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rxnnru nrryr

nm ntmnnnr
nrxnu ]ayntrr
Mru yasanx
n tnnnnm arxrntn art
n anrny xsty
nx rynr I ya x nnantnr
nn ]t yunx
rannt:
anrau ..
arnt yrxnt
a] 3
rn N
r2009 r.
a. a]
annax . .

2009 r.
1

1. n..........................3
2. aru nnan yasan arxrntn art
nur ua na tnnnn...............4
3. Mru yasanx nx arxrntnr syunx raar.5
3.1. aara -raaru ynaxnnx........ 5
3.2. nt nx anrnx...................21
3.3. rt na ny ynx raarur arana n ra,
tnnnt na arxrntn syunx...............22
4. Mru nan nx ransan arxrntn art
rr...........................28
4.1. Mru yasanx nx ransan arxrntn art
rr.............................28
4.2. art rr...................29
4.3. rt nx arxrntn art rynr.........33
4.4. nm, nntsyt n ]an rra.........42
5. n ny nraryt.................43
6. nxn . nmu ynaxnnx rra...........44
2

arxrntnax ara n nranny xsty nananna


na asr nnr rrnr arxrntny nntny
syunm nrannr xsta, antn ry aasanm r
nmtm nantn aanran.
arxm M rannt rrr ranx au
nrat n nnnn anrn xst. a syun anrnr
xsta na n y nyrn 78 ayrntx ua 25 ua
arxrntn art.
Hntm arxrntn art rynr xnxrx tara yn
nat annantn art rr, a rax ]an ynx
nntsartx nax raaru nauna. nx +rr na
snart nnt ]t ar yunr arana, raaru
]t, rnunt nx xsta annr rna aran.
urt ynmn yrt aran nx arxrntn art rynr
nxn syurt raaru nana, tnnnrt rnunt
n-raaru ynaxnnx, nrt x, rr na nt
nx anrnx nn +rr tnnnrt rrt saanx. rat
tnnnnx ynaxnnx rra arx nnaarnm nx
n.
M ant rax rrt nx nnanr urnx nasant nt
art rra. nrnt nayrnr urnx nrx na
nnantn rnn nx +rr sanxr 1-2 asa r. rr
M nant nt art na, rra, raaru
aran nryn naxr, rtx xarx yasanx
nax arxrntn art, nax mnx rarsan
snan nyr rannx rann, x, nntx nnr. nrnt
ymrnxrx na yuntx n nnnrntntx sanxrxx ]
nantx ranr, raarux nux rr, nsnran
nr, yrntx mn n r.
3
2.

a nn n narur sanxrx ua art
1. nnt nana urnx
nsnmnx. nrnanx
yrrntnr nrntnr
nnxnx.
4 nru ranr
2. nasan. nx. 2 aaru rr
3. nasan. nnxn. 2 aaru rr
4. nayrn urn 2 -
raaru
ynaxnnx
5. mamm nrn n -
raaru ra: n-
rnt y, tx,
ara
2 -
raaru
ynaxnnx
6. r yym x 2 -
raaru
ynaxnnx
7. xax nnax ut. rnaan
n.
2 aaru rr
8. raarntnt sanr. 2 -
raaru
ynaxnnx
9. nunt ]t rnarna 4 aaru rr
10. mamm nrn n ra:
x, rana syuar xsta.
2 -
raaru
ynaxnnx
11. nayrn urn 1 nnranx rra
rr 25
4
3.
narntn syur raaru nan, arr nt.
tnnnr nyt ynaxnnx.
tnmr s ynaxnnx nnxnx, xam nym
raaruym ryryy. narntn syur n ran]an
yrrntnr nnxnx nrntn rnarntn.
nrnyr nmtm nax nantnrt nsnmnx r
ann ryryt. yar nnt nnxn, xamx nym
raaruym ryryy.
syur nana urnx n yuny ..ana nrn xst
r. 14 38 ntr x, tnnn nymm saanx nx
anrnx.
r 1.
ar asn () sy, rrrymm nsnmnm y
x uran s asna (a).
a)1.sh; 2. th; 3. ck; 4. wh (n ); 5. ng; 6. ee; 7. ay; 8.oa; 9. ow ( nn
na); 10. ow ( n na).
) 1.|ks|; 2. |ts|; 3. |i:|; 4. |ov|; 5.|o:|; 6. ||; 7. |a:|; 8. |k|; 9.|h|; 10. |ei|; 11. |l|;
12.|au|; 13. |ju:|; 14. ||; 15. |h|.
r 2.
ar asn () sy, rrrymm nsnmnm y
x uran s asna (a).
a) 1. ch; 2. x; 3.ou; 4.al rn.; 5. as rn.; 6. ear; 7. our; 8. air; 9. w or; 10.
ew.
) 1. |]; 2.[s|; 3. |:]; 4. [au|; 5. |I:|; 6. |o:|; 7. |e|; 8. |ts|; 9. |ju:|; 10. |au|; 11.
|ks|; 12.|a:|; 13. ||k|; 14. ||; 15. |u:|.
r 3.
ar asn () sy, rrrymm nsnmnm rnantx
s asna (a) rtr nr.
a) 1. e; 2. I; 3. a; 4. o; 5. y; 6. u
) 1. |ov|; 2.|i:|; 3. ||; 4. ||; 5. |ju:|; 6. ||; 7. |i|; 8. |e|; 9. |ai|; 10. |ei|; 11. |:|;
12. |a:|.
r 4.
ar asn () sy, rrrymm nsnmnm rnantx
s asna (a) satr nr.
a) 1. y; 2.o; 3. I; 4. u; 5. e; 6. a.
) 1. |a:|; 2. |ei|; 3. |ju|; 4. |i:|; 5. ||; 6. |:|; 7. |ai|; 8. |e|; 9. |i|; 10. ||; 11. ||;
12. |ju:|.
nrnanx yrrntnr nrntnr nnxnx.
nrnan nnamr nx r ny r.. xn rna,
xxm n uramm +nnrt ntmnx nnxnx rna.
a mn n n-asny ]nxmrx nrnannn.
nrnanx nyxr nx r r nau raarur
snaunx. rarntn nnxn, nsnnn ntmn
5
rna rna na nnn yan nr, xnxmrx n. raartax
nnt rnt nxxm xxm nx nnrt, ur
nt yant nr ax tastan nsnrx na a
t yn n annm yr yant nra. nn nr
tn rynn xaarsyrx s nnxn n ntmn
rna.
xxm rn ]nxmrx:
a) sanunnt nrarntnt nnxnx:
I study English at school.
) nnantnt nt ( n. na):
What does it mean?
) nasanx:
Speak English
r) nnarntn nnxn
How cold it is!
2. xxm rn ]nxmrx:
a) m nt, rymm rra a n nr:
Did the train arrive on time.
) rax uart asnrntnr na:
You dont speak German, , do you?
) nsanunnax uart nnxnx, sa rt nyr naysa:
Every summer , Itravel to England.
r) nunn n r unna, nnnr:
He has a headache, , a heartache,, a toothache,, a backache, , a earache
and a bad pain in the stomach.
) tt uar ]nxmrx xxm rn:
Pass me the butter, please.
) antrnarntx nax ( ms or nax uart na
nsnrtx xxm rn, a rax nxxm.
Would you like tea or coIIee?
nx snaunx rna nrnannn asr nntsymrx
nymm sna: - ns nan; - t nan; - ns
n; - nan n; - n nan.
- snau yanx.
6
naxnn 1. urr nymm nnxnx, rr nyx
nrnannn asr.
1. Where did he go? He leIt Ior England.
2. I cant do it. - Im sure you can.
3. Im sorry I broke your vase. - It doesnt matter at all.
4. He said he Iound the money. - Thats what he said.
5. Im sorry Im late. - Its all right.
6. Was she hurt ? - Nothing at all serios.
7. Make yourselI at home . - Do you mind iI I open the window?
naxnn 2. nrnyr annt nnxnx nsnr x
nyx, nyx nrnannn asr, rym t nan. xnr,
nuy t tan rr n n rn. r nnxnx.
1. Whos there?
2. Are you busy?
3. Can you help?
4. May I ask you a question?
5. He always gets up very early.
6. Please call me Mike.
7. I am not an actor.
8. What a nice spring day!
9. Is this your text-book?
10. Welcome to Siberia. Thanks. Its nice to be here?
11. Are you Irom Russia?
12. Your ticket, please.
! "#$%$&' ()*+,' -'./'0
3ra raaruax ]a ynrnxrx nx taxnx:
nrnr rx n nrxnnr nsnaa nra
yym;
nn nnarntntx r yym;
narnr rx yym.
an:
a) He will go to the swimming pool every other day. n yr xrt an
us nt. (rn r yym).
He will take a good pupil. n yr xm yun. (rxnnt nsna
nra yym).
) He will take a book open it and begin to read it. n str nry, rr
naunr urart. (Hnt nnar. r, rt yyr tnnnnt
yym n n sa .)
) I shall take the book Irom the library tomorrow. sty nry nr
sara. (narn r yym.)
7
nnxnxx uture Simple nx yasanx na yym x uar
ynrnxmrx na tomorrow (sara), next week year, month (na
nymm nn nymm ry, xn), in to days (us 2 nx),one oI
the days (na nxx) r..
r yym x asyrx:
1. rrntnax ]a
to read I shall read ( nury).
to go They will go. (n nyr)
r rt yrrntnax ]a shall (I, we) will (he, she, it, they, you)
n]nr rnarna s uarnt to.
2. nrntnax ]a.
nx asanx nrntn ]t nx nrart shall n will
na n r nnxn.
an:
Shall I go to school tomorrow ?
Will they read this book next week?
3. rnarntnax ]a.
nx rnarntn ]t nx nn Shall n Will nrart
rnan not.
an:
I shall not go to school tomorrow.
They will not read this book next week.
sna rnarna Present Simple Tense:
nrarntnt rn. shall n will n]nr rnarna s uarnt to.
12 n n iI,then beIore, aIter, as soon as, unless, until
narun nnxn n ynx nx snaunx rx
yym rnarn rarx Present Simple Tense r uture Simple Tense.
na y xst n nrx yym n. an,
I shall go to the cinema iI I have time.
tnnn nymm ynaxnnx:
naxnn 3.
axr na nnxn asy rr rr uture
Simple Tense.
1. She went there.
2. She wants to go there.
3. She will go there.
4. We shall read this lesson.
5. Do you live in Moscow?
6. They will not go to the theater.
naxnn 4.
annnr nny nrarntnt rnarna nantn
].
1. I.live in Moscow.
2. .you study English next year?
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3. She.take this book Irom the library tomorrow.
4. We .not have lesson tomorrow.
5. They.send her a telegram.
naxnn 5.
axr n-anrn:
1. n yyr xrt M.
2. r n t nry sara? a. r.
3. n ny +rr rr.
4. n yyr xm yuna.
.
xax ut ut, rax nrx nn.
nnax ut nas nx u.
an, Peter says, I have this book.
rx rr: nx rt nra.
xax ut anrn xst rarx atu rnxrx r
n ara sanxr. nnax ut atu n rarx sanxr n
rnxrx.
an,
The trees in the garden are green, he says.
tx ay snnt, - rr n.
n nnxn, xamx nxym ut, nnym
ut nyxn rr nmart nnnnt nana.
1. n nx u, rt nunt rnx (I, you, he, she, we, they)
n nrxxarntnt (my, your, his, our, their, her) rnx, r n
n nnym ut n tun nxmrx rrr
tn.
an,
He says, I have your book.
n rr: nx rt rx nra.
He says that he has my book.
n rr ur y nr rt x nra.
2. n nnxn nx u u r aastarx,
nryrx, r nn u: a) n nnxn rxr na
ara, xam rnarn to say n to tell, sa rt xsarntn
nyr nnnn; ) nnax ut rx ms that n
nnxrx rnany nnxnm s msa.
He says, I have this book
He says that he has this book.
He says to me I have this book
He tells me that he has this book.
3. n nnxnxx nx u xrx n, r
nn u:
a) n n rxr na ara, xam rnarn to ask ;
) nn n ynrnxrx nx nx n;
9
) nnt n mr rna rx msa iI, whether.
He says to me , Do you know her.
He asks me iI I know her.
He says to me, Where do you want to go?
He asks me where I want to go.
4. n nnxn nx u xrx nta n nas, r
nn u:
a) n n rxr na ara, xam rnarnt, to ask , to order , to
tell;
) rnarn nn u rr ] n]nra.
He says to me Come here, please.
He asks me to come here.
He says to me, Go there at once!
He orders me to go there at once.
He says Dont go there!
He tells us not go there.
5. n na ara rxr nmm n, r n n
nnxnx s nx u nnym:
a) nxmrx nymm na:
This na that
now na then
ago na beIore
tomorrow na the next day
these na those
today na that day
yesterday na the day beIore
) nn u ynrnxmrx rnt ]t nmmr n
rrr nan rnaanx n (. nx).
He said, They were here yesterday.
He said that they had been there the day beIore.
This is a magniIicent piece oI architecture, I said.
I told him that that was a magniIicent piece oI architecture.
I asked, How long will it take you to get there?
I asked him how long it would take him to get there.
. anrn xst nx rr
nmart nan rnaanx n. rnaan n +r
sart n rnarna narunr nnxnx r n
rx rnanr nnxnx.
n asy rnanr nnxnx rr nmm nr
n, r asy nnnrntnr narunr nnxnx
nxn rxrt n s nmmx n (Past Simple Tense, Past
Progressive Tense, Past PerIect Tense, uture in the Past).
10
3

nnnrntn n. n.
narun nar. nar.
nnxn nn. nn.
45/% ()*+,' -'./'
Past Simple Tense Past PerIect Tense uture in the
Past Progressive Tense Past
rx
arxm nmm yym
n n n
She lived in Moscow. She had lived She would live in
in Moscow Moscow.
snana, ur
na xr M na xna na yr xrt
M M
naxnn 6.
11
ratr rnarnt, annt ax, nyxn n.
1. He said that he (to work), at school.
2. The doctor said that he (to come) tomorrow.
3. I knew that this student (to study) English last year.
naxnn 7.
nrr said n tell.
1) ane , I dont know these people.
2) isten to what Im going to.
3) Im going to you what to do next.
4) You shouldnt anyone about it.
5) She me not to open the door to anyone and not to answer the phone.
naxnn 8.
asyr s nx u nnym.
1) I cant ride, she said to me.
2) They said, We are ready to start work.
3) Its easy, he told me.
4) Mary said, Ive bought the tickets.
5) They said, We shall help you.
6) What do they want? she asked me.
7) inish your work, the teacher said.
naxnn 9.
r na y xst.
1) I didnt know where our teacher had lived.
2) She was sure that we should come.
3) They said that knew English a little.
naxnn 10.
r na anrn xst.
1) na asana, ur xr urart anrn nr.
2) n ysnan, ur t n n.
3) tna yna, ur x na ua na ynn.
6
anr (oice) +r ]a rnarna, rax nastar rnmn
rx, taxnnr +r rnarn, nny n nry, taxnny
nnxam nnxnx. n nnxam nnxnx snauar nn
n nr, rt a mar r, r rnarn-asy rr
rrntn sanr. n nnxam nnxnx snauar nn n
nr, rt ntrtar r, ma yr nn n
nr, r rnarn-asy rr raarntn sanr.
He oIten invites me to his place. (rrntnt sanr)
12
n uar nrnamar nx .
I am oIten invited to his place.(raarntnt sanr).
Mnx uar nrnamamr ny.
a raarntnr sanra asyrx n nm nrarntnr
rnarna to be narxm, nmm n yym n rrt
nn ]t tnr rnarna.
to invite nrnamart
I am invited nx nrnaman
I shall be invited nx nrnaxr.
] raarntnr sanra ryr trt rnt nxnt rnarnt.
xnt anrn xst nastarx nm rnarn, nn rr
rrntn sanr rr nx nnnn, nan:
believe, build, drink, give, hear, read, take r..
nxnt rnarna nastamrx ra, rt n rymr
nn x nnnnx: come, Ily, live, run, think .
raarntn sanr nn ynrnxmrx Present Simple, Past
Simple, uture Simple Tenses. naurntn x ynrnxmrx Present
PerIect, Past PerIect, uture PerIect Tenses, Present Past Progressive. a
uture Progressive, a rax na rynnt PerIect-Continuous
raarntn sanr ryrrymr.
raarntnt sanr (passive voice) ynrnxrx tun rra, ra
nsrn, r mar r. axn nmt, a r
marx r r ntrtar. an:
I was asked to do it.
Mnx nnn +r nart.
I was asked to help him, and I did.
Mnx nnn y nut, x y nr.
raarntnt sanr anrn xst ynrnxrx snaurntn
uam, u y. nnxn raarntnt sanr nn,
mamm r, nra ynnarx. +r nyua n yr
taxn ymrrntnt n rn nnr by.
Dick went into the street and was received by inkie.
a nxrx rnarnt Passive oice
rnarn na -x: The text are translated
rt nxrx
Present ar nuar: The text is translated
r nn
nnnnn-nunt The student is asked.
r: rynra namamr.
rnarna na -nx, The texts were translated every day.
-nt, -nt: rt nnt axt nt
13
Past tn ar The texts were translated by our
nuar: students.
rt tn nnt nam
rynra.
uture yr rnarn na The texts will be translated.
n -x; rt yy nrtx
yyr
ar The texts will be translated.
nuar: by our students.
rt yyr nnt
nam rynra.
sna rnarna Passive oice.
Simple Present Passive oice
am
is Participle II
are
Simple uture Passive oice.
shall be
Participle II
will be
Simple Past Passive oice
was
Participle II
were
a nnrt n]nr rnarna, rxmr Passive oice.
Simple Present Passive oice
I am asked We were asked
to ask to ask
It is written It was written
(. ranny (. ranny
n nantntx rn.) n nantntx rn)
to write to write
naxnn 11. annnr nny rnarn to be nyxn ]
nr nnxnx na y xst.
a) 1. The book .written by Tolstoy.
2. My Iriend . asked at the lesson.
14
3. .the houses reconstructed in our town.
) 1. ur laboratory .proved with all necessary equipment next month.
2. We.oIIered an interesting work tomorrow.

naxnn 12. tnmr nramm ]t.
Active Passive
1. The mother made 1. The pie.
the pie yesterday. yesterday.
2. The teacher asks 2. The questions. by
questions. the teacher.
3. The students answer 3. .answered by.
the questions.
4. We have Iinished 4. The work.
the work.
5. She has painted 5. has been painted.
a portrait.
6. The girl interviews 6. The Iamous writer
the Iamous writer. interviewed by the
girl.
naxnn 13. nmr nnxnx, ynr raarntnt
sanr.
an: His parents gave him some money. He was given some money by
his parents.
1. They told him the truth. He.
2. He showed me his books. His books.
3. They build new houses every month. New houses.
4. They asked him some questions. He.
5. She has typed all the letters. All the letters.
naxnn 14. axr, a x ynrnn nymmx
nnxnxx:
1. Since she was eleven months old lorence has been able to recite the
alphabet.
2. He had been sent by the company abroad Ior a year.
3. The sentence can be translated into Russian in the Iollowing way.
4. The letters have been opened.
5. He was being examined by the doctor.
76 86
narnt anrn xst mr r nnunt ]t: n]nr
(The InIinitive), ryn (The Gerund) nuar (The Participle). r
nuntx ] n rnuamrx r, ur:
1. n mr nna, una, n, nannnx;
15
2. n ryr ynrnxrtx nnxn a nrt rnarntnt
asyt.
98
n]nr nnunax ]a rnarna, rax nastar r.
r nnantnr nuanx. asarn n]nra xnxrx uarna
to, rax na y xst n nrx, n nastar, ur nymm sa
n n n]nr.
an:
She likes to dance. na nmr rannart.
She can dance. na yr rannart.
A am glad to have seen you. a, ur nan a.
n]nr r 6 ].
1. r n]nr (IndeIinite InIinitive)
I must go and see him in a day or Iive.
nxna xrt narrt r us nay n.
2. ant n]nr (Passive InIinitive)
There is only one thing to be done.
rt rnt n, ur xn nart.
3. ]rnt n]nr (PerIect InIinitive).
I am glad to have spoken to him.
a ur (yx) nrn n.
4. nrntnt n]nr (Continuous InIinitive)
She appeared to have been repaired recently.
asant, ur na nymar.
5. ]rn nrntnt n]nr (PerIect Continuous InIinitive).
or the last Iew days she seemed to have been talking to nobody.
nn nnt n na, asanat, n n asraana.
n]nr nnxn tun xnxrx uartm ranr
rnarntnr asyr, n xr trt rax nnxam, nnnn,
nnn, nn uartm ranr nnr asyr, a rax
rxrntr.
n]nr xr rax xrt ra nraux nryn,
nan anrannnt s rtx xnxmrx nxn nnxam
(Complex object), nxn nnxam (Complex subject) nrynx
ax nnr Ior (Ior to inIinitive Construction).
an:
1) The door bell made her jump. (Complex object). n t saran
srnyrt.
2) She seemed to know runo well. (Complex subject). asant, ur na
xm snana yn.
3) She sat quietly and waited Ior Chloe to speak. na na nn
xana, ra nx sarr. (nrynx, ax nnr Ior).
16
naxnn 15. r nnxnx na y xst, nunr
n]nr.
1) To live is to work and to study.
2) He wanted to visit his ill Iriend.
3) You must learn the new words to translated the text.
4) The lesson to be read at home is not diIIicult.
5) She stepped book to look at the lighted window.
6) I am sorry to disturb you.
arr nan na nt na n]nra na y xst.
n xn nntsart nnnnnym ]y rnarna
(n]nr), ymrrntn, narun nnxn (nan, nn
, nx rr, urt, n nnrntn).
3
yn nnunax ]a rnarna, rax nastar r.
yn urar nsna rnarna ymrrntnr r 4
]t:
1) r ryn (Gerund InIinitive)
Stark sat without speaking.
ra n nua.
2) ]rnt ryn (PerIect Gerund).
He Ielt better Ior having written the letter.
n rr a n nanan +r nt, n nuyran x nyum.
3) ant ryn (Passive Gerund).
nIortunately this silence was ruined by the sound oI a door being banged.
xannm, +ra rmna tna naymna sy satammx .
4) ]rn nant ryn (PerIect Passive Gerund).
In the morning light, she was ashamed oI herselI Ior having been elated the
night beIore.
r ran nn sa nnnxr narn naanyn
u.
s 4 ] rynx nn ynrnxrx nr ryn.
r ryn (IndeIinite Gerund) asyrx n nm nuanx
-ing, nanxr n n]nra. an:
to speak speaking
to invite - inviting
yn nnxn xr trt nnxam, uartm asyr,
nnnn, nnn, rxrntr.
naxnn 16. r na y xst.
1. I like reading English books.
2. We know oI her coming to Moscow.
3. He continued studying English.
4. He likes translating English stories into Russian.
17
5. AIter Iinishing the translation this student handed his copy-book to the
teacher.

uar nnunax ]a rnarna, rax nastar r a


nsna nra n yrr rx.
anrn xst rt a nuarx: nuar I (Participle I)
nuar II (Participle II).
:
uar I r 4 ]t:
1. r nuar I (IndeIinite Participle I).
The street was Iull oI people, laughing and going home.
nna tna nnna nm, rt xnt mn .
2. ]rn nuar I (PerIect Participle I).
Nike was back at the end oI three weeks, having ridden an extra eighty miles.
nynx nny rrt nn, nxa nmn txr nt.
3. an nuar I (Passive Participle I)
Cecilia had heard very little being absorbed in her own reIlection.
nx yntmana unt nnr, ra a tna nrnmna
astmnnx.
4.]rn nan nuar I. (PerIect Passive Participle I)
I am going the same day myselI having been detained here two days.
a y rr x nt, ra a tn saxan st na a nx.
s urtx ] nuarx I nn ynrnxrx nr
nuar I, r nastar, ur snaua r
nnn rm, taxnny rnarn asyt nnxnx.
While reading a book she laughed a lot.
urax nry, na nr xnat.
uar I nnxn tun xnxrx nnn n
rxrntr.
The boy reading a book is a Iriend oI mine (nnn).
Mantu, uramm nry, - yr
While reading a book she laughed a lot (rxrntr).
urax nry, na nr xnat.
Having read the book she gave it to Peter (rxrntr).
urx nry, na rana r.
::
uar II (Participle II) r ny nsnxym ]y. r
nantntx rnarn nuar II asyrx n nm nuanx ed.
uar II r nnantntx rnarn arx na a 3-x nnax
]a rnarna.
uar II snauar r, r ntrtar nn n
nr.
The boy invited by Peter is a Iriend oI mine.
18
Mantu, nrnamnnt r, yr.
uar II (invited) snauar r, r ntrtar nn
(the boy).
uar II nnxn tun tar nnn n
rxrntr.
They walked in silence between the tables, now loaded with books.
n nua nmn xy rna, rt ua tn saannt nra.
(loaded nnn)
When questioned what he believed in, he answered that he believed in, republic.
ra r nn, ur n r, n rrn, ur r nyny.
(questioned rxrntr).
uar I II ryr ynrnxrtx a s satx n, ra
sat na, a rax astart nrru nnt:
nxn nnnn (complex object) anmrnym nuarnym
nrynm).
nxn nnnn.
Its hard to get them thinking, about you, because they are too busy thinking
about themselves.
unt ryn sarart x yart a, ra a n nm sanxrt
tnx ax .
nmrnax nuarnax nrynx.
She looked at me, her mouth working.
na rna na nx ryt xan.
arxrntnt nuarnt r Absolute Participle Construction)
+r uran ymrrntnr m nax (n rnx
nrntn nax) nuar ] Participle I, r
ymrrntn (n rn) tnnnxr nt nnxamr n
rnmnm nuarm, n xnxxt nnxam r nnxnx.
r ra rnxrx sanxr. n xr rxrt n nauan, n
nn nnxnx.
My sister studying in the evening I seldom see her.
a a x ra yurx u, x xy.
The man was ill his temperature being very high.
un tn nn, nu rnarya y nr tna unt tax.
arxrntnt nuarnt r nrx rxrntrnnt
narunt nnxn, rt naunarx msa: ra a,
n, ra, nn rr a, n n rr na n r
nnxn.
n arxrntnt nuarnt r rr nn nnxnx,
r n nrx arxrntnt nnxn, rt naunarx
msa: , a, nu, n +r, r rt ymrnxrx
unrntnax xst.
naxnn 17. r na y xst nunr mst.
19
1. My Iriend translating a diIIicult text, I helped her to Iind some words in
the dictionary.
2. The lesson being over many students went to the reading hall.
3. All the work having, been done, we could have a rest.
4. You have many illustrations in the text-book some oI them being the
pictures by Iamous painters.

nanm anrnr rra r ny na y xst tsn


nrar snan nasarntntx r anrnr xsta.
nntx nan nyrntx n amnx nanr
raa anrnr xsta a: nnsr (asan ntx n
nmtm y]] n]) nnxn (nn yx n
n n n), amnx.
rr, rt m ra n nasanx, a nx, r
rt uan yan uan sy.
;
nx unt nyrnt n nasanx. nx
+r nntsan na aur yr uar u, nan,
ymrrntnr aur rnarna n rnarna aur
ymrrntnr.
an:
room (n) nranr, r to room (v) nmart, mart
land (n) snx to land nsnxrtx, artx na snm
machine (n) - amna, xans to machine nrart
xanu ar.

y xst na, asannt nyr nnxnx, mr


nrntnt rnant: nax, sn r.. anrn xst
nrntnt rnant ruamrx rnt nrtx nayuntx
rnax, nan:
turbojet ryarnt rarnt
nxnt na anrn xst ur n rnnt r
nuran nmyrx asntn, us ] n nrn. an:
sunset saar, sun-glasses nnunt u, sun-lounge nx,
summertime nrn sn, simmer time nrn x, summer house
nrn .
yr nnxn asymrx nr nxnt rnx,
naux, nnr mst: everybody, everything, everywhere, throughout,
whereas, without r..
!
20
amnx ran nyrnt n asanx ntx n
nn anrn xst. amnnt na asymrx yun
nauana na (nan: phone r telephone, chute r parachute,
copter r helicopter), nna na (nan: veg r vegetables, choc
r chocolate, mac r mackintosh), nauana nna na (nan:
Irig r reIrigerator).
naxnn 19.
asyr r nymmx ymrrntntx rnarnt nr x na
y xst.
aid, air, control, cause, rest, work, liIt, light, stop, water.
naxnn 20.
asyr nt na nyr nnxnx.
a) English gas, bath, bed, ice, house, Iive, three, water, sun.
) breaker, man room, mask, work, year, room, Iall, Ilower.
<6
1. ur xnxrx nasarn n]nra?
2. a nrx na y xst uture IndeIinite Tense?
3. ra ynrnxrx uture IndeIinite Tense?
4. a ysnart rr asy, rxm uture IndeIinite Tense?
5. a r rnarntn nnxn sanamr nrarntnt
rnarnt shall will?
6. ur snauar rnarn Passive oice?
7. ar mym ]yny asanx Passive oice.
8. a asyrx nrntnax ]a rnarn Passive oice?
9. a ysnart rnarn Present (Past, uture) Passive oice?
10.a nnr rxr n nnnn nnxn Passive
oice?
11.ur ra ryn?
12.anmr ]yny asanx rynx.
13.a unn nnxnx xr trt ryn?
14. a nyua ryr nan rnaanx n?
15.a asyrx Participle II nantntx nnantntx rnarn?
16. a n ]a nantntx rnarn naar Participle II?
17. u nnxn xr trt Participle II?
18.ar ]yny asanx Participle I?
19.u xr trt nnxn Participle I?
20.ur ra n]nr?
21.nt ] r n]nr? asr x.
22.u xnxrx tun n]nr na y xst?
23.r n Ior-to-inIinitive construction.
24.a nrx n]nr na y xst?
25.ur ra nx? r nt.
26.ur ra nnxn? r nt.
21
27.asr nnt y]]t nnararntntx, rnarn, nau
ymrrntntx. r nt.
28.nt y anrn. an]ar?
29.nt rnantx y nt rnantx sy anrn xst?
30.a snaun r nrra rnantx anrn xst?
rnymn xrun nuntx rnantx? anr y
xst.
31.a rnt nra t snar? r nt.
3.3 6 =
66
Test 1.
1. a s nymmx n sy, naat y , rnuarx r
rantntx.
1. phone 2. know 3. sorry 4. ero 5. bone 6. no 7. role
2. a s nymmx n sy, naat , rnuarx r
rantntx?
1. ate 2. age 3. mate 4. map 5. tape 6. make
7. lake
3. a s nymmx n sy, naat S, rnuarx r
rantntx?
1. six 2. miss 3. bus 4. house 5. seem 6. busy
4. a s nymmx n sy, naat th, rnuarx r
rantntx:
1. thin 2. thing 3. thick 4. bathe 5. bath
6.mathematics 7. path
5. a s nymmx n sy, naat ir , rnuarx r
rantntx:
1. Iirst 2. Iire 3. birth 4. girl 5. bird 6. shirt 7. skirt
6. a s nymmx n sy, naat i, rnuarx r
rantntx?
1. six 2. Iive 3. right 4. write 5. Im 6.bite 7. mine
7. a s nymmx n sy, naat y y, rnuarx r
rantntx?
1. busy 2. city 3. pity 4. mummy 5. reply 6. sunny
7. any
8. a s nymmx n sy, naat yuran ea,
rnuarx r rantntx?
22
1. head 2. dead 3. thread 4. breath 5. beat 6. break
7. instead
9. a s nymmx n sy, naat yuran al,
rnuarx r rantntx?
1. call 2. tall 3. ball 4. calm 5. hall 6. all 7. talk
8. walk
10. a s nymmx n sy, naat yuran ow,
rnuarx r rantntx?
1. glow 2. slow 3. show 4. snow 5. Iellow 6. down
7. grow 8. thrown
Test 2. nasan. Word ormation
I. nnn y]]t ymrrntntx, rnarn, nau
nnararntntx.
1. erb 2. noun 3. adjective 4. adverb
- ent, -ment, -iar, -ly, -Iy, -al, - ion, -er, -ie, -ous, -ity, -sure, -y, -en, -ic, -ive,
-ture, -ness, -less, -ency, -Iul, -an, -able, -ry, -ity, -ate.
II. asyr rnarnt r nymmx n, nntsyx y]]t:
a) -en, b) -Iy, c) -ie, d) -ate nr nnyunnt rnarnt na y
xst.
1. central 2. sharp 3. simply 4. memory 5. justy 6. evalue
7. real 8. pury 9. bright 10. threat
III. asyr ymrrntnt r nymmx rnarn:
1. to increase 2. to blacken 3. to characterie 4. to design 5. to memorie
6. to gloriIy 7. to trust 8. to release 9. to classiIy 10. to research 11. to widen
12. to water 13. to deliver 14. to damage 15. to inIluence

Test 3.
uture Simple Tense
1. Im tired. I to bed.
a)shall go b) go c) am going d) would go
2. Its late. I think a taxi.
a) take b) is taking c) will be taking d) shall take
3. the question
a) would answer b) answer c) will be answering d) shall answer
4. You in Paris tomorrow evening.
a) will arrive b) arries c) is arriving d) will be arrived
5. The boy this day all his liIe.
a) remembers b) will remember c) is being remembered
d) would remember
23
6. There any wars in the world.
a) wont be b) isnt been c) wasnt been d) wouldnt be
7. He Iourteen next year.
a) is going to be b) is c) will be d) would be
8. Dad Mary a personal computer, wont he?
a) will present b)is presenting c) presents d) would present
9. Everybody thinks they married.
a) wont get b) will get c) didnt get d) wouldnt get
10. Im not sure I im at the hotel.
a) Iind b) will Iind c) would Iind d) is Iinding
Test 4.
xax nnax ut. Direct and Indirect speech.
1. ohn said Im sorry to disturb you, Elia?
a) ohn told that he was sorry to disturb Elia.
b) ohn told Elia he was sorry to disturb her.
c) ohn said to Elia he had been sorry to disturb her.
d) ohn told to Elia that he is sorry to disturb her.
2. He said, where is ill going?
a) He asked where was ill going.
b) He asked where ill is going.
c) He asked where ill was goes.
d) He asked where ill goes.
3. Sally said, I would like to buy it?
a) Sally said that she would buy it
b) Sally said she would have liked to buy it.
c) Sally said that she liked to buy it.
d) Sally told that she will buy it.
4. II I had auy instructions, I would know what to do? said Mag.
a) Mag said that iI she had had auy instructions she would have known what
to do.
b) Mag said iI she, had auy instructions she knew what to do.
c) Mag said that iI she had auy instructions she would know what to do.
d) Mag told that iI she has had auy instructions she would know what to do.
5. Robby asked obby do you know old arn?
a) Robby asked obby iI he knew ld arn that was on the shrews bury
Road.
b)Robby asked obby did he know ld arn, it was on the shrews bury
Road.
c) Robby asked obby where ld arn was.
d) Robby said to obby did he know where ld arn was.
6. The doctor asked, How do you Ieel?
a) The doctor asked how did I Ieel.
b) The doctor asked how I Ielt.
c) The doctor asked how I had Ielt.
24
d) The doctor asked how I was Ieeling myselI.
7. II I were you , Id stop smoking, eII said.
a) eII said that iI he were him he would have stopped smoking.
b) eII said that he had been him he would stop smoking.
c) eII advised him to stop smoking.
d) eII said that he advised me to stop smoking.
8. Could you show me these jeans, please said the boy.
a) The boy said to show him those jeans.
b) The boy asked to show him those jeans.
c) The boy asked iI the salesgirl could show him these jeans.
d) The boy said that he would like to look at those jeans.
9. The teacher said to us, e quiet, please?
a) The teacher asked us be quiet.
b) The teacher told us to be quiet.
c) The teacher said to us to be quiet.
d) The teacher told us to be quiet.
10. Dont swim too Iar, dear, asked Dad.
a) Dad asked him not to swim too Iar.
b) Dad asked him dont swim too Iar.
c) Dad asked him wouldnt swim too Iar.
d) Dad told him not to swim too Iar.
Test 5. Sequence oI tenses.
1. Mike hoped that his Iriend him with his car.
a) would help b) will help c) helped d) will have helped
2. We didnt know the score, but we were sure their team the game.
a) has lost b) had lost c) lost d) lose
3. Yesterday Tom heard that his aunt Ior Iive days.
a) was ill b) has been ill c) had been ill d) is ill
4. The children were aIraid oI making auy noise Mom .
a) was sleeping b) had slept c) slept d) had been sleeping
5. He gave all his money to me because he me.
a) would trust b) trusted c) had trusted d) is trusted
6. We were told that Andrew to enter that college.
a) is going b) went c) was going d) would go
7. My parents decided that we my birthday on Sunday.
a) would celebrate b) celebrated c) shall celebrate d) was celebrating
8. Ann hasnt been in Iormatted that the lecture on riday.
a) hasnt taken place b) wouldnt take place d) will be taking place
9. The police Iound out that ob Slant in ondons suburbs at that time.
a) had been living b) lives c) lived d) were living
10. I knew that Mercury the closest planet to the sun, but I didnt Ieel like
answering the question.
a) was b) is c) had been d) is being
25
Test 6.
Passive oice
1. The letter and the parcel tomorrow.
a) will be post b) will have been pasted c) will be posted
d) would be posted
2. Nick to be a very industrious person.
a) has been know b) is known c) is been known d) was known
3. ook! The bridge .
a) is being repaired is been repaired c) has been repaired
d) has being repaired
4. In Greece the lympic Games once in Iour years.
a) were held b) are being held c) were helding
5. The problem Ior three years, but they havent got auy results.
a) has been studied b) has being studied c) was studied
d) is being studied
6. This book by the end oI September.
a) would been republished b) will have been republished
c) will been republished d) is being republished
7. A police car came when the injured man man the road.
a) was being carried oII b) was been carrying c) has been carried oII
d) is being carried oI
8. I to the new director yesterday.
a) am introduced b) was introducing c) have been introduced
d) was introduced
9. Many diIIerent languages in India.
a) speak b) spoke c) are speaking d) are spoken
10. The theory in the past.
a) has been well received
b) has well received
c) was well received
d) was well receiving
Test 7.
Non - Iinite Iorms oI the verb
1. As it is late I suggest by taxi.
a) them to go b) to go c) going d) go
2. I cant watch T with you in Iront oI it!
a) stand b) to stand c) stood d) standing
3. He enjoys tennis.
a) play b) playing c) to play d) to be playing
4. Is there anything in that new magaine worth ?
a) to read reading c) read d) to be reading
5. I really must stop .
a) to smoke b) smoking c) being smoking d) smoke
26
6. Do you enjoy ?
a) to teach b) teaching c) being taught d) teach
7. Would you mind the Iront door?
a) to close b) closing c) to be closing d) close
8. Although I was in a hurry, I stopped to him.
a) to talk b) talking c) is being talking d) talk
9. Avoid and youll Ieel soon.
a) to overeat b) being overeated c) being overeated d) overeat
10. Ill always remember you Ior the Iirst time.
a) to meet b) meeting c) meet d) met
Test 8.
Simple Tenses. Direct and indirect Speech. Sequence oI Tenses. Passive
oice. Non - Iinite Iorms.
1. The weather Iorecast said that .
a) it will rain in the aIternoon b) it would rain in the aIternoon
c) it rains in the aIternoon d) it will be raining in the aIternoon
2. St. asils Cathedral in the mid - 18
th
century in memory oI the vixtory
over aan.
a) built b) was built c) was builted d) had had been built
3. Sames said that he a horse beIore.
a) never rode b) has never ridden c) had never ridden
d) would never ride
4. I know Nora Parker. I her at a party a couple oI weeks ago.
a) met b) have met c) had met d) was met
5. Alise said that her parents in a week.
a) will come back b) comes back c) would come back
d) had come back
6. Youd better .
a) not to worry b) to stop to worry c) stop worrying d) stop worry
7. I cant understand why this mistake again.
a) make you b) you make c) you do d) you have made
8. y this time next month I .
a) will retire b) retire c) will have retired d) retired
9. You to report it to the police as soon as possible.
a) supposed b) are supposed c) suppose d) will suppose
10. She tried to be serious but she couldnt help .
a) to laugh b) laughing c) herselI to laugh d) herselI laughing
27
>. ? ?
6
nx rr, urt rr ran antn nyrn n yunx
a u xrntnr, axn nayurtx asnasnt
annynxnx rr na n rr, rr nn rr
+ranax. nan rax n nsnxr nart nata ynx
arxrntn art rr nrr utx tastan
asnunr rna.
t nanx aran rra rrrymm
ynaxnnx n n rr +ran nnasnauamrx nx ]]nnan
xsttx nn utx, asn x ysnaanx rr nan
ra nx ]anx nat xrnrnr nrnsanx.
a rr +ran nnnararx nntsan asnuntx n
snunx n]an ran]an ryryt xstr arana
rra. a nn rr +ran nt nanx nanannt na
txnn nntx +nnr xanx rra.
>.@. ? 6
1. urr sarn rra.
2. tnmr nsnat na.
3. nnr n ]antnt nsnaa nrauym ]ynnm a
srntx, ra nsrntx a n.
4. nar narntnt n sarnax, sanxx nsnat
na nnnnn - nunt rnx.
5. nurr rr, nnr r ry yx - rx na.
6. urr m as nt asan.
7. yar, ruamrx n n asan na sarnax. nr,
ur srnt na ryr trt nrannt nna n
narntn.
8. rr, rt n asan na, ns n ] nsrny
ny.
9. nnr, nat n nnxam asana nnxam
sarna.
10.nnr, nat n asyt (nnnnx) asan
sarn.
11. urar nymm asant, tntax s nx sanunnt
tn nnan rs, xam na sarnax.
28
12.asyr, n nx, nnyunnt rs yx- n
rxrant nnxnx ra, urt srnt na tnnnxn
ny ry x nrauym ]ynnm.
13.anr rnant unnt nnnnx nnyunntx nnxnxx.
rt r, ur sarna tn taxn nsnat a
n, a nnyunntx nnxnxx n asyr nxnt
na, srnt a. x rnrx nnxamy nnnnm
>.2 6 2
r
The last bus to Donington - on - ain
ohn Tryer reports on the local problems oI a national crisis - how people
without cars can move about in the country.
ast Monday the little village oI Donington - on - ain, deep in the
incolnshire woods, lost its last contact through public transport with the outside
world. nce Donington (pop. 236) boasted its own railway station. That closed a
generation ago, and on April I the two bus services, to incoln in one direction and
outh in the other, were withdrawn. Now the villagers oI Donington, a third oI
whom do not own a car, Iace a three-mile treck Ior the nearest bus route.
incolnshire is not a good bus country, with the population scattered around
in little pockets over the Ilat, rich Iarmland.
The buses have to cover long distances Irom place carrying dont make
enough money on these journeys, and that even using the money they make on the
busy routes to pay Ior the less busy ones they cant make ends meet. So they back
the services. There are Iewer buses. ewer people Iind the service they need.
What are they going to do when the services stop? It game as a shattering
blow to Donington - on - ain. Theyve got no right to leave us here without a
bus said Eva Traves, a 56 year - old housewiIe who has lived in the village Ior 36
years. Weve ever such a lot oI elderly people here. How are they going to get
out?
My husband Ron was in hospital at outh recently and I visited him every
day. I couldnt do that now, unless somebody took me in their car. The nearest bus
is at South Willingham, three miles away.
Doningtons local councilor, Charles Turner, was one oI the Iirst to be hit by
lost service. nlike Ron Traves, who rides on a scooter to the meetings in the
outh this week. Turner says that some 35 per cent oI the Donington people,
especially in the old peoples bungalows and the council houses, do not have a car.
All hope, however, is not lost. outh Rural District Council is trying to
persuade a local Iirm to run a bus service to and Irom Donington two days a week.
The trouble is that it will not do so unless the council underwrites the costs at the
rate oI 7 a day. The Council has reIused, but its clerk, ryan Spence, is trying to
talk the Iirm into haying a Iew experimental runs to see what happens.
nless something is done, the drain oI people Irom villages to the towns will
continue, which cannot be healthy. II there are more people in the villages it will
be easier to justiIy buses to them. Many councilors seem to cling to the mistaken
29
belieI that all villagers are two - car Iamilies when in Iact many do not even have
one.
rrt +ran
1. Would you improve your reading !ill"
a) Read and underline the word which is the same as the Iirst one given
last lost told bold
list told
lots hold
last cold
#$ %ere i a erie o& '(o e)preion. *+ey are ome'ime di&&eren'. ,o '+roug+
'+e li' and (+en '+e e)preion are di&&eren'- underline '+e (ord '+a' di&&er in
'+e e.ond e)preion/
bus services bus services
well paid well said
old looking cold looking
one-way one day
Iew passengers a Iew passengers
the drain oI people the train oI people
hes hit by the lost service hes hit by the lost servant
who lives in the village? who leaves Ior the village?
they cant make meet they cant make ends meet
.$ 0ind '+e (ord (+i.+ mean '+e ame '+ing a '+e (ord men'ioned/
carry run little large wood oak
take big tree
drive small Iorest
ride nice land
2. a) Will you read '+e &ollo(ing paage and &ind 1 (ord (i'+ '+e u&&i) 2'ion3 in
i'" W+a' e&&e.' doe '+e u&&i) +ave on '+e meaning o& '+e (ord"
nce, Donington (population 236) had its railway station. That closed a
generation ago, and on April I the two bus services, to incoln in one direction and
outh in the other, were withdrawn.
#$ 4n '+e &ir' en'en.e you .an ee '+e (ord 2villager3. 5an you &ind ano'+er
(ord &ormed in '+e ame (ay"
Now villagers oI Donington Iace a three - mile treck Ior the nearest bus route.
Doningtons is local councilor was one the Iirst to be hit by the lost service.
.$ Will you read '+e en'en.e and &ind '+e e6uivalen' o& '+e &ollo(ing (ord/
cut back.
The last two bus services were withdrawn.
thrown about.
30
incolnshire is a country with the population .a''ered around in little pockets over
the Ilat, rich Iarmland.
taking:.
The buses have to cover long distances Irom place to place .arrying only a Iew
passengers at a Iew passengers at a time.
7. 8ead '+e &ollo(ing paage and ele.' '+e appropria'e lin!9(ord &rom '+e li'
given #elo(/
All hope.
1
, is not lost. South Rural district Council is trying to persuade a
local Iirm to run a bus service to and Irom Donington two days a week,.
2
. Is that
it will not do so.
3
the council underwrites the costs at the rate oI 7 a day. The
council has reIused,.
4
its clerk is trying to talk the Iirm into having a Iew
experimental runs.
1 2 3 4
thus The only result on the condition iI but
however As a matter oI under the circum- however
in this way Iact stances yet
in addition The trouble unless and
this
1. *+e 'i'le- '+e &ir' en'en.e and '+e &ir' (ord o& ea.+ paragrap+ o& an ar'i.le
+ave #een given #elo(. :i.! '+e poin' '+a' you '+in! are men'ioned in '+e ar'i.le.

The last bus to Donington - on - ain
ast Monday the little village oI Donington - on - ain, deep in the
incolnshire woods, lost its last contact through public transport with the outside
world.
incolnshire is not a good bus country. .
The buses have to cover. .
ut what . .
It game as. .
Doningtons local councilor. .
All hope, however. .
nless something is done. .
The article tells usmentions:
about one oI the local problems oI a national crisis
that the Iact mentioned in the article be a tragedy with the villagers
that the situation doesnt seem to improve soon
how people without cars cant move about the country
how the little village lost its last contact through public
what problem the villagers oI Donington Iace
;. Wor! in group o& '(o.
31
a) ook at the Iollowing word combinations and think oI a story that might
combine them all. You may reoder them in any way you want to using any Iorm oI
the verb:
to lose a contact, two bus services, to make ends meet, to cling to the mistaken
belieI, to be withdrawn, to carry a Iew passengers at a time, to be hit by the lost
service, the drain oI people Irom the villages to the towns, to persuade a local Iirm.
b) When you have decided upon the story, tell the story to your partner. Then
listen to that oI your partner. Ask each other as many questions as you can to learn
Iurther details or clariIy some points.
rt +ran
1. Read the text The last bus to Donington - on - ain and a) underline the
sentences that best sum up the main idea oI each paragraph; b) reorder the words
according to what happens in the passage. When you have Iinished, discuss the
order you decided on with other groups.
2. Would you mark the position where Donington - on - ain is on a map?
Indicate all the roads and neighboring cities mentioned in the text, please. (arx
nrynax ara.)
nrrt +ran
@. :leae- .omple'e '+e &ollo(ing 'a'emen' (i'+ p+rae:
1.The last bus services to the little village oI Donington - on - ain were
withdrawn because. (there are a Iew passengers at a time; there are passengers;
there are no buses; there are Iew people in the village)
2. The villagers need the bus service badly because .(not all oI them have a
car; they have a three-mile walk to the bus; some people travel by bus; they
havent got any other transport)
3. outh Rural District Council is trying to persuade a local Iirm to run a bus
service to and Irom Donington . (every day, every other day; two a week; Irom
time to time)
4. The local Iirm wants the Council to underwrite the costs at the rate oI 7 a
day and the latter.(has agreed; doesnt know what to do; is discussing the
problem; has reIused)
5.The drain oI people Irom the villages to the towns will continue iI.(all the
villagers havent got a car; public transport is withdrawn; the villages are situated
Iar Irom the railway station; the living conditions oI the villagers are improved)
2. <n(er '+e &ollo(ing 6ue'ion- ele.'ing '+e rig+' an(er:
1. Who wrote this text? (authors name and occupation)
2. What is the aim oI the message? (inIorming; teaching; entertaining)
3. What is the authors intention in this messages? (There may be more than
one answer.) (to amuse the reader; to predict what the Iuture oI an English village;
to criticie society; to teach us something about liIe in the Iuture)
4. What is the authors attitude towards the problem he describes?
(indiIIerence; sympathy; pity; admiration; anxiety; detachment hiding concern;
criticism)
32
5. Do you think the article its aim? Why? (yes; no; probably; perhaps)
>.3. 6 6 .
1. Read the text Mr. Hollands Dream
When Mr. Holland was a young man, he played a lot oI Iootball, and he had
always been thin and very strong. ut then he worked in an oIIice Ior many years,
and he drove to work in a car, so when he was Iorty, he was Iat and very soIt, and
he didnt wish to get Iatter and soIter every year.
ne day one oI his Iriends said to him: Would you like to be thinner, red?
I course, I would. Mr. Holland answered.
Well, his Iriend said, stop going to your oIIice by car, and get a bicycle.
Mr. Holland had not ridden a bicycle Ior many years. Its very hard to learn
to ride a bicycle again at your age, his wiIe said.
ut it was not too hard Ior Mr. Holland to do. He usually sat in his living
room and read the newspaper in the evening, but he bought a bicycle Ior his
birthday and practiced riding it every evening instead. He hope that it would help
him to get thinner, and he got a lot oI pleasure Irom it.
He Iound little roads which not really very narrow, but were too narrow Ior
cars, and there he got away Irom the nasty noises oI the city, which were becoming
too much Ior him. They were not really very loud, but they were too loud Ior Mr.
Holland.
Then he began to go his oIIice by bicycle. Sometimes all the cars stopped at a
red light, and he went past them to the Iront, because his bicycle was narrow. Then
he was very happy.
Yesterday he stopped at a red light, and a man came up behind him on another
bicycle. he stopped too and to Mr. Holland, Have the police taken your driving
licence away too?
4. :u' '+e en'en.e in '+e .orre.' order.
1. Then he began to go to his oIIice on his bicycle.
2. He usually sat in his living room and read the newspaper.
3. It was not too hard Ior Mr. Holland to ride a bicycle.
4. He Iound little roads which were not really very narrow.
5. When Mr. Holland was a young man, he played a lot oI Iootball.
6. When he was Iorty, he was Iat and very soIt.
7. Mr. Holland hadnt ridden a bicycle Ior many years.
8. He didnt wish to get Iatter and soIten every year.
9. When all the cars stopped at a red light Mr. Holland went past them, because
his bicycle was narrow.
10.Another man stopped too and said to Mr. Holland Have the police taken
your licence away too?
33
44. <n(er '+e &ollo(ing 6ue'ion.
1. What is Mr. Hollands dream?
2. When did he play a lot oI Iootball?
3. Why had he always been thin and very strong?
4. Why did he become Iat and very soIt?
5. What was the advice oI one oI his Iriends?
6. Was it hard to Iollow this advice? Why?
7. What did he usually do in the evening?
8. What would help him to get thinner?
9. Where did Mr. Holland practice?
10.Did he stop at the red light?
11.Why did a man behind him ask: Have the police taken the driving licence
away too?
444. 5ir.le '+e .orre.' an(er.
1. Was Mr. Holland Iat or this when he was young?
A. He was slim C. He was thick
. He was thin D. He was Iat
2. What was he like when he was Iorty?
A. He was Iat C. He was thick
. He was thin D. He was slim
3. Who told him to get a bicycle?
A. His son did C. His mother did
. His wiIe did D. A Iriend
4. Was it hard Ior him to learn to ride a bicycle again?
A. Sometimes it was to learn to ride a bicycle again
. Yes, it was very easy
C. Yes, it was very hard
D. No, it wasnt
5. When did he practice?
A. In the evening C. n his birthday
. In the morning D. At weekends.
6. Did he enjoy riding his bicycle?
A. Yes, he did C. No, he didnt
. iIty-IiIty D. Sometimes
7. Why did he like narrow roads?
A. ecause they were crowded
. ecause they were very clean
C. ecause they were noisier
D. ecause they were less noisy
8. Why could he go past cars at red lights?
A. ecause he didnt have to stop at them
. ecause he was very ambitious
C. ecause he didnt know traIIic rules
34
D. ecause his bicycle was narrower
9. Had the police taken Mr. Hollands driving licence away?
A. No, they hadnt C. Yes, they had
. ust checked it D. He leIt it at home
10. Had they taken the other mans away?
A. No, they hadnt C. He leIt it at home
. ust checked it D. Yes, they had
1. Read the text Scenarios
Making up stories about the Iuture might seem a curious occupation Ior
grown-up executives. ut there was a time, in the 1970s and early 1980s, when
scenarios were a Iamiliar part oI the planning process. They then Iell out oI Iashion
Ior a while, as did strategic planning overall. Now that strategy is making a
comeback, so are scenarios. In essence the scenario technique consists oI
describing a range oI possible Iuture. et us suppose that the Chinese economy
collapses, or that it Ilourishes: that the Internet enriches the telephone companies
or drives them out oI business. What then?
The aim is not to make predictions, but to provide a Iramework into which
subsequent events can be Iitted. II executives have thought out the possible
outcomes, they should be quicker to react when one oI them arrives. As Arie de
Geus, Iormer head oI planning at Shell, puts it, they can remember the Iuture.
Since the oil industry vats single investments such as reIineries or
petrochemical complexes, scenarios applealed as a Irom oI risk analysis. What
would happen in the oil price soared or plummeted? What was the probability oI a
given host government collapsing, or nationaliing the industry?
Then came the reaction. In a recent book, The iving Company, Mr. de
Geus describes how in the 1980s, Shells senior executives became skeptical.
Making up stories, they said, was great Iun and good public relations. ut how
many decisions could be attributed directly to the scenario process?
ver the last 10 years, says Roger Rainbow, Shells present head oI
planning, there has been more emphasis on getting the managers involved. The
trend has been to get them to bring scenarios into their decision processes, he
says. We need to help people to make decisions on quite speciIic issues, down to
the level oI a speciIic strategy in a given country, or a speciIic project.
At the same time, he reports. there is a rising level oI interest outside. We
get one or two companies a week calling us up to ask our advice on scenarios. II
we were a consultancy, wed be making a lot oI money. There are a number oI
consultancies doing just that. Northeast Consulting, oI oston, was Iounded by a
group oI consultants who had previously done scenario work Ior IM.
According to eith Anderson, senior associate Ior Northeast Consulting
Resources in Europe, the diIIerence in origins is Iundamental. Where Shell began
with geopolitical change, the computer industry was more concerned with detailed
developments in technology.
As Mr. Anderson puts, the task is not merely to describe possible Iuture, but
to identiIy the preIerred one and work to bring it about. MicrosoIt, he observed,
35
was dismissive about the Internet at the outset. When it perceived its mistake, it set
out not merely to catch up, but to take a lead in determining how the Internet
developed.
=y *ony >a.!on
&rom '+e 0inan.ial *ime.
2. ?um#er '+i in&orma'ion in order i' appear in '+e 'e)'/
1. People call Shell in order to ask how to develop and use scenarios.
2. At Shell, they get managers to participate more in developing scenarios.
3. Several consultancies are working in the area oI scenarios.
4. People outside Shell are getting more interested in scenarios.
5. At Shell, managers have to make decisions on particular projects.
6. Northeast Consulting was started by people who had worked at IM.
3. W+a' do '+ee &igure re&er 'o in '+e 'e)'"
1. 1980s
2. 1970s
3. 10
4. Choose the correct alternative:
1. II the price oI something /A5&/, it
a. stays the same
b. Ialls really very quickly
c. increases by a lot very quickly
2. II the price oI something +,$**'%/, it a stays the same
a. stays the same
b. Ialls really very quickly
c. increases by a lot very quickly
3. II you $.B'&%5C' something, you
a. carry it out
b. take it over Irom someone else
c. plan to avoid it
4. II something 5++'5,/, it looks
a. uninteresting
b. attractive and interesting
c. boring
5. II a government collapses, it
a. loses power
b. gains power
c. stays in power
5. <ll o& '+e &ollo(ing 'a'emen' are &ale. @our 'a! i 'o .orre.' '+em/
1) Scenarios are oI no real practical use
2) The scenario technique involves thinking oI one possible series oI Iuture
events.
36
3) Scenarios were a part oI strategic planning right through the 1980s.
4) Executives started to use scenarios beIore the Second World War
5) Getting executives to make up stories is a normal thing to do.
6. *ranla'e '+e &ollo(ing en'en.e in'o good 8uian.
1) Scenarios Iell out oI Iashion Ior a while, as did strategic planning overall.
2) Since the oil industry undertakes the vast single investments such as
reIineries or petrochemical complexes, scenarios appealed as a Irom oI risk
analysis.
3) Making up stories about the Iuture might seem a curios occupation Ior
grown-up executives.
4) In essence, the scenario technique consists oI describing a rang oI possible
Iutures.
5) II we were a consultancy, wed be making a lot oI money.
6) At the same time there is a rising level oI interest outside.
7) What would happen iI the oil price soared or plummeted?
8) The aim is not to make predictions, but to provide a Iramework into which
subsequent events can be Iitted.
9) When it perceived its mistake, it set out not merely to catch up, but to take a
lead in determining how the Internet developed.
10) ver the last 10 years, says Roger Rainbow, Shells present head oI
planning. there has been more emphasis on getting the managers involved.
7. Explain these words in English:
1) ramework -
2) Collapse -
3) Economy -
4) Prediction -
5) Strategy -
6) Government -
7) ashion -
8) Development -
9) Decision -
10) Consultant -
1. Read the text Nelsons management style could have come Irom a modern
textbook
Millions Iind it hard today to identiIy white European males, and 20
th
century warIare has made it almost impossible to use war leaders oI the past as role
models Ior the present. Yet leaders and heroes are still needed, and Nelsons
characters and his preparation Ior the Nile adventure, still make him an example
Ior everyone, black or write, male or Iemale, ritish or otherwise. The reason lies
less in what he did, more in how he did it.
37
Even in the toughest boardroom, battle, very Iew people today have to carry
the level oI responsibility Nelson bore in 1798. Yet the way he bore it could have
come Irom a modern textbook:
developing teamwork with deIined roles and close personal
relationships;
allowing the expression oI diIIerent ideas;
providing clear, shared and understandable goals;
permitting participation in decision-making;
encouraging initiative;
promoting sense oI ownership and commitment.
All today are at least recognied as valuable, and all were present in his
conduct oI the campaign. II he had had time to write books, he could have
advanced management theory by two centuries.
In 1978, he Iaced something which management-speak would call a
challenge. The would seems hopelessly inadequate. With continental Europe
controlled by revolutionary ranc, the Royal Navy had been Iorced to leave the
Mediterranean. In Toulon, the rench were preparing a colossal Ileet and army - 17
major warships with more than 300 troop ships. Nelson was selected to Iind it and,
iI possible it. He was only 39 years old and had never commanded a Ileet beIore,
yet in ondon his task was seen as crucial to all Europes destiny.
eIore his Ileet assembled, he knew several oI his captains personally and
the rest by reputation. Immediately aIter their rendevous, he began to work upon
all oI them the wonder oI his command, the magic Nelson touch. Asking them to
come in turn to the ship, he encouraged them into inIormal open discussions - an
unheard - oI combination oI brieIing and brainstorming. While always knowing
who was in charge, their common understanding grew so great that later,
paraphrasing Henry , he said: I had the happiness to command a band oI
brothers.
=y A'ep+en %o(ar'+
0rom '+e 0inan.ial *ime.
2. Train your reIlective mind! Answer the questions
a) The article states that 20
th
century warIare has made it almost impossible to use
war leaders oI the past as role models Ior the present. Do you agree? Why or why
not?
b) Can a military style be used in business today? Do you know such examples?
c) Why would Nelson have advanced management theory by two centuries iI had
written books?
d) Management-speak is the language oI management books. Why is the word
challenge inadequate, or not enough, to describe what Nelson had to do?
e) How Iar can military-type methods be used by business leaders?
3. Number these things in order they are mentioned in the article:
a) letting people say what they want
38
b) giving clear aims to people
c) getting people to work together
d) getting people to Ieel they belong to the organiation
e) getting people to decide and do things on their own
I) allowing people to take part deciding things
4. What do these Iigures to in the text?
1) 5
2) 17
3) 20
4) 300
5) millions
6) 39
7) 1798
8) 1759
5. ind adjective in the text that describe the Iollowing:
1) the common understanding among Nelsons oIIicers oI what they had to do
2) the combination oI brieIing and brainstorming
3) Nelsons discussions with the oIIicers
4) the Nelson touch
5) the task Iacing Nelson
6) the rench Ileet
1. Read the text The nIorgiving demand oI Six sigma process controls
The term six sigma is one Iamiliar to statisticians. In practical terms, it
means reducing the deIects in a process to just three per million. It is thus an
extremely demanding target Ior quality control.
The term was thought up 10 years ago by the S electronics group
Motorola, based on apanese methods oI totals quality management. The approach
is particularly suited to the high-volume, high precision electronics industry. or
example, a mobile phone such as Motorola produces might contain 400
components. II a company operates to two-sigma - 45000 deIects per million - on
each part, the chances oI the phone being deIective are Iar too high.
General Electric is now in its second year oI applying six sigma across its
businesses. ast year, it spent 200m on the initial parts oI the programme. This
year it aims to spend 300m and expects cost savings in the year oI 400-500m:
that is, a proIit oI 100m-200m.
Six sigma is by no means conIined to manuIacturing. GE Capital, the
Iinancial services division oI General Electric, applies it to processes ranging Irom
billing to various kinds oI customer. Denis Nayden, president oI GE Capital, says
that in practical terms that hard part oI applying six is obtaining real data. Its
highly dependent on the data you have, he says. And given all the businesses
were in, the data are all diIIerent. ThereaIter, he says: The real question is
39
whether you can put the right model in place, so the process has Iewer moving
parts and less things to break down. Its very important to change the process
Iundamentally. You need to change the whole behavior oI the company, to become
more responsible to the customer.
This last part is crucial. GE Capital surveys its customers regularly - some
monthly or quarterly, depending on their business - to check their perIormance.
Its very important that the customer is engaged in this, Nayden says. We use a
score card, whereby customers identiIy whats going wrong and what we should
Iocus on.
=y *ony >a.!on
&rom '+e 0inan.ial *ime
2. uestions to the text:
1) What does the term six sigma mean?
2) How oIten does GE survey its customers?
3) When was the six sigma term introduced?
4) II a company operates to two sigma, is the a big chance you will gat a
detective product?
5) Where was the six sigma approach equally suitable Ior all goods?
6) Is the six sigma approach equally suitable Ior all goods?
3. What do these Iigures reIer to in the text?
1) 2 9) 6
2) 200 10) 3
3) 400 11) 10
4) 400-500
5) 45.000
6) 100-200
7) 300
8) 10.000
4. True or Ialse? Read the statements and correct that Ialse ones.
1) GE says six sigma makes it more aware oI customers needs.
2) GE changes the way it does things when it applies six sigma.
3) GE has Iound it easy to apply to diIIerent activities.
4) GE only uses six sigma in manuIacturing.
5) GE expects to save over 400 million in the second year by using it.
6) GE spent 200 million on six sigma in the Iirst year.
7) GE has been using six sigma Ior three years.
5. There are certain contractions used in the article, such as the S which reIers
to the nited States, or GE which is General Electric.
Here is a list oI some more widely-used contractions. Can you say what they
stand Ior?
40
1. NA 2.NH 3.G 4. 5.NY 6.SSR
7.HR 8.HP 9.RD 10.Rn 11.RnR
12.TGI 13.WC 14.e-mail 15.N 16.NAT
17.C
6. se the words and phrases separated by slashes and add the missing to make
complete sentences about GE, based on the article. Each slach indicates one
missing word, and the words in brackets have to be put into their correct
grammatical Iorm.
1) Mr. Nayden (think) it very important customers should (involve) the
process
2) involvement customersextremely
3) GE (use) score card, where customers (show) what (need) (improve) what
it concentrate.
4) GE Capital (question) customers regularly - some week, some month,
some three months: depend) their type business - order check how it
(do)
1. Read the text Amusement park
I always say that I am not little any more and I am not interested in any
theme parks. When my classmates invite me to go there with them I always: No, I
am busy doing more interesting things than going to the amusement park.
ut last weekend I Ielt sorry that I told everybody at school that. ast
weekend my little sister had her birthday and asked me to take her to the
amusement park. What could I do? I course, I went with my sister to the
amusement park. It took us halI an hour to get to the park by the underground. At
Iirst my sister rode on a merry-go-round. She took a ride on a white horse while I
watched her. The merry-go-round moved very Iast but my little sister was not
aIraid. Then she saw a roller coaster. It was low and high hills and a tram ran up
and down them. She enjoyed the ride very much. Then we came up to the ig
Wheel. I was tired oI watching my sister and that time I decided to take a ride on
the ig Wheel. My sister and I got into the car. There are Iour seats in each Wheel
car. We waited a little and then I saw two girls Irom my class. They saw me,
laughed and took their seats in our car. They had a very good time and laughed a
lot. I think they laughed at me. My sister also had a great time. ut not me.
0ind in '+e 'e)' '+e en'en.e (i'+ '+ee (ord and (ord .om#ina'ion and (ri'e
'+em ou'/
1) ntm n annt
2) Mn ran xant
3) na nnna nx rr na arrann.
4) nanman sa n.
5) s xan x ns.
6) yran nanmart sa r.
7) Mx ra x n arnry.
41
exical Work: Iactquickly
1) The planes Ily Iact
2) Peter can run Iast
3) ook! Helen is writing very Iast!
4) My Iather drives very Iact.
5) You are talking very Iast. Please, talk more slowly.

1) The bell rang and the children ran quickly to the door.
2) Helen heard a noise outside ran up to the window.
3) The children were walking slowly, when they saw the river they quickly ran
to it.
4) Tom Sawyer hated to wash himselI with soap. He usually did it very
quickly.
5) The teacher asked the question and it was Samuel who answered very
quickly.
2. ill in quickly or Iast.
1) I can ride a bike very.
2) In the morning Pete could not Iind his bad but his mother did it.
3) Mary hated soup. At the lunch time she was eating the soup very slowly but
when her mother gave her ice cream she ate it.
4) The children were skating. Helen was skating . ut when she saw her
Iriend Daniel she stopped and called him.
5) There were one hundred pieces in the pule. The children did the
pule. It took them only halI an hour.
6) We were walking along the street but when we saw a new beautiIul
sweet shop we decided to get in and eat something tasty.
>.> ;D= 6 8
I. The title oI the article. - asan rart.
1. The article is head - lined . - rartx nastarx.
2. The head - line oI the article I have read is. - rartx, rym x
nuran, nastarx .
3. It is (en)titled. - na nastarx.
II. 1. The author(s) oI the article is (are) . - r(-a) +r rart
xnxrx (xnxmrx)..
2. The article is written by . - rartx nanana .
3. It is (was) published in . - na (tna) nynana .
III. 1. The main idea oI the article is . - nnax x rart sanmuarx
r, ur .
2. The article is about . - rartx .
3. The article is devoted to . - rartx nxmna.
42
4. The article deals with . - rartx r n .
5. The article touches upon . - rartx sararar .
6. The purpose (aim, objective) oI this article is to give . - Hnt +r rart
art .(urarnx nnnnym n]anm .) - (the readers some
inIormation on .)
I. 1. In the Iirst part oI the article the author speaks about . - n uar
rart ar rr .
2. The author shows . - r nastar .
3.The author deIines . - r nnxr .
4.The author underlines . - r nuar .
5.The author notes . - r ruar .
6. The author emphasies (marks out, pints out) . - r tnxr .
7. irst oI all it is necessary to underline. - x r nx
nunyrt ..
8. The author begins with the describing . - r naunar nanx .
9. According to the text . - rnan rry..
10. urther the author reports (says) that . - antm ar mar, ur.
11. In conclusion . - sanmun .
12. The author comes to the conclusion that . - sanmun ar
nxr ty, ur.
13. The author concludes by emphasiing the Iact that . - r
saanuar tnn rar ]ara, a .
. 1. I Iind the article interesting. - naxxy, ur rartx nrna.
2. I consider the article important. - uram, ur rartx axna.
3. I Iound the article oI no valus. - naxxy, ur rartx n r ntm
nnnr.
4. The article holds much new Ior (to) me. - rartx xr nr nr
nx nx.

E. 6
1. .. sn, .. na, .. asanax, .. sn. aara
anrnr xsta, Ma, 2004r., sarntr nnr ;
2. .. ana nrn xst, Ma, tmax mna, 2004 r.;
3. .. sa Everyday English, anr-ryr, sarntr
a, 1999 r.;
4. . ta, . Maxyxn, . Mntrna rt n anrny
xsty, Ma, - , 2000r.;
5. .. nn rt n raar anrnr xsta, Ma,
, 1998r.;
6. .. yana nrnax raara rannax ynaxnnxx,
Ma, Mnx, 1998r.;
7. Raymond Murphy Essential Grammar in SE, Cambridge niversity
Press, 1990r.;
8. ntm naun nx mntn, Ma, ]a, 2004r.;
43
9. nrn-y, y-anrn nat, Ma, - ,
2001r.
F. G
nmu rra
r 1
a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
) 11 6,14 8 15 9 3 10 4 4 12
r 2
a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
) 8 11 4 6 12 1 10 7 3 9
r 3
a) 1 2 3 4 5 6
) 2 9 10 1 9 5
r 4
a) 1 2 3 4 5 6
) 9 10 9 5 8 11
;H
naxnn 1
1. t nan na n go nar ny n. +nnantnt
rrn (sanrannrt, asaxn r..)
2. t nan na do sure nar +nnantnrt anry
(nynnrt nr yxnnrt rr na).
3. t nan ns n na nax sorry vase nastamr
xann rxmr, a t nan na all nastar, ur n
nmn.
4. nnxn nrantn. rrn nn t nan
na said rntryr r, ur rxm n r r, ur tn
nant, naax na r, ur sxn n tn yant.
5. t nan na late n na right nar anry unrt
nnrt.
6. t n na hurt taxar nr. s n na
serious rr rnn na ynrt, sart r,
ur nur ramnr n nyunt.
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7. s n na home nastar, ur +r n nas, a xn
nnxn, rr yxnm, rrnr. rr nna -
m n.
naxnn 2
xxm r nsnxrx nnxnx: 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11,
rantnt nxxm.
1. r ra?
2. t sanxrt?
3. t xr n nut?
4. Mxn a nrt?
5. n ra rar unt an.
6. xanyra nrnar n Mana.
7. n arr.
8. a nant nn nt!
9. 3r am yun?
10. nxanart t. - na. a xm ntart
st.
11.t s ?
12.am nr, nxanyra.
naxnn 3
3,4,6 - nnxnx
naxnn 4
1. shall; 2. will; 3. will; 4. shall; 5. will.
naxnn 5
1. They will live in Moscow. 2. Will you go to the library tomorrow? - Yes, I shall.
No, I shall not. 3. I shall not translate this text. 4. They will be goods pupils.
naxnn 6
1. worked; 2. would come; 3. had studied
naxnn 7
1. said; 2. say; 3. tell; 4. tell; 5. told.
naxnn 8
1. She told me that she could ride.
2. They said that they were ready to start work.
3. He told me that it was easy.
4. Mary said that she had bought the tickets.
5. They said that they would help me.
6. She asked me what they wanted.
The teacher ordered us to Iinish our work.
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naxnn 9
1. n snan, r xn nam yurnt.
2, na tna yna, ur t n.
3. n asan, ur n nnr snamr anrn.
naxnn 10
1.She said that she could read English books.
2. He knew that we should go to the cinema.
3. I was sure that I had seen her yesterday in the street.
naxnn 11
a) 1. was
2. was
3. Are
b) 1. will be
2. shall be
naxnn 12
Passive: 1. was made
2. are being asked
3. The questions are answered by the students.
4. have been Iinished
5. A portrait
6. is interviewed
naxnn 14
1. He was told the truth.
2. His books were shown to me.
3. New houses are built every month.
4. He was asked some questions by them.
5. All the letters have been typed by she.
naxnn 15
1. was - Past Simple Active oice has been able to recite - Present PerIect
Active oice n]nr rnarna to recite
2. had been sent - Past PerIect Passive oice
3. can - antnt rnarn Present Simple Passive InIinitive be translated
4. have been opened - Present PerIect Passive oice
5. was being examined - Past Progressive Passive oice
naxnn 16
1. Mn narx urart anrn nr.
2. Mt sna ns My.
3. n nnxn syun anrnr xsta.
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4. y narx nrt anrn aast na y.
5. nu n +rr rynr ran m rrat yurnm.
naxnn 17
1. a a x nyra nna rynt rr, x nran art
nrt na na.
2. ra y sanunt, nam rynrt nmn urantnt san.
3. a a x ara tna tnnnna t rn rxnyrt.
4. am yun nr nnmran nrt s nx xnxmrx
arna srntx xyxn.
naxnn 18
aid to aid - nrart
air to air - nrart
control to control - ynanxrt, yrt
cause to cause - nunxrt, saranxrt
rest to rest - rtxart
work to work - arart
liIt to liIt - nnart
light to light - mart
stop to stop - namart
water to water - nnart
naxnn 19
Englishman, icebreaker, housework, Iiveroom, waterIall, sunIlower, bedroom,
bathroom, tree-room, Iive - year, gas - mask.
naxnn 20
to act - actor - ar
to write - writer - narnt
to read - reader - urarnt
to speak - speaker - ar
to direct - director - yrnt
to drive - driver - rnt
to visit - visitor - nrrnt
naxnn 21
musician - ystanr
diIIerence - asnna
diIIerent - yr, nxnt
specialist - nnanr
technician - rxn; nnanr
importance - axnrt, snanrntnrt
mathematician - arar
important - axnt
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politician - nnr
naxnn 22
soIt soIten - asxruart
red redden - anrt, amart ant nr
tight tighten -
naxnn 23
English - nnararntn
boyish - nnararntn
tactless - nnararntn
homeless - nnararntn
harmIul - nnararntn
translator - ymrrntn
Iormal - nnararntn
reaction - ymrrntn
dangerous - nnararntn
changeable - nnararntn
memorie - rnarn
nmu rra 3.3 na ny ynx raarur arana n
ra, tnnnt na arxrntn syun
Test 1
1. 3
2. 4
3. 6
4. 4
5. 2
6. 1
7. 5
8. 5, 6
9. 4
10. 6
Test 2
I 1. erb: - Iy; -ie; -en; -ate.
2. Noun: - ment; - ion; - er; - ity; - sure; - ture; - ness; -ency; -an; -ry; -ity.
3. Adjective: -ent; -iar; -ly; -al; -ous; -y; -ie; ive; -less; -Iul; -able.
4. Adverb: -ly
II 1-c; 2-a; 3-b; 4-c; 5-b; 6-d; 7c; 8-b; 9-a; 10-a.
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III 1) increase; 2) blackness; 3) character; 4) design; 5) memory; 6) glory; 7) trust;
8) release; 9) classiIication; 10) research; 11) width; 12) water; 13) delivery
14)damage; 15) inIluence
Test 3
uture Simple Tense
1 - a 5 - b 9 - a
2 - d 6 - a 10 - b
3 - d 7 - c
4 - a 8 - a
Test 4
1 - b 6 - b
2 - c 7 - c
3 - a 8 - b
4 - c 9 - b
5 - a 10 - a
Test 5
1 - a 6 - c
2 - b 7 - a
3 - c 8 - c
4 - a 9 - c
5 - b 10 - b
Test 6
1 - c 6 - b
2 - b 7 - a
3 - a 8 - d
4 - a 9 - d
5 - c 10 - c
Test 7
1 - b 6 - b
2 - d 7 - b
3 - c 8 - a
4 - b 9 - b
5 - b 10 - b
Test 8
1 - b 6 - c
2 - b 7 - d
3 - c 8 - c
4 - a 9 - b
5 - c 10 - b
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50