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This is... These are... is translated as ...

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
.

This is Ivan... Ivan...


. Here (is a/the) Park
pavtarit, pashalsta
-? -? -

Do you (formal) speak English?


Do you (formal) speak Russian?

- - -

I speak English
I speak Russian

I understand

I don't understand

?
- (I am running)
?

- ?
-
- ?

, ?

I read books, and what do you read?

He is reading the magazine.

2.2.
Conjunctions and .
Unlike (and), which signals similarities, conjunction (but) signals differences.
1. .
2. , .

1. . .

: he ( ), it ( )
1. . .

1. This is Ivan. He is a journalist.

2. . .

2. This is a park. It is on the left.

3. . .

3. This is Tanya. She is a student.

4. . .

4. This is our school. It is on the right.

5. ? - .

5. Where is the letter? - Here it is.

- ?
( Donde est la carta?)
- !
(aqu ella (est))
Hard stem masculine nouns have zero ending (no ending), so we simply add - to form the plural
(in other words, we replace zero by -): -> .
A soft stem is a stem that ends in a soft consonant. The letter and the vowel letters , , , ,
indicate that the preceding consonant is soft. If there is no one of these six letters at the end of the
stem, we assume that the stem is hard.
When forming the nominative plural of nouns never break the 7-letter spelling rule: after , , , ,
, , write - , not - (no matter if the stem is hard or soft): - (books), (textbooks), - (poems), - (knives), -
(pencils), etc.

-?
literally: What is your profession? - informal ( is used )

-?
() -?
What is your profession? - formal and plural ( is used )
What does he (she) do?
Remember to use when speaking to more than one person, or as a formal way of addressing one
person.
To answer this question (to tell what do you do, what is your profession/occupation), you can
simply say:
.
I am a student.
.
I am an doctor.
This Nominative case structure is also used to explain what someone else does, what is his/her
profession.
Listen and repeat:
.
My friend is a journalist.
.
Ivan Sergeyevich is an engineer.
Notes