .
. ,
. ,

48


.
.
,
(1.6.8);
. ;
.
(2.0.7).
1.6.5. .
(. 1.0.4),
.
,
. ,
, :
, . , , to arrive,
to bring, to catch, to break, to discover; (to
arrive), ;
, , , . .
;
, ,
: to sleep, to live, to belong, to enjoy.
,
, .
. ,
, ,
: to consist, to be, to love, to stand, to lie . .

, ,
: to laugh, to feel, to move, to walk, to look:
Then, from the first court, Crawford walked smoothly into view. (Snow) The rain
swept his face and he moved away quickly. (R. Williams) ;
He mould have to walk the five miles north. (R. Williams) ... the long road into the
town. Nothing moved along it, except the bare trees in the wind. (R. Williams)
.
,
, ,
, .
- ,
.

49

; , ,
.
1.6.6.

/ ,
, .
,
.
, ,
,
.
,
.
: , , .
, :
. he approached ( ), he was approaching
( ).
1.6.7.
.
,
, ,
.
, . ,
, ;
, ,
(, , to be
'', ).
.
, , , , ,
, ,
.
1.6.8.
.
,
. , : ., ,
. , , . ., , ...
,
(, , , ), ,

.
. ,
, , ; came,
stopped, looked . .

50

, : he came, the train


stopped, they looked,
, : was, were.
:
,
: am, is, are. ,
: comes, looks.
: -s
, ,
-s: , ,
, : I look. -s
, ,
they look
-s. , -s . ,
, ,
,
: the train stop-s, the train-s stop. ,

.
, ,
: shall,
will. , , .
,
: -, -'ll,
; -,
-'ll, will
(. 1.6.12.3).
, ,
. (
). ,
:
ain't;
I'se. , -s
( ) , :
CLIFFE: What do you do with yourself? BOY: I go to the races in me top hat.
CLIFFE: Then? BOY: I reads till they puts the lights out. (R. Jenkins)
1.6.9. . c
.

.
51

(tenses) (time),
.
,
.
;
. , ,
; , , ,
,
() .
:
, .

:
. ,
;
.
(tense)
, , , .
, , ;
, ,
( ), .
,
; ,
, .
: .
,
. , ,
,
, .
,
.
, ;
,
,
(. 1.6.12.2).
.
;
:
As we drank Brown's health, I caught his dark, vigilant eye. He had tamed
Winslow for the moment; he w as show-ing Jago at his best... (Snow)
had tamed was showing ,
; ,
52

drank caught,
, . e. .

; ,
, ,
.

, .
,
, ,
, . ,
( ),
() ,
. .
,
() ,
.
(),
.

1.6.10. .

,
, , .

.
, I dine with sister,
,
, : Tomorrow I
dine with my sister. , ,
, : I dine with my
sister at home.; I dine with my sister because she likes it ...
.

: I always buy it at the same
shop. ,
(Indefinite) .

always , , same.
53

, .
,

, ,
.
1.6.11. .
1: (Indefinite),
(Continuous), (Perfect), -
(Perfect Continuous). ,
, .
;
; ,
, , .
1.6.12. . , ,
;

do;
.
,
: look,
he look-s; looked.
1.6.12.1. .
.
Indefinite.
, ,
. , Indefinite :
,
, (
) .
, , . ,
,
, ,
. : Water boils at
100 .

, , - ,
: In the bird
1

, ,
, :
, ,
...

world, of course, one finds homes of every shape and size. (G. Durrell) , ,
,
; : The reporter
stands gazing fervently at Perkin for a second, then grasps his hand and shakes it
vigorously... (H. Livings)

;
, : As the bat flies along, it
emits a continuous succession of supersonic squeaks... (G. Durrell)

: Only two days more.
Audrey goes on Wednesday. (Christie)

,
;
- : If I see him, I said, I'll
let you know. (Snow) When the term begins, we'll discuss our plans.
1.6.12.2. .
, ,
, . e. . , . e.
,
;
,
.

: shook my hand and went out


rapidly through the outer office. (Snow)
,
- : As
they watched him, Roger behaved well... He listened to accounts of what they said...
He sat at his desk in the office... (Snow)
, ,
;
, : Whenever he saw in the distance
another figure wheeling a cart with a ladder and buckets, he fled in panic... (Waine)
;
, ;
;
,
, .
,
.
55

,
,
do; ,

( ): Who told you about it? No one knew
the address.

;
. , ,
,
, ,
.
,
. ,
:

.
1.6.12.3. .
shall will
. , , ,
. , . , will
70 % . ,
-'ll,
shall will. , shall will

,
.
, ,
,
, , ,
.
,
. ,
shall will
, ,
. , -'ll ,
will
; -'ll
, a will
, :
We'll I try anything, but the chances are against us. (Snow) I will now request the
junior fellow to collect your votes... I shall then read them aloud... (Snow)
56

Will shall
1- .
1.6.12.4. . ,
, ;
, .
.
, ,
, ,
,
,
, :
, .
. .
(, , ),

. . . . . .
,
,

. . . ,
Indefinite
, , . ,
,
,
, .
, - , , ,
,
.
, , ,
.
, ,
. ,
, , -.
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
1.6.13. 1. ,
.
1
.
Continuous Progressive.
57

,
, :
You're smiling, Alice said. (Braine) I'm feeling things I'd forgotten. The nerve is
regenerating. (Braine)
1.6.13.1. . ,
, , .

, * Water is boiling at 100 , The water
is boiling, let's have tea ,
, .

. ,
,
:
You are the one who is suffering for it. (M. Stewart) The Master of this college is
now lying in his lodge. (Snow)

; : The
bus is coming, I said. We'll have to run for it. (Braine)
,
, .
;
,
. When are you leaving for the South? (Braine)
when. 'Are you coming
into hall, Jago?' 'No, said Jago, I shall dine with my wife.' (Snow),
, (
).
,
, : 'Why are we
wasting time?' said Francis Getliffe (Snow) 'What are you trying to say?' (Lessing)
, ,

. ,
, ,
;
. ,
,
.
to belong, to
58

consist, to contain, to possess, to resemble, to suffice ,


E. ; ,
to know, to comprise, to conflict, to date, to seem.
, ,
to love, to hate, to
like, to see, to hear.

, . ,
- :
What he was seeing can hardly have been reassuring. (M. Stewart)
, ,
- , .
1.6.13.2. .
, , ,
- ;
, .
, ,
. ,
, , .
,

. ,
,
;
.
: ...Looking at my pictures... and having a little music... You know how I
enjoyed these. (Snow)
, ,
.
, , ,
, : As I was mounting the
stairs I heard my parents talking. (Holt) As I crossed the bridge I noticed how solemn
she was looking. (Holt) *You know how I was enjoying these *I
remember she was looking solemn
: I remember she was looking solemn at that moment.
.
:
59

It was a sultry day in June and I was sitting by the stream. (Holt) The sun was
setting going down like a battleship. (Braine)
,
, ,
,
;
,
, :
I arrived at the Principal's room at ten minutes to six the next evening. The gas
fire was burning; the Principal was writing at his desk... (Snow)
1.6.13.3. .
,
. ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
. , , ,
, , ,
. :
She will be waiting up for me, he said. I shall hurt her beyond words. (Snow)
1.6.14. .
to have .

.
,
. ,
.
, ,
(. , . , . . ),
, ,
, .
. . , . . ( 1948 .)
. . .
, . .
(. e.
).
60

. . ,
, ,
, .
, , . .
( ) - .
, . . .

. ,
,
,
,
. , , . .
,
, , ,
. ,
. .
. ; . .
. .
, : progressive non-progressive,
perfective non-perfective.
(Indefinite), , ,
non-progressive nonperfective.
. .
The Structure of Modern English. , ,
, . . , ,

, , ,
, . ,
, ,
,
. ,
. . , , , ,
.
, , ,
, . . , ,
,
, ,

, .
. .
61

,
. ,
,
, ,
,
. ,
,

, (1.0.3).
, . . ,
. -
( . .
, . . ). ,
,
.
,
,
.
;
.
, ,
,
. ,
, .
-,
.
.
1.6.14.1. .
.
, , ,
, .
, :
I've come on behalf of the Stotwell Literary Society, she said. (Waine) That which
you expected has happened. (Christie) I can give you some sort of notion, but I've
only started on this idea. (Snow)
,
:
It looked as if there was simply no way of going on. But things have altered,
altered so strangely. (Waine)

, : This really has meant
62

something to me, really. (Waine) 'She has been with you long?' 'Twelve years.'
(Christie)

() :
'I know... Her words came hoarsely. I have always known.' (Christie) 'A beautiful
house. It has about it a great peace.''Yes... We have always felt that.' (Christie)
.
, , . e.
.
,
, , . e. .
, ,
.
, , :
'I have earned the right to speak. I have dared. I have gone through, I have not
fallen withered in the fire.' (Shaw) 'I've tried these modern inoculations a bit myself.
I've killed people with them and I've cured people with them but I gave them up.'
(Shaw)
,
,
; , ,
, ,
, .
.
1.6.14.2. . ,
,
.
,
. ,
,
;
,
, , ,
,
, . , ,

.
, . e. , ,
:
63

So in time I came to Rome... and talked with a man who had known my father
when he was the age I was now. (M. Stewart) When he arrived, he was shorttempered because we had talked so much without him. (Snow)
, ,
:
I thought about how we had voted. (Snow) I... looked about me. There was no one
there. They had vanished as if they had indeed been spirits of the hills. (M. Stewart)

,
, ; . ,
, .
1.6.14.3. .
; ,
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
. , ,
,

(1.6.13.3).
;
, :
I'll see you tomorrow night. I shall have thought over your business by then.
(Snow)
1.6.15. - .
, -
. . . , , ,

. ,
,
, - ,
, .

. , ,
.
-
, , ,
, , . ,

64

, .
, ,
,
, . .:
We've been listening to a man who believes what he says. (Snow) 'I've been
looking for you, ma'am.' (Christie) 'He's on board. He's been sitting out in a deckchair smoking a cigar.' (Christie) 'Have you been sending me a lot of dam fool
telegrams?' (Waine)
- ,
,
,
; ,
:
She recalled days at her father's country-house when Francis and I had both been
staying there. (Snow) Up to that moment he'd been talking about football to a knot of
his cronies. (Braine)
-
.
1.6.16. .
, .
,
.
; .

.

.
,
;
. -

,
.
;
, .
,
, ; -
.
, ;
(
, ),

3 . . .

65

( , );
.
,
(
). , ,
, :
, ,
(1.6.14, 1.6.14.1).
1.6.17. . ,
,

, -
. , , -

.
, ,
. I knew that he lived in London
, .
, , he
lived in London ,
.
, - ,
, ,
, ( ).
, ,
, ;

, ,
.
,

,
,
; -
. , ,
, ,
, Future-in-the-past
. , ,
.
should would
:
Sillery was right to suppose his boast would cause surprise. (Powell) I knew... I
should not be much good to her, but I should need her. (Snow)
, ,
66

.
, (1.6.19.2).

, .
, (1.6 12.3),
.
.

,
, .
, . ,
, ; .
: How did you know I was here? ,
;
; ,
, . ,
How did you know I am here?
(
),
: Did you tell him that I am on the vestry? (Shaw) I was telling you that
he hardly understands anyone... (Dickens)
, .
1.6.18. .

,
. ,
, ,
.
,
.
.
, ,
; ,
, ,

, ,
.
, , , ,
, , ,
- .
. ,
,
67

I know he lives there.; I know he is living there.; I know he has lived in London.;
I know he has been living in London, *I know he was living in L.; *I
know he had lived in L.; *I know he had been living in L.
: I know he was living in L.
when you came there.; I know he had lived (had been living) in L. before you came
there.
, , ,

. .
, 3 .

3
3
3

3
3

3
3
3

, ,
, .
.
.
.
1.6.19. . .
, ,
. e. .

: , .
,
,
,
.

.

, , ;
, ,
, .
68

,
, , ,
.
.
; .
1.6.19.1. .
( . . ),
.
, 3-
: Stop talking! Be quiet!
, , , -, to , -,
I told you not to talk!
: Don't talk! ,
. .
.
, , : , ,
, ,
.
, : ,

, , ,
-

, ,
: You stay here!
,
, let: let us begin; let her try
again. let
.
1.6.19.2.
.


.
, -,
: be, ,
(If it be true...), were,
(If I were you, I should do
it), ,
, -s (I suggest that he go).
;
, ,
.
-, ,
,

.
69

-,
should would.

:
16 , ,
(. . ).
.
,
,
, .
. , ,
Thought-Mood
; ,
should
would, (Conditional Mood); may
might Permissive Mood.
.
,
. ,
(If he came, if he had come...),
, Tense-moods. ,
,
; ,
.
, , -
,
,
. . , . . .
;
, . . , . .
, . . . . .
. . ) I (if he be; I suggest that he
go), , ; )
II, , ,
(if it were, if he had known); ) ,
should (should
should you meet him); )
should would,
(What would you answer if you were asked..'.). ,
, .
. . (Conditional should go,
would go), ,
70

(be, were, if I knew) ,


(however it might be, for fear it should start trouble).
, ,
,
, ,
.
. .
, should, would
,
. if I knew, if I had known . .

.

. . The Structure of Modern
English. ,
( 16
) , ,
,
. :
1) ; 2)
.
.

, . . ,
,
; ,
: 1) lived
here five years ago; 2) If he lived here he would come at once. lived lived
, ; ,
, : 1) I knew he had lived
there; 2) If he had lived there he would have come to see me.

should,
would,

, . .
(Future-in-the-past). . .

. (,
), : ,
, .
, ,
, ; ,
.
, ( ) .
. . (patterns) ,
71

.
, . .
, ,
,

, : 1) ; ,
, be were, . e.
: If I were you, I should not talk too much in
public about your plans. (Snow); 2) should : There is no reason that I
know why he should hunt me. (M. Stewart); 3) should would
: If we changed it drastically at a single stroke, it would
alter the place overnight. (Snow)
,
(unlikely condition): If Ross (his doctor) were
here, he would tell us it was dangerous. (Snow) : If
we had given him the most concealed of hints, he would have rushed to Nightingale...
(Snow)
, ,
; ,
, should would .
,
, should would ,
should
. , , : should
Should you meet her, tell her to
phone me. , should ,
, :
Chrystal wondered why he should act as chairman when Brown himself was there.
(Snow) Small wonder, in the dark years that followed, that the short stretch of
Maximus' victorious peace should appear to men like a lost age as golden as any
poets sing. (Stewart)
were

should (,
) .
should would, ,
.
Should would
() : I should be so sorry to
interrupt. (Snow) Perhaps no group would ever let itself be guided by Roy Calvert.
(Snow) , ,

72

should were: ...She said defiantly,


as though she were thinking of her mother. (Holt). If you should see them tell them to
come here.
, ,

, should.

.
, . .
.
,
, ,
. ,

:
(1.6.12.1).
, If he lived, If I knew
, ,
start I start tomorrow .

, .
, should would

, , should would,
,
,
, :
I should value it if you would keep me in touch. (Snow) I consider that the college
would be grossly imprudent not to use the next few months to resolve... (Snow)
Ho: There are a few things no one should dare to decide for another man. (Snow)
I asked him to be patient, but he w I d not listen.
should would
,
,
, , ,
, ,
, . .: I'd have acted differently if I'd known you were
on the way. (Holt) You should have done it years ago. (Holt)
Should would
. . . (. ). , .

73

should would ,
, .

;
:
(If I knew... I should do so; if I had
known... I should have done so). , . .
,
:
His calculation about Crawford was, of course, ridiculous. Crawford, impersonal
even to his friends, would be the last man to think of helping, even if help were
possible. (Snow)
,
,
.

, . e. :
, ,
it: It is strange you should think so.

,
,
:
I should say so. Would you be so kind as to tell me...? You can't start now: you
would get lost in the dark.
:
,
, ,

.
, , ,
,
.
1.6.20. .

.
, , ,
, .
; ,
, .
1.6.20.1. . ,

74

. ;
, ,
( ).
, ,
. . . ,
,
( ) .

. , ,
, , (,
): gripped the edge of the table. (Waine)
, : Nothing happened. The
child was weeping.
; : The door opened. The new
record sold well.
;
.
1.6.20.2. .
. . .
.
,
, -.
,
, . e. ,
.
(, ), : ;
wrote a letter.
; ., , heard a sound; ,
.
- ,
, : looked tit me.
- ,
, ,
- , , ,
,
: .; .; I live in town.; He rose.
, ,
; .

/;
. ,
75

,
(: to take, to seize, to give), ,
(to stand, to lie, to
run, to sleep).
,
, , :
She takes after her mother.; The windows give on the street.; . Your books will
translate. (Waugh) I marched him back to his room. (Holt) They lie him down.
(Duncan)
,
(to die, to work, to sit).
,
. .
, ;
, , .

: greeted me warmly. He
was greeted warmly.
(, ) ,
, .
, ,
.
: We were interrupted then. (Stewart) Champagne
was served at feasts. (Snow) .
, , , ,
,
:
During the next week preparations were made for our departure. (Holt) They
were shepherded into the library. (Christie)
,
; .
,
:
Baker, with a sane and self-righteous expression, had been marched into the
orderly room on a charge of insubordination. (Sillitoe) His whole life was lived in
the pages of that monumental biography which was to be written after his death.
(Waine)
,
,
, .

76

,
, -, . e. ,
: Brown was listened to by
everybody. (Snow)
: Mr. Dereham is not in
his room. His bed's not been slept in and all his things have gone. (Holt)

, , ,
.

:
had been given his instructions in private. (Waine) Charles went to the back
door of the house and was handed his money. (Waine)
: (Somebody) (the
employer) (she) handed him the money. Jane told her my story
, : My
story was told her by Jane She was told my story (by Jane).
.
,
;
;

. ,
, I turned my face away. (Holt) 'I'll make you some tea,' said Alice.
(Braine) 'I would say you take a pride in being a sensible young woman.' (Holt)
1.6.20.3.
. ,

.
,
, , .
.
, ,
; ,
(,
).
; ,
, .
,
.
77


, , , ,

.
, : They were often entertained
there by some members of the Company. (Holt)
, ,
, :
was moved by a feeling for the dying man. (Snow) I was upset by his news.
(Snow)

; ,
. , ,
.
, : Der Brief wird
geschrieben , Der Brief ist geschrieben
, , ,
(Zustandspassiv).
,



.
. , ,
, ,
, ,
:
At the age of seventy-four, he was excited as a boy about his expedition. (Snow)
Jago's face was shadowed with anger. (Snow)

, .

, , ,
: She was excited and happy. She was happy
and excited. ,
, was wounded and very weak. =/= *He was very weak and
wounded. , ,
.
: His tone to me was not softened, but harder than it had been. (Snow)

:
78

, (was
wounded);
(was surprised);
- ,
(was
respected).
1.6.20.4. .
,

.

.
,
, ,
. Bo
, ,
, .
, I poured myself another cup of tea (Braine)
(I poured him a cup
of tea).
had been taught... to efface himself in every possible way
(Waine) efface himself ,
,
: I must try and efface the unfavourable impression I made.
,
;
I hurt myself, , ,
( ),
I saw myself in the mirror .
I enjoyed
myself I enjoyed those days in Sydney (Holt); , , to
pride oneself, to busy oneself, to concern oneself,
, .

. ,
,
, ,
. ,
, , . e.
, ,
,
: I dressed myself I dressed; I washed myself I
79

washed, I hurt I hurt myself, I amuse I amuse myself . .


,

, .

-, :
,
, - .

.
1.6.21. ().

,
, .
;
, ,
. , ,
, :
,
. , ,
, .
;
:
,
-
. ,
.
;

, .
1.6.21.1. . ,
.

.
, ,
. ,
:

write. To be writing.
To be written. To have been
To have written. To have been written, writing.
80

to ,
,

, .
, , ,
,
,
;
, , ,
: 'I can't be bothered now to wrap anything up.'
'Neither can I, old boy.' (Waine)
have to, be to,
ought to ; to: By this time it
ought to have been over. (Christie)
) , )
, ) , )
, ) :
) have asked questions here would have attracted attention. (Stewart) ) To
see is to believe, ) I wanted to tell them before they discovered. (Holt) r) There was
no one to read the words that were being traced. (Christie) ) was a good
workman; too good a workman t be sked. (Braine)

. :
If Godmanchester cared publicly to break the lease with the S i e t y, let him
do. (Wilson)
to
; (split
Infinitive). ,

: I wish to specially stress the fact...

-;
,
:
I am sure the Dean never intended to suggest anything else. (Snow) When I told
Rose that I wished to transfer Gilbert Cooke, I had an awkward time. (Snow)
, :
It was like her also not to have asked a single question about what I had been
doing. (Snow)
81

,
, :
reach the escarpment top meant another spelt among the trees. (Sillitoe)

, : .
Then she would force herself to attend to Margaret and to me. (Snow) 'I have no
wish to listen to anybody's private conversation.'' (Christie)
, ,
, : I' telling you not to
worry. (Snow)
:
Everyone watched him g . (Snow) As her gaze returned to Ralph, I saw her
recognise him. (Stewart) -
for,
, , ,
-:
It's extremely funny for me to be consoling you. (Snow) Office affairs are easy to
start and difficult to finish, particularly in a small town. (Braine)
1.6.21.2. .
; , ,
, ,
, , .
,
:
As he passed a darkened shop doorway, a hand reached out. (Waine) An
artistically arranged bowl of flowers stood on... an oak chest. (Holt) I am not
qualified to express an. opinion. (Snow) 'It's all so safe, and civilised and cosy,' she
went on. (Braine) But there are nights when Jago sat silently in hall, his face white,
ravaged. (Snow)

(. 1.6.20.3): I am interested to hear what you
think. (Snow) ,
,
: Reporting this to me, she was as
embarrassed and vulnerable as when she had confessed... (Snow)
: as vulnerable and embarrassed.
, .
82


;
, , :
Supper finished, they hung mosquito nets from overhanging branches. (Sillitoe)
1.6.21.3. .
.
,
. , , .
, . . , . . . ,

. . . ,
, .
. . . .
-,
-ing-, (),
() .
,

() .
, n ,
. , , -
, ,
-ing-.

; , , ,
-ing-. ;
, , .

, .
, , :

asking
having asked
being
having been
asked
asked
,
-;
-.
1.6.21.4. .
,
83

. ,
.

; .

,
( ).
() ,
:
They must have seen the retreating trio. (Stewart) A loving mother.
,
:
There were stone steps leading to a terrace. (Holt) He sat down self-assuredly
with a party consisting entirely of J a g o' s supporters. (Snow)
,
;
.

:
The realisation was rather disconcerting. (Braine) He can be a m s i n g and
he's a scholar. (Snow)
,
(a loving mother; it is surprising). ,
;
, , ,
(.
1.1.1.). ( to love, to
surprise), .
-ing, ; , heartbreaking
, , to heartbreak.
.
.

-:
Roy was standing at his upright desk, reading a manuscript. (Snow) Hurstall
entered b e a r i n g the coffee-tray. (Christie)
:
Having ushered Battle into a small room, ... Miss Amphrey withdrew. (Christie)
84

,
,
-:
Then, catching the other's quizzical eye, he said... (Christie)
,
;
,
;
:
went out of sight, Mrs. Thompson walking sedately beside him. (Braine) Then,
his temper boiling v e r, he made a tactical mistake. (Snow)

:
It harassed me to see this proud man humiliating himself. (Snow)

1.6.21.5. .
.
, ,
; , ,
.
.
, ,
(),
.
:
,
.
.
:
B e i n g angry wouldn't help. (Braine) There was cheering still for Arthur and the
King's choice. (Stewart) She needs taking care of. (Spark) Hildegaarde had taken to s
t d i n g the subject. (Spark) I hadn't any fears of having said too much. (Braine)

, .
;
, , . .
; ,
, , ,
:
85

There was a greyhound racing track. (Waine) Racing track ' ',
' ', ' '.
, a dancing hall ' ' a dancing girl
' '; a swimming match ' ' a swimming
man ' '; a sleeping draught ' ' (=
) a sleeping boy ' '.

; , -ing-
. ,
the coming storm
hearing-aid. , ,
.

(. ):
Each driver was always responsible for removing these plates. (Waine) Brian
became strong in carrying sacks and mixing paste. (Sillitoe)
- , -ing :
Is there any chance of the Chief deciding not to proceed} (Spark)... Whereas the
Civil Servants ...spoke with the democratic air of everyone having his say... (Snow) I
hope you don't mind me consulting you like this? (Spark)
-
, -ing-
(. ) .
,
, , , .
:
, (HalfGerund);
(Fused Participle).
, ,
,
; .
, ,
;
.
. ,

.

86


-ing-. ,
. . , ,
;
. , ,
,
: hay-making,
sightseeing, daydreaming ; heartbreaking, nerveracking, wellwish-ing .
.
:
building-s. , -ing
: I am in a strong position to know of her dings.
(Powell)
1.7.

.
( . ) ,
. .
, , up, immediately, and.
, , ,
. , ,
, , .
;
(tertiary),
(secondary),
. ,
, ;
, .
. ;
, ,
, (particles) ,
, .
. 4 D: 4
, ;
.
. . , . . , . . , . .
.
, .
, , , , ,
, , .
87

,
, .
, ,
,
.

-l.
, well,
good, fast, low, hard,
( flat adverbs). , ,
, ; , much,
quite, too, scarcely, largely, very, greatly, awfully, extremely, little.
(then, before, late,
early), (there, near, far, home, away), (often, seldom, twice),
(suddenly, at once).

. better, best, more, most,
fast, near, hard.
more, most,
.

,
: the then president.
, , ,
,
.
before, after, since
, , ,
. . . ,
- ;
, , , ,

,
,
, .

,
(up, off) (in, on). , off ,
I am off. , The plane took off
off
. , off (
) . . .

88

, . e. . ,
(1.0.1), ,

. . . ,
, bring (hem up put it off,
,

.
. . ;
. ,

.
1.8.

.
; . , . E.
,
. ,
,
.
,
. , certainly, of course, surely,
really, indeed , perhaps, maybe, probably, possibly
, ; fortunately, unfortunately, luckily,
unluckily
.
.
, , ,
, . ,
Perhaps, dimly, she saw the picture of a man walking up a road
(Christie) perhaps ; ,
, :
.
-,
- Yes No. ,
. . , - Yes No
, -
( ) .

. ,
, . . ;
, , ,
,

89

.
, , ,
, , .
, perhaps, maybe, probably, possibly,
, . .
, : They were probably
right to keep him. (Snow) : Probably, they were right to keep him.; They
were right to keep him, probably. . . ,
. . , . . , . . . . ,

, , ,
, apparently, evidently, really, unfortunately. ,
,
- : shot out the hand... to indicate where
each was to sit of the group apparently under his command. (Powell)
, ,
.
, :
, , , ,
.
, , , ,
,
.
, -l,
, .
,
- , ,
.
1.9.
,
, , . . ,
. ,
, ; , oh
, , . .; ,
:
'Oh, there you are, Mr. Poirot.' (Christie) 'Given her presents, perhaps?' 'Oh,
no, sir, nothing of the kind.' (Christie) 'She's in my room.' 'Oh... .' Once again I
felt the imperceptible withdrawal of the group. (Stewart)
90

, ,
; ,
alas.
-, , dear , goodness
gracious, my goodness .
. . ,
.
. (. . ,
alas . , weh!). ,
, .
1.10. ,
. . . , ,
.
. . , . .
yes, no, please. . . . yes
-, :
.
:
1.11.
,
, .
, ,
, .
; ,
, .
, , .
.

.
,
,
.
, ,
to be, to have, to do, shall, will;
,
. , -, ,

, . .: is clever.; He keeps
working.; He fell ill.; He got tired.; She became a nurse.
- - one;
91

it ; , , , , .
,
.

,
, .
, , (1.7),
, -, . ,
,
, .
1.12.
1.12.1. , .
;
. , ,
;
. ,
. ,
, , :
considering, during; , , ,
,
: owing to, in spite of.
, ,
; ,
. ,
, . e. ,
; , , ,
,
, ,
.
of, to, by, with. , ,
, ,
, , by,
: to sit by the window; he was invited by his friend.

. ;
, : of, to,
under, on . . . ,
. . . . . ,
,
92

, - .

.
, The pen is on the table The cat sits under the
table
; the subject-matter of the article; a play by
Shakespeare; the tree by the house; the bird on the tree
. , of, by (Shakespeare)
, a on, by (the house) -,

, , . ,
, ,
, ,
, .
, , , ,
; , ,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, , ,

.
: the windows/of my room, the corner/of the house, he
came/into the room, he voted/for the candidate, I am anxious/about his health.
, ;
,
.
, , ,
. , ,
. ,
, , : to
depend on (upon).
,
: to look at smth. '', to look after ' ...', to look for
smth. '', to take after ' ' (the child takes after his father), to take
for ' - ' (I took him for my acquaintance), to take to
' ', '' (I took to her at once); to wait
for '', to wait on ', ( )'.
, ,
, ,
,
. , ,

93

: They were well looked after.; She may be


depended on. .

, : The house we lived in
was comfortable.; We were greatly interested in the events he spoke about.
1.12.2. , .
.
, , : ,
,
. , , , ,
, ,
.
, :
We have never met since, We have never met since that day.
He had told me about the picture before, I won't see him before next week.
I live near the University, The Underground station is quite near.
, , ;
, (),
: got up/early; he ate up/all the sweets; he put on/his
greatcoat; I hope you don't misunderstand me, he went on/nervously.
They made up/ their quarrel up ;
Up in the mountains the air is clear and bracing ;
We went/up the hill .
, ,
. ,
: ,
,
. . .
.
, nearest
: When they had finished their dinner, and Emma, her
shawl trailing the floor, brought in coffee, and set it down before them Bone drew
back the curtains and opened wide the window nearest where they sat. (Bucher)
The bus stop is nearer my house than the underground station;
, ( ),

. , .
;
94

- ,
; ,
, (. , 1.10).
, : out of, from
behind, from inside/the building; from above, because of.
1.13.
,
,
. ,
.
(if, though, and), ,
(because)
(in case, as long as, in order that, provided, seeing).
, , ,

, ,
, -
, , . ,
,
: ,
,
. :
, , ,
.
, , ,
, ,
, .
, the moment, the instant, the way, once:
We're leaving the moment I've taken charge of a document Lady Frederica's
finding for me. (Powell) Not in keeping with the w we live nowadays. (Powell)
At the same time, with an audience like Short and myself, fullest advantage might be
derived from Miss Leintwardine by admitting her as fount of that information, now
she was on the spot. (Powell)

, . e. , ,
. (and, as
well as) (or, either ... or, neither ... nor).
: as well as, either ... or, neither ... nor
,
95

,
.
.
(that, if, whether), (if, in case, unless), (though,
although), - (because, so ... that)
.
,
,
. ,
, . ,
when, while :
Bagshaw, when invited to dinner, always took the trouble to ascertain... (Powell)
'
in order so ... as ,
: I came in order to help you.
though
, : Though tired, we
went on,
if ,
.
,
,
: which, who, what
how, when, where, why.
, ,
, , ,
. ,
; ,
: One of those fellows who write about pictures... (Snow) I
had told them what I thought of them. (Holt) I'll tell you why I was late. (Snow)
-ever
.
,
. ,
besides, thus, therefore, then ; how
.
1.14.
,
, ,
.
, , ,
, ,

96

,
, - , .
, ,
, .
, even, just only
; exactly, only, solely, barely, merely, alone
, exactly, precisely, just, right
, , ,
. still, yet,
simply, only, quite, indeed, well the
.
, , ,
- :
I quite agree. (Powell) Widmerpool scarcely took any notice cf her. (Powell)
not never, almost
nearly, : ,
, .
:
Poirot felt almost certain that it was false. (Christie) Yet they were affected by the
depth of his feeling. Nearly everyone recognised that. (Snow) This year I slept and
woke with pain, I almost wished no more to wake. (Tennyson) 'Try to make light of
it, Sire. The Queen nearly died.' (Anthony)
never never; never
, - :
Even then it never occurred to me that Trapnel would take this unheard of step.
(Powell)
. . , nearly ;
almost , nearly
very; it is very nearly midnight, *it is very almost
midnight.
. .
. -,
, ,

.
, ,
, . . .
,

4 . . .

97

, .
. . .

,
. , ,
, , , ,
(1.12),
.
,
.
1.15.
;
, .
, , ,
:
, . . (1.2.8)

(, . .).

. ,
,
.
(1.2.8).



, , .
, ,
,
.

, . ,
;
, .
, . , -s
, , ,
: falls '' falls ''.
-ed : X. described the island; the
island described by X. -ing
98

;
.
.

( , 1.6.19
, 1.6.20).
, ,
, , , ,
.
,
, , ,
,
. . . , ,
;
.

4*

2.

2.0.1.

.
,

, .
,
,
.
,
, ,
,
,

.
,
, .
, ,
.
,

.
.
,
XX . . . ,
.


, , .

, , , .
e. .
.


100

.
2.0.2. .

, (XVIII .)
.
, XIX .
XX
, .
. , . . . . .

. 50- . XX .
,
,
, .

, .
50- . XX .
,

, ,
.
,
.
.
. . .
.
,
,
.
,
(. . . , . . .
.), XX .,

.
,
,
.
2.0.3. .
, .

30- . XX .
. .
101

.
- .
XIX XX .,
,
,
, .
,
: 2) .
,
,
. , poor John
, John poor
John : Poor John ran away John ran away.
and Mary, ,
,
: and Mary ran away Tom ran
away; Mary ran away. To,
(. and Mary run away Tom runs
away; Mary runs away),
.
, , ,

: John ran beside John.

.
poor John and Mary,
,
.
.

: poor John
and Mary.

John
ran away beside John.

,
, ,

.
,
.

,

102

, . e. ,
, .

,
.
, , phrase.
, , .
XVII, XVIII XIX .
, XIX XX . .
,
. XX .
phrase
: word group, word cluster . .
.
. phrase ,
.
, phrase

word group.

,
.
: head, centre.

, centre.
, all heads are centres, but not all centres are heads (S.
Chatman).
He
,
.

, . .

4 :
1 new books
2 experiment perilous
3 as good as that
4 did not g
, ,
,

, ,
, .
,

103

.
,
.
Yes, please.
,
, . . .


:
.
, , : 1)
, , 2) ,
.
, . .
.
, , :
.

, ,
.

,

. , , ,
,
.

,
.
Yes,
please, .
, , ,
,
.

.

,
.

. , ,

, . ,

104

.
:
,
,
. ,
, ,
,
, . ,

,

( : ),

-
.
,
,

, ,

.

.
2.0.4. . ,
,
, ,
,
, to disregard
the remark, busy life, ver new, on
the beach, under the net, in the corner,
.
, .
e. ,
, , , ,
.
. ,
, , ,
, ,

, . , ,
I am, he is we glance, he glances,
, . e. ,
,
, ,
, . e. ,
.
105

,
,
. ,

, . ,
, .

, ,
.

,
.
2.0.5.
.
,
.
, , table
.

. , , King
Arthur and his Round Table table 'a piece of
furniture', Round Table
'King Arthur's knights'. : ,
to be at table table,
to be, ,
'having a meal'.
, , ,
,


.
,
, , ,

,
. ,
,
, ,
: a dog
house a house dog.
a dog house 'a house
in which a dog lives', a house dog 'a dog that
lives in a house'.
106


. , a fruit salad
, , a fruit
knife ,
. a Vietnam village ,
, an Oxford man ,
.
, ,
: horse shoes '' alligator
shoes ', '. horse shoes
, .
,
, ,
. , , an
orphan child a wine waiter. a
child who is an orphan,
.


. , , +
,
, . .,
, white
: white hair ('an old man with white hair'); a white lie ('a harmless
lie'); white meat ('pork, veal, poultry').
: to run fast, to run a splinter into one's
finger, to run a business, to run a car into a garage, to run a comb through one's
hair, to run for parliament . .
,
,
,
. a fruit knife
.
to run a car; to run a business,
to run fast; to run (a car) 1 into a garage.
,
,

,
(, , . .).
1

, ,
.
107

2.0.6. .
, ,
.
. ,
.
,
,
. , ,
, . e. , , ,
. ,
.

.

, .
, . ,
, . . ,
,
,
.
2.0.7. .

: .
, ,
:
, ,
. , ,
, .
,
,
. , ,
one: a black dog and two
gray ones; He is a doctor and his wife is one, too.
, one
, .
: Such a list is an open
one.
, ,
3- .
.
, - one. one,
108

, (: an old bear
and five young ones), 3-
, . e. . : R d l p h ' s w i f e
sat on a bench in the park.; She was playing with her daughter.
, - one

, 3-
,
: Rudolph's wife = she.

that/those: The best coal is t h a t from Newcastle.; The
cost of oil is less than t h a t of gas.; More apples? Have you eaten all thse we
bought?
- do:
She sleeps more than I do.; We said he would w i n, and he d i d, too.
,
. ,
so: He is clever, but his brother is still more so.; Is he
alive and happy? Yes, (he is) very much so.
,
, , ,
: I could not help them though I tried to.
to to help
them. , ,
, ,
. ,
(a black one),

, (. 1.6.4).
2.1.

2.1.1. .
. ,
,
. ,
, .
. .
.
109


.
, ,
.
.
. ,
,
, , .

, . e. .

.
, ,
(),

, . ,
()
.
,
, ,
.

,
, , .
, ,

.
,
.

.
, .


,
.

, ,
.

,
.
110


( ),
.
2.1.2. .
, .
,
.
: .
,
, .
,
. . .
,
.
,
. ,
,
,

,
.


(. . , . . )
.
. . ,
,
- . . . ,
,
.
, . . ,

-.
. . .
, . .

, .
,

. ,
,
-
,
111


.

.
, .

.
,
,
. ,
to be ,
.
to be ,
, .


. , to lie lay lain,
, , ,
: The dog was lying on
the ground/at the feet of the boy.
,
The dog was lying
.
,
to lie lay lain to be -
, .
,
.


. ,
.

,
, ,
.
,
.

, ,
, . ,
,
,

112

.
.
to lie lay lain, ,
/ ,
,
, , , ,

,
.
Let sleeping dogs lie.
to lie,

, .
, ,

. to be: she is ...,
to be , : She
is young/happy/clever/pretty . . ,
to be or not to be
, ,
to be/
, .
to be, ,
to be ,
. : She has shown herself the pleasant, witty Judith she knows I
like her to be,1 with a touch of coquetry thrown in on her own account. (W. Locke)

to be to lie, ,

, ,
.
,
.
,
, .

,
, : Nick's eyes, my son's car, a
lawyer's office . .
1


, , ,
,
113

,
: is an old friend of George's.
,
, . ,
, . ,
, to
make no comment on it to anyone,
, , , ,
: to make no comment on it to make no
comment to anyone. ,
;
, .
2.1.3. .
.
, ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
,
.

,
, (. .
) - (. . ).

, , ,
.
, ,
,
,

, . e.
, .

. . ,
: 1)
,
(); 2) ,
,
() , , 3) , ,
, ,
, .
114 .

. (interdependence).

:
.
,
,
.
,
.
2.1.4. .

.
,
,
,
, ,
.

, , ,

.
. , ,
, , . e. ,
,
: men and women, red and green, Oxford and
Cambridge . .

mother and I.
,
,
,
. , and,
.
.

,
- ,
, : N. had been shocked and upset (I. Murdoch).
shocked upset, ,
, had been,
. : Rigden and
his friends had rushed into School House
115

(I. Murdoch). Rigden, his friends


, and,
, ,
had rushed.
,
,
,
1015 .
.
2.1.5.
.
, . ,
.
,
.

.
, ,
,
, ,
.

(
): an old brownstone house; fairly well; completely still; to always resent,
( ): a list of names; to
hear of it; to put it in the envelope; bad for the health.
,
: a folded sheet of paper; no particular
connections elsewhere.
,
,
.
,
, ,
, : the man in
the store across the street by the bank under the bridge . .
,
:
.
,
.
2.1.6.
.

, ,


116

. . ,
,
-, ,
, ,
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
, ,
.
, , .
, his friend a letter
to write his friend a letter, ,
friend letter , ,

,
: (to write) his
friend a letter (to write) a letter to his friend. 1

.

and, -
,
. ,
,
, .

, ,
, to write a
letter, to write to his friend. ,
, .
,
, ,
,
,
,

, , ,
,

,

117

( . accumulo
'').
,
, .
,
,
. : these important (decisions); some old (cards).
,
,
: *important these (decisions);
*old some (cards).
,
, , .
-
,
.

,
: these decisions; important
decisions; some cards; old cards. ,
,
.
, ,

.
, ,
.
,
.
sweet, polite persons; a pleasant, friendly smile

.

(
), ().
,
,
.
.

:
.
2.1.7. .

118

.
.
.
, ,
,
, . e. ,
. , ,
,
,
, .
,
, ,
, ,
, .

.
, ,
.
, , ,

. , ,
. ,
, ,
,

.
, ,
, ,
; ,
.

, . e. . ,
new words new
, to find water water
.
to laugh merrily,
merrily
. ,
, ,
: , ,
, . .: to send him a telegram, to start home early, to
lean forward, to sign his name.
,

119


, , ,

, . e. : Day broke.; The car stopped.
,
,

.
. ,
,
, ,

.
,
.

: , ,
,
, ,
.
2.1.8.

.
,
.
, . e. ,
, .
-

.

,
. , particularly pleasant particularly
,
pleasant

pleasant .

,
. ,
particularly pleasant people particularly
2.1.9.

120

pleasant

; people
, ,
.
: to know particularly
pleasant people, particularly,
pleasant people , to know
,
, .
: -,

; -,


. ,
,
.
2.1.10. .
, ,
, :
.
, .

. ,
.
,
,

. , (V + Adv.)

( + N) .
, , ,
,
,
.


,
. ,

,
,
121

,

.
.
,
,
, ,
. , , stop the car stop three
times,
, the car
(), three times
.

.

.
,
, , . e. ,


.

, ,
. ,

. ,

, .
, ,


. ,

. ,
,

,
( ),
,
.
,
,
. ,
122

() to be
clever, to turn pale, to grow thin.
, .
,
. .
-,
,
, ,
. -,
, .
/
/ ()
,
. ,
,
, ,
. Stop
being so stffy!; Feeling a sharp cramp in his left thigh he stretched his leg. (A.
Wilson) Being silent together helps. (I. Murdoch) The disadvantage of b e i n g
famous . .
,
,
.
,
. . . . ,

, . . .
,
. . .

, . e. ,
,
,
.
,

. ,
,
.

,
.
,
, -

123

, ,

, . ,
, ,
.
, ,

, :
.
2.1.11. .
,
. ,
,
, .
,
,
. ,
, ,
, , . ,

,
,
.

,
,
.
e.
,
,
.

.
,
, .


, .

:
that,
, that ,
.
.
2.1.12.
N1 + N2.
124

N1 + N2. (. 2.1.10),
, ,
.
+ N,

: numeral + N three books; prn. + N his
book; P I + N dancing girls; P II + N a closed door.

.

.
,
,
. , ,
,
(N1 + N2): spring sunshine, leather coat, honey
colour, heart attack, marble floor, science fiction . . ,
N1 + N2
,
, ,

.
women children,
.
,

. : Sun wind dust had etched Bick Benedict's face.
(E. Ferber. Giant. 1971) Dust dust dust stinging in the wind. (E. Williams. Beyond
Belief. 1968) ... and press press press (ibid).

, . ,
summer afternoon ,
; leather coat
, . .

. ,
,
: Pieces of furniture such as tables, beds, chairs, desks.
,
N1 + N2,
, ,

125

2.1.13. .

,
.
, ,
. 1
,
,
. -,

, , , .
-, ,
.
/
:
1) , , . e. ,
.
: to send
the doctor away to send away the doctor.
(O1),
, .
2)
,
, .
: to send h i m a letter
to send a letter to hi .
(O2), .
, ,
.
3) ,
,
: to send for the doctor It was for the doctor that he sent.
(O3). ,
O2 O1,
3.

, 2
, , O1 O3
,
1

, ,
. 196200,

126


: O1 , O3
.
,
. O2 1
O3 ,
. ,
.

.
, : to
build a h s e, to respect old age.
,
, . e. , ,
,
. , ,
to find the car gone,
to find the door open. -

-
: to find the car gone to find that the car is gone; to find
him ill to find that he is ill.
1 O3 , ,
O2 - . O2
.

:

to send the
doctor away

to send him
, a book; to

send a book

to hi

to send for

the doctor

to find the
O1
car gone

O2

to rely on
the money
being paid

O3
127

1
,
, ,

.
,
.
2.1.14.
.
,


( . . 200),
.

.
, 1012 ,

, .
: 1) , 2)
3) .

, ,
: ,
, ,
.

(. 1.12.2). . . ,

,
. . . : 1)
, 2) 3)
. ,
( in, out, up, away . .),

(. . 88) he went up to his room,
.
.

, , ,
,
.
,
,

128

. , up, out
. .
, ,
(eat up ' '), . e.
, ,
(bring bring up; break break out),
.
,
.
very, extremely, . e. ,
,
.

very young; extremely new.
enough,
old enough, quickly enough.

, :
,
,

, .

. , , a very busy woman the woman is very busy,
*the busy woman is very.

,

, ,
.
,
, ,
, ,
.
:
____ nice

to be nice


,
.
5 . . .

129

new--*

-^ of carnations

2.1.16. - .
: -,
,

.
. ,

, .

: I know this man very well. It is very well that I know this man. It is
this man that I know very well.
,

, . e.
,
-
.

-,
.

130

conscious of a flavour, . e. .

, ,
-
. (. 2.1.14 2.1.15),

,

. ,
,
.
,
, . ,

.
ten boys
, ,
.

, . , ,

,
, .

.

.
,

, -
,
, .
2.1.17. .
, ,
: 1) , 2) 3)
,
.
,

. , runs;
5*
131 '

Tom and Mary run; l this book these books.


,
, ,
, . ,
,
.
,
. .
,
.
,
,
: to know them; to
depend on him.

.
,
, ,
, , . e. XVIXVII .

XX .
,
. ,
nod his head silently head,
silently nod .
.
nod his head, ,
silently, ,
,
. ,
, , ,
, .
,
. :
silently nod,
, his head.
,
,
,
1

,
.
132


, , . e.
,
. ,
,
, . e. ,
,
.
, , ,
/, , :
,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
,
(
), ( ). ,
,
, . e. .

, .
,
, ,
,
.

,
.

, :
,
.
.
,
.
,
/, , ,
,
. ,
,
/ ,
,
.
133

2.1.18. .
(2.1.16),
- : 1) ,
- , 2) ,
- .
- ,

,
.
, . e.
,
: .
2.1.19. .
,
.
, . e.
. : a good jb, famous doctors, the simple reason,
sufficiently normal, slightly stiff, to walk rapidly, to watch a man, to be careful, to
seem true.
,
, ,
.
, . e.
,
( , ,
).
2.1.19.1. .
,


134

very carefully, very


suddenly, fairly easily, more avidly, so absently, extremely angrily, quite safely,
pretty easily.

.
, (
suddenly).
far away, farther north. ,

.

,
: so very easily, almost too late, far too long.

: very
much farther west.
,
, ,
,
enough: I could do it well enough/ readily enough . .
2.1.19.2. .
,
. -
, ,
.
, , . e.
, . : very
nice, utterly still, completely empty, entirely natural, pretty bad, perfectly simple,
oddly gloomy, extremely sleepy, unutterably weary, too tiresome . .

: emerald green, knee deep, ice
cold, a bit obscure, a trifle smooth; My hands were dry and ice cold. (M. Stewart).
,
enough : new enough.

: very frightened,
absolutely alone; I should leave it absolutely alone (I. Murdoch).
,
.
135

,

: very much upset;
almost too easy.
2.1.19.3.

,
.
.

.
, ,

.
book, his brother;
this room, that writer;
white blossoms, real friendship, small girls;
abandoned constructions, playing children.

,
, . e. .
mere, utter, sheer ( utter): a
mere trifle, utter denial, sheer nonsense.

(
. 2.1.10): world
leaders, water power, kitchen windows, cigarette smoke, country
gardens.

's: Blunt's house, Carter's story,
people's customs, an organism's reaction.

, : five boys, two books, the


first edition.


: his own brother, those young girls; wealthy city
dwellers, faded blue eyes, a deep leather chair, the sole upstairs
occupant.
: The at
first faint then gradually swelling sound (A. Maclean).

,
:
the fine, generous
things; a long,
shrill note; the
smarting,
windblown sand.

,


,

,

, ,
,

136

Numerable think sessions (Science Digest); a stay at home sort of chap 1 (A.
Christie); all family members need "a l o n e" time ... (Science Digest); He acted the
part of a well man.2 (G. Foweler) There was a by now more distant rupturing crash
from Joe's direction. (K. Amis) Some long-ago, faraway concert hall (T. Hovey) A
large upstairs sitting-room (N. Shute) Toward the would be photographer (J. Jones)
The I hate to cook book by Peg Bracken (Morning Star).
,
, - ,
. ,
: a little group of wouldbe artists (J. Jones).
,
,
.
.
,
,
.

: a hideous little old blue dress,
beautiful long hair, a small round table, a shaggy fierce dog, a tall angry man, a tall
fat man.

,
.
. . .
,
, :
VI V IV III II I all the ten fine old stone houses
, . e. , .
, ,
: some French onion soup,
, , ,
, . e. , .

1


: ,
.
2
, well
. ,
,
.

137

, . ,
.
. .
, ,
old, new, little,
: old
gray cat. ,
, , ,
old, new, young, big, huge, little,
small, tall, high, thick, thin, slim, fat, stout, blue, red, yellow, black . .
. ,
-r
-est. ,
, ,
-r -est,
more most. ,
wise, ,
-r -est more most.
, . ,

. . ,
, , ,
,
, same, very, some, more.
He .
.
, . ,
,
. .
. , . , , . e.
, ,
. , . ,
many, , ( all,
half, both) even, ,
.

, ,
, ,
.
,

.
.
138

2.1.19.4. .
,
.
.

,
. ,
,
: a candidate for the
prize, the fruits of his labour, the number of students, any fact in sight.

: Anna Sayre ... who was a friend of Franklin's. (Science Digest, 1975)
,
,
. : an action which could poison the
plant, the theory that the continents ride on the backs of huge and slowly shifting
subsurface plates, the woman who was eating some sorts of sweets.
,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
: a child of five who had been
crying.
, : ...a noise
without of shuffling feet (Maugham).
,
, ,
. ,
Experiment Perilous; , words
unspoken . .
, ,
something fishy.

:
the man downstairs, the road back, the people behind, the dinner afterwards, a year
abroad, that kind of off.
: problems to solve, studies done
on tomatoes, his discoveries leading to a new theory.
,
,
, ,

139

.
- . : the place for you to stay (in
this hotel),
, ,
of.
of
:

. , the punishment of the criminal
, - (Somebody) punished the criminal, ,
,
, the criminal
, , , . e.
the punishment. , the escape of
the criminal ,
, ,
escape, ,
criminal.
: the criminal escaped.

.
,
: the votes for.
,
, :
the votes for the motion.
,

, .

,
, ,
.
,
, . e. ,
,
.
,
: the nicest
woman imaginable. the nicest

.
,
,

140

. : 'I don't think there's any if about


it.' (K. Amis) 'Let's make a philosophy of that as if!' (J. Barth)
,
, ,
,
. , to dry
clothes . -, to
, a dry clothes .
: to dry
, clothes
.
: After we had
changed to dry clothes. (A. E. Hatchner) When the weather is wet it is necessary to
dry clothes.
2.1.19.5. .
,
,

.
,
( , enough,
)
.
(O3): available for
their study, rich in minerals, indifferent to the dangers, full of life, fond of music.
(O1)
:
worth the trouble.
, , ,
: easy to understand, late to call, happy to
help.
,
,
: what for/for what.
2.1.19.6. .
.
: 1)
, 2) 3) .

.

141

,
: to smile a happy smile, to die a violent death; Donald grinned a
crooked grin (J. Jones). O1.

. ,
to close the suitcase, to turn
the page, to write a letter; ,
to hear voices, to see a note; to need
comfort, to forget her promise, to decide the question.
: to say a word, to answer the question, to tell a
story, to whisper a story.

,
. , to cut ''

, ,
: to cut wood/paper/a cake
. . to sew
, ,
: sew a dress/skirt . .
. , to gather
to collect
(to gather flowers/shells/books/a crowd to
collect stamps/ waste-paper/pupils/taxes/bird's eggs . .),
(to gather strength/speed/information/experience to colled
thoughts/ideas/energies/courage . .).
(. 1.9.1), . e. ,
(O3),

: to snatch at the purse/the chance; to smell of
garlic/brandy . .
,
,

.
,
(O1) to like translating
poetry, to begin to giggle; I say it's t r e;
(O3) to insist on finishing this work; Do not speculate
n what he would have done (I. Shaw).

, (to laugh a happy
laugh),
: to laugh heartily, to cease
abruptly, to walk slowly, to wake early, to live there, to go north, to step forward.
142


,
, ,
: to run into the room, to return on Sunday, to stop to
rest, to wake shivering slightly; I ought to have said it before you left.
, ,
: the sun always rises in the east.
,
.
2.1.19.7. . ,
,

.
, . e. ,
,
,
. : to be cold, to seem
hopeful, to look guilty, to become unconscious, to appear frightened, to look
competent.
- ,
.

:
Being cold was no novelty.; Stop patronizing.; ...prevent his stay from being
delightful; the disadvantage of being famous; to sit up in bed looking rather
sheepish.
2.1.19.8. .
.
(.
1.12.1).
.

: , (. 2.1.17),

, , ,
, . e. . ,
,
. ,
,
,
.
143


.
,

, ,
,

.
: ,


,
.
, ,
,
: . feels ill
looks ill . .
,
,
. ,
,

, .
,
,
,
, : (to
depend) on him, (to look) at them, to depend on the captain, to look at the children.
2.1.20. .
.
,
, ,
.

:
,

. , ,
: .
,
: easy
and simple, shouting and singing, she nodded.
.

144

, ,

: his own (dog), nice respectable (places), (say) so now,
(send) him a letter, (to know) her all my life.
,
: 1) 2) . -
: easy and simple, big black
(dogs).
: he yawned, (may think) it very silly.

, (men and women),
(men, women, children),
,
,
- 1: he laughed; the lesson began.

, : wise old (men).
:
his old (friend) (to find) the car gone.
,
her professional (name),
(to speak)
to me about this man, (to come) here to inquire into my hours of bedgoing.
,
- ,
- : (to see) the man disappear,
, : (...and
stumped out), his face red and wrathful (A. Christie); (Dr. B. smiled slightly), the
smile spreading even to the corners of his closed eyelids, (M. Carpenter)
,
, .
,
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
1

,
,
,
,
145

, ,
, .
,
: (to have touched) the real you,

:

: 1. very clearly. 2. definitely superior. 3. new books. 4. a sensation cf


relief. 5. rich in minerals. 6. to open the door; to laugh merrily; to be happy. 7.
under the net. 8. nice and good. 9. men, women, children. 10. she smiles 11 wise old
(men) 12. his old (friend), 13, (to find) the car gone; (she kissed him), her eyes
searching his face.
2.1.21. .
,
, ,
,
146

- .
, -
, ,
.

.
, .

, .
, ,
.
, Mr. . bought some really fantastic presents
,
, presents,
*some really fantastic, ,
. ,
,
.

: ,
.
,
,
.
2.1.22. .
,
.

.

, -
, . e. ,
.
,
- . ,
Activity always made him feel tired. (A. Christie) ,
(2.1.7),
. ,
,
,
, .
,
.
147

,
, . e.
, .
, , ,
.
,
: 'I suppose
they were film people.' (A. Christie)
, :
What we hoped was that we could have your names in a letter of protest,
the words he had chosen, When she arrived at
the other side, she noticed a little figure.
,
.
:
V+
O1
to know it
this book
this book to be good that this book is good


. . , ,
: ,
.
. ,


.
2.1.23. .
: ,
,
.

.

, . , ,

.
, ,
: unusually fine The day was unusually fine.

.
148


,
. : felt physically at
ease (I. Murdoch).
,
.
,
,

.
,
: The horseman carried his head slightly on one side. (G. Durrell) ' I'm sorry
I made myself so at home here.' (T. Hovey)

, : 'A girl like
you, so New York, so busy with a life of your own.' (I. Shaw) 'I'm glad they didn't
make themselves too Lewis Carroll.' (D. Sayers). 'O How're the boys? Okay. Ah
not so okay.' ,
: there was only one answer to that maybe (Gr. Greene)
"Thank you, sir," the waiter said. With all those thank u's, Gretchen thought, the
bill was going to be horrendous. (I. Shaw) In fact John D n e's "You have
power" had already made a difference... (I. Murdoch)
,
,
. ,

.
,
,
, .
2.2.

2.2.1. .
,
. ,

. ,
,
. ,
, ,
149


. , , ,
,
Mo
() ,
.
,
:
I have some tetters for you to sign. There are some letters for you to sign.
There are some letters that you should sign. I have got some letters for you to
sign. I have got some letters that you should sign, . .
He
,

. , he has a house
his house,1
(-
-).
,
,
. ,
.
he has a house
, . ,
,

. ,
, ,
, .
,
,
, ,
. e. .
,
. his house,
, ,

,
.


1

, 150

.

.
,
,
. ,
, ,

. ,
,
. ,

, .
2.2.2. .
,
, .

, : extra tickets to sell, a
problem to discuss, a dangerous flight to undertake.

. ,
, , ,
,
.

, ,
.
,
,
, . e. ,
.

,
, ,
-,
, :
,
:
-------\
-------\
some extra tickets to sell; a problem to discuss1
1

,
151

:
, ,
. ,
: - . .
,
,
:

,
: would soon see
something he recognised (I. Murdoch).


, .
, ,

: to sell, to discuss, to undertake, he recognised.

,
.

, ,
,
.
: *some
extra tickets to sell some extra tickets . .
,
,
.

, .

. II,
,
,

.
152

: a broken vase, a frightened child to break a vase, to frighten a child.


I
: a questioning look, a disarming smile.

, .

, II .
I,
: the look questions the smile disarms.
,
: a questioning look
(, ), a a disarming smile ,
( ).
, :
,
, , .
,
, , :
he does not smoke , , ,
. e. , , , . .
,
.


() ( .
,
. ,

, ,

.
, . ,
,
: Come here!
,
.
to,
it
, it is cold, it is raining there there is/are.

,
.
153

2.2.3.
.
,

.
,
. ,

.
/
,
. , ,
, ,
.
,
,
,
.


,
.
anxious anxiously
anxiety, ready readily readiness, easy easily easiness . ., . e. ,
,
,
.
anxious, anxiety anxiously
, .

, , ,
,
,
,
.
,

, .
anxious, ,
,
: She was already anxious about the
next assignment. (T. Hovey) Ernest was anxious to find the caf. (A. E. Hatchner)
154

anxiously,
, ,
.
, anxiously
very .

: ...peered anxiously over the rail (D. Sayers); "Was it very rude and
uncomfortable?' he asked anxiously. (G. Heyer)
,
,
,

,
.
,

,
, .
,
,
,
, ,
. ,
, ,

.
anxiety
, , ,
, ,
.
anxiety
,
: anxiety for a thing, anxiety to do something.

, . e. .
:
the rest of the day passed uneventfully, soldiers being occasionally seen, but never
near enough to the tree to cause the two in it any great anxiety. (G. Heyer) ...trying
to hide her anxiety she asked "Did you buy it?" (T. Hovey) Now, ... , I can, as anxiet
diminishes, measure both my freedom and my previous servitude. (I.Murdoch)
anxiety
,
. ,
,

155


.
, ,
.
, , . e.
,
:

, .
.
,
,
, . e.
.
, anxious
,
,
,
.
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,

,
.
,
.
, .

, ,
,
.
,

.
2.2.4.
.

,
. , ,
,
* .
together , ,

156

to walk together ,
. , ,
, ,
: he talked for hours together
(= continuously).
,

,
,
,

.
, fearless
, (fearless people),
(fearless actions/smile).
, fearful ''

,
, : a fearful storm, a fearful
earthquake, a fearful mess. ,
,
eldest sick: her eldest brother, a sick child.
,
,
,
: imitative an imitative person, imitative arts, an imitative word;
hysterical a hysterical woman/laughter/outburst of fury; ignoble an ignoble
man/ action/peace . .
,
: edible, eatable . ,
,
- (
). ,

,
.
, ,
.
, to gather, to differentiate,
,
: to gather flowers/shells/pieces of a broken cup; to
differentiate varieties of plants.
:
,

:
157

to differentiate the hare from the rabbit, to connect the gas-stove with the gas-pipe.

/
.
.
: ; ; ;
, ;
, to prohibit, to praise, .
,
sham, pretend, feign, imitate,
,
, : to shamble, to shuffle
. ,
: to flatter / to insult / to delegate / to
discourage/to emancipate.
crowd,
army, meeting, .
,
. , to elope

, ,
. ,
, to elope
.

. ,
,

. to drink/sip
tea/coffee/cocoa/milk/water/ wine . .

,

.
,
, .

: 1) ,
, 2) ,
3) ,
/ .
, ,

158

to laugh, ,
: to read, to
write, to count, to dictate, to sign.
: to rust; to curdle (this milk has curdled) .
: to lie, to stand, to float,
to consist of, to bend, to fill . .
2.2.5.
.
.
,
.
,
. ,
, -
.

.
- ,
().
()
.
,
,
.
, : man, doctor, table, flower,
book, stone, tray . . , . .
, ,
accident, account, decision, offer.
, , ,
, . .
. , account
, of what?, who? , ,
.
,
, ,
, , , , (,
because of '-').

, , ,
. , faculty,
period, idea: the faculty of reading quickly, the period covered by her exile, the idea
of getting the book.
,
159

. ,
, ,
.

.
,

. , ,
,

,
. : the tray full of milk-bottles, a
stairway brightly lighted, a book on child psychology.

:
Arrangements are not made for those who lose their moorings. (A. Wilson)
Alexandra found the advice, in the abstract, rather touching. (A. Wilson).

,
, .
, a sudden alteration
,
alteration, (
) , ,
. A
sudden alteration
: something altered suddenly
somebody altered something suddenly.
sudden ,
alteration.
,
, ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
, sudden
: * sudden flower; *a sudden table; * sudden pen,

160

,
: * blue accusation, *a purple run, *a green accident.
, ,
,
.
,
.
,

, . /

. , ,

,
, , ,
, .
,
.
,
,
, ,
.
, very young students () very
, .

young, , , ,
students.
very ,
,
:
very
young
students

.
c students,
young, young, ,
very.
c :
students
young
very
,
6 . . .

161

, .
2.2.6. . . .
,
.
terribly cold weather
, ,
(Primary) weather, (Secondary) cold
(Tertiary) terribly. ,
.
, ,
, . ,
, , ,
,
, ,
.
a furiously barking dog,
,
, . e. ,

. , ,
: Sunday afternoon was fine I spent
Sunday afternoon at home. ,
, ,
,
. ,

, , .
:
to see is to believe (=seeing is believing). She wants to rest,
a correct thing to do he came here to see you.
,
, I see a dog
dog .

, .
.

,
.
, ,
162

, ,
. ,
the dog barks furiously
furiously barking dog,
barks I barking
.
,
, , ,
.
,

.

,

.


, ,
, , ,
, , ,
. ,
,
. , . e.
,
,
.
,
, ,
.
.
, , , ,
35 , 910 co.

: .
6*

3.
3.1. ( )
3.1.1.
. ,
.
,
.
, , ,
,
, , ,
.
, ,
, , ,

.
(
,

, .)
, , ,

, . ,
:
,
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
,
: ,
.
.
. ,
(
), .
, . e. ,
.
, ( ),
, , . e.
. , night
, ,
. night
. Night. Night
.
.

164


(
),
( , ).
,
, , ,
: . The sun shines sun shine.

.
.
, , ,

.

, .
,
.

,
.
, pe.
,
,
.
3.1.2. .
,
.

.
, ,
.
.

. ,
, , Peter, you, I, this (young) man, my roommate,
Johnson's son, Mary's brother . . . .
, Peter, ,
, .

. ,
,
.


(The doctor has arrived. When the doctor
arrived...), (the doctor's arrival)
(the battle).
,
. ,

.
, , ,
, . I admired
the beauty of the landscape
. , ,
,
? ,
,
, .
.
, ,
, , .
. , ,
.

, - .

, -, (. 3.3.9),
.

2
1
( ) - .

.
.
, -.
.
, ,

.
/.
, ,


. , ,
.
, ,
. . ,
166

,
,
. ,

.
.
, ,
, , ,
:
' You certainly know how to do yourself well, Poirot.' (A. Christie) 'Perhaps you
have seen her portrait in the papers.' (A. C. Doyle) 'Maybe, with luck and economy,
I can make a living as a writer?' (A. J. Cronin) Miller's not a very good driver really.
(S. Barstow)


, .

, ,
,
.

,
,

:
' must have seen the light.' (J. Galsworthy) 'It was spposed to be a home for
birds; [...] (J. Galsworthy) 'I'll be sure to come.' (I. Murdoch) (
. 3.2.2.6)

, ,
, ,
.
,
, ,
.
.
.

, ,
, .
,

167

.

(, ),
, .

, , ,
,
, ( )
( ,
) .
(
)
( ; ,
-: How do you do. Glad to meet you . .)
. , ,
.
.
, ,

.
,

.

(. 3.2.2.8).
.
, , .
-, ,
( , , )
,
, 1.
,
...
A diggled woggle uggled a wiggled diggle.
1

, ,
.
,
.

.
.


,

168

- , ,
. ,
,
,
.
'There were no landing fields.' (J. Aldridge) , a
Were fields there landing no -. ,
. ,

, ,
. , ,
,
.
.

1
. ,
, ,
,
. ., ,
( ).
,

,
() .
, ,
,

,
: 'So you admit it?' (J.
Galsworthy). ,
/

.
3.1.3. .
( )
, ,
,
. (
)
1

, , ,
, ,
.
,
,

169

.
, .

,
, ,
, , .
,
,
, , ,
-
.

,
,
.
.
(
) , , :
, , , , ,
? ,
, ?

. , , , (
) .
.
,
, .
, ,
, . - ,
(, ,
.), .
, . e.
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
, , , .

170




,
- , -
.
, ,
,
, .
,

.
, , ,
, , ,


. ,
. ,
(. ,
)
.
,
,
.
( ,
), ,
,
.
, It's cold here ,
,
- Let's go to another place.
, . e. , ,
, ,
. ,
, . ,
(. e. )
.
.
3.1.4. .
.
,
:
171


.
(.
-, -, -),
, , ,
( ,
- -
, -
. .).

,
,
.
,
, ,
( ) ( )
. ( ).
,
, ,
, . , ,
: 1)
-, 2) , 3) , 4)
, 5)
, , 6)
7) . ,
(
) .
,
, (
, ,
, ): , .
,

(. ?
?).
.
3.1.5. .
,
,
.
.
173

,
, ,
, . , ,

. , ,
,
, ,
/,
.
. ,
.
-
,
, . ,
.
, ,
. .
(
, )
, ,
, . e. ,
.
, , , .
,
. /,
/, /

.
.

, .
:
, .

. , ,
-
, - , . .
, -

.
, e ,
.
,
172

, ,
,
,
, , . , -
, , (
) .

, .
, , ,
, ,

.
. , ,
,

. ,
,
,
. , :

-, (
) -
(
) .
- , . - (),
, , , ,
,
,
.
.
(
)
174


( ),
,
,
, .

. .
.
,
. .
,
,
, .

, ,
. - e ,
. 'Why do you
ask that?' (J. Aldridge) : You ask that.
,
. ,

,
, .., , : 'What was he?'
[...] ' was in the gas works.' (J. Joyce)


. : 'If only I knew what was
going to happen.' (J. Osborne) 'Don't talk too loudly, Effie.' (I. Murdoch)
,

.
, , -, , - (
), -
, . , ,

(. 3.4.4) , ,
, ,
.

: , /

,
/
176

.
,
.

: 'It may be serious?' (. . Snow).
-
,
, ,
.
,
,
. ,
-
. John!
, . .
, , , .
John! -,

,
.
-
. , ,
- , ,
, , .
.

,
.
-
( )
-
. . Oh, Cliff! Hullo, Cliff! Oh, hullo, Cliff!
Goodbye, Stephen, goodbye! (J. Joyce) *Did he come
Peter came * Come if John came ( ) . .

.

.
, ,
, .

,
,
.
, , ,

176

/
. .
, . ,
: 'Children: come home instantly.'

,

.


. ,
: 'What a nuisance their turning us out of the club
at this hour! (O. Wilde) 'You little devil!' (G. B. Shaw)
, , , .: ' What wonderful
cushions you have,' said Mr Van Busche Taylor. (S. Maugham) ,
.
,
.
, .
3.1.6. .
,
,

. , -
,
, 1,
. ,

( , . I don't know what time it is)

: What time is it?
. .: 'Haw long do you propose to stay?'
(D. du Maurier) , ,
; 'What is it?' (A. Huxley) ,
1



. .
,
.
,
(,
.


it may be serious?

,
177

; 'Why not?' (J. Osborne) ; 'Still


we've had a very enjoyable evening, haven't we, Tom?' (J. B. Priestley)
; 'Can we give you a lift?' (C. P. Snow)
, . .
.
,
: 'I asked
Helen to mark off the Spode service to me this morning.' Timothy became purple in
the face. 'Mark it off mark it off? What do you mean? [...]' (A. Christie)
, ,
,
.
,
(
)
, .


.

. .

1.
.
(= ),
,
. , She glanced at the clock
Did she glance at the clock?, ,
(She glanced at
'clock 'She glanced at the clock), (Did she
glance at the 'clock? Did 'she glance at the clock?, . e.
Was it her who glanced at the clock?) ( . 3.3.9).
1

,
,
, .
, ,
'You were fond of her?' (A.
Christie), , .
,
, ,
, , (The police are so impersonal, are
they not?' (A, Christie)

178

, , , , -,

. ,
, , : 'I I
have finished all that I came here to do.' 'You will return now to your villa in
Cyprus?' 'Yes.' (A. Christie) -,

,
, ., , ,
: 'May I ask you a question?'
(, . .)
. ,

yes . .
, .
, yes/no, : 'I saw a
fascinating little box today. It cost twenty-eight guineas. May I have it?' [...] 'You
may, little wasteful one, said he. (K. Mansfield) , yes/
: CLIFF. I've never heard you
talking like this about him. He'd be quite pleased. ALISON. Y e s, h e w l d. (J.
Osborne)

.
(
) .
, ,
- (yes)
- (). ,
, ,
,
/ (-)
(certainly, rightly so, perhaps, never . .), : 'By the way, would you
mind lending me your matches?' [...] 'Certainly.' (G. B. Shaw),
yes, no ,
- : 'Would you like to see
them?' [...] "Oh yes.' (A. Christie) 'Does this mean that Susan gets the income
Richard left to Cora?' 'Oh no.' (A. Christie)
,
, : HIGGINS. What's
your name? THE FLOWER GIRL. Liza Doolittle. (G. B. Shaw)
- ,
, - .
- ,
,
179

.
: what, which, when,
haw . .,

. ,
: 'You saw him when?' (A. Christie) ,

.
( ).

, , ,

. , ,
. ,
: Is he an Oxford or a Cambridge
man? ( . ). ,
. , ,

. , ,
: , ,
.
. ., : Who do you like best John or Peter? ,
, ,
, 1.
(=
) ,
( )
( ) .

' knows all the words, doesn't he?' (S. Barstow)
.
, ,
(
) ,
( ).
/
.

.

1


. .
: 'Do you want that skit back, or can I keep it?' (J. Galsworthy)
180

.

,
. ,
. : 'I didn't marry Susan for her money!' 'Didn't
you, Mr. Banks?' (A. Christie) 'Sounds to me rather like that case last month on
Dartmoor.' 'Does it?' (id.); '[...] I divagate.' 'D ?' asked Dennis faintly. (A.
Huxley)

, ,
: 'Are you in a hurry?' 'Yes, sir,' came the answer, that
sent a flash through the listener. 'For what?' (D. H. Lawrence).
, .
.
-, : 'We
were arguing whether Amour were a serious matter or no. What do you think? Is it
serious?' 'Serious?' echoed Ivor. (A. Huxley) I came on the staff first at
Chesilstowe. 'Chesilstowe?' (H. G. Wells).

.
,
, ,
, .

, ,
,
. , ,
, - ,
. .

, .

.
3.1.7. .
,
.
/:
not.

.
,

181

.
.
. , ,
: 'You don't understand at all...' (A. Christie) 'It can't be left.' (G. B.
Shaw) ,
: Not a person could be seen around. I could rely on no n e in
this matter.
To,
,
(
), : Oh, but Helen i s n' t a
girl without n interests,' she explained. (E. M. Forster),
: 'She cannot very well not bow.' (E. M. Forster)
,
. , , ,
,
(. 3.2.2.2).
-
, ,
, . e. ,
. ,
, .
, (
neg)
not,
: nobody = neg + anybody, nowhere == neg + where, never
neg + ever . .
,

, . ,
, ,
, , -
. , . ., The girl isn't/ n w /a
student/ at a / large / university
.
,
( )
. . You can
do nothing about it - You can't do anything about it.
It was not Peter, ,

182

not : It was ^ not


Peter It was not ^ Peter.
-
( ).

/.
-
, ,

, . 'No'
. Didn't she take anything?
Did she take anything?
, , ,
she did take something she must have taken something. . ,
: 'She didn't take anything? A cup of tea? A
drink of water? I'll bet you she had a cup of tea. That sort always does.' (A. Christie)
- , .

/
: . ? (= -
) - ? (= )

.
( ,

: 'I don't know' 'What don't you know?')
: *How long haven't you known her?
*What exactly don't you mean? .
3.2.
3.2.1.
3.2.1.1. .
,
.. .
.
,
, , .

. .
, ,
, .
,
183

,

, . .:
, ,
, , , .

, ,
:
, , ,
,
.
,
, ,
, - .
,
. (

, . . , - clause).
. (,


, ). .
I shall never
forget the killing of Lord Edgware' 'Never shall I forget the killing of Lord
Edgware.' (A. Christie), at the seaside
there, shall forget forgot . .,

,
.
.
,
, ,
.
,
, , ,
, ,

.

. ,

, , , .
.
184



( ,
. .), -

,
, , ,

,
. ,



,
. ,
,
.
,
. , . .
,

.
, ,

, / ,
,
, ,
- .
, , ,
.
, (
) ( ),
,
.
,
.



. :
N2sN1
... William's ambition [went no farther]
(H. E. Bates)
Numcar N1 p N2 ... seven men besides William [had pictured themselves as Dukes.]
(H. E. Bates)

185

Prnposs N D A and A Her voice, very low and soft, [...] (H. E. Bates).

.

.
.
3.2.1.2. .
?
. , , ,
. -
, - (, ,

: the then government, essentially a bachelor).

,
, , -

. ,
, , ,
, .
.
(
, ,
; ), ,

, /
, .

: ,
.
,
- ,
, (
-
, .

She closed her eyes. (D. Lessing) She was there. (I.
Murdoch)
,
(
. 3.3.0). ,

186

(), (
)
(). But she cries always
'She doesn't move for hours at a time. But she cries always.' (S.
Maugham) always ,
, .
, -
, .
,

.
.
.
.

,

.
.
. . Small
white crests were appearing on the blue sea (
,

):

(
)
: Ben smiled. (J. Aldridge)
.
.
( ) -,
. . . (
, - (!)
: I am very bad at refusing people who ask me for money.
(I. Murdoch)
187

", . . ,

.
.
She
treated Daddy like a child, [...] (A. Wilson).
. ,
,

.
,
, ,
.. ()
(/ / /).
(
. 3.2.2.2) 1.

.
.
, .
.

: , .
, ,
, , ,
.
. ,

.
Gossip wasn't what I
meant? (What I meant
wasn't gossip) -
. , ,
,
.
.
1

,
, , She had
blue eyes,
. ,
she eyes, :
, eyes,
, , ,
she.
She had eyes. "
blue . ,

, ,
, , , She had an umbrella,
- - (
) .
188

, (. .
) - ,
, ,
.
('How do you do, Miss Preyscott,' Christine said. 'I've
heard of you.' Marsha had glanced appraisingly from Peter to Christine. She
answered coolly, 'I expect, working in a hotel, you hear all kind of gossip, Miss
Francis. You do work here, don't you?' 'Gossip wasn't what I meant,' Christine
acknowledged. (A. Hailey)
, gossip
what I meant ,
. gossip (
. 3.3.5), .
,
. , (
) , ,
I've heard of you'. -.
, Gossip wasn't what I meant .
What I
meant wasn't gossip. Gossip wasn't what I meant,
, gossip, , .
. (

It is N who/ that ...).
gossip
, a what I meant .

, ,
.
?


, , , ?
, ,
: . toward the house westward. ,
, ( )

? (
- ,
, , , ).
,
, , ,
189

,
, ,
.
(
), ,
.
, ,
,
, ,
.
, . .
, ,
,
(

),


.
, , , (
)

. , ,
. , , -
across the carriage floor William [...] stretched his legs
across the carriage floor. (K.Mansfield) ?
? ?
The
meeting ended with a unanimus vote of confidence by the s t r i k e r s in their
officers and the hunger strikers. (Morning Star)?
, ,
( ),
,
,
. ,

, .
3.2.1.3. . ,
.
,
. ,
-. , ,

190


, , ,
. ,
,
, (
, ).
.

.
, .

.
,
,
( ,
).

, .
.
, .
you.
, : You stay at
home!,
: Wash yourself!
3.2.1.4. .
.
: .


.
,
,
-,
, .
sui generis
.


. ( , 'Night
, , ,
).
191.

, -
( !)
. (
)
. , (
)
,
, . .:
The staff were very sympathetic about it. (A. J. Cronin) The bread and cheese was
presently brought in and distributed [...] (C. Bront).
,
( )
,
: 'Then it's not
your wife who left you; it's you w h o'v e left your wife.1 (S. Maugham)
3.2.1.5. .
. ,
, .
.
, . . , ,
, ,


. ,
-
, ,
. .:
Four doctors arc looking after them.

They are being looked after by four doctors. (Morning Star)



,
192

.
,
,
, The washing
flapped w h i t e l on the lines over patches of garden. (D. Lessing)
whitely , .

(The washing was white)
(The white washing flapped).
:
, . . ,
(= ),
,
( , , ).

: paused. (H. G. Wells)

, ,
.
,
- : (
) ( )
: Andrew reddened. (A. J. Cronin)
Andrew we.at/grew red.
, ,
- .
, .
,
, , .
.

: g a v e a
gasp. (S. Maugham)
,
.
(., ,
to be under fire, to be at a loss, to be under age . .
). ,

? , , ,
to give a glance
.
,
7 . . .

193

, , .
, , ,

. , to have a bath, to take hold, to give
a smile . ., ,
,
1,
,
, ,
,
: VNsg .
,
.
to give a glance
,
. .
,
. ,
. , , .
to give a glance
:
,
.
,
.
(The moon) rose red.
be,
(to
become, to remain, to taste . .), , , rose red
became tired.
, -.
, .
, .

,
(., : gave a blow is a
blow -,
1



.
.
. (he) gave a glance
(he) glanced,
194

). , , ,
,
.
, , , . e.
,
(to be, to become, to
grow, to seem, to taste . .), , ,
. ,
,
() ,
.
The moon rose red The moon was red
when/while it rose, , .
grew old *He was old when he grew The milk tastes sour *The milk
is sour when it tastes.
, (The moon) rose red
,
. ,
(. . 227).
(.
3.2.2.6.) ,
.
,
, ,

. , ,
, , ,
-, :

, +

+
+
+

+
+
+
+

:

Jack spoke. (W. Golding)

'She is asleep.' (A. Bennett)

Mrs. Davidson gave a gasp, [...]

(S. Maugham)

The screams were still rising


nabated from the swimming
pool. (I. Murdoch)

195

His heart stopped beating.


(J.Galsworthy)
It turned out to be Sam. (P.
Abrahams)
I can give you a call as soon as I
get home.
She would lie awake for a long
time worrying about her
mother.
, ,
, , , . ,
, , , ,
- .
, ,
.

3.2.1.6. . (
)

. , ,
(X played Y Y was played by X).
.

( , ,
) . ,
-,
. ,
,
.
.

.

, .

, ,
,
.
. ,
, .
.
, , ,
. , ,
.

196

, , ,
. ,

(.
),
- .
.

,
(, . , . , . ).
.

( ,
, ),
,
. (
) .
( ).
,
,
. , by N. ,
(. 3.3.3),
.
,
, / :
(, . . ).
, ,
,
,
. (.
, ).

,
, .
,

, . ,
,
,
,
197

, , .
,

(
) .

.
( ) (
) ,
,
, ,
.
, , ,
(,
) (, ,
?).
,

, .
,

:
, .
,
,
. .
,
, . e.
.
, .
saw looked at me, I heard a noise I listened to the noise . . ,
, , ,
, .: to ask for to beg, to laugh at to
ridicule, to think of to consider . .

- -
: to follow (after) smth, to discuss (about) smth, to doubt (of) smth.

.

.

,

:
198

(=)

knows this. knows of this.



. ,
, ( )
. ,
: ,
, .: 'You're offering me a sinecure'. (I. Murdoch) He
gathered a half-blown rose, the first on the bush, and offered it to me. (C. Bront)

, ( had given her
money. (P. Abrahams), 'I'll give it to you tomorrow.' (O. Wilde)
(The blond reminded me of ass. (J. Baldwin) Briggs wrote to me of a Jane Eyre [...]
(C. Bront). , ,
. , , .

: Within two days, I was telephoning her. (C. P. Snow) I wrote
to Sheila (C. P. Snow):

She gave me a
letter.

She gave a
letter to me.


, ,
.
, ,
. : by/with +
N.
.
,


(They were
given a bad table [...] (A. J. Cronin) r was reminded of the scene
199

in the rose garden. (I. Murdoch) Information on this work was given the Americans.
(Daily Worker) 'It is addressed to e!' (O. Wilde),
,
. : Ophelia
is portrayed by Anastasia Vertinskaya [...] (Daily Worker) My father was exhausted
by her outburst. (C. P. Snow) r was overcome with emotion. (I. Murdoch) The
house is covered with a vine. (E. M. Forster)

: ( )
( )
( ).
, .
-
( . 3.3.3).

.
, (I gave the drawing
to Louise. (D. Maurier) ('I'm going to buy s a taxi.'
(C. P. Snow)

('Felicity, I will not be blackmailed by ' (I.
Murdoch), (His satis/action was ended by advancing footsteps. (H. G.
Wells)), (Again, his face was filled with rueful amazement. (D.
Lessing)
( , ,
. 2.1.13).
3.2.1.7. . , ,

1
.
,
,
.
, .
,
,
. , ,
, .
1

The house has not been lived in ( No one has


lived in the house)
, ,
,
200

- , ,
. , ,
.
,
(with eagerness
eagerly)
( spoke quietly and with dignity).
.
3.2.1.8. .
, , ,
-
, -.
,
, .
,
10, . ,
, . ,
.
1. ,
,

.

.

- .
,
.
(
, : It was a
surprisingly competent story for a man his age. (C. P. Snow) .
:
'Helen's just the age when you're liable to get a stroke.' (A. Christie)


, ,
: the 'Did-you-know-that' type of book. (New Scientist)
1

, , +
(. 2.1,8),
201

,
( . 3.2.2.4).


. (
, ) , ,
.
-
. ,
,
. .: a young man, serious-faced and with the air of one born to command (M.
Puzo), something rather pleasant and exciting (J. B. Priestley), the last remaining
leaves (A. C. Doyle).
, , , ,
, ,

() .
, ,
. ,

(, ) .
, (.
, . .).

.
, , , .
-/,
, .

.
, ,

-
.

,
,
, ,
. (,
, )
.
, .


.

202

,
, , .:
his critical incredulous glance
his incredulous critical glance
his incredulous and critical glance
his critical and incredulous glance
, ,
, :
the e r f e t, clear coral water (J. Aldridge).

, .
.
-

, .

,
,
: a wonderful autumnal panorama (. . Doyle), ordinary English speech
(. M. H. Strang), a grey toothbrush moustache (S. Maugham), an exquisite little
enamel box (K. Mansfield).
,
,
, , , ,
, () .
: a highly
unnatural brown wig (G. . Chesterton), an attractive small property (A. Christie).
,
,
. .: his own flish speech (J. Joyce). Own
, foolish,
his ,
.


'
. ,

.
203

,

( , ).
,
, ,
?
.
,
, ,

. , ,
-
.


.
.
,

.
, .
: all the ten pretty young American children's twenty little old china dolls.
:
: great rusty bolts 1 (G. . Chesterton);
( ) : a long blue nose (J. . Priestley); : the
swarthy young man (H. G. Wells).
, ,

.
, / .

: - . ,
, ,
: [It was] a very small room, overcrowded with
furniture of the style which the French know as Louis Phillippe. (S. Maugham)
, ,

: the greatest gold-mining magnate in the world (A. C. Doyle).
*the gold-mining magnate in the world
(the) greatest c in the world.
1

little, ,
: that poor, bewildered little figure (J. Galsworthy).
204


,
. .
, , : the l
d angry gleam (. . Doyle): old , ,
(, )
.
,
,
, : a large, handsome man
(S. Maugham).

, ,
.
,
.
, ,
, , .
, ,
, , ,
: little foxes' heads (J. Joyce)
( , ).
.

: the soldier's young, brown, shapely peasant's hand grasp (D. H. Lawrence).
3.2.1.9. . ,
- , . .
, ,
, : Downstairs
a clock struck one. (A. Christie) During the strike he had been employed as a housepainter. (S. Maugham) ,
.

, , ,
then, ,
, : went one day to the picture-dealer in whose shop
Stroeve thought he could show me at least two or three of Strickland's pictures, but
when we arrived we were told that Strickland himself had taken them away. (S.
Maugham)

, ,
205

- ,
, .
. -
.
.
,
: , .
, ,
, ,
(- ): For her,
more than for most people, everything in the future had been interesting. (C. P.
Snow) To the layman, the evidence of Sir William Pope's article seemed disturbing
enough. (E. S. Turner)
, , .

. .
, , ,
,

.

( , , , ),
, , .
. .:
Noiselessly, in spite of his heavy build, he dropped off the bed and with two strides
was standing by the door listening. (A. Christie) He dropped off the bed
noiselessly.. .
, ,

,
.

.
, .

- , ,
, ,
. .:
Behind
the door, two men stood arguing ,,
him by the hand
,,
it was raining
,,
hush fell . .
206

he took


( . 3.3.9).
. .
In 1941, the war broke out The war broke out in 1941.
What occurred in 1941/later?,
When did the war break out?
,
,

.
, ,

.
,

,
, . . .
-
, .

,
, ,
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
,
. .
.
.
3.2.2.
3.2.2.1. .
.
,
, , ,
.
, , ,
, ,
,
, . . .

.
, / , ,
/

207

,
, . ,
.


. . . . .
, ,
.
,
, . ;

,

-
. ,
. a very important person
very

,
, ,
, .
,
. , ,
. , , ,
,
.

,
.

. , ,
(, say
said that, truth
. ., subject 'I am subject to fits of depression.' (D.
Lessing). -
,
, /
(
,
).
- ,
,
.
.

.
208

. ,
(enjoy, visit, examine . .)

. .
.

,
, ; .: Mary was full of sympathy. (A.
Huxley); [...] the curve of her cheek was full and soft [...] (D. Lessing)
To

. ,


,
: 'I'm leaving tonight.' (P. Abrahams) 'You are always making me
bad in front of others.' (P. Abrahams)

,
.
, , . . ,
( ).
,
.
.
.

, ,
. /

. , ,
, .: 'A mental carminative,' said Mr. Scogan
reflectively. (A. Huxley) 'Thanks,' said Gombauld. (A. Huxley)
3.2.2.2. . .

.

,
.
,
209

( )

1.
,
.
. -
. ,
When his wife, a tall, lovely creature in cloth of gold, had left us, I
remarked laughingly on the change in his present circumstances from those when we
had both been medical students. (S. Maugham)., ,

,
, . . . .
. .
, /
,
,
I remarked on the change.
, +
, - +
.
,
, .
, , ,
to hate
, . . , ,
to remind , to treat
( -.), ( -.)
. .
, ,
. . ,
, ,

: ,
.
1

(. . ) .
104 105,
, 20 , 1020.
, , , , ,
100 000 000 000 ,
, .
210

, .

,

,
, , () .
,

. ,
( ),
.

:

1 - Pages rustle. (S.


,
Bedford)
(. ).
2, - r was enjoying

- the
port.
(I.
Murdoch)
(. )
.
3. - 'I've taught him
, that.' (J. Galsworthy)
:

(.
)

4. - The Judge is in the

chair. (S. Bedford)

(.
)

5, - That was long ago.

(P. Abrahams)

(.
)

6. - They
had
been

-- seized: (H.G. Wells)


(. )
, ,
.
.

, , ,
, ? ,
.

.
,
211



.
.

, , : 'I was born there.'
(E. M. Forster) 'My father was killed in the war.' (J. Galsworthy) Next day they were
drenched in a thunderstorm. (T. Hardy) , ,
, ( ,
- - ),
. ,
.
, .
, ,
, .

, ,
,
, .
The bull had a ring in his nose/There was a
ring in the bull's nose/A ring was in the bull's nose -
, , John beat Peter/Peter was beaten by John,
, , ,
-
.
-
.
.
.
, ,
(John beat Peter Peter was beaten by John),
( beat) ,
( John Peter). ,
.
.
, , (
John) (Peter).
.
N1 V N2 ( -
: John beat Peter) N2 be V en by N1 (

212

: Peter was beaten by John)


{beat }.
Andrew paled (A. J. Cronin) {pale
}, r offered her a handkerchief (I. Murdoch) {offer
}.
3.2.2.3. .
,
,
, ,
.

e, ,
, ,
.

, .

. ,
, ,
,
,
. ,
.
, .

, . e. ,
.

.
,


. ,

,
. ,
.
.
, ,
,

213

( )
( , : ark ()
mksat () net)

3.2.2.4 : ,
, , , , .
3.2.2.5. .

.
215


.
, . ,
, laughed began to laugh Clare laughed (J. Galsworthy)
She began to laugh (D. du Maurier).
(.
), .
, , , -,
( ),
-, .
, , , ,
. ,
,
.

, ,
(,
began
),
(,
).
,
, ,
.
.

, ,

.
,
, (She) began
to laugh, -
.
like to sing ( I like to sing)
. like singing ( I like singing)
. (
, like to sing,
), ( (I)
like someone's singing (I) like singing in general). like my (his . .) singing I like my (his
. .) singing, (his . .) singing.
216


, )
):
a) They drive in the 6) They can drive in the park at five park at five.
must
drive
may drive kept driving began
driving are said to drive are due to
drive are glad to drive
. .

, .
, *
, . . ,
,
, .
, . . ,
.
3.2.2.6. . ,
,
+
,
, (
),
,
1.

: 1) - , 2)
- 3) .

, (
, ) -.
,
, .: may . is expected to come. He is likely to come.
1

, ,
.
to be
to seem, to look . .,
, ,
. , ,
,
( ),
.
217

, . . ,
- (
):
1.
(can, may, mast .)
(, to be, to have)
: ' can swim like a fish.' (D. Lessing) 'He must
come back.1 (D. C. Doyle) 'It has to be right.' (H. E. Bates)
2.
(,
, ), : to begin, to proceed, to quit, to keep on
. .: 'She started to walk along the shingle.1 (I. Murdoch) 'His heart stopped
beating.' (J. Galsworthy)
3.
,
(to seem, to appear). : 'He seemed to have lost all power of
will [...]' (S. Maugham) 'They didn't appear to be ving.' (I. Murdoch)
4.

,
, ,
, , ,
. to happen to prove.
: 'But my memory happened to have tricked me.' (C. P. Snow) 'It turned
out to be Sam.9 (P. Abrahams)
5.
/,
(to want, to wish, to intend . .)' I dn't wish to leave my mother.' (O.
Wilde) 'I should hate to hurt him,' she said.' (I. Murdoch)

,
-,

,
, , to want ,
to want/to wish +
, - .
to write ( want to write)
.
218

.

.
,
, .

.
" ,
. .
.
, ,
,
.
,
, , , (I)
want/wish to write -
,
(I) write . . (
) .
. can write
, ,
, ,
- .
.

.
. want.
(I) can write want (I) want to write

.
.
(I) want to write (I) want a book
, . want
(I) want a book ,
, want (I) want to write .
, want (a book) ,
( ,
), , burn. .: 'They burned to tell everybody, to describe, to well
to boast their doll's house before the school bell rang.' (K. Mansfield).
- (burn to tell)
. Want to tell burn to tell ,
, . ,
. .
, want to tell burn to tell .

219

- .
6.
(to feign, to pretend, to fail)
(to manage, to contrive) ,
: 'Andrew affected to read the slip.'
(A. J. Cronin) 'She managed to conceal her distress from Felicity.' (I. Murdoch)
7.
, to try, to attempt, to endeavour, . . (' tried to
formulate.' (W. Golding) 'I have sought, primarily, indeed to emphasise how much
is involved in 'knowing' a language, [...]' (R. Quirk),
, .

: I tried to formulate
I formulated I did not formulate. , ,
, (6),

,
,
: I pretended to fall over.' (W. Golding) I did not
fall over, 'She managed to conceal her distress from Felicity.' (I. Murdoch) She
concealed her distress from Felicity.
8.

, (to
sit, to stand, to lie, to go). . :
'Tim stood fumbling for his keys.' (I. Murdoch) 'Adle came running up again.' (C.
Bront) ,
.
,
: 'Oh-h! Just imagine being able to go
walking and swiing again.' (D. Cusack)

-
.
,
:

- -, .: 'She stood
touching her face anxiously.' (D. Lessing) 'Ma stood, looking up and down.' (K.
Mansfield)
220


( )
.
. . I sat looking at the carpet. (I.
Murdoch) She sat for some time in her bedroom, thinking hard. (I. Murdoch)
,
,
. . stood fumbling for his keys He
fumbled for his keys, stood.

. : I shall
have to begin to practice.9 (K. Mansfield) 'In away I had been hatched there,
feathered there, and wanted dearly t g on growing there.' (A. E. Coppard) 'I can't
begin to accept that as a basis for a decision.' (C. P. Snow)
-

. , ,
. ,
, -
, .

: 'We ight hav to wait/ I said. (C. P. Snow)

, , *affect to chance *begin to happen (happen
).

, ,
; . , 'At
that moment I ldn't seem to remember the story, [...]' (T. Capote) 'Poor Tom used
to have to prescribe for my father.' (C. P. Snow) . .
.
.
-
Vpassen {toV | ingV}, Vpass - ,
: She was supposed to write a paper on the subject. The bell was heard to r
i n g/r i n g i n g.
,
,
- (. No component of the theory is
allowed to remain No component of the theory may remain; Mr. Quiason is
expected to arrive today Mr. Qutason must/ may arrive today . .),
.
221

- , ,
.
,
.
- (is said/ supposed/expected .
.) ,
(. may, must . .)
.

-
- :
) , (to be
supposed/believed/known . .): They are intended to be the day schools equivalent
of the residential houses at boarding schools. (R. Pedley);
) , (to be reported/said
..): 'Repentence is said to be its cure, sir.' (C. Bronte);
) , (to be
heard/seen . .): Distantly from the school the two fifteen bell was heard ringing.
(I. Murdoch);
) , . . , ,
- (to
be forced / made / pressed . .): In order to explain these data, we have been
forced to develop a number of theoretical concepts and new field procedures. (K. L.
Pike)
,
, ,

to be ,
be + : None of the injuries was believed serious. (Daily Worker)
None of the injuries was believed to be serious.
, , ,
(
) to be
. .
-
,
:
1) ,
( ) .

, sure, certain, likely ..: 'Everything is sure to be there.' (E.
M. Forster) Later they thought he was certain to die. (P. Abrahams) . .Huxley's
invention,
222

'agnostic', is likely to be more e n d r i n g. (J. Moore)



N be A to V Nv be A (He
was certain to come His coming was certain), N be A to
V It be A that N V (He was certain to come It was certain that he would come).
2) , ,
, ,
.
, ,
, . ,
,
:
) ,
, ( ) .
, able/unable, capable, free, welcome, bound: Then she would be able
to enjoy holiday in peace. (I. Murdoch) 'This flirtation is bound to end pretty soon.'
(I. Murdoch)
- .
)

, : glad, sorry,
ashamed . .: 'Dr. Kroll will be happy to show you the hospital itself later.' (D,
Lessing) She was eager to tell me. (C. P. Snow) r was relieved to be with him for
a moment. (I. Murdoch)

( )

(1) (2):
(1) N be A to V to V make N A It make N A to V He was happy to come.
To come made him happy. It made him happy to come.
(2) N be Vl en to V2 to V2 Vl N It V1 N to V2 He was amazed to see that. To
see that amazed him. It amazed him to see that.
)
,
. ( 1, 2, )
.
, quick, slow, fit, apt, ready: He was quick to seize on this
unexpected gesture of friendliness [...] (H. E. Bates) [...] I was slow to pick up the
reference. (C. P. Snow) 'You weren't fit to take it,' she said. (C. P. Snow)
) )
. , But
only now I was prepared to listen. (D. Lessing) prepared
,

223

, ,
.
) , (
) ,
: stupid, wise, mad, cruel, right,
wrong, good . . ( ,
.
.): You are quite right never to read such nonsense. He had been wrong to let the
boy get away. You have been cruel to me to go away. ( .
.)

: N be
A to V to V be A p N It be A p N to V. He was mad to come. To come was
mad of him. It was mad of him to come.
), ,
, .
, , ,
. : Lost
dogs are dreadful to think about. (J. Galsworthy) She was good to look at in a broad
way. (P. Abrahams)
( )
: , : ,
,
):

: Moira seemed not


to be able to move. (D. Lessing) The first words may be more difficult to memorise
than later ones. (K. L. Pike)
3.2.2.7. .

, , ,
()
.
224

.
, .
,
.
,
. ,
. ,
,
.
,
(. . 264) ,
.
,
- : )
, , ) ,
, ) )
, . ,
, . , , ,
(to
think, to consider, to remember .),
, (to like, to
wish, to want . .). , ,
, ,
,
, ) (to see, to hear,
to feel . .). .
, to make,
to push (He pushed the door
open), , ,
. :
,
, /
-. ,
,
) - .
,
, -: to keep, to hold, to leave, to send .
. ,
: '[...] I thought her
delightful.' (J. Galsworthy) She did not consider it a break. (. . Snow) I envy you
going there.' (H. E. Bates) I wished him dead. (D. du Maurier); ,
: Kupferman declared the
resumption of bombing to be a 'great

8 . . .

225

mistake'. (Daily Worker) I call it grotesque.' (O. Wilde) They called him Danny at
home. (J. Baldwin); - : 'The
simplicity of your character makes you exquisitively incomprehensible to me.' (O.
Wilde) Next morning he got his check cashed [...] (J. Galsworthy) 'I want to have
things clear.' (I. Murdoch) '[...] We were going to keep the fire going.' (W. Golding)
'[...] They will drive me mad.' (H. G. Wells); ,
: She heard him speaking to her [...] (S.
O'Casey) Dazedly I heard Beaumont congratulate me. (A. J. Cronin) He felt sweat
breaking out all over his body at the recollection of the scene. (H. E. Bates) She
could feel Hamish stiff and angry beside her. (D. Lessing)

. .

, ,
. .,
, No one had ever seen Miss Ives cry. (D. Lessing)
No one had ever seen Miss Ives.
. .: She had thought
inconsiderate and heartless [...] (. . Snow) *She had thought me.
. .,
, I' going to call you Frank.' (J. Galsworthy) 'I'm going to call you',

.
.
. (There was someone moving in the darkened house.
(A. Christie), ('It was only me talking.' (J. Osborne)
sixty
days, twelve years . ., . e.
.
,

.
. . .
, , , ,
- .
Numcar N ,

. ( , )
(. one point, two points),
.
226

.
.

,
,
.
3.2.2.8. .

, ,
.
, , .
,
. ,
, : It g l w e d soft and white against her skin. (D.
du Maurier) She lay awake for a long time, not thinking so much as working a
treadmill of words. (H. E. Bates) His face came up hot and angry over the counter
[...] (H. G. Wells).
, ,
, . , ,
.
,
.
, ,
.

,
.

,
.
, , , . .
,
.
: N N (carpet red carpet),
V V (turned turned impulsively), A D A (sly disturbingly sly) . .

: N
N, A D A, D A N (, a very good shot).
, ,
. (
, very)
. ,
.
8*

227


.
: just one thing, even at my first perfunctory reading.

.

: just very red carpet.

: Really, it was too
disagreeable. (A. Huxley) She had evidently returned. (I. Murdoch) There was, after
all, no issue. (I. Murdoch)
( , ,
,
)
. ( )

.
,
,
, ( ) ,
: Paxton, from across the road, whispered to his neighbour
[...] (A. Cronin) 'Do you ever think of what you're going to do after the war?' I said I
did not and, peevishly, that I did not believe in it. (E. Hayms) What a boy he was in
some way so impulsive so simple. (K. Mansfield) ,
,
, .
.
.
:
,
.
: I liked
him more, because I was seeing him with all my nerves alive with excitement with
the excitement that, when plunged into it, I really l v e d. (C. P. Snow)
,
: 'Allow me,
mademoiselle, to congratulate you upon your French accent. And to wish y a very
good morning.'' (A. Christie) And that was true. It was true. This was her world. Her
own place. Her fitted envelope of atmosphere. (M. Dickens)
, ,

228


:
The shopman, in some dim cavern of his mind, may have dared to think so too. For
he took a pencil, leant over the counter, and his pale bloodless fingers crept timidly
towards those rosy, flashing ones, as h e m r r e d g e n t l . (. Mansfield)

.
, ,
.


,
.
, .
,

- .
, .

,
. -
.
- one, do, so, not, it. : This week,
r noticed, one of the cabinets was given over to a display of opals. Set in
necklaces, ear-rings, and brooches they lay, black ones and white ones [...] (I.
Murdoch) 'I suppose you think I'm very brazen. Or tres fou. Or something.' 'Not at
all.' She seemed disappointed. 'Yes, you d o. Everybody does' (J. Capote) Have the
private emotions also their gutter press? Margaret thought s o, [...] (E. M. Forster)
'You may be offended, but I sincerely hope not.' (A. Christie) 'I feel extremely
jubilant,' I said. 'You look i t.' (C. P. Snow)

( - )
, . : 'I hope you are not
going to object, Barbara.' 'I! Why should I?' (G. B. Shaw) 'I want to pay my share,'
she said. 'No, you can't. I asked you to come out. ''I an. I shall.' (C. P. Snow) ' Yes,'
said Soames, ' leave him to me."I shall be very glad to.' (J. Galsworthy)
()
. ,
.
.
.
229

" ,
, .

. : 'Come to the big apple tree tonight, after
they've gone to bed. Megan promise!' She whispered back: 'I promise.' (J.
Galsworthy) 'You look tired,' he said. 'I am a little,' she answered. (J. Joyce)
-,
.
,
: 'Nippy out tonight, is it?' (S. Barstow)


,
,
. ,
. ,
, . ,
,
, ,
.
.
3.2.3.
3.2.3.1. .

.
, ,
.
. ,
(. . ,
,
), .
,
.

. , ,
. ,
.


230

.
.
-,
. ., ,


.

.
,
.

.
waved his hand in the direction of the house and was silent (A.
Huxley) , waved his hand
. . was silent.
he, .
,
,
, .

, -
, .
.

. , ,
. (,
and, but .)
: But he went on, scribbling down his tumultuous and incoherent
thoughts and feelings. And he made a decision. (R. Aldington)
, ,
,
. ,
. .
,
, , ,
.

. ,
,
, . ,

(, , ),
,
.

231


:
( )
.

.

? ,
.
,
, ,
, ,
, . ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
.
,
.
.
,
,
,

.
, , ,
(
),
.


( ) ,
",
.
( ) Winnie-thePooh:
Then he put the paper in the bottle, and he corked the bottle up as tightly as he
could, and he leant out of his window as far as he could lean without falling in, and
he threw the bottle as far as he could throw splash' and in a little while it
bobbed up again on the water; and he watched it floating slowly away in the
distance, until his eyes ached with looking, and sometimes he thought it was the
bottle, and sometimes

232

he thought it was just a ripple on the water which he was following, and then
suddenly he knew that he would never see it again and that he had done all that he
could do to save himself.


The House That Jack Built.

. ,
, .
.

John asked, and Maty answered, some questions from the quiz book.

(
) , ,
,
(

).

John asked some


questions from the quiz book Mary answered some questions from the quiz book.
, ,
, ,
. ,
*John offered, and Harry gave, Peter a new journal.

(
). ,
, , ,
. ,

Peter . John Harry Peter, ,
, ,
S (John offered, Harry gave, Peter . .),
,
.
*John offered, and Harry gave, Peter a new
journal John offered, and Harry gave, a new journal
to Peter.
3.2.3.2. .


233

. (,
,
, , .)

:
) ( ),
) 1,
) -
( ),
) / ,
) .

.

.

(A little boy with oblique dark eyes was
shepherding a pig, and by the house door stood a woman, who came towards them.
(J. Galsworthy), ( was the only boy
on the island whose hair never seemed to grow. (W. Golding) (
, ,
,
.)

. . .
, ,
, ,
.

, . .
, , ,
, .
()
() ,
(,
1

,
. ,
, . ,
,
. ( )

.

,

.
234

),

.

, , ,

, ,
.


:

.
3.2.3.3. .

, ,
, , -
(The March afternoon was cloudy; I turned the gas-fire full on [] (C. P. Snow)
(Next day some new officers arrived, and one of them took the place of
the silent civil engineer in my room. (S. Sassoon), .
When next day some new officers arrived, one of them ...) , ,

, . . ,
, (
) .
.
,

, , ,

.
, , was down like a sprinter, his nose only
a few inches from the humid earth. (W. Golding)
.

/
: [...] his nose only a few inches from the
humid earth [...] (with) his nose (being) only a few inches from the humid earth.
He ,
(
and, but ., ,
: though, if, when, than .),
(
235

) ( ), ,: The path
is firm b t quite narrow... (I. Murdoch) There was no moon, but the stars gave a
kind of light. (I. Murdoch)
(
) ,
.
, Though dead tired, he struggled on.
, ,

,
.
,
.
Though dead tired, he struggled on
Though he was dead tired, he struggled on, .

, ,
,
.


.

.
,
,
. : The balloon floated, dropped, bounded twice, wobbled
and came to rest. (J. Galsworthy) Donald and Felicity stood there paralyzed. (I.
Murdoch)
, ,
, . , ,
,
.
,
.
,
.
, , .
-
, .

I was not impatient, but I was active. (C. P. Snow),
-

238


.
3.2.3.4.

.
,
,
, : What he learnt was that they had never arrived.
,
,
1.
(
clause, . e.
/) ,
,
,
- .
, .:
(Night), . the doctor's arrival
, .



.
:
, (
), , , .
:
( , ,

),

(=
), (= ).
,
,
.

. ,
.
(
1

, ,
,
,
.
, .

237


,
).
. (
,
, , ?)


, ,
,
. (
.
- .)
3.3.
3.3.1. . ,
.
, .

. , , ,
,
,
. ,
,
,
,
-

.
, ,
. ,
, , .
-, ,
, .
,
,
,
. ,
,
. -,
, ,
. ,
,
, . ,

, .
238


, .
( . ,
. . 1)
( ) .
, ,
.
, .
, , -,
.

, -,
-.
,


. , ,

subject, predicate,
copula.
,

. , ,
.
, (

),
,
.
. ,
,
. (battle,
election . .),
,
.
.
.

.
. ,

1

. . ., . 29, . 129.
239

, , ,

.
3.3.2. . ,
, ,
,
, .

( NP), .

,
, .
The iggle squiggs trazed wombly in the harlish hoop, ,
(, , ),

- .
,
, .

,
, : /
[. .] - - .
,
.
, , ,
.
, , ,
,
.

- .
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
( .
3.3.3). ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
, , (., ,

240

: The
sea was stormy (the sea ), in the
sea ( It was stormy in the sea) .
,

.
.
3.3.3. .
(A
murmur of voices awakened him. He was awakened by a murmur of voices. (I.
Murdoch), ,
(The carpenter struck the nail with a hammer. The
hammer struck the nail. The hammer struck .)
, ,
(The boys sold strawberries to the strangers The strangers bought strawberries
from the boys), , ,
,
, .
, ,
a murmur of voices he/him,
, awake, (the
carpenter, the nail the hammer)
strike . .
,
, 1.
. , ,
,
.
- ,
,
. , to show ,
(, [...] They showed him the jewels. (H. G. Wells)


() , ()
, () . ,
(. )
(,
. .).
,
.
,

. ,
.
241

. ,
.
show [ ],
,
. ,
, (.:
They showed the jewels). ,
-
.
, They showed him the jewels They showed
the jewels , .

.
, ..
. ,
They showed him the jewels
{show }, They showed the
jewels {show }. ,
,
.

.
.
,
. , They
showed him the jewels late at night in a small cafe near the bridge ,
, ,
, .
,
.
.
, ,
, .
(I read the note. (D. du
Maurier) (A note was read by me).

. , ,
, (.)
(.), .: John threw the stone John dropped the stone.
.
, . ,
,
242

.
(
)
.,
.. . John threw
a stone with a sling *John dropped a stone with N
with N. ( with N
, . : John
dropped a stone with a stick). ,
., to lower, to raise, to lift, to drag, to pull, to break, to
open, to keep . ,
., to release.
. ,
, .
, (His eyes twinkled. (S. Maugham)
(Mountains frightened him)
. , , . ,
, , . :
hesitated. (H. G. Wells) My head ached. (D. Lessing)

,
(The wind was freshening. (A. Christie), ,
( dozed off.
(P. Abrahams) His heart sank. (D. Cusack)

by with (He was killed by a fly-wheel. The ground was covered with
snow; . : A sudden pity seized me. (A. J. Cronin) I was seized with a sense of
[...] dread. (C. P. Snow)

, , ,
-.
. :
(Hit the
ball!), ( was hitting the ball continuously).
(: Foch likes the country. (J. Galsworthy),

(*Like the country!) (*Foch was liking the
country).
to hit to like,
/-,
.
, -,

243

.
to surprise. -
{'You surprise me.' (S. Maugham),
(The detachment surprised the enemy). to forget, .:
I forgot all about it (- ) Forget about this!
( , ). ,

, .: Don't,
forget about it! (He , ! (-) !
() Forget about it! ( ). -,
to tremble,
(* Tremble!),
(Don't tremble!).
( !) .
,
.
(r bit his hand. (I. Murdoch) (The yard was
not overlooked. (I. Murdoch)

- - (The carpets
should match the curtains)
(The carpets and curtains should match).

,
.
. , . ,
( )
, The boy dug the ground The boy dug
a hole. , ,
, (
).
, . , . ,

What did he do to N?
The
child pronounced 'Daddy'. The man painted flowers. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
(
). ,

244

, : John broke the window with a stone.


Ned opened the door with a key.
, ,
. .
: A stone broke the window. The key opened the door.
(
): The window broke. The door opened.
broke the window A
stone broke the window, * and
a stone broke the window. ,

. . :
He opened the gate with
difficulty.
*He opened the gate with
He opened the gate with
difficulty and his mother.
his mother.

.
.

: John threw the stone with a sling by a quick movement. Ned
opened the door with the key by turning it in the key-hole.
,
, : John threw the stone with a quick
movement. John dropped the stone by ungrasping it.
.

.

: in, on, at; from, to; in, out of; through; under, over .
(from under, from behind . .)
. , ,
, ,
,
, ,
, .

.

(
passed from the hall into the corridor)
, . ,
245

,
.

.
.
(to stand, to stay, to lie, to
be .) , : lie [_
.]" He stayed in Moscow. He lay on the grass.
.
, . :
Siberia is snowy (. It is snowy in Siberia). Batumi is rainy (CD. It is rainy in
Batumi). The wide playgrounds were swarming with boys. (J. Joyce)
(to go, to move, to run,
to creep, to fall, to roll .) c .,
. ..

,
,

, . .
, .
, , -
. , ,
/ , . , ,
, ( 1),
, , jumped into the sea,
jumped from the rock, , ,
( 2) .
,
,
.
,
. , to reach .,
to depart . ..
( ) . , to
creep into N, from N, through N.
to jump
. ,

. ,
to come
(Come to the blackboard!) to go (Go to the blackboard!)
,
.
, .

246

.
,
, ,
. ,
,
.
- ,
,

.
, .
.
: An apple fell from the tree to the
ground. An apple fell from the tree. An apple fell to the ground. An apple fell.
.
, , . ,
/ ,
, to fall, .
,
, ,
,
, : fall[
(.) (. )].
, ,
.
,


.
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
. ,
to cut
[__ ].
:
{cut } The glazier cuts glass with a diamond.
{cut }
The glazier cuts glass,
{cut } A diamond cuts glass.

.
247


-

,
. , . . ,
, 1.
, ,
,

.
, , .
3.3.4. .
.
, ,
,
. ,
()
: . , ,
.
. , to
gild , ,
() (()), ,
- to coat
with gold. : to
ice, to powder, to silver . .

.
, . to coat
,
[_ ] (They coated the spire with gold),
to gild [_ ]
(They gilded the spire).
to gild to coat, to cover
: to gild
.


e .
-
,
1

., . ., . 29, . 194. 248

-
(-) ,
(.
*They gilded the spire with gold). ,
-
. ,
, ,
,
, ,
(-) (-).

, -
, .
,
,
. . They gilded the spire with the
gold specially processed for this purpose.
, .
? ,
,
.
. ,
.


. -
, . ,

: to drizzle, to rain, to snow. , ,


, . . , ,
- . .
:
.
:
: to foot 'to knit the foot of, e. g. a stocking'
to colonise 'to establish a colony in' : to carpet 'to
cover with carpet'
to alcoholise 'to saturate with alcohol' : to arm 'to
supply weapons and armour'
to pit 'to remove the pit from' : to chisel 'to cut
with a chisel'
to hammer 'to strike or beat with a hammer'
249

: to corner 'to force into a corner' to hole 'to get (a ball)


into a hole'
: to summer 'to stay or reside during the summer' to winter 'to stay or
reside during the winter'.

, . ,
,
. ,

. . . , . to work as a metal
worker, . . to work as a (farm) labourer, .
. to work as a furrier . .

. struck me on the knee
struck my knee, to strike.
, ,
,
. : to strike
[______________________________ ],
[_ ].
:

-.
,
. .


, , . .:
drew lines on the paper, He lined the paper,
draw
[_
line
[_
]
]
He put a saddle on the He saddled the horse,
horse. put [_ saddle
[_
]
]
- .
,
:
,
. .:
/ put oil on/into smth ()
oil
\ lubricate smth with oil ().

3.3.5. .

250

,
, .
. . , . .
:
, ,
1.

. House
, , , ,
, .

, .
, , , the rotation of the Earth
around the Sun, 2.
,
(
, .

. , -
,
.
(, ) ,
, : a/the man, Popov, he, one, the
inventor of the radio, the discovery of the neutrino. (
, .)
,

.
, .
,
, (Popov, the inventor of the radio, this/ the man),
(Satan) , , - (a table, man
(man is mortal) (an angel).
,
.
, .

1

. .., 1931, . 12, /251.


, ,
. :
, .

,
2

251

.
(Mt. Everest, Europe, France .
.). ,
,
(a Mr. Eyre (. Bront),
, ,
- , ,
(

: the Fieta of ny years ago (P. Abrahams); the Lanny
who had first arrived home from Cape Town (P. Abrahams).
.

.

,
.

.

: he man standing at the window / The man who is
standing at the window / The man (over there) at the window / The man is my
professor. (
: ,
, .)
3.3.6. .
; ,

.
,

. , the murderer of Smith, ,
The murderer of Smith is insane ( . )
() , ,
Jones ( , , . ,
) / , ,
( , , .
, ). The murderer of Smith is
insane .
, , ,
, ,
is insane ,

252

, ( is insane, I state),
( is
insane, I think),


: is insane, I think must be insane to hove done it
(that way).

The murderer of Smith is insane the murderer of Smith
(, -,
- ),
,
the murderer of Smith, ,
.
(Jones ), (Jones
).
. ,
.
.


.
. ,
:


.
. ,
( : murder
murderer (assassin, one who killed Smith . .), :
is insane (ruthless, cunning, strong . .).
X
is the President of the U. S. . , the President of the U. S.
. .
holds the Presidency, the President
. , -
, the President of the U. S. .
it, him: He has been it since 1976. . 253

'I feel extremely


jubilant,' I said. 'You look it,' she replied. (C. P. Snow). , he
, : who does not work
neither should he eat What are the requirements a good teacher should meet.
He must...

. ,
,
. : Lost in the taiga, the wouldbe town was a small hamlet yet, a handful of log huts. However everybody looked
forward hopefully to the future. In particular, I imagined my son's going to school
for the first time there in a few years' time. The school was an impressive abundantly
lit structure. Its classrooms were spacious, with walls painted in light-green,
pleasant to the eye. The windows were shining. And plenty of flowers greeted you
from everywhere.
,
( ,
, )
,
(. . 1),
, .
3.3.7. .
, -
,
, ( ) . -
I saw a man, a man, ,
. ,
a man, .
. The man
had a shabby coat on, the man .

,
, .
, ,
a man, the man,
, .
,
.
(
: This is a man), (
:
1

. . ., . 29, . 330. 254

A man is a mammal, . Men


(. . , ) are mammals).
, : .
(
, : I
like fish; . I like the fish ).
, , (
: You know, a man
approached me in the street and said...).
3.3.8. .
(a) She smiled which was curious () Curiously, she smiled
,
() () () ().

. (.


: Arriving in the city, John hurried... When John arrived in the
city, he hurried...
,
, : With
these words he went on tracking, [...] (A. A. Milne) While he said these words he
went on tracking . .). .
, ,
, .

: ()
. . ,
.
, I prolonged my stay because of leg I
prolonged my stay because Oleg had come/did not cornel had fallen ill/asked me to
. .
I prolonged my stay because of Oleg,
,
. (

: Why? What do you mean? What happened (to him)? I don't quite
understand in what way he could influence your decision to stay longer . .)
, , ,

255

.
,

( )
( ) . . I gave up working because of
Pete (= because Pete is little yet/because Pete is ever ill . .) Stalingrad ( = the
battle fought/the victory won at Stalingrad) was the turning-point of World War If.

(, Oleg
I prolonged my stay because of Oleg), ( -
. 3.3.9).
,
: They proceeded
very slowly because of mud They proceeded very slowly as the road was muddy/
as there was mud on the road.
.
-
.
- .
3.3.9. - .

,

, . e. .
, ,
, - .
,
, , . ,

- ,
. .
(, :
)
(), (R).
.
,
.
,
.

256

.
, , . .
, :
John (T) gave a book to Mary (R) Mary (T) was given a book by
John (R) A book (T) was given to Mary by John (R)
-
, ,
- , .
, , -
- . .
,
I see someone is absent today. (Who is absent?)
Petrov is absent, is absent,
Petrov, The one who is absent today is Petrov.
,
. , Petrov is absent
Today I'm going to
ask Petrov, Petrov is
absent. , :
Petrov (R) is absent (T) Petrov (T) is absent (R). ,
,
(
), .

,
(, )

(, It was drizzling and rather cold. (D.
Lessing), ).
,
, . : )
, ) , ) , )
. , , , ,
, ,
() . ,
-

, ,
, .
,
9 . . *

257


, .
-
, ,
. ,
, .
.

('Gerald was standing then in the doorway),
(Gerald was
'standing then in the doorway. Gerald was standing 'then in the doorway. Gerald
was standing then in the 'doorway), .
,
, .
, , : That I knew with absolute lucidity. (. . Snow) All
this Mr. Huxter saw over the canisters of the tobacco window, [...] (H. G. Wells),
: The patient is sleeping heavily. N e a r her, in the easy chair, sits a
Monster. (G. B. Shaw) The spring of 1879 was unusually forward and open. Over the
Lowlands the green of yearly corn spread smoothly, the chestnut spears burst in
April, and the haw-thorn hedges flanking the wide roads which faced the
countryside, blossomed a month before. (A. J. Cronin)
,
: 'And then came a curious experience.' (H. G. Wells) Finally Woltz led
him to a stall which had a bronze plaque attached to its outside wall. On the plaque
was the name 'Khartoum'. (M. Puzo)
there: Over the chairs and sofa there
hung strips of black material, covered with splashes like broken eggs, [...] (K.
Mansfield). (
)
.
,
( there
is).
,
-
.
.
.

, here/there,
It is ... X that/who ... . .
258

: 'Now, Miss Foster,


we have three models. There's the Olympus, the new deluxe. Then there's the Diana
bigger and better than Dors?' (H. E. Bates)
, : It was N who ... It
was N2 (that) N1 told me about, : It was in such moments that I faced the
idea of suicide. (C. P. Snow) . .
, only, almost, at least . .,
,
: 'The train only stays in the siding for a minute or so,' Celia said. (P.
Abrahams) Just for a moment Crawford was at a loss. (C. P. Snow)

: ,
,
. , ,

, ,

- ,

/.
.
, ,
/ ,
. :
.

(The door opened. (J. Lindsay), ,
, . , , .
,
, : A long silence followed. (J.
Lindsay)
(. A long
silence). -
, , , -
-: 'Do you
want to make money, Lewis?' 'I want everything that people call success.' (C. P.
Snow)
-
.

. ,
-,
-, ,
259

.
. .
,
,
- . ,
. , . ,
-
, , ,
. ,
, , ,
, .
3.3.10. .
, came late Even he came late, ,
, ,
even.
, ,
, he came late,
, , , it is unexpected.
,
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
. , , . ,
, ,
- .
, ,
(,
Please open the door , ,
, . .)
, ,
( ,
,
,
, ,
. . . .). -
.
. , ,

260

, , ,
.

, , ,
,
,
.
: S (presupposes) S'
, S' S
S (. . S) S'. S'
, S.
, ,
,
, -, (
,
, - ) , -,
. Even he came late Even he did not come
late . , ,
, : contrary to my
expectations. . Susan knows that Bill is
ill I consider that S as fact, . . .
Susan does not know that Bill is ill
.

. ,
( )
, .
, :
, ,
.
,
,

.
,
.
-
. ,
, . . .
. , , ,
(., , Does
Susan know that Bill is ill?).

26!

. ,
, ,
. , , .
, , ,
.
, .
, , . ,
, ,
. * John's brother attends
primary school, and John has a brother .
: John has a brother, and
John's brother attends primary school.
,
: *The man who died died.

.
, ,
,
, ,
,
.
( ). ,
, ,
,
, 1.
,

, . ,
, , ,
, ,
, ,
, .
3.3.11. . ,
,
( ,
, .: to know smth to be aware /
cognizant of smth to have knowledge of smth),
( ), , ,
- . , Susan knows that Bill
is ill Susan
1

, , . .
( ),
( ),

262

knows S, Bill is ill, Susan thinks that Bill is ill,


, Susan thinks S - Bill is ill.

. ,
,
, . Susan knows that
Bill is ill Bill is ill ,
, , .
Bill is ill Susan thinks that Bill is ill. ,

. ,
. , ,
,
, ,
.
to know. to think
- . , to say,
to declare, to report, to remember, to announce ,
.
to admit, to amuse, to bother, to
confess, to discover, to ignore, to realise, to regret ., glad,
exciting, important, lucky, proud, regrettable, remarkable . -
: to assume, to believe, to imagine, to seem, to think ., :
certain, eager, likely, possible, sure .
-
: was happy to be helpful was eager to be helpful.
To, ,
, ,
.

(*Susan knows that Kiev is the capital of Georgia) (Susan thinks that Kiev is the capital of Georgia).
, ,
, (*I do not know that
Kiev is the capital of the Ukraine).
( ,
) ( , )
.
, ,
,
.
, - ,
. . ( +/-
/ .)

263

that S the
fact that S

+ Susan regrets
that Bill is ill.
Susan regrets the
fact that Bill is ill.

Susan thinks that


Bill is ill. -/ *
Susan thinks the
fact that Bill is
ill.
...-/ Susan
thinks of Bill's
being ill.
... -/ Susan
thinks of Bill's
illness.

that
S
+ ... Susan
regrets Bill's

being ill.
that
S ... Susan
regrets Bill's
illness.

... -/ * Susan
+ ... Susan

regrets Bill is ill. thinks Bill is ill.
that
+ It matters to me It seems to me

that there are that there are


that
S
morning
and morning
and

evening papers . evening papers.

That there are * That there


morning
and are morning and
evening
papers evening papers
matters to me.
seems to me.
, ,
,
.
: - (,
, -)
. .: *Susan regrets Bill to be ill Susan believes Bill to be
ill.

, .: *Bill is odd to be ill Bill is likely to be ill.

- .
,
.

.
,
264

,

, . . . Mary knew
that the Earth is round *Mary assumed that the Earth is round.
, ,
/-. ,
, -
,
(That she was unhappy in her marriage was suspected by many),

- (It was suspected by many that she was unhappy in her
marriage).
3.3.12. . ,
.
.

,
, /
. , , ,
: I dislike his attitude
towards you I know his attitude towards you; It is important that he has noticed
their absence It is unlikely that he has noticed their absence.
to bother, to regret, to resent,
anxious, comical, vital, happiness, pity,
tragedy. - to anticipate, to forget, to know,
aware, probable, well-known, (keep in) mind .
,
, (
) .
-
.
(very) much, . . I dislike his attitude towards you (very) much *I know his
attitude towards you (very) much.
, - ,
, (very) well,
. . I know his attitude towards you (very) well *I
dislike his attitude towards you (very) well I am well aware of his attitude
towards you *It is well urgent to fetch the note.
,
.
,
265

.
,

.
,
,

.
3.3.13. .
. She
managed to conceal her distress from her friend.

, to conceal.
, , she concealed ....
,
, .
, ,
. .
She managed to conceal ... conceal,
She didn't manage to conceal ... , .
- ,
, .
, - ,
, ,
. , , She
tried to conceal her distress from her friend. ,
to conceal, . ,
. .
She didn't try to conceal her distress from her friend.
:
to conceal.
She didn't try to conceal her distress from her friend
:
.
( to
begin, to continue, to finish . .,
to enter, to stay, to leave)
. ,
1), 4) 2). 1)
3), 4) 5):
I) On the 1st of January he began to work.
266

On the 1st of January he did not begin to work.


3) Some time before the 1st of January he was not working.
4) Some time after the 1st of January he was working.
5) Some time after the 1st of January he was not working.
, ,
,
, .
, ,

() . ,
, , (
)
. , 9 18
,
. , I rang the burglar alarm I ran
to the burglar alarm . . (
, )
36 , ,
,
, , , :
Mr. Ransom rang the burglar alarm. Mr. Ransom did not ring the burglar alarm.

, ( ) , ,


.
, ,

(, beat his wife) (, Do you
still beat your wife?), ,
.
2)

3.4.
3.4.1. .

.
( )
,
, , .

,
,
, , .
267

,
, ,
.
,

,

, . ,


. ,
, , , ,

. ,

.
, .

1
,
, ,
.

, ,

, ,
, . e. .
3.4.2. .
.

. ,

. ()

, .
,
1


,
( )
, . e.
.

.
, , ,

.
268

- ,

1.

. ., , Cornel
Cornel, . I'll
watch you , .
,
.
, , . ,
, ,
(. 3.4.3).

,
( ),
-
( ).

,
.

. -



-
,
,
.
- ,
.

. ,
1


(
, ) .
, , ,
.
,
, ,
. , ,
,
,
, ,

,
. ( -,
, , . . .)
2G9

- ,

,
,
-,
, -,
,
. ,

-

.
.
.
- ,

. -
, (
/ )
,
- , .

,
,
.
, ,

, .
,
, , .
, . ,
, ,
,
/
. ,
, , ,
,
. ,

.
,
.
, , . .
.

,
. ,
270

. ,
. ,
: to accuse, to bet, to bless, to boast, to entreat, to express intention,
to lament, to pledge, to postulate, to report, to request, to vow, to welcome . .
, ,
.
I'll
, , ,
.
,
.
.

, ,
.
.
, ,
.
, , to argue,
, to be/to get convinced,
to describe to get informed/to know, to threaten to be/to get scared . .

.
, I didn't mean to V you, to V
to hurt, to insult, to flatter . . ( ,
, . .)
.
3.4.3. .
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, .

: .
,
.

.
.
271


I (hereby) + ,
+ ,
, .
, is not guilty
I (hereby) state that he is not guilty; Stop it at once I
(hereby) command you to stop it at once; I'll come some time. I (hereby) promise
you that I'll come some time . .

. .: I'll
dismiss you He threatened to dismiss him (her . .).
,
-
. ,
(, , ),
, . ,
, - (*I hereby threaten you that...), (*I hereby boast that ...). , ,
, ,
: I thank you; I christen this ship ... .

. ,
,

,
. , ,
,
, , ,
- .
,
. (
) . , ,
. illocutionary point (.
),
(
- :
),
(.: , ) .
.
. -
, : The Earth rotates.
-

. ,


.
. - -
,
( /
/, ,

. , , , - .
, ,
, -
:

: I'll come some time,

.
(
) . ,
.
,
(I), , -
: I'll write, do, come, ring up . .
*I shall be beaten up, *I shall be ignored
-.
, , -
, -
: *I'll stumble over the chair. *I'll overlook some mistakes.
,
, ,
, ,
, . ,
,
,
.
: I'll stumble over the chair.
, ,
,
[ ], [ ].
,
I'll overlook some mistakes .

, .

273

. ,
, . . , ,
, ,
. , You'll
see the picture to see You'll be shown the picture.
(The train will arrive in time will not do
this), , ,
,
, .
. .
[I hereby promise you] the train will come in time [I hereby state]
the train will come in time.

,
.
-

: ['If you don't let go,] I'll cut off you nasty,
great, slimy tail!' (J. Osborne) 'I'd give you such a belt in a second. (J. Joyce).
: ,

, , ,
,
. , , ,
, .
, : He'll pay
you .
, .
-

/
,
,
.

.
1. I congratulate you.' (A. J. Cronin) I welcome
you; I thank my honourable friend; I apologise; I guarantee that the cost of these
books will be paid) - (. , ,
congratulated me apologised,
1

,
. , ,
, .
.

274

). I
congratulate you, , .
(. performative).

, (.
I pronounce you
man and wife, ,
I name this ship ...
.), (. I swear ),
(. ,
). ,
, , , ,
.

.
.

.
.
, , .
* be I congratulate you. ,
,
, , -,
.
Continuous,
, * I congratulating you, *I' guaranteeing you..., *I' apologizing.

. ,
, . . Right now I' congratulating you
What are you doing?
. ,

. , I denounce it as a
lie. .
,
,

, ,
,
.

,
275

, ,
, , ,
.
, .

. . I swear . .

.
peoeece ,
. ., : Payment is guaranteed. Passengers
are requested to cross the line by the footbridge only (
. ).
, , ,
.
-
, ,
. (
,
.) .
,

, .: We guarantee ... We request you to cross ...


,
.


.

-.
,
( ) ,
: We
hereby request ... Passengers are requested .../Our request is ...

.
. ,
: 'Get out.' 'Don't go.'
(A. J. Cronin) 'Ronnie, could you get me a soaking wet rag?' (J. Updike)

, , .. -,
, .. -.
.
,
276

.
.
.

/ ( ),

:.
, (
) ,
. , -
,
. ,
( )
.
. ,
.
(.
).

please,

: 'Please go away.' (A. Christie) 'Don't go,


Effingham, please.' (I. Murdoch). Please .

, ,
,
: Let's go ...,
, Would/Could you kindly + : Would you
kindly stop smoking? Could you kindly show me the way to the station?
.
.
,
, ,
, (Drive
(please)!), , .


.

.

, ,
, .

277

.
. .

,
.
3.4.4. . ,
,
, . ,

,
. ,
e cy : Are
you still here? [= Go away at once! ,
.
, .

.

,
.
e.

( , . .),

. ,
.
,
/,
, -
. ,
.

(,
please), (,
Will you ...?). Will you ...?
. -
.
, Will you ...?
.
/.

,
.

. Some ,
, ('Will you do
278

something for me?' asked Stroeve. (S. Maugham),


any
: Will you take anything with you? some

: You will take something with
you, I think? , ,
, .
,

(Are you still here?)

.
, ,
.

'Luncheon is served.' (A. Christie),
(It's
draughty here I've run out of cigarettes) ..
,
, ,
,
(
).
,
-
, . .

/ . ,
It's draughty here ( )

, ,
(). ,
,
(), ,
, . .:
There's little chalk left.
[= Bring some more.]
There's too much chalk.
[= Take away some.]
There's water.
[= Wipe it off.]
There's no water.
[ = Bring some.]
,
( ),
.
279

( )
, , , .
. , ,
. ) I've run out of cigarettes
, - .
Are you still here?, . ,
,
,
, ,
, : You should stop smoking/You're a heavy smoker
indeed . . I've run out of cigarettes And where should I be?/Certainly . .
Are you stilt here?




. ,

. , .
.
:
.
,
, .
.
( )
( ),

.
, ,
.
. ,
,
,
, . ,
, , ,
, ,

.
, . I vow to you+ S I give
you word + S, ,
, .
280



,
,
. (
,
,
,

)
,
. , ,
, ,
, .

. ,
-
,
. , ,
,

(., , ( ) ,
, , ),

(.
).
,
. .
,

. -
(. to say, to declare, to blame, to plead, to
promise, to pledge, to criticise, to apologize . .).
,
, ,
,
.
281


. . . . .: , 1964,
. . . .: , 1983.
. . . .: , 1976.
. . ,
.: . , 1975.
. .
..: . , 1966.
. . .: , 1968.
. .
..: , 1975.
.. . .: - .
. ., 1960.
. . .: - . ., 1958.
.. . .: , 1961.
. . . 2- . .:
. . -, 1971. . .
. . . .: , 1968.
. ., . .
. 2- ., . .: , . -,
1972. . .
. .: , 1968.
E. . . .: ,
1978.
. . .: , 1978.
. . . .: ,
. -, 1980.
. . . :
, 1971.
. .: , 1967.
. . . .: - .
. ., 1959.
. . , .: - . .
., 1957.
E. .
. : , 1974.
- . . . .: , 1974,
. .: , 1972.
. . . .: , 1975.
. . . .: , .
-, 1974.
Fries . . The Structure of English. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1952.
Hill A. A. Introduction to Linguistic Structures. New York-Burlingame: Harcourt,

Brace and World, 1958.


Quirk R., Greenbaum S., Leech G., Svartvik J. A Grammar of Contemporary
English. London: Longman, 1972.
Sweet H. A New English Grammar Logical and Historical. Oxford: Clarendon
Press. Pt. 1. Introduction, Phonology, and Accidence, 1891; Pt. 2. Syntax. 1898.
282


( )
....93, 193, 212, 249, 251, 252, 254, 255, 256, 258, 259,
261, 262, 291
.........................................217, 225
- ....217, 218, 221, 222, 223,
224, 241
................................................249, 251, 260, 262
........................................................................230
.....................................157, 179, 226
......................................74, 150, 198, 246, 301
...............................................248
..............................................................253, 254
.................................252
........................243, 244, 245, 246, 259
. 232, 243, 244, 246, 254, 257, 258, 259,
261
................................................244, 245
........................244, 245, 246, 251, 262
........................................................................231
......................................................................282
......................................................................282
...........................................................................297
....................................284, 286
.........................................................235
.........................................................................290
..............................................................200, 248
..............................................................249, 251, 261
..............................................................289
.............................................................................291
.................................................................260, 261
.............................................................230, 231
.........................................................................231
.....................................................................230
- ...........217, 222, 223, 226
- ..................................222
.......212, 249, 251, 254, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 291
....................................................289
....................................................................293
.....................................................233
.............................................283
......................91, 172, 176, 182, 241
...............138, 202, 203, 233, 234, 235, 302
...........................................246
..........................248, 273, 274, 276, 281, 282
.................................................................230
..........................................................................291
102, 114, 210, 233, 235, 241, 244, 302
..............................................210, 232
..................................................................229
..................................................................231
.......................................................233, 248, 263
....200, 202, 205, 210, 211, 214, 232,
235, 246, 263
.......................................................................288
....................................................258, 293
..................................................................221, 248
. .52, 54, 62, 64, 111, 115, 148, 149, 162, 176, 183,
191, 193, 203, 211, 218, 224, 238, 246, 247, 248, 260, 265
...........................247, 248, 251, 274
..........................................247, 308
..........................................246, 289
..................................251, 269
.....................................................249
..........................................................261
........................................................247

. 243, 248, 249, 251, 258, 259, 261, 291,


308
......................................................247
................................................248
......178, 184, 189, 191, 248, 254
............................................246, 248
...............................246, 247, 308
..205, 216, 229, 230, 231, 232, 235,
262
.................................237, 262, 308
......115, 203, 232, 233, 235, 237, 239,
240, 241, 242, 308
.........................244, 308
................................................................251, 261
.....................................246
..............................................218, 222, 223, 224
..............................................................................281
.............................224, 231, 262
....................................................................137, 231
............................................................241, 256
...............................................................................281
.....................................................................281

4
1.
1.1. 14
1.2. 21
1.3. 34
1.4. 39
1.5. 40
1.6. 46
1.6.1. 46. 1.6.2.

. 47 1.6.3. . 47
1.6.4. . 1.6.5.
. 49 1.6.6.
. 50 1.6.7. . 1.6.8.
. 1.6.9. 51 1.6.10.
53 1.6.11. . 1.6.12.
. 1.6.13. 57 1.6.14. 60 1.6.15.
-

64
1.6.16.

65 1.6.17. 66 1.6.18.
67 1.6.19. 68 1.6.20.
74 1.6.21. (). 80
283

1.7. 87
1.8. 89
1.9. 90
1.10. , 91 1.11.
91
1.12. 92
1.12.1. , 92. 1.12.2. ,
94.
1.13. 95
1.14. 96
1.15. 98
.
98

2. 100
2.0.1. 100. 2.0.2.
101. 2.0.3.
101. 2.0.4. 105. 2.0.5.
106.
2.0.6. 108. 2.0.7.
108.
2.1.
109
2.1.1. 109. 2.1.2.
111. 2.1.3. 114.
2.1.4. 115. 2.1.5. 116. 2.1.6. 116.
2.1.7. 118. 2.1.8.
120. 2.1.9.
120. 2.1.10. 121. 2.1.11.
124. 2.1.12.
N1 + N2 124. 2.1.13.
126. 2.1.14.
128. 2.1.15.
130. 2.1.16. 130. 2.1.17.
131. 2.1.18.
134. 2.1.19. 134. 2.1.19.1.
134. 2.1.192.
135. 2.1.193.
136. 2.1.19.4.
139. 2.1.19.5. 141.
2.1.19.6. 141. 2.1.19.7.
143. 2.1.19.8.

143 2.1.20. 144. 2.1.21.


146. 2.1.22.
147. 2.1.23.
148.
2.2. 149
2.2.1. 149. 2.2.2.
151. 2.2.3.
154. 2.24.
156 2.2.5.
159.
2.2.6. . 162.
163
284

3.
3.1. ( ) 164
3.1.1. 164. 3.1.2.
165. 3.1.3.
19. 3.1.4. 171. 3.1.5.
173. 3.1.6. 177.
3.1.7. 181.
3.2. 183
3.2.1. 183. 3.2.1.1.
183. 3.2.1.2.
186. 3.2.1.3. 190. 3.2.1.4. 191.
3.2.1.5. 192. 3.2.1.6. 196. 3.2.1.7. 200.
3.2.1.8. 201. 3.2.1.9. 205. 3.2.2.
207. 3.2.2.1.
207. 3.2.2.2. .
209. 3.2.2.3. 213. 3.2.2.4.
214. 3.2.2.5. 215. 3.2.2.6. 217. 3.2.2.7.
224. 3.2.2.8.
227. 3.2.3. 230. 3.2.3.1.
230. 3.2.3.2.
233. 3.2.3.3.
235. 3.2.3.4. 237.
3.3. 238
3.3.1. 238. 3.3.2.
240. 3.3.3.
241. 3.3.4. 248. 3.3.5. 250. 3.3.6.
252. 3.3.7. 254. 3.3.8.
255. 3.3.9. -
256. 3.3.10. 260. 3.3.11. 252. 3.3.12.
265. 3.3.13. 266.
3.4. 267
3.4.1. 267. 3.4.2. 268.
3.4.3. 271. 3.4.4.
275.
282

285


. . . . . .
. . . . . , 3. . , .. .
3108
. -680. 05.05.81. . 23 10.81.
60X901/16 . . 2. . ,
18 . . . 18 . .-. 19,87 .-. . 35 000 .
. 1904. 90 .
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