Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 89

-

. .


SCAD

1

-
2003

624.04: (075.8)
. . .
SCAD . . . :
, 2003.


.

SCAD
-
- ,
.
,

SCAD .
SCAD
.
. 3 . .54 . .: 11 .

.
1. SCAD
..

1.1. SCAD...

7
7

1.2. SCAD 1...

1.3. , SCAD
..

11

1.4. ...

14

1.5. ........

15

1.6. SCAD 2......

17

1.7. SCAD 3..............

25

2.

30

2.1. ..

30

2.2. SCAD...

31

2.3.
, SCAD....

42

3. M Q ..

46

3.1. .

46

3.2. SCAD...............

47

3.3. ,
SCAD...

57

4. M, Q N ...

58

4.1. .........................................

58

4.2. SCAD.

59

4.3.
, SCAD....

68

5.
5.1. ..

71
71

5.2. ..

72

5.3. SCAD
1 ...

73

5.4. SCAD

2 ...

82

5.5.

..

86

...

89



-


()
(),
.


,
.
,


.
SCAD



,
,
.
(),
.

, , (2002/2003 )
-

Structure construction automatic design (SCAD), .
(SCAD Group).
.
SCAD.
SCAD ,
,
,
.

4

SCAD
:
(); ;
.


()
, ,
:
1.
2.

,
:
1. M Q
2. M, Q, N
3.
4.
5.



.

,
, SCAD.
. -,
,
. -, (
) SCAD,


.
,
,
. , ,
.
,
, [2].
ABCD,
. [2]

.
5

SCAD
,
, SCAD.


(
).

,


(, ).
SCAD

SCAD
.
,
1
.
1 ,

, -
, ,
.
, [2 5].

,
.


.
SCAD
,
2 ,
:
.
[6, 7]. 2 [8]
[9 11]. ,
, SCAD
SCAD [1],
.

.
6

1. SCAD


1.1.
SCAD

SCAD
.
1. SCAD
1.1. SCAD.
1.2.
.
1.3. SDATA,
.
.
1.4.
.
2.
2.1.

.
2.2. .
2.3. .
2.4 .
2.5 .
2.6.
3.
3.1. .
3.2. .
3.3. .
3.4. .
4.
4.1. ,
(
)
( ).
4.2.
.
7

.
4.3.

. .

13.
2,

.
4 SCAD.

SCAD
3.
.
, ,
.
1.2. SCAD 1
1. SCAD

1.1. SCAD


SCAD
.
,
, .
, , 5
:

.
1.2.



. .
SCAD .
.
1.2.1. .

, , 4 (. ). :
4.
8

1.2.2. : , , .

,
. : .
: 1.
1.2.3.


( , , )
.
1.2.4. .


.
: 1. - .
2.
: 2. .

1.4.
1.2.5. .



.
SCAD.
1.3 SDATA.
.

SDATA
.
( 30151).
.
1.3.
,
, ,
( ).
1, ABCD

9

()

[2].
2,
( )
( : 1).
3015/1 ABCD = 0102.
SDATA
30151 : 0102-1 (. ).
,
:

,

.
SWORK.
1.
SCAD (. 1.1
1) 5

. SCAD.
, 1.3 (.
).
,
.
. .
1.4.

:
, , .

.
10

.
,
(
).
.
.

: .

.
,

.

2 (. 1.1)
:
,
;
;

.
.
1.3. , SCAD



.

,
[1, 6 9].
-
SCAD
[1].
1 (.1.1).
(
). ,
, :.
. 1.2 , 25
, 14 .
( 1
7).
11

X1

Z1

N2

Y1

N1

N2

X1

Z1

1
Y1

N1

.1.1
Z
7

8
13

20

21

14
2

10

9
22

15

11 10

12 11

23
16

17

13 12

24
18
6

14

25
19

Y
.1.2
2 (.1.3).
2 (1 2)
N, M
Q. XOZ,
( . ).
2
,
.
. 1.3 2 ,
,
.

, .
. ,
1 ,
M1 ( ).
12

Z1
M1
N1

X1

N2
Q2

Q1

M2

Y1
M2
N2

2
Q2

X1
M1 1
Y1

.1.3

Q1

Z1

N1

, M1 M2
. 2
, 1
.
1.4.

.

.
SCAD XYZ (.1.4).
XOZ.
Z
Y
O

.1.4
XOZ
( .1.2, 1 ).
,
() [1,6 9].

M, Q, N .
SCAD
.
1.
X1
1 2 (.
.1.1 . 1.3).
(
13

) . Y1
Z1 X1.
X1
(. .1.1, .1.3,), .. (
) 1, 2.
X1
(.1.1, .1.3,).
1, 2.
, ,
, X1 (
Z .1.4), Y1 Y .1.4,
, Z1 X .1.4
(. .1.1, .1.3,),
SCAD 4.2.1
4 SCAD.
SCAD ,
,
.
. ,

.
SCAD
X1 .
.
1.
.

2.
( ),
,
. , X1

. Y1 Z1.
. 1.5
2 (. .1.3)
X1 . 1.3.
,
M Q
.
14

Z1
M2

X1

Q1
1

2
N2

Q2

Y1

M1

)
N1 Z1

N1
Q1

M1
1

Y1

M2
.1.5

Q2

N2
X1

.1.6,
2 .
, 1
, 2 X1
XOZ
X.
.1.6, ,
1 2 , ..
X1.
1.5.
,
(. .1.4. 1) .
[1].


.
.1.2 ,
SCAD.
:
X,

X .
.
.
, .
. 1.7 ,
2 (
). 1

15

2
X1
2
X1

X1

Z1
X1

Z1

Y1

Y1 X1

Z1 Z1

Z1 Y1

Z1

Y1

X1

X1

Z1
Y1

X1

Y1

Z1

Y1

2
)
1
1

Z1

Z1
Y1

Y1

Y1

X1
Z1
1

Y1
Y
X
X1

Y1 X1
X1

Z1 Y1

Y1
1

.1.6

16

X1

X1
Z1

Z1

X1

X1

Z1

Y1
Z1
1

(1)

(2)

.1.7
SCAD
. 1.8.

.1.8
,
,
, .1.3.
,

.
1.2 2.

1.6. SCAD 2
2.
2.1.

, ,
, , SCAD
:
1) ;
2) ,
( ).
.
2.1.1.


.
. (
), .
17


,
.

, 2.
2.1.2.


.

. ,

(. . 1.2 .1.4).

.
,
.1.2.

.
.
.
,

,

- .
, ,
18

.
11 (. .1.2).
.
. :


.
,
1 ( ),
.
2 (
). .

, .



. X1
. ,
6 (. .1.8) ,
.1.3,, 4 5.

.
,
, . 1.3,.
.
2.2.

(. . 1.2.4 1).


.
(
5) ,


. .
. .
2 .
. .
,
.
.
.
( ). , ,
.
19

(
).
.
.
,

. ,
.
2.3.


SCAD ,
2 .
,

, [2].
2.3.1.



,
[3 5].
, SCAD
, , ,
, (.
[6 9] ),

.

, ,
, SCAD
, .

20

2.3.2.




. SCAD
, .
.
, [2],
-
. .
i
EI: EI i = k i EI .

.
,
SCAD (. 1.1), SCAD
EFi -.

.
.
, . Fi = bi hi

I i = bi hi3 / 12 .
bi = b .
1/10 : hi = li / 10 .
i
EI i = EFi hi2 / 12 = EFi li2 / 1200 EFi = 1200 EI i / li2 = ki , EI .
k i , = 1200k i , / li2 .
EI
. 2
.

2.4.

,
. ,
, .
,
,
.
.

( )
.
.

21


(6 6
).
X, Y, Z
.
UX, UY, UZ
.
,
XOZ,
:
X
X;
Z
Z;
UY Y.

1 ,
.1.2.
X Z .
1
. , ,
.

. ,

, .
(
) ,
.1.2.

,
UY.
Y.
22


.
2.5.

,
1 (. .1.1).

2.
, . 1.9,.
SCAD ,
.1.9, (
).
, .1.9,
, , 2, 3
4, . ,
, ,
, Y.
.

.
5

) 4
(3)

(4)

3
(2)
1
)

2
(3)
1
2
1

(5)

2
(3)
1
2
(2)
1

2
(4)
1

(1)

(1)

(5)

2
2
(4)

1
(1)

.1.9
.
2, 3 5 (. 1.9,)
23

, .


. .1.9, 1 2
X1 .
,
.
UY. ,
2 . 2 1, 2 4,
. 1.9, .

. ,
.
1
. 1 .
2 4.
.
, (

)
(.1.9,).
.1.9,.
UY 1 3, 4 2 5.
.
, 1.9,,
.1.9, .
,
.
2.6.


.
.
1.
.
.

, ,
24

.
2. (
) Print Screen SysRq
( )
Paint.
Paint
doc
. 2
.
3.
.

.
,
,
wmf SWORK.
doc
.
1.7. SCAD 3
3.
SCAD
.
.
.
SCAD
.
, ,
: ,
2,
, 2.

, 2 .
.
3.1.

, ,
.
,
XOZ,
X Z , Y (.1.10, ).
.1.10,
.
3.2.

(.1.10, ),
(.1.10, ) .
25

,
.
.1.10,,
.
)

Pz

X1

My

X
Px

Px1

My
Px
1

My1

Pz1

Z1
Y1

.1.10
.1.10, .
Px X
, Pz Z.
Y. .
.1.10, :
Pz1 Z1;
- X1; Y1.
, ,

(. .1.10,).

( 3
(.1.11) ).

, 1 1
.


.
3.2.1.
2


( )
: ( 1), ( 2)
( 3).

26

, , ,
.
,
.
, ,
.

. ,
,

.
- 2,
.
SCAD
.
.

.
,
. ncr r
(n cr 1) .
ncr (ncr + 1) .
,
,
,

.
, -
2 ( .1.11, 1 1 2).
27

M
.

( 1 2
).
)

(1)

6
)
1

2
q

2
3
5

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

.1.11
,

, 1
(.1.11,). ,
, 1 (.
.1.11, ).
,

,
.
1 (1 ).

, .
(.
28

) 3 (

).
1 1 2 (

).
4 2 3 ( 4
) 5 2 4 ( 5
4, . . 1.10,).
,
1 2
(. .1.3, ).

29

2.
2.1.
, .2.1.
SCAD.
( ) .
2.1 .

.2.1
SCAD,

. :
1) [2]:
(2.1)
n = (n + n ) - 2n ,

n , n , n - ,
, .
, ,
n = 0 . ,
,
.
. 2:
2) .
:
1) n = (25 + 3 ) 2 14 = 0;
30

,
, ,
. ,
.
,
.
2.2. SCAD
,
. 1
SCAD (.
1.1) ,
1.2. 2.
2.
2.1.


SCAD .
.

. ,
.

.

31

.2.1
.
.
, .2.1 ,
,
.
.

,
,
,
.
,
.
32

.

,
.
2.2.

1 (. 1.2
, 1.2 1).


1.
, ,

,
.



, .
.

.
, (
)
. .

,
,
: 1. .


33

. (
) ( ).

,
1.

2.3.


. ,
. ,
2.3.1 1, SCAD
, .
1

.
,
(
).
34



.

( 1) .
.
,
,

.
2.4.

2.4 1.7,
.
2.5.


1 (. .1.1),
.
, 2.5. 1.7,
.
2.6.


2.6 1.7. .
.2.2
1.
3.
3.1.


, 1 .
, ..
Z.

. .

, (. .
2.1),
35

. , ,
.


.

(. .2.1),

.
.


, 1 .
, ..
Z.
.
.

, (. .
2.1),
. , ,
.


.
,

,
.
( -
), .
, .
.
3.2.

-
. .

.

.
36

.
.

, .

2.
3.3.


, 2.6 1.7.
.2.2 1,
.
4.
4.1.

, ,

.

.2.2
, .

.

37

.
, .
.
.

- .
.


. .
,
, .
4.2.
.


.
.

N
.
( ): ,
( N); (
, );
38

.
N ( 1).

,
.
N .

( L2 ( ).
1

.2.3

2.6. 1.7. .2.3 N 1
2, 2.6
.
4.3.
.
,
.

.
.
39


:
. : ;
. ;
.
3.
, (.
).
.
.
: .
,
. .
.

.

N. ,
( doc).
,
SCAD SWORK (
1-0102.P06.
.1.
.
1.
N (. 2.3), .
2. 1 = 1 P2 = 1 (. .2.1).
(
,
[3]), P1 P2
:
P1; P2.
1
p :
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
//
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------| 001_
1-1
1-2
1-3
2-1
2-2
2-3
3-1
3-2
3-3 |
|
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
|
|
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1 1
|
| N
2.001 2.001 2.001 2.669 2.669 2.669 2.574 2.574 2.574 |
|
2 2
|
| N
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.668 1.668 1.668 1.287 1.287 1.287 |
------------------------------------------------------------------------

40

| 001_
4-1
4-2
4-3
5-1
5-2
5-3
6-1
6-2
6-3 |
|
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
|
|
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1 1
|
| N
2.574 2.574 2.574 2.669 2.669 2.669 2.001 2.001 2.001 |
|
2 2
|
| N
1.287 1.287 1.287 1.
1.
1.
.6003 .6003 .6003 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------| 001_
7-1
7-2
7-3
8-1
8-2
8-3
9-1
9-2
9-3 |
|
8
8
8
9
9
9
10
10
10
|
|
9
9
9
10
10
10
11
11
11
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1 1
|
| N
-2.062 -2.062 -2.062 -2.75 -2.75 -2.75 |
|
2 2
|
| N
-1.443 -1.443 -1.443 -1.719 -1.719 -1.719 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------| 001_
10-1
10-2
10-3
11-1
11-2
11-3
12-1
12-2
12-3 |
|
11
11
11
12
12
12
13
13
13
|
|
12
12
12
13
13
13
14
14
14
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1 1
|
| N
-2.75 -2.75 -2.75 -2.062 -2.062 -2.062
|
|
2 2
|
| N
-1.031 -1.031 -1.031 -.6187 -.6187 -.6187
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------| 001_
13-1
13-2
13-3
14-1
14-2
14-3
15-1
15-2
15-3 |
|
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
|
|
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1 1
|
| N
-.5
-.5
-.5
-3.202 -3.202 -3.202 1.001 1.001 1.001 |
|
2 2
|
| N
-.5
-.5
-.5
-2.241 -2.241 -2.241 .4007 .4007 .4007 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------| 001_
16-1
16-2
16-3
17-1
17-2
17-3
18-1
18-2
18-3 |
|
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
|
|
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1 1
|
| N
-1.203 -1.203 -1.203 -.1654 -.1654 -.1654 .1906 .1906 .1906 |
|
2 2
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------| N
-.4817 -.4817 -.4817 -.6659 -.6659 -.6659 .7671 .7671 .7671 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------| 001_
19-1
19-2
19-3
20-1
20-2
20-3
21-1
21-2
21-3 |
|
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
|
|
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1 1
|
| N
.1906 .1906 .1906 -.1654 -.1654 -.1654 |
|
2 2
|
| N
-.5765 -.5765 -.5765 .5004 .5004 .5004 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------| 001_
22-1
22-2
22-3
23-1
23-2
23-3
24-1
24-2
24-3 |
|
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
|
|
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1 1
|
| N
-1.203 -1.203 -1.203 1.001 1.001 1.001 -3.202 -3.202 -3.202 |
|
2 2
|
| N
-.7216 -.7216 -.7216 .6003 .6003 .6003 -.9606 -.9606 -.9606 |
------------------------------------------------------------------------

41

|
25-1
25-2
25-3
|
|
7
7
7
|
|
14
14
14
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1 1
|
| N
-.5
-.5
-.5
|
|
2 2
|

2.3.
, SCAD
,
( )
.



( ,
SCAD):
X = 0; Z = 0; M y = 0 .
(2.2)
(. .2.1)
(
),
. 1 2
( P=1): H1=0; V1=3 ; V7=3
H1=0; V1=2.25 ; V7=0.75 .

SCAD.
SCAD:

0 = 0.

( )
i .
, , , ,
,
: X i = 0; Z i = 0 . M i = 0
,
, -
, , , ,
, SCAD.

, ,
, , .
42



[2, 3],
,
, .
, ,
SCAD
.
1.1. N

.
, .
,
SCAD
8 (.2.4). 7,
X 8 = 0 ,
13.
Z

0.5

N13 = 0.5
X

.2.4
Z 8 = 0 , N13= 0.5 .
, (. 1. 1)
. N (.
1.1).
, N13,
SCAD, 8.
1 (.2.5,).
( ).
, , ,
,
(.2.5,).

43

0.5

0.5

3.2

2.0

2.5

X
2

.2.5


,

,
.
.

( ):
X 1 = 3.2 cos + 2.0 = 0;
Z1 = 0.5 3,2 sin + 3 = 0.
cos sin
tg = ( y9 y 2 ) /( x2 x1 ) = (2.5 0) /(2 0) = 1.25 .
cos = 0.6248 ; sin = 0.7808
.

(
),

, . :
(.2.5,).
, .. , ,
.
,

( )

,
. , , 3.

(. .2.1 1).
1) 1-1
, , (.2.6).
.
44

2) N9 N18 3.
3)

M O = 0 : M O = 3 6 + 0.5 6 + 1(4 + 2) + N 3 h 3 = 0 .
N3. h3=3.5 : N 3 = 2.57 .
, 3 .
SCAD.


(. [2] [3]).
3

0.5

N9
N18

h3

N3
1
3

.2.6

45

3. M Q
3.1.
[3]
, . 3.1,.
,
l1 = l2 = l ; l3 = 1.4l ; a = b = d = 0.2l ; c = 0.15l ;
q1 = 2q; q2 = q; P1 = P2 = 0.6ql ; M o = 0.2ql 2 .
SCAD l = 6
q =10 /.

:
1)
. ,

SCAD (. 1.6).
2) 2 (
, . .1.3)
, . .
)
Mo
A

l1

l3

(7.2) 3

2 (1.2)
(1)

EE

C
l2

P2

P1

0.5l3

q1

(2)

4 (8.1)
(3)

(13.2) 5
(4)

6(14.4)
(5)

7(17.4)
(6)

(21.6) 8 9(22.8)
(7)
(8) X

. 3.1


46

SCAD (. 1.4 1.6 1


).
:
1
) n .
[35]:
(3.1)
n = n (3 + n1 ) ,
n
;
n1 M 1 = 0 ,

.
n = 5; n1 = 2.
:
n = 0.
) .
.
(.3.1,),
, (ABE, ECF FD). ABE
,
, . ECF
ABE ,
. , FD
, ,
.
, , )
), ,
.


SCAD:
1) (.3.1,);
2) (. 1.7),
(. .3.1,).
3) 1.3,
1.4 1.7.
4) ( 1 .3.1,);
5) X
X, Y, Z ( ,
X, Y Z .3.1, ).
3.2. SCAD
, , ,
1.1 1.
1,
47

.
, ,
.
1.
SCAD
, .
.

1.2.1.
(. 1.1: 1
1.2.2. :,
: 30151 ( ); 1
1.2.3.
( , ,
) .
1.2.4.
SCAD
2,
.
: 2. .
1.2.5.

.
SDATA, .
(. 1
1.3).
1.3.
0102- 1, : 0102 ,
[2]; -
; 1 SCAD
;.
, .
48

1.4 1 ,
.
2.
2.1.


, , .

.


2 ( ) .
1)
. .
.
.

2)

.
,
.
.
1) .
. .
49

.3.1, ,
,
.
.


,
.3.1,.
, (.
.3.1,) L
( ).

, ,
,

. ,
.

.
.
50

.
, .

,
, (. 2, 2.3
, ).
(
) ,
.

( 2) ,

,
(. 1.6 1).
.
(. ).
, .
.

51

.
,
.
. .
.
.


:
, ( ) (
), ( 1
), ( 2 ).
,
,
, .
, .


. ,
2.4 1 .

,
. ,
.
2.5.

.

.
.


Y,
- ,
SCAD UY.
,
52

. E F(. .3.1,).
(. .3.1,)
4 6.
.
2 .1.3.
1. 4 6
, UY
1.

11

12

2
1

33 4

2
2

12

55

4
2

12

6 6
1

7
2

88

12

.3.2


.
4 .
4 . 6.

. ,
(
)
.

wmf SWORK
. .3.2.
2.6
.
3.
3.1.
, .

, 72 1
Y. ,
Y ( ).
, ,
, ,
53

1
.

3.2.


.
.

2:
1) , (
).
2) ( ).
3) ( Z).
4) ( , .
1.7) . q1 = 20 /.
.
2,
( ),
54

2
, .
5, 6 7
q2 = 10 /.

, .

1.

wmf SWORK
.3.2 .
!


,
( M Q).
SCAD
,

.

M
.
2.
,
M,
.

3 :
[35].
3 2, 5, 6 7.

.
55

4.

,
4.1 , .

.
:
(.3.3,);
(.3.3,); M Q (.3.4) .
,
2.6. 1.6.
wmf SWORK.

.2.
)

.3.3

)
)

.3.4
2
p :
p : *
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
//
|
------------------------------------------------------------------------

56

| 002_
1-1
1-2
1-3
2-1
2-2
2-3
3-1
3-2
3-3 |
|
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
|
|
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1
|
| M
-72.
-72.
-72.
-72.
60.03 12.07 12.07 6.035
|
| Q
73.89 13.95 -45.98 -13.41 -13.41 -13.41 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------| 002_
4-1
4-2
4-3
5-1
5-2
5-3
6-1
6-2
6-3 |
|
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
|
|
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1
|
| M
-34.2 -68.4 -68.4 -32.4
-4.e-5 65.25 108. |
| Q
-13.41 -13.41 -13.41 62.98 56.99 51.
50.97 35.98 21.
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
2_
7-1
7-2
7-3
8-1
8-2
8-3
|
|
7
7
7
8
8
8
|
|
8
8
8
9
9
9
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1
|
| M
108.
54.45 -43.2 -43.2 -21.6
|
| Q
-15.04 -36.02 -57.
36.
36.
36.
|
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. ,
SCAD
3.1 ,

[3].
:
( .3.1,) (
)
.
FD
(. .40, [3]).
VF F.
EDF
F
( VF ,
).
VE ,
.

FBE.
M Q
[3].


SCAD.
M Q
dM / dx = Q [3].
57

4.
4.1.
, .4.1,
, Q, N .
SCAD [I],
.

:
1)
. ,

SCAD (. 1.6
).
1

10 /

2
20
1

B
A
.4.1

2) 2 (
, . .1.3)
, .

SCAD.
:
) n .
[35]:
n = (n + 3n ) (3 + n1 ) ,
(4.1)
n
;
n ;
3n ,
, ;
n1 M 1 = 0 ,

.
n = 4; n = 0; n1 = 1.
:
58

n = 0.
) .
.
, ,
(,
), .
.
, , )
), ,
.


SCAD:
1) (.4.2);
2) ( A );
3) (. 1.7),
(. .4.2).
4) 1.5,
.
Z
1
2
10 /
(0, 0, 3) 4
2
1

6 (3, 0, 3)
(4)
(5)
(2) 5 (1, 0,
(3)
20 2 (0, 0,1) 3 (3, 0, 1)
1 (0, 0, 0)

.4.2
5)
X, Y, Z ( , Y
).
4.2. SCAD

,
,
1.2.
SCAD,
,
1 2 3
.

59

1.
1.2.1.

SCAD
, .
2 (. ),
: 2

1.2.2. : , ,

: , 1.
1.2.3.

( , ,
) .
1.2.4.

: 2.
.

1.2.5.

,
.
1.3. .
1 : 0102-1, 0102
,
60

()
[2].
; 1
SCAD ;
,
.
1.4.


1 .
2.
2.1.


, , .

.

2
( ) .
1)
. .
.
.

2)

.
, .
2.1.1.

.
. .

61

\
.2.12
,
.
.

, . 2.12.

.


. : 2.
.

.

.
.
2 ,
.
.

,
.

62

.
,
,


, ,
(.4.3).

.4.3
,
(. .4.2) :
5 (3, 4, 7, 8 5).
.


.

63

.
,
.

,
,
.

.
SCAD,
. ,
.4.4.

.4.4
,
.
.
:
1) 2 (
) 4 (. );
2) 2 (
)
,
X ,
X (.
).

SCAD , .4.5 (
).

64

.4.5
2.1.2.


,
.

, ,
.
(

)
1.

.
, ,

(. .4.2),
.
,
.4.6

.
65

.4.6

,
1 2 ( ).


(. .4.2).

(1)
(2).
,
4 ( 2 ) .
.
.
,
(. .4.5).
, ,

.
(.4.7) . 3
.
3
p :
p : *
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
//
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------| 002_
1-1
1-2
2-1
2-2
3-1
3-2
4-1
4-2
5-1 |
|
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
|
|
2
2
4
4
6
6
5
5
6
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
1 1
|
| N
-2.5
-2.5
-2.5
-2.5
-17.5 -17.5 -7.5
-7.5
-7.5
|
| M
-12.5 -12.5
2.5
-15.
-2.5
-2.e-5 |
| Q
-12.5 -12.5
7.5
7.5
-7.5
-7.5
2.5
2.5
2.48 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
5-2
5-3
|
|
5
5
|
|
6
6
|
------------------------------------------------------------------------

66

|
|
|
|

1 1
N
-7.5
M
-2.5
Q
-7.51

|
|
|
|

-7.5
-15.
-17.5

.4.7

67

4.3.
, SCAD

( ,
[3]).


SCAD
. , (2.2)
(. 2..3 )
, .
(.
Q N .4.7): H1 = 12.5 ; V1 = 2.5 ; H 3 = 7.5 ; V3 = 17.5 .

, SCAD.
:
X = - 20+12.5+7.5 = 0; Z = (10 2) 2.5 17,5 = 0;
M1 = 20 1 (10 2)2 + 7.5 1 + 17.5 3 = 0.

. .


.
, ,
.
(
),
.

M i = 0
, .

2.5

15

2.5

17.
7.5

2.5

15

7.5

7.5
2.5
.4.8

7.5
17.5


(.4.8,). . ,
68

.


i
: X i = 0; Z i = 0 .
.
.4.8, ,
.
,
( ):
X i = 7.5 - 7.5 = 0;
Z i = 2.5 - 2.5 = 0.
.
:

, (.4.9).
7.5
, ,
, . ,
.
17.5
17.5


.

7.5
.
.4.9
- .
.4.10
, ,
.

7.
2.5

7.
.4.10

17.5

dx

[2],
dx,
qX1
qZ1 (

1.3), ,
:
(4.2)
1) dN / dx = q x ; 2) dQ / dx = q z ; 3) dM / dx = Q .
69


.
:
1) q x = 0 . dN / dx = 0 ., , N
. .
2) 1, 2, 3, 4 q z = 0 . dQ / dx = 0 . ,
Q .
.
3) , Q
1 4 M
i = arc tg Qi ( tg i = dM i / dx = Qi ),
i . .
5 M
. , Q5
. , Q5 = 0, M5 .
M5 Q5 .

70

5.

5.1.
,
SCAD
. ,

.

SCAD
,
1.2.
SCAD

.
EI=EIY ( 2) EF
1 2 SCAD
, (. 1.8).


,
, . .
E IY F .

,
[2]. .
, [2]

(
). SCAD ,
,


.
.

, ,
SCAD,
. , 1,
X Z
. , 2,

UY Y.

( )
71

, .. ,
. ,
-
. .
5.2.
, . 3.1.
[3],

- .
EI.
, ..
.
q

A
2

8q
2

EI2=1.5EI

EI1=EI

EI1=EI

EI1=EI

EI1=EI

EI3=3EI
3

2
EI3=3EI

.5.1

uA
(5.1)
d p = BC ,

u A A; BC
B C ( ); D
, D.

: 1
q (/); 2
P= 8q ().
[3]
u A,1 u A,2
1.81 32.72
q

(5.2)
17.25 84.67 .
D p = BC ,1 BC ,2 =

EI
D ,1 D ,2
6.37 48.33
72


SCAD.
2 ( 1).
5.3. SCAD
1

, ,
SCAD.
1. ,
2 ( 1)
SCAD
, .

1.2.1.
: 6.
1.2.2. : , ,
: ; 2
1.2.3.
( , ,
) .
1.2.4.
: 2 -
.
1.2.5.
,
.
1.3.
2 : 0102- 2, 0102
,
73

()

[2];
; 2 SCAD
;

,
.
1.4.

1 .
2.
2.1.1.
.
. (.
1).
.5.1
,
. .
.


.
74


.

(
).
(.5.2).

.5.2
,
(.5.3) .
2.
C.

B C.

1, 4, 7, 10, 5, 6,11,12,16, 17,18,21.


.

.
,
.
, .5.3,
( , .. )
, .5.4.
,
1 (
).
.
1.

.
75


.
.


.
.
2
, (.
2.3.2 1.6).
.

5 .
76

:
1) 1 2 , :
ki,=1; ki , = 1200ki , / li2 = 1200 1 / 22 =300 .

ki ,

2) : ki, = 1; ki , = 1200ki , / li2 = 1200 1 / 42 =75 .


3) , :
ki, = 1.5; ki , = 1200ki, / li2 = =12001.5/ 32=200 .
4) , : ki, =3;
2
= 1200ki , / li2 = 12003/ 3 =400 .

5) : ki, =3; ki , = 1200ki, / li2 =


12003/22 =900 .
, ,
EI.
.
.
,

.
SCAD ,
, [3], Mq Mp
1 2. ,
.5.5 .5.6, ,
[3].

.5.5

77

.5.6

.



(.5.7).

2 = D = 25 + 26

.5.7


,
.
, . ,

(q/EI) (. (5.2) 5.2).
.5.8 .5.9

.
78

.5.8

.5.9

(.
5.2) .5.8 (
):
A .5.1 (
.5.8 9) u9 = uA = -1.78 (q/EI).

B
C
(. .5.1) 56 = BC =
= (13.663 + 3.623)(q / EI ) = 17.29 (q/EI).
, [3]
. .5.7 , 1
,
( ).
, D,
SCAD .
79

SCAD
. SCAD
2 ( D , . .5.1)
6: 26 = 3.49 (q / EI ) .
SCAD , 2
6 Y UY ,
Y.
5, D
SCAD . . 5.7,
1 5,
, .
: 2 = 25 + 26 = (4.58 + 3.49) (q / EI ) = 7.97 (q / EI ) .
,
[3].

.
.5.10 5.12.

.5.10


, 1 (. . 5.4)

u A,1 u A, 2
q 1.78 32.69
17.29 84.72 .
D p = BC ,1 BC , 2 ==

EI 7.97 53.88

D ,1 D , 2

, [3]
- (
) ,
.

D (
80

.5. 11

.5.12

5 2), ,
SCAD
.

5
D = 2 + 26 5
. , , ,

25 .
5 , ,
.
0.5 ,
0.25 , , 0.05
81

.
.
5
2.
5.4. SCAD
2
2. 2

,
.5.4.

. .

5 ,
. ,
, 0.5 . 1
2.5 .

5.
.

(10),
(9 10).

. , . 3.13.
. 1) 5
. , .3.13 (
UY 10).
2) 5 , .
5 .


.
82

.5.13

1
.
.5.14 , .5.15
5.16
2
1 .

.5.14
D = 210 + 25

83

.5.15

.5.16


P = 8q .5.17 5.19.

.5.17

84

.5.18

.5.19


(5.2) :

u A,1 u A,2
1.78 32.69
q

17.29 84.72 .
D p = BC ,1 BC ,2 ==

EI
D ,1 D ,2
6.43 48.53
.
,
[3] - (. 5.2).
10 2 0.25 0.2

85

.
10
,
1 2
10.
Dp , ( ,
):
10 0.25 : (6.39 48.42);
10 0.05 : (6.38 48.38).
,
, ,
[3] -.
[3],
,
SCAD
.
5.5.




.
.

X,
. .
( 2 10
0.05 2) ,

.

( ).
86

Z ( ).
,
.

.
EF ,
.

.
2
,
.5.6 5.9. .5.18, 5.19 .5.20, 5.21

1 2
.

.5.20

.5.21

87

.5.22

.5.23

(5.2) :
u A,1 u A, 2
q 1.81 32.72

17.25 84.67 .
D p = BC ,1 BC , 2 ==

EI 6.38 48.33

D ,1 D , 2

,
. ,
[3].
. ,
:
2 5 (
1 6 (

88

25 ). 2 = 26 + 25 .

26 )


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

SCAD
. ., - .1981.
.., .., ..
. .: .1984.
.. .
. .., . . 1996.
.., .., .. . 1.
. - , . 2001.
.., .., ..
. .: .1988.
..., .. . 2.
. - , , 2002.
.. . .:
.1988.
.. . . .:
- ,1976.
.. .
. .: - .1973.
..
. . .: - . 1993.

89