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-

( )

..

, ,

28.03.2003

2003

:


..-.. ..
: , ,
, , , , -.

.

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c .. , 2003

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I.
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . .
3. .
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II.

4. . . . . . . . . .
5.
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6.
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7.
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III.
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.
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12. . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.
13. . . . . . . . .
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15. . . . . . . . . . .

5
7
9

12

19
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44
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51
54

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17. . . . . . . . . . . . .
18. .
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V.
19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20. .
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21. .
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22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23. . . . . . . .
24. .
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25. . . . .
26.
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VI. .

27. : ,
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28.
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29.
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30. .
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31. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57
63
69
77
80
87
95
101
118
131
136

143
148
159
167
173



.
.

. ()
q = (q1 , . . . , qn ). q(t)
( )
d T
T

= Qi , i = 1,n.
dt qi
qi

(0.1)

Qi ,
(0.1) () L = T
d L
L

= 0, i = 1,n.
dt qi
qi

(0.2)

(0.2) ,
L = T . ,
(0.2), L = (T )et . (0.2) L(t,q,q)

2
L

det
(0.3)
qi qk 6= 0.
(0.3) (0.2)
:
, .
:
1. () n-
q1 , . . . , qn ;
2. t, q1 , . . . , qn ;
3. ( ) 2n-
q1 , . . . , qn , q1 , . . . , qn ( q1 , . . . , qn , p1 , . . . , pn , pk
);
5

4. t, q1 , . . . , qn , q1 , . . . , qn
( t, q1 , . . . , qn , p1 , . . . , pn ).
, , .
, , : .
( 020100697)
( 001596137).

I.
1.
, N
ri Vi (i = 1, N ). , n
(0.1).
1.1. t0 , ,
r0i , i = 1, N , : V0i = 0, i = 1, N .
,
t > t0 :
ri (t) r0i , i = 1, N , . . t > t0
.
. , , V6= 0.
,
V
V. ,
,
Vi 0.
, . . t
q1 , . . . , qn : ri (t,q), i = 1, N .
:
q q,
?
1.1. ,
. . : ri (q), i = 1, N ,
ri (t,q)
= 0, i = 1, N .
t
7

(1.1)


{Vi 0, i = 1, N } {qk 0, k = 1, n}.

(1.2)

, ,

n
X
ri (q)
qk , i = 1, N .
Vi (q,q)
=
(1.3)
qk
k=1

(1.3) qk = 0.
(1.3) Vi = 0,
n
X
ri (q)
k=1
n
P

k=1

qk

qk = 0, i = 1, N ,

Hk qk = 0,

r1 (t,q)
rN (t,q)

Hk =

qk
qk

(. ) qk = 0, k = 1, n.
1.1
1.1. x
(. . 1.1).

at

i
. 1.1
:
r(x) = ix, V(x,x)
= r = ix
8

(i ). (V = ix = 0)
: x = l0 , l0 , x 0. y: x = at + y
(a = const, . 1.1). :
r(t,y) = i(at + y), V(t,y,y)
= r = i(a + y),

(V = i(a + y)
0)
R2 (y,y)
: y = l0 at, y = a.
:

ri (q1 , . . . , qn ), i = 1, N ,
t (. (1.1)). (1.2)
1.1 , 1.1.
1.2. r0i , i = 1, N ,
qk0 , k = 1, n: r0i = ri (q 0 ), i = 1, N . r0i , i = 1, N , ,
:
qk (t) qk0 , k = 1, n.
1.2 : r0i , i = 1, N ;
q = q 0 ; q = q 0 , q = 0
.
2.
Qi (t,q,q)

T (t,q,q)
=

n
1 X
aik (q)qi qk
2
i,k=1

(2.1)

qi aik (q),
t. Qi (t,q,q)

(2.1) (0.1)

n
n
X
X
aik
1 alk
qk ql = Qi (t,q,q),

i = 1, n. (2.2)
aik qk +

ql
2 qi
k=1

k,l=1

2.1 ( ). q 0 (r0i = ri (q 0 ))
, Qi (t,q,q),
i = 1, n, t
Qi (t,q 0 ,0) = 0, i = 1, n.
(2.3)
(2.2). , (2.2) qk0 , i = 1, n,
. , (2.2)
qk , q 0 , q0 (. ,
). (2.2) q(t) q 0 ( 1.2 ) ,
(2.3).
2.1. ,
m l ,
( O A ). , , B
AB
F (. . 2.1). . ,
,
2.1 :
3
Q = mgl sin + F l cos( ) = 0,
2
1
Q = mgl sin + F l = 0.
2
10

(2.4)

C1

A
P

F
C2

B
P

. 2.1
(2.4)
tg

sin

2F cos
= f (),
3mg 2F sin
2F
,
mg

(2.5)

.
2F > mg, .
2F = mg, sin = 1, tg = 0, (0 ,0 ):

(0, ),
2

(, ).
2

2F < mg, (2.5) :

2F
1 = arcsin
, 2 = 1 , tg 1,2 = f (1,2 ),
mg
f (1 ) = f (2 ) (0 , 0 ):
(1 = arctgf (1 ), 1 ); (1 , 1 ); (+1 , 1 ); (1 ,1 ).

11

. 2.2 , : 4F = mg, 1
= 9 , 1 = 30 . . -, F :
Q
Q
6=
,

(3.1) 3 3.1 . -, (3.3), (3.4) (. 3


3.3), , RO RA , ,
, 2.1.
F

. 2.2
3. .
.

2.1.
12

3.1. , , (t,q).
q 0 ,

(t,q)
(3.1)
= 0, k = 1, n,
qk q=q0
. . q 0
.
2.1

(t,q,)
Qk (t,q) =
, k = 1, n.
qk
3.1. , 2.1, F,
B AB, (. 3.1).
x

C1

A
P

C2

F
B
y

. 3.1

(,) = mg(yC1 + yC2 ) F xB =
l
= mg (3 cos + cos ) F l(sin + sin ).
2
(3.1)

l
= mg 3 sin F l cos = 0,
2
l
= mg sin F l cos = 0
2
13


tg =

2F
2F
, tg =
,
3mg
mg


(1 = arctg

2F
2F
, 1 = arctg
),
3mg
mg

(1 , + 1 ),

( + 1 , 1 ), ( + 1 , + 1 ).
. 3.2 , , 2.1 4F = mg, :

. 3.2
2.1
F, l, m, g ,
. 3.2, ,
1 < 1 .
14

3.2 , l (. 3.3).
.
y
y0

A
C

yc
y1

x0

x1

. 3.3
, ,
x
Z1

= mgyC = g

x
Z1

y(x)dm = g
x0

y(x)ds.
x0

ds
(
2 )
n
o
dy
2
2
2
2
ds = dx + dy = 1 +
dx2 = 1 + (y 0 ) dx2
dx

x
Z1

I=

q
y

1 + (y 0 ) dx,

x0

y(x)
= gI.
, l, . .
x
Z1 q
2
I0 =
1 + (y 0 ) dx = l.
x0

15

, , y(x)
I0 = l I
, . . (3.1), y(x)
(. c (0.2))
d f
f

= 0,
dx y 0
y
q
2
f (y,y 0 ) = (y + ) 1 + (y 0 )
I + I0 , .
(. 20.4), f /x = 0

f 0
y f = C2
y 0
q
2
. f (y,y 0 ) = (y + ) 1 + (y 0 )

p
dy
= (y )2 C 2
dx

x

y = Cch
+ b .
C
, C, b l
x

0
y0 = Cch
+ b ,
C
x

1
y1 = Cch
+ b ,
C
n x

x
o
1
o
I0 = C sh
+ b sh
+b
= l.
C
C
,
(x1 x0 )2 + (y1 y0 )2 l2 ,
, C, b .
16

3.2 ( ). r0i , i = 1, N (qk0 , k = 1, n) ,


dri , i = 1, N (dqk , k = 1, n) r0i A Fi

A =

N
X

(Fi ,dri ) =

i=1

n
X

Qk (t,q0 ,0)dqk = 0.

(3.2)

k=1


q 0 :
dql 6= 0, dqk = 0, k 6= l.
(2.3)
(3.2).
3.2 .
3.3.
, R M0 Fi
R=

N
X

Fi = 0,

(3.3)

[ri , Fi ] = 0,

(3.4)

i=1

M0 =

N
X
i=1

O , ri ,
Fi .
(3.2)
dri
dri = Vi dt = (V0 + [, ri ])dt,
V0 O, .
(3.2) (17

)
(N
)
N
N
X
X
X
A =
(Fi ,dri ) =
(Fi ,V0 ) +
(Fi ,[,ri ]) dt =
i=1

i=1

(
=

i=1

N
X

)
N
X
Fi ,V0 ) + (,
[ri ,Fi ]) dt =

i=1

i=1

(3.5)

= {(R,V0 ) + (,M0 )}dt = 0.


dri
V0 , (3.5)
(3.3) (3.4).

18

II.

4. .
(0.3) , .
() ((x)/t = 0):
x = (x), x Rm ,

(4.1)

x1 , . . . , xm q q.

(4.1)
x = (q, q)

. (4.1)
x(t) = f (t,x0 ).

(4.2)

t0 = 0, (4.2)

x(0) = f (0,x0 ) = x0 .

(4.3)

(4.2)
4.1. x(t) = f (t,x0 )
(4.1) t, t2 , x0
f (t,f (t2 ,x0 )) = f (t + t2 ,x0 ).

(4.4)

(4.4) t , t2 . f (t,x0 ) (4.1)


x0 , (4.4) .
t = t + t2 (4.1) (4.4) ,
(4.1) ( (4.1) !), ,
(4.4) (4.1). (4.3)
19

t = 0 (4.4) ,
(4.1)
t.
(4.4) , f (t,x0 )
Rm . ,
t t2 (.
(4.4)), , t = 0 (. (4.3)), ,
t2 t = t2 (. (4.3)
(4.4)).
, (4.1)
(0) = 0,

(4.5)

. . x(t) 0 (4.1).
4.1. x(t) = 0 (4.1) ,
( > 0)( > 0)( | x0 |=| x(0) |< )(t > 0) | x(t) |=| f (t,x0 ) |< .
, , x(t)
x = 0, ,
(| x(0) |< ) .
4.1
x(t) = f (t,x0 ) x0 = 0 x0 t 0. f (t,x0 )
, , ,
.
: , ( ) (4.1).
4.1
4.2. x(t) = 0 (4.1) ,
( > 0)( > 0)( | x0 |< )(t1 > 0) | x(t1 ) |=| f (t1 ,x0 ) | .
20


V (x). : | x |< ; V (x)
V (0) = 0;
(4.6)
V (x) (4.1) ,

m

W (x) = V (x) =

X V (x)
X V (x)
dV
=
x i =
i (x).
dt
xi
xi
i=1
i=1

V (x) ( V (x) > 0),


{0 <| x |< } {V (x) > 0},

(4.7)

{0 <| x |< } {V (x) < 0}

(4.8)


( V (x) < 0). (4.7) (4.8) V (x)
.
{0 <| x |< } {V (x) 0}
( , V (x) 0)

{0 <| x |< } {V (x) 0}


( , V (x) 0)
V (x) .
V (x) , , .
, R2 (x,y) V = x2 + y 4 ; V = x2 (V = 0 x = 0, y 6= 0), V = x2 y 4
.

21

5.
5.1 (.. ). (4.1)

= 0, x = 0,
V (x)
(5.1)
> 0, x 6= 0,
, V (x) (4.1)

W (x) = V (x) 0.
(5.2)
.
(. 5.1).
(| x |= 6= 0), ,
(5.1) V (x) > 0, ,
, x ,
V (x) 0 , . .
{x } {V (x) V (x ) = V > 0}.

xm

(5.3)

x <
x <

x <

x1
x

. 5.1
(4.6) V (x)
,
{| x0 |< } {V (x0 ) < V }.
22

(5.4)

V (f (t,x0 )) , x0 , .
(5.2) V (f (t,x0 )) = W (f (t,x0 )) 0, . .
t > 0 (14.3) (5.4)
V (f (t,x0 )) V (f (0,x0 )) = V (x0 ) < V .

(5.5)

, f (t,x0 ) ,
. . t1 > 0 x1 = f (t1 ,x0 ) ,
. , , (5.3)
V (x1 ) V (x ), , (5.5) V (x1 ) < V .
, 4.1 : ,
.
5.2 (.. ).
(M ),
k V (x) :
1. 0 < V (x) k;
2. W (x) = V (x) > 0;
3. {V (x) V0 } {l > 0, W (x) l > 0};
4. {x = 0} M ;
5. {x M, | x |< } {V (x) = 0}.
x(t) = 0 (4.1) .
4
( > 0)(x0 M )V (x0 ) > 0.
(5.6)
, x(0) = x0 : x(t) = f (t,x0 ) M . 2
V (x(t)) V (x0 ) = V0 > 0,
3

(5.7)

W (x(t)) = V (x(t)) l > 0.

1 , x(t)
M
Zt
k V (x(t)) = V0 + V (x(t))dt V0 + lt,
0

23

. . t1 (k V0 )/l x(t) M . 5 (5.7) {M, | x |< },


.
5.2,
.
5.3 (.. ). (4.1) V (x)

= 0, x = 0,
0

2 . W (x) = V (x)
> 0, x 6= 0,
,
( 5.2):
1. 0 < V (x) k;
4. {x = 0} M ;
5. {x M, | x |< } {V (x) = 0}.
x(t) = 0 (4.1) .
2 3 5.2.
20 , . . 2 5.2 . 4 (5.6),
x(0) = 0 20 (5.7).
V (x) V (0) = 0
1 , {| x |< 1 } {V (x) V0 },
(5.7) : x(t)

1 | x |< ,
20 3 5.2.
5.2 .
5.4 (.. ). 5.3
1, 4 5., 20
200 . W (x) = V (x) = cV (x) + U (x),
c > 0, U (x) 0, x(t) = 0 (4.1) .
24

200 W (x) = V (x) cV (x), M (V (x) > 0) 2 3 5.2.

6.

II,
, (4.1). 5.1 ,
( ).
6.1.
Ap + (C B)qr

= 0,

B q + (A C)pr

= 0,

C r + (B A)pq

= 0,

(6.1)


p, q, r c , A,
B, C .
, (6.1)
( )
2T

Ap2 + Bq 2 + Cr2 ,

K02

A2 p2 + B 2 q 2 + C 2 r2 .

(6.2)

(6.1)
p = , q = 0, r = 0,
( ). p = x + , q = y, r = z ,
x = 0, y = 0, z = 0. (6.2) x, y, z

U1

Ax2 + By 2 + Cz 2 + 2Ax,

U2

A2 x2 + B 2 y 2 + C 2 z 2 + 2A2 x
25

(6.3)

A 2 A2 2 .
V = f (U1 ,U2 ),
(5.2) 5.1 : V 0. :
V (x,y,z) = U12 + U22 .

(6.4)

(V 0) ,
{V = 0} {x = 0, y = 0, z = 0},
W = V 0 (5.1),
(5.2) 5.1. V = 0 (. (6.4)) U1 = 0, U2 = 0,
(. (6.3))
AU1 U2 = B(A B)y 2 + C(A C)z 2 = 0,

A > B C, A < B C

(6.5)

(
) y = 0, z = 0,
U1 = 0 (. (6.3))
U1 = Ax(x + 2) = 0,
| x |< 2 x = 0.
: (6.5) (6.4) 2
(x2 + y 2 + z 2 < 4 2 ), (5.1) (5.2) 5.1 , . .
.
, (6.1) . , . , 1958 1 ,

26

, . ( ),
. , ,
1 .
, . ,
> 0.
( = ) 5.2 5.4 M

M = {x2 + y 2 + z 2 < 2 , y > 0, z > 0}.


V = yz 1, 4, 5 5.2. (6.1)

C A 2 AB 2

z +
y ,
W = V = (x + )
B
C
,
C > A B,

CA>B

2 3 5.2,
, . .
, .
7.


T =

n
1 X
= 0, |q|
= 0,
aik (q)qi qk
2
> 0, |q|
6= 0

(7.1)

i,k=1

1 . .158-159: ..
. .: , 1982 ( . . :.5)

27

(q) .
q 0 ,
q 0 = 0.

(7.2)

q 0 = 0

n
n
X

1 X 2
(q) = (0) +
qi +
qi qk +

qi 0
2
qi qk
i=1
i,k=1
q =0
0
q =0

,
(q) = 2 (q) + 3 (q) +

(7.3)

(k (q) k). , ,
(0) = 0
(7.4)
, -, 3.1
(0)/qi = 0,
1 (q) = 0.
4, , (4.1) x, x = (q,q)
. , 4.1 .
7.1. q 0 = 0 ,
( > 0)( > 0)( | q 0 |< )( | q0 |< )(t > 0) | q(t) |< , | q(t)
|< .
4.2 .
,
(7.2) R2n (q,q)

.

28

.
(q), .

: (q) ,
() , (7.1).
7.1 (. , . ). Rn (q) (q) (7.2) , . .
(7.4) |q| <

= 0, |q| = 0,
(q)
(7.5)
> 0, |q| 6= 0.
q 0 = 0 .
(7.5) (0)/qi = 0, . . 3.1 q 0 = 0
.
5.1, V
V = E = T + . (5.1) 5.1
(7.1) (7.5):

= 0, |q| + |q|
= 0,
V =E =T + =
> 0, |q| + |q|
6= 0;
(5.2) W = V = E = 0.
(7.5) . ( ) , (7.5) .
7.1. m , (2n 1) y = x2n sin2 (1/x2 ), y , x
( 7.1).

29

. 7.1
, , , , . .
. (x) = mgx2n sin2 (1/x2 )

x0 = 0 x1 = 1/ n, n
, x1 < . , (7.5) 7.1 .
. , ,
(7.2) (7.4).
(7.3) (q) q 0 = 0.
7.2 (.. ).
q 1
2 (q 1 ) < 0,

(7.6)

2 (7.3) .
q 0 = 0 .
(7.6) 7.2
:
( ), (7.3).
(7.6):
2 2 (aq 1 ) = a2 2 (q 1 ),
aq 1 , (aq 1 ) < 0.
30

7.3 (.. ). m (7.3) m 2

= 0, |q| = 0,
m (q)
(7.7)
< 0, |q| 6= 0.
q 0 = 0 .
(7.7):
q0 = 0
(q),
m (7.3).
7.4 (.. ). (q)
, q 1
(q 1 ) < 0,
( , ). q 0 = 0 .
7.2,
(q): (aq 1 ) = ak (q 1 ).
7.2. (q) q 0 = 0.
) (q) = q12 , 7.1;
7.1 7.4 .
) (q) = q12 , 7.2, 7.4 7.3 .
) (q) = q14 ,
7.3, 7.4; 7.4.
) (q) = q14 q26 , 7.1 7.4 .
) (q) = q1 q2 q3 , 7.4.
) (q) 0, 7.1 7.4 .
, 7.2 ) , . :
... (7.1) T .
31

7.3. m R, y
.
(. 7.2).

P
. 7.2
P(0,mg) J(m 2 x,0)

1
1
= mgy m 2 x2 = mgR(1 cos ) m 2 R2 sin2
2
2
( ). 3.1
0 () = mR(g 2 R cos ) sin = 0,

sin = 0,

cos =

g
.
2 R


00 () = mR(g cos 2 2 R cos2 + 2 R).
.

32

g > 2 R. :
1 = 0,

2 = .

00 (0)

mR(g 2 R) > 0,

00 () =

mR(g 2 R) < 0

1 = 0 7.1 ,
2 = 7.2, 7.3 .
g < 2 R. :
1 = 0,

2 = ,

3,4 = arccos

g
.
2 R

00 (0)

mR(g 2 R) < 0,

00 ()

mR(g + 2 R) < 0,

00 (3,4 )

( 2 R g)( 2 R + g)
>0
2

1 = 0, 2 = 7.2, 7.3 , 3,4 7.1


.
g = 2 R.

:
1,3,4 = 0,

2 = .

( 2 R = g)
() = mgR

[(1 cos )2 2]
, 00 () = 2mgR < 0
2

1,3,4 7.1 (
6= 2k () > (0)), 2 =
7.2, 7.3 .
33

III.

8.
,
.

q, q T
, , . 7, , q 0
: qi0 = 0, qi0 = 0, (0) = 0.
T qi0 = 0, qi0 = 0 :
T

n
1 X
a
ik (q)qi qk =
2
i,k=1

n
n
1 X
aik
1 X
ql qi qk + =
a
ik (0)qi qk +
2
2
ql q=0
i,k=1

i,k,l=1

n
1 X
aik qi qk + ,
2
i,k=1

aik = a
ik (0);
(q) =

n
X

(0) +

qi
i=1

q=0

n
1 X 2
qi +
2
qi qk
i,k=1

qi qk + =
q=0

n
1 X
cik qi qk + ,
2
i,k=1


cik =

2
= const,
qi qk q=0

(0) = 0 , (0)/qi = 0 3.1.


T
34

n
1 X
T =
aik qi qk ,
(8.1)
2
i,k=1

n
1 X
cik qi qk
2

(8.2)

i,k=1


A = kaik k,

(8.3)

C = kcik k.

(8.4)


.

8.1. (8.1) (8.2)
, . .
n
X
T >0
qi2 6= 0,
(8.5)
i=1

>0

n
X

qi2 6= 0.

(8.6)

i=1

(T > 0)
. ( > 0)
.
8.1.
T

1 2
(q + q22 ),
2 1

1 2
(q + q24 ),
2 1

7.1 q1 = 0, q2 = 0 .
(q) ,

35

:
q1

= C sin(t + ),

q2

= At + B.

9.
, (8.1), (8.2),
n
X

(aik qk + cik qk ) = 0,

i = 1, n.

(9.1)

k=1

C (8.3), (8.4)

q1
q1

q = ... , q = ...
qn
qn

(9.2)

(9.1)
A
q + Cq = 0.
: u1 , u2 , . . . , un , ,
(9.1) q(t) 6 0
qk = uk sin(t + )


q1
..
. =
qn

u1
.. sin(t + ).
.
un

(9.2)

u1

u = ... ,
un
36

(9.3)

(9.3) :
q = u sin(t + ).
(9.3) (9.1)
" n
#
X
2
(cik aik )uk sin(t + ) = 0,
i = 1, n.
k=1

sin(t + ),
(9.3),
= 2 .

(9.5)

uk

n
X

(cik aik )uk = 0,

i = 1, n,

(9.6)

k=1

(8.3), (8.4), (9.4)


(C A)u = 0.
(9.3) u 6= 0 ,

detkcik aik k = det(C A) = 0.

(9.7)


n
a0 n + a1 n1 + + an1 + an = 0.
(9.8)
(9.7) (9.8) . (9.8) : (9.8)
(9.3), qk = vk et . (9.8)
= 2 .
), )
), 10.
37

) l (9.8)
l > 0.
) :
l (9.8)
(9.3) (9.2):

q1
u1l
.. ..
(9.9)
. = . sin(l t + l ),
qn

unl

l l (9.5), u1l , . . . , unl


(9.6),
l , l .
9.1. , (9.9), , l , (u1l , . . . , unl ) (9.9)
, l .
:
qk (t) t l l .
.
9.1.
y

k1

. 9.1
:
r
!


k
x
1
=
sin
t + 1
y
1
m

r
!

k + 2k1
x
1
=
sin
t + 2 .
y
1
m
38

(9.9) . (9.1) : , . .
(9.9)

q1
u1l
n
.. X ..
Cl . sin(l t + l ),
(9.10)
. =
l=1
qn
unl
2n C1 , . . . , Cn , 1 , . . . , n .
. ,
, Cl , l
qk0 , qk0 . , -, ) ) (
10).
) l 6= k (9.8)
(9.6).
) l m.
(9.6), l , m m
.
, k1 = 0 9.1 2
= k/m
.
-, (9.10)

q1
u1l
n
1
.. X ..
(9.11)
. =
. (Fl cos l t + Gl sin l t).
l
l=1
qn
unl
(9.10) (9.11)
Fl = Cl sin l ,

Gl = l Cl cos l .

), ) ,
detU 6= 0,
39

(9.12)

u11

U = ...

un1

. . . u1n
..
..
.
.
. . . unn

(9.13)

, .
(9.11) t0 = 0, q = q 0 , q = q0 Fl , Gl

q1
u1l
q1
u1l
n
n
X
X
..
..
..
..
. =
. Fl ,
. =
. Gl .
l=1
l=1
qn0
unl
qn0
unl
(9.12), (9.2), (9.13)

F1
G1

F = ...
G = ...
Fn

Gn

F = U 1 q 0 , G = U 1 q0 ,

. . (9.11)
: (9.10) (9.11)
.
.
1. , q0 .
2. , q0 = 0.
3. T q = 0, q = 0,
. : A ( T ) , C
( ).
4. , A C
.

40

5.
det(C A) = 0,
1 , . . . , n .
6. l
(C l A)ul = 0
ul . m m .

7. l , ul (l = l ,
. (9.5))
q = ul sin(l t + l ).
8.
q=

n
X

Cl ul sin(l t + l ) =

l=1

n
X
l=1

ul (Fl cos l t + Gl

1
sin l t)
l

.
9. q0 , q0 ,
Fl , Gl Cl , l .
10.
. : ,
. .
10.1. 1 , . . . , n , T

n
1 X 2
T =
k ,
(10.1)
2
k=1

41

1X
rk k2 .
2

(10.2)

k=1

A C
T (. (8.1) (8.4))

n
1 X
F1 =
aik xi xk ,
(10.3)
2
i,k=1

F2 =

n
1 X
cik xi xk .
2

(10.4)

i,k=1

. F1

xi =

n
X

uik yk ,

(10.5)

k=1

y F1 , F2
n

F1 =

1X 2
yk ,
2

F2 =

k=1

1X
rk yk2 .
2

(10.6)

k=1

F2
rk > 0, k = 1, n.

(10.7)

, ( rl 0)
(yl 6= 0, yk = 0, k 6= l)
F2 F2 0,
.
(10.3) (10.5) xi = qi , yk = k , (10.5) (8.1) (10.1). (10.4) (10.5) xi = qi , yk = k ,
(8.2) (10.2). , F1 , F2 (10.6)
q :
qi =

n
X

uik k , i = 1, n,

k=1

42

(10.8)

detkuik k 6= 0.

(10.9)

. (10.1), (10.2)
k + rk k = 0.

(10.10)

(10.7)

k = Ck sin( rk t + k ).
(10.8) q

qi =

n
X

Ck uik sin( rk t + k ).

k=1


qi =

n
X

Ck uik sin( k t + k ),

k=1

9 (. (9.10)).
. -, k
rk (10.2) .
9
): (10.7) : k > 0, k = 1, n. -,
kuik k . ), ) 9: (10.9)
n
(9.6). , , : n
.
, (9.6) . (10.5) (10.3)
(10.6),

n
X
1, l = j,
aik uil ukj = lj =
0, l 6= j,
i,k=1

43

l j , ,
, .
, :

, . 11 12 .
11.

, ,
Qi = ai sin t.

(11.1)

, , , (10.8) .
,
A =

n
X
i=1

Qi qi =

n
X

Qi uik k =

i,k=1

n
X

k k ,

k=1

,
k =

n
X

Qi uik

(11.2)

i=1

(10.8) .

k + k2 k = bk sin t,

(11.3)

(11.1) (11.2)
bk =

n
X

ai uik .

i=1

(11.3)
(bk = 0).

k = Ek sin t.
44

(11.4)

(11.4) (11.3) sin t

Ek (k2 2 ) = bk .
(11.5)
.
1. 6= k . (11.5) Ek
k = Fk cos k t + Gk

1
bk
sin k t + 2
sin t
k
k 2

(11.6)

( (9.11)).
Fk , Gk :
t = 0, k = k0 , k = k0
Fk = k0 ,

Gk = k0

bk
.
k2 2

(11.6)
k = k0 cos k t + k0

1
bk
sin k t + 2
k
k 2

sin t
sin k t ,
k

(11.4)
(11.3):

bk

k = 2
sin
t

sin

t
.
(11.7)
k
k 2
k
2. = k . (11.5) (11.4).
k (11.7):

bk
1
lim k =
t cos k t
sin k t .
(11.8)
k
2k
k
, (11.3). , = k

bk
1
0
0 1

k = k cos k t + k
sin k t
t cos k t
sin k t .
k
2k
k
45

. , (11.1)
k . ,

(11.3) bk 6= 0.
(11.1) . Qi (t).
(. (11.2)), k
k =

bkl sin lt

(11.9)

l=1

(11.7) (11.8).
k (t) , (10.8) . (11.9) (Qi (t) = Qi (t)),
.
12.
, 9, , . , - , : (q) 0.
(10.8) ,
(10.2) (10.7)
rk > 0, k = 1, m, m < n,

rl = 0, l = m + 1,n.

(10.10)
k + rk k = 0, k = 1, m,
k = 0, l = m + 1,n,
46

k = Ck sin( rk t + k ), k = 1, m,
l = Fl + tGl , l = m + 1,n.
(10.8)
qi =

m
X

n
X

Ck uik sin( rk t + k ) +
uil (Fl + tGl ).

k=1

l=m+1

, 9, : rl = l = l2 = 0

qi = uil (Fl + tGl ), i = 1,n.
(9.11)
l 0.

47

IV.
13.
4,
x = (x), x Rm , (0) = 0

(13.1)

x = f (t,x0 ), (x0 = f (0,x0 )),


x(t) 0 (. (4.1) (4.5)).
13.1. x = 0 13.1 , :
1. x = 0 (.
4.1);
2. , f (t,x0 )
{|x0 | < } { lim f (t,x0 ) = 0}.
(13.2)
t

.
13.1 (.. , .. ).
V (x), (13.1) :
1. V (x) ;
2.
W (x) = V (x) =

n
X
V (x)
i=1

xi

i (x)

= 0, x M,
< 0, x
/ M,

(13.3)

M . , M t [0,), x 0 :
{t 0, W (x(t)) = W (f (t,x0 )) = 0} {x(t) 0}.

(13.4)

x 0 .
1 1 :
1 . V (0) = 0; > 0, |x0 | < , V (x0 ) < 0, x0
.

48

, 1, 2 . x 0
5.1. > 0, :
V (x) > 0, W (x) 0.
:
> 0, |x0 | < , t 0, t1 0,
|x(t)| = |f (t,x0 )| = |f (t t1 ,x1 )| < ,

(13.5)

: x1 = f (t1 ,x0 ); (4.4):


f (t,x0 ) = f (t t1 + t1 ,x0 ) = f (t t1 ,f (t1 ,x0 )) = f (t t1 ,x1 ).
, - , . .
(13.2)
|x0 | < , 1 > 0, t1 > 0, t t1 , |f (t,x0 )| < 1 .

(13.6)


1 > 0, > 0, |x1 | < , t t1 , |f (t t1 ,x1 )| < 1

(13.7)

(t1 , x1 ), (13.6)

|x0 | < , > 0, t1 0, |x1 | = |f (t1 ,x0 )| < .

(13.8)


|x0 | < , > 0, t 0, 0 < < |f (t,x0 )| <

(13.9)

(13.5). (13.9) f (k,x0 ) ( > 0 , k = 1,2, . . .) f (ki ,x0 ), k1 < k2 < . . . :


lim f (ki ,x0 ) = x , 0 < |x | .

(13.10)

V (f (t,x0 )) t (13.3)
V = 0, t

lim V (f (t,x0 )) = lim V (f (ki ,x0 )) =


t
i
(13.11)
= V ( lim f (ki ,x0 )) = V (x ).
i

49

f (t,x ). 2 T > 0, , c [T t ,T ], 0 < t < T,


V (f (t,x )) < 0,
. .

V (f (T,x )) < V (x ).

, (13.10), (4.4),
(13.11), :
V (x ) = lim V (f (t,x0 )) = lim V (f (T + ki ,x0 )) =
t

= lim V (f (T,f (ki ,x0 )) = V (f (T,x )) < V (x ),


i

(13.8) :
{ 1, 2 } {x0 }.
x 0 1 , 2 . :
> 0, 1 () > 0, |x0 | < 1 , t 0, |f (t,x0 )| < .

(13.12)

> 0 x0 ,
(13.12) 1 : V (x0 ) = V0 < 0.
(13.3)
V (f (t,x0 )) V0 < 0

t 0, |V (f (t,x0 ))| |V0 | > 0.

(13.13)

V (0) = 0 V (x)
(0 < < |x0 |),
{|x| < } {|V (x)| < |V0 |}.

(13.14)

(13.13) (13.14) ,
|f (t,x0 )| > 0,
50

. . (13.12)
x0 , > 0, t 0, 0 < < |f (t,x0 )| < ,
(13.9), , (13.9).
13.1 . 13.1 ( (13.3)
= {0})
13.2 (.. ). (13.1)

= 0, x = 0,
V (x)
> 0, x 6= 0
, V (x) (13.1)

n
X
V (x)
= 0, x = 0,
W (x) = V (x) =
i (x)
xi
< 0, x 6= 0.
i=1
(13.1)
.
14.
E = T +

n
X
= 0, q = 0,

E=
Qi qi
(14.1)
< 0, q 6= 0,
i=1
Qi , .
,
, (13.1), x = (q,q).

14.1. q 0 = 0 .
q0 = 0 .
q0 = 0 .
51

7.1 , V = E = T + , . .
1 13.1. R2n (q,q)

, :
q 6= 0 (q) > 0, q0 = 0
. E = T + q, q.
E t
M = {|q|
= 0} (. (14.1)). , M
t [0,), ,
q0 = 0. 1
2 13.1 .
14.1. , . 14.1,
L1

L2

C1

C2
R1

L3

C3
R2

C4
R3

. 14.1
(qiR
, , qi = qi dt )
1
T = (L1 q12 + L2 q22 + L3 q32 ),
(14.2)
2

1 1 2
1
1
1 2
=
q1 +
(q1 q2 )2 +
(q2 q3 )2 +
q3
(14.3)
2 C1
C2
C3
C4

=

1
(R1 q12 + R2 q22 + R3 q32 ).
2

(14.4)

(q1 = 0, q2 = 0, q3 = 0)
.
52

1. R1 6= 0, R2 6= 0, R3 6= 0. (14.2) (14.4) , : (q1 = 0, q2 = 0, q3 = 0)


,
;
(14.1) (E = 2). 14.1,
.
2. R1 = 0, R2 6= 0, R3 = 0.
(14.1) 14.1 (E = 2 = R2 q22 = 0 q1 6= 0, q2 = 0, q3 6= 0).
7.1 13.1.
V =E =T + >0
(. (14.2), (14.3)),

= 0, (q,q)
M = {q2 = 0},
W = V = E = 2 = R2 q22
(14.5)
< 0, (q,q)

/M
, 7.1 . ,
(14.2) (14.4),

L1 q1 + C11 + C12 q1 C12 q2 = 0,

L2 q2 + C12 + C13 q2 C12 q1 C13 q3 + R2 q2 = 0,


(14.6)

L3 q3 + C11 + C12 q3 C13 q2 = 0.

12

1
=
L1

1
1
+
C1
C2

32

1
=
L3

1
1
+
C3
C4

(14.7)

.
) 1 = 3 . ,
A (14.6)
q1 = C2 A cos 1 t, q2 = 0, q2 = C3 A cos 1 t
53

(14.8)

( R2 = 0 ), . .

R6 (q,q)

q10 = C2 A, q20 = 0, q30 = C3 A,

q10 = 0, q20 = 0,

q30 = 0,

(14.6). 13.1 , 1 = 3
.
) 1 6= 3 . (13.3)
13.1 (. (14.2), (14.3) (14.5)). ,
(13.4).
t 0, x(t) = f (t,x0 ) M = {q2 = 0}
(. (13.4), (14.5)) q2 (t) = q20 = const
(14.6)
(14.7)
q1

A1 sin(1 t + 1 ) +

q2

q20 ,

q3

A3 sin(3 t + 3 ) +

C1
0
C1 +C2 q2 ,

(14.8)
C3
0
C3 +C4 q2 ,


q20 , A1 , 1 , A2 , 2

1
1
0
+
C1 +C2
C3 +C4 q2
(14.9)
C12 A1 sin(1 t + 1 ) C13 A3 sin(3 t + 3 ) = 0.
(14.9) 1 6= 3
t 0 , q20 = 0, A1 = 0, A3 = 0, (14.8): q1 = 0, q2 = 0, q3 = 0. ,
13.1
.
15.
, ()
x Rn .

x = Dx,
54

(15.1)

(15.1)
x = uet ,

u Rn ,

u = const, |u| 6= 0.

(15.2)

(15.2) (15.1) et
u
(D E)u = 0.
(15.3)

det(D E) = 0
u 6= 0 (15.3)
a0 n + a1 n1 + + an1 + an = 0.

(15.4)

n 1 , . . . , n (
, )
D.
k = k + ik .

(15.5)

, (15.1) (
: t0 = 0, x0 )
x(t) =

n
X

Ck {ek t [hk (t) cos k t + Hk (t) sin k t]},

(15.6)

k=1

k = Rek , k = Imk (. (15.5)); Ck , ; hk (t), Hk (t) Rn


,
det k h1 (0), . . . , hn (0) k6= 0.
(15.7)
(15.6) ,

(15.1) .

55

15.1.
1. {k = Rek < 0} {x 0
(15.1)};
2. {k = Rek > 0} {x 0
(15.1)};
3. {k = Rek < 0, k = 1,r < n, k = Rek = 0, k = r + 1, n}
{x 0
(15.1)}.
1 ,
(15.6) t [0,), ,
k = Rek < 0 t , . .
13.1 (
|Ck | < k Ck ).
2 3:
k = Rek < 0,
( ) .
2, n = Ren > 0,
(15.6): Ck = 0, k = 1, n 1. Cn 6= 0 x0 = Cn hn (0) : 0 < |x0 | < .
, ,
, x(t) = f (t,x0 ) , .
3 Ck = 0, k = 1, n 1. Cn 6= 0
x0 = Cn hn (0) :
0 < |x0 | < .

x(t) = Cn {[hk (t) cos k t + Hk (t) sin k t]},
-, (15.7) x(t) 6 0, , , 3
.
1, 2 15.1 .
(15.4)
56

: 1 ; 2 . 3
, D:
.
,

n
X

(aik qk + bik qk + cik qk ) = 0, i = 1,n,

(15.8)

k=1

q(t) 0.
: (15.8) (15.1), (15.4)
15.1. (15.8).

A = kaik k, B = kbik k, C = kcik k,
(15.8)
A
q + B q + Cq = 0.

(15.9)


q = uet , u Rn , u = const, |u| 6= 0.
(15.9) et
u
(A2 + B + C)u = 0.

detkA2 + B + Ck = 0

|u| 6= 0
(15.4) 15.1.
16. .

15,
(15.1) (15.8)
57

: (15.4)
f () = a0 m + a1 m1 + + am1 + am = 0

(16.1)

.
a0 > 0.

(16.2)

16.1. (16.1) ,
k = k + ik :
Rek = k < 0, k = 1, m.

(16.3)



16.1. ak
(16.2) ak > 0, k = 0,m.
ak (16.1)
f () = a0

m
Y

( k ) = a0

k=1

( + |l |)

(2 + 2|j | + 2j + j2 ),

l ,
j j . ai = 0
. (+|l |) (2 +2|j |+2j +j2 ),
, ak > 0.

( + |l |) (2 + 2|j | + 2j + j2 )
ak > 0.
(16.3) . ,

f () = 3 + 2 + + 1 = (2 + 1)( + 1)
1,2 = i, 3 = 1 .
58

, , .
1 .
16.2 (. , . ). (16.1) , i > 0, i = 1, m,
i

a1 a3 a5 a7 . . . 0

a0 a2 a4 a6 . . .
.

0 a1 a3 a5 . . .
.

0 a0 a2 a4 . . .
.

m = 0 0 a 1 a 3 . . .
. .

0 0 a0 a2 . . .
.

..
.. . .
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
.

0 0 0 0 am
m (16.1).
, , c (16.1)
. (16.1) i
f (i) = u() + iv()

(16.4)

, u() , v()
:
u() = u(), v() = v().
(16.5)
[0,),
(16.4) (. 16.1).
1

.. . 3- . .: , 1967, .XV.

59

=0

. 16.1

= () (0) =0

.
=0

) ,
= i0 . = 0
, .

) /2, =0

m = 2l,
k,

(16.6)
=
+ k, m = 2l + 1.
=0
2
(16.5)
tg =

v()
.
u()

(16.6) [0,
] ,

u() = 0, v() = 0. >
,
(16.6). , , . 16.1, ,

, m = 2l,

, m = 2l + 1.
=0
2
60

) (,)

= 2 .
=0

(16.5): (,0],
[0,) .
) )
16.3. l ( Rek < 0) r (Rek > 0)

= (l r) .
2
=0

(16.7)

(16.1)
f () = a0

m
Y

( k ).

(16.8)

k=1

= i, k = k + ik
k = k + i( k ) = Rk ()eik () .

(16.9)

(16.9) k (,).
)
1) k < 0.

= (. 16.2 16.3).

Im ( i k )

2 > 1

Re ( i k )

. 16.2

61

k
2

. 16.3
2) k > 0.

= (. 16.4 16.5).
Im ( i k )

2 > 1

Re ( i k )

. 16.4

3 2

. 16.5
(16.9) (16.8),
) P
(m
m
Y
k ()
i
k=1
,
f (i) = a0
Rk () e
k=1


() = arg f (i) =

m
X

k ()

k=1

m
X
k=1

62

k = (l r)

) (16.7) .
1. (16.1) (m = l + r) (l r) ), )
(l r) .
C 2 (.. ). (16.1)
l = m, r = 0
,

=m ,
2
=0
m .
17.

x = (x), x Rn , (0) = 0

x = Dx + R(x),

(17.1)

i (x)

D=

xk x=0

, R(x) , , .
,

x = Dx
(17.2)
(1 2 15.1) (17.1). . (17.2) , 15.4 13.2 .
,
(17.1) 15.4 13.2.
(17.2)
V =

1 T
x Xx
2
63

(17.3)

X. V (17.2)

W = V =

1 T
x Cx.
2

(17.4)

(17.2) x T = xT DT
W = V =

1 T T
1
{x D Xx + xT XDx} = xT Cx
2
2

(17.5)

X C (17.3) (17.4):
DT X + XD = C.

(17.6)

(17.6) X . , .
17.1. 1 , . . . , n 1 , . . . , n
(n n)
i + k 6= 0, i,k = 1,n.

(17.7)


AX + XB = C

(17.8)

.
(17.8) Gx = c n2
X = kxik k. i , k ui , vk ( B B T k
)
Aui = i ui , B T vk = k vk .
(17.8) ,
Xik = ui vkT
G:
AXik + Xik B = Aui vkT + ui vkT B = i ui vkT + ui k vkT = (i + k )Xik .
64

n2 i +k
G, (17.7) G , (17.8)
( Gx = c) X.
17.2. k = k + ik D
Rek = k < 0, k = 1,n.

(17.9)

X (E )
DT X + XD = E

(17.10)

:
1. X ;
2.

Z
T

eD t eDt dt;

X=

(17.11)

3. X ;
4. X (17.3) .
1 17.1:
D DT , (17.9)
(17.7).
T

Z(t) = eD t eDt

Z = DT Z + ZD,

(17.12)

Z(0) = E,

(17.13)

D eDt .
(17.13)
Zt

Zt
Z(t) Z(0) = D

D T t Dt

dt + eD t eDt dt D.

(17.14)

(17.9) Y = DT Y, Y = DY
(17.12) t ,
65

t (17.14) Z(0) = E
2: (17.11) (17.10). (17.11) (17.9). (17.10) , X X T
,
X : X = X T . (17.3)
1
1
V = xT0 Xx0 =
2
2
1
=
2

Z
T

xT0 eD t eDt x0 dt =
0

1
x (t)x(t)dt =
2

|x(t)|2 dt > 0.
0

, x(t) = eDt x0 x = Dx, x(0) = x0 .


17.3. k = k + ik D
i + k 6= 0, i,k = 1,n;

(17.15)

Re1 = 1 > 0.

(17.16)

X
DT X + XD = E,

(17.17)

x0
V =

1 T
x Xx0 < 0.
2 0

(17.18)

X (17.17)
(17.15) 17.1. (17.18) . V (x) > 0
V ,
1
V =
2

n
X
i=1

66

x2i < 0

( (17.4) C = E) 13.2 x = Dx, (17.16) 15.1. V (x) 0, V (x0 ) = 0


x0 6= 0 : x(t) = f (t,x0 )
[0,t1 ]
1
V =
2

n
X

x2i < 0,

i=1

V (x(t1 )) < 0.
17.4. 1 = 1 + i1 D
Re1 = 1 > 0.
(17.19)
c > 0
DT X + XD = 2cX E

(17.20)

X,
x0
V =

1 T
x Xx0 < 0.
2 0

(17.21)

(17.20) (17.17):
(D cE)T X + X(D cE) = E.
k

det(D cE E)
= det(D (c + )E)
= 0,
(D cE), D
k = k c = k c + ik .

c > 0 : , (17.19)
1 = 1 c > 0,
Re
67

,
k +
i = k + i 2c 6= 0,

i, k = 1, n.

c 17.3,
.
17.5. (17.2)
1 15.1: x 0
Rek < 0, k = 1, n.
x 0 (17.1) .
(17.9) 17.2,
X (17.10),
V (. (17.3)). V
(17.1) (17.10) (. (17.4) (17.6))

n

W = V =

1X 2
x + xT XR.
2 i=1 i

xT XR ,

n
P
i=1

x2i ,

x = 0,
x 6= 0, W < 0, . .
13.2.
17.6 (17.2) 2 15.1: x 0 Re1 > 0
( ). x 0
(17.1) .
17.4, X (17.20) x0
(17.21). (17.20)
:
DT Y + Y D = 2cY + E
(17.22)
68

(E E) c > 0 Y = X,
x0
1 T
x Y x0 > 0.
2 0

V (x) =

(17.23)

xT V x (17.1)
(17.22) (. (17.4) (17.6))
n

1X 2
W = V = 2cV +
x + xT Y R.
2 i=1 i
xT Y R ,
n

U=

1X 2
x + xT Y R
2 i=1 i

V > 0,
(17.23) : 5.4 .
18. .


n
X

(alk qk + blk qk + clk qk ) = 0, l = 1, n,

(18.1)

k=1


A
q + B q + Cq = 0.
k
f () = () = det(A2 + B + C) = 0
( 15.1)
Rek < 0.
69

(18.2)

,
Ql (t), t:
n
X

(alk qk + blk qk + clk qk ) = Ql (t), l = 1, n.

(18.3)

k=1

(18.1) (18.3)
q(t) = q (t, C1 , . . . , C2n ) + q (t).
(18.1) , q (t, C1 , . . . , C2n ) (18.3)
( Cj ) , (18.3)
q (t) (. 18.1)
q
q


(t )

. 18.1
, , : Ql (t) , , ; q(t) = q (t) ,
, , (. 18.2).
Q1 (t )

Q j (t )

q1 (t )



Qn (t )

q j (t )
qn (t )

. 18.2
: Q(t) q(t). ,
(18.3)
70

. Q (t), = 1, m,
m
P
q (t), = 1, m,
Q (t)

m
P

=1

q (t).

=1


q(t),
(18.3):

Q(t), l = j,
Ql = Q(t)lj =
0 , l 6= j.
: (18.3), . . A, B, C,
Q(t). , q(t)

Ql = lj Deit ,
(18.4)
i .
qk = Ek eit .

(18.5)

(18.4) (18.5) (18.3) eit



n
X

[alk (i)2 + blk (i) + clk ]Ek = Dlj , l = 1, n,

(18.6)

k=1


Ek =

Djk (i)
.
(i)

(18.7)

(18.6) i (18.2). (Rek < 0) (i) 6= 0.

71

(18.7) : (i) k- (18.6):


k

0
..
.
0
D
0
..
.
0

k- ,
Djk , jk jk.
D (18.7)
A, B, C - :
jk (i)
.
(18.8)
Wjk (i) =
(i)
j , ,
k . () . Wjk . : Pjk ()
, Sjk () , Rjk ()
jk ()) Wjk (i):
Wjk (i) = Pjk () + iSjk () = Rjk ()eijk () .

(18.9)

[0,) (.
18.3), .
(. 18.4),

72

S jk

=1

=3

R jk

jk

= 20
=0

Pjk

. 18.3

Pjk

. 18.4

S jk

. 18.5

R jk

. 18.6
73

jk

. 18.7
(18.5), (18.7) (18.9)
qk = DWjk (i)eit = DRjk ()ei(t+jk ())

(18.10)

(18.3) (18.4).
, , - , , (18.4).
. (18.4) (18.10)
(18.3) . (18.3) ,
Ql = lj D sin t

(18.11)

qk = DRjk () sin{t + jk ()},

(18.12)

. . (18.11)
,
Rjk () jk (). Rjk ()
jk () : . 18.3 Rjk (), jk (). = 3. , (18.12)
, , .
.
Ql = lj

(am sin mt + bm cos mt).

m=0

74


.

qk =

{am Rjk (m) sin[mt + jk (m)]+

m=0

+bm Rjk (m) cos[mt + jk (m)]}.


Q(t)lj . . ,
, . Q(t) (i). qk (t) Wjk (i)(i);
qk (t).
. , , .
. ,
(18.3).
(18.11) . (18.12)
Rjk () jk (), (. 18.3). ,
, . .
, , t = 0
Ql = lj (
= 0).
qk = Rjk (0) = Wjk (0) = Pjk (0). :
. , ,

75

1
2
qk (t) =

Pjk ()
0

sin t
d,

. . Pjk () - .

1 .. . .: , 1966.
452 .

76

V.
19.
, L(t,q,q).

()
(L = T ), L (0.3)
2
L

det
(19.1)
qi qk 6= 0,
(0.2)
n
X
2L
qk + Gi (t,q,q)
= 0,
qi qk

i = 1, n,

k=1

qk .
(19.1)
, (19.1) .
t, q, q,

, t, q, p.
t, q, q :
pi =

L
= i (t,q,q).

qi

(19.2)


d L
L

=0
dt qi
qi

(19.3)

(19.2)
pi =

L
.
qi

(19.4)

(19.2) qk ,
qk = k (t,q,p)
77

(19.5)

t, q, p .
(19.2) (19.5) (19.1):

2
i (t,q,q)


= det L 6= 0.
det
qk

qi qk
()
H(t,q,p) =

n
X

pi qi |q=(t,q,p)
L(t,q,q)|
q=(t,q,p)
.

(19.6)

i=1

, ,
L = T = T2 + T1 + T0 ,
H
H=

n
X
T2
i=1

qi

qi +

n
X
T1
i=1

qi

qi L = 2T2 +T1 T2 T1 T0 + = T2 T0 +

( ). (T = T2 )
H = T |q=(q,p)
+

(19.7)

t, q, p.
( )
(19.6)
dH =
n
X

n
n
X
X
H
H
H
dt +
dqi +
dpi =
t
q
pi
i
i=1
i=1
n
X

n
n
X
X
L
L
L
=
pi dqi +
qi dpi
dt
dqi
dqi .
t
q
qi
i
i=1
i=1
i=1
i=1

(19.2) ,
, t, q, p. , :
H
L
=
,
t
t
78

(19.8)

qi =

H
,
pi

(19.9)

H
L
=
.
qi
qi

(19.10)

(19.9) (19.2) (19.5). (19.10)


(19.4)
pi =

H
.
qi

(19.11)

.
(19.9) (19.11) ( ):

qi

pi

=
=

H
,
pi
H
, i = 1, n.

qi

(19.12)

, H(t,q,p),
L(t,q,q)
, H(t,q,p),
2

det
(19.13)
pi pk 6= 0.
(19.13) qi = H/pi (. (19.12)) pk ,
. . (19.2), (19.6)
:
( n
)

pi qi H(t,q,p)
L(t,q,q)
=
.
(19.14)

i=1

p=(t, q, q)

(19.12)
, . .
qi , pi . , (19.12)
79

H.
, .

(19.12).
20. .
.
20.1. (19.12) f (t,q,p),
q(t), p(t) (19.12) t
f (t,q(t),p(t)) = f (t0 ,q0 ,p0 ) = const.
(20.1)
(20.1) t (19.12)
n

f X
df
=
+
dt
t
i=1

f H
f H

qi pi
pi qi

= 0,

(20.2)

f
H. (20.2) ,
(,) (t,q,p), (t,q,p)

n
X


(,) =

.
qi pi
pi qi
i=1

(20.3)

(20.3) (20.2)
f
+ (f,H) = 0.
t
(20.3)
(19.12)
qi = (qi ,H),

pi = (pi ,H).

(20.3)
:
80

1. (,) = (,);
2. (

m
P

i=1

i i ,) =

m
P

i=1

i (i ,), = const;

3. ((,f ),) + ((f,),) + ((,),f ) = 0 ( );


4.

(,)

= ( ,) + (,
).
t
t
t

, (,), 1 3,
.
.
, , , .
20.1 (..). (,)
o
.
:

+ (,H) = 0,

t
(,)
+ ((,),H) = 0.

+ (,H) = 0
t
4, 1 3 :
(

,) + (,
) + ((,),H) =
t
t

= ((,H),) (,(,H)) + ((,),H) =


= ((H,),) + ((,H),) + ((,),H) = 0,
.
20.1: .
81

, , . ( z )
px = mx,
kz = ypx xpy = m(y x xy)

x z.
(px ,kz ) py = my
y. , py
px , kz ,
,
(. 20.1).
2n
(20.2).
H(t,q,p), .
20.2. qk ,
:
H = H(t, q1 , . . . , qk1 , qk+1 , . . . , qn , p1 , . . . , pn ).
20.2. qk
pk .
(19.12):
pk =

H
= 0.
qk

, , ,
(19.12).
qi

H
, i 6= k,
pi

pi

H
, i 6= k.
qi
82

(20.4)

qk , pk
Ck . (20.4)
qk (t) (. (19.12)):
Z
H
qk =
(t,q1 (t), . . . ,qk1 (t),qk+1 (t), . . . ,qn (t),
pk
p1 (t), . . . ,pk1 (t),Ck ,pk+1 (t), . . . ,pn (t))dt.
20.3. , H(q,p) t.
20.3. H(q,p) (19.12):
H(p,q) = h.

(20.5)

H(q,p) (20.2)
.

(. (19.6)).
H(q,p) (19.13),
H(q,p) (19.14) L(q,q),
20.3 .
(19.13) (19.1), .
20.4. L(q,q)

t. (19.3)
n
X
L
qi L
(20.6)
qi
i=1
(19.6) .
:
n
!
n
n
n
n
X
X
X
X
d X L
d L
L
L
L
qi L =
qi +
qi
qi
qi =
dt i=1 qi
dt

qi
i
i
i
i=1
i=1
i=1
i=1
83

n
X
d L
L

qi = 0.
dt qi
qi
i=1

- , , (19.12) .
20.5. (19.12) 2n, , 2n-2.
, (20.5)
pk ( H = H(q1 , . . . ,qn )
(19.12) ). , (20.5)
p1 :
p1 = K(q1 ,q2 , . . . ,qn ,p2 , . . . ,pn ,h).

(20.7)

p1

z
}|
{
H(q1 , q2 , . . . , qn , K(q1 , q2 , . . . , qn , p2 , . . . , pn , h) ,p2 , . . . , pn ) = h
qi , pi , i = 2,n,

H
H
K
+

= 0, i = 2,n,
qi
p1
qi

H
H
K
+

= 0, i = 2,n,
pi
p1
pi

K
H
H

=
, i = 2,n,
qi
qi
p1

K
H
H
=
, i = 2,n.
pi
pi
p1

(20.8)

(19.12) (20.8) 2n-2

dqi
qi
H
H
K
=
=
, i = 2,n,
=
dq1
q1
pi
p1
pi
(20.9)

pi
H
H
K
dpi
=
=
=
, i = 2,n,
dq1
q1
qi
p1
qi
84

q1
qi (q1 ), pi (q1 ), i = 2,n (. (20.7)).
qi (t), pi (t), i = 1, n, (20.9) . qi (q1 ), pi (q1 ), i = 2,n, q1 = H/ p1 = g(q,p)

dq1
dt

g(q1 , q2 (q1 )), . . . , qn (q1 ),


p1

z
}|
{
K(q1 , q2 (q1 ), . . . , qn (q1 ), p2 (q1 ), . . . , pn (q1 ), h) ,
p2 (q1 ), . . . , pn (q1 )) = G(q1 , h).
q1 (t) qi (q1 ), pi (q1 ), i = 2,n (20.7)
qi (t), pi (t), i = 1, n
(19.12).
K(q1 , q2 , . . . , qn , p2 , . . . , pn , h) (20.7) , (20.9) (
24 (20.9) ).
20.4. qk ,
H(q,p)
H = H(t, z, q1 , . . . , qk1 , qk+1 , . . . , qn , p1 , . . . , pk1 , pk+1 , . . . , pn ),
z = f (qk , pk ).
(20.10)
qk : z = f (qk , pk ) = pk .
20.6 qk
z = f (qk , pk ).
(19.12) (20.10)
df (qk , pk )
dt

f
f
qk +
pk =
qk
pi

f H
f H

=
qk pk
pk qk

f H f
f H f

=0
qk z pk
pk z qk
85

f (qk ,pk ) = C.
20.1.
L=T =

m 2

(r + r2 2 + r2 2 sin2 ) +
2
r

(. (19.2), (19.4), (19.6))

!
p2
1
p2

2
pr + 2 + 2 2
.
H =T + =
2m
r
r
r sin

(20.11)

, 20.2
p = C1 .
(20.12)
(20.11)
20.3 H(r,,,pr ,p ,p ) = h0
. (20.12) (20.11) 20.6
H=

z
1 2
pr + 2 ,
2m
r
r

z = p2 +

C12
,
sin2

. .
z = p2 +

p2
C12
2
=
p
+
= C2

sin2
sin2

(20.13)

.
20.1 : (,) 0.
,
(19.12), :
(20.11) (20.13)
( 31).
20.2. , (20.11),
, (H, F1 , F2 )
H(F2 (F1 (q1 , p1 ), q2 , p2 ), p3 , q4 , p4 ).
86

(20.13)

20.1, 20.2,
20.3, 20.5
F1 (q1 , p1 ) =
F2 (1 , q2 , p2 ) =
p3

1 ,
F2 (F1 (q1 , p1 ), q2 , p2 ) = 2 ,
3 ,

H(2 , 3 , q4 , p4 ) =

H(F2 (F1 (q1 , p1 ), q2 , p2 ), p3 , q4 , p4 ) = 4 .


(20.14)
, 20.1,
(20.14) (,) = 0, 31
.
21. .

: q(t)
.
, (. 21.1).
q

t , q, q, q
t , q, p, p
t

. 21.1
:
, t, q, q,
q
( t, q, p, q,
p),
,
(19.3) (19.12),
. : ,
87

() 21.1
.
.
21.1. q(t) q(t,), q(t) = q(t,0). ,
: t0 (), q 0 () = q(t0 (),)
t1 (), q 1 () = q(t1 (),) (. 21.2).
q

t1 ( )

q1 ( )

q (t )

= 1 = 0

t0 ( )

q 0 ( )

. 21.2
21.2. (t, q, q,
q, p, p)

=
,

,
qi (t,)
qi =
,

qi (t,)
,

n
X
L
L
L(t,q,q)
=
qi +
qi .
qi
qi
i=1
qi =

21.3.

tZ1
W = L(t,q,q)dt,

(21.1)
t0

88

q(t) , L(t,q(t),q(t))

t0 , t1 .
.
: q(t) ( q(t,)),

t1Z()

W () =

L(t,q(t,),q(t,))dt

(21.2)

t0 ()


W =

W ()
.

21.1.

"
W

pi qi Ht

i=1
1
" n
#

pi qi Ht

n
X

i=1

t1Z()

t0 ()

(21.3)

n
X
L
d L

qi dt.
dt qi
qi
i=1

pi H (.
(19.2), (19.5))
L
pi =
,
(21.4)
qi
H=

n
X

pi qi L

i=1

89

(21.5)

t, q, q , . qi , t .
qi :
qi (t,)
,
qi =

t, qi ,
t qi .
, t = t1 ():
t|t1 () =

t1 ()
,

qi |t1 () = qi (t1 (),) =


=

(21.6)

dqi (t1 (),)


() =
d

qi (t1 (),)
qi (t1 (),)
t|t1 () +
=
t

qi (t,)
= qi |t1 () t|t1 () +
.
t1 ()

(21.7)

(21.3)
(21.6), (21.7)
f 0 () =

df ()
, L0 = L(t0 (),q 0 (),q0 ()), L1 = L(t1 (),q 1 (),q1 ()).
d

(21.3) (21.2)
:
W 0 () = L1 t01 L0 t00 +
tZ1 n

X L
L 0
0
+
q +
q dt =
qi i
qi i
i=1
t0

= L1 t01 L0 t00 +
+

tZ1 n
X
t0 i=1

L 0 d L 0 d
q
q +
qi i dt qi i dt
90

L 0
q
qi i

dt =


n
X
L1 qi (t,)

qi
t1 ()
i=1

n
X
L0 qi (t,)
L0 t00

qi
t0 ()
i=1

= L1 t01 +

tZ1 n
X
t0 i=1

d L
L

dt qi
qi

qi0 dt =

n
X

L1 dqi (t1 (),)


0

=
+
qi (t,)
t1
qi
d
t1 ()
i=1
!

n
X

L0 dqi (t0 (),)


0
0
t0
qi (t,)
L0 t0
qi
d
t0 ()
i=1
L1 t01

tZ1 n
X
t0 i=1

n
X
L1 dqi (t1 (),)
i=1

d L
L

dt qi
qi

qi

i=1

tZ1 n
X
t0 i=1

qi0 dt =

n
X
L1

qi
qi
i=1

n
X
L0 dqi (t0 (),)

qi

n
X
L0

qi
qi
i=1

L
d L

dt qi
qi

!
t01
t1 ()

!
t00

t0 ()

qi0 dt.

(21.4) (21.7) (21.3).


: q(t,)
q(t0 ,) = q 0 , q(t1 ,) = q 1
(. 21.3).
91

(21.8)

q
q1

= 1

=0
=1

q0
t0

t1

. 21.3
(21.3)
,
W =

tZ1 n
X
t0 i=1

L
d L

dt qi
qi

qi dt.

(21.9)

.
21.2. h(x) [a,b]

g(x)
Zb
g(x)h(x)dx = 0.
a

h(x) 0.
21.3 ( ). q(t) ,
q(t,), (21.8),
W |=0 = 0.
:

qi (t,)
{
q (t) } qi =
,
W
|
=
0
.
=0
=0
92

(21.9):
(19.3), (21.9) .
(
, qk 6= 0, qi = 0, i 6= k) 21.2.

() , .

:
{ }
m
{ }
m
{ }.

. (19.3) L(t,q,q).

q(t)
{t, q} {t, q} q(t). :
q(t) (19.3), t,
L(
q ,q)?
.
q(t) (
(21.8)) .
tZ1

W () =
t0

dq(t,)
L t,q(t,)
dt
dt

(21.10)

= 0 .
q(t) (21.10)

t = t(t,
q ),
(21.11)
q = q(t,
q ).
93

q(t,) : q(t,). W ()
, W () . = 0 W (),
q(t) q(t)
, L
, .

!
dq
dt

,
(21.12)
L(t,
q ,q) = L t(t,
q ),q(t,
q ),
dt t,q dtt,q
(21.11)
n
qi (t,
q ) X qi (t,
q)
qk
+

qk
t
k=1

dqi
=
,
n
dt t,q
t(t,
q ) X t(t,
q)
+
qk
qk
t
k=1

n
dt
t(t,
q ) X t(t,
q)
=
+
qk .

dt t,q
t
k
k=1
, q(t) .
(21.12) .
, , L

L f (t,
q ):
q)
= L
+ df (t,
L
.
(21.13)
dt

, W, W , L
,
L
f (t1 ,
q1 ) f (t0 ,
q0 ):
1
tZ

W () =
t0

df

L+
dt = W () + f (t1 ,
q1 ) f (t0 ,
q0 ),
dt
94

= 0 W, W
.
, (19.3)

L,
(21.13).
22.

(0.2)
.
.
22.1. t, q t, q Rn+1 (t,q),
q(t) q(t) .
, t, q t, q , :

d
q
dt
L t,
q,
= L(t,q,q)

(22.1)
dt
dt
L(, ,). , q(t) ,
L(t,q,q),
q(t) t,
, L(
q ,d
q /dt),
(21.12). L (21.12) : q(t)
, q(t).
22.2. L(t,q,q),
t, q t, q
Rn+1 (t,q), (22.1).

22.1. , (22.1) ( )

d
q
dt
df (t,
q)
q,
L t,
= L(t,q,q)

,
+
dt
dt
dt
95

, (22.1), :
{q(t) } {
q (t) }
(. (21.13) ).
, (0.2)
t, q t, q (
)

d
q
dt

L t,
q,
= cL(t,q,q)

, c = const,

dt
dt
(0.2) L
{q(t) } {
q (t) }.
22.3. Rn+1 (t,q)
t

t(t,q, ),

qi

qi (t,q, ), i = 1, n,

(22.2)

() ( )
dt
d
d
qi
d

(t,
q ),

i (t,
q ), i = 1, n,

(22.3)


t(0)

qi (0) =

t,
qi , i = 1, n.

(22.4)

(22.2) , .
96

(22.2) (22.3)

t(t,q, )
(t,q) =
,

=0
(22.5)
qi (t,q, )
i (t,q) =
,
i
=
1,
n.

=0
22.3. (22.2) L(t,q,q),
( ) 22.2.
: {L(t,q,q)
(22.2)}
(22.4), (22.1)

d
q dt

L t,
q,
= L(t,q,q).

(22.6)
dt dt
(22.1) t, q t, q, (22.6)
t, q t, q.
22.1 (
.) (22.2)
,
L(t,q,q).

w=

n
X

pi i H,

(22.7)

i=1

, i (22.5), pi , H (19.4) (19.6) :


pi =

L
,
qi

H(t,q,p) =

n
X

pi qi L(t,q,q).

(22.8)

i=1

( (22.5), ,
= 0 (22.4) t = t, q = q, t
)


d t
dt
d
=
,
(22.9)
=

=0 dt
dt =0
dt
97



d
qi
=
=0 dt
=0

d
qi
dt
dt

dt

d
qi dt
d
qi

d
t

=0 dt dt =0
=0 dt =0 dt
=
2

dt
dt

(22.10)

=0

d dt
dqi
di
d d
qi
d

=
qi .
=
dt d =0
dt d =0 dt
dt
dt
(22.7)
(22.6) = 0 (22.4), (22.9), (22.10), (0.2) (22.5), (22.8):

n
n
X
X
L
L
L di
d
d
+
i +
qi
+L
=
t
qi
qi dt
dt
dt
i=1
i=1

d
=
dt

( n
n
!)
X L
X L
dw
=
i
qi L
= 0.

dt
i
i
i=1
i=1

22.1 (..).
2
1 dq
L=
(22.11)
2 dt
(, ,
)
t = te ,
(22.12)
q = qe .

98

(22.11) (22.12) (22.6)


1
2

d
q
dt

dt 1
=
dt
2

dq
dt

2
e(2)

, (22.12) (22.11) 2 = 0, ,
= 2, = 1. (22.5) (22.8)

= 2t, = q, p = q,
H=L=

1 2
q ,
2

(22.7)
w = qq
tq2 .
22.1
, .
22.2. :
ri = xi i + yi j + zi k, i = 1,N .
, (rik )
rik :
2
rik
= |ri rk |2 = (xi xk )2 + (yi yk )2 + (zi zk )2 .

L=T =

1X
mi (x 2i + y i2 + zi2 ) (rik ),
2 i=1


pxi = mi x i , pyi = mi y i , pzi = mi zi
99

(22.13)

( )
N

1X
mi (x 2i + y i2 + zi2 ) + (rik ).
2 i=1

H =T + =

(22.6) :
( N
"
)
2
2
2 #
dt
1X
d
xi
d
yi
d
zi
dt
+
+
(
rik )
L =
mi
,
dt
2
dt
dt
dt
dt
i=1

(22.14)


2
rik
= (
xi x
k )2 + (
yi yk )2 + (
zi zk )2 .

(22.15)


(22.13),
(22.5) (22.7):
w=

N
X

mi (x i ix + y i iy + zi iz ) H.

(22.16)

i=1

1. t
t = t ,

x
i = xi ,

yi = yi ,

zi = zi ;

= 1,

ix

iy

iz = 0.

= 0,

= 0,

(22.17)

(22.17) (22.14)
, (22.6) ,
(22.16):
w = H = T + .
(22.18)
(22.17) 22.1 (22.18) .
2. x
t = t,
= 0,

x
i = xi + ,

yi = yi ,

zi = zi ;

ix = 1,

iy

iz = 0.

100

= 0,


(22.15) rik = rik , (22.6)
, (22.16)
w = Px =

N
X

mi x i

i=1

x.
, , . . P
.
3. z
t = t,

x
i = xi cos yi sin ,

yi = xi sin + yi cos ,

ix

iy

zi = zi ;

iz = 0.
(22.19)
(22.19)
, (22.14)
. (22.19)
: (22.14) (22.15) rik = rik .
, (22.6) ,
(22.16)
= 0,

= yi ,

w = Kz =

N
X

= xi ,

mi (xi y i yi x i )

i=1

z.
, Kx , Ky
K0 .
23.
,

W ()
= 0,
=0
. . = 0 W ().
.
101


A(t)
q + B(t)q + C(t)q = f (t),

q Rn

(23.1)

, :
q(t), (t0 , q 0 ), (t1 , q 1 )
. ,

x = D(t)x + f (t), x Rm

x(t) = (t,t0 )x0 + F (t,t0 ),
(t,t0 ) x = D(t)x,
F (t,t0 ) , f (t) (t,t0 ), x0 = x(t0 ) . , (23.1) q 0 = q(t0 ), q0 = q(t
0 ):
q(t,t0 ,q 0 ,q0 ) = 1 (t,t0 )q 0 + 2 (t,t0 )q0 + F (t,t0 ).

(23.2)


, t0 , q 0 , q0 .
t = t0 q(t0 ,t0 ,q 0 ,q0 ) = q 0 , 1 , 2

1 (t0 ,t0 ) = E, 2 (t0 ,t0 ) = 0.


(23.3)
t1 > t0 .
:

qi (t1 ,t0 ,q 0 ,q0 )


= det 2 (t1 ,t0 ) 6= 0.
det

qk0
(t0 , q 0 ), (t1 , q 1 = q(t1 ,t0 ,q 0 ,q0 ))
: (23.2), t, q
t1 , q 1 , q0 , . .
(t0 , q 0 ), (t1 , q 1 ) Rn+1
q(t).
102

qi (tf ,t0 ,q 0 ,q0 )

= det 2 (tf ,t0 ) = 0.


det

qk0

(23.4)

(23.4) ,
, .
23.1. (t0 , q 0 ), (tf , q f )
Rn+1 ,
q(t) = q(t,t0 ,q 0 ,q0 )
,

qi (tf ,t0 ,q 0 ,q0 )

= 0,
(23.5)
det

qk0
(23.1)
det 2 (tf ,t0 ) = 0

(23.6)

2 (23.2) (. (23.4)).
(23.6) z 6= 0
2 (tf ,t0 )z = 0.

(23.7)

z q(t,)
q(t,t0 ,q 0 ,q0 + z) = 1 (t,t0 )q 0 + 2 (t,t0 )(q0 + z) + F (t),

(23.8)

(t0 , q 0 ), (tf , q f ): z (23.3) (23.7). ,


0
(q0 6= q)

(t0 , q 0 ), (tf , q f ), (23.2)


, t = tf , (23.7)
z = q0 q0 6= 0, ,
2 (tf ,t0 ) (23.6), (23.8) .
103

,
23.1.
:
1. (t0 , q 0 ), (tf , q f ), 23.1
;
2. (23.2) (23.1) (t0 , q 0 ), (tf , q f );
3. (t0 , q 0 ), (tf , q f ),
q(t,) .

23.1
(. 23.2), , ,

. 1 ,
( )
.
23.2 ( ).
(21.1) (t0 , q 0 ), (t1 , q 1 ) , t0 < t < t1
, (t0 , q 0 ).
. t = tf , t0 < tf < t1 , q(t,)
(t0 , q 0 ), (t1 , q 1 ),
, , .
23.3 ( ).
t0 < t t1 ,
(t0 , q 0 ),
q(t,) (q(t,0)/ 6 0)
(t0 , q 0 ), (t1 , q 1 ) (21.1)
.
1 , , .26: ..
. .: . ., 1980. 288 .

104

23.1. , t0 = 0, x0 , x 0

ZT
1
W =
(x 2 x2 )dt,
(23.9)
2
0

x
+ x = 0,

(23.10)

x(t,x0 ,x 0 ) = x0 cos t + x 0 sin t

(23.11)

t.
y=

x(t,x0 ,x 0 )
,
x 0

(23.12)

(. (23.5)), ( (23.10) x 0 ):
y + y = 0

(23.13)


y0 = y(0) = 0,

y 0 = y(0)

= 1,

(23.14)

(23.12) (23.11).
(23.10) (23.13)
, (23.10) (. (23.28) (23.31) 23.2). (23.13) (23.14) (23.11) (23.12)
y(t) = sin t, (23.5) (, x0 ),
(0, x0 ) : tf = ( ) t > 0
y(t).

x0

x1

x0 > 0
x0 = 0
x0 < 0

x0
. 23.1
105

23.1 (, x0 ), (0, x0 ) (x 0 (23.11)


),
tf =
(. 23.1). , ,
[0,T ] x(t) :
x(t,),
x(0,) x0 , x(T,) x1 .

(23.15)

u(t) = x0 (t,)|=0

(23.16)

( ). (23.15)
u(0) = 0, u(T ) = 0.
(23.17)
e , . .
u(t) 6 0.

(23.18)

(23.9) (.(21.9))
ZT
0

W () = (
x + x)x0 (t,)dt.

(23.19)

, x(t,0)
(23.10),
ZT
W 00 (0) = (
u + u)udt.
(23.20)
0

(23.17)
ZT

ZT
u
udt =

T
uu|
0

ZT
2

u dt = u 2 dt,


ZT
00

W (0) = (u 2 u2 )dt.
0

106

T W 00 (0) (23.17)
ZT

d 2
(u ctg t)dt.
dt

:
u(t)
lim u(t)ctg t = lim
= lim u(t)
cos2 t = u(0)

< .
t0
t0 tg t
t0
(23.17) . :
lim u(t)ctg t = u()

< .


ZT
00

W (0) = (u uctg t)2 dt.

(23.21)

. ., T ( 0 < t < T ,
(0, x0 )), W 00 (0) 0.
, T .
I. T < tf = t (0,T ] .
W 00 (0) = 0 u = uctg t
u = C sin t.
C = 0 (23.18), C 6= 0 0 < T <
(23.17). , ( (23.15))
(. (23.18)) W 00 (0) > 0:
.
II. T = tf = . x(t,) , u = x0 (t,)|=0 = C sin t, C 6= 0
W 00 (0) = 0, . x(t,) :
x(t,) = x0 cos t + x 0 sin t + C sin t + k f (t).

107

(23.22)

C sin t ( ) k f (t), k 2,
W (). (23.22) , f (t)
f (0) = 0, f () = 0.

(23.23)

,
f (t) 6 a sin t,

a 6= 0,

(23.24)

= C +k a C sin t
k a sin t , k f (t) (23.22)
( ), (23.24). (23.22) (23.19)

ZT
0
2k1
W () = k
(f + f )f dt
0

, (23.20), (23.17) (23.23) u f


. ,
(23.20) (23.21),
ZT
0
2k1
W () = k
(f f ctg t)2 dt.
(23.25)
0

1 W 0 () 0 (23.24) f = a sin t
W (l) = 0, l = 1,2k 1, W (2k) > 0,

(23.26)

. ., ,
, , .
, (0, x0 ), (, x0 )
x(t), x(t,) = x(t) + sin t ( (23.22) f (t) 0,
x(t,) ) (23.9) :
(23.25) W 0 () 0.
108

x(t,) x(t) (u(t) = x0 (t,0) 6 0, x(t,) 6 x(t) + C sin t)


(23.9) :
u(t) 6 C sin t (23.21) W 00 (0) > 0.
III.
T > ,

(23.27)

( x(t) (, x0 ),
(0, x0 ),
x(t,) = x(t) + sin

nt
,
T

n - . (23.20)
u(t) = x0 (t,0) = sin

nt
T


W 00 (0) =

T
n 2
1
,
T
2

, n = 1 (23.27)
W 00 (0) < 0,
. . W ().
n n > T, W 00 (0) > 0, . .
W () .
. , t0 = 0, x0 , x 0 , R2 (t,x) (0, x0 ) (, x0 ). [0,T ] (T < ),
( ) (23.9) , 23.3.
[0,T = ],
x(t,) = x(t) + sin t x(t),
W () 0 (
(23.9)); . [0,T ] (T > ),
109

(23.9) , .
23.2.
x
+ sin x = 0,

(23.28)


. x(t,) (23.28)
t0 = 0, x(0,) = x0 = 0, x(0,)

= x 0 =

(23.29)

.
|| < 2
. 23.2 , ) = 0.8, ) = 1.4,
) = 1.8.
x
)
)
)

. 23.2
|| = 2
. || > 2 1 . (23.5)

x(tf ,)
= 0.
(23.30)
=

x(t, ) x(t,) (23.28),
y + y cos x(t,) = 0,
1 C.

(23.31)

152: .. . .: , 1990. 416 .


110

x(t,)
.

y
y=

y(0) = y0 = 0, y(0)

= y 0 6= 0.

(23.32)

y0 = 0 (23.29): y0 = x(0,)/ = 0;
y 0 6= 0 y(t) 0. (23.30)
tf > 0, yf = y(tf ) = 0.
, x(t) 23.1
(23.28), (23.31) (23.29),
(23.32). x(t) tf > 0, y(tf ) = 0.
y

. 23.3
, y (23.31)
y0 = 0, y 0 6= 0 (
y 0 = 1). . 23.3 y(t), . 23.2 y 0 = 1:
) tf = 3.54 = 0.54Tp , ) tf = 4.71 = 0.64Tp , ) tf = 6.33 = 0.69Tp ;
Tp . . 23.2
, ), ), ) x0 = 0.
, . e :
111

( ).
, : . 23.4 ),
)
= 1.86, )
= 1.924, )
= 1.96.
1

x(t) x(t,) ( . 23.2
).
x
)

t
)
)

. 23.4
. (23.26)

ZT
1
W = ( x 2 + cos x)dt.
(23.33)
2
0

x(t), x(0) = 0, x(T ) = x1 (23.28).


, . .
x(t,) (x(t,) 6 x(t)),
x(t,0) = x(t), x(0,) = 0, x(T,) = x1 .

(23.34)

x(t,) (23.33), (
), (23.34)

ZT
W 0 () = (
x + sin x)x0 dt,
(23.35)
0
1

.. . .: - . -, 1980.

288 .
112

, , (23.28)
:
W 0 (0) = 0.

x(t,)
u(t) =
.
(23.36)
=0
u(t) (23.34)
u(0) = 0,

u(T ) = 0.

(23.37)

u(t)
x(t,)
u(t) 6 0.

(23.38)

(23.28), (23.35), (23.36) W 00 () = 0 :


ZT
W 00 (0) = (
u + u cos x)udt,

(23.39)

(23.37) ,
ZT
00
(23.40)
W (0) = (u 2 u cos x)dt.
0

.
I. 0 < t T .
y(t) (23.31) (23.32) u(t) (. (23.36), (23.37)). (23.32)
lim

t0

u(t)
u(0)

u(t)

= lim
=
< ,
y(t) t0 y(t)

y(0)

(23.41)

. . u(t)/y(t)) 0 t T.
(23.37)
113

(23.31)
0=

ZT
ZT
u2 y
d u2 y
2uu y
u2 y 2
2
=
dt
=

u
cos
x

dt.
y 0
dt
y
y
y2
0

(23.42)
(23.40) (23.42),
2
ZT
uy
W (0) =
dt,
u
y
00

(23.43)

,
W 00 (0) 0.
W 00 (0) = 0 ( (23.38)):

uy
00
{W (0) = 0} u
=0
y
{y(t) = Cu(t), C = const} {y(T ) = Cu(T ) = 0},
t = T.
x(t,)
(23.33) x(t) (23.28) .
II. x(t): tf = T, y(T ) = 0.
u(t)/y(t) 0 t T ( t T (23.41)), (23.43) . , , y(t) = Cu(t), C = const,
, x(t,) = x(t)+y(t), W 00 (0) = 0.
y(t) = Cu(t)

ZT
C 3 W 000 (0) = y 3 sin xdt.
0

114

. 23.5
(23.28), y(0) = y(T ) = 0 x y+y

sin x = y 0
(23.28), (23.31)
ZT
3

000

ZT

ZT
T

y sin xdt = y x
dt = (y x)
0 + 3 y 2 y xdt
=
3

C W (0) =

ZT

ZT
2

= 3 y ( y 0 y sin x)dt = 3 y 0 y 2 dt 3C 3 W 000 (0),


0


3 y 0
W (0) =
4C 3

ZT

000

y 2 dt,
0

. . u(t) = y(t)/C (0 < C < )


x(t) ( 6= 0) = 0
W () . . 23.5 W (), : = 1.4, y 0 = 1, C = 1.
x(t) 0
y(t) = Cu(t) W 000 (0) = 0.
ZT
W (IV ) (0) =

ZT
sin4 tdt =

u4 dt =
0

3C 4
>0
8

( u(t) = sin t, tf = T = ), . . , y(t) = Cu(t), C 6= 0, W ()


x(t) 0.
115

, ,
, u(t) = y(t)/C (0 < C < )
x(t) 6 0 . (u(t) = y(t)/C,
0 < C < x(t) 0 u(t) 6= y(t)/C ) (. (23.43)).
III. : 0 < tf < T.
: (23.33) ;
.
-1 . x(t) (23.28) (23.29). l
lu = (
u + u cos x(t)).

(23.44)

, (23.41) ly = 0. l
lu = (
u + u cos x(t)) = u, u(0) = 0, u(T ) = 0

(23.45)

e , u(t) 6 0 x(t) (23.28): x(t,) = x(t) + u(t).


(23.39) (23.45)
ZT
W (0) = u2 (t)dt,
00

(23.46)

. . W () . (23.44) .

1 .. . .: - . -, 1980.
288 .

116

. 23.6
W
W ()

. 23.7
1. (23.45)
k , uk (t), k = 1, 2, 3, . . . ,
1 , k < k+1 , k k . . k > 0,
x(t,) = x(t) + uk (t) uk (t) (23.46)
W () = 0.
2. , y(t) ly = 0, y(0) = 0,
y(0)

6= 0, (23.31), (23.32), y(tf ) tf < T,


2 , 1 < 0 x(t,) = x(t) + u1 (t) u1 (t) W () = 0 (. (23.46)).
1 .. . .: - . -, 1980.
288 ., . 135.
2 .. . .: - . -, 1980.
288 ., . 151.

117

. 23.2 : ) 1 = 0.610; )
1 = 0.342; ) 1 = 0.111. T . . 23.6 ):
= 0; = 0.1; = 0.2. . 23.7 )
W ().
24. .

,
: . .
=0

=1
=0

C1

=1

C0

. 24.1
(2n + 1) (t, q, p) C0 : t0 (), q 0 (), p0 ().
0 1 (. 24.1)
t0 (0) = t0 (1), q 0 (0) = q 0 (1), p0 (0) = p0 (1).

(24.1)

t0 , q 0 , p0 C0

qi

H
,
pi

pi

H
, i = 1, n
qi

(24.2)

.
q(t,), p(t,), C0 , ( 24.1).
118

C1 : t1 (), q 1 (), p1 (), .


, C0 , C1 , :
C0 , C1
.
C0 , C1
t1Z()

W () =

L(t,q(t,),q(t,))dt

t0 ()

. (24.1)
W (0) = W (1).

(24.3)

(21.3))
" n
#
" n
#
X
X
W () =
pi qi Ht

pi qi Ht
i=1

C1

i=1

C0

(21.3) . 0 1. (. (24.3))
Zl
W () = W (1) W (0) = 0,
0


I X
I X
n
n
pi qi Ht =
pi qi Ht.
(24.4)
C1 i=1

C0 i=1


J =

IX
n

pi qi Ht

(24.5)

C i=1

: -. (24.4) : C0 C1 ,
119

, H,
J , J , .
,
, J , .
t = const ( , . 24.2), (24.5)
J =

IX
n

pi qi

(24.6)

i=1
C

. .
t

t = t1
t = t2

. 24.2

C.
J , J : . , ,
.
24.1. .
qi

Qi (t,q,p),

pi

Pi (t,q,p), i = 1, n.

(24.7)

120

(24.6). (24.7) , . .
H(t,q,p) : Qi =

H
H
, Pi =
.
pi
qi

C
q(t,), p(t,) (24.7) C0
(. 24.2).
C C0 .
J (t) =

IX
n
i=1
C
Z1 X
n
0 i=1

I X
n

pi qi =

pi (t,)qi (t,) =

0 i=1
C

pi (t,)

qi (t,)
d.

J (t) =const,
dJ
dt

I X
n
0 i=1
C
I X
n
0 i=1
C
I X
n
0 i=1
C
I X
n

(pi qi + pi qi ) =

(Pi qi + pi Qi ) =

(Pi qi Qi pi ) +

I X
n

(pi Qi ) =

0 i=1
C

(Pi qi Qi pi ) = 0.

0 i=1
C

C0 , -

121

.
H(t,p,q) :

n
X
(Pi qi Qi pi ) = H(t,p,q) =
i=1

n
X
H

qi

i=1

Qi =

qi +

H
,
pi

H
pi ,
pi

Pi =

H
qi

( : t).
24.2. (24.7) .
C0 C1 , , -
IX
n
J =
pi qi (t,q,p)t
(24.8)
C i=1

.
Qi =

,
pi

Pi =

.
qi

(24.9)

(24.8) , C J , 24.1
, (24.7) H. , (24.7)
J : H.
C , C.
IX
n

pi qi t =

C i=1

IX
n

pi qi Ht =

C i=1


I
(H )t = 0.
C

122

IX
n
i=1
C

pi qi ,

C , G(t, q, p)

n
X
G
G
G
(H )dt = dG(t,q,p) =
dt +
dqi +
dpi ,
t
qi
pi
i=1

G
= 0,
qi

G
= 0,
pi

dG(t)
,
dt
. . (24.7) ,
(24.9) .
H =+

(24.5) (24.2). , ,
(24.7),
I
xy + xyz
C

, (24.5)
: p = x, q = y, H = xy, t = z,
(24.7), ,
dy
= y,
dz

dx
= x.
dz

24.1 24.2
. , {t, q, p} {t, q, p} (24.2)
(24.5)
IX
n

pi qi K(t,
q ,
p) t,

(24.10)

C i=1

K , (24.2)
K(t,
q ,
p).
123

. , H(t,q,p),

qi

fi (t,q), i = 1, n,
(24.11)

t =

g(t,q),
det M 6= 0,

(24.12)

M =

f1
q1
..
.
f1
qn
f1
t

fn
q1
..
.
fn
qn

...
..

...

fn
t

...

g
q1
..
.
g
qn

(24.13)


pi

= hi (t,q,p)

(24.14)

, (24.11), (24.14) (24.2) ? K(t,


q ,
p)
? pi K ,
(24.11), (24.14) (24.5) (24.10) :
n
X

pi qi Ht =

i=1

n
X

pi qi K t.

i=1

qi , t:
n

qi

X fi
fi
t +
qk ,
t
qk
k=1

t =

X g
g
t +
qk ,
t
qk
k=1

124

(24.15)

(24.15),
qk , t,
n
X
fi
g
pi
K
q
q
k
k
i=1
n
X
fi
i=1

g
pi
K
t
t

= pk
(24.16)
= H,

, (24.13),

p
p

M
=
.
K
H
(24.12) p(t,q,p) (. (24.14)) K(t,q,p). (24.11), (24.14) t, q, p K. ,
(24.11), (24.14) pi (t,
q ,
p) , (24.12) (
H(t,q), , t
qk ).
(24.11)
q1 = t,

t = q1 ,

qi = qi ,

i 6= 1,

t = q1

(24.17)

t q1 . (24.16)

p1

= H(t,q,p),

pi

= pi , i 6= 1,

= p1 .

(24.18)

K(t, q, p) = p1 (t, q, p) p1
125

p1 = H(
q1 , t, q2 , . . . , qn , p1 , p2 , . . . , pn ).

(24.19)

p1 H(t,q,p) , t .
H(t,q) . , , (24.17) (24.18)
pi = pi (t, q, p), i = 1, n (24.19)
p1 .
K(t, q, p)
(24.7), t q1 .
(24.19)
p1 = H(q,p) = h.

(24.20)

(24.20) (24.17), (24.18)



K(q1 ,q2 , . . . ,qn ,p2 , . . . ,pn ,h),
K (. (20.7)) 20 (.
) 20 . K
qi0

qi
q1

K
, i = 2,n,
pi

p0i

pi
q1

K
, i = 2,n,
qi

qi (q1 ), pi (q1 ),i = 2, n (20.9), 20 .


(20.9) 20 .

: t. ( ), ( )
126

(. (19.14))
P =

n
X

pk qk0 K,

k=2

( )
qZ11

W =

P dq1 ,
q10

-:
W = 0
(24.20)
h, q 0
q 1 .
, : , , . , , . .
,
. 552
.., .. ..
, ,


2 .
. C

, .
q + 2nq + 02 q = 0

(24.21)

2 .., .., .., .. //


: . . . ./. ., 1996. .176181.

127

p =

e2nt p,

(24.22)

e2nt 02 q,


H=

1 2nt 2
e
p + 02 e2nt q 2 .
2

(24.23)

(24.22) (24.21) (24.22) t p . ,


(24.21) (24.23) 0 > n > 0.
(24.21) (24.22)

p0 + nq0
q(t) = ent q0 cos t +
sin t ,

(24.24)

np0 + 02 q0
+nt
p(t) = e
p0 cos t
sin t ,

(. (24.22))
p0 = p(0) = q0 = q(0),

q0 = q(0),

2 = 02 n2 .

, : , |p(t)| .
R3
C0 ( = [0,2)) :
t0 = 0,

q0 = sin ,

128

p0 = cos

(24.25)

p
. 24.3.
t

. 24.4.
(24.25) (24.23) ( . 24.4 ). (24.5) (24.4)
R3 p(t,), q(t,)
(. 24.3, . 24.4). C1 ,

C0 : C0
C1 . 24.3
(24.24)
(24.25) p = p(t,), q = q(t,) t : t = T sin2 2 , [0, T ]
129

t C1 , . . C1 : t = T sin2 2 , q = q(T sin2 2 ,),


p = p(T sin2 2 ,). - ( H
(24.23))
I
J=

pdq Hdt

(24.26)

0 2
: J(T ) ( C0 T = 0, T 6= 0 C1 ,
C0 ).
C0 C1 = C(T ) , t = 0, q = 0,
p = 1 q. C1
r, , t (p = r cos , q = r sin ) ( [0,2)) .
t = T sin2 2 ([0,T ] t ) t = const
(. 24.5).

q
A

. 24.5. t = const.

sin =

p(,)

cos =

p2 (,)

+ q 2 (,)

q(,)
p2 (,) + q 2 (,)
130

,
,

p(,), q(,) t = T sin2 2 (24.25)


(24.24), (), , A
. 24.5. () t = T sin2 2 (24.24)
t(), q(), p() ( r(), , t())
C1 = C(T ). . 24.4 ,
(24.25). , = 0, ,
.
(24.26)
T . 24.6.
I

3
2

10

. 24.6.

, , , .
25.
(24.6)
131

. ,

J1 = J =

IX
n

pi qi =

i=1
C

ZZ X
n

pi qi = J2 ,

S i=1

S, S ,
C.
. J1 , J2
.

Z
Z
J2n = p1 q1 . . . pn qn ,
(25.1)
V (t)

. : V0 , V (t),
t, t (. (25.1)).
.
25.1 (. ).

x i = i (t,x),

i = 1, m,

(25.2)


div i (t,x) =

m
X
i (t,x)
i=1

xi

= 0.

(25.3)

.
(25.2):
xi = fi (t,t0 ,x01 , . . . ,x0m ),
132

i = 1, m.

(25.4)

t = t0 V0 (. 25.1),

Z
Z
v0 = dx01 . . . dx0m .
(25.5)
V0

t
Z
v(t) =

Z
dx1 . . . dxm .

(25.6)

V (t)

V (t )

V (t0 )

p, q
t0

. 25.1
, (25.5) (25.6) , (25.4) (25.6) x0 :
Z
v(t) =

Z
I(t,x0 )dx01 . . . dx0m .
V0

0
I(t,x ) = det

f1
x10
..
.
fi
x10
..
.
fm
x10
133

f1
xm
0
..
.
fi
xm
0
..
.
fm
xm
0

(25.4). t = t0
(25.4) xi = x0i , I(t0 ,x0 ) = 1. , (25.3) ,
. . I(t,x0 ) 1. dI/dt.
m

X
dI
Ii ,
=
dt
i=1

(25.7)

Ii I i
t:

d fi
Ii = det
dt x1
0

d fi
dt xm
0

i- .

f (t,t0 ,x0 ) (25.2),


m

X i fl
d fi

=
fi =
i (t,f ) =
.
k
k
k
dt x0
xl xk0
x0
x0
l=1
l- Ii i /xl i- , :

i fi
Ii = det
xi x1
0

i fi
xi xm
0

(25.7)
m

X i
dI
=I
,
dt
xi
i=1

134

= I i .

xi

(25.3)
dI
=0
dt
I(t) 1 v(t) v0 .
(24.2) (25.3) :

m
m
X
X
i
H
H
=

= 0,
xi
qi pi
pi qi
i=1
i=1

25.2.
(24.2).
. , , q0 , p0 .
t0 .

(q,p) =

,
v

(25.8)

v V ,
V . V : V , q, p
, , . : , t = t0
V . t ,
V (t).
25.3. (q,p) .
(25.8)
, v(t) 25.2.

135

25.3 .
26.


25 , (24.6).
, 2n . ,
:
J=

IX
n
{Ai (t,q,p)qi + Bi (t,q,p)pi },

(26.1)

i=1
C

C ( t = t1 )
,
C0 ( t = t0 ) . , , (26.1) (24.6).
26.1 ( 1 ).
:
) (26.1) (24.6) ;
) F (t,q,p), (24.6) (26.1)
n
n
X
X
{Ai (t,q,p)qi + Bi (t,q,p)pi } = c
pi qi F (t,q,p),
i=1

(26.2)

i=1

F (t,q,p) (t ) .
1 HwaChang Lee. Invariants of Hamilton systems and applications to the theory
of canonical transformations//Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh. 1947. Ser.A, v.LXII,. P.
237246.

136

) ). (26.1) .
H(t,q,p) (26.1)
(26.2).
: (26.1) (26.2) n=1.
q

= q(t,t0 ,q 0 ,p0 ),

= p(t,t0 ,q 0 ,p0 )

(26.3)

,
H(t,q,p), t = t0 C0 (0 1):
q0

q 0 (),

q 0 (1) =

q 0 (0),

p0

p0 (),

p0 (1) =

p0 (0).

(26.4)

(26.3) (26.4)
q(t,)

= q(t,t0 ,q 0 (),po ()),

p(t,)

= p(t,t0 ,q 0 (),po ()),

(26.5)

J(t)
t C(t)
(26.1) . (q, p) (q 0 , p0 ),
(26.3), (26.1)
I
J = {A(t,q,p)q + B(t,q,p)p},
(26.6)
0
C

C0 (26.4), q, p (26.3) q 0 , p0 , ,
q, p
q
p

q(t,t0 ,q 0 ,po )
q(t,t0 ,q 0 ,po )
q0 +
p0 ,
q0
q0

p(t,t0 ,q 0 ,po )
p(t,t0 ,q 0 ,po )
q0 +
p0 .
q0
q0
137

(26.7)

) :
C0 (26.4) (26.1) (26.6)
dJ(t)
= 0.
dt

(26.8)

H(t,q,p).
t0 = 0.
H = 0. (26.3): q = q 0 , p = p0 . (26.6) (26.7)

I
J(t) = {A(t,q 0 ,p0 )q 0 + B(t,q 0 ,p0 )p0 }.
0
C

(26.8)
I
A(t,q 0 ,p0 ) 0 B(t,q 0 ,p0 ) 0

q +
p } = 0.
J(t) = {
t
t
0
C

C0 ()
(q 0 , p0 q, p)
f1 (t,q,p) =

A
B
q +
p,
t
t


A
f1
=
,
q
t

f1
B
=
.
p
t

f1 t
f1 (t,q,p) =

F1 (t,q,p)
t


F1

(A
) = 0,
t
q

F1
(B
) = 0,
t
p

138

. . a(q,p) b(q,p),
F1
A(t,q,p) = a(q,p) +
,
q
B(t,q,p) =

b(q,p) +

F1
,
p


Aq + Bp

= a(q,p)q + b(q,p)p +

F1
F1
q +
p =
q
p

(26.9)

= a(q,p)q + b(q,p)p + F1
(26.1) (F1
)
I
J = {a(q,p)q + b(q,p)p}.
(26.10)

H = p. (26.3): q = q 0 + t, p = p0 . (26.6) (26.7)

I
{a(q 0 + t,p0 )q 0 + b(q 0 + t,p0 )p0 }.

J(t) =
0
C

(26.8)
I
a(q 0 ,p0 ) 0 b(q 0 ,p0 ) 0

J(0)
= {
q +
p } = 0.
q0
q0
0
C

H = 0. :
f2 (q,p)
a(q,p)
=
,
q
q

f2 (q,p)
b(q,p)
=
;
p
q

f2 (q,p) =

F2 (q,p)
;
q

F2
(a
) = 0,
q
q

F2
(b
) = 0;
q
p
139

aq + bp

F2 (q,p)
,
q

a(q,p)

= a
(p) +

b(q,p)

F2 (q,p)
= b(p) +
;
p

= a
(p)q + b(p)p + F2 (q,p);
I
a(p)q + b(p)p}.
J = {

(26.11)

(26.12)

H = q. (26.3): q = q 0 , p = p0 + t. (26.6)
(26.7)
I
J(t) = {
a(p0 + t)q 0 + b(p0 + t)p0 }.
0
C

(26.8) (q 0 , p0
q, p)
I
d
a(p)
db(p)

J(0) = {
q +
p} = 0,
dp
dp
0
C

() f3 (q,p):
f3 (q,p)
db(p)
=
,
p
dp

f3 (q,p)
d
a(p)
=
,
q
dp

. . f(q,p) = f3 (q,p) b(p)


f d
a(p)
=
,
q
dp

f
= 0.
p

,
p (. ), q,
,
a
(p) = cp + c1 ,
140

f = cq + c2 .

a
(p) (26.12)
Z

a
(p)q + b(p)p = cpq + (c1 q + b(p)dp).
(26.13)
(26.13) (26.11), (26.11) (26.9)
(26.2), F
, :
Z
F = (c1 q + F2 (q,p) + F1 (t,q,p)) + b(p)dp.
(n > 1)
H(t,q,p), .
) ). (26.2)

H
(26.1) (24.6) J = cJ ( F = 0),
) .
( 26.1), ,
(26.1) .
. (26.1) ,
c
Ai
qk

Ak
,
qi

Bi
pk

Bk
,
pi

Ai
pk

Bk
+ cik
qi

(26.14)

(ik )
F
qi

= cpi Ai (t,q,p),

F
pi

= Bi (t,q,p).

(26.15)

141

(26.2) F (t,q,p) qi , pi (26.15).


(26.14) ( 2 F/qi qk = 2 F/qk qi , . . .)
(26.15).

142

VI. .
-
27. : ,

, .
, . (21.12), , 21.

H
qi =
,
pi
(27.1)
H
.
pi =
qi
(27.1) , .
27.1.

1 2
H=
p + 2 q2
(27.2)
2
:
q

p =

p,
2 q.

(27.3)


q = p,
p = qep

(27.4)


q = 2 peq ,
p = qeq 2 p2 eq .

143

(27.5)

, ,

H
p

H
q

2 peq ,

(27.6)
2 2
q

q e + p e

2H
p q

=
?

q eq + 2 p2 eq =
p
2 q
pe
q

(27.7)

, (27.6) ,
(27.5) .
27.2.
q =

p,

p =

q + ep

(27.3)

q = 2 eq p ,

p = q + 2 eq p eq.

(27.8)

(27.9)

, (27.7)

H
p

H
q

= 2 eq p ,
=
q

e p eq

(27.10)

, (27.9) q, p
. H
(27.10):
h

i
= 1 q2 + 2 eq p 2 .
H
(27.11)
2
144

, (35.8)
(27.2), (27.11), a .
27.1.
qi

= qi (t,q,p),

pi

= pi (t,q,p),

M =

i = 1, n,

det M 6= 0,

qi qi

qk pk

pi pi

qk pk

(27.12)
(27.13)

(27.14)

, (27.12) , M (27.12).
27.1 , (27.4)
, (27.8) 27.2
:
. : dF (t,q,p) ; F (t,q,p) ( t), . .
dF = F +

F
dt.
t

.
27.1 ( ). :
) (27.12) ;
) c () F ( ), (27.12)
n
X
i=1

n
X
= c(
pi d
qi Hdt
pi dqi Hdt) dF.
i=1

145

(27.15)

) ). , (27.12) (27.1) H
, c F H.
(27.15). (t, q, p) (t, q, p) (27.12) C, C
(. . 27.1).
H, H
t C


C.
IX
IX
n
n
pi dqi Hdt =
pi qi ,
(27.16)
C i=1

IX
n

i=1
C

=
pi d
qi Hdt

i=1
C

IX
n

pi qi .

(27.17)

i=1

(27.17) t, q, p, 26.1 (27.16):


IX
IX
n
n
=
pi d
qi Hdt
pi qi =
C i=1

i=1
C

I X
n

pi

i,k=1
C

IX
n

qi
qi
qk +
pk
qk
pk

(Ak qk + Bk pk ) = c

k=1
C

=c

IX
n

IX
n

pi qi =

i=1
C

pi dqi Hdt.

C i=1



n
!#
I "X
n
X
c
pi d
qi Hdt
pi dqi Hdt
= 0.
C

i=1

i=1

, (dF ), (27.15).
146

t
C

. 27.1
) ). : (27.12), c
F. , H(t,q,p) q ,
H(t,
p), (27.15)
. , (27.12)
(27.1) q ,
H(t,
p). ) ), C, C (.
. 27.1). , (27.15) t, q, p,
(27.15) C :
IX
IX
IX
n
n
n

c
pi dqi Hdt =
pi d
qi Hdt =
pi d
qi Hdt.
C i=1

C i=1

i=1
C

t, q, p

t, q, p ( C C).
, ,
, .
24.2 t, q, p

H.
1. (27.12) c 6= 0 F.
c = 1/c F = F/c.
(27.15) q, p q, p. q, p q, p
(27.15), :
!
n
n
X
1 X
1

pi dqi Hdt =
d(F ),
pi d
qi Hdt
c
c
i=1
i=1
147

.
(27.15) (27.12) .
(27.15)
, , (2n + 1) . ,
,
2n 4n : q, p, q, p.
28.

(27.15).
.
1. q, p. . (27.15)
d
q (t,q,p) dF (t,q,p).
dt
= cH +
H

n
X

pi

i=1

qi
F
+
.
t
t

(28.1)

dqi , dpi F (t,q,p)


F
qi
F
pi

= cpi
=

n
X
k=1

n
X
k=1

pk

pk

qk
,
qi

qk
.
pi

(28.2)

: c
F ? F
=
,
ql qk
qk ql

F ? F
=
,...
ql pk
pk ql
148

(27.4) (27.8) 27.1 27.2.


28.1. (27.4)
(28.2)
F
q
F
p

= cp,
= qep .

2 F/qp
c, (ep ). c (c ep ) ,
(27.4) , . .
, . , q = p, p = 0
H = 12 p2
= (1 q)eq).
q = 0, p = qeq (H
28.2. (27.8)
(28.2)
F
q
F
p

cp,

q ep ,


2F
(cp)
(q ep )
=
=
qp
p
q
c = 1, . . (27.8)
c = 1 F = qp ep + f (t)
q ,
(f (t) ). H(
p), q, p, H(q,p) q, p (28.1):
q ,
H(
p) = H(
p eq,
q ) + f(t).

149

c = 1
(27.11). H f(t) (27.1), f (t) 0,
(27.10).
28.3.
qi = qi (t,q),
i = 1, n,
(28.3)

det kaik (t,q)k 6= 0,

(28.4)

qi
.

kaik (t,q)k =
qk

(28.5)


pi = pi (t,q,p),

i = 1, n,

(28.6)

(28.3), (28.6) ? (28.3), (28.6) (28.2)

n
X
F
qk
= cpi
,
pk
qi
qi
k=1
F
= 0, i = 1, n.
pi
n , F pi . n pk ,
(28.6):
pi = c

n
X
k=1

bik (t,q)pk

n
X
k=1

bik (t,q)

F (t,q)
,
qk

(28.7)

F (t,q) , bik (t,q) ,


(28.5), c ( c = 0
(28.3), (28.7) , , c = 0
).
28.1. (28.7) , , : c
150

F . , c = 1, F (t,q,p) 0
qi = qi (t,q),

pi =

n
X

bik (t,q)pk

k=1

qi (t,q), (28.4).
28.2. (28.3), (28.7)
qi

= qi ,

pi

= cpi

(28.8)

F (t,q)
qi

c 6= 0 F (t,q) . (28.8) p. {q(t)} , H(t,q,p), {q(t)}


, (. (28.1) (28.8))

1
F (t,
q)
F (t,
q)
q ,
H(t,
p) = cH t,
q,
p +
+
.
c
q
t
2. q, p. .
28.1. c
c 6= 0.
(c = 0) (27.15) t, q, p
n
X

= dF =
pi d
qi Hdt

i=1

n
X
i=1

F
F
d
qi +
d
pi
qi
pi
151

F
dt,
t

,
F
=
pi ,
qi
F
= 0,
pi
F

= H.
t
:
2 F/ qi pi = 1, 2 F/ qi pi = 0.
, , c = 1 (., ,
31).
(c 6= 1) .
28.1. c = 1 .
3. q, q.
q, p ( q, p) (28.2)
F , F
( c ) (. 28.1). ,
. t, q, q, . , (27.15)
. t, q, q
. , p, p .
, (27.12)

qi (t,q,p)

6= 0.
det
(28.9)
pk
p(t,q,
q ) n (27.12),
p(t,q,
q ) p(t,q,
q)
n (27.12). (27.12)

152

(28.9)
pi

pi (t,q,
q ),

pi

pi (t,q,
q ),

i = 1, n.

(28.10)

(28.10) (27.12) n (28.10) q (


,
(28.9), ),
n . , (28.10)
(27.12), ,
, (28.10).
28.2. (27.12) , (28.9).
(27.12) .
(28.10) (27.15) t, q, q :
n
X

q ,
p(t,q,
q )i d
qi H(t,
p(t,q,
q ))dt =

i=1

= c(

n
X

pi (t,q,
q )dqi H(t,q,p(t,q,
q ))dt)

(28.11)

i=1
n
n
X
X
S
S
S
dt
dqi
d
qi .
t
q

qi
i
i=1
i=1


S(t,q,
q ) = F (t,
q ,
p(t,q,
q )).
(28.11) , :
S
q ,
H(t,
p(t,q,
q )) =
+ cH(t,q,p(t,q,
q ))
(28.12)
t
, (28.10) S :
S
qi
S
qi

cpi (t,q,
q ),

pi (t,q,
q ).

(28.13)

153

(27.12) (28.13), (28.10):


2S
pi (t,q,
q) ?
pl (t,q,
q)
=c
= c
,...
qi ql
ql
qk
28.4. (27.4) 27.1 (28.9) (28.10):
p = q,
p = qeq.
(28.13)
S
q
S
q

= c
q,
= qeq

c : 2 S/q q = c, 2 S/q q = eq.


(27.4) .
28.5. (27.8) 27.2 (28.9) (28.10):
p =

q,

p =

q + eq.

(28.13)
S
q
S
q

c
q,

q eq

c = 1 : 2 S/q q = c,
2 S/q q = 1. (27.8) c = 1 S = q qeq.
F (t,q,p) t, q, p ( t, q, p) S(t,q,
q ) : (28.13)
154

S(t,q,
q ) c 6= 0 (28.10). (27.12) n
(28.10) q q(t,q,p)
(28.10). pi = pi (t,q,
q ) qi (
n (28.13))

S(t,q,
pi (t,q,
q)
1
q)

6= 0.
det
=
det
qk cn
qi qk
, (27.12) S(t,q,
q ) c 6= 0

2
S(t,q,
q)

(28.14)
det
qi qk 6= 0.
, S = q q c = 1 (28.13) (28.10)
p = q,

p = q.

(27.12)
q = p,

p = q.

(28.15)

q, q. ,
qi = qi , pi = pi
, . . , (28.9).
:
. : (.
29.1) (
). , , .
4. q, p. (27.12):

pi (t,q,p)

6= 0.
det
(28.16)
pk
155

(28.16) pi (t,q,
p) n (27.12), qi (t,q,
p)
pi (t,q,
p) n . (27.12)
q, p
pi

pi (t,q,
p),

qi

qi (t,q,
p),

i = 1, n.

(28.17)

28.3. (27.12) , (28.16).


, dq, d
p ,
, (27.15)

n
X

= c(
qi d
pi Hdt

n
X

i=1

pi dqi Hdt) d(t,q,


p),

(28.18)

i=1


=F +

n
X

pi qi ,

i=1

, q, p (28.18)
(28.17) ( H, H).

(t,q,
p)
q (t,q,
H(t,
p),
p) =
+ cH(t,q,p(t,q,
p))
t

(28.19)

qi

pi

= cpi (t,q,
p),
(28.20)
= qi (t,q,
p),

c 6= 0
(27.12). c 6= 0, (t,q,
p)
2

(t,q,
p)

6= 0.
det
(28.21)
qi pk
156

(27.12). , c = 1, = q p ((28.21) ) (28.20) (28.17): q = q, p = p,


q, p, : q = q, p = p.
28.6. (27.8) 27.2 (28.16)
(28.17):
p = ln(
p q),
p = ln(
p q).
(28.20)

c ln(
p q),

= ln(
p q)

c = 1 : 2 /q p = c/(
pq),
2 /q p = 1/(
p q). (27.8)
c = 1
= (
p q) ln(
p q) (
p q).
: 1. q, p; 2. q, p; 3. q, q; 4. q, p.
3.q, q, 4.q, p . , 31
,
.
(28.10) (28.17)
2n , (27.12),

S ( ), (27.12). (27.12)
(28.9) (28.6),
( c = 1 F = p1 q1 (27.15))
q1 = p1 ,

q2 = q2 ,

p1 = q1 ,
157

p2 = p2 .

(28.22)

1 , (27.12) (27.14) 2n
q1 , . . . ,ql , pl+1 , . . . ,pn , q1 , . . . ,
qm , pm+1 , . . . ,
pn

(28.23)

( ), , . . . (28.22)
(28.23):
q1 , q2 , q1 , p2 .
(28.24)
:
p1 =
q1 ,

p2 = p2 ,

q2 = q2

p1 = q1 .

(28.25)

(28.23) qi , pi qi , pi ,
, , 4. q, p, (27.15) , (28.23) .
(28.22) :
= c(p1 dq1 + p2 dq2 Hdt) dU,
p1 d
q1 q2 d
p2 Hdt

U (t,q1 ,q2 ,
q1 ,
p2 ) = F + q2 p2 = F + q2 p2 .
(28.22)
:
U
q1 ,
H(
q2 ,
p1 ,
p2 ) =
+ cH(q1 ,q2 ,p1 ,p2 )
t
(28.25),
U
q1
U
q2
U
q1
U
p2

cp1

= c
q1 ,

cp2

= c
p2 ,

p2

= q1 ,

q2

(28.26)

(28.27)

= q2 .

1 .. 2- ..: ,
1966. 300 ., 29, c.176.

158

(28.27) c = 1, U = q1 q2 +q2 p2 , : (28.27) (28.25)


(28.22).
29.


: {q 0 , p0 } {q, p}
, t
qi

qi (t,q 0 ,p0 ),

pi

pi (t,q 0 ,p0 ),

i = 1, n,

(29.1)

,
H(t,q,p). t = t0 (29.1)
qi = qi0 , pi = p0i (27.13) ,
t0 t :
qi0

= qi0 (t,q,p),

p0i

= p0i (t,q,p),

i = 1, n.

(29.2)

, (29.2), , 20.1
qi0 = 0, p0i = 0,
. . ,
H0 = 0.
29.1. {q 0 , p0 } {q, p}, (29.1) , (29.2)
. (29.2) (21.1)
Zt
0

0 0
L(s,q(s,q 0 ,p0 ),q(s,q

,p ))ds,

W (t,q ,p ) =
t0

159

(29.3)


(29.1), t0 ( t0
q 0 , p0 (29.1) (29.3)), t .
(29.2) (29.1):
W .
L(t,q,q)
H(t,q,p). q(t), p(t), t0 , q0 , p0 ,
t = t1 (. 21.1) : ,
q(t,) (q(t,0) = q(t))
t0 () t0 , qi0 () = qi (t0 ,), qi0 () = qi (t0 ,),
p0i () = p(t0 ,) =

(29.4)

L(t0 ,q 0 (),q0 ())


.
qi

t0 () t0
(. . 21.2 . 29.1). q(t,) t1 ():
t1 (),

qi1 () = qi (t1 (),), qi1 () = qi (t1 (),),

p1i () = p(t1 (),) =

(29.5)

L(t1 (),q 1 (),q1 ())


.
qi

= 1

=0

q (t )

t1 ( )

q1 ( )

q 0 ( )

=1
t0

t
. 29.1

. 29.1 .
(t, q) : t0 () t0 , q 0 ()
160

C0 (. . 24.2),
t1 (), q 1 () C0 C. t0 t1 (), q 0 ()), p0 ().
(29.3), dW,
dW (t1 ,q 0 ,p0 ) =

n
X
W
W 0 W 0
=
dt1 +
dq
dp
=
+
t1
qi0 i
p0i i
i=1
(
)
n
W dt1 X W dqi0
W dp0i
=
+
+ 0
d =
t1 d
qi0 d
pi d
i=1

(29.6)

dW
d = W.
d
(29.6) , dW (. 21.2)
(21.3), = 0 (. (29.4), (29.5))
=

dW (t,q 0 ,p0 ) =

n
X

pi dqi H(t,q,p)dt

i=1

n
X

p0i dqi0 .

(29.7)

i=1

(21.3) , q(t,) , t
(21.3) , t0 () t0 .
q, t, q 0 dq, dt, dq 0 , (29.6). = 0 q(t,0) = q(t), t = t0 , q0 = q 0 (0), p0 = p0 (0)
t = t1 = t1 (0), q = q 1 (0) = q(t1 ) = q(t),
p = p1 (0) = p(t1 ) = p(t) (
(29.7) q0 , p0 , q, p q0 , p0 , q, p.)
(29.7),
n
X
i=1

p0i dqi0 =

n
X

pi dqi H(t,q,p)dt dW (t,q 0 ,p0 ),

(29.8)

i=1

(27.15)
(29.2). , 161

q 0 , p0 H0 0. , (29.3) 1 27.1.
(29.8) (29.2)
q, p ( q, p q 0 , p0 ). pi (t,q,q 0 )
n (26.40), pi (t,q,q 0 )
n ( p0i (t,q,q 0 ) n (29.1) p0i (t,q,q 0 ) n
), (29.1), (29.2)
(28.7)
pi = pi (t,q,q 0 ),
(29.9)
p0i = p0i (t,q,q 0 ),
i = 1, n.
(29.1) (29.2) (29.9), : (29.9) (29.2) n (29.9) qi0 (t,q,p)
n ; (29.9) (29.1)
n (29.9) qi (t,q 0 ,p0 )
n .
(29.9)

pi (t,q,q 0 )
pi (t,q,q 0 )

6= 0.
det
det
(29.10)
6= 0,

qk0
qk
(29.9) (29.8) (28.11) t, q, q 0 :
n
X
i=1

p0i dqi0 =

n
X

pi dqi H(t,q,p)dt

i=1

n
n
X
X
W (t,q,q 0 )
W (t,q,q 0 )
W (t,q,q 0 ) 0

dqi .
dt
dqi
t
qi
qi0
i=1
i=1

(29.11)

W (t,q,q 0 ) t, q, q 0
.
29.1. (29.3),
p0 p0 (t,q,q 0 ) (. (29.9)), W (t,q,q 0 ).
162

(29.11)
W (t,q,q 0 ), H(t, q, p)
, (29.9):
W (t,q,q 0 )
=
qi

pi (t,q,q 0 ),

(29.12)

W (t,q,q 0 )
= p0i (t,q,q 0 ),
qi0

(29.13)

W (t,q,q 0 )
+ H(t,q,p(t,q,q 0 )) = 0.
(29.14)
t
W (t,q,q 0 ) (29.12),
(29.13) (29.9), (29.10) (29.1)
(29.2) W (t,q,q 0 )
2

W (t,q,q 0 )

6= 0.
det
(29.15)
qi qk0
(29.12) (29.14)
W
W
+ H(t,q,
)=0
t
q

(29.16)

(29.15) , W (t,q,q 0 ) (. 31.1 31.2). , W (t,q,q 0 )


(29.16), ,
(29.1) (. 28.2), . . (29.1) (29.9). , .
t = t0 :
qi = qi (t0 ,q 0 ,p0 ) = qi0 ,

pi = pi (t0 ,q 0 ,p0 ) = p0i ,

. t = tf , tf ,
t0 , q 0 (. 23.1). , H 0 (qi (t) qi0 , pi (t) p0i )
W (t,q,q 0 ) t .
163

29.1.
:
L=

1 2
(q 2 q 2 ),
2

H=

1 2
(p + 2 q 2 ).
2

(29.1) (27.1) (t0 = 0)


q

p =

sin t
,

q 0 sin t + p0 cos t

q 0 cos t + p0

(29.17)

q 0 , p0 q, p. q(t)
(29.3), , W (t, q, q 0 ),
p0 p0 (t, q, q 0 ),
(29.17),
W (t,q,q 0 ) =

1 2
qq 0
[q + (q 0 )2 ]ctgt
,
2
sin t

(29.18)

t = k, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , ,
t = t0 = 0. , t = k,
(29.18) (29.15), (29.16)
(29.12), (29.13) (29.1).
, (29.1),
. . q, q 0 ,
W (t,q,q 0 )
(29.2). q, p ( q, p0 ) 28.3. (28.13) t t0 ( (29.2) t = t0 : qi0 = qi0 (t0 , q, p) =
= qi , p0i = p0i (t0 ,q,p) = pi )
0

pi (t,q,p)

6= 0,
det

pk
(29.1), (29.2) (28.14)
qi0

= qi0 (t,q,p0 ),

pi

= pi (t,q,p0 ),
164

i = 1, n.

(29.19)

(29.8) (.
(28.15))

n
X
i=1

qi0 dp0i =

n
X

pi dqi Hdt d(W +

n
X

i=1

p0i qi0 ),

(29.20)

i=1

(29.20) (29.19)
t, q, p0
V (t,q,p0 ) = W (t,q 0 (t,q,p0 ),p0 ) +

n
X

p0i q 0 (t,q,p0 ),

(29.21)

i=1

, (29.12), (29.13), (29.16):


V (t,q,p0 )
= pi (t,q,p0 ),
qi

(29.22)

V (t,q,p0 )
= qi0 (t,q,p0 ),
p0i

(29.23)

V
V
+ H(t,q,
) = 0.
t
q

(29.24)

pi (t,q,p0 )

6= 0,
det

p0k

0
qi (t,q,p0 )
6= 0

det

qk

(29.19) (27.2),
(29.1) t t0 (29.22), (29.23)

2

V (t,q,p0 )

6= 0.
det
(29.25)
qi p0k
29.2. V (t,q,p0 ), (29.21),
. W (t,q 0 ,p0 )
(29.21) (29.3), a q 0 (t,q,p0 )
(29.1) q 0
165

n p n (29.2)
n .
(29.24), (29.25), 31.1, 31.2, V (t,q,p0 ) W (t,q,q 0 ) .
29.2. V (t,q,p0 ) 29.1. (29.17) q 0 (t,q,p0 ), (29.22) (, W (t,q 0 ,p0 )
(29.3) ).

V (t,q,p0 ) =

tgt
1 0 2
qp0

(p ) + 2 q 2
cos t 2

(29.26)

(29.2) (V (29.1)). (29.25) ,


t = k +

,
2

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

(29.22), (29.23) (29.1).


(29.18) (29.25)
, V (t,q,p0 ) W (t,q,q 0 ) ,
t = t0 V (t,q,p0 ) ,
W (t,q,q 0 ) .
V W (
(29.18) (29.25) 0)
W
V

1
(q q 0 )2 ,
2t
t
= qp0 (p0 )2 .
2

(29.27)

(. (29.16)
166

(29.24))
S
1
+
t
2

S
q

2
= 0,

(29.28)

: q = q 0 + tp0 , p = p0 .
,
. 31.
30. .

( 27.1)1 .
:
(27.12) ? 2n

0 . . . 0 1 . . .
0

.. . .
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
.

0 ... 0
0 . . . 1
= 0 E ,
(30.1)
J =

1 ... 1
0 ...
0
E
0

. .
..
..
..
. . ...
..
.
.
.

0 ... 1 0 ...
0
E n.
30.1. (27.12)
,
(27.14), M T (30.1) c 6= 0
M T JM = cJ.

(30.2)

(27.12) c 6= 0 (28.2), , ,
1 .: ..
2- ..: , 1966. 300 . 31, c.184. 32, . 187.

167

F .
.
F
F
=
:
qi ql
ql qi
Ail =

n
X
qk pk
qk pk
= 0.

qi ql
ql qi

k=1

F
F
=
:
qi pl
pl qi

n
X
qk pk
qk pk
Bil =

= cil .
qi pl
pl qi
k=1

F
F
=
:
pi pl
pl pi

n
X
qk pk
qk pk

= 0.
Cil =
pi pl
pl pi
k=1

Ail , Bil , Cil :

kAil k kBil k
0 E

= cJ,
=
c
(30.3)

E
0
kBil k k Cil k
J (30.1). (30.2) (. (27.14) (30.1))
, (30.3),
.
30.2. (27.12)
, c 6= 0 (20.3) , (27.12), :
(
qi ,
qk ) = 0, (
pi ,
pk ) = 0, (
qi ,
pk ) = cik , i, k = 1, n.

168

(30.4)

(30.1) J

E 0
1
2

,
J = J, J =
0 E
(30.2):
M T JM JM T = cJ JM T = cJ 2 M T = cM T ,
(M T )1 M T JM JM T = (M T )1 cM T = c,
J 1 JM JM T = cJ 1 ,
M JM T = cJ.

(30.5)

.
(30.5) c (20.3) (30.1) J

k(
0 E
qk )k k(
qi ,
pk )k
qi ,

= c
E
0
k(
qi ,
pk )k k (
pi ,
pk )k
(30.4).
, (30.2) (30.4)
, ,
,
: (30.2) (30.4) n2 qi (t,q,p), pi (t,q,p).
n
i (t,q,p) qi (t,q,p), pi (t,q,p). .
30.1. i (t,q,p), i = 1, m,
( i (t,q,p), i = 1, m, ),

(i ,j ) = 0,

i,j = 1, m.

30.2 (. (30.4)),
qi (t,q,p), pi (t,q,p),
169

(30.5)

, . , n , .
.
30.3.

i (t,q,p), i = 1, n,

(30.6)

i (t,q,p)

6= 0.
det

pk

(30.7)

,
,

qi = i (t,q,p),
(30.8)
pi = pi (t,q,p),

(30.9)

qi i (t,q,p).
(30.5)
n
X
i j
k=1

qk pk

n
X
j i
,
qk pk

(30.10)

k=1

i j. (30.7)
(30.8) pi :
pi = i (t,q,
q ).

(30.11)

(30.8) (30.11)
pi = i (t,q,(t,q,p)),

(30.12)

pl qj
il =

n
X
i k
k=1

qk pl

(30.13)

0=

i X i k
+
.
qj
qk qj
k=1

170

(30.14)

(30.14)
n

X i k
i
=
qj
qk qj

(30.15)

k=1

, ,
i
j
=
.
qj
qi

(30.16)

: (30.13) ; (30.10) k;
(30.13) ; (30.15) .
n
n
X
X
i
i k
i k
=
=
jl
=
qj
qk qj
qk
ql
k=1

k,l=1

n
n
X
X
i j k
i j k
=
=
qk q pl ql
qk q pl ql

k,l,=1

n
X
l,=1

k,l,=1

il

n
X
j
j
j
=
=
q ql
q qi
qi
l,=1

(30.16)
S
= i (t,q,
q ),
qi

(30.17)

S(t,q,
q ) (30.16) .
S(t,q,
q ) (30.17), (30.13) (30.7)
2

S
i
i (t,q,p) 1

6= 0,

det
= det
= det
(30.18)

qi qk
qk
pk
. . S(t,q,
q ) , (. (28.11)).
(30.17) (. (28.10))
pi =

S(t,q,
q)
= pi (t,q,
q ),
qi
171

(30.19)

(30.11) qi , (30.8),
(30.8) (30.19). : S0 (t,q,
q ) (30.17)
q ) S(t,
q ).
S(t,q,
q ) = S0 (t,q,
q ) + S(t,
. , (30.6) (30.7), i (t,q,p)
, H(t,q,p).
S
qi
S
t

= i (t,q,
q ),

i = 1, n,
(30.20)

= H(t,q,(t,q,
q ))

, S(t,q,
q )
(30.18) ( i (t,q,
q ) (30.11)).
(30.6) (30.2)

n
k X k H
k H
+

= 0.
(30.21)
t
ql pl
pl ql
l=1

(30.12) t
(30.15)
n
X
i
i k
=
.
t
qk t
k=1

k /t (30.21) (30.13) (30.16)



n
n
X
X
i
i k H
i k H
=

=
t
qk ql pl
qk pl ql
k,l=1

n
X
i H
l=1

ql pl

k,l=1

n
X
l=1

il

H
H X H l
=

,
ql
qi
pl qi
l=1

(30.20):
2S
2S
=
.
tqi
qi t
172

2S
2S
=
qj qi
qi qi

: . (30.16). (30.17) (30.18),


(30.20) (30.17).
(30.17) S0 (t,q,
q ) (30.20)
q ) S(t,q,
q ) = S0 (t,q,
q ) + S(
q ).
S(
31. -
- (27.15) q, q (. 28.2).
q ,
H(t,q,p) H(t,
p), ,
, (28.12).
(28.13) (28.12)
, H H
S(t,q,
q ) c 6= 0 :

S
S
1 S

H t,
q,
=c
+ H t,q,
.
(31.1)
q
t
c q
(31.1) S ( c). S(t,q,
q ), (28.14), (27.12), .
- : (c = 1) (S(t,q,
q ) =?), 0.
H(t,q,p) H
t, q, p
qi = 0, p i = 0, i = 1, n,

qi = i , pi = i , i = 1, n.
173

(31.2)

= 0 , H
S(t,q,
q ) = S(t,q,), (28.14)
2

S(t,q,

q)
q)
= det S(t,q,

det
(31.3)
qi qk
qi k 6= 0,
S(t,q,) (28.13) (31.3))
t, q, p ( (31.2) c = 1):
pi

S(t,q,)
qi

= i (t,q,), i = 1, n,

S(t,q,)
=
i

i

fi (t,q,), i = 1, n.

qi

qi (t,,),

pi

pi (t,,),

i = 1, n,

(31.4)
(31.5)

(31.6)

(31.5) qi
qi (t,q,) (31.4). (31.3) (31.4) i , i (t,q,p)
(31.5)
i

i (t,q,p),

i (t,q,p),

i = 1, n.

(31.7)

(31.6) (31.7), -,
(31.7)
( (31.7) qi , pi , -, , (31.6) ( t0 , q 0 , p0 (31.7) i , i .
S,
0,
H(t,q,p) H
=0:
(31.1) c = 1, H

S
S
+ H t,q,
= 0.
t
q
174

(31.8)

31.1. (31.8) , , H(t,q,p).


0 , , H(t,q,p) H
(.
= 0, c = 1, pi = /qi
28.3), (28.11) H
(. (28.20)) ,
(31.8). qi = i , pi = i
(31.3), (. (28.21))
(31.4), (31.5)
(31.6) (31.7) (. (28.20)).
, .
31.1. :
1 2
p ,
2
2
1 S
S
+
= 0.
t
2 q
H=

(31.9)

31.2. :
1 2
(p + 2 q 2 ),
2
"
#
2
S
1
S
2 2
+
+ q = 0.
t
2
q
H=

(31.10)
(31.11)

31.3. (. 30.1):

!
p2
1
p2

2
H=
pr + 2 + 2 2
.
(31.12)
2m
r
r
r sin
(
"
2
2
1
S
1
S
S
+
+ 2
+
t
2m
r
r

(31.13)
2 #)
1
S

+ 2
= 0.
r
sin
175

(31.8) ,
. , .
31.2. (31.8)
S(t,q1 , ..., qn ,1 , ..., n ),
1 , ..., n (31.3).

q 0
, p0 (.
29.1 29.2, 29.15, 29.16, 29.24, 29.25,
29.1 29.2 (29.18), (29.26), (29.27)).
,
: , .
S(t,q1 ,...,qn ,1 ,...,n )
S
= g(t,q,),
t

S
= i (t,q,), i = 1, n.
qi

n i :

S
i = i t,q,
,
q
(31.3). i (31.8).
- ,

.
: S(t,q,)
, .

S = S0 (t) + S1 (q1 ) + . . . + Sn (qn ).
176

(31.14)

31.4. (31.9)
t q
1
dS0 (t)
=
dt
2

dS1 (q)
dq

1
= 2 .
2


1
S0 (t) = t2 , S1 (q) = q
2

1
S = S0 + S1 = t2 + q.
2

(31.15)

, 31.2 . (31.15) (29.28). (29.27) (31.9).


, : (31.14) qk (H/qk = 0) Sk (qk ) = qr ,
- (H/t = 0) S0 (t) = 0 t. (31.15)
(31.4), (31.5):
p = , = t + q,
(31.6)
q = t + , p =
(31.7)
= p, = q t.
31.5. (31.14) (31.11),
,
"
#
2
1
dS1 (q)
dS0 (t)
2 2
+ q =
=
(31.16)
2
dq
dt
177


Zp
S = S0 (t) + S1 (q) = t +
2 2 q 2 dq =
1 p
q
2
= t + q 2 2 q 2 + 2 arcsin .
2

(31.17)

29: (29.18)
(29.26) .
(31.17) (31.4), (31.5):
Z
p
dq
1
q
2
2
p = 2 q , = t + p
= t + arcsin
2
2

2
2 q
(31.6)

2
sin (t + ),
q =

p =
2 cos (t + )

1 2
(p + 2 q 2 ) (= H),
2

t +

1
q
arcsin p
=
2

p + 2 q2

t +

1
q
arctg
.

31.6. (31.10) ,

(H = H(q,p))

H/p 6= 0,

H(q,p) = h
178

(31.18)

p
p = f (q,h).

(31.19)

(31.14) (31.8)
(31.16)

dS1 (q)
dS0 (t)
H q,
=
=h
dq
dt
(31.17)
Z
S = ht + f (q,h)dq
(. (31.19)),
q

= q(t,h,),

p = p(t,h,)
(31.18) w(t,q,p) = .
31.7. (31.14) - (31.13)
(
"
2
2
dS0 (t)
1
dS3 (r)
1
dS2 ()
+
+ 2
+
dt
2m
dr
r
d
(31.20)

2 #)
1
dS1 ()

+
= 0.
d
r
sin2
- , S0 = 0 t, S1 = 1 .
, , . S2 () ,
2 .
s
Z
12
S2 () =
2
d.
sin2
179

S0 , S1 , S2 , S3 (r)

Zs

2
S3 (r) =
2m
0 2 dr.
r
r

S(t,,,r,0 ,1 ,2 ) =
Z
+

3
X

Si = 0 t + 1 +

i=0

s
12
2
d + +
sin2

Zs
2

2m
0 2 dr
r
r

(31.13), ,
(31.3), ,
. S (31.4)
H, p ,z (. (20.6) (20.8)) .
31.8. ,
(31.12) (. (20.13))
H(F2 (F1 (q1 ,p1 ),q2 ,p2 ),p3 ,q4 ,p4 ).

(31.21)

20.2 (20.14)
F1 (q1 ,p1 )

= 1 ,

F2 (1 ,q2 ,p2 )

= 2 ,

p3

= 3 ,

H(2 ,3 ,q4 ,p4 )

= 4 .

(31.22)

, (31.22)
p1

f1 (1 ,q1 ),

p2

f2 (1 ,2 ,q2 ),

p3

3 ,

p4

f4 (2 ,3 ,4 ,q4 ).
180

(31.23)

(31.13) (31.20),
(31.14) ,
(31.21),

dS1 (q1 )
dS2 (q2 )
dS0 (t)
+ H F2 F1 q1 ,
,q2 ,
,
dt
dq1
dq2
(31.24)

dS3 (q3 )
dS4 (q4 )
= 0.
,q4 ,
dq3
dq4
S1 (q1 ), . . . ,S4 (q4 ) ,

dS1 (q1 )
= 1 ,
F1 q1 ,
dq4

dS2 (q2 )
= 2 ,
F2 1 ,q2 ,
dq2
(31.25)
dS3 (q3 )
= 3 ,
dq3

dS4 (q4 )
H 2 ,3 ,q4 ,
= 4 .
dq4
(31.23) (31.25)
dS1 (q1 )
dq1

f1 (1 ,q1 ),

dS2 (q2 )
dq2

f2 (1 ,2 ,q2 ),

dS3 (q3 )
dq3

3 ,

dS4 (q4 )
dq4

f4 (2 ,3 ,4 ,q4 ).

(31.26)

(31.25) (31.24)
dS0 (t)
+ 4 = 0,
dt
181

(31.26)
Z
S(t,q1 , . . . ,q4 ,1 , . . . ,4 ) = 4 t + f1 (1 ,q1 )dq1 +
Z
Z
(31.27)
+ f2 (1 ,2 ,q2 )dq2 + 3 q3 + f4 (2 ,3 ,4 ,q4 )dq4 .
(31.27)
, (31.3):

f1

0
1

f1 f2

1 2
det

0
0

f4
0

(31.24) -

f4
3

f4
4

= f1 f2 f4 6= 0,
1 2 4

(20.14)
(31.23) . (31.4) (31.5) (31.6) (31.7).
i (31.4)
(20.14). 20, (20.14).
.
31.1 (.).
wi (t,q,p) = i , i = 1, n

(31.28)

(n q p) , H(t,q,p),
) (wi , wk ) = 0, i,k = 1, n,
(. 30.1);
) (31.28) p:
pi = i (t,q,), i = 1, n.

(31.29)

, ,
wi (t,q,p), i = 1, n, S(t,q,)
182

H (31.8) (31.28) wn+i (t,q,p), i = 1, n.


30.2,
S
= i (t,q,),
i = 1, n,
qi
(31.30)
S
= H(t,q,(t,q,))
t
(i (31.29)) , S(t,q,) (31.3). i
n (31.30) , S(t,q,) (31.30) .
(31.4), (31.5) ( (31.4) n
(31.30)) 2n ( n (31.28)).
(31.30)
dS(t,q,) =

n
X

i (t,q,)dqi H(t,q,(t,q,))dt,

i=1

, 3 , .
Z1 X
n
S(t,q,) = {
qi i (ts,qs,)dqi
(31.31)
0

i=1

tH(ts,qs,(ts,qs,))}ds.
31.1 ,
, (.
(31.31)) (31.6) . , 31.1 20.2, 20.3, 20.5
( ,
). , , (31.28) , .
3 . . .: , 1970.
420 .

183

. , ,
, (. 29.1, 29.2), (31.7). i (t,q,p), i = 1, n,
(31.7) 31.1. ) 30.2: (31.7) ,
i , i qi , pi . ) i (t,q,p) :
(31.4) i , (31.4) ( (31.29))
i = i (t,q,p) pi .
, (31.14) (. 31.6).
31.9.
q = p, p = q

H=

1 2
q
2


1
S
+ q 2 = 0.
t
2
(31.14)
dS0 (t) 1 2
+ q =0
dt
2
. S = S0 (t)S1 (q)
dS0 (t)
1
S1 (q) + q 2 = 0
dt
2
:
S1 =

1 2
1
q , S0 = t, S = q 2 ( t);
2
2
184

1 2
q = , p = q( t);
2
p
p
q = 2, p = 2( t).


, , 31.6, 31.8, , ,
.

.
31.10.
H=

p1 + q2
p2 + q1

(31.32)

(
(31.14))

dS0 (t)
dS1 (q1 )
dS2 (q2 )
+
+ q2
+ q1 = 0.
dt
dq1
dq2
S0 = ht
dS1 (q1 )
dS2 (q2 )
hq1 = h
q2 .
dq1
dq2

S = ht +

1
1
( + hq1 )2 +
( + q2 )2 .
2h
2h

S (31.4) h : H = h,
H (31.32),
p1 p2 q1 q2
= .
p2 + q1

185

(31.33)

(31.5) h (31.32)
hp1 + p2 = 1 ,
1
1
1
t + p1 q1 2 p21 p22 = 2 .
h
2h
2

(31.34)

(31.34) .
(31.32) (31.34) qi (t), pi (t).

186

, ,

..
..


. 6090 1/16.
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. N
- 141700, .., .,
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