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Rational - ,
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I.
1.
1.1. ,
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.


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2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.


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3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.


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4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.


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II.
5.
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.
5.7.
5.8.

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6.1.
6.2.
6.3.


7.
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.
7.6.
7.7.
7.8.
7.9. -


III.
8. :
8.1.
8.2.
8.3.
8.4.

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9. :
9.1.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.

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10. -:
10.1.
10.2.
10.3.
10.4.

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11. :
11.1.
11.2.
11.3.
11.4.

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12. :
12.1.
12.2.

12.3.
12.4.

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.2. Smalltalk 455
.3. Object Pascal
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A.5. Common Lisp Object System (CLOS)
A.6.Ada
A.7. Eiffel
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int. , ,
Ada Eiffel, .

.
, ,
, , .
,
.
,
. ,
. ,
15- 16
78F, 14 , 65F
. , ,
.
, ,
. ,
, .

.
-,
, . ,
- . ,
, . ,
- , .
, , .
, -
.
C++ .
, (, , ,
, ):
// ,
typedef unsigned int Day;
// ,
typedef unsigned int Hour;
//
enum Lights {OFF, ON};
// , 1 14
typedef float pH;
// , : 0 100
typedef float Concentration;

, , :
// ,
struct Condition {
Temperature temperature;
Lights lighting;
pH acidity;
Concentration concentration;
};

, , Condition
, - ,
.

, :
class GrowingPlan (
public:
GrowingPlan (char *name);
virtual
~GrowingPlan();
void clear();
virtual void establish(Day, Hour, const Condition&);
const char* name() const;
const Condition& desiredConditions(Day, Hour) const;
protected:

};

, : ,
. , establish
virtual , .
(public)
( ),
( clear establish) -
( name desiredCondition).
, , ,
.

? GrowingPlan
,
. , ,
, , . ,
. , ,
, .
:
- [50]. , ,
, [51].
:
, .
,
, .
.
, ,
. :
, ,
.
, ;
, [52].
.
, [53]. :
. ,
.
.
: ,
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[54].


, :
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.
. .
,
.
, : ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, - ,
( ),
, .
, .
, .
//
enum Boolean {FALSE, TRUE};

, -
( ).
, ,
, TemperatureSensor. ,
Heater , C++:
class Heater {
public:
Heater(Location);
~Heater();
void turnOn();
void tum0ff();
Boolean is0n() const;
private:
};

, Heater.
. ,
( ),
. ,
,
, . ,
, ,
.
, .
class SerialPort {
public:
SerialPort();
~SerialPort();
void write(char*);
void write(int);
static SerialPort ports[10];
private:
};

,
.
Heater.
class Heater {
public:

protected:
const Location repLocation;
Boolean repIsOn;
SerialPort* repPort;
};
repLocation, repIsOn, repPort

. C++ , ,
, .
.
Heater::Heater(Location 1)
:
repLocation(1),
repIsOn(FALSE),
repPort(&SerialPort::ports[l]) {}
Heater::Heater() {}
void Heater::turnOn()
{
if (!repls0n) {
repPort->write("*");
repPort->write(repLocation);
repPort->write(1);
repIsOn = TRUE;
}
}
void Heater::turn0ff()
{
if (repIsOn) {
repPort->write("*");
repPort->write(repLocation);
repPort->write(0);

repIsOn = FALSE;
}
}
Boolean Heater::is0n() const
{
return repIsOn;
}

: ,
.
, -

.
. C++,
, ,
(
).
GrowingPlan. , , ,
. , -. ,
,
.
: ,
-, , .
, .
,
. , -
, , - ,
. ,
,
.
.
, ,
.
. , Smalltalk
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,
. CLOS ,
. :reader, :writer : accessor, ,
( , ).
. , ,
, ,
CLOS , ,
, , , [55].
C++ .
, . ;
;
. , C++
(friends), .
: ,
, . ; ,
, - ,
- . ; ,

, , [56]. ,
;
, .
, , ,
.

.
... ,

.
[57]. , Smalltalk, ,
. , Object
Pascal, C++, Ada, CLOS, .
, ,
. ,
.
,
, .
:
[58]. ,
, . ,
.
-. , C++
. C/C++
.h ( -). ,
, . ( C++
., . .).
#include. . Object Pascal .
(unit).
Ada : ( package)
. , Object Pascal,
. , , , .
,
. -, :
,
. (, )
, ( ) [59].
,
.
.
, -, -,
(), , 7400, 7402 7404.
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,
, .
, . , , ,

. , 12,


.
.
,
.
. ,
[60].
, .

, ,
. -
: ,
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,
.
,
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;
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, [61].
.
: , .
, , .

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, :

.
, . ,
,
, . .
. ,
. , ,

GUI (Graphical User Interface).
, .
, , ,
. C++ -
( gplan.h).
// gplan.h
#ifndef _GPLAN_H
#define _GPLAN_H 1
#include "gtypes.h"
#include "except.h"

#include "actions.h"
class GrowingPlan ...
class FruitGrowingPlan ...
class GrainGrowingPlan ...
#endif


, : gtypes.h, except .h act ions. h.
, gplan.cpp.
, ,
. ,
gplan.h, - GUI.
, ,
.
. -
, ,
,
. , - , ,
, . , ...
[63].

? , ,
, .
- ,
. ,
. .

. :
, .

( is-a) ( part of).
: . - is-a
. (
/),
(, ).
, ,
.
.
, is-a. ,
, .
, -,
.
; , ,
.
, .
.
. ,
.
, .
C++ ,
.

//
typedef unsigned int Yield;
class FruitGrowingPlan : public GrowingPlan {
public:
FruitGrowingPlan(char* name);
virtual ~FruitGrowingPlan();
virtual void establish(Day, Hour, Condition&);
void scheduleHarvest(Day, Hour);
Boolean isHarvested() const;
unsigned daysUntilHarvest() const;
Yield estimatedYield() const;
protected:
Boolean repHarvested;
Yield repYield;
};



, FruitGrowingPlan
Growingplan. repHarvested
repYield, establish.
,
AppleGrowingPlan.

. , . ,
, ,
.
, . :
"
". , -.
.

,
- [64].
,
. :
, ;
, [65].
: ,
, -. ,
:
, , ,
[66].
- ;
C++.
: (private), ; (protected),
; (public), .
: . , FruitGrowingPlan
Growingplan.
. , ,
.
class Plant {
public:
Plant(char* name, char* species);
virtual ~Plant();
void setDatePlanted(Day);
virtual establishGrowingConditions(const Condition&);
const char* name() const;
const char* species() const;
Day datePlantedt) const;
protected:
char* repName;
char* repSpecies;
Day repPlanted;
private:

};
plant , . ,

.
, ,
C++. ,
, ( ).
, ,
, , ,
. ,
. ,
. (Flower) - (FruitVegetable);
Plant. !
, FlowerFruitVegetable,
Flower FruitVegetablePlant.
,
. -.
class FlowerMixin {
public:
PlowerMixin(Day timeToFlower, Day timeToSeed);
virtual ~`````FlowerMixin() ;
Day timeToFlower() const;

Day timeToSeed() const;


protected:

};
class FruitVegetableMixin {
public:
FruitVegetableMixin(Day timeToHarvest) ;
virtual ~FruitVegetableMixin() ;
Day timeToHarvest() const;
protected:

};

.
, ( Mixin)
. , :
class Rose : public Plant, public FlowerMixin...

:
class Carrot : public Plant, public FruiteVegetableMixin {};

: Rose
Plant, FlowerMixin.
, , :
class Cherry : public Plant,
public FlowerMixin,
FruitVegetableMixin...

,
.
. ,
. C++
, Smalltalk , .
, ,
. ,
?
, ,
C++ .
,
.
. ,
, . : B
, .

.
: . is /, part of () . .
class Garden {
public:
Garden();
virtual ~Garden();
protected:
Plant* repPlants[100];
GrowingPlan repPlan;
};

, .
, ,
[67].
, . , Flower
, Plant. part of

,
. Garden , Plant.
, ,
. -
: ,
.
, .
,
. ,
( ). ,
; ,
Plant, . , , GrowingPlan
Garden .
.
.

? .
, , ,
[68]. ,
.8 , ,
. , ,
:

, .
, ,
, .
, [70].
. ,
[71]. ,
, . ,
. ,
.
.
, ,
-. , Eiffel
, ,
.
. ,
Smalltalk : ,
( ) ,
.
. C++ ,
.
,
. , ;
, ,
, . .
// , 0 100
8

; . ,
Trellis/Owl , . Smalltalk SmallInteger,
LargeNegativeInteger, LargePositiveInteger Integer,
[69]. . ,
.

typedef float Level;

typedef C++ . , Level Concentration


float, .
C++ : , , int float
. , Ada Object Pascal
. Ada
.


:
class StorageTank {
public:
StorageTank();
virtual ~StorageTank();
virtual void fill();
virtual void startDraining() ;
virtual void stopDraining();
Boolean isEmpty() const;
Level level() const;
protected:

};
class WaterTank : public StorageTank {
public:
WaterTank();
virtual ~WaterTank() ;
virtual void fill();
virtual void startDraining();
virtual void stopDraining();
void startHeating();
void stopHeating();
Temperature currentTemperature() const;
protected:

};

class NutrientTank : public StorageTank (


public:
NutrientTank() ;
virtual ~NutrientTank() ;
virtual void startDrainingt();
virtual void stopDraining();
protected:

};

StorageTank .
: . WaterTank (
) NutrientTank ( ) StorageTank,
- : , WaterTank ,
.
, :
StorageTank si, s2;
WaterTank w;
NutrientTank n;

, s1, s2, w n
. , ,
: s1 StorageTank,
s1. .
, C++ . ,
, ,
. , :
Level 1 = s1.level ();
w.startDrainingt();
n.stopDraining();

, ,
. , :
sl.startHeating(); //
n.stopHeating(); //

, .
n.fill();

: fill NutrientTank,
.
, ,
, . . ,
.
, , 3 9,
, . ,
, , . C++: -,
void, .
class Inventory {
public:
Inventory();
~Inventory();
void add(void*) ;
void remove(void*);
void* mostRecent() const;
void apply(Boolean (*)(void*));
private:

};

apply , . . .
Inventory,
.
(), ( ),
. ,
WaterTank TemperatureSensor,
mostRecent WaterTank StorageTank.
, . -,
, .
void, ,
TangibleAsset ( ),
, , ,
WaterTank, GrowingPlan. ,
. -,
, , , .
, Smalltalk . C++
, , ,
, ( ).
,
. ,
, .
,
. , . :
s1 = s2;
s1 = w;

, ,
.
( C++ ),
w, WaterTank, , s1, StorageTank.
:
w = s1; //
w = n; //

, ,
.
. , :
void checkLevel(const StorageTank& s);


, WaterTank.
:
if (((WaterTank&)s).currentTemperature() < 32.0) ...

, .
, s NutrientTank,
. ,
, .
:

.
-- ,
.
.
,
[72].
, , ,
, : ,
[73]. ,

,
.
: .
. ,
( ) ,
. ,
;
( ) ,
.
, : ,
(Ada), , (C++, Object
Pascal), , (Smalltalk). CLOS
C++ Smalltalk: , ,
, .
C++. ,
- , :9
void balanceLevels(StorageTank& s1, StorageTank& s2);

StorageTank
,
StorageTank.
- :
if (s1.level() > s2.level ()) s2.fill();

level?
StorageTank, , ,
, .
, .
fill. StorageTank WaterTank,
. s2
WaterTank, , NutrientTank, StorageTank.
C++ ; fill
, , WaterTank::fill StorageTank::fill.10
:
, , , ,
[74]. ;
(Ada).
,
. -
( ),
. , ,
- .

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.
.

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. ,
: ,
.

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, Smalltalk, , - .

10

C++ .

,
.
,
.
,
. .
, .
, .

,
- . , UNIX
fork, . Windows NT OS/2
;
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OOP . OOP ,
[75]. ,
, ,
, , . .
, : OOP
, -
[76]. . :
, (1)
(2) [77].
, - ,
,
[78]. , :
( )
( ). . ,
OOD, ,
,
. :


, .
. ActiveTemperatureSensor,

,
. , .
, , ,
. - .
-, . , Ada .
Smalltalk process, .

Actors, Orient 84/K, ABCL/1,
. ,
.
-, , -
. , AT&T C++
Shed, Timer, Task . . , , ,
.
(, , ),
.
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- . ,
ActiveTemperatureSensor ,
, , ,
.
, ,
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, [79].
, ,
. :

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[80].

. , -,
-
(OODB, object-oriented databases).
, , ,
, -
,

, .
10, ,
, , ,
, .
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Smalltalk,
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() OODB [81].
- ; ,
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10.
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2.3.

, ,
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. ,
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, .
, . ,
,
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C++.
C++ "


C'' .
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C++ [82]. ,
, Smalltalk, Object Pascal, C++, CLOS Ada ,
, .
-,
,
, [83]. -
, -
. ,
, .
-,
, .

.
-, 7 ,
, ,
, .
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- [84].



. . 2-6 , .
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7.


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. 2-6.
,
.

.

, .
, .
() .


(Jones) [F 1979] (Williams) [F 1986]. () [F 1969]
- .
(Shaw) [J 1984] .
(Liskov and Guttag) [H 1986], (Guttag) [J 1980] Hilfinger [J 1982].
(Parnas) [F 1979] .
(Pattee) [J 1973].
- .
(Cardelli and Wegner) [J 1985] (Wegner) [J 1987]
- .
(Stefik and Bobrow) [G 1986], (Stroustrup) [G 1988], H(Nygaard)[G 1986]
(Grogono) [G 1991] . () [G 1986],()[F
1988],(Schmucker) [G 1986] (Kim and Lochovsky) [F 1989]
.
- (Booch) [F 1981,
1982, 1986, 1987, 1989]. -
(Shiaer and Mellor) [ 1988] (Bailin) [ 1988].
- ;
, (Rumbaugh) [F 1991], (Coad
and Yourdon) [ 1991], (Constantine) [F 1989], (Shlaer and Mellor)
[ 1992], (Martin and Odell) [ 1992], (Wasserman) [ 1991],
(Jacobson) [F 1992], (Rubin and Goldberg) [ 1992], (Embly)
[ 1992], - (Wirfs-Brock) [F 1990], (Goldstein and Adler) [ 1992],
- (Henderson-Sellers) [F 1992], (Firesmith) [F 1992]
(Fusion) [F 1992].
(Taylor) [H 1990,
1992], (Berard) [H 1993], (Love) [ 1993] (Pinson and Weiner)
[ 1990].
-
(Peterson) [G 1987], (Schriver and
Wegner) [G 1987] (Khoshafian and Abnous) [I 1990].
-
. OOPSLA, , TOOLS, Object Word
ObjectExpo.
, : Object Management
Group (OMG) ANSI X3J7.
C++ (Ellis and Stroustrup)
[G 1990]. : (Stroustrup) [G 1991], (Lippman) I [G
1991] (Coplien) [1992].


, ,
. -
.
.
, ,
.

3.1.
?

.
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, [1].

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[2].
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[5].
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.
:
struct PersonnelRecord {
char name[100];
int
socialSecurityNurober;
char department[10];
float salary;
};


.
, , - .2
,
:
PersonnelRecord deb, dave, karen, jim, torn, denise,
kaitlyn, krista, elyse;

,
.
( ),
.
,
, . ,
:
class PersonnelRecord {
public:
char* employeeName() const;
int employeeSocialSecurityNumberf) const;
char* employeeDepartment() const;
protected:
char name[100];
int socialSecurityNumber;
char department[10];
float salary;
};

,
.3 ,
2

, C++,
, . , -
.
3
: , ,
PersonnelRecord - .
. ,
char*, ,
: ,

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:

.
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.
. C++ Queue ():
class Queue {
public:
Queue();
Queue(const Queue&);
virtual ~Queue();
virtual Queue& operator=(const Queue&);
virtual int operator== (const Queue&) const;
int operator!=(const Queue&) const;
virtual void clear();
virtual void append(const void*);
virtual void pop();
virtual void remove(int at);
virtual int length() const;
virtual int isEmpty() const;
virtual const void* front() const;
virtual int location(const void*);
protected:

};


void*,
. -
, ( ) .
, void* "" ,
. ~Queue () ,
. ,
.
Queue , ,
, :
Queue , b, , d;

:
.append(&deb);
.append(&karen);
a. append (&denise);
b = a;
.pop();

( karen),
b - ( deb). ,
, - ,
(pop) , - .
. - ,
.

.4
:

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(- const - clear, append, pop,
remove), ( const - length,
isEmpty, front location). 9, ,
, ,
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;
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/ .
C++
, Smalltalk CLOS
( ).
- , Smalltalk,
,
. , Object
Pascal, C++, CLOS Ada
. C++ -;
.
- ,

. ,
.
. , Queue
:
void copyUntilFound(Queue& from. Queue& to, void* item)
{
while ((!from.isEmpty()) && (from.front() != item))
{
to.append(from.front()) ;
from.pop();
}
}

,
, .
; -
Queue.
C++ ( Smalltalk)
,
. .
4

: ,
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( ) [7].

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struct Point {
int x;
int ;
Point() : x(0), (0) {}
Point(int xValue, int yValue) : x(xValue), y(yValue) {)
};
point , .

, , .
-
, . ,
,
, .
point - (,).
: ,
- .
(Displayltem).
(GUI) -
, .
- , . ,
, ,
.
C++:
class Displayltem {
public:
Displayltem();
Displayltem(const Point& location);
virtual ~Displayltem();
virtual void draw();
virtual void erase();
virtual void select();
virtual void unselect();
virtual void move(const Point& location);
int isSelected() const;
Point location() const;
int isUnder(const Point& location) const;

protected:

};

,
, .
.
, ,
.
draw. ,
. , , isUnder,
, ,
- .
:
DisplayItem item1;
Displayltem* item2 = new DisplayItem(Point(75, 75));
Displayltem* item3 = new Displayltem(Point(100, 100));
Displayltem* item4 = 0;

. 3-1 ,
. ,
item1, item2, item3, item4. iteml
Displayltem, .
, item2 item3
Displayltem. , item2 item3,
, ""
: , *item2. , item2
Displayltem,

. 3-1.

*item2.
( )
, .
:
, ?
(. 3-1 ):
item1.move(item2->location());
item4 = item3;
item4->move(Point(38, 100));
iteml , item2,
. item4
, item3. ,
" item2" ", item2".

,
.
item1 , item2,
, . ,
*item3,
item4. , ,
,
.
- .

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, , , . ,
item3,
item4 ; .
. 3-1 :
item2 = &item1;
item4->move(item2->location());
: item2
, iteml. iteml

. , , - ,
item2,
, , . Smalltalk CLOS ,
, .
C++ ,
, .
, , ,
.5
, .
, .
-
. , :
void highLight(DisplayItem& i);
void drag(DisplayItem i); //

iteml,
:
i ,
iteml i
. iteml
, iteml: i
, , iteml. C++
.
, ,
.6 ,
C++ .
,
, , ,
, (
, ).
, ,
. C++
. ,
, ,
Displayitem:
Displayltem(const Displayltem&);

C++ (
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,
5


.
. ,
, , .

.
6
Smalltalk
C++.

, . ,
,
,
. :
,
,
.
,
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Smalltalk shallowCopy ( ,
) deepCopy (
, - ).
, ""
, "" .
- , , . C++
. ,
DisplayItem :
virtual DisplayItem& operator=(const Displayltem&);

, ,
.
, "" "".
,
.
.
, . -,
. -,
. . 3-1
iteml item2.
item2 item3 .
C++ ,
,
:
virtual int operator=(const Displayltem&) const;
int operator!=(const Displayltem&) const;

(
, ),
( ,
:
).

>= <=.
.
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. .
-, ( item1):
. -, item3,
, "". C++
,
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, .
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-:
, .

C++
, . C++
new,
"" .
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, , ""
new, :
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, , .
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.
C++
. ,
, , , .7

. ,
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,

- .

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, .

3.2.

:
.
: " ,
, ,
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.
,
: ,
, .
:

.

"/" [15].

, new,
.

. ,
"
" [16]. ,
. , -
, -
.
. 3-2 .
.
( ) .
aController Displayltem
( ). , , , aView,
.
.

( ; ).
5,
.8 ,
(
aController), . ,
aController move ,
,
isUnder b, .
,
:
9 ,
;

. 3-2.

,
,
; , -
- - .
. 3-2 aController , -
aView - .
8

, . 3-2,
, . Smalltalk
MVC, model/view/controller
(//). ,
.
9
Actor - , . , . ..

.
.
, .
;
, .
,
. ,
.
//
typedef unsigned int Minute;
TemperatureRamp,

:
class TemperatureRamp {
public:
TemperatureRamp() ;
virtual ~TenperatureRamp() ;
virtual void clear();
virtual void bind (Temperature, Minute);
Temperature TemperatureAt(Minute);
protected:

};

,
, , .
,
. , , ,
60- 250F, 180- - 150F.
, 120- ?
,
.
, ,
, .
,
: TemperatureRamp, .
TemperatureController :
class TemperatureController {
public:
TemperatureController(Location);
~TemperatureController();
void process(const TemperatureRamp&) ;
Minute schedule(const TemperatureRamp&) const;
private:

};
Location 2. ,


.
process ;
- ,
. , :
TemperatureRamp growingRamp;
TemperatureController rampController(7) ;
:
growingRamp. bind (250, 60);
growingRamp.bind(150, 180);
rampController.process(growingRamp) ;

rampController - ,
, growingRamp
. , rampController
growingRamp .
.
, - ,
.
schedule , .
TemperatureController ,
,
.
(, ) ,
,
. schedule,
TemperatureController,
.
. .
, , - .
,
, .
rampController
growingRamp,
, growingRamp rampController
.
.
.
( )
.
.
.
-
.
.
, , , , .

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,
, .
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.
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.
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;
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, , .
9 .

. ,
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,
, , (),
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. . 3-3 rampController

. 3-3.
growingRamp h Heater
(). rampController - , a h- .
, h - rampController.
rampController, . h
( ),
h.

, . , ,
. , -
, .
, . ,
, , ,
.
- -
. ,
. ,
. , .
, (),
.
.
. TemperatureController
:
Heater h;

TemperatureController
. Heater

,
.
TemperatureController :
TemperatureController::TemperatureController(Location 1) :
h(1) {}

3.3.
?
,
.

,

. ,
,
. ,
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.
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:
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. [18]. ,
, 5,
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[19] [20]
:

. ,
.
, -
.
,
.

, , ,
. - ,
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, , ,
. , ,
, .
, .
:
(public) - ;
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(friends);
(private) - .

.
, .
, C++
. ,

.
, , , .
Ada . Smalltalk
- , - . Object Pascal
, . CLOS
, ,
.

, .
, .
,
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: .
, , :
10

,
.
- ,
. ,
, ,
. , .

Displayltem item1;

, .
,
, , . ,
.
, ,
. Smalltalk
, Object Pascal - , C++ - , CLOS - .
.


,
. (
DisplayItem
TemperatureController)
, . ,
,
, ,
,
. 5,
, .

3.4.

: ,
, , , .
:
- .
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- .
.
,
.
, , ,
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,
[21].
. -,
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, , , .
[22]. , "/" ( ),
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. -, ,
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, , . : - ,
.

. ,
:





.
,
,
. , [23].

. 6,
, ,
- .
, ,
. . ,
, ,
. ,
.
,
. Ada, Eiffel C++,
, , ,
. "" ,
Smalltalk

. 3-4.
CLOS. - ,
.

. ,
- . . 3-4
, . Product - ,
, Sale - ,
. , :
, , ,
, , .
C++ ,
[24].
:
class Product;
class Sale;
class Product {
public:


protected:
Sale* lastSale;
};
class Sale {
public:

protected:
Product** productSold;
};

"--":
,
Sale .
. ,
- . , (
, , ,
) ,
( , ,
).
. , , (
) .
. "
". ( , ,
).
:
"--"
"--"
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,
Sale CreditCardTransaction:
.
"--" . ,
Customer ()
Saleperson ( ),
.
5, .

.

(, )
( , -, ,
. .).
. ,
, (
)
.
,
:
class Time...
struct ElectricalData {
Time timeStamp;
int id;

float fuelCelllVoltage, fuelCell2Voltage;


float fuelCelllAmperes, fuelCell2Amperes;
float currentPower;
};

. -,
ElectricalData ,
, timeStamp currentPower
(, ,
). -,
, (
) .
, , . ,
, ,
. ,
.
( ,
. .),
. , ,
-


,
. ,

- , -
.

,
.
.
,
;
, :

class TelemetryData {
public:
TelemetryData() ;
virtual ~TelemetryData();
virtual void transmit() ;
Time currentTime() const;
protected:
int id;
Time timeStamp;
};

, ,
( ) transmit
currentTime, . id
timeStamp -
. , currentTlrne ,
timeStamp ( ).
ElectricalData:
class ElectricalData : public TelemetryData {
public:
ElectricalData(float vl, float v2, float al, float a2);
virtual ~ElectricalData();
virtual void. transmit();
float currentPower () const;
protected:
float fuelCelllVoltage, fuelCell2Voltage;
float fuelCelllAmperes, fuelCell2Amperes;
};
- TelemetryData,

( ), -
( transmit). ,
currentPower.
. , -
,
( )
( ) . ,
, . , TelemetryData.
ElectricalData.
. ,
.
ElectricalData
TelemetryData. ,
.
- .

. ,
GuardedQueue Queue ,

. :
UnselectableDisplayltem
Displayitem, .
, .
TelemetryData
. 3-5. .
, Cameradata - SensorData,
TelemetryData.
,

[25]. 4 ,
- .
, . 3-5
, - .
-

. 3-5.
ElectricalData SpectrometerData (
,
). ,
(SensorData TelemetryData), .
, , .
,
, . Smalltalk
,
SubclassResponsibility.
,
. , C++
. ,
.
.
,
. ,
C++, -
,
.
,
. Smalltalk object.
[26]:

.
[27]. ,
-,
. ,
C++: ,
, .
Smalltalk :
, , (
, ).

.

. , , -
, .
,
. ElectricalData
(id timeStamp)
(fuelCelllVoltage, fuelCell2Voltage,
fuelCelllAmperes, fuelCell2Amperes).11
.
ElectricalData
currentTime ( ), currentPower (
) transmit ( ).
,
. Smalltalk
.
C++ . ,
( transmit ),
, (currentTime) - .
. transmit
TelemetryData :
void TelemetryData::transmit()
{
// id
// timeStamp
};
ElectricalData :
void ElectricalData::transmit()
{
TelemetryData::transmit();
//
//
};


TelemetryData:: transmit ().
(id timeStamp),
.
:
TelemetryData telemetry;
ElectricalData electrical(5., -5.0, 3.0, 7.0);

:
void transmitFreshData (TelemetryData& d, const Time& t)
{
if (d.currentTime() >= t)
d.transmit() ;
);

, ?
transmitFreshData(telemetry, Time(60));
transmitFreshData(electrical, Time(120));

.
,
, .
? transmitFreshData
, d,transmit ()!
. d .
11

- ,
, .

, ,
, .
, "
Pascal , ,
, .
,
.

" [28]. ad hoc
[29], -, ,
"+", .
. , C++
,
.
; Ada
.
, .

case switch. , Pascal
;
,
. ,
. Pascal TransmitFreshData
:
const
Electrical = 1;
Propulsion =2;
Spectrometer = 3;
Procedure Transmit_Presh_Data(TheData : Data; The_Tiime :
Time);
begin
if (The_Data.Current_Time >= The_Time)
then
case TheData.Kind of
Electrical:
Transmit_Electrical_Data(The_Data);
Propulsion:
Transmit_Propulsion_Data(The_Data);
end
end;

,
,
case. ,
.
,
. ,
" ,
" [30].
, .
, .
Ada, , -
.
.

. C++
.

, , ,
. ,
. .
.
transmit:
void ElectricalData::transmit()
{
TelemetryData:: transmit ();
//
//
};

-

- . ,
,
. Smalltalk
super,
self. C++
,
, (
TelemetryData:: transmit () ).
this.

.
.12
. 3-5
. , ElectricalData TelemetryData.
, ,
--


(. 3-6),
circle, Triangle Rectangle. Rectangle
- SolidRectangle. ,
DisplayItem theCenter (
), :
draw -
move -
location - .
location
. ,
, , draw move
.

12

CLOS
: before,: after : around.
,
. Before- , after- -
, around-- ,
call-next-method.

. 3-6. Display Item

Circle theRadius
(set) .
draw
theCenter. Rectangle theHeight
theWidth .
draw
theCenter.
SolidRectangle Rectangle, draw
. draw
, .
:
Displayltem* items[10] ;
for (unsigned index = 0; index < 10; index++) items[index]->draw() ;
draw .
,
DisplayItem. ,
. -
draw. ,
,
,
. , .
Smalltalk ,
. draw
, :

;
, ;
, .
,
object, "" .
, doesNotUnderstand,
, .

. ,
, . Smalltalk
1.5 , .

Smalltalk 20-30%
[31].
draw solidRectangle
. ,
Rectangle. Smalltalk
super. super draw
.
,
85% ,
[32]. ,
,
[33]. ,
.
, C++,
.
,
.
C++
(virtual),
. draw - , a location . ,
.
(inline), ,
.
C++
vtable ( ),
( ).
. ,
Rectangle
draw,
draw. DisplayItem
rotate, Rectangle ,
rotate
DisplayItem.


[34].
draw SolidRectangle
C++. draw ,
, .
:
Rectangle::Draw();
,
[35].

-
;
.

CLOS, : : before, : after, :
around.
. CLOS, ,
:
.
.


.
: before.

.
: after.
[36].
CLOS ,
. , ,
. : ",
CLOS, ,
,
, " [37].
, C++. Smalltalk,
, .
,

. C++:
TelenetryData telemetry;
ElectrycalData electrical (5.0, -5.0, 3.0, 7.0);

:
telemetry = electrical; //electrical -
telemetry

, :

. , ,
electrical, ,
telemetry acca TelemetryData.
:
electrical= telemetry; //: telemetry-
electrical

,
-, y
.

,
,
/. C++ ,
. ,
,
.
,
.
.
,
()
.13
,
. ,
, set bag,
. (
, void*, ,
Queue). ,
13

C++,
, .

, .
,
- , , ,
,
.
, -
.

,
. , C++,
, .
. -
. :
"
- ,
,
, , " [38].
.
, ,
- .
, : "
, ,
, .

. :
,
" [39]. Smalltalk CLOS
. C++ . ,
public ( ElectricalData ).
,
,

.
private, ,
, ,
-.14 ,
,
. , ,
, ,
( ) .
:
class InternalElectricalData : private ElectricalData {
public:
InternalElectricalData(float vl, float v2, float al,
float a2);
virtual "InternalElectricalData() ;
ElectricalData::currentPower;
};
ElectricalData .
, , , , transmit,
. InternalElectricalData
ElectricalData,

,
14

, ,
,
.

. , currentPower
. .
, C++
" ", . , timeStamp,
TelemetryData ,
(
currentpower).
Ada
.
, .
,
, .
,

.
. ,
, ,
. , : "

.

. ,
,
; -
" [40].
C++
CLOS, , , Smalltalk.
OOP .
, - : ,
, , , ,
.
,
- ,
, .
. ,
,
- .

. - ,
( , ,
). - ;
.
,
, 15.
. 3-7. Security (
) InterestBearingltem
( ) Asset (). ,
15

, - " " .
, ()
(
,
) ,
,
- .
, ,
, .

BankAccount ( ) :
Insurableltem () Asset
InterestBearingltem.

C++. :
class Asset ...
class Insurableltem ...
class InterestBearingltem ...

;
:
class BankAccount :

class RealEstate :
class Security :

public
public
public
public
public
public
public

Asset,
Insurableltem ,
InterestBearingltem ...
Asset,
Insurableltem ...
Asset,
InterestBearingltem ...

,:
class SavingsAccount : public BankAccount . . .
class CheckingAccount : public BankAccount ...
class Stock : public Security ...
class Bond : public Security ...

. 3-7.
, .
-

.
,
( ) .
, Asset, Insurableltem
presentValue, .
RealEstate ,
? , ,
:
.

. -,
(
Smalltalk Eiffel, Eiffel , ).
-, ,
( CLOS). ,
, ,
. C++.16
, ,
: "
,
. ,
- D, ,
, , .
, " [41].
:
class MutualFund :

public Stock,
public Bond ...
security.

. , , .
Smalltalk Eiffel ( Eiffel, -
). -,
,
- ( , C++). -,
,
. C++,
.
, -
,
, - (shared) . , CLOS
"" ,
.
,
:
;

.
,
,
[43].
. ,
.
,
- .
(, ), .

(mixin). Flavors:
() ,
. : "
, .
" [44]. . 3-7
Insurableltem interestBearingltem - .
16

C++
. -
.

,
.17 , - ,
, - ,
.
. ,
, .

. DisplayIem:
virtual void draw();

.
, ,
. - ,
, , , (. ).
,
, , , .
draw
, .
,
, - .
, , drawGraphic drawText,
, . , ,
,
Displayltem.
CLOS . ,
(,
). C++ ,
.
,
DisplayDevice,
Displayltem :
virtual void draw(DisplayDevice&);

,

Displayltem, : draw
,
Displayltem ,
,
DisplayDevice .
.

.
.
TemperatureController:
class TemperatureController {
public:
TemperatureController(Location) ;
~TemratureController();
void process(const TemperatureRamp&);
Minute schedule(const TemperatureRamp&) const;
17

CLOS
, : before- : after.

private:
Heater h;
};

. 3-8.
. 3-8, TemperatureController ,
, , Heater - .

. 3-3.
. TemperatureController
;
, Heater
TemperatureController.
.
TemperatureController :18
Heater* h;

TemperatureController -
, , Heater, .
:
.
-
,
. , - .
,
"/". Heater TemperatureController,
. "",
- (
).19
, ,
, , . ,
, . ,
,

.
. , Shareholder ()
.
. " "
: ( )
18

h
(Heater& C++),
.
19

. ,
,
,
.

. 3-9.
"/" ,
.
.
, C++ ( )
.
, - -
. , (is
), - .

. rampController
growingRamp ,

TemperatureController TemperatureRamp.
class TemperatureController {
public:
TemperatureController(Location) ;
~TemperatureController();
void process(const TemperatureRamp&);
Minute schedule(const TemperatureRamp&) const;
private:
Heater h;
};
TemperatureRamp -

process;
, TemperatureController
TemperatureRamp.
.
. ,
, , ()
(). -
. 3-9.
, -.
.
, TemperatureController
schedule , , Predictor
(). ,
TemperatureController, .
,
-
.
,
.

,
, , "" C++.

. Queue
() ,
.
, ,
C++ Eiffel.
Template<class Item>
class Queue {
public:
Queue() ;
Queue(const Queue<Item>&);
virtual ~Queue();
virtual Queue<Item>& operator=(const Queue<Item>&);
virtual int operator==(const Queue<Item>&) const;
int operator!=(const Queue<Item>&) const;
virtual void clear();
virtual void append(const Item&);
virtual void pop();
virtual void remove(int at);
virtual int length() const;
virtual int isEmpty() const;
virtual const Item& front() const;
virtual int location(const void*);
protected:

};
void*,
item,

.
,
-. -
:
Queue<int> intQueue;
Queue<DisplayItem*> itemQueue;
intQueue itemQueue -

, .
, Queue.
, 9,
. ,
DisplayItem, , "",
.

. 3-10.
.
C++
- , , DisplayItem.
Queue,
DisplayItem itemQueue
. 3-10.
.
, Queue. -,
. C++,
, , "
" [45], ,
,
. -,
, Smalltalk [46].
,
;
.
Object Pascal,
, ,
.
, Smalltalk, ,
. ,
, CLU.
-
; ,
.
. C++ Eiffel.
. 3-10,
Queue ,
, DisplayItem.
.
, - ,

, [47]. ,
, , .

. ,
[48].

. ,
. ,
,

. C++
,
. ,
, .
( Item),
(
). - Item ,
. ,
, ,
.

, -
. ,
? , ?
- . , - ,
.
- . , Smalltalk
CLOS, C++.
: "
. ,
, , ,
, " [49].
Smalltalk -
(
),
[50]. , Smalltalk
. , .
3-11, nextId
TelemetryData,
TelemetryData. ,
,
, ,
.
C++ ,
, ,
. C++ ,
. , C++
(static), :
. C++
Smalltalk. -
Smalltalk.
, CLOS
Smalltalk. :
, . -
,
.

. 3-11.
CLOS standard-class,
,
defclass. makeinstance, . ,
. .
CLOS
. ,
, ,
, .
standard-method,
standard-generic-function.
,
.

3.5.

- , .
, - ;
.
,
. ,
. ,
, .

.
- , ,
.
.
, , ,
, ,
.
, , .
.
, . ,
, .

,
.
, ,
.

( ), -
( ).

.
: .
, ,
,
.
: ,
.

3.6.

"
;

" [51]. -
,
,
.
,
, .
. 4
7 , ,
. ,
,
. , ,
,
.
, ,
:




.
,
-
. ,
" .

.
" [52].
-,
,
[53].
-
, .
.

, ;
, ,
, .

. -
( OOD ),
.
,
. ,
.
,
.
, , Dog ,
, , , .

, .

. ,
.
set ().
, , ,
.
, ,
.
.
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
. .
,
. , set Add
( ) ,
,
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, . ,
,
,
.20

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. . ,
, , ,
, .

.

, .
. ,
. .
:
20


( ). - . .

,
;
, .
"
( ) (
)" [54].
-
,
. ,
, , .
0'
:

?


?


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?
, ,
. Object Pascal, C++,
CLOS Ada
( ). , C++, -
, .
,
.
,
.
. ,
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,
, -
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,
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.
, ,21
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:
21

Ada Smalltalk . C++


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( ):
AT&T C++.



;


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, , ,



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,
, .


.
. , X Y
M, Y,
.

. ,

(, ).
, .
,
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" [56].
, .

.
,
, ,
.
.
[57].
, [58].
. ,
, , , ,
.
"" ,
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.
,
. , Car ()
, Engine () wheel
()? .
, "
,
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- , ,
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Queue<char> characterQueue;
typedef Queue<MetworkEvent> EventQueue;
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template

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unsigned int length() const;
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const Item& itemAt(unsigned int) const;
Item& itemAt(unsigned int);
int location(const Item&) const;
static void* operator new(size_t);
static void operator delete(void*, size_t);
protected:
Item rep[Size] ;
unsigned int start;
unsigned int stop;
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unsigned int expandRight(unsigned int from);
void shrinkLeft(unsigned int from);
void shrinkRight(unsigned int from);
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public:
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BoundedQueue(const BoundedQueue< Item, Size>&);
virtual ~BoundedQueue() ;
virtual Queue<Item>& operator=(const Queue<Item>&);
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Size>&) ;
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const;
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virtual void remove(unsigned int at);
virtual unsigned int available() const;
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virtual int isEmpty() const;
virtual const Item& front() const;
virtual int location(const Item&) const;
protected:
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virtual void purge();
virtual void add(const Item&);
virtual unsigned int cardinality() const;
virtual const Item& itemAt(unsigned int) const;
static void* operator new(size_t);
static void operator delete(void*, size_t);
};

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:
template<class Item, unsigned int Size>
unsigned int BoundedQueue<Item, Size>::length() const
{
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class Unbounded {
public:

protected:
Node<Item, StorageManager>* rep;
Node<Item, StorageManager>* last;
unsigned int size;
Node<Item, StorageManager>* cache;
unsigned int cacheIndex;
};
Unbounded ,
(Node) :
template<class Item, class StorageManager>
class Node {
public:
Node(const Item& i,
Node<ltem, StorageManager>* previous, Node<Item,
StorageManager>* next);
Item item;
Node<Item, StorageManager>* previous;
Node<ltem, StorageManager>* next;
static void* operator new(size_t);
static void operator delete(void*, size_t);
};

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StorageManager
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:
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public:
static void* allocate(size_t s)
{return ::operator new(s);} static void deallocate(void*
p, size_t) {::operator delete(p);}
private:
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public:
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~Pool();
void* allocate(size_t);
void deallocate(void*, size_t);
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void reclaimUnusedChunks();
void purgeUnusedChunks();
size_t chunkSize() const;
unsigned int totalChunks() const;
unsigned int numberOfDirtyChunks() const;
unsigned int numberOfUnusedChunks() const;
protected:
struct Element ... struct Chunk ...
Chunk* head;
Chunk* unusedChunks;

size_t repChunkSize;
size_t usableChunkSize;
Chunk* getChunk(size_t s);
};

Element chunk ().


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:
class Managed {
public:
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static void* allocate(size_t s)
{return pool.allocate(s); } static void deallocate(void*
p, size_t s)
{pool.deallocate(p, s);}
private:
Managed() {}
Managed(Managed&) {}
void operator=(Managed&) {}
void operator==(Managed&) {}
void operator!=(Managed&) {} };
, Unmanaged. -

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UnboundedQueue, ,

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Managed
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Exception (),
:
class Exception {
public:
Exception(const char* name, const char* who, const char*
what);
void display() const;
const char* name() const;
const char* who() const;
const char* what() const;
protected:

};


. ,

.

,
Exception:

ContainerError
Duplicate
IllegalPattern
IsNull
LexicalError
MathError
NotFound
NotNull
NotRoot
Overflow
RangeError
StorageError
Underflow
overflow ()

:
class Overflow : public Exception {
public:
Overflow(const char* who, const char* what)
: Exception("Overflow", who, what) {}
};

,
.
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; ,
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.
,
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:
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exception)
{
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throw(exception);
}

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(-D C++)
throw --,
:
void _catch(const Exception& e)
{
cerr << "EXCEPTION: ";
e.display();
exit(l);
}

insert Bounded:
template<class Item, unsigned int Size>
void Bounded<ltem, Size>::insert(const Item& item)
{
unsigned int count = length();
_assert((count < Size), Overflow("Bounded::Insert",
"structure is full"));

if (!count)
start = stop = 1;
else
{
start--;
if (!start)
start = Size;
}
rep[start - 1] = item;
}

, ,
. ,
Overflow.
,
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insert, , , ,
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template <class Item> class QueueActiveIterator {
public:
QueueActiveIterator(const Queue<Item>&);
~QueueActiveIterator();

"" .
.
void reset();
int next() ;
int isDone() const;
const Item* currentltem() const;
protected:
const Queue<Item>& queue;
int index;
};


. "" ,
.
currentItem
;
, .

next ( , ,
, - , ). isDone
: 0,
. reset
.
, :
BoundedQueue<NetworkEvent> eventQueue;

,
, :
QueueActiveIterator<NetworkEvent> iter(eventQueue);
while (!iter.isDone()) {
iter.currentItem()->dispatch();
iter.next();
}

, . 9-9,
, ,
. .
QueueActiveIterator
.
cardinality,
. ,
:
template<class Item>
QueueActiveIterator<ltem>::QueueActiveIterator(const
Queue<Item>& q)
:queue(q), index(q.cardinality() ? : -1) {}

QueueActiveIterator
cardinality Queue, .
isDone
,
:
template<class Item>

. 9-9.
int
{

QueueActiveIterator<Item>::isDone() const
return ((index < 0) II (index >= queue.cardinality()));

currentItem ,
.

:
template<class Item>
const Item* QueueActiveIterator<Item>::currentItem () const
{
return isDone() ? 0 : &queue.itemAt(index);
}


, itemAt. , currentItem
,
. itemAt
.
itemAt . ,
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,
( )
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next ,
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:
template<class Item>
int QueueActiveIterator<Item>::next()
{
index++;
return !isDone();
}

, ,
Queue: cardinality itemAt.
,
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,
, ,

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,
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:
template<class Item>
Queue<Item>& Queue<Item>::operator=(const Queue<Item>& q)
{
if (this == &q)
return *this;
((Queue<Item>&)q).lock();
purge();
QueueActiveIterator<Itea> iter(q);
while (!iter.isDone()) {
add(*iter.currentltem());
iter.next();
} ((Queue<Item>&)q).unlock();
return *this;
}

,
.

, q.
purge ,
add
. ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
. Queue
:
template <class Item>
class QueuePassiveIterator {
Public:
QueuePassiveIterator(const Queue<Item>&);
~QueuePassiveIterator();
int apply(int (*)(const Item&));
Protected:
const Queue<Item>& queue;
};


() . , apply
,

( apply
, ).


,
. UNIX, OS/2 Windows NT
"" 26.

: ,
, .

, ;

.

:
, ,

Semaphore () . ,
,

( , ).

.
Semaphore,
:
class Semaphore {
public:
Semaphore ();
Semaphore (const Semaphore&);
Semaphore (unsigned int count);
~Semaphore ();
void seize(); // void release(); //
unsigned int nonePending() const;
protected:
};

, ,
.
Guard (),
Semaphore
.
Monitor,
Semaphore, , ,
.
. 9-3,

Guard.
- seize () release (),
.
GuardedUnboundedQueue,
UnboundedQueue:
template<class Item, class StorageManager, class Guard>
class GuardedUnboundedQueue : public UnboundedQueue<Item,
StorageManager> {
public:
GuardedUnboundedQueue ();
virtual ~GuardedUnboundedQueue ();
virtual void seize();
virtual void release();
protected:
Guard guard;
};


: semaphore.

.
. 9-10
; , ,

:
, ,
( ,

. 9-10.
).
,
. , ,
,
; ,
,
.
, ,
.
- .
, ,

.
,
, , ,
.
,
,
.
.
Semaphore,
, .
,
.

.
-, ,
semaphore ( ).
;
.
,
,
,
. ,
- :
.
,
,
,
.
, ,
.

, -
,
-,
:
class Monitor {
public:
Monitor();
Monitor(const Monitor&);
virtual ~Monitor();
virtual void seizeForReading() = 0;
virtual void seizeForWriting() = 0;
virtual void releaseFromBeadingt() = 0;
virtual void releaseFromWritingt() = 0;
protected:

};

:


,
.


,
.
;
-. ;
-. ,
.

Monitor.
Semaphore.
,
-
:
. , ,
. ,

,
,
.
,
. 9-11.
ReadLock WriteLock
-.
, ,
,
.
ReadLock:
class ReadLock {
public:
ReadLock (const Monitor& m)
: monitor(m) {monitor.seizeForReadingt);} ~ReadLock ()
(monitor.releaseFromReading();}
private:
Monitor& monitor;
};

. 9-11.
,
.
WriteLock , ,
.
-
"" ,
. length
:
template<class Item, class StorageManager, class Monitor>
unsigned int SynchronizedUnboundedQueue<Item, StorageManager,
Monitor>::length() const
{
ReadLock lock(monitor);
return UnboundedQueue<Item, StorageManager>::length();
}

, .
9-11. , ReadLock
, WriteLock -
.
,
,
, -
/.
, ,
,
,
. .
, ,
,
;
-.

" ". ,

,
,
. , ,
-
.
operator= ,
:

template<class Item>
Queue<Item>& Queue<Item>::operator=(const Queue<Item>& q)
{
if (this == &q)
return *this;
}

-,
, , ,
.
, lock unlock,
.
;
.
operator=
, :
q)

template<class Item>
Queue<Item>& Queue<Item>::operator=(const Queue<Item>&
{
((Queue<Item>&)q).lock();
((Queue<Item>&)q),unlock();
return *this;
}

,
const .

9.3.

,
, ,
.
(, , )
,
27.

. ,
(. 6),
.
, Set :
setHashFunction

.
clear
.
add
.
remove
.
setUnion
.
intersection
.
difference
,
.
extent
.
isEmpty
1, .
isMember
1,
.

isSubset
1,
.
1,
isProperSubset
.
BinaryTree:
.
clear
.
insert
append
.
remove
.
share
.
.
swapChild
child
.
leftChild
.
rightChild
.
.
parent
setItem
,
.
1, .
hasChildren
1, .
isNull
isShared
1,
.
isRoot
1, .
itemAt
,
.
.

, (. 3).


,
, , ,
Bounded Unbounded, .
, ,
,
,
.
, , :

.
, "" :
"" ,
- .
Dynamic

, (
) ,
(
).
,
Bounded Unbounded,
.
(, DynamicString, GuardedDynamicString,
SynchronizedDynamicString). ,
:

template<class Item, class StorageManager> class Dynamic


{ Public:
Dynamic(unsigned int chunkSize);
Protected:
Item* rep;
unsigned int size;
unsigned
int totalChunks;
unsigned
int chunkSize;
unsigned
int start;
unsigned
int stop;
void resize(unsigned int currentLength,
unsigned int newLength, int preserve
- 1);
unsigned
int expandLeft(unsigned int from);
unsigned
int expandRight(unsigned int from);
void shrinkLeft(unsigned int from);
void shrinkRight(unsigned int from);
};


chunkSize. ,
.
, Dynamic
Bounded Unbounded.
.
.
,
. ,
, .
, .
- .
, .
, - ,
, .
, -
, .

:
template<class Item, class Value, unsigned int Buckets,
class Container> class Table { public:
Table(unsigned int (*hash)(const Item&))
void setHashFunction(unsigned int (*hash)(const Item&));
void clear();
int bind(const Item&, const Value&);
int rebind(const Item&, const Value&);
int unbind(const Item&);
Container* bucket(unsigned int bucket);
unsigned int extent() const;
int isBound(const Item&) const;
const Value* valueOf(const Item&) const;
const Container *const bucket(unsigned int bucket)
const;
protected:
Container rep[Buckets];
};

Container
-

. (
) ,
Table Unbounded:
template<class Item, class Value, unsigned int Buckets,
class StorageManager> class UnboundedMap : public
Map<Item, Value> { public:
UnboundedMap();
virtual int bind(const Item&, const Value&);
virtual int rebind(const Item&, const Value&);
virtual int unbind(const Item&);
protected:
Table<Item, Value, Buckets, Unbounded<Pair<Item, Value>,
StorageManager> > rep;
};
Table
unbounded. . 9-12 .


Table
.

. 9-12.


,
; -. ,
Table,
.
,
. ,
,
, .
- ,
, [16].

, .
,
.

. :



.
0(), - - .
--

0(+). (Knuth-Morris-Pratt) ,
.
-

(-)
0((+)), 1 .
,
.

: (
, ),
,
( ),
( ,
, ).
. ,
, .
, ,
,
. operator==,
PersormelRecord, , ,
, , ,
.
,
( ) ,
. , ,
,

. :
template<class Item, class Sequence> class PatternMatch
{ public:
PatternMatch();
PatternMatch(int ( *isEqual)(const Item& x, const Item&
y));
virtual ~PatternMatch();
virtual void setIsEqualFunction(int (*)(const Item& x,
const Item& y));
virtual int
match(const Sequence& target, const Sequences; pattern,
unsigned int start = 0) = 0;
virtual int
match(const Sequence&; target, unsigned int start = 0) =
;
protected:
Sequence rep;
int (*isEqual)(const Item& x, const Item& y);
private:
void operator=(coust PattemMatcb&) {} void
operator==(const PatternMatch&) {} void operator!=(const
PatternMatch&) {}
};


,
. ,
.

,
-:
template<class Item, class Sequence>
class BMPatternMatch ; public PatternMatch<ltem,
Sequence> {
public:
BMPatternMatch();
BMPattemMatch(int (*isEqual) (const Item& x, const Item&
y));
virtual ~BMPattemMatch();
virtual int
match(const Sequence& target, const Seque unsigned int
start = 0);
virtual int
match(const Sequence& target, unsigned in
Protected:
unsigned int length;
unsigned int* skipTable;

. 9-13.
void preprogress(const Sequence& pattern);
unsigned int itemsSkip(const Sequence& pattern,const
Item& item);
};


. ,

.
,
.
.
. 9-13 .
.
,
,
.

9.4.

, , ,
. ,

,

, ,
. ,
,
.


.
.
,
- ,
,
,
.
,
,
.
, . -,
,
. -, ,
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.
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-
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,
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.
,
(
-
).
,
-. ,
,
, . ,
,
.
. 9-14 ,
. persist
Queue;
Queue :
friend class Persist<ltem, Queue<Item>

>;


- Queue.
,
Persist .
persist
put get,
. :
template<class Item, class Structure> class Persist {
Public:
Persist();
Persist(iostream& input, iostream& output);
virtual ~Persist();
virtual void setInputStream(iostream&);
virtual void setOutputStream(iostream&);

. 9-14.
virtual void put (Structure&);
virtual void get (Structure&);
protected:
iostream* inStreain;
iostream* outStream;
};

,
Structure,
. , Persist
purge, cardinality, itemAt, lock, unlock.
:
Structure , persist

.
Persist::put:
template<class Item, class Structure>
void Persist<Item, Structure>:put(Structure& s)
{
s.lock() ;
unsigned int count = s.cardinality();
(*outStream) " count " endl;
for (unsigned int index = 0; index < count; index++)
(*outStream)
s.unlock() ;
}

" s.itemAt(index);


, ,
. :
, , ,
. persist:: get
:
template<class Item, class Structure> void Persist<ltem,
Structure>::get(Structure& s)
{
s.lock() ;

unsigned int count;


Item item;
if (! inStream->eof()) {
(*inStream) " count;
s.purge() ;
for (unsigned int index = 0; (index < count) && (!
inStream->eof()); index++) { (*inStream) " item;
s.add(item);
} } s.unlock () ;
}

,
,
.
.

, .
:
, .
.
,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
.


(Biggerstaffand Perlis) [H 1989]

. - (Wirfs-Brock) [ 1988]
- . (Johnson) [G 1992]

.
[G 1989] Macintosh
-
.
(Schmucker) [G 1986].
(Goldstein and Alger) [ 1992]
-
Macintosh.
: ( (Meirowitz)
[ 1986]), ( (Yoshida) [ 1988]),
( (Young) [ 1987]), (
(Ferrel) [ 1989]). : ++ (
(Weinand) [ 1989]) MVC- ( (Shan)
[G 1989]). (Coggins) [ 1990] , ,
C++.
-
(Lewis) [
1992].

10

:
-
, ,
.
().
, ,
:
,
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, .
,
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.
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[1]. - (MIS,
management information system) , -

-.

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.
, ,
.
, , ,
,
.

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(. 7).


"",
.
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.

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;
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).

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- .
, , POSIX (Portable Operating System
Interface, ), OSI (Open Systems
Interconnection, ), CORBA (Common Object Request
Broker, ), -
SQL (SQL3), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding,
) Microsoft.30

. , ,
.
-:
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-, .
, ,
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[4].

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.31
: ,
( ),
80% , ,

.
.
. 10-2 ,
.
.
(aCustomer) (anAgent),
, :
(aCustomerRecord), (inventoryDatabase)
(aPackingOrder),

. 10-2.

. 10-3.
.
.
. 10-3 .
. ,
.
, (shipping),
. , . 10-3,
. 10-2,
. ,
(anOrder) ,
. .

.

? :
?
?
(
)? ,
?

,
. , :
Customer

Supplier

OrderAgent

Accountant

ShippingAgent

Stockperson

PurchasingAgent

ReceivingAgent

Planner

:
. ,
,
. ,
,
. ,

.
:
.
,
:
CustomerRecord

ProductRecord

SupplierRecord

Order

PurchaseOrder

Invoice

PackingOrder

StockingOrder

ShippingLabel

CustomerRecord, ProductRecord SupplierRecord
Customer, Product Supplier. ,
,
.
, : ,
, ,
. , ,
, .
Packingorder StockingOrder
. ,
, (OrderAgent) (order)
(Customer), (StockPerson)
.
Packingorder ( ).
,

. ,
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
:
, , ,
,

. 10-4.
. 32 ,
- ,

.
.
. 10-4 ,

.
,
.

. ,
, , , ,
;
(order) (customer). ,

; ,
, -
. , ,
.
.
.
Order PackingOrder
1:N ( )? -
.
. , , ,
, .
,
.

StockPerson
PackingOrder:
,
.
, :
Report

Transaction

Report ,

,
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
,

.
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. ,
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.


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, ,
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:
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, , .

.
:
products
productId

description

0081735
0081736
3891043
9074000
9074001

Resistor, 10 1/4 watt


Resistor, 10 1/4 watt
Capacitor, 100 pF
7400 1 quad NAND
74LS00 1 quad HAND

,
. ,
(), ; ,
. , productID,
,
.
;
, ,
, , , . ,
:
Suppliers
SupplierID
Company
Address
Telephone
00056
Interstate Supply
2222 Fannin,
806-555-0036
Amarillo, TX
03107
Interstate Supply
3320 Scott, Santa
408-555-3600
Clara, CA
78829
Universal Products 2171 Parfet Ct,
303-555-2405
Lakewood, CD
supplierID - ,
. ,
, .

, .
/:
Prices
productID
0081735
0081735
0156999
7775098
6889655
9074001

SupplierID
03107
78829
78829
03107
00056
03107

Price
$0.10
$0.09
$367.75
$10.69
$0.09
$1.75

.

productID supplierID. , ,
. ,
- ;
productID supplierID
. productID supplierID ,
.

. 10-5 ,
. , ,
,
. .

. 10-5.
, ,
:
Inventory
ProductId
Quantity
0081735
1000
0097890
2000
0156999
34
7775098
46
6889655
1
9074001
92
, -
.
, . 10-4, quantity
ProductRecord, a , ,
quantity . , , ,
(description) ,
(quantity) ,
.
.
, . 10-4,
. productRecord
, quantity .


, .
,

( ).
(, ). ,
.
(, [13])
.
; ,
.
, [14]:
(1NF)
( ).

(2NF) 1NF,
(
).
(3NF) 2NF,

( ).
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3NF.
,
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,
, .

SQL
- ,
,
. , ,
,
.
, ,

,
. , ,
,
,
.
, .
- SQL
(Structured Query Language, ). SQL
, .
SQL
SELECT :
SELECT <attribute> FROM
<relation> WHERE <condition>
, , ,
100 , :
SELECT PRODUCTID, QUANTITY FROM
INVENTORY WHERE
QUANTITY < 100
. ,
:
SELECT NAME, QUANTITY FROM
INVENTORY, PRODUCTS
WHERE QUANTITY < 100 AND
INVENTORY.PRODUCTID =
PRODUCTS.PRODUCTID
,
. SELECT
, .
,
. SQL
, ,
3. , ,
:

DECLARE CURSOR
FOR SELECT NAME, QUANTITY
FROM
INVENTORY, PRODUCTS
WHERE
QUANTITY < 100
AND
INVENTORY.PRODUCTID - PRODUCTS.PRODUCTID
,
OPEN
FETCH:
FETCH INTO NAME, AMOUNT
, , , , ;
CLOSE
:
, .
.
. , , ,
, :
CREATE VIEW V (NAME, COMPANY, COST)
AS SELECT PRODUCTS.NAME, SUPPLIERS.COMPANY,
PRICES.PRICE FROM
PRODUCTS, SUPPLIERS, PRICES WHERE
PRODUCTS.PRODUCTID . PRICES.PRODUCTID AND
SUPPLIERS.SUPPLIERID - PRICES.SUPPLIERID
,

.
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
SQL-
. SQL,
. SQL
. SQL-

. ,
, .
: ,
. SQL,
. , ,
C++, :
currentOrder.customer().name()
-
customer, , name, .
:
SELECT NAME
FROM
ORDERS, CUSTOMERS
WHERE ORDERS.CUSTOMERID CURRENTORDER.CUSTOMERID
AND
ORDERS . CUSTOMERID = CUSTOMERS .CUSTOMERID
,
SQL.

-
,
33 , "
- ,
, " [16].
,
( ) :
.
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.
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[17].

:
.
(
).

( ) [18].
,
SQL .34
, ,
, , ,
.
;

.


: " ,
.
? ,
? " [19].
,
.
,
,
, .
.
,
( , ,
):
CustomerTable
SupplierTable
OrderAgentTable
AccountantTable
ShippingAgentTable
StockPersonTable
RecetvingAgentTable
Flannel-Table
,
:
ProductTable
InventoryTable

, , :
OrderTable
PurchaseOrderTable
InvoiceTable
PackingOrderTable
StockOrderTable
ShippingLabelTable
Report Transaction, -
, .

. ,
;
(. . 10-4),
.

10.2.
,
:
,
, .

/
/
,
, , .
, :
,
,
. ,
,
,
.
Order ProductRecord.
:
construct
setCustomer
setOrderAgent
addItem
removeItem
orderID
customer
orderAgent
numberOfItems
itemAt
quantityOf
totalValue

C++, :
// typedef unsigned int OrderID;
// , typedef float Money;
:
class Order { public:
Order();

Order(OrderID);
Orderfconst Order&);
-Order() ;
Orders operator=(const Orders);
int operator==(const Orders) const;
int operator!=(const Orders) const;
void setCustomer(Customer&);
void setOrderAgent(OrderAgent&);
void addItem(Product&, unsigned int quantity = 1);
void removeItem(unsigned int index, unsigned int quantity = 1);
OrderID orderID() const;
Customer& customer() const;
OrderAgent& orderAgent() const;
unsigned int numberOfItem() const;
Product& itemAt (unsigned int) const;
unsigned int quantityOf(unsigned int) const;
Money totalValue() const;
protected:
...
};
.
(Order ())
OrderID.
,
,
.
OrderID,

. ,
, . ,
, :
SQL-
,
, . , ,
, ,
.
.
order ,
OrderID,
.
,
.
. 10-6 SQL .
:
* aClient setCustomer
Order; Customer .
Order customerID c
,
.

. 10-6.
, , SQL-
UPDATE, .
,

( ,
).
,
,
9. ,

, .
.
. -
. -
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, .
.
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-,
- .
.
, ,
.

.35
,
.
, ,
, ,
. .
, /
: -, -
; -,
-
, .

product. :
construct
setDescription

setQuantity
setLocation
setSupplier
productID
description
quantity
location
supplier
. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
:
,
.
,
.
,
(, )
.
,
- -.

. ,
, .
, . 107.
, .
,
? :

.

. 10-7.
, ,
( )
( -).
,
.


/
,

. , "
/" [20]:
(pipes)
(RPC)
/ SQL.
. ,
,

.
,
.
,
. "
,
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: -
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,
.
,
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.
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,
:
attachOperation
dispatch
commit
rollback
status
,
. , Transact ion
-, attachoperation,
SQL .
, -
,
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SQL (, SQL),

".36

.
,
, .
, (dispatch),
.

(commit).
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U 1985], -, (Hayes-Roth, Waterman, and Lenat) [J
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.
; , Windows
API .
,
,
. ,
() ,
TrainDisplayUtilities.

.


,
. ,
, ,
, , . .

. ,
- , . ,
-
.

,
.
. ,
- , .
,
. ,
(, ),
-
.

, .
,
. ,
, .


, .
8,
.
.
.

.

12.3.

,
, ; ,
,
.
,
.


. , , ,
. ,
.
,
,
. ,
.
, , ,
,
.

, ,
, (
). 7,
,
.
.

, ,
.

,
,

.

, .

.
? 4
,
. ,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
. 12-9
.
:
, ,
, "/".

. 12-9.


,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
; ,
. C++
,
.
. 12-9 , ,

.
.
NetworkFacilities ().
, -
(RadioCommunication ()), - (Messages
()).

,

.
, Databases ( ),
NetworkFacilities
, .
,
TrainPlanDatabase ( ) TrackDatabase (
). , ,
DatabaseManager (
).
Devices ()
. ,
, , ,
, - .
Devices,
TrainPlanDatabase Messages.
, Devices
, .
,
UserApplications ( )
, EngineerApplications ( )
DispatcherApplications ( ),

. EngineerApplications ,
, ,

. DispatcherApplicatlona
"/".
EngineerApplications DispatcherApplications
, Displays (),
.

,
. ,
,
. 7,
,
.

. ,
,
.
7
.
,
- , -
, - . .

, ,
. .

. ,
. ?
.
, 4 :

?
? ?
, TrainPlanDatabase.
(Messages, TrainDatabase,
TrackDatabase) -
WaysideDevices ( ), LocomotiveDevices (
), EngineerApplications DispatcherApplications.
TrainPlanBatabase -
. , ,
.
, ,
- ,
Messages.
TrainPlanDatabase?
: ,
, . 10,
C++,
.

. , ,
, . ,
, , ,
,
( ), ,
- .

12.4.


, ,
. , ,
( ).

,
,
.
:
. , ,

, ,

.
.
, ;
,
.
,
. ,
.
,
, ,
. . ,
.

?
.
UserApplications.
, .
- :

.
, :
,
.
? .
TrainPlanDatabase
DispatcherApplications, ,
, TrainPlanDatabase; ,
DispatcherApplications
. ,
. ,
,
11.


, ,
. , ,
,
.42
. ,

. ?

,
.
, ,
,
. ,
Displays. ,
,
, .
,
.
, Massages
. ,
; Messages
.
, , ,
. -
- .



(Advanced Train Control System),
(Murphy) [ 1988].

. , (Plinta, Lee, and
Rissman) [ 1989]

,
.


.
- ,
, ,
, ,
.

(GUY
LEFRANCOIS)
(Of Children)

- - .

.
.
,
,
-

,

.

- -
-
- . ,
,
- .
, :


[1].
,
, .
, , ,
- C++ Smalltalk.

.1.

.
.
-

. -1. -
.
-
.

,
, , .
2
: ,
, , -.

.
- .
2, ,
; -
,
.

- Simula, 1960
, [2]. Simula
ALGOL, .
, Simula,
, ,
.
. -1, [],
-

: Smalltalk. Object Pascal, C++,


CLOS Ada.
"".

.2. Smalltalk

Smalltalk Xerox Palo Alto Research


Center Learning Research Group (Xerox, , ,
), Dynabook (Alan Kay).
Simula, FLEX
(Seymore Papert) (Wallace Feurzeig).
Smalltalk ,
. - - ,
; - .
Simula, Smalltalk -
,
,
,
Macintosh, Windows Motif.
Smalltalk
.
(Dan Ingalls),
(Peter Deutsh), (Glenn Krasner) (Kim McCall).
, (James Althoff),
(Robert Flegal), (Ned Kaehler), (Diana Merry)
(Steve Putz) Smalltalk.
(Adele Goldberg) (David Robson)
.
Smalltalk,
:
Smalltalk-72, -74. -76, -78, - Smalltalk-80.
1972 1974 ,
,
.
; , .
Smalltalk-80 .
( Smalltalk-80),
Smalltalk/V. Digitalk IBM PC
(Windows OS/2) Macintosh.
, Smalltalk/V
. Smalltalk-80
[4].

: " Smalltalk -
. ,
,

" [5].
:
; ,
.

. -1 Smalltalk
.

- [].
-1. Smalltalk

()

( )

: ,
, (.
3). Smalltalk
, ,
.
, -
. AShape :
Object subclass: AShape

instanceVariableNames: 'theCenter'
classVariableNames: ' ' poolDictionaries: ' '
category: 'Appendix'
initialize

" "
theCenter:= Point new
setCenter: aPoint

" "
theCenter := aPoint
center

" "
^theCenter
draw

" "
self subclassResponsibility
ACircle:
AShane subclass: #ACircle

instanceVariableNames: 'theRadius'
classVariableNames: ''
poolDictionaries: ''
category: 'Appendix'
setRadius: anInteger

" "

theRadius := aInteger
radius

" "
^theRadius
draw

" "
| anArc index |
anArc := Arc new.
index := 1.
[index <= 4]
whileTrue:
[anArc
center: theCenter radius: theRadius quadrant: index. anArc display. index :=
index + 1]
ARectangle:
AShape subclass: ARectangle

instanceVariableNaines: 'theHeight theWidth'


classVariableNairies : ' '
poolDictionaries: ''
category: 'Appendix'
draw

" "
| aLine upperLeftCorner |
aLine := Line new.
upperLeftCorner := theCenter x - (theWidth
/2)@
(theCenter - (theHeight /2)). aLine beginPoint: upperLeftCorner.
aLine endPoint: upperLeftCorner x + theWidth @
upperCorner y.
aLine display.
aLine beginPoint:: aLine endPoint.
aLine endPoint: upperLeftCorner x + thewidth
(upperCorner +
theHeight). aLine display.
aLine beginPoint: aLine endPoint. aLine endPoint: upperLeftCorner x @
(upperLeftCorner
+
theHeight). aLine display.
aLine beginPoint: aLine endPoint. aLine endPoint: upperLeftCorner. aLine
display
setHeight: anInteger

" "
theHeight := anInteger
setWidth: anInteger

" "
CheWidth := anInteger
height

" "
^theHeight
width

" "
^thewidth
, ASolidRectangle :
ARectangle subclass: #ASolldRectangle

instanceVariableNames: ''
classVariableNames: ''
poolDictionaries: ''
category: 'Appendix'
draw

" "
I upperLeftCorner lowerRightCorner I
super draw.
upperLeftCorner := theCenter x - (thewidth quo: 2) + 1
(theCenter - (theHeight quo: 2) + 1). lowerRigthCorner :=
upperLeftCorner x + thewidth - 1
(upperLeftCorner + theHeight - 1). Display
fill:
(upperLeftCorner corner: lowerRightCorner)
mask: Form gray

Smalltalk
"Smalltalk-80:
The Language", [7]; "Smalltalk-80: The Interactive
Programming Environment", [8]; "Smalltalk-80: Bit of History Words of
Advice", Kpac-, [9]. [10] Smalltalk-80,
.

.3. Object Pascal

Object Pascal Apple Computer


( Smalltalk)
(Niklaus Wirth), Pascal.
Object Pascal Clascal
(- Pascal Lisa). Object Pascal
1986 -
, Macintosh Programmer's Workshop
(MPW), Macintosh Apple. MPW
, ,
,
Macintosh.

(Schmucker) , "Object Pascal - ""


- . ,
, .
,
"" " [II].
. -2 Object Pascal.
-2. Object Pascal

(unit)

()

Object Pascal "MPW Object Pascal


Reference" Apple [12].1

.4. C++

C++ ,
AT&T Bell Laboratories.
C++ with Classes, 1980 .
with Classes, , Simula.
C++ - .
C++ , ,
, . , C++
.
C++. 1.0
- ,
,
. 1989 2.0
(, ),

. 3.0 (1990)
( ) . ANSI C++
(X3J16) (
)
.
C++
, cfront.
, C++
UNIX-.
( ) "" C++.

: "C++
,
. ,

. C++ .
, "
[13]. C++ ,
, , , , ,
, [14].

Delphi Borland. - . .
C++ . -3.
-3. C++

, ,
, ,

()

( )

. C++
.
:
struct point {
int x;
int ;
};
class Shape {
public:
Shape();
void setCenter (Point p};
virtual void draw() = 0;
Point center 0 const;
private
Point theCenter;
};
class Circle : public Shape {
public:
Circle();
void setRadius(int r);
virtual void draw();
int radius() const;
private:
int theRadius;
};
class Rectangle : public Shape {
public:
Rectangle();
void setHeight(int h);
void setWidth(int w);
virtual void draw();
int height () conat;
inc width () const;

private:
int theHeigh;
int TheWidth;
};
class SolidRectangle : public Rectangle {
public:
virtual void draw();
};
C++ .
Windows
Display, window, GraphlcsContext ( xlib).
,
, :
Shape::Shape()
{
theCenter.x = 0;
theCenter.y = 0;
};
void Shape::getCenter(Point p)
{
theCenter = p;
};
Point Shape::center() const
{
return theCenter;
};
Circle::Circle() : theRadius(0) {};
void Circle: :setRadius( int r)
{
theRadius = r;
};
void Circle::draw()
{
int x = (center ().x - theRadius);
int Y = (center(). - theRadius);
XDrawArc(Display, Window, GraphicsContext, X, Y,
(theRadius 2), (theRadius * 2), 0, (360 64));
};
int Circle::radius() const
{
return theRadius;
};
Rectangle::Rectangle() : theHeight(0), theWidth(0) {};
void Rectangle: :setHeight( int h)
{
theHeight = h;
};

void Rectangle: :setWidth( int w)


{
theWidth = w;
};
void Rectangle::draw()
{
int X = (center().x - (theWidth / 2));
int Y = (center (). - (theHeight / 2));
XDrawRectangle (Display, Window, GraphicsContext, X, Y, thewidth,
theHeight);
};
int Rectangle: : height() const
{
return theHeight;
};
int Rectangle: : width () const
{
return thewidth;
};
void SolidRectangle::draw()
{
Rectangle::draw() ;
int x - (centerO.x - (width() / 2));
int Y - (center().y - (height() / 2));
gc oldGraphicsContext = GraphicsContext;
XSetForeground(Display, OraphicsContext, Gray);
XDrawFilled(Display, Window, GraphicsContext, X, Y,
width (), height());
GraphicaContext = OldGraphicsContext;
};

C++ "Annotated C++ Reference Manual"


[15]. , [16]
.

.5. Common Lisp Object System (CLOS)

Lisp,
MacLisp, Standard Lisp, SpiceLisp, S-1 Lisp, ZetaLisp, Nil, InterLisp Scheme.
80- -
Lisp,
.
Common Lisp 1986 .
ACM
Lisp 1986 ,

X3J13 ANSI (
Common Lisp).
Common Lisp, Common Lisp Object
System ( Common Lisp) , , - CLOS.
(Daniel Bobrow),
(Sonya Keene), (Linda DeMichiel), (Patrick
Dussud), (Richard Gabriel), (James Kempf),
(Gregor Kicazles) (David Moon).
CLOS NewFlavors
CommonLoops. , 1988
CLOS.

, CLOS .
CLOS :
,
-
;
,
;
, ,
,
- [17].
CLOS . -4.
, CLOS
, [18].
-4. CLOS

,,

()

CLOS -"Common Lisp


Object System Specification" [19].

.6. Ada

, ,
. 70-
:

,
. , ,
,
. ,
,

. Ada
, .
1975 (Steelman)
1978 . ,
17 . , ,
;
.
- Green (
); Ada
(Ada Augusta Lovelace),

. (Jean Ichbian)
. : - (Bernd
Krieg-Brueckner), (Brian Wichmann), (Henry
Ledgard), - (Jean-Claude Heliard), - (Jean-Loup
Gailly), - (Jean-Raymond Abrial), (John
Barnes), (Mike Woodger), (Olivier Roubine), . .
(S. A. Schumann) . . (S. . Vestal).
Ada Pascal
, Euclid, Lis, Mesa, Modula Sue.
ALGOL-68, Simula, CLU Alphard. ANSI
Ada 1983 . Ada, ,
.
, Ada
. Ada -
, ,
. ANSI
,
Ada 9x.
: , ,
. Ada ,
- . 9x
-.

Ada :
;
;
[20].
. -5 Ada
.
-5. Ada

,
,

( Ada9x)

( Ada9x)

Ada "Reference Manual for


the Ada Programming Language" [21].

A.7. Eiffel

Eiffel (Bertrand Meyer)


- ,
.
Simula, Eiffel -
- .
Eiffel
,
. Eiffel
, ,
, . ,
,
;
, ,
.
- ,
,
. .
, .

Eiffel ,
, ,
, .

.
Eiffel ,
,
, . ,
.
. -6.
-6. Eiffel

(unit)

"Object Oriented Software


Construction" [22].

.8. -

. -2
- ,
.
ABCL/1
ABE
Acore
Act/1
Act/2

EmeraldNew
FlavorsSASTAct/3
Actors
Felix
PascalOakUspSelfActra
Argus
ART
Berkeley Smalltalk
FOOPS
ObjectCobot
Smalltalk

Concurrent Smalltalk
CSSA
CST
Director
Distributed Smalltalk
Eiffel

Lore
Mace
MELD
Mjolner
ModPascal
Neon

Plasma 11
POOL-T
PROCOL
Quick Pascal
Quicktalk
ROSSActor

ExperCommonLisp
Extended Smalltalk

NIL
0-CPU

SCOOP
SCOOPSAda

Flavors
FOOPlog

Oberon
Object Assembler

Simula
SINA

Object Lisp
Object Logo
Object Oberon

Smalltalk AT
Smalltalk V
Smallworld

OOPC
OOPS+

STROBE
TClassic

Beta
FRL
Blaze
Galileo
GLISPObject
Garp
PascalSPOOLC++ Gypsy
Objective-C SR _
talkHybridObjVLispSRLBro
uhaha
Cantor
Inheritance
IntermissionOPALTrellis/Ow InnovAda
lClascal
Jasmine
KL-

OneOrient84/KUniform

Orbil

wilh Classes

Ada

Turbo Pascal 5.xCluster

86

Common
LoopsKRLOTMUNITS
Common
ObjectsKRSPCOLVulcanCo
mmon ORBITLittle
SmalltalkPIEXLISPConcurr
ent
PrologLOOPSPL/LLZoom/V
MCLOS

. -2. -

[23] . [24]:
Actor
,
.

-,
.

- ,
.

, .


-
.
Smalltalk
Smalltalk .


.

.


CRC-, CRC cards. CRC Class/Responsibilities/Collaborators,
/-/; ,
.
, abstract operation. ,
. C++
-.
, abstract class. , .
,
, , .
, abstraction. ,

. .
.
, agent. ,
.
.
, actor. , ,
. ,
.
, active object. ,
.
, algorithmic decomposition.
, .

, , module architecture. ,
, .
.
, process architecture. ,
, .
.
, architecture. ,
.
, association. ,
.
, attribute. ().
, base class. - .
.

, .
, blocking object. ,
.
.
, visibility. ,
, . ,
.
.
, virtual function. - .
, ,
,
.
.
, time complexity. ,
.
, action. , ,
, .
, , .
, delegation. ,
, .
, destructor. ,
/ .
, activity. ,
.
, interaction diagram.
- ;
- .
, class diagram. ; ,
.
.
, module diagram. ;
.
.
, object diagram. ; ,
.
; .
.
, state transition diagram.
- ;
, ,
, , .

, process diagram. ; , ,
.
.
, dynamic binding.
(, ) .
,
, .
, friend. ,
. .
, private. - , ,
() , .
, protected. - ,
, ,
.
, identity. ; ,
.
, idiom. , -
- ,
- .
, hierarchy. .
( /)
( /);
.
, invariant. ,
.
, encapsulation. ,
.
.
, instantiation.
; ,
.
, interface. , ,
.
, exception. ,
. C++ ,

, .
, use. . , iterator. ,
.
, class category. ,
, ~ .
.

, class. .
( ) .
,
.
-, container class. ,
. (
) (
, ), C++
,
.
, client. ,
, ,
, key. , .
, key abstraction. ,
.
, concrete class. ,
, , .
, constructor. , /
.
, metaclass. ; ,
.
, method. , .
, . ,
.
;
,
, .
, mechanism. ,
, , .
, modifier. , .
, module. ,
; , ,

. ,
.
, modularity. ,
.
, monomorphism. ,
(, )
.
, cardinality. : ,
.

, inheritance. ,
( )
( ) . /
.

.
, generic function. - .
; ,
,
.
.
, generic class. ,
: , /
. .
.
.
, reverse-engineering.
. .
, object, , . ,
.
. .
, object model. ,
- ;
, , ,
, , , .
, object-based programming.
,
, .
, .
, ,
.
- , object-oriented decomposition.
,
. -
- ,
,
.
- , object-oriented programming
(OOP). , ,
,
- , .
, ,
.
- , object-oriented design (OOD).
, -
,
.
, , .

- , object-oriented analysis. ,
,
.
-, member object. . . ,
. - .
, constraint. ,
.
, class operation. , ,
, .
, operation. , ,
. , - ,
- ().
, .
, responsibility. , .
, public. - , ,
() , .
, concurrency. ,
.
, concurrent object. ,
.
, parameterized class. ,
; , /
.
. .
.
, passive object. ,
.
, class variable. .
.
. C++ .
, instance variable. .
.
, , - .
, transition. .
, behavior. ,
;
.
, subclass. ,
( ).
, subsystem. ,
, .

, field. ;
. , , -
.
, polymorphism. ,
(, ) (
) . , , ,
- .
, round-trip gestalt design.
,
: ,
; -
,
.
, sequential object. ,
.
, postcondition. , .
, thread of control. .

; ,
.
.
. (
thread of control .
. ,
flow of control, . .
.)
, precondition. , .
, mixin. , - ;
;
, .
, space complexity,
, .
, state space.
. ,
( ).
, protocol. ,
; ;
.
, process. . , processor.
, .
, forward-engineering.
. .
, partition. ,
.

, reactive system. , .
-.
, implementation. ,
, .
, role. ,
;
; ,
.
, free subprogram. ,

. ,
- .
, link. , . , selector.
, , .
, server. , ,
; , .
, signature.
.
, strongly typed. ,
.
, synchronization. .
( );
( ); (,
); (,
); (
).
, real-time system. ,
.
;
.
, information hiding.
, ;
.
, data dictionary. . ,
layer. .
, slot. ;
. , , -
.
, event. -, .
, message. ,
. , .
(), aggregate object. ,
( ).

, state. :
, , ;

(, ) (, )
.
, collaboration. ,
.
, persistence. ,
, () ,
.
, framework. ,
. ,
, .
, static binding.
(, ) .
( ), ,
.
, guard. , ;
, .
, strategic design decision.
, .
, class structure. ,
, .
.
, object structure. ,
, .
.
, structure. .
, ,
.
, structured design. ,
.
, superclass. , (
).
, scenario. ,
.
, tactical design decision. ,
.
, type. ,
, , .
( ) ; ,
.

, typing. ,
, , .
, transformational system. ,
- , access control.
. C++ ,
, ,
. ,
.
, level of abstraction.
, , .
/ ,
, : /,
, .
, service. , .
, device. ,
.
, assertion. ,
.
, class utility. . C++
, / -.
, function point.
, .
, function. -,
.
-, member function. ,
. - , - . - .
- ;
- ,
,
.
, instance. , . ,
.
. .