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ESSENTIAL ENGLISH FOR MARINE ENGINEERS


CHAPTER 1
DIESEL ENGINES
TEXT I
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

internal combustion engine


to ignite
combustion chamber
four-stroke cycle
two-stroke cycle
piston
inlet
suction
compression
working stroke
exhaust
crankshaft
lop dead centre TDC
bottom dead centre DC
inlet valve
cylinder
to rise
exhaust valve
final
scavenge
port
to drive out
remaining
return stroke
rocker arm
fuel injector
cylinder head
water cooling passage
camshaft
cam
gudgeon pin
connecting rod
crankpin
bottom end bearing
crank case
exhaust manifold
turboblower
crosshead
piston rod
A-frame
bedplate

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TEXT

The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which ignites the fuel by injecting it
into hot high pressure air in a combustion chamber. The diesel-engine has either a four - stroke
or a two1- stroke cycle. A stroke is a travel of the piston betweert its extreme points.
The four stroke cycle consists of inlet (or suction), compression, power (or working
stroke) and exhaust. This cycle is completed in two revolutions of the crankshaft. At the top
dead centre (TDC) the inlet valve opens and fresh air is drawn in as the piston moves down suction stroke. At the bottom dead centre (BDC) the inlet valve closes and the air in the
cylinder js compressed as the piston rises-compression. Fuel is (injected as the piston reaches
TDC ancj^ combustion takes place producing very high pressure ip. the gases. There gases force
the piston down and at BDC the exhaust valve opens. The final stroke is the exhausting of the
burnt gases as the piston rises to TDC
Exhaust

Figure 1.1. Four - stroke timing diagram.


4- .
The two - stroke cycle is completed in the two strokes of the piston during one revolution of
the crankshaft: the upstroke (scavenge and compression and the downstroke (power and

exhaust stroke). Instead of valves holes known as ports are used which are opened and
closed by the sides of the pikon as it moves. When the piston is forced down on its forking
stroke it uncovers (opens) the fechaust ports. The,burnt gases then begin to exhaust } the
piston continues down until it opens the inlet or scavenge ports. Pressurised air then enters and
drives out the remaining exhaust gases. The piston on its return stroke closes the inlet and
exhaust ports. The air is then compressed as the piston moves to the top of its stroke.
Fu*l,

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Figure 1.2. Two - stroke timing diagram.


(Figure 1.3. Cross - section of a four stroke diesel engine, p.4)
(Figure 1.4. Cross-section of a two stroke diesel engine, p. 5)
TEXT 2
W ORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

i.e. - id est (.)


single - acting engine
double - acting engine
opposed - piston type
crosshead type
trunk piston type
diameter
to turn
relatively
slow speed diesel engine
medium speed diesel engine
reduction gearbox

Figure 1.3. Cross - section of a four stroke diesel engine.


gearing
valve gear
push rod
pump
tuned exhaust
jacket
3 - part liner
lower
side rod crosshead
main crosshead
pulse turbocharger
charge air cooler
guides
relief valve
air manifold
piston rod gland
brake horsg power
largp^jbore engine

Figure 1.4. Cross-section of a two stroke diesel engine..


TEXT
All modern diesel engines are single - acting, i.e. there is only one combustion space
above the piston. The diesel engines may also be opposed piston type, crosshead type and
trunk piston type. Large diesel engines, which have cylinder near 900 mm in diameter turn at
the relatively slow speed at about 145 rpm and less. They are known as slow speed diesel
engines. At this low speed the engine requires no reduction gearbox between it and the
propeller. Medium speed diesel engines operate between 150 and 450 rpm, therefore they are
connected to the propeller by gearing.
( Figure 1.5. Medium speed trunk piston engine, p. 6)
( Figure 1.6. Opposed piston engine, p.7)
( Figure 1.7. Large bore single-acting two stroke crossheed type engine, p.7)

VALVf>CEAR

TUNEO
EjX H A U S T

*USH g o o

CAMSHAfT

BEDPLATE

Figure 1.5. Medium speed trunk piston engine.

UPPS PISTON
LI NO WA T
TU-AeOCHA*GE

u p p c

PISTON

MAI M
CKOSSHC * D

C O P L A T E

Figure 1.6. Opposed piston engine.


TWOPART

C T L I N O E H

c o v e n

CONSTANT PftCISURC
( X H A U t T AN f O I D

W A T H

PISTON

J A C R I T

SK I '

PISTON POO
G L A N DS

CA M SH A FT

P K T O N C O O L IN G
PCCIP
PIPC1

K C A l i
RELIEF VALV

FRAMES

e O P L A T E

Figure 1.7. Large bore single-acting two stroke crosshead type engine.

OPERATING^ PROCEDURES
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
to circulate
supply tank
drain
control equipment
equipment
alarm
indicator cock
turning gear
to engage
auxiliary
scavenge blower
manually operated
to disengage
to turn over on air
direction handle
ahead
astern
manoeuvring handle
to move
to reach
firing speed
running position

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TEXT
PREPARATION FOR STANDBY
1 Before starting a diesel engine should be warmed through by circulating hot water through
the jackets, etc.
2. The various supply tanks, filters, valves and drains should be checked.
3. The lubricating oil pumps and circulating water pumps should be started.
4. All control equipment and alarms should be examined.
5. The indicator cocks are opened, the turning gear engaged and the engine turned through
several complete revolutions.
6. The fuel oil system is checked and circulated with hot oil.
7. Auxiliary scavenge blowers, if manually operated should be started.
8. The turning gear is disengaged and if possible the engine should be turned over on air before
closing thejndicator cocks.

TEXT
ENGINE STARTING
1. The direction Handle is positioned ahead or astern'.
2. The manoeuvring handle is moved to START
3. When the enginfe reaches its firing speed the manoeuvring handle is moved to the running
position.
TEXT 4
MAINTENANCE
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
maintenance

daily
dipstick
to stand still
at least
draining
to unscrew
to screw
drain plug
bottom
crankcase
to fill
to refill
refilling
to wipe
inside
rag
fluff
cotton waste
to dip
lube oil suction strainer
sump
to examine
frequently
crack
upper
piston ring
depending on
condition
deposits
carbon
excessive
externally

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scale
wearf
to renew
top
to adjust
clearance
also
joint
lever
alignment
bearing
readings
to take readings

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TEXT
Check the lube oil pressure daily. The pressure should be 1,5 Kg per sq.cm = 21 lbs/sq.
in (psi). Keep the oil level up to the full mark of the dipstick. Make control when the engine
stands still. The lube oil should be changed the first time after 50 working hours, the next time
after another 150 working hours and then atideast once a year. Draining is made by
unscrewing the drain plug at the bottom of the crankcase just after stopping the engine when
the oil is warm and easy to drain. Before refilling with fresh oil wipe out the inside of the
crankcase with a clean rag (use material free from fluff do not use cotton waste). Dip the rag
in gas oil and clean the lube oil suction strainer placed on the drain plug and clean the sump.
When changing the lube oil, clean the lubricating oil filter with petrol or gas oil. Refill the sump
with fresh lube oil.
Pistons should be examined frequently for cracks. The upper piston rings should be
examined once a month during the first six months service and than as necessary depending on
their condition. At intervals of six months piston heads if cooled must be examined for deposits
of carbon in cooling spaces and cooling pipes. Exhaust valves, manifold and cylinder ports
should also be examined and excessive carbon deposits should be removed. Cylinder liners
must be examined externally for deposits of scale. The liners should also be examined for wear
and renewed if necessary. The clearance of the connecting rod - top and bottom ends should
also be examined and adjusted if necessary. At intervals of one year the manoeuvring gear
shbuld be examined for wear, at the joints of levers and rods. The alignment of the crankshaft
should be checked and corrected if necessary. The main bearings should be examined and
readings taken for wear.
TEXT 5
IRREGULARITIES IN OPERATION, CAUSES AND REMEDIES
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
symptom
cause
remedy

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11

insufficient
to leak
to stick
to grind'
to replace
to mill
valve seat
spindle
groove
to wear (wore, worn)
worn
to loosen
to break (broke, broken)
broken
slack
spring
scratch
to be out of order
to be in order
nozzle needle valve
to release
if required = if necessary
loose
to tighten
lining
to repair
shortly afterwards
after a while
empty
to airate
to choke
capacity
excessive
waste
plunger
sleeve
thoroughly.
governor drive
to lose (lost, lost)
under load
adjustment
sluggishly
smell
languid^
movement
governor arm
to become (became, become).
oblique

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12

by blows or the like


to interrupt
to knock
ignition
too advanced ignition
fault
cracked
restart
flywheel
to lock
to smoke
to overload
to reduce
consumption
to increase
seal rings
lack
owing to = due to = because of
escape
leakage
to remedy a fault
fan belt
to'overflow
overflow
overflow valve
to jar
misfire
to cover

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Irregularities in Operation, Causes and Remedies.


Symptom:

Cause:

Repedy:

1. Starting difficulties.
Insufficient
or no compression.

Inlet and exhaust valves


leaking.

Grind or ref)lace valves,


mill the seats.

Inlet and exhaust valves


sticking.

Oil the valve spindles with


gas oil, or remove valves
for cleaning.

Insufficient rocker arm


clearance.

Adjust valves.

Piston rings sticking in


grooves, or worn.

Loosen rings and replace


them if necessary.

13

Remedy:

Cause:

Symptom;
It

Valve springs broken or


slack.

Replace springs.

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Cylinder liner worn.

Replace.

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Cylinder liner scratched.

Replace.

Fuel valve out of


order.

Nozzle needle valve


sticking or leaking.

Release it. grind or replace


if required.

Fuel pumps give no


or insufficient
pressure.

Pressure valve sticking


or leaking,

Clean it, replace if


required.

Pressure valve holder


loose
-/ Piston and lining worn.

Insufficient or no
fuel supply.
M

Tighten.
Replace.

Air in fuel system.

Ventilate.

Fuel lift pump defective.

Repair pump and ventilate


fuel system.

2. Engine starts, but stops shortly afterwards.


Engine starts,-but & / Fuel tank empty.
stops after a while
If

Air in fuel system.

tf

/ Fuel filter choked.

Fill tank and remove air


from fuel system.
Airate.
Clean the filter.

3. Engine does not reach maximum capacity

Insufficient or no
compression.

See under "Starting


difficulties".

Fuel valves out of


order.
Excessive waste of

"
Fuel pump plungers worn.

Replace plungers and

1'1iT
Caused
rfMMMtpl

Symptom:
oil from fuel pumps.

Remedy;
sleeves.

Engine takes load


only momentarily

Fuel supply blocked,


fuel pump out of order.

Check the whole fuel system


thoroughly

Engine does not


reach full speed.

Governor drive broken.

Adjust or replace governor


spring.

Engine loses too


much speed under
load.
Smell of heat.

Incorrect adjustment of
governor, or something
in the system works
sluggishly.
Insufficient cooling
water.

Adjust governor. Check


governor system, and
correct the defect.
Stop engine, fill in
cooling water when the
engine has cooled off.

4. Engine speed too high.


Languid movements
of governor arm.

Governor arm has become


oblique by blows or the
like.

Stop engine quickly by


interrupting the fuel supply
and check the governor
system.
Adjust governor.

Incorrect adjust
ment of governor.
5. Engine knocks.
Ignition too
advanced.

Incorrect adjustment of
fuel oil pumps.

Adjust correctly

Mechanical faults.

Connecting rod bolts


loose.

Check connecting rod bolts


thoroughly If cracked or
defect, replace them.
Tighten nuts

Mechanical faults. <


2/

Hot or worn bearings.

Replace bearing lining,check


lube oil system, correct
fault if any before
restarting
Tighten nut and lock it.

"

$ / Flywheel loose.

"

c / Worn pistons and linings.

Replace them.

15

Symptom i

Remedy:

Cause:

6v Engine smokes.
Black smoke from /A ir filter choked,
engine.
"
"

Fuel valve out of


order.

Clean filter.

See under "Starting


difficulties.

< ?/ Insufficient compression.

"

Engine overloaded.

H
Black smoke from
engine.

Reduce load.Never overload.

Thermostat valve leaking.

Replace valve.

Lube oil forces its way


past leaky piston and
oil rings into combustion
chamber.

Replace oil and piston


rings.

7. Excessive fuel oil consumption.


Engine runs hot.

Engine overloaded.

See under "Starting


difficulties".

Insufficient
compression.
Leaky fuel system.
"
Increasing oil
level.
Engine smokes.
H

Fuel pipes leaking.

Repair or replace.

Fuel pump plungers and


linings worn.

Replace defective parts.

Fuel lift pump diaphragm


defective.

Replace diaphragm.

/ Fuel valves out of order.

Clean and adjust valves.

$ / Thermostat valve leaks.

Replace valve.

8. Excessive lubricating oil

consumption.

Lube oil enters


/ and piston rings
combustion chamber, worn.
"

Reduce load(never overload).

Pistons and cylinder


linings worn.

Replace rings.

Replace defective parts.

16

Symptom

Cause:

Lube oil leaks out


of crank shaft end
bearings.

__________Remedy:

Oil seal rings and


bearings worn.

Replace seal nngs and


repair bearings.

No codling water

Stop engine, fiU up with


cooling water when engiije
cooled off.

Engine overloaded.

Unload engine.

9. Engine runs hot.


Smell of heat.

Cooling water
temperature too
high.

Lack of fooling water


owing to defective
cooling water pump or
escape of water from
leakage.

Cooling water too /befective thermostat,


high.
*
"

Fan belt too loose.


/ Radiator choked.

"

Lube oil pressure


insufficient.

Pressure vacuum valve


out of order.

cl

Lube oil filter choked,

"

$ / Lube oil pump defective.

"

/ Lube oil pressure line


leaks.

"

tffy / Defective lube oil


overflow valve.

Remedy the fault.

Replace thermostat.

Tighten belt.
Clean radiator.
Repair valve.
Clean filter.

Repair pump.
Repair or replace line.

Repair valve.

10. Engine jars.


Engine misfires.

<&/Air in fuel system.

Fuel valves out of order.

Ventilate. See under


"Starting difficulties"
and "Engine does not reach
maximum capacity".

17

Symptom:

Cause:

Remedy:

II. Normal operation temperature is m>t reached.


Too low a cooling (^/Thermostat defective
water temperature. /
"

Air temperature too low.

Replace thermostat,

Cover radiator

18

CHAPTER 2
BOILERS

feedwater
in order to
to produce
watertube boiler
firetube boiler
furnace
combustion chamber
to release
drum
to provide
to separate
fittings
to ensure
to enter
to pass through
to pass outside
to surround
large - bore
downcomer tubes
to join
superheater
burner
water wall tube
water wall header
alternative wind box
generating tube
floor tube
funnel
stage
forced draught fan = FD fan
incoming feedwater
attemperator

TEXT 1
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

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TEXT
A boiler is used to heat feedwater in order to produce steam. There are watertube and
firetube boilers. All boilers have a furnace or combustion chamber where fuel is burnt to
release its energy. A drum must be provided where steam and water can separate. Finally there
must be a number of fittings which ensure safe operation of the boiler.

19

The feedwater enters the boiler where it is heated and becomes steam. The feedwater
circulates from the steam drum to;tbe water ,drum and is heated in the process. Some ofTthe
feedwater passes through the tubes surrounding the furnace, where it is heated "nd returns to
the drum. Large - bore downcomer tubes pass outside of the furnace and join the steam and
water drums. They are used to circulate feedwater between the drums. The steam is produced
in a steam drum and may be drawn off for use from here.
The steam may also pass to a superheater which is located within the boiler.
The hot gases produced in furnace heat the feedwater, produce steam and superheat the
steam from the boiler dam. The gases then pass over an economiser through which the
feedwater passes before it enters the boiler.

Figure 2.1. Simplified boiler arrangement.


TEXT 2
application
e. g. (exempli gratia- .)
upper header
screen tubes
lower header
packaged unit

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

20

package boiler
access ladder
gas exit flange
blow <- down valve
water inlet strainer
main stop valve
lifting lug
double spring safety valve
forced draught fan compartment
pressure gauge
hinged door
pressurised plenum chamber
combustion appliance




TEXT
WATER - TUBE BOILER

In the water tube boiler feedwater passes through the tubes surrounded by hot gases. It
is used for high pressure, high temperature, high capacity steam applications, e.g. providing
steam for the main propulsion turbine or cargo pump turbines.
( Figure 2.2. Water-tube boiler, p.21)
FIRE - TUBE BOILER
In the fire - tube boiler the hot gases pass through the tubes surrounded by water. Most
fire - tube boilers are now supplied as a completely packaged unit. This will include the oil
burner, fuel pump, forced draught fan, feed pumps and automatic controls for the system.
( Figure 2.3. Package boiler, p.22)
TEXT 3
BOILER MOUNTINGS
certain
to refer to
mountings
to mount
to protect
to fit
main steam supply line
non - return valve
auxiliary steam supply line
feed check or control valve
water - level gauge
air release cock

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

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21

Figure 2.2. Water-tube boiler.


to raise
initially
sample
outlet cock
to enable
scum valve
shallow dish
spring loaded safety valve
cap
compression nut
split ring
helical spring
valve spindle
bush
valve lid
valve seat
cotter

22

Main steam
stop valve

Doub1*
safety vahtt
Forced draught
f^n compartment

Access ladder
and platform

Pressure gauge

Forced
draught fan
Hinged door
Prettunxed
plenum chamber

Blow-down

Ivt

Combustion

Appliance
Control pen*!

Water inlet

ramtr

Fe*d p4**p

Figure 2.3. Package boiler.


steam inlet
padlock
easing gear
steam outlet





TEXT

Certain fittings are necessary on a boiler to ensure its safe operation. They are usually
referred to as boiler mountings.
They are:
Safety valves which are mounted in pairs to protect the boiler against overpressure
Main steam stop valve which is fitted in the main steam supply line and is usually of the
non - return type. Auxiliary steam stop valve which is fitted in the auxiliary steam supply line
and is usually of the non - return type.
Feed check or control valve. A pair of non - return valves are fitted: one is the main
valve, the other - the auxiliary or stand by.
Water level gauges which are fitted in pairs at opposite ends of the boiler.
Pressure gauges which are fitted to provide pressure readings.
Air release cocks which are fitted to release air when filling the boiler or initially raising
steam.

23

Sampling connection. A water cutlet cock and cooling arrangement is provided for th
sampling and analysis of the feed water.

4
OPFRATION AND MAINTENANCE
feedwater treatment
pure
to contain
dissolved
solution
to adhere (to)
surface
scale
heat transfer
to result in
local
to remain
acid
to attack
therefore
to employ
actual
to involve
to add
chemicals
to test
test kit
manufacture
regular
to cut to
otherwise
to plug
uptake
damper
vent
slightly
below
de-aerated water
various
if any
to bypass
bypass

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS


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24

C om prcstion

nut
Split ring

S ln m inlt

Figure 2.4. Ordinary spring loaded safety valvp

25

air slide (check)


burner
t ) match
to issue
value
to put on a load
carefully
to observe
-fa

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TEXT
FEED WATER TREATMENT

Modem high - pressure, high temperature boiler requires very pure feed water. Most
pure water contains some dissolved salts which come out of solution on boiling. These salts
then adhere to the heating surfaces as a scale and reduce heat transfer which can result in local
overheating or failure of the tubes. Other salts remain in solution and may produce acids which
will attack the metal of the boiler. Therefore feedwater treatment is employed. The actual
treatment involves adding chemicals into the samples of boiler water with a test kit. This test
kit is usually supplied by the treatment chemical manufacturer with simple instructions for its
use. Regular and correct use of marine chemicals will cut corrosion to a minimum. Otherwise
due to corrosion a number of tubes of a ships boiler may start leaking and have to be plugged
which results in a low working pressure of the boiler.
PREPARATIONS
The uptakes should be checked; any dampers should be operated and then correctly
positioned. All vents, alarm, water and pressure gauge connections should be opened. The
superheater circulating valve or drains should be opened. All the other boiler drains and blow
down valves should be checked. The boiler should then be filled to slightly below the
working level with hot de-aerated water. The various header vents should be closed. The
economiser should be checked. The operation of the forced draught fan should be checked
and exhaust gas air heaters if any should be bypassed. The fuel oil system should be checked
for correct positioning of valves. The fuel oil should then be circulated and heated.
RAISING STEAM
The forced draught fan should be started and air passed through the furnace for several
minutes. The air slides (checks') at every register except " the lighting up burner should
then be closed . The operating burner should then be lit and adjusted. The fuel oil pressure
and forced draught pressure should be matched. The superheater header vents may be
closed once steam issues from them. When the drum pressure is about 210 Pa (2:1 bar
) the drum air vent may be closed. The boiler must be brought slowly up to the working
pressure . The main and auxiliary steam lines should now be warmed through and then
the drains closed. The water level gauges should be blown through and checked for
correct reading. When the steam pressure is about 300 k Pa (3 bar) bfclow the normal
operating value the safety valves should be lifted and released using the easing gear.
Once at operating pressure the boiler may be put on load and the superheater
circulating valves closed. All other vents, drains and bypasses should then be closed. The water

26

level i&.the boiler should be carefully checked and the . automatic water regulating
arrangements observed for correct operatioa
TEXT 5
IRREGULARITIES IN OPERATION, CAUSES AND REMEDIES
faulty
penetratibn
cutoff vaive
Valve disc
to shut dfcrwn
to light
sediment

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS


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TEXT

SYMPTOM
The water level in
the boiler is rising

CAUSE

REMEDY

1 .Faulty automatic water 1.Repair the automatic water


regulating arrangement or
regulating arrangement.
change to manual control
of the water level.
2. Penetration of solid
particles under the water
level regulator valve.

2.Shut off the cutoff fetd


valve, dismantle the water
level regulator, remove
the particles from the
valve seat and the disc.

Loss of water level 1. Faulty automatic water


level regulator.

1.Repair the regulator or


change to manual control
of the water level.
Shut down the boiler, let
2.The blow down valves are 2.
not tight enough
it cool, drain the boiler,
repair or replace the valve.
3.The boiler tubes and
3.Shut down the boiler for
manifolds are not tight.
repairs.

Safety valve is
closed

4 Faulty feed pump.

4.Eliminate the fault and


put the spare pump in
operation.

1.Steam pressure in the


boiler is rising

1.Lower the steam pressure


to the required level.

27

SYMPTOM

CAUSE

REMEDY

2 .Faulty safety valve.

2. Shut down the boilei,


repair or replace the
safety valve.
3.
Wrong adjustment of the3.Adjust the safety valve
safety valve.
to the required pressure.

The boiler won't


light.

1.There is some water in


the fuel.
2.Faulty burning
arrangement.

Boiler automatic Faulty automatic system.


operation program
is effected wrongly

1.Drain the sediment out of


the fuel tank.
2.Repair or replace the oilburning arrangement.

Eliminate the fault or change


to manual control,

28

CHAPTER3
PUMPS
TEXT 1
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
suction piping
-
discharge piping
-
-
suction head
discharge head
-
difference
- ,
with respect to
- ,
displacement pump
-
axial flow pump
-
centrifugal pump
-
reciprocating pump
-
rotary pump
-
discharge valve
-
to occur
-
air vessel
-
relief valve
-
to protect
-
adjusting screw
-
spring
-
bonnet assv
-
disk
-
body
-
by means of
-
to trap
-
to force
-
outlet
-
according to
-
rotary vane displacement pump -
gear displacement pump
- ()
screw displacement pump
-
casmg
- ,
gland
-
driving shaft
-
to accelerate
-
guide vane
-
to arrange
-
to convert
-
velocity
-
thrust bearing
-
bearing housing
-
diffuser piece
-
impeller
-
to flow
-
volute
-

29

$ingle-entry centrifugal pump - ,


i^ouble-entry centrifugal pump -
-
liquid path
-
discharge nozzle
- -
impeller rotation
-
motor half coupling
- , ,
spacer
-
bearing bush
motor support bracket - ,:
-
top cover
-
soft packed gland
-
shaft coupling
-
globe valve
-
non-return valve
-
check valve
-
gate valve
-
handwheel
-
wedge face
-
wedge gate
TEXT
A pump is a machine used to raise liquids from a low- point to a high point. A pumping
system on a ship consists of suction piping, a pump and discharge piping. Every pump has a
power end, which may be a steam turbine or an electric motor and a liquid end where'the
liquid enters or leaves the pump. The typical characteristics for the pump are the suction head
and the discharge head .The suction head is the pressure of the liquid entering the pump or the
difference in the level of liquid with respect to the level of the pump on the suction side. The
discharge head is the pressure of the liquid leaving the pump or the level of liquid with
respect to the level of the pump on the discharge side.
There are three main classes of pumps in marine use: displacement, axial flow and
centrifugal.Displacement pumps can be either reciprocating or rotary. The operating principle
of the reciprocating displacement pump is the following. As the piston moves upwards
suction takes place below the piston and liquid is drawn in, 1 the discharge valve is
closed. Aboye the piston liquid is discharged and the suction valve is closed. As the piston
travels down the operations of suction and discharge occur on opposite sides.
(Figure 3.1 Diagrammatic reciprocating displacement pump. p.30)
A relief valve is always fitted between the pump suction and discharge chambers to protect the
pump against excessive pressure.
( Figure 3.2 Relief valve, p.31)
The rotary displacement pumps operate bv means of rotary parts which trap the liquid at
the suction side and force it through the discharge outlet. According to the type of fotary
elements there are rotary vane displacement pumps.gear displacement pumps and screw
displacement pumps.

30

Figure 3.1 Diagrammatic reciprocating displacement pump


( Figure 3.3 Rotary displacement pumps: (a) rotary vane displacement
pump, (b) screw displacement pump, p 32)
An axial flow pump uses a screw propeller to axially accelerate the liquid. The outlet
passages and guide vanes are arranged to convert the velocity increase o f the liquid into a
pressure.
( Figure 3.4 Axial-flow pump.p.33)
In a centrifugal pump liquid enters the centre of the impeller and flows radially out
between the vanes. A diffuser or volute is then used to convert most of the kinetic energy in
the liquid into pressure. There are single-entry or double-entrv centrifugal pumps.
( Figure 3.5 Centrifugal pump operation.p.33)
( Figure 3.6 Single-entry centrifugal pump.p.34)
( Figure 3.7 Double-entry centrifugal pump.p.35)

31

Figure 3.2 Relief valve


Various valves are fitted to the pumps. These include the following: globe valves: -retum
or check valves: relief valves (see fig. 3.2).
( Figure 3.8 Globe valve, p.36)
( Figure 3.9 Non-return valve.p.37)
( Figure 3.10 Gate valve, p.38)
TEXT 2
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS
to flow out
direction
rotation
to indicate
arrow
requirement
ammeter
to exceed
possible

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS


-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

32

Screw

| Discharge

Bearing

Driving

baft

(b|

Figure 3.3 Rotary displacement pumps: (a) rotary vane displacement


pump, (b) screw displacement pump.
rating
tightness
packing gland
drop
to prevent
harmful
output

-
- , :
- ,
-
-
-
-

33

Qiand

Figure 3.4 Axial-flow pump

Valuta

cainf
lm p *U r

Oitcftarqa

-:I*

Cnmf

Pump d iE t w g *

O tIlu M r

Cuing
tfia ft

Ewgy
coowrdon
fcinetk to
fKcnurt

ImptCrr

V0K1M

Figure 3.5 Centrifugal pump operation

O 'f f u w 1y p

34

Figure 3.6 Single-entry centrifugal pump


TEXT
Starting ( the centrifugal pump and axial flow pump)
1) Open the suction check valve wide, opening at the same time the air vent on the top
side.
2) Close the air vent as soon as liquid flows out of it.
3) Start the motor leaving the discharge valve closed.
4) Check that direction of rotation is as indicated by the arrow.
5) Slowly open the discharge check valve until operating requirements are reached.
6) Check on the ammeter that power requirements do not exceed the motor possible rating.
7) Check tightness of the packing gland. Leaks must be reduced to a few drops which is
required to prevent harmful heating of the packings and the shaft.
DURING OPERATION
The pump output is to be controlled by operating on the discharge valve and never on
the suction valve which must always remain wide open.

35

Pumping merit
rrmovjJ gear
C ouplirjq ip a c tr*

SKft coupling

S o ft p a c k e d qland
N

Motor jupport

4
Baarinf bu
Imp .
<(

__

lmp(Nr

Figure 3.7 Double-entry centrifugal pump


STOPPING.
After switching off the motor close the suction and the discharge valves of the pump.
TEXT 3
IRREGULARITIES, THEIR CAUSES AND REMEDIES
loss
obstruction

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS


-
- ,

36

Figure 3.8 Globe valve


to deliver
insufficient
to result from
partially
passage
to rupture
to eliminate
capacity
leakage
stuffing box
trouble

- ,
-
-
-
-
- ,
-
-
-
-
-

37

Figure 3.9 Non-return valve


TEXT
SYMPTOM
Loss of suction

CAUSE
Reciprocating pumps
1) Obstructions in the suction
line.
2) Air in the system.

Centrifugal pumps
A pump doesn't deliver 1) Air in the pump case
any liquid
2) Insufficient speed of the
pump.

REMEDY
Check suction valves
Open the air cocks
vents on the liquid
end valve chest, leave
them open until water
flows out.

Let the air flow out


Check the electromotor,
bearings and gland
box.

38

Handwheel
Spindte

Valve cover

Spindle nut
Vive seat
Wedge fee*
Wedge gate
Valve body

Figure 3.10 Gate valve


SYMPTOM

CAUSE
3) Excessive large pressure
resulting from a partially
clogged valve or some
obstruction in the discharge
line.
4) Clogged impeller passages
5) Ruptured suction line

A pump operates at
insufficient capacity

1) Air leakage into the


suction line or stuffing
boxes
2) Mechanical defects such
as worn wearing rings,
impellers,stuffing box
packing or sleeves.

REMEDY
Check the valve and
adjust it.

Stop the pump and


clean the impeller.
Stop the pump,
eliminate leakages in
the suction line.
Eliminate leakages

Stop the pump, find


the trouble and correct
it.

39

CHAPTER 4
AUXILIARIES
TEXT
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

auxiliaries
air compressor

heat exchanger
-
distillation equipment
-
-
bilge water
- .-
sewage treatment plant
-
incinerator
to range
- ()
multi-stage
-
common
-
crank
-
second stage piston assembly -
-
first stage cooler tubes
to reach
-
-
first stage drain
-
second stage drain
- ()
steady reading
moisture
-
to clear
-
reciprocating machinery
-
-
troublesome
constant
-
rapid
-
- : ()
to reface
- :
incorrect
dirt
-
to stick
- :
to pit
-
to strip
-
to lap
-
reassembly
-
seal
-
TEXT
Machinery other than the main propulsion unit is usually called itfxilis&y. These include the
following: air compressors, heat exchangers, distillation equipment, oil / bilge water
separators, sewage treatment plants and incinerators.
AIR COMPRESSOR.
Compressed air has many uses on board ship ranging from diesel engine starting to the
cleaning of machinery during maintenance'. The air pressures of 25 bar o r more re usually
provided in multi-stage machines. Here the air is compressed in the first stage, cooled and

40

compressed to a higher pressure in the next stage and so on: The most common is two
stage crank machine.

Figure 4.1 Two-stage air compressor


STARTING
The compressor motor is started. .The lube oil pressure should reach the correct value.
The first stage drains and then the second stage drains are closed and the machine will begin to
operate. The pressure gauge cocks should be adjusted to give a steady reading. Where manual
drains are fitted they should be slightly opened to discharge any moisture which may collect in
the coolers. The cooling water supply should be checked as well as operating
temperatures.
STOPPING
To stop the compressor the first and second-stage cooler drain valves should be opened
and the machine run unloaded for, 2 or,3 minutes which will clear the coolers of condensate.
The compressor can now.be stooped .and, the.drains.should.be left open.

41

MAINTENANCE AND OPERATING TROUBLES AND REMEDY


Maintenance involves the usual checks and overhauls common to reciprocating
machinery, e.g. crankcase oil level, cooling water system, operating temperah.'-es and
pressures, etc.
The suction and deliyery valves are most troublesome. These valves are
automatic requiring a small pressure differential to operate.
The constant rapid opening and closing action of the valves may require seats to be
refaced. Overheating, use of incorrect lube oil or the presence of dirt may result in sticking or
pitting of the surfaces. The suction and delivery valves should be stripped and all parts
carefully cleaned and examined and worn parts replaced and the valve seat and plate Tightly
lapped before reassembly to ensure a goo^ seal
TEXT 2
HEAT EXCHANGERS
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
instance
-
-
for instance=for example
to require
-
-
conducting surface
opposite
-
i.e.-that is
-
counter or contra flow
-
fairly
-
heat transfer
-
shell and tube cooler
-
-
plate type heat exchanger
-
tube bundle
-
corrosion resistor
visible joint
-
radial flow circular baffles
-
safety expansion ring
-
double joint
-
removable cover
-
shell
- ,
frame plate
-
carrier bar
-
support post
-
tie bolt
-
plate pack
-
guide bar
-
similar
- ,
TEXT
Heat exchangers on board a ship are mainly coolers where a hot liquid is cooled by sea
water. There are some instances where liquid heating is required, such as heavy fuel oil
heaters and sea water heaters for tank cleaning.

4Z

In the heat exchange process the twoKquids pass on either side of a conducting surface.
The heat from the hot liquid passes to the Cold liquid and the conducting surface is at a
temperature between the two. Marine heat exchangers usually have the two liquids flowing in
opposite directions, i.e. counter or contra flow, which provides a fairly constant temperature
difference between the two liquids and therefore, thq maximum heat transfer.
Coolers at sea fall into 2 groups: the shell and tube ,and the plate type.
In the shell and tube design a tube bundle is fitted into a shell.
Safety expansion ring
and double joint

Figure 4.2 Shell and tube cooler


The plate type heat exchanger is made up of a number of pressed plates surrounded by seals
and held together in a frame!
( Figure 4.3 Plate-type heat exchanger: (a) construction, p.43)
Heaters are similar in construction to coolers.
TEXT 2a
HEAT EXCHANGERS. PLATE TYPE.
OPERATION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING.
troubleshooting
to reduce
considerably
filling

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS.


-
- ,
-
-

43

Frame plate

Tie bolt

Carrier bjar pressure plate

Plate pack

Support post

Guide bar

Figure 4.3 Plate-type heat exchanger: (a) construction.


occasionally
afterwards
circumstance
O.- ring
connection
gasket
sealing surface
deposits
flow rate
visible
further
deformed
double
adjoining plate
volume
to decrease
respective
hole
to apply

- ,
-
-
-
- ,
-
-
-
-
-
- , , .
-
-
- ()
- ;
-
-
-
-

44

opposite side

-
TEXT

Temperature o f poolers isicontroled by adjusting the cooling liquid outlet valve. The inlet
valve is left open which ensures a constant pressure within the cooler. This is very
important with sea >water cooling where reducing pressure can result in' air remaining in a
cooler which will considerably reduce the cooling effect. Vents provided it the highest point
of coolers should be opened on first filling and occasionally afterwards. Drain plugs are also
fitted at the lowest point in coolers.
The plate heat Exchangers should be opened and. cleaned regubufy ^nd under normal
circumstances evert six months. The -rings in ~ the connections.^the gaskets and the
sealing surfaces on the back of the plate should be checked before tfad/ieat exchanger is re
assembled.
SYMPTOM
1. Reduced cooling
efficiency.

2. Leakage visible on
the outside of the
plate pack.

3. Fresh water or
lubricating oil
volumes decrease
in the respective
systems.

CAUSE

REM EDY

a) Deposits

a) Check the heat transfer


surface for deposits ,aiid
if any remove them.

b) The flow rates


for oil and water are
incorrect.
a) The plate pack is
not tightened enough,

b) Check that flow rates for


oil and water are correct.

b) The gaskets and


sealing surfaces are
not clean and the
plates are deformed.
c) Corrosion between
the double gaskets
or in the same area
of the adjoining plate.
There is a hole in
the plate.

b) Replace the gaskets and


the damaged plates.

a) Tighten the plate pack


further.

c) Replace the gaskets or


the plate
Remove the lower sea water
valve, apply a test pressure
on the opposite side and, if
liquid flows from the side
under pressure, replace the
faulty plate.

TEXT 3
DISTILLATION SYSTEMS OIL/WATER SEPARATOR. SEWAGE
TREATMENT.INCINERATOR.
production

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS


-

45

pure
evaporation
either .... or
re-condensing
boiling process
flash process
overflow weir
seawater eed
brine discharge
condensei; nest
shell drairt
demister
heater nest
jacket water inlet
jacket water outlet
alternative steam connections
anti-polution regulations
stringent
suitable
to contain
to achieve
purity
latest
legislative
requirements
monitoring unit
continuously
to record
alarm unit
warning
level
oil collection space
filter insert
pilot valve
coarse separating compartment
fine separating compartment
catch plate
certain
to introduce
legislation
to install
waste water inlet
chlorine contact
aeration
settling
coarse screeil
sludge
soil
ultim ate

-
-
- ...
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- ,
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- ,
- ':
- &6

46

i conjunction with
thus
waste disposal package

- ;
-
- ()
TEXT

DISTILLATION SYSTEMS
Distillation is the production of pure water from sea water by evaporation and recbndensing. Distilled water is produced either by a boiling or a flash process.

Circulating
water outlet

- 1 -

Circulating water

inlet

<

Dittilled water ouHef


+o tank*

Overflow
weir

fft
ft!

>

J ac V rt vater In le t

>

n
fW ,
4. /

----u
----

a
* _f 1*1

4
T
>* 4 ']*
---"!!4,/*
|;_-------

Heatef neit

Seawater

Brine

U<=

S ''* ?
r-ijf-fc'
J

<#iehjrg
IT
Shell
drain

Alternative

steam
connections
Jacket water outlet

Figure 4.4 Boiling process evaporator


OIL WATER SEPARATORS
Oily water separators are used for separation of oil from water. While anti-polution
regulations are becoming more and more stringent clean water suitable for discharge must
contain less than 15 parts per million of oil. As oil/water separators can achieve 100 parts per
million a filter must be also used to provide the required purity. The latest legislative

47

requirements are where 1( parts per million purity is required, a monitoring unit which
continuously records, and, Where 15 parts per million purity is necessary, an alalrm~unit to
provide warning of levels o discharge in excess of 15 parts per million.

T"
7 V
t

'

'

'l
t \

1t
/

Figure 4.5 Oily water separator.


SEWAGE TREATMENT
To meet certain standards, introduced by International legislation all new ships have
sewage treatment plants installed. There are two particular types of sewage treatment
plant using either chemical or biological methods.
( Figure 4.6 Biological sewage treatment plant, p.48)
INCINERATOR
To achieve the ultimate situation of no discharge a suitable incinerator is used in
conjunction with a sewage plant and with facilities for burning oil sludges thus forming a
complete waste disposal package.

48

Figure 4.6 Biological sewage treatment plant

49

CHAPTER 5
DECK MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
TEXT 1
DECK MACHINERY: MOORING WINCH; WINDLASS, CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENT.
MAINTENANCE.
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
-
mooring winch
-
windlass
-
cargo handling equipment
-
anchor handling equipment
- ,
hatch cover
- :
item
-
life-boat
-
life-raft
-
emergency equipment
-
watertight door
bow thruster
-
currently
-
winch barrel (drum)
-
warp end
-
geared drive
-
self-tensioning unit
- ,

recent development
- : ()
split windlass
-
cable lifter
- ()
clutch gear handle
-
band brake
-
clutch lever
-
brake handle
-
derrick
-
derrick rig
-
union purchase
- ,
(^)
quayside
-
to enable
-
Samson post
- ()
stay
-
topping wire
-
hook
-
outboard derrick
- ,
to rotate
-
hoisting and luffing motors
-

turntable base
-
operator's cab
-

50

slewing motor
to expose
enclosure
splash lubrication
gearing
to grease
pressure grease point
open gear compound
to be associated with

- ^
-
- , :
-
-
-
-
-
- , :

TEXT
Deck machinery includes mooring equipment, anchor handling equipment, cargo haridling
equipment and hatch covers. Other items include life-boats and life-rafts, emergency
equipment, watertight doors and bow thrusters.
Three forms of power are currently in use for driving deck machineiy: steam, hydraulic and
electric
Winches with various arrangements of barrels are the usual mooring eguipment used on
board ships.
Winch barret

Figure 5.1 Mooring winch


Modem mooring winches are arranged as automatic self-tensioning units.
The windlass is the usual anchor handling device where one machine may be used to handle
both anchors.
A more recent development particularly on larger vessels is the split windlass where one
machine is used for each anchor.

51

Figure 5.2 Windlass


Cargo winches are used with the various derrick systems arranged for cargo handling. One
of the several possible derrick arrangements or rigs is a derrick rig, known as "union
purchase. One derrick is positioned over the quayside and the other almost vertically over
the hold. A combination of movements from the two winches enables lifting, transfer and
lowering of the cargo.

Figure 5.3

Union purchase rig

Cranes have replaced derricks on many modern ships. Positioned between the holds often
on a platform which can be rotated through 360e the deck crane requires only one man to
operate it.

52

Figure 5.4 General cargo crane


All deck machinery is exposed to heavy weather. Total enclosure of all working parts is
usual with splash lubrication for gearing. The various bearings on the shafts must be greased
by pressure grease points. Open gears and clutches are lubricated with open gear compound
Particular maintenance tasks are associated with the type of motor drive used.
TEXT 2
DECK MACHINERY: HATCH COVERS. WATERTIGHT DOORS.
THE BOW THRUSTER.
EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
universally
-
to exist
-
application
-
to offer
-
quick
-
to speed up
-
cargo handling operation
-
weather deck
-
hatch coaming
-
roller
-
chain linking cover
-
cover section
-
to undertake
-
bulkhead
-
shaft tunnel
-
entrance
-
sliding
-
fire drill
-
freedom
-

53

obstructing matter
propulsion device
to improve
manoeuvrability
to consist of
to mount
to push
sideways
port (side)
starboard (side)
as required
bridge
propeller blade
support stay
flexible coupling
independently
power source
remote
to fail
discharge to fire main
booster pump
submersible hyd oil motor driven
pump
hyd oil supply and return

-
_
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- ,

TEXT 2
Hatch covers are used to close off the, hatch opening and make it watertight. Steel hatch
covers are now fitted universally Various designs exist for particular applications but most
offer simple and quick opening and closing which speed up the cargo handling operation

Operating
control*
Hatch
coaming

Boiler

Figure 5.5 Weather-deck hatch cover

Chains
linking
cover*

54'

Figure 5.6 Tween-deck hatch cover.


Maintenance requirements for this equipment are usually minimal but regular inspection
and servicing should be undertaken Most hatch covers can if necessary be removed
manually.
Watertight deors are provided where an opening in a watertight bulkhead is necessary.
On cargo ship with a shaft tunnel the entrance must have a watertight door fitted All doors
below the water line must be of the sliding type arranged horizontally or vertically.
Watertight doors can be either power 'or manually operated. They should be tested for
operation by closing and opening during fire drill.
The hydraulic system should be occassionally checked for leaks and to ensure sufficient oil
is present in the system The bottom trackway-of the door should be checked for cleanliness
and freedom from obstructing matter
The bow thruster is a propulsion device fitted to certain types of ships to improve
manoeuvrability."The thrust unit consists of 'a propeller mounted in an athwartship tunnel and
provided with some auxiliary drive such as an electric or hydraulic motor. During operation
water is forced through the tunnel to push the ship sideways ^ither to port or starboard as
required. The unit is normally bridge controlled
( Figure 5.7 Bow thruster, p 55)
.
4

Emergency equipment is arranged to'operate independently of all main power sources It


includes such items as the emergency generator and the emergency fire pump. Both items of
machinery are located remote from the engine-room at the weather deck level or above
Modern systems are arranged to start iip the emergency generator automatically when the
main power supply fails. The system should be checked regularly. The tanks should be
kept full and the starting equipment should be functional.
The emergency fire pump is arranged to supply the ship's fire main when the machinery
space pump is not available.

55

motor-

Flexible
coupling

Figure 5.7 Bow thruster.

56

Hyd O ttP tifrp

discharge to Fire Main

Main Fire Pump

Discharge to
Main Fire
Pump Suction

Sea Suction

Booster
Pump

Figure 5.8 Emergency fire pump.

Submersible
Hyd Oil
Motor Driven
Pump

Hyd Oii Supply


and Return

57

CHAPTER 6

'
STEERING GEAR
.

WORDSAND EXPRESSIONS
steering gear
--
rudder

in response to
j-
rudder stock

to convey
*
desired rudder angle
v- <
-
force
,
by means of
to accomplish
,
telemotor
-
- ( )
in turn
delivery pump
-
to employ
-
transmitter
-
receiver
-
charging unit
- , :
non-freezing fluid
-
-
remote control
installation
-
since
- ,
simple
-
reliable
-
ram
-
-
rotary vane steering gear
tiller
-
crosshead
-
replenishing tank
-
shown dotted
-
pump isolating valve
-
steel buttresses fitted around
- ,
,
base of bedplate to take shear
of holding down bolts

rudder indicator
-
spring loaded return linkage
-
crossbar
- ,
typical elevation of trunnion-
type tiller

cylinder chocks
-
rudder carrier
-
securely
- ,
to fasten
-
housing
-
to attach
-
to comprise
- ,

58

Ward-Leonard system
Direct single Motor System
via
pinion
toothed quadrant
changeover
prior to
departure
with respect to
actual
full travel
visually

- - (^
, )
-
-
-
-
- , :
-
-
-
-
-
-

TEXT
The steering gear provides a movement of the rudder in response to a signal from the
bridge . The system consists of three parts control equipment, a power unit and a
transmission to the rudder stock. The control equipment conveys a signal of desired rudder
angle from the bridge and activates the power unit and transmission system until the desired
angle is reached. The power unit provides the force to move the rudder to the desired angle
. Bv means of the transmission system and the steering gear the movement of the rudder is
accomplished. The steering gear can be arranged with hydraulic control equipment known
as a telemotor or with electrical control equipment. The power unit may in turn be hydraulic
or electrically operated. A delivery pump is required in the hydraulic system.
Telemotor control is a hydraulic control system employing a transmitter, a receiver.
pipes and a charging unit. The transmitter is located on the bridge and the receiver is
mounted on the steering gear. The charging unit is located near the receiver and the system is
charged with a non-freezing fluid.
The electrical remote control is commonly used in modem installations since it uses a small
control unit as transmitter on the bridge and is simple and reliable in operation.
Two types of hydraulically powered transmission unit or steering gear are in common use:
the ram and the rotary vane. There are a two-ram and a four-ram steering gear.
( Figure 6.1 (a) Diagrammatic arrangement of two-ram steering gear
(additional items for four-ram system shown dotted), p. 59)
( Figure 6.1 (b) Actual arrangement of two-ram steering gear, p.60)
( Figure 6.2 Four-ram steering gear-actual arrangement, p. 61)
With the rotary vane type of a steering gear a vaned rotor is securely fastened onto the rudder
stock. The rotor is able to move in a housing which is solidly attached to the ship's
structure.

( Figure 6.3 Rotary vane steering gear p.62)

59

"
f

Ii
I
r s

1r - - * f
U i
I
I
I

4
I------------I
-

-i

._

i
i
i
UJ----i

-j

Tilltr
__
CrOMhead

Cylinder

. \ .

Relief
valve
-D*3-

Pump

Si

Motor

Pump

Motor

Replni*hing
t*nk

Figure 6 (a) Diagrammatic arrangement of two-ram steering gear


(additional items for four-ram system shown dotted)
There are steering gears which comprise electrical control, electric power unit and electrical
transmission. They may be of two types: the Ward-Leonard System and the Direct Single
Motor System. Both types -have a geared down motor drive 1 a pinion to a toothed
quadrant. To meet the automatic changeover within 45 seconds twin system steering gears
are used. The failure of one system results in a changeover to ffie other. Prior to a ship's
departure from any port the steering gear should be tested to ensure satisfactory
operation.
These tests should include:
1 . Operation of the main steering gear
2. Operation of the auxiliary gear.
3. Operation of the remote control (telemotor) system or systems from the
main bridge steering positions.
4. Operation of the steering gear using the emergency power supply.
5. The rudder angle indicator reading with respect to the actual rudder
angle should be checked.

60

Pumo ilotaiTng valves

"&-----

-1

- -* * . _ j : .

^
. - * t i

11

- ; "

Stcd buctrane*
dried around of
bedplate to taka hear
off holding down bolls

B y p u l valv*

Cylinder ito litin g valve

Electric rudder
indicator

Donkin !*

typ#pun
Extended crowbar plates
for gyro control and
taltrrvotor recahar

'Local control

Figure 6.1 (b) Actual arrangement of two-ram steering gear

61

H rffTypicalewvsuwST
*www#Hirpe**#ir |
CitiiiMM

'/

I*__ 11 Ji

n
CrbA6f c ta c k i

- a -

Ty#<e(**m m ( tttcrw g
gM k iw i

Figure 6.2 Four-ram steering gear-aptual arrangement


6. The alarms fitted to the remdte
system and the steering gear
power units should be eheckedf br correctdfj&ation. - ^
t
The rudder dtipuld be moiled through its full travel in botk "directions. The various
equipment should oe.visually irispected for damage or wear. , The': communication system
between the bridge arid.the steering gear'com^artmerit-should aliso be operated.

62

Figure 6.3 Rotary vane steering gear

63
km m m a

shafting
propeller
transmission system
shaft
thrust
thrust shaft
intermediate shaft
tailshaft
thrust block
stemtube bearing
cone
to complete
stemframe
forward bush
aft bush
aftermost tunnel bearing
journal bearing
ship's structure
direct drive diesel
therefore .
solidly .. :
to withstand).,
shock ioad,-.-.
oil scraper
thrust collar
oil deflector
halfjournal bush
thrust pad " *
cooling coil
top bearing shell"
bottom bearing shell
to counteract
thus
considerable
to act
entry
depending upon
flange
boss
clockwise
when viewed from aft
right-handed propeller
left-handed propeller

S H A F t^ ^ J > fR0PE1XERS
kT
'
SHAFTING A iyp^O PE lX E ftS
WORDSr^ND EX PR ESS ^
*
-
^
- , ( )
-
-,
* ^,
-
-
-
- ^
-
-
- . -
-
- :
- ,

-
-
- -
.;.7 ^^
- '
-
-
-
-
-
-
- , :
-
^]1 ;
- ...

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

64

twin-screw ship
sSgle-screw ship
developed outline
projected outline
skew
cavitation
vapour-filled cavity
bubble
loss of thrust
loss
erosion
afterbody
noise
crack
to ignore
edge
to weld up
bent
heat treatment
slight pitting
to grind (ground,ground)
to polish

-
-
- .' (' )
- ( ^
)1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- ,
-
-
-
-
-
-

TEXT
The transmission system on a ship transmits power from the engine to the propeller. It
includes shafts, bearings and finally the propeller itself. The thrust from the propeller is
transferred to the ship through the transmission system. The system includes the thrust
shaft, one or more intermediate shafts and the tailshaft. These shafts are supported by the
thrust block, intermediate bearings and the stemtube bearing. There is a sealing arrangement
at either end of the tailshaft with the propeller and cone completing the arrangement.

Shch powtr

Direct drive 4 I

StermuM

wpponMl
to d

Figure 7.1 Transmission system.

engine

ii

The thrust block transfers the thrust frop thj propeller to the hull of the ship. It must
therefore be solidly constructed and the construction must be strong enough to withstand
normal and shock loads.

Figure 7.2 Thrust block.


One of the two types of shaft bearings is the aftermost tunnel bearing. The aftermost
tunnel bearing has a tog and bottom bearing shell because it must counteract the propeller
mass and take a vertical upward thrust at the forward end of the tailshaft. The other shaft
bearings only support the shaft weight and thus have only lower half bearing shells.
The stemtube bearing supports the tailshaft and a considerable proportion of the
propeller weight. It also acts as a gland to prevent the entiy of sea water.
There may be one or more sections of intermediate shafting between the thrust shaft and
the tailshaft, depending upon the machinery space location. The intermediate shafting has
flanges at each end and may be increased in diameter where it is supported by bearings.
The propeller consists of a boss with several blades. When rotated it thrusts its way
through the water. The thrust is transmitted along the shafting to the thrust block and
finally to the ship's structure. A propeller which turns clockwise when viewed from aft
is considered right-handed. A twin-screw ship usually has a right-handed starboard
propeller and left-handed port propeller.
( Figure 7.3 Solid propeller, p. 66)
Cavitation, the forming and bursting of vapour-filled cavities or bubbles, can occur as a
result of pressure variations on the back of a propeller blade. The results are a loss of thrust
erosion of the Blade surface, vibrations in the afterbody of the ship and noise. When a ship
is in dry - dock the propeller should be thoroughly examined and repaired if necessary.
Even the smallest cracks should not be ignored as they can result in the loss of a blade.
Edge cracks should be. welded up with suitable electrodes. Bent blades should be made
good by heat treatment, surface roughness caused by slight pitting can be lightly ground out
and the area polished.


I
it
jBjade
le c tio n s

Figure 7.3 Solid propeller

67

CHAPTER'S
BUNKERING OPERATIONS
1
FTUfct!0 ILS
property
specific gravity
relative density
viscosity
ignition quality
flash point
pour point
cloud point
residual carbon
sulpur content
Calorific VilUb1
Redwood seconds
value
to handle
wax
pipe blocking
to occur
remains
Higher Calorific Value
Lower Calorific Value
available
to pass away

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS


-
-

-.
-

-
.
-
-
-
'.-'
-
. ;
-
-
-
-
-


-

Fuel oils have various p r o p e r ty as''the specific gravity or relative density/the


viscosity, the ignition quality. th *'fiasii pbint.the pour point, the cloud point, the residual
carbon, the sulphur content, the calorific yafue.
In Europe to measure viscosity th^U se Neither Redwood or Saybolt seconds.There are
two values for the flash point: an' open flash point for atmospheric heating and a closed flash
point when the covered fuel is heated. The pour point is the lowest temperature at which
the1 fuel can be easily handled. At the cloud' point waxes will form in the fuel. Below ..
fcloud point temperature pipe*foil' filter 6: may occur. The carbon refflduc'fontoing
property of a fuel is u k t0 y fm&$i&ed by &^ Gbaradson method. Controlled burning of A fuel
sample gives a measure
other remains. Sulphur content ~ia v^ry
important becaiiseit may cause ?eng$&M
^Mag'^ '1rhe calorific value of a fuel is the heat
energy released during combustion. Tworyafiies are used: the Higher Calorific Value Wijdch is
the heat energy resulting from combustion and- die Lower Calorific Value which is the heat
energy available and doesnt, include the beat energy passing away,as exhaust.

68

TEXT 2
LUBE OILS, FUEL OIL TREATMENT, FILTERS
AND
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

strainer
viscosity index
rate
Total Base Number
indication
quantity
11

ie.=tb6is
oxidation
tendericyj
_d^lsihili^r_

ability
to mix
centrifuge
to be related to
Sludge
corrosion inhibition
to protect
to prevent
friction
to absorb
catbon deposits
to achieve
blending
additives
detergent additives
storage
to allow
.coarse filtering
fine filtering
to remove
solid particles
contaminated oil
contaminant

to collect '
1
servicing indicator
vent plug
flow out to.in
lr ;

'*i\

division platebody drain


differential pressure connections ?

- '
-
^^;;
-
- -
-
.

-
-
-!
-
-
- , .:'
-
- .
-
-
I?
:
-
-
;
-
- ( )

-
-
-
-^,
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
;
>
.
- ,^

^ ^? 1

69

STEXT

Lube oils tm y^thfefateing >5)$&

The viscoatvan^i^?iscogtv'Jp ag ^ ^ 6 n jy ^ iijap ^f-ate>'*pf .change o f .viscosity with


temperature. ^
'-sr*.The Total Base Number ( TBN )ffifaiclriJrif5n&<3rtibri6f the quantify of alkali, i.e. base
availabl in^lube^Birt^^ itiMise a< r
The addity wi^k$i is measured by J
The oxidation-ji^hich:isaJso me
The carbon forming tendency.
The demulaoilitv which is the abiUty^o^no^with tya&|ffiid theiyrelease the water in a
centrifuge. This propertyjs also rj a t ^ jt ^ f ^ d e O ^ S ^ ^ s l u d g e.(
Corrosion inhibition which is^^feilitvrjo protecr^ s u rfa c e when plater is present in the
oil.
The modern hibric^ts,must p^orm rtmmerom~^uHe4 d prevent metal mtoumetal contact,
reduce friction and wear at moving parts,^to neutnffise^the acidF and absorb cart^fftt'eposits,
to absorb water and protect * tite^itifetal partsifrom 'corrosioa~Thiii1sM
achieved through
blending and additives. There -^klkali^^ ^detergent dispersant orjraextreme ^.-pressure
(E.P.) additives.
Both fuel oils and lubricating oils' Require treatment'before passing to the engine. This
includes storage and heating to allow"separation of water present, coarse and fine filtering to
remove solid particles and also centrifuging.'
- t*

The centrifugal separators iispd to separate two liquids, for example oil and water or a
liquid and solids as in contaminated oil.
Mechanical separation of solid, contaminants from oil systems ( fuel and lubricating ) is
achieved by the.use of filters and, strainers, . A- strainer is usually a coarse filter to remove the
larger contaminating particles. Magnetic strainers are often used in lubricating oil systems
where a large magnet collects any .ferrous particles. Fine filters in pairs are used to remove
the smallest p a ^ le g o f dirt from oil..
( Figure 8.1 Fiiie,filter4p.7Q).
TEXT 3
BUNKERING OPERATIONS
WORDSAND EXPRESSIONS
to send (sent, sent)
-
ETA- estimated time of arrival'

grade
>: ()
lengthof$me
i'
to schedule

amount
.
if any,
-.
to handle cargo
^ '
'flexible hose
4
to connect
-
i j

70

MRvie^Mir'cftoti
WMTn.ua

urna *
+'1
.
***. <

HtATTMjMlter.

Figure 8.1 Fine filter


connecti^gflaige
to commence
fill pipe'-
valve manifold
to direct
storage tank
scupper
to seal off
minor oil spill
air vent containment
drip tray
sawdust
manual valves ...should be
proved,to be open for the
flow of liquid
reliable
tank - sounding equipment
contents
even

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Tpyfr;
-
-.
- ,
!

-
I -
{()
^

71

to dip a tank
to be dertain of their contents
means of communication
bunkering installation
to indentify

- ( )
-
-
-
-

TEXT
Before bunkering the ship sends | o the companys agent ashore a radiogram indicating
: 1) the name of the ship, 2) the estimated time of arrival at the fuel port, 3) tl-3 estimated
quantity and grade of fuel oil or\ lubricated oil required, 4) the length of time the shij^ ^
scheduled to be in the fueling port, 5) the amount of cargo if any, which will be handldd
during the port call. Two days or 24 fhours before the arrival the ship sends to the agent the
time of arrival and the exact humbe/ of metric tons of required fuel.
At the fixed time a fuel barge comefc alongside the ship, a flexible hose from the fuel barge is
connected to the ships pipe by connecting flanges and bunkering commences. The fuel fill
pipe is connected to a valve manifold in the engine-room spaces.From the valve manifold
fuel is directed to various storage tanks.
The third engineer is in charge of bunkering operations.
A set procedure for bunkering includes :
1. All scuppers are to be sealed off, i.e. plugged to prevent any minor oil spill on deck going
overboard.
2. All tank air vent containments or drip travs are to be sealed or plugged.
3. Sawdust should be available at the bunkering station and various positions around the
deck.
4. All fuel tanks should be carefully checked before bunkering commences.
5. All valves on tanks which are not used should be closed or switched to the "off' position.
6. Any manual valves in the filling lines should be proved to be open for the flow of liquid.
7. Reliable tank-sounding equipment must be used to regularly check the contents of each
tank. It may even be necessary to dip or manually sound the tanks to be certain of their
contents.
8. A complete set of all tank soundings must be obtained before bunkering commences.
9. A suitable means of communications must be set between the ship and the bunkering
installation before bunkering commences.
10. Any tank that is being filled should be identified in some way on the level indicator,
possibly by a sign or marker reading "Filling".
BUNKERING OPERATIONS
CONVERSATIONAL SECTION
USEFUL WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

- pump-operator, oil-plant foreman



- maximum permissible

- pressure

- to increase pressure

- to reduce/ease down pressure
()
- to top off

- measurement

- correct measurements

- meter

- meter readings

72

( )

( )

-
^
^



?
?



?



()

oil certificate/specification
overflow
adapter
pumping
pump rate
barge attendant
Banker Receipt/Ticket
to sign
oil sample
oil spillage
intake pip^
to put the hose aboard
to strain the j^ose
to remove the hose
to fit the hose
fitter
Who will take the meter readings ?
Who supervises the hose?
We shall bunker/load "over all"
Have you placed drip pans under the
flanges?
Our fittings don't match your standard
flanges
the hose is strained
the hose is chafed ( chafing )
Ill accept your measurements as correct

DIALOGUE
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
to suit
-
It suits me perfectly
-
Request Order
-
to complete=to fill in
-
previous port of call
-
to take the ullage
-
empty
-
to take into account
-
to allow for
- -,
temperature deflection
-
you are supposed to supply
-
claim
-
Delivery Order
-
stamp
-

73

DIALOGUE
I

Pump Operatorj: Good aflernooft, Chieft I have delivered you 1,000 tons of
heavy oil.
Chief Engineer ' : May I see the oil certificate?
Pumfr Operator: Here you are.
Chief Engineer : This oil suits me perfectly.
Pump Operator : O.K. Let's complete the Request Order: voun previous port of
call, your next port of call, the correct name^of the ship...
Chieft Engineer : The previous port of call is Genova, the next1port of call
is Pireaus, the name of the ship is "A.
Pump'Operator: Now what should be the pump rate .while bunkering ?
Chief Engineer : Weil, I think the first five minutes it should Jbe minimum
then not more than 150 m3/per hour. What is the heavy fuel
temperature?
Pump Operator: 60 C.
Chief Engineer : Have you got a flow meter or we shall have to take the
-Ullage?
Pump Operator: There is a meter on the fuel barge but anyway I think your
third engineer should take the ullage together with the
donkeyman. There are 6 tanks on the barge, two of which are
empty.
Chief Engineer: ..1 instruct the third engineer to take the ullage.If
we take into account the density indicated in the
certificate and allow for the temperature deflection you are
supposed to supply us with 1055 m3.
Pump Operator: I agree ( with you here ). Will you sign the Request Order
with the tank measurements and sealed samples?
Chief Engineer. 1 sign the measurements only after our third engineer has
taken the ullage.
Pump Operator; All right.
Chief Engineer: As soon as the measurements are signed you may start
bunkering.
* * *
Chief Engineer: A haven't got any claims for the quantity of the fuel
received.
Pump Operator. Good. Will you sign the Delivery Order and put the ship's
stamp on it? The last two copies are for you, Chief.
Chief Engineer :Thank you. See you again.
Pump Operater: Good-bye.
Chief Engineer:Good-bye.

to short-receive
to lodge a protest
short-delivery

BUSINESS LETTER
NOTICE FOR MASTERS/CHIEF ENGINEERS
CHECKLIST ( BUNKERING OPERATIONS )
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
-
-
-

74

Yours faithfully
Should youWfcfting bunker
precaution
determination
to determine
to witness
acceptance
volume
dispute
valuable
to draw attention
to fail
the supplying tmij: submission
of the same shall be deemed
to be correct
to make a log entry
to be familiar with
to brief
to establish
party
to blank
to verify
to stir
N.B. ( nota bene )

- '
-
-
-
-
-
- , |
-
-
-
-
- ,
- ; ,
,
i
-
- -, ;
-
-
-
- ,
-
-
- . ,.

75

Date :
Ref :
To

Dear Sirs,
NOTE OF PROTEST f OR BUNKERING OPERATION ON

_(name of vessel)

1. Chief Engineer ofM/V


short received_________
the

(grade of bunkers) out of

tonnes of

______ (date of bunker received).The bunkers

tonnes requested for on

_____________ (name of bunker barge/tanker)

were supplied by bunker barge/tanker_


-SB No.

(Jdate)

on

(date)at____________(location).

I hereby lodge a protest against the short delivery.


Yours faithfully ,

(Name of Chief Engineer of vessel)


cc 1.The Executive Secretary
Singapore National Shipping Assocciation
456 Alexandra Road #02-02
NOL Building
Singapore 0511 (Fax No: 2745079)
ACKNOWLEDGED

2.The Bunkering Services Manager


Bunkering Service Department
Port of Singapore Authority
2nd Storey,West Wing
Keppel Building,Keppel Road
Singapore 0409(Fax No:3211976)

RECEIPT

Signature of Master/Cargo Officer of Bunker Barge/Tanker


Name of Master/Cargo Officer of Bunker Barge/Tanker

Date/Time

76

AftTENTl6 N

For:

MASTERS/CHIEF ENGINEEfeiy of Vessels

Should vou be LIFTING BUNKERS, please note following precautions to


protect your interest in supplied quantity^ determination:1.
The quantity of marine fuel delivered shall be determined from the gauging and
measurements of the SUPPLYING unit.
2. Do send your representative to witness the following procedure : (a) the opening ullage measurement of the supplying tank IMMEDIATELY BEFORE
delivery commences.
(b) the closing ullage measurement IMMEDIATELY AFTER delivery completed from the
supplying tank.
(c) the measurements should be signed by your representative, at both the opening ullage
and closing ullage, indicating your acceptance of the figures of measurements.
(d) these would provide the measurements in VOLUME of the quantity supplied.
3. Should there be any dispute on the calculated quantity measurements by WEIGHT, the
ullages* measurements, both opeiing and closing, would provide valuable assistance in tl'fi
determination of what the quantity should be.
4. Your attention is drawn that should your representative fail to witness the opening
and/or the closing ullage measurements, the supplying units submission of the same shall
be deemed to be correct.

CHECKLIST 01 BUNKER TNG OPfe^ATIONS


This checklist is to be completed by the officer mxhargeof j
bunkering and a log entry made.

Tick
if yes

Prior to the arrival of the bunkering barge or arrival at the


bunkering facility
01.1 Has the bunkering plan been prepared.

[ J

01.2 Are all staff involved familiar with the ships


bunkering system.

[ ]

013 Is the Officer in Charge fully briefed in the sampling


procedures.

[ ]

01.4 Has transfer of fuel to minimise the mixing of old with


new fuel been completed.

[ 1

01.5 Have soundings of Bunker tanks been taken.

[ ]

01.6 Is the bunker line drip sampler in working order.

[ ]

01.7 Is the sample collector clean and in position.


01.8 Is the oil spill equipment ready.

[ ]

01.9 Are all scuppers plugged.

[ ]

01.10 Have all air vents been checked.

[ 1

After arrival of the bunkering barge or arrival at the bunkering


facility and prior to bunkering:01.11 Is the vessel securely moored.

( ]

01.12 If bunkering from a barge is the barge securely moored.

[ ]

01.13 Have communications been established between all parties.

[ ]

01.14 Has the delivery documentation been checked and found to


be satisfactory.

[ ]

01.15 Have all the barge or bunkering facility tanks been sounded

[ ]

01.16 Have the bunker hoses been inspected for damage

[ ]

01.17 Have the bunker hoses been identified with the grade of oil.

\ 1

78

7
.

<

CHECKLIST 01 - BUNKERING OPERATIONS

contd

018 Have drip trays been provided under the hose couplings.
_
I
e
01.-19 Are the hose couplings properly connected with all flange bolts fitted.
l
01.2,0 Are all unused manifolds blanked.

[ ]
.[ 1
[ ]

0112.3 Have all bunker lines been checked

[ 1

0122 Have bunker sampling connections been made


/
During bunkering:f '
01.23 Are all ships bunker tanks being checked at regular intervals

[ 1

01.24 Have the bunkering hoses and lines been checked for leakage.

[ 1

01.25 Are drip samples being taken over the whole bunkering period.

[ ]

Oh completion of bunkering:-

[ ]

[ ]
[ 1

01.26 Have all ship barge or bunkering facility tanks been sounded
and the delivered quantity verified.
01.27 Has the bunker receipt been signed for volume only not for
weight received by the Chief Engineer and Master.

[ ]

01.28 Have all lines been drained.

[ ]

01.29 Have bunker hoses been disconnected and manifolds blanked.

[ 1

.01.30 Have drip trays been drained.

[ 1

01.31 Have the contents of drip sample container been stirred before transfer to the sample bottles.

[ 1

01.32 Have the samples been sealed and signed by the supplier's
representative

[ 1

01.33 Have the sample bottles been labelled in accordance with


the instructions.
01.34 Have samples been despatched to the nearest laboratory
within 24 hours.
01.35 Has the sampling and sealing of the supoliers sample been
personally witnessed. NB The ship's staff must not accept
the bunker barge or bunkering facility samples unless
they have witnessed the sampling.

[ ]
[ 1

[ 1

79

CHAPTER 9
ORDERING SPARE PARTS AND GENERAL SUPPLIES
TEXT
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
to run out of
- ( )
to be short of
- (-)
request
- ,
cock

- ,,
reftjctory brick l r 1 ^ U ^ r', - |4
nozile
- ,
ignition electrode
-
antifouling compound
-
silver
-
sulphuric acid I S
-
- ()
hydrochloric acid
injector
- ,
babbit soldering
-
- ,:
tools
.
-
lathe L L ^ I M
^copper
-
-
cleaning rags
cast iron
-
availability,
,.
-
- ,
amendment,
W]
-
pass
storeman
-
TEXT
When a ship has' run out of some spare parts or is short-,of supplies the Chief Engineer
sends a telex to the agent at the next port of call in which he indicates the spares- the ship
needs and the quantity required This telex is based on the written request prepared by
the fourth, third and second engineers.
As a rule the following items may be included into the fourth engineer's written requesta) impellers for the boiler circulating pump;.
b) packings material ( rubber, klingirit, pararnt),
c) water and steam packings;
d) cocks for the sanitary system,
V A b a w,
e) refractory bricks, (clay) ( for a boiler furnace );
f) thermostat,
/ a ^
g) atomizers for boiler burner nozzles;
h) ignition electrodes.
i) bearings;
k) band brakes for winches,
1) oil of different grades,
m) antifouling compound marine;
n) chemicals for water analysis laboratory: silver, sulphuric and
hydrochloric acids, etc
The third engineer orders the following equipment:

80

a) a fuel putiip for the-cjlesel generator;


b) injector fb f the diesl\ generator,
c) pistpn rings;
d) bearings with babbitsoldering:
e) air inlet valves;
f) exhaust and inlet valves;
g) a cylinder liner;
h) oil pump drive gears;
i) cylinder covers.
As the second engineer is in charge of the main engine his request p&y include the
following items;
a) main engine piston riiigs;
b) pistons, cylinder liners;
c) cylinder covers;
d) exhaust valves;
e) oil for the main engine;
f) tools for the ship's lathe:
g) copper and steel wire of different diameter;
h) ball bearings;
i) spares for pumps;
k) cleaning rags:
1) cast iron, bronze, steel and other metals for making ^pares
On receipt of the telex the agent sends a rfcpTy^fcontaining all the necessary information
about the availability, price and terms of delivery of the spares required. On the ship's arrival
at the port the Chief Engineer sometimes has to meet with the shipchandler personally to
show him the samples of the spares he needs and to discuss some problems As a result of
the talks several amendments may be made about the quantity, quality, spares with the
same characteristics but from another company, parts of other modification.A special
document called Delivery List is prepared and considered to be an official pass at the port
territory. Some time later the shipchandler brings the bill which must be signed by the Captain,
Chief Engineer and storeman.
CONVERSATIONAL SECTION
USEFUL WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

- guarantee
- particulars,characteristics
- cheap
- expensive
- set, complete set
- complete with
- modification
- reliability
- reliable
- number
- part number
- drawing number
- according to the sample
- list

81

- advertising booklet
- Classification (Society) Certificate^
- list
- cost
- account, bill
- conditions, terms
- on general terms '
- price, cost
- estimate price
- piece

- We would like you to supply ...


6
)
- Some prices should be agreed upc/n with

the company

- Thi$ part won't suit us, the modification
,
is wrong

?
- What are the terms of delivery?

- Can you arrange for due delivery?
?

- How much does it come to?
?
?
- Is this spare reliable / strong?
DIALOGUE
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
-
Ive got to tell you
We havent been able to ... - ( )
- ( ..)
in stock
-
unfortunately
,
to arrange for
to settle
-
-
to settle a problem
By the way
-
-
to charge for

We used to pay much less
-
to grant a discount
-
to think over
-
to look through
Td better phone
- ...
Have you got a spare part - ?
like that ?
-
to offer L ^
-
final
-
decision
-
regarding

82

DIALOGUE
- Good afternoon, A gent!
'=
Nice to see you again. How you? . ,
- Good afternoon! I'm fine, thank you and you ?
- Quite well, thanks. Have you received my telex with a request
for spare parts ?
~r
-Yes, I have. The spare parts will bedelivered tomorrow
morning. Does it suit you ?
- It suits me perfectly. And what about thel servomotor ?
- I've got to tell you that we haven't been able to supply the
servomotor you need. The servomotors'y(bu want are not in stock
just now.
i
- Could you ask the shipchandler to find another suitable
servomotor? And please have him come on board tomorrow morning.
Ive got some problems to settle.
- O.K. See you later.
*

- Morning, Shipchandler!
- Morning, Chief. Tve brought you the catalogue.
- Thank you. Have you found a suitable servomotor ?
- Unfortunately. I haven't. But we expect the servomotor you need
to be supplied in 2 days time. How long are you going to stay
in our port ?
- Two days only. You won't have time enough to arrange for
delivery.
- We could arrange for the delivery during your next call at our
port.
- Then that's settled. Bv the wav, could you supply electrodes?
- What kind of electrodes?
- Ignition electrodes.
- How many pieces do you need?
- I'd like to get 4 pairs of electrodes.
- It's possible if the price suits you. The prices have changed
you know.
- How much do you charge for a pair?
- Here is the price list.
- Why, it's much too expensive. We used to pav much less for the
same. Do you grant a discount?
- Sorry, We've got fixed prices. But we guarantee the high quality
of the spares we supply.
- I'll think it over.
- Anything else, Chief?
- Ive looked through the catalogue and there isn't a spare I
need. I'd better phone the engineer of the watch and ask him to
bring you a sample. What would you like to drink : tea, coffee,
juice, mineral water?
- Coffee, please.
- How would you like your coffee?
- A teaspoon of sugar and no milk, please.

83

- Here you are.


- Thank you.
- And here is oar Third Engineer. Have you got a spare part like
this?
|
- 1 don't think so but we cquld offer,you a part with the same
characteristics from another company.
- OK. Will you phone me tomorrow morning and advise about the
availability and price of thys spare part. And then IH tell
you about our unal decision regarding electrodes.
TELEXES
TELEX1
TO SILVER LINE LTD LONDON
ATTN MRS SNUDJGA
FM MV K. KAMINSKIY
PLS URGENTLY CONFIRM BLASCO UNIVERSAL TO MR OSIPENKO US
PURCHASE : FELT STRIPE 1500*30*15 MM, GRINDING WHEELS 290*127*40 MM
2 PCS, HIGHLY STANNIC BRONZE 20 KGS, WORKING CLOTHES AND SHOES 26
SETS, ELECTRIC BULBS 400 PCS. YOUR PROMPT REPLY WILL BE HIGHLY
APPRECIATED BRGDS MASTER

TELEX 2
TO ASIA EXPRESS SHIPPING/DUBAI
TLX 47562 AFSA EM/45418 AFSACH EM
FM MV " ITAN KAMENSKIY"
REF ORDER... PLS SPEED UP DELIVERY OF VALVE STEM OF
EXHAUST VALVE NO 1541 A3 5-2 PCS; VALVE BODY OF
LUBRICATOR FIG 208/POS66-1 PC; PLUNGER AND BARREL
NO 50-5001-1 OF F.I.PUMP -12 PCS AWAITING YOUR PROMPT
REPLY BEST REGARDS MASTER
TELEX 3
ZCZC TX 23035 MAASSLUIS 05 SEP 94 12:28
ATTNTO WHOM MAY CONCERN
RE : MV "KAPITAN KAMINSKIY"
NEW ORLEANS
THE C/E OF THE A/M VESSEL REQUESTED 2 CYLINDERS R-12
PRICE TOTAL USD 1462,50
WE WOULD ALSO LIKE TO CONFIRM TO YOU THAT HE HAS ONLY
RUSSIAN CYLINDERS TO RETURN THEREFORE TO THE SUGGESTED
PRICE PLS ADD USD 165,00 DEPOSIT FOR EACH CYLINDER PLS
SEND YOUR APPROVAL BEST REGARDS
VECOM TRADING B.V.
J.BIESOT

84

TELEX 4
'ASIA EXPRESS SHIPPING/DUBAI
FM MV "KAPITAN KAMINSKIY"
I MASTER OF A/M VSL HEREBY INFORM YOU TT MY VESSEL'S
REPAIR HAS BEEN COMPLETED AND MY VESSELTfc READY FOR
DELIVERY AFTER SUPPLY OF BUNKER AS PER V O f AGE
REQUIREMENTS
PRESENT F.O.B. IF 120 CST 30 MT MDO 3/THREE ^fT ONLY
ALSO NEED LUB AS FOLLOWS
ATLANTA: 10,000 KILOS
DISpLAM : 5 KILOS

OILLjO
COMPRESSOR: 1 DRUM
:e t
ACETYLENE:
2 BOTTLES
AWT YR URGE REPLY BEST REGARDS MASTER

85

CHAPTER 10
REPAIRS
IlEPAERS LIST
M/V BORIS ANDREEV^- containership (SKP-500), built in February 1989,' &i Varna,
Bulgaria Hull project 599.1, class of Register with symbol KM* 12 I A1 containersfiips Class
renewal date 20th January, 1993, annual submission 20th January, 1993 seaworthiness
certificate 20th January, 1993 1Submission of propeller shaft 20th January, 1993 Last] docking
3rf August, 1991.
SHIPS MAIN DATA
Length overall
Length between perpendiculars
Breadth extreme
'
Moulded depth
Load draught
Light draught
Load displacement
Light displacement
Deadweight
Gross register tonnage
Ship's code letters

/4 8 .5 m.
136.0 m.
21j.0m.
10 9 m.
7.65 m
6 0m
149991
5782 t
87171
9764 t
UQAJ

Main engine 6 DKRN-67/140-4 (K67GF) 7500 Kw at 140 rev/min, built in the USSR P/O
Bransk mechanical yard under B&W licence-fixed pitch propeller
Diesel generators: 3 pcs, type 5 AL 25/30 SULZER 500 KW at 750 rev/min, Poland


/

/ - (-500), 1989 -
, . 599.1, * 12 I AI
. 20 1993 ; -
20 1993 20 1993
20 1993 . 3 1991








148,5
136,0
21,0
1 0,9
7,65
6,0
14999
5782
8717

86

9764 .
UQAJ

' 7
i'
6 ,HKHP-67/140-4(K67GF) 7500 ' 140 /.
^ / B&W
.
I

- 3 . 5 25/30 500 750-}/

WORK]
DENOMI
NATION
No
j

1
2

A m ount
OF
/ W ORK

No

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF WORK

NOTE

I.
L DOCKING
1.

1.

2.

Ship

As above

Place the ship into the dock and take it out,


including
days at the dock.

ship

Connect and disconnect land supply of el.


power. Technical supervision.

ship

2.

To


. . .

3.

As above

Connect and disconnect land telephone.


Technical supervision.

3.

To


. .

4.

As above

Connect and disconnect fire system.

4.

To

5.

As above

Make available fire fighting protection.

hours

5.

To

ship

ship

jSJpply cdoling foSteF?


'

J
!

As above
agsq>f

*
As above

To

,
' ,

Underwater
surface

Clean by means of high pressure and sand blasting - class SA 2 5



SA2,5

10

As above

Paint the cleaned surface according to the


firms technology
'

sq.m.

Custo-.
mers
paint

10

11

Boottopping

Clean by means of high pressure and sand blasting - class SA 2 5

sq.m.

,t !

tPlace and remove rubbish containers


^ -r '

Make available, connect and disconnect


tanks for sanitary water,''pump'out ari(T,c<
remove sewage

sq m

1 1


'
SA 2,5

12 Boottopping

Paint the cleaned surface according to


the firms technology Cl ' SA 1 5 ;

"

sq m.

'

Custo
mer's
paint
'> n
,

12

-
KJI SA 1 5

83

-. ?
.
eanb'y sandblasting .4
the cleaned surface according]tb thefirm':
1
.
i
^ h n o lo g y
who*
13.

1,5

4
- -*'** "

. L '5

I >*

mer's
P ^ n t:

V.-

a w w fv,.
.
S 2,5, ^ ^wepxjjqsq,
.,
.
- ) \ >

-* -

I I i .dldab

sq.m.

Custo
mer's
paint

14.

|) ,
4 SA 1,5. - h,

15. As above

Clean the freeboard area by sandblasting class sq.m


SA 1.0. Clean the fore and aft area by
sandblasting - class SA 2 5.
Apply a supplementary coat of paint on the
cleaned surface
sq.m

Custo
mer's
paint

15.

- SA 1,0.
-
SA 2,5

.

'14 Freeboard

Clean by means of high pressure^, AppJyj4,.


coats of paint. Cl. SA 1.5
/

16 Bulwark

Clean by means of high pressure, apply 4


coats of paint. Cl. SA 1.5

.

.
sq m

16.

17.

,
4 SA 1,5.

.
.

Draught marks Clean, prune, paint numbers, letters *md,., , ...sqjp.


load lines,..
marks with two coats of paint.
,-jix
. /,
conventional
signs of thruster
*
> ' - > - -

17. - , , ^ -.*$.,
,.
, , ,
.

..

Custo
mer's
paint

Yard's
paint

8 9 ,.

!>|

1 Blj^S&tppex openjinraonthe
uppef deck. '
I
18. |
,

Close with wooden plugs for the whole .rtf ; -pcs- 1


period of sandblasting.
/ V*T f
- *:
^ - " , .
I
_

Dismantle gratings, clean, paint according jo pcs


the yard's technology. Renew protector, 5<j)%
of fastener. Install grating in place. Clean ^ie
internal surface by sandblasting class S/^2.0.
Paint according to the yard's technology. '
Carry out air testing and submit to the
j
Register.
sq.m.

Custo
mers
paint

19.

, ,-
, .
, 50% .
.

SA 2,0. - .,
. .

20. Thruster

a) Tunnel gratings - remove, clean, paint


according to the yard's technology, renew
50% of fastener, install in place.
b) Clean the tunnel surface by sandblasting
class SA 2.5. Paint according to the
underwater surface scheme.
c) Mechanical cleaning and polishing of the
screw.
d) Dismantle thruster, technical maintenance
by the representative of Playger firm,
installation in place. Submit to the Register.

Custo
mer's
paint
Custo
mer's
paint

19. Sea Chests

20 .

pcs

sq.m.
pc
set

) - ,, - .
, ,
50% ,- .
) - . SA2.5.
.
)
,
.
) -
,
, .
.

71 t f "
.# V''
2l.f ballast duct

$
/.
f

f
22. Protector

Remove covers from the manholes, fclfean,


paint according to the yard's technology,
install in place. Renew 50% of fastener.
jpcs
Clean by sandblasting the iritemal surface of '
the duct - class SA 2.0. Paint according to the
yard's technology.
sq.m.
, ,- .
, ,
. 50% .
(
,

S A 2.0.
.
Renew detective aluminium anodes on the
ship's hull, in the thruster tunnel, on the
rudder blade. Clean all anodes.

Custo
mers
paint

pcs

22.,


,
-,
.

23. Screw pro


peller D=5m
11950 kg 4
blades

a) Install and remove staging.


b) Remove fairwater, release nut, press
screw.
c) Clean mechanically and polish the screw,
perform chromatic crack detection Submit to
the Register. Assemble. Test the hub with
pressure equal to 2.5 kg/sq.cm., fill fairwater
with technical grease, cement nuts of
fairwater.
set

23.
=5 11950
. 4

) .
)
, ,
.
)
,
. .
.
2,5 /2,
,
.
-

91

1 i',

24. t Steering gear


rudder

/t
a) Install and remove staging. ,
b) Disassemble steering gear,dismantle rudder
blade and stock.
c) Measure clearances in the bearings of
stock, pintles, rudder blade, subsidence.
Submit to the Register while disassembled .
Assembled, submit while operating

- 5

1572^ kg
__>
stock \
3988
set

I
24.

15721
) .
) , .
3 9 ^ .
.
)
,, , .
. , ,
-
.

25.

Tailshaft

a) Dismantle intermediate shaft.

b) Take out the tail shaft.


pc
c) Measure the tail shaft and its bearings.
d) Perform crack detection on the cone of
tail shaft.
>
e) Submit to the Register while disassembled
f) Assemble, submit while operating. Measure
subsidence of tail shaft.

before
disassembly
and after
assembly
check
centering of
shafting

25.

) .
.
) .
.
)
. , .
) .
)
.

), .
.

26. Deadwood
equipment

a) Dismantle fore and aft packings


b) Repair in the workshop by renewing
sealing sleeves.
c) Take all measures, submit to the Register.
d) Clean chambers, paint with anticorrosive;
antifouling paint. '
e) Assemble, test tightness, submit to the
Register.
set

92

I 1 -4 -........ 4
" ,26.
/

27. Chain lockers

-~ .r.:
) -'
.
)

.
) ,
.
) , , .
)
, .
a) Clean all surfaces mechanically
b) Paint all surfaces according to the yard's
technology.

27. )
S 1,5.
)
.
28. Chain cable of
aft anchor 0 44
mm length 110
m

a) Roll on the pontoon-deck, detach;


b) Clean mechanically, weld slackening
studs, check cable slips and connecting link
c) Paint according to the yard's technology
d) Assemble and lay in place. Submit to the
Register.

28. ) -, .

0/=44 )
.. ,

.
)
) .
.
29. Ballast tanks

a) Open manholes,renew 50 % of fastener,


renew gaskets, close manholes.
b) Pump out the ballast residues from tanks.
c) Clean from sludge and deposits.
d) Renew defective protectors.
e) Clean mechanically the damaged parts of
paint and varnish coating, paint according to
the yard's technology.
f) In compliance with the Register's
requirements carry out testing:
forepeak,
deep tank No 1 portside/starboard,

fa
i ,
sq.ib.

custo
mer's
paint

.
K B .M

set
Yard'spaint

K T

pcs
cub.
kg

pcs
sq. m.
cub.m
cub.m.

Custo
mers
suply
Custo
mers
paint

93

- .............................. /
i

29.

30. Fuel tanks

tank No 2,
r
tank No 3,
tank No '4,
deep tank No 7,
deep tank No 10,
afterpeak,
lubr .oil tanks. |

cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.

) , 50% ,/,
.
) .
) .
)3 .
)

,
.
)
:

N 1
N 2
N 3
N 4
N 7
N10

a) Open manholes, renew 50% of fastener,


renew gaskets, close manholes
b) Clean and degas
deep tank N 8 starboard/portside heavy oil
deep tank N 9
heavy oil
tank N 5 portside diesel oil
tank N 5 starboard diesel oil
tankN 13 flow
tank N 14 overflow
tank N 16 bilge water
tankN 21 sedimentation of diesel oil
tank N 22 consumption of diesel oil
tank N 23 consumption of diesel oil
tank N 23a consumption 6f diesel 6il
tank N 24 sedimentation of diesel o i l c u b
tank N 26 boiler fuel
c) Double bottom tanks: upon the Register's
requirement test by filling

5 / L

..

2
3

pcs
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
cub.m.
. m .
cub.m..
pcs
cub.m.

94

'
2 -----

30. '

"

I .....

JS- 1

_____ 3

......

...... 4

- \

)6 , , 5% .
, ^,
: ,
)
3
N 8 |1 "
N 9 .
N 5
N 5
13
N 14
1,1 " ?:'1;
N16
Ni2| !^!'
N22 <./ ,
N 23pabx.T^.
N23A .
N24 ..
N26
)
^' .
^^^.

'

31. Main engine

Measure deflection before and after docking'

measures

31.

ELTHE HULL
1.

Drinking

a) Open manholes, renew 50 % of fastener,


water tanks renew gaskets, close manholes, pcs J
b) Clean, wash and dr^
' ':
:'
c) Paint surfaces according to the yards technology. '
7 7

Custo
mers
paint

d) Repair according to the yard's technology,


Test, submit to the crew.
e) Carry out chemical analysis.

) , 50% - ..
,', -'
.
- '
^ , ;
) '
.
3

Washing
water tanks

)
., .
I
) .'
_
a) Open manholes, renew 50% of fastener,
renew gaskets, close manholes.
b) Clean, wash, dry.
|
c) Paint surfaces according to the yard's
technology.
i
d) Carry out chemipal analysis.

pcs
cub.m.

Custo
mer's
paint

) , 50% - .
, ^,
.
) , ,
)
.
3
) .

Dry compart
ments

Open, clean from deposits. Partial mechanical


cleaning and paint according to the yard's
technology.
sq.m.

Yards
paint

, .- 2

.

Log and echosounder trunk

Clean mechanically. Paint according to the


yard's technology.

Custo
mers
paint

,
.

Mooring
a) Remove stop plates from axles, press out
hawsepipe with axles, remove rollers.
b) Clean components and lubrication ducts
rollers
check and regulate clearances in the slide
bearings.
c) Assemble, install in place, operate.

) , , .
) , ,

.
), ,
.

sq.m.
2

pcs

.
.

96

! 2
l 6.

-.f-
Covers of cargo a) Remove covers, rectify and weld packing
hold
collar.
.. .. . |
1
b) Clean by sandblasting - class SA 2. 0
the housing seats and the areas affected by
corrosion.
c) Paint the cleaned parts according to the
yard's technology.
1 *
d) Paint the covers outside according to the
yard's technology.
,
^ *

7.

Coamings of
cargo holds

..4

s.;

sq.m.
sq.m.
sq.m.

Custo
mer's
paint

) ,
.
)
SA 2,0
.
)
.
)
.
a) Rectify and weld coamings and guide
packing collar.
b) Clean by sandblasting - class SA 2.0.
Paint the surface according to the yard's
technology.

2
2

m
sq.m.

Custo
mer's
paint

) ,
.

)
SA 2,.
.
2

8.

Masts

Clean mechanically, paint according to the


yard's technology. Include staging H=8 m.

pcs
sq.m.

Yard's
paint

8.

,
.
=8 .

.
2

9.

Water-tight
doors

Remove,disassemble, repair wedges and tie


rods ( if necessary repair-renew) straighten
coamings of doors, fit doors on coaming,
renew packing rubber, assemble doors, test
t i a h t n a i h m i t to t he crew

DCS

97

, (
- )
, ,
,
, ,
.

10. Rectangular
portlights

Repair by fitting coaming and frame, renew


packing rubber test tightness.

10,

.
, ,
.

11. Shell plating

Mechanical cleaning in the areas affected by


corrosion Paint the whole surface, including
deckheads on platforms and decks according
to the yard's technology.

11.

pcs/

sq. m


.
,
2
.

12. Wedges of hold Make upon the pattern, install to replace


covers
defective ones according to the ship's
administration instructions.

pcs

12.

13. Deck scuppers

According to the ship's administration


insructions, make and install supplementary
scuppers on the poop deck and basin deck
in the raft area.

13.

,


- .

14. Accommo
dation ladders

Remove ladders, disassemble rollers, pintles


Clean. Lubricate.Rectify damaged brackets,
weld them. Make new stanchions to' replace
the damaged ones. Install ladders perma
nent places, submit to the crew.

pcs

pcs
pcs

Custo
mer's
paint

98

14.

, , , . .
. .
, .

.
, .

. MECHANICS
IIL
1.

Main engine
6DKRN -67/140-4

a) Motorclean cylinder-piston group,


including overhaul of pistons and stuffingbox of rods.
b) Upon the Registers requirement press out
the cylinder liners and clean the water
jacket, renew packing rings. Submit to the
Register, assemble, test tightness, operate.
c) Overhaul end bearings. If necessary
remetal detective ones, install in place by
fitting on journals. Check oil clearances.
Submit to the Register, operate.
d) Overhaul main bearings. If necessary
remetal. Measure subsidence of crank- shaft
on the shackle, remove deflection. Submit to
the Register. Assemble, fit on the journals,
set oil clearances, operate.
e) As above. Large-end bearings.
f) Overhaul exhaust valves.
g) Check tightening of connecting rods. '
h) Check and center movement.
i) Check and center telescoping.
1) Overhaul and clean gas-turbo blowers
renewing plummer bearings.
m) Renew packing on the inlet in the
crankcase of oil piping on telescope,
balance the rotors in the workshop and
submit to the Register.
Insulate gas flue.

1.

667/140-4

sets

Custo
mer's
spare
parts

pcs

pcs

pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
sets
sets

pcs
sets
sets

) ^ , -
, . .

99

G)lIo
.
, .
.
, , ', ,
.
) -,
.

,
.

. .
, .
^
. .
.
, .
. , ,
,
.
.

) . .
)1 - ,
.
;
) .
.

'
) .
.
-
)
. '
)1 - -

,
. - -
. .
2.

D ealing o f
shafting

3.

Disassemble, clean lubiicaling-oil baths,


inspect,'perform crack detection, take .
measures. Subm it lo the Register. Assemble,
measuie clcarances, operate.
,
', ,
. . ,
, .

Speed governor Dismantle, takfc to the w oikshop, perform


o f main engine
preventive m aintenance, regulate on stand.W O O D LPCA- Renew all packings, grind in housing seats.
12
Operate.

pcs
.

pc

..

-12

. d , ,
.
, .
.

Oil cooler at .
, camshaft oa
main engine

Dismantle the pipe pack, take to the w ork shop, perform chemical cleaning on oil and
sea w ater side, renew protector, gaskets, '50%
o f fastener, assemble, test, install, operate. pc

. .

, .
, .
' , .
,,50%
, , , ,
.
_

Air coolers o f
main engine

Dismantle pipe packs, take to the work- shop,


perform chemical, cleaning on the -air and sea
water side. Renew gaskets, 50% fastener
and protectors Allcx assembling test with
pressure, install in place, submit to the crew '
while operating.

' pcs

'

,
, . -
.
, 50% - '
. ,
. , .
.

t
Fuel healer o f
main engine

Dismantle covers, take out pipe packs, take


lo the workshop, perform chemical cleaning
on the fuel and steam side. Renew packings,.
50% offastcner. After assembling test with
pressure,submit Ip the crew while operating. "

*-:

. PCS
*i*

\*

, , -

, , -, '

.'- - (
, 50% "

. -*! '
.
.
.
* , '

in

101

l
--V*
f
*
I
7. *CJompressed air Open manholes, dean the internal"surface;
starting bottles perform erack detecti&n,subj^t',ft) the, . ,
of main engine Register, paint according toth^yardV. < ;.pcs
technology, rqjak valves and fittings,-close, - pcs
check tightness; regulate safety valves and , pcs
submit their'blasting to theRegistcr />.
. ^ptjs'
2'

" !i

, - - .
,,
, ,
, , :
,
. . '.- - '

7.

8.

Diesel-genN2

Remove valves and fittings, covers, take oat


pistons, open all bearings, open compart- i , /
ment of drives, remove fuel apparatus.
t
Clean and perform crack detection on all '
components,'then submit to the Register.
Grind in valves, regulate fuel apparatus on J
stand, submit to the crew. Wash the
crankcase, rub, submit to the crew. Assemble,'
subinit to the Register while operating1 >f
set

N 2

,^'-1'- -
, ^, ! : I
, - <
. , -'
, . -
, -
,
. ,,
. , .

Gas turbo blowers of


dies.gener..

Disassemble, clean from deposits and wash all


components, perform crack detection and
measure components, renew worn ones. Take
rotor to4he work'sfiop, perform dynamic
balancing. Submit to the Registef.'Assemble
by renewing gaskets, 25% of fastener. Renew
high temperature insulation and shell plating '
of exhaust header and exhaust-gas duct after m
gas turboblowers. AsSfemble, submit to the
Register while opefating.
; pcs

9.

T Z \

Custo
mers
paint

102

-r'-

9. . ^
?

,>(^ .|
, $)1 ^
, '^^
i
,&} ! ^.; \
. ^,
25% .
^
-
.
, . '/ ,

10. Incinerator
SP-50

Renew refractory lining and insulation of ^,


baffle plate on loading equipment.

10.
-50

- 2
.

1 1 . Auxiliary boiler a) Perform chemical cleaning on internal ;


2500/7 surfaces, openboiler, clean from deposits,
submit to the Register, close, renewpackkigs^ ,
50% of fastener.
! 3,:
b) Clean heating surface on the fire side,
) Dismantle safety valve, disassemble,
perform crack detection, grind in, test with
pressure* Assemble by renewing packings,
50% of fastener,, Regulate valve blasting,
submit to- the Register. *
d) Repair valves and fittings of boiiler:
-main stop valve
-upper blow-off v a l v e p c
-lower Wow-off valve *
-stop valve of main steam line
-feedwater valve

sq.m.

pc

pc
pc
pc
pc
''pc

11.
) - .
, ,
2500/7 , ,,
, 50%
.
'
)
.
)
,, , ,
.
,50% .
, .
.

103

. .....

t----- ------- /-r~te.h----- ----- ----

.....3 '....

)6~ :
\ - ;^'^1-~;
,.
. !^
- ^
^
-1/
12. Wast e-heat

boiler KUP
300

*"**1'-5
-*T *--r*_ T
..
.
.'
.
.

, la) Perform chemi^cleEmirig on the internai. / surfaces of pipes a a c i4 < ^ ,^ a i$ f> r.


clean from deposits, submit to the Register.
Close, rene^v packings, 5.0% of fastener.
b) Clean heading si^rface on t,he fre.'side: ^' pcS:
c) Dismantle safety: valve, cfisassembfe,
r
perform.qrack* detection, gimd:in,te^t
[
pressure^ Assemble ^renewing packings,
.
50% of,a$tenr. R^gi^ate blasting of valve,
submit to the Register.
pcs
d) Repair valve and fittings of boiler,
- main jjtop v a l v e / ^
'pci
- main .stop valve on,the s^arator
pcs
- valve the.jyatCT inlet into the
'pcs
- valve,pn the .outlet of drculatioii yyaier
'
froms^p,;.'
pcs
- lower bfow-off valve r* !
,
pcs
- steam-water mix inlet valve in sep .,
pcs
- feedwater valve .
pcs
- valve on,t]beroutlet,ofboiier. section
pcs
e) R^p,air^.*iif ^ & level indicators;,,
^ and f D ^ 1 5 / l ^ pcs

12.

-300

) - .
^.
, , .,
,50% .
) .
.
.
)
^
,6,^ ,
^.
^ ^ .
,>,^1^.
) :
.
-
- , - .
I

i- .

104'

' itft.'

- .
leL

-'
. '
-
-
) 1,


hxm is/i ;

.
.

UTi.
.
.

...

13. Fire pump


discharge
90 cub.m.
17KB40x2
(Bulgaria)

Disdiantle punlp, carry out cOinplete dis^'


assembly, cleaning and crack detecii0ti;6f 5
iCi
components. Make and renew worn ":?i
components. Assemble by renewing packings, rx
gaskets, 50% of fastener, ball bearings. Install
in place, submit to the crew "While operating.1 pcs

13.

.
90 3
17KB40*2
()

, .
, .
- '
. , - ' ' "
, 50% , - ';
. , -!:
.

14. System piping

Dismantle defective part from the piping,


tnake-a new one upon the!pattern, galvanize, .
assemble by renewing gaskets,' 100 % of
fastener, test, submit to the crew while
operating:
- new pipes for inlet and outlet of air coolers
on dies.gener.
*
- cooling of dies.gener. between regulator
AMOT and drain valve overboard.
- cooling of air compressors, supply and
outlet.
- forced (emergency) cooling of air com
pressors. Install intersecting valve.
- cooling of main engine from sea water pump
No 1.
- cooling of conditioner CCR.
Install intersecting valves
- conditioner cooling in compressor
compartment
- conditioner cooling from pomp No 1
- cooling of refr. compressors
- condensate piping of superstructure heating

m
m
m
pc
\ih
m
m
m
m

105

- heating piping tlNo. 8 on.djeck


- piping SVZ. o
n
, >1 a/..
14.

. m
.

, ,;
, ,
, 1> ^ 1^,^^-
: ' .
j -

.
- - .


- ,
- ()
.

- N I

-
N I

- .
- -
-

- T .N 8

.
- .

106-

"
15. 02 extinWeigh bottles/^ n e o E ^ ^ ^ ^ i^ g e by guishing system overhauling thefvalve and r^eWihg safety
membranes. Submit to the Register.

15.

^ , 6 -^ .
>

bottles

107

REPAIRS,
USEFUL WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

'-

fittings,mountings
sea valves
babbit;
beam, girder
supporting beam

shafi >
^
propeller shaft,tailshaft

tailshaft

tailshaft
)
fan

Cdgnit
dent

water gauge glass



blow down cup

suck element


in assembly
bush,liner, sleeve


;
shaft bush
valve sleeve

cylinder liner

height

hydraulic
[^ e iv d l waved
6 -
schedule,time-table

disassembly,dismantling
.......
r deformation

diameter

inner/inside diameter i.<l',TD

outside diameter, o.d.,OD

dock

dry/docking
( )
expensive
,. 1?~
complaint
[

- iron

welding

'Si:3^1 seizure

clearance

hardening

order

replacement

- tooth
. / '
fissure
[ ' (

- change,modification

- wear
^- ^

- test,trial

groove

oil-groove

L 'g d id a j-

L K ent]-

108


- bilge keel
-vtdlgskeeli ^
^

-1
V
)
riveting
!

'- crankshaft

-nng -!

- shell,c!asing,hull
tip

j^aTyHb
-brass

- platelsjieet
line

, - load liAe

- foreman

- shop,workshop

- crank
- crankpin


- set of tools
- building up

- working, treatment


- machining
- working of material

^ [ - $ ]
- sea growth, fouling, shells

- plating

-tin

-description ,

- experience, know-how

- examination, inspection, overhauling, survey


-failure
( ,). .[ "f ^ .' 1

[ 'I(Q;
-casting

-cleaning
,
- error, mistake
- superheater


- soldering

- bulkhead
(
^ 1
- remetalling

'
- fracture
- reconstruction

- pitting

- plate, sheet

- area

- plunger

- surface

- turn

- damage,defect

- bent

r underwater shell plating

- suitable

- breakage, breakdown, damage

- loss
band, belt
_
' -I

109


- strake
N> ~

- rulfSj regnladohs
[:> !'[ ' ^
- preliminary

- representative ^ . U .M )
- claim

^application, use
,
- allowance
^
- grinding in
- cause
!
\
- request
- spring

'( )
- operation,runhing

- trouble free operation

- continuous operation
[ d Tif^en ^ U ^ ^
- dimension, size
( >
- fracture,rupture

, '
- area
N 6
- in way of frame No 6

[breisi - brace

[b ^ b o r i n g , bore

- fuel consumption

- flowmeter

- calculation, account(s)

-adjustment
[ n ^ c ( l . mode of operation
;

- cutting tool

result

- as a result
[ cW ^ 11 s ^ -- advertisement (ad)

5 repair, overhaul(ing)

repair
4 emergency
1
I OtrrUlnUjjj warranty-repair

- major repair

minor repair

running repair

- repair shop
()
- water cooling jacket

- welding
_
U g L l ....
.-lead

"[ t
(^)vA - section, unit

- layer, coat(ing)
C 'k u i

- condition, state
0

- method,way

- means

- time,date

*
STthe shortest time

- as soon as possible

, - service life

- by the time fixed

- urgently

[ W>e

110

>
^

-'

/

t

<

- steel
- stainless steel
- degree, extent
,- extent of damage
- to some extent
- cost,price
- approximate cost (price)
- tightening
- account
- repair account
- hardness
- hard
- safety engineering
- technology
- leakage,leak
- thickness
- accuracy, precision
- requirement
- crack,fracture
- increase,growtlyise
- angle
- removal
- impact
- decrease, reduction
- condition
- shape
- alignment
- drawing
- heat-resisting cast-iron
- width
USEFUL VERBS

( )

()
()

( )

- to weigh
- to switch on
- to include
- to restore
- to revolve,to rotate,to turn
- to open up
- to insert,to set in
- to choose,to select
- to screw out
- to undock
- to discharge
- to switch off
- to remove
- to carry out, to do (a job), to effect
- to fair
- to straighten
- to release

I ll

( )
,

()

()

( )

( )
'
,

( )

( )

- to output, to produce
- to crop
- to cut out
- to guarantee
- to load
- to move
- to degas
- to keep watch
- to affect
- to disassemble, to dismantle
- to hold, to keep
- to be deformed
- to arrange
- to refuel
- to deliver
- to drain
- to splash
- to weld up
- to validate
- to screw up
- to fix, to close
- to light
- to harden
- to complete, to finish
- to close, to cover
- to slow down
j- to replace, to renew, to substitute
- to renew partly
- to note
- to complete, to fill in
- to charge
- to make, to fabricate
- to change, to modify
- to measure
- to sound, to dip
- to insulate
[- to be scarred
- to rectify
- to test
- to test for tightness
- to put
- to rivet
- to buckle
- to paint, to coat
- to re-coat
- to apply 2 full coats of paint
- to mark
- to sweep
- to wash
- to mop

112

[ S t ' &Uril

( .. )

() ,
, -,

L ^ e L t 1^

()

- to watch
- to heat
- to assign
- to charge
- to wind
- to employ
- to build up
- to direct
- to screw
- to strain
- to carry
- to ensure, to provide
- to line up, to coat
- to detect, to find
- to serve, to service,to maintain(mex )
- to machine, to treat
- to determine
- to estimate the extent of damage - to loosen
- to inspect,to examine,to survey,
to overhaul
- to leave
- to drain
- to separate
- to postpone
- to open
- to cast
- to estimate
- to clean
- to solder
- to transfer
- to remetal
- to re-babbit
- to pump
- to overflow
- to shift
- to reconstruct
- to melt
- to seal
- to break, to damage
- to lift, to raise
- to confirm
- to match
- to allow, to permit
- to leave
- to rinse
- to place
- to help, to assist
- to offer
- to, design

113


(,)

[ irW aitf

L.^ u sfujll

L
1j


/
/
jVprUvi

()
()
()
()

[
()
' -

( )
-

^ ]

f i I

- to protect
- to
l warn
- to prevent damage
- to press
- to add - to drive
- to invite
- to be useful - to fit
- to fasten,to attach
- to apply, to use - to take measures
- to take precautions
- to approve of the work done
- to grind in
- to cause
- to scrape
- to try
- to check, to test
- to scavenge
- to generate
- to effect
- to produce
- to spill
- to enter, to penetrate
-to start
-to try
- to operate, to run
- to dismantle
- to develop power
- to discharge
- to separate, to divide - to place an order (with)
to place, to locate
- to bore
to consume, to- spend
to expand
to adjust
- to cut
to advertise
to recommend
to repair
to chip
to direct, to be in command
to weld up
to bore, to drill
to inter/connect
to contact smb
to fasten, to fix
to wring

114

()


' [ ^ i|>] [_ -

[ 1 - \

^
t
I

!'. [ ^ 11>t

() [ vc. i n ' S ' d b i 1 i*v]


()

[ d .] ^ [ [ ]

()

)
()

[ S{ ]
.


()

- to/occur,to happen, to take place


- tctdu, to lubricate
- to mix
- to^supply
- to tke readings
- to cjiip off rust
- to fellow/observe, rules/regulations
- to a^ree
- to cdnnect
- to inform
- to n^ake up
- tcycope with
- to lower
- to compare
- to dock, to place in dock
- to tighten
- to think,to consider, to believe
- to count
- to dry
- to draw,to pull
- to rub
- to leak
- to sharpen
- to require
- to pull, to draw
- to increase
- to remove
- to strike, to hit
- to meet requirements
- to stow
- to improve
- to decrease, to reduce
- to simplify
- to balance
- to speed up
- to install, to fit,to set up
- to refit
- to suit
- to eliminate a fault
- to align
- to circulate
- to clean
- to clean by high pressure water
vjet hosing
- to brush
- to polish

11$

CONVERSATIONAL s e c t i o n
d ia l o g u e s
w o r d s a n d e x p r e s s io n s

viscard-visiting ard
safety rules
to get down to business
instead of
'
scope of work
[
I
in fUll
to quote
j[_ k. W 2 u tj
to cancel
additional
up to you
supplementary
as soon as possible
foreman
dimensions
,.
scantlings
L^
^3^
as far as I understand
as well as
misunderstanding
welding outfit
I guess
[ ^
I am pressed for time
Well do our best
tomind
[
accordingly
restoration repair L
exhaust (gas) boiler
coil
bend
waste heat recovery system
lack

,
,

-
-
-
-
-
-
- ^^
- ,
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- ,
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
*
- ,
-
-

DIALOGUE 1
Ship Repair Manager Good afternoon! I am Mr Brown. IH be in charge of
the repairs.

~ '
Ship's Master
How do you do Mr Brown? Glad to meet you. This is our
Superintendent, Chief Engineer and this is our Chief
Officer
Ship Repair Manager- Nice to meet you, gentlemen. Here is my viscard. And
here is our ship yard safety rules and regulations.
Ship's Master
: Thank you. And now let's get down to business. We'd
like to discuss some repair list items.
Ship Repair Manager- Let's start from item 2 Bo^ttop sandblasting.
Chief Engineer: Only 10% of the surface instead of 30% which is 200m2.

116

Ship Repair Manager;|fo.. Item 3 Boottop painting. ,


Chief Engineer: 6xoats of paint to be applied instead of 5.
Ship Repair Manager ifem 4 . Bilge keels.
Chief Engineer : Tq be cancelled.
Ship Repair Manager Item 5.
Chief Engineer : The? scope of work to be determined after inspection.
Ship Repair Manager: Item 6.
Chief Engineer
: To be checked.
Ship Repair Manager: Iran 7.
Chief Engineer
: Tti be done in foil.
Ship Repair Manager: Item 8 It's not clear which work is quoted.
Superintendent : OJKT. We'll settle this problem during the meeting with
the financial director of the yard.This work may be
requoted.. >
Chief Engineer : You'see, as a number of items have been cancelled I
think well be able to make some additional repairs.
Ship Repair Manager: Up to you. But please get ready the supplementary
repair list as soon as possible.
Chief Engineer
: It will be ready tomorrow morning. How often shall we
meet?
Ship Repair Manager: 1 be on board every morning at 10. Besides we'll
have a general meeting of all the foremen at 10 each
Monday.
Ships Master
: Well, it suits us perfectly. When are you going to
place our ship in dock?
Ship Repair Manager: In two days, I think. The ship will be connected to
the shore power supply. By the way, how much power do
you need?
Chief Engineer : 120 k.w. And what about cooling water for the
refrigerator?
; -
Ship Repair Manager: Cooling water will be provided throughout the repairs
And as soon as the ship is docked we'll connect the
ship's fire fighting to shore mains at two points.
Ship's Master
: And when are you going to make telephone line
connection?
Ship Repair Manager: As soon as the ship is dry-docked.

DIALOGUE 2
x
't
Ship Repair Manager: Let's discuss the work for tomorrow.
Chief Engineer : I think you will start with the piston rings. Some 150
piston rings are to be cast and machined. We need six
cylinder liners. The exact dimensions (scantlings),
material and working of material are all stated in the
working drawings. Rough dimensions of the rings are as
follows: diameter - 450 mm, height - 12 mm, width -12 mm.
Sipp Repair Manager: As far as I understand the liners to be made o f.cast
iron with Brinnel hardness of 180 units and the rings
to be made Of the same material but with hardness

117

figure five unitsjiiigher. O.K, we'll start casting


tomorrow itiotfimg.
Chie? Engineer . And what *bout inspection of the hull ? The scope oi
sandblasting hasn't been determined yet.
Ship Repair Manager- Dont Worry! We may go into the dock-arm just now and
inspect the hull for rust as well as the rudder for sea
growth
\
Chief Engineer : . K. That s settled By the way you didn't weld the
cracks in the piston head yesterday. Why?
Ship Repair Manager: I am Sony. There was some misunderstanding. We'll
bring the welding outfit tomorrow and do all the
necessary welding And now let's go into the dockarm. I
guess, the mo^t bulky work is cleaning, scraping,
chipping off the rust and painting the ship's bottom.
Chief Engineer : Right you kre.
* # *
DIALOGUE 3
- Good morning, Mr Brown! Would you like a cup of coffee ?
- No thanks. I am pressed for time. What did you want to see me about?
- I'd like the main bearings to be rebabbited and bored out. The babbit
metal should contain not less than 83 per cent of tin You should
follow as closely as possible the dimensions and shapes of the old
bearings The oil grooves should be scraped out as in the old ones.
-O .K We'll do our best. the way the valve which was sent to the
repair shop is ready for inspection. When would you like to go there and
check it?
- At 10 am. tomorrow if you don't mind
-O .K That's settled. See you later.
* * *
DIALOGUE 4
- Good morning, Mr Brown. I am sorry, but the work in tank No 2 hasn't been
started yet.
- Yes, but there is some water in the tank and we can't work there As
soon as you drain the water out well start the work.
- . K. Ill call the boatswain and well settle the problem. By the way
how much time will it take you to complete the work in hold No 1?
- About 3 days, I think.
- 1 am sorry to say but I am not satisfied with the quality of painting in
the hold I think you should apply another coat of paint
- No problem, Chief Engineer. I'll instruct the foreman accordingly
*

118

DIALOGUE 5
Chief Engineer : How do you do, Mr Brown! Id to remind you that
according to the instruction ofihe shipowners we have
included the restoration repair b f the exhaust boiler
economiser and evaporator in tfie supplementary repair list.
Ship Yard Representative: What kind of the exhaust boiler is installed on
your ship?
\
Chief Engineer: It is a coil type exhaust gasfboiler.
S. Y. R.
: How many economiser coil^ to be renewed?
Chief Engineer : 48
^
S. Y. R.
: What about evaporator coils?
Chief Engineer : 64
>
S. Y. R. : How many bends have the cops?
Chief Engineer : An evaporator coil has 9 bends and an economiser coil has
5 bends.
S . Y. R. : What is the diameter of the coil tubes'?
Chief Engineer : The outside diameter is 29 mm.
S. Y. R. : The tubes of such diameter are not in stock just now. But
we can offer you the tubes of 27 mm in diameter.
Chief Engineer : In this case only replacement of the economiser coils will
be included in the repair list. You see coils fabricated
from tubes of smaller diameter will reduce the heating
surface of the evaporator which will not ensure the normal
operation of the waste heat recovery system.
S. Y. R. : As far as I understand you are ready to confirm cancelling
replacement of the evaporator coils from the repair list,
aren't you?
Chief Engineer : Yes, we are. But please write a letter to our shipowners
about lack of tubes of the required diameter in your
shipyard stock.
BUSINESS LETTERS
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
f
to consider
'
- ,
>
concerning
"sm1 , d 1 n :
^ - ,

as regards to
-
a/m=abovementioned
-
requires further consideration
-
to exceed
-
as per
_
sheet
L
-
suggestion
^ V eld est
- ,
as to
-
to take into consideration
p
(_ _ - 1'
We regret having to note

j _ , ,
in spite of
L s p d it\
-
(
to make efforts
^
{_ f > 1 1
-
to date
- ,


promise
[,' p m i s ]
-^^
t
- ^
to submit
-
schedule
|
- |
to hand over
current
- !
[ S b S i k. ^ I - , ^
1
subsequent
in order to
- ,
[ s 1^ id ^
- ,
)^>'^>1 j -cSo
to avoid
misunderstanding
-
[ | 1 ^ J, _

extra expenses
at your earliest convenience [ V f:
u
inclusive
i r,' k [ ^ "
notice
-
/
t

LETTER 1

Dear Sirs,
After considering offers of three firms and meeting with your representative Mr.
Dityatev concerning the hull painting of the m/v "A" we decided to use your services in paints
supply and painting work quality control of the a/m vessel at the shipyard... The offer made
by us before as regards to the scope of hull painting requires further consideration. As the
hull floating part is in good condition and sandblasting is not to exceed 10 per cent ( of the
whole surface), boot-topping is to be painted as per Baltoflake sheet the hull underwater part
as per previously agreed sheet with possible correction of the scope of painting after
dock inspection.
Please let us have your suggestions as to sheet and scope of the ship painting taking into
consideration the hull state and our wishes.
Yours faithfully,
LETTER2
Dear Sirs,
We regret having to note that in spite of all our efforts made to carry out repairs in the
shortest possible time and with a minimum of difficulties to date the minimum possible
scope of work has been done.
In spite of Ship Repair Manager - Mr. Brown's promise to submit the repair work
schedule on Monday, December 12, it has not been handed over to the ship's staff yet which
doesn't make it possible to get ready the ship, mechanisms and personnel for carrying out
repairs for the current and subsequent davs.
In order to avoid misunderstandings, extra expenses and to make our mutual efforts in
carrying out repairs most efficient please submit at your earliest convenience the work schedule
up to December, 21 inclusive.
Please carry out any work only at a 24 hours notice for the ship's staff.
Yours faithfully,

120

SHIPYARDS SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR


COMPLIANCE BY SHIP PERSONNEL AND
THEIR HIRED CONTRACTORS
7

compliance
contractor
to hire
to certify
pefs&nnel
vali^
penhit
in the vicinity
actuation
cargb/stripping valve
to render inoperative
fuse
confined space
approval
to demarcate
source
appropriate
fear
flammable
environment
to prove
hazardous
in way of
warning
intention
access opening
to create
extensive
.to anticipate
emergency exit
in the event of
occurrence
swift
priority
pollution
garbage
combustibles
explosion
soot
ash
other than
yellowish
afloat
to attempt
id

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS


( )

^
( )

'^

'


( )


, :

-

,

, ^~&--'

121

to jnitkfe
in advance

[ i' n i $111

_ , v
- /

1. Safety Meeting
On arri\,al of the vessel,a safety meeting would be arranged by,the Ship Repair Manager with
the ship's crew.Included in the meeting would be the Superintendent,Captain, Chief Officer and
Chief Engineer. This meeting will ensure that the ship's crew ;are made aware of the yard's
requirenients on safety.
I !
I
2. Periinit-To-Work System
Any 'hot-work' undertaken on any part of the vessel must first be certified by a Safety
personnel and a valid 'hot-work' permit obtained before cotnjmencing the Tiot-work'. This
certificate must be displayed in the vicinity of the 'hot-work' area.
3. Actuation of Hydraulically Controlled Cargo/Stripping Valves.
The controls of these valves should be rendered inoperative by removal of the fuses of the
hydraulic motors. These fuses should be kept by the Master or Chief Officer of the vessel. On
no condition should these valves be actuated in tanks and other confined spaces certified fit for
'hot-work' without the prior approval of the Safety Department or the Ship Repair Manager.
Also the control room should be locked at all times to prevent unauthorised entry.
4. Manually-Controlled Cargo/Stripping Valves
These valves should be made inoperative by securing them with chains and padlocks to prevent
their accidental operation for tanks and confined spaces certified fit for 'hot-work'.
5. Bunker/Fuel Oil Tanks
All bunker tanks containing fuel oil must be demarcated.Should there be high gas content
detected,these spaces must be ventilated.There should be no 'hot-work' or any source of
ignition in the vicinity of these tanks.
6. Ballasting and De-Ballasting Operations and Procedures
Proposed ballasting and/or de-ballasting processes onboard vessels must be first brought to the
attention of the Safety Officer or the Ship Repair Manager so that appropriate safety
precautions could be taken to prevent unnecessary accidents and fires.This is to ensure that all
'hot-work' in the tanks is stopped for fear of accidental discharge of flammable oil from the
pipelines/valves into the working environment.

122

7. Dismantling of Valves/Pipelines/Heating Coils in Areas Fit for


Hot-Work'
No dismantling of valves/pipelines/heating coils are allowed in those areas certified fit for hot
work.This is to prevent accidental discharge of oil or flammable vapour i,nto 'hot-work' areas,
i
'
'
8. Turning of propeller and Rudder
Such work operations in dry dock could prove hazardous should
workmen be wbrking in the outboard in way of the stem area.Prior
warning of such an intention must be communicated to the Fitters
Afloat Department or the Safety Department so that adequate
preventive measures could be taken to eliminate accident risks.
9. Smoking
Smoking is strictly prohibited in the engine, boiler and pump rooms and in all confined
spaces. In addition to the above areas, smoking is also not permitted on the main deck
except in designated area like poop deck.
10. Engine Room Access Opening
This opening is to be created in way of the engine room shell plate when extensive production
work is anticipated in the engine/boiler spaces so that it may serve as an emergency exit in
the event of any dangerous occurrence when swift evacuation becomes an urgent priority.
11. Oil Pollution
Under the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea Act, 1971, no oil or garbage is to be discharged
into Singapore Water.
12. Combustibles Onboard
Contents and locations of fuels, paints, ropes, chemicals and etc., should be made known
to the Safety Officer onboard the vessel so that additional precautions could be taken to
prevent fire and explosion.
13. Air Pollution
Under Regulation 88 of the Singapore Port Regulations 1977, no one should cause the
emission for a period of five minutes or more of any kind of smoke, soot, ash, other than thin
white or yellowish smoke.
14. Blow Down of Boilers
Blow down of boiler hot water into engine room bilges could be hazardous should workmen
be working in that area. Prior to blow down, the water must be allowed to cool and discharged
into sea when the vessel is afloat through any of the boiler running down cock/valves. If blow
down is attempted when the vessel is in dock, it could be done before drydocking. Prior

123

warning of such indention must be communicated to the Ship Repairjjfoanager or Safety


Department so that ^adequate precautions could be initiated to eliminate accident risks.
i
-!
15. Hazardous Operations
_>
Hazardous operation^ such as bunkering, transfer of fuel oil, firing of boiler apd,testing ,of
derrick^shduld be
in 'advance s q
appropriate safety- measiires ebyld be initiated by
the vessels Safety Ccy-Ordination Committee.
WELDING - SAFETY RULES
WORD AND EXPRESSIONS
caution
dangerous
to be blinded
spark
arm
leg
bum (burnt,burnt)
helmet
wear (wore,worn)
goggles
boot
rubber
glove
apron
overalls
sleeve
cuff
concrete

-
-
-
- ,
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

124

Weldiiifj - Safetyllules
----------------------------

*
------- "

CAUTION: W aking can be dangerous. Any off these


accident might Ipappen to you: (a) you could be blinded by
sparks; (b) you cfeuld get an electric shock; id your face,
body, arms, legs or feet could be burnt; (d) there could be a
fire in the workshop.

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
1 A m ask or helmet must
be worn in electric arc
wekfing. (In gas wekling,
goggles can be usedj
2 Ctpthes must be kept dry
and dean.
3 Thick, heavy boots must
be worn.
These must be made of
som e insulating materiel
such as rubber.
4 Gloves, end apron and a
cap must be worn.
5 O v e rall must have long
sleeves and no pockets or
cuffs.
W O RKSHO P
The floor must be made
of concrete.
7 There must be a metal
container on the floor for
the sparks.

125

CHAPTER 11
THE ENGINE DEPARTMENT. DUTIES. WATCH KEEPING.
PERIODIC SAFETY ROUTINES.
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
-
- -,
-
to be responsible for
- -
-
environment
implementation
- ,
policy
:
performance
-
supervision
j-
adoption
.-
protection
-
to assign
-
-
to take over the watch
particularly
-
engineer being relieved
- ,
relieving engineer
-
- -
to familiarise oneself
- ,
standing order
-
to acknowledge
signature
-
prompt
-
response
- ,
in the vicinity
- ,
to respond
- ,
rapidly
-
to be engaged in
- -
to conduct duties
-
at least
-
reasonable
-
storage room
- , {
circuit
-
skylight
-
to grease
-
smooth
,
licenced
to be responsible to

THE ENGINE DEPARTMENT.


At the head of the Engine Department is the Chief Engineer ^vho is assisted by, three
licensed engineers:
Chief Engineer
Second Engineer / 1 st Assistant Engineer
Third Engineer / 2nd Assistant Engineer
Fourth Engineer / 3rd Assistant Engineer

126
I

T; Chief Engineer is responsible to the master for


engine department and the safety of +he crew,;rhachinery and environment directly
withiA its control.
t
TJie implementation of the company's policies.
-1
T^ie onboard discipline of all the engine department officers and crew.
safe operation of the vessel's machinery and technical plant. The monitoring of
performance of the main propulsion and auxiliary machinery.
Tie accurate monitoring and control of the versel's fuel alnd lubricating oil consumption and
the Status of fuel and lubricating oil bunker quantites.
\
ille bunkering operations. The maintenance of the man propulsion, auxiliary machinery,
carjjO handling and deck machinery.
\
/The compliance with statutory and classification survey requirements as regards machinery.
reporting of any accident or damage to the vessel's machinery. The safeguarding of
owner's and Companys interests at all times. The training ofjEngineer Cadets.
The Second Engineer /1 st Assistant Engineer is responsible to the Chief Engineer for:
Deputising for the Chief Engineer in his absense or if he is unable to perform his duties.
Preparation of the main propulsion plant for sea.
The day to day operation of the main propulsion plant.
, The organisation and supervision of the engine-room watchkeepers.
The organisation and supervision of the engine department staff.
The adoption of safe working practices on board.
The protection of the environment.
The maintemance of the main propulsion and auxiliary machinery, cargo handling and deck
machinery.
The efficient operation of all Emergency equipment.
The Third Engineer / 2nd Assistant Engineer is responsible to the Second Engineer / 1 st
Assistant Engineer for:
the maintaining of an engine-room watch,
the maintenance of all plant with particular attention to the main
propulsion engine, auxiliary engine and boilers,
the adoption of safe working practices,
'
the other duties assigned to him by the Chief Engineer and Second
Engineer / 1st Assistant Engineer.
The Fourth Engineer / 3 rd Assistant Engineer is responsible to the Second Engineer / 1
st Assistant Engineer for the maintaining of an engine-room watch,
the maintenance of all plant with particular attention to compressors
and pumps,
the adoption of safe working practices,
any other duties assigned to him by the Chief Engineer or Second Engineer / 1 st
Assistant Engineer.
WATCHKEEPING.
Prior to taking over the watch the Engineer of the watch is to examine all machinery and
plant particularly the steering gear,refrigerating plant, boilers, main and auxiliary engines and

127

auxiliary equipment. 7They must inspect all fuel and .lubricating oil pipework?ior leakage. Any
defects mus* be imme'diaiely reported to the Engineer of the watch being relleVsd. The
Engineer being relieved is to inform the relieving Engineer of the status of all plant, service
tanks and suctions in use and any defects which call for special attention. On taking over the
watch the Engineer of the watch is to familiarise himself with the standing orders and
instructions in the Chief Engineer Order Book and to acknowledge these instructions by
his signature.
While keeping a watch at sea or in port the Engineer of the Wa+ch is responsible for the
safe and efficient operation of all equipment and machinery, the safety of all personnel in
the machinery spaces in'd for the prompt and efficient response to order from he Bridge or
Cargo Control Station.' main engines are operating under Engine Room (Control the
responsible Engineer/shall remain in the vicinity of the engine controls in order to respond
rapidly 16 telegraphed orders.
When personnel are engaged in maintenance or other duties within the machinery spaces,
the Engineer of the watch shall ensure that they conduct their duties in a safe and efficient
manner.
PERIODIC SAFETY ROUTINES
In addition to watchkeeping and maintenance duties various safety and emergency
equipment must be periodically checked. As an example the following inspections should
take place at least weekly:
1. Emergency generator should be started and run for a reasonable period. Fuel oil,
lubricating oil and cooling water supplies and tank levels should be checked.
2. Emergency fire pump should be run and the deck fire main operated for a reasonable
period. All operating parameters should be checked.
3. Carbon dioxide cylinder storage room should be visually examined. The release door
should be opened to test the alarm and check that the machinery-space fens stop.
4. One smoke detector in each circuit should be tested to ensure operation and, correct
indication on the alarm panel. Aerosol test sprays are available to safely check sortte types
of detector.
5. Fire pushbutton alarms should be tested, by operating a different one during each test.
6. Any machinery space ventilators or skylights should be operated, and greased, if
necessary, to ensure smooth rapid closing.
7. Fire extinguishers should be observed in their correct location and checked for operation.
8. Fire hoses and nozzles should also be observed in their correct places. The nozzles should
be tried on the hose coupling. Any defective hose should be replaced.
9. Any emergency batteries, e.g. for lighting or emergency generator starting should be
examined.
10. All lifeboats engines should be run for a reasonable period. Fuel oil and lubricating oil
levels should be checked.
, .. ...
11. All valves and equipment operated from the fire control point should be checked for
operation, where this is possible.
12. Any watertight doors should be opened and closed by hand and power, th e guides
should be checked to ensure that they are clear and unobstructed.

128

A GUIDE FQR ENGINE STORES


F lat

D ial G a u g e

M e asu re
for S o u n d in g

M icrom e te r
(O utside)

C lo th T a p e
M e asu re

Vernier
C a lip e rs

Spring Balance

(L

Tap &
R o u n d Die

Spanner
(Single Ended)

C r3
File H a n d le

C h is e l (O il
G r o o v e Cut)

F lash ligh t

i
S te e l W a s h e r

Spanner
(Double Ended) H a n d H am rrier

S m ith T o n g s

L iste n in g R o d

S c i s s o r s for
B a c k in g

S c is s o r s
f o r M e ta l

W ire R o p e
S lin g

M a n ila
R o p e S lin g

15 mm A ir H ose
S m ith H a m m e r With Nozzle

:b=b>

B o lt & N u t

I S tu d & Nut

15 mm Flexible
Metal Hose

S p lit Pin

O il H o p p e r

C a n v a s C lo th

S t e e l P la te

S h a c k le

O il Fee der

S c a f fo ld in g
P la te

G a lv a n iz e d
S te e l S h e e t

Beam G rab

O il F e e d e r
(S y rin g e )

O il M e a s u r e s

/T \

f t

In sid e C a lip e r s B o x S p a n n e r

Clinom eter

Outside Caliper

A d ju stab le
W re n c h

M a rk in g
Scrib e r

C om pass

P ip e W re n ch

Lead H am m er

Wooden Hammer

<~
P a c k in g K n ife

Screw J ac k

T h erm om eter
With holder

P a c k in g T ool

H a c k sa w Frame
Sledge Hammer & H a c k sa w

'herm om eter
S u rface P la teSlO O *C A lcohol

S cre w d riv e r

C h ip p in g
H am m er

S cre w d riv e r
( C r o s s H ead)

Scraper (Rat
& Bamboo Leaf)

-a=>

iS
Surface Gauge

Round

^ 3

T achom eter

c*~- ~

P a r a lle l V ice

L e g V ice

/*

A lu m in u m
F o o t S to o l

C o p p e r or
S te e l S h e e t

C hain B lo c k

G r e a s e F um p

Shoe M at

S t e e l Bar

C ro w B a r

O il P a n with
S tra in e r

E n g in e R o o m
D esk

S t e e l W ire

v
Thermometer
Straight E d g e 500 "C Mercury

S q u a re

P o rta b le
G rin d e r

Feeler G a u g e

P o rta b le
E le c tric D rill

Ste el S c a le

Straight
>hank D rill

P lie rs

File (for
W hite m etal)

_ Q

P a in t
Scrap e r

C a n te r P u n c h

Bench
V ice

W e t S to n e
w ith B e d

W edge

W a te r B u c k e t

B la c k b o a r d

Valve H an d ie
Spanner

W ire /B ru s h

E ye B o lt

F orge
with Hearth

P a in tin g B r u sh

W a ste B o x

Anvil with
W ooden Bench

P a in t C a n

Y - Type
S tr a in e r

S p e c t a c le

F lange

A.

File 3 0 0 m m

- Q
File 2 0 0 m m

C u ttin g P u n c h

O il S to n e
w ith B e d

C h is e ls (F la t
& C ro ssc u t)

T orch Lam p

U BoU

- .

. _ -- 1 -%

|),^***

s u p p ly |

plumbfriofixtures
^*

a and w a te r a p p lia n c e s

fluaMna laWr fleverl

trap (anti-syphon trap)


-

-t

supatap

mixer tap
(Am/ mixing faucet)
for washbasins
-

pipe-cutting machine

extendible shower
attachment


flushing valve

()
spindle top



shield

plumber's tools, gas fitters tools

g a s pliers

pipe repair stan d


water tap
(pillar tap)
for washbasins

footprints
( )

se alin g tape

combination cutting pliers


-

*>
pipe- w rench

p incers

round- nose p lie rs


ftat-no se pliers

nipple key

"-3
adjustable S-w rench
S -

.........

sc re w ^
.

shifting spanner

( = = = = ^ _ 1
hand saw

hammer

screw driver

tin-lead solder
-

( > ^

h a ck sa w fram e

club hammer

c o m p ass sa w (keyhole saw )


()

pipe cutter
()

soldering Iron

=55=

spirit level
()

p ipe-bending
*
machine

h a n d d ie
()

screw-cutting machine
(thread-cutting machine)
()

^
ste e M e g vtce (Am. vise)

blowlamp (blow torch)


{for soldering)
^

pipe vice (Am. vise)


O '/- former (template)


430

1. main propulsion engine; 2. main engine shaft turning device; |


3. main-engine sea-water coling pump; 4. <
main-engine fresh-water cooling pump; 5.
emergency main engine cooling pump; 6.
main engine lubricating oil pump; 7. m
engine sea-water filter; 8. main-engine lublication oil filter; 9 >
fuel-oil supply pump; 10. steam evaporator;
11.
main engine starting air damper; 12. feed w a t
pump; 13. hot well circulating pump; 14.
vacuum evaporating installation; 15. boiler wate
transfer pump; 17. fuel oil heater; 18. lubricating oil separator;
I
19. preseparation oil heater; 20. fuel d
transfer pump; 21. lubricating oil transfer pump; 22,
auxilliary machinery sea water cooling pump; 23. |
auxiliary machinery fresh water cooling pump; 2 4 .
auxiliary machinery emergency cooling pump; 2 5 '

1
manually operated fuel-oil pump; 26. diesel generator; 27.
starting air tank; 28. waste collector; 29. diesel oil s e p a ra to l
30. work table for one penscj^ 32. axial ventilator; 3 f l
fire water pump; 35. - bildge pump; 36.
prefilter pump; 37 sea-water filter; 38.
sanitary washing water pump; 39. pneumatic sea-water intake tank;
I
40. pneumatic fresh-water tank; 41. -
water-heater for domestic needs; 42. hot washing water pump; 43.
heating system set; 4 4. ladder; 4 5. monorail; 46. prop
I
shaft tunnel; 47. ash-collecting tank; 48. filte r air tank;
|
49. service lubricating oil tank; 50. disel >
separating tank; 51. heavy fuel oil separating tank; 53. ^
fuel oil measuring tank; 55. used-up fuel-oil and lubricating-cl
tank; 56. diesel oil separator; 57. sea-valve box; 5 8.
main sea-water Dioina: 59. vntilatino air-nine

131

.FOR MARINE ENGINEERS FLUENT IN ENGLISH


}\
ENGINEERING HUMOR '
Pipe Specifications From a Chief Engineer
We Were AmusetJ By A Bit Of Engineering Humor. Here,\ye Would Lke To Share It
With You
All pipe is o be made of a long hole, surrounded by metal or plrstic centered around the
hole
I
All pipe is to be hollow throughout the entire length - do not use holes 01 different length
than the pipe
\
\
/
. /
.
The I.D. (inside diameter) of all pipe must not exceed the O.D (outside diameter) - otherwise
the hole will be on the outside.
j
All pipe is to be supplied with nothing in the hole so that water, steam or other stuff can be
put inside at a later date.
All pipe should be supplied without rust - this can be more readily applied on the job site.(
Some vendors are now able to supply prerusted pipe.If available in your area, this product is
recommended as it will save a lot of time on the job site.)
All pipe over 50 feet (15.2 M) in length should have the word 'long pipe' clearly painted on
each end, so the Chief Engineer will know it is a long pipe.
Pipe over 100 feet (30.48 M) in length must have the words 'long pipe' painted in the middle,
so the Chief Engineer will not have to walk the entire length of the pipe to determine whether
or not it is a long pipe.
All pipe over 6 inches (152mm) in diameter must have the words 'large pipe' painted on it so
the Chief Engineer will not mistake it for a small pipe.
Flanges must be used on all pipe. Flanges must have holes
big hole in the middle.

for bolts quite separate from the

When ordering 90,45 or 30 degrees elbows, be sure to specify right hand or left hand;
otherwise you will end up going the wrong way.
Be sure to specify to your vendor whether you want level, uphill or downhill pipe. If you use
downhill pipe for going uphill, the water will flow the wrong \.
All the couplings should have either right hand or left hand thread, but do not mix the
threads - otherwise as the coupling is,, being screwed on one pipe, it is unscrewed from the
other.

132

THE LIST OF QUESTIONS TO ANg^VER FOR A


MARINE ENGINEER WISHING TO WORK ON A
SHIP SAILING UNDER A FOREIGN FLAG r %
- *
GHHCOJK ,
,
j
.

, ^
,
1 . What is your name? ^
"ft
2. Haw are you? tvAKOlA \ .
3. Hciw old are you?
b R-AJ4. Are you married? ft'oi
c 14 ' 'ol

KA< & \ ^ ' \


5. How long have you been married?
6. Have you got any children?
V &&TU
Do you have any children?
EC['
o n v,o
How many childrenlSo you have?
What are they?
OWlA
7. What does your wife do?
< rro

. A- ' h C e W h .

8. Where do you live?


f&E.
9. What do you do (for a living)?

What are you? Kro b b t(t\P o t< ? e c U ^ )


10. What educational establishment
did you graduate from and when?
Which faculty did you study at?
11. How long have you been working
as Chief Engineer (Second
^

- ULM/tcC .

- My n^me is
- 1 am ?, thanks.
- I am 35 1(40,etc).

0^ 7
Sb4 c't' ^\
- < p o pr u

- No, I are-smgfe.
( )
divorced
()

r
(
- 1 have been married lE years.
N ( jYesTTbave.
No, I havent.
> g^es, I do.^)
No, I d o n 4 ^ -----^
> - 1 have oae-ehild (two children: a boy and a girl).
v>- My son is a schoolboy:
My daughter is a student.
a housewife
()
a nurse
()
- She is
an engineer
()
a book-keeper
tfzMAlL
()
- 1 live in Odessa. J>
( ) Pushkins'
() Odessa 270032 Ukraine.
- 1 am a marine engineer.
........

- I graduated froifl the Odessa ^Marine


Academy in 198.4. 44 x i 2. S
- 1 studied at the Marine -Engineering
faculty.
- 1 have been working as Chief
Engineer for 5 years.
40

133

12 Irlave you ever taken a refresher/


updafirig course (full time inservice training course)?
i-> i. j

X
'
13 Do you study
English? Where do
you study it? A ~ 'j
,0 4^^ ^
Uvl

CM- i^e S40*'


14. Do you know'that you'll nave a 4 ~
lot of problems if you dont
speak* English fluently(6enio)?

- Yes, I have taken it once(twice). I t .


Vvas in
.
- No, I haven't.
i
- 1 study Eng[ish> t English language courses
(^ myown - ).
/
- Yes, I doji 'brush up my English
everyday. !

.J

- It was the^M/V ...-

15 What was the name of your last ship?


jjo- f

:
16 How long did your last voyage last?

- It lasted ..^months

17. Have you ever been on long


voyages? i-- - - - C n

,, ,,r,U>-f
fCM

- " ^ -y^, - t .. a\ 1 - 7
18 How do you endure long voyages
physically and morally?

- Yes, I have It was in 19__ .The


voyage lasted ... months.
- No, I haven't.
- 1 endure them well enough.

I am sure I will / ^ 19 Do you know that as rale a _ ' ' - voyage on ships of our Company
r . _. I have gone on long voyages before.
Anyway it's my profession.
lasts 8 or 9 months Will you ^ e i iov
be able to^endure such a long
voyace?
I'J ^ I,-. (I c \y ,. re-.J
20 Did you work only for BLASCO?
V--

-- ,

,0 ;^

- Yes, I did
I didn^T)
Besides BLASCO I worked for ...

5,

Vv*
21 What ships did you work/sail
on?

^ - .

>-

- I worked on Ro/Ro vessels, '


box/container ships, conventional
ships, dry cargo vessels/freighters,
tankers, bulk carriers
- They are (
- 85 )

--

. 22 What are the main particulars


of your last ship?

___

23 Let's pass over to the engines


^ What are the main characteristics of
"the engine installed on your last ship?
f

> ' 1 '

X(

' f

- -.
*

"

*'

'

What is the type and the power <o\'cr~


of the
engine?
^
'v'
"How many cylinders has the
engine?
s' ' f u s,

i h

It is a /tiieseidl & W, two stroke,


single acting, trunk piston (opposed
piston, crosshead) type, medium
(slow) - speed engine
Its power is kwt It has 6 cylinders

i - 1

134

What is the frequency* of


rotation?
i\
,
24. ,What problems did'you have :
^vvith this type of the ^ngne?
_

Li5MIave you ever worked on ships


sailing under a foreign'flag?
0 Where was it? When was it?

^ 0How many snips sailing Under a


. foreign flag have you! worked
on?
I
What ships have you,vrorked on?
26. Would you like to work for our

27. Are you ready to complete all


the papers/documents?
28. Are you ready to start your _
work soon?
Pas ^
29. How often have you been involved
in emergency exercises?
30. What procedures and instructions
have you followed with regard to
garbage disposal?

The frequency of rotation-i/.. r.p.m.


^^
- We had problems with
^ o t rm>
It (They) went out of order: and we had
to repair^replace) it (them). s
- N o ,l h a v e n ^ j
-
- Yes, I have.
,
I worked on the ship(s) ... j
She is a container vessel.(. 21).
i '*
It was in 19__.
I worked on the ship from 1$__to 19__
- Yes, I would, because as f^r as I
know the conditions of work, and
salaries are quite acceptable in
your Company.
- Yes, I am.
- Yes. I amM can start my work any
time you like.
- Rather often.
a) Distance from the shore should be
more than 12 miles.
b) The ship should be on sail.
c) The oil deposits existing in the
bilge water should be less than
100 ppm (parts per million).
d) Bilge water discharging control
system and separator should be
installed on board.
e) In the case of need for
discharging the matter should be
communicated to the port authority
through the shipping agent.

135

5. USEFUL BUSINESS CONVERSATION FORMULAS


?
v/^ ...
'/ .
^ ?
^
'/
*




,
?

I
( )

?




-


,



,

,







?

- What can I do fo/ you?


- My best fcongratulations to you on ...
- Have a good time.
- Could y6u do me a favour?
- Sure
j
Certainly
- By all rh^ans.
- You are [wrong.
- You are mistaken.
- Right {oy are.
- By the w ay

- That reminds me
- In no way

- Anyway
- As a matter of fact
- Settled?
Agreed ?
- It goes without saying
-

On the contrary
D ont worry!
N ever mind
Nothing o f th e kind

- What do you mean?


- I dont think so
- I agree w ith you
I agree to y o u r proposal
- I am o f the sam e opinion

- In my opinion = to my mind
- I thought as much
- So much the b etter

- It looks like it

<

' , j

- It is out o f th e question!

- Its our top priority .. j


- A far as I know
-

The way things are ' - '


On balance
I
There is m uch reason in w hat you say
It's not an ^ d sy thing to do
It's w aste o f tim e

- That won't work


- It's no use

- It makes no sense
- We'll put it right
- Ill give this m atter my im m ediate attention
- W hat's the m atter?
W hat's up?

136

- 1 matter requires further consideration


- It's a lame excuse
-Y ou have been very helpful
- We'll wait and see
- Lets get down to business
- 1 shan't be long
- I'll keep you informed of all the developments
- Under the circumstances
- To sum it up
- In short
- Give my best regards to ...

137

, J '1
6. U SE F U L F O R M U L A S T O W R IT E A B U S IN E S S L E T T E R
s.
i
- \ t

- This is to inform you
- We are pleased to inform /advise you

- 1 regret to in fo rn /ad v ise you

- We refer to y our letter (offer) dd (dated)

( ) ...
- Referring to o u r letter o f ...
...
- We confirm (acknowledge) the receipt...
...
- We enclose wi'tlf th e letter o u r order
^
- Please find herew ith enclosed

- W e shall be grateful if you
, ...

- Failure to do this
- W e will ap p reciate yo u r cooperation in this

m atter

- W e are interested in ...
...

- W e can assure you that...
... - In spite o f all o u r efforts w e have been unable to
- Please despatch (deliver) ... in strict accordance
() ...

with our instructions
- Please look into th e m atter
,

- W e accept y o u r offer

- W e reject yo u r offer
,
- We shall do o u r best

- An early reply will oblige
,
- Y our prom pt atten tio n to this m atter

will be appreciated

GENERAL LAY-OUT OF THE BUSINESS LETTER




Letterhead

1)

2)

4)

5)

7)

8)


Reference line


Name of recipient


Inside Address

6)


Address of recipient
,

Attention Line

Greeting /Salution
9)

10)


Subject line


Body of the letter
11)


Complimentary Close

13)



____ Identification Line__________

14)



___Eclosures___________________

.16)

( )
P.S. ( postscript)

12)

Signature

15) ,
CC.(carbon copy notation)

139

1\

1) INGENIERIE MARITIME COMMERCIALISATION HYDROLAND


'

82, avenue Marceau 75008, Paris


I
Tel: 7237864 - Telex 611470F
\

2) L/ief.83c437
i
ft

3) May 17th, 1995

4) Messrs
BLASCO
5) 1, Lastochkina
Ukraine
7) For the kind attention o f Mr.
8) Dear Sirs,
9) Re: Inquiry for a bowthruster
10) Thank you very much for the interest you showed in Our
products and especially in our rudder and bow propeller system. As promised we are forwarding to you
in the enclosure 5 (five) sets o f our general
documentation you asked for.
Awaiting your prompt reply,
11) Yours faithfully,
12) Iohan A.BAAUENS
13)JAB:sn
14)5 Ends

LIST OF TELEX ABBREVIATIONS


AN - TH A N
ABT - A BOU T
ARRD - A RRIV ED
ATTN - A TT E N T IO N 1
ACCLY - A C C O R D IN G L Y
ABV - A B O V E (A B O V E M E N T IO N E D )
ARA - A N T W E R P ,R O T T E R D A M ,A M S T E R D A M
ADV - AD V ISE
/
ACCY - A C C O R D IN G L Y
AWT - A W A ITIN G
I
A TN - A TT E N T IO N
ASAP - AS SO O N AS PO S S IB L E
B 2 - BE TO O
BB - BYE BY E (G O O D B Y E ) B I B I
BTW N - B E T W E E N
BLA D IN G - BELL O F L A D IN G
C/E - CH IEF E N G IN E E R
CHRTS - C H A R TER ER S
CP - CH A RTER PA R T Y
GO - CARGO
CFM - CO N FIRM
CHKD - C H EC K ED
C N -C A N
COM M - C O M M EN C E
DTD - D ATED
D /D -D TD -D A TED
DIFF - D IFFICU LT
DTLD - D ETA ILED
EN G R - E N G IN E E R
E ST - ESTIM A TED
FR - FROM FM
FY I - FOR Y O U R IN FO R M A T IO N
FLLW F O L L O W IN G
F R - FOR
G TEED - G U A R A N T EED
HS-HAS
H L-H EAV Y LIFT
IN FM -IN FO RM
IM M Y -IM M ED IA TELY
IN FO -IN FO RM A TIO N
IN CL-IN C LU D IN G
LH (S)-LO W ER H O L D (S )
M TIM E-M EA N TIM E
M NY-M ANY
M SG -M ESSA G E

- '
- , , O l

-
-
>
-
-
.
-
/
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=- '
-
*
; - ,
- :
-

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

141

MRNG-MORNING
N-AND A-AND
NTD-NOTED
OWS-OWNERS
PIC-PERSON IN CHARGE
PL-PLEASE
RYC-REFERRING TO YOUR CABLE
RYTLX-REFERRING TO YOUR TLX
RVT-REVERT
R-ARE
RPY-REPLY
RQD-REQUIRED
SUB-SUBJECT
SGST-SUGGEST
TOMO-TOMORROW
TKS VM-THANKS VERY MUCH
TKU-THANK YOU
TFOR-THEREF ORE
TD-TWEENDECK
-
TDY-TODAY
TMRW-T OMORROW
TTL-TOTAL
U-YOU
USD-UNITED STATES DOLLAR
UR-YOUR,URS-YOURS
WP-WEATHER PERMITTING
WL-WILL

<-
- ,
-
-
-
-
-

-
- BE

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- ,
-
-
-
-

.142

SUPPLEMENT
v'

ABBREVIATIONS OF MARINE ENGINEERING TERMS


A,a
AB(D)C
abs
AC,ac,a-c
ACB
AE
alt-alternator
am
amp
AMVER
ao
app
appr
APU
ARC
ast

AT(D/C
athw
atm
aux
avg
AWCMP
awp
BAR
batt
b.b.

bbe
BD
BDC

- anode
_r
- after bottom(dead) centre

- absolute
I
- alternating current I
- automatic circuit breaker

\
- air escape
-
- 1) ammeter
2) amplitude
ampere
- automated merchant vessel reporting

- 1) account of -
2) and others
- 1) apparatus ,
2) appendix ,
- approximate auxiliary
power unit

- automatic remote control



- astern ,
- after top dead center

- athwartship ,

- atmosphere
<
- auxiliary
- average ,
- absolute wet center manifold pressure

- actual working pressure



- blade Hea ratio
( )
- batten ,
- ball bearing
- before bottom center

- barrel
- barrels per day
- bottom dead centre

143

- bottom dead point ,

BDP
BF
BFW
BH
Bhd
BHN
BHP;bhp
bhp-hr

BK

- 1) blank flange
/ i
1) boiler feed , ^ >

- boiler feedwater
- rinell hardness t
- bulkhead
'
- Brinell hardness number '.
,
- brake horsepow er ( )

j [

- brake horsepower-hour
() -
- 1 ) bilge keep

2)
BKT
bkt pi
dkr(h)d
blr
BM
BM EP,b.m .e.p.,bm ep
BM P
bnr
BP, b.p.
bp
BPD
BR
brg
Brkt
Brl
BS
bsh,bu
BThE
bus
BW
BWR
Cal.

cal
can
cap
cb

()

brake

- bracket

I
,
/

- braket plate ,
- bulkhead

- boiler
- bending moment
- brake mean effective pressure

- brake mean pressure

- burner

- back pressure
- boiler point
- boost pressure difference

- boiler room
- bearing
- bracket ,
- barrel

- 1) boiler space
2) boiler survey
- bushel
- brake thermal efficiency
...
- business ; ; ;

- butt-welded
- boiling water reactor ,

- calorie , ,

- calorie -,

- cancelled
- capacity , ,
,

- 1) circuit breaker

144

>

,
Cei(s);
cent t
CERC
t
cert i f
F;cfl
\
/ K'

cfm<^
cfmn '
eft
j
CG
Chn lkr
CHU
C.H.U.
Cl
cir(c)

CL
cl
cld
Clg
elkw .
CLP
clr
cm
CMR
C.No
am
CODAG

CODEAG

CODOG

2) control board ()
3) control button 5
* - cubic centimeter
- Celsius
- centigrade
- centralized engine room control

- certificate
- 1) centiftigal force
2) cubic)^oot
--confirmed
- confirmation
- cubic feqt
- center of gravity
- chain locker
- centigrade heat unit

- caloric heat unit ,


- 1) cast iron
2)
certificate of insurance
- 1) circle
2) circuit
3) circulation
4) circulation
5) circumference
- center line ,
- clause ,
- 1) cancelled
2)
cleared

- circulating
- clockwise
- center of lateral pressure

- cooler
- centimeter
- continuous maximum rating

- cetane number
- coaming
- combined diesel engines and gas turbine power
plant ^ -

- combined diesel-electric and gas turbines power
plant --

combined diesel engines or gas turbines power

145

co e f'
COG
COGAG

COGOG

compr
cond

conn
const
Cont
COT
CP
cplg
CPM;cpm
CPP
CPS,cps
CP
CRC
CRP

CRPO

CS

to
cu
cub exp
cu cm
cu ft
cu in
cu m
cu mm
CV.cv

plant -^
- coefficient
- center of gravity 1
- combined gas turbine and gas turbine bower plant
'"

- combined gas turbine or gas turbine power plant


'
- compressor
- 1) condenser .
2) condition
3) conductor
- connection , ,
- constant ();
- 1) contract
2)
control
- cargo-oil tank ;
( )
- circulating pump
- coupling
- cycles per second
- controllable pitch propeller
,
- cycles per second
- compression ratio
- clossed roller chock

- contra-rotating propellers
()
- continuous rating permitting overload

* ;
- I) carbon steel
2) countersunk ,
( )
3) crankshaft
'i
- center-to-center (distance) ..
, ( )
- cubic
- coefficient ofcubical expansion

- cubic centimeter ()
- cubic foot
- cubic inch
- cubic meter (3)
- cubic millimeter ()
- calorific value

146

CW

cyl
D
DC;dc;d-c
DD
dd
DE
deg
deg
deg F
deg
dens
DG
dhg
DHP.dhp
Dia,dia(m)
DKPltg
Dkyd
dm
doc(s)
DP,dp
DR
DRG
drg
DT
dtime
DW
Dwg
DY
dynm

EBP
eflf
egel
E.H.F.,e.h.f.,ehf

- clockwise ^
- cycle
' -'/
- I ) cylider
2) cylindrical
- drag ,
- direct current
- direct drive ()
- 1) dated
2) delivered
- double-ended ( )
- degree
\
- degree centigrade
- degree Fahrenheit' F
- degree Kelvin ,
,
- density
- double-gear
( )
- double helical gear

- delivered horsepovyer ,

- diameter
- deck plating
- dockyard
- decimeter ()
- document(s) ()
- dew point
- dock receipt
- double reduction gear

- drawing
- deep tank
- delivery time
- distilled water ,

- drawing
- dockyard ,
- dynamotor -
- Engler degree

- exhaust lick pressure

- efficiency ,
...
- exempli gratia ()
- elastic limit
- effective horsepower

147

eng /
EOD'
ER
ES
ex
excl
exh
exp

exs
ext
F

FAC;fac
ff
FFO
!
FH
FHP
fig
FL
Flged
FO
.

FPP

;;

FPT
FRP

ft
ft hd
FW
FWT
gal
gen
gl

- engine/'
- every other\day
- engine room'
- engine space
- examined -
- excluding, exclusive
- exhaust
- 1) expansiorj
2) experiment ,
3) expiration, ()
4) express ,
- expenses-
- 1) external
(
2) extra
3) extreme
- 1) factor of safety ,

2) frequency
3) fuel
- fast as can
- following
- furnace fod oil ,

- feedwater heater

- friction horsepower ,

- figure , ;
- forced lubrication
- flanged ,
- fuel oil
- 1) feed pump
2) fire plug ,
3) flash point
4) freezing point
- fixed pitch propelleij

,
- forepeak tank
- fiberglass-reiforced plastics ,
,
factor of saf

- foot
- feed head ,
- freshwater
- freshwater tank
- gallon
- generator
- glass

148

gm
GMTt
8
gr
GRP
grw
GS
Gskt
GT
GTk
GTPU
gw
H,h,hr
hd
HFW
Hg
hi
HP;hp

hp-hr
HS

Htr
ts
Hz,hz
ibyibid
ICE
ID,idIHP;ihp

lnJ
ms
*
11
Jl
Kc;kc

- gram
- Greenwich Mean Time

- gauge pressure
()
- gear ration
- glass-reinforced plastic
- gross weight
- grate surface ^

- gasket
-gastight
f
- gasoline tank ,
- gas tumbine power unit j

- gearwheel ,
- hour
- head
- hot fresh water
- hydrargyrum () ,
hole
- 1) high pressure air line

2) horsepower ,
- high pressure air line

- horsepower-hour
- 1) heating surface
2) high-speed ,

_ heater
- high-tensile steel

_ herts
_ ibidem () L
_ internal combustion engine
'
- inside diameter
- indicated horsepower
- indicated mean effective pressure

- inch
- injector , ,
- insulation
- intermediate pressure
()
- insulation resistance

-joint ; ; ;
_ 1) kilocycle

149

kg
kv '
Kw
lb,lbs
LD
LDC
liq, lq
LMC

LP,lp,l-p
LPB
LT
lub
LV
lw
ma
mar
MCR
ME

mehp

Mg
M GPS

- / * . / i

MH
min
MIP

Mi sc
mixt
ML
mm
MMF,mmf
MP

MPC

2) kilocycles per second (^


- kilogram ()
- kilovolt ()
- kilowatt ()
- pound(s) ( . libra)
- leak detector
- lower dead center
- liquid ,
i
- liter ()
{
- Lloyds Machinery Certificate

,

.
j
- low pressure
- low pressure boiler

- low tension
- 1) lubricate
2) lubrication
- low voltage
- lap-welded ()
- milliampere ()
- maritime
- maximum continuous rating

- 1) main engine
2) marine engineer -
3) mechanical engineer -
- mean effective horse power

- mean effective pressure

- 1) main generator
2) milligram ()
j- marine growth preventing system
i
v j- manhole
1) minimum
2) minute ()
; - mean indicated pressure

- miscellane^s ,
- mixture
- more/less
- millimeter ()
- magnetomotive force
- 1) medium pressure
2) melting point
- maximum permissible concentration

150

m ps.

MTBF
MTP
MTTR
M.W
NET
,
NHP;nhp t
N1S
NLD
No
NT
NTD
ntfy
NTP
NWT
OAD
OB

O.D,ODia,o.d.
OF
OFT
OR
Bhd
ovhl
oz
P
par(a)
PC

ph
PHP

Pltg
PMP

- maintenance and repair ship

mean time before failures


()
- mean tip clearance

- mean time to repair
cdok ()
- molecular weight
- not earlierl tjian
- nominal horsepower
- not in stock*
- not in line qf duty

- number !,
- nontight
- nontight door ()

- notify
- normal temperature and pressure

- nonwatertight
- overall dimensions
- 1) on board
2) outboard , *
3) outer bottom
- order cancelled
- outside diameter
- oil fuel
- oil fuel tank
- 1) on request
2) overload relay
- oiltight bulkhead

- overhaul ; ()
* - ounce
- page
- paragraph ,
- 1) percent
2) pitch circle ()
( )
3) propulsive coefficient

- phase
- 1) propeller horsepower

2) pump horsepower
- plating
- preventive maintenance program '

151

ppm
ppt
pr
p.s.i.a
p.s.i.g
pt
PVC
pw r
rcvd
RD
red

Red
rev/min
[revs per min],
RPM;rpm
r.p.s.,rps

;'
- parts per million I
^
- prompt .
- price
- pounds per square inch absolute

- pounds per square inch gauge

- pint
- polyvinylchloride

I
.
- power
*
- received h
- running days
- reducer ,
,

- Redwood

- revolutions per minute

Sgd

- revolutions per second

- refueling oiler
- reserve feed water
- right-hand , -,

- rivet
- rudder
- subject to approval
- two-stroke cycle double acting

- 1) second
2) section
- Safety and EnvironmentProtection


- separator
- settling
- specific fuel consumption

- shaft
- 1) specific ^ivity
2) steam generator ,

- signed

SHP.shp

- shaft horsepower ;

RFO
RFW
RH
riv
Rud
SA
2SCDA
Sec
SEP
sepr
settl
SFC
sft
SGSg

Sht S
SIGMA


- sheet steel
- shielded inert-gas metal-arc (welding)
()

152

Spd
Sp qp
Sp ht
Sp
Sp Vol
sq
SRF
SS
SSU,s.s.u.
STA
st by
std
STS
SV

Swbd
SWL

TCG
TDC
Tech
temp
therm
thk
thp
tk
tn
tol
TUCO
Ull
UMS
UTS
VC


- special delivery
- specific gravity
- specific heat
- specific resistance
- specific volume
- square ,
- ship repair facitity ,
j
- superheat steam nap
- seconds Saybolt universal

1
- shaft tunnel alley
- standby , ;
- standard , 4;
- special treatment steel

- 1) safety valve
2) sluice valve ) )
3) stop valve
- switchboard
- safe working load

- thrust ( )
- 1) temperature
2)
- thrust block
- time between overhaul

- transverse center of gravity

- top dead center


_ technical
_ temperature
- thermometer
-thickness
- thrust horsepower
_ tank ,
_ ton ()
i
_ tolerance
- turbo-c^ipressor
- ullage
()
- unattended machinery space

_ ultimate tensile strength

_ variable capacitor

153

Vel,vel
vent,
vis., vise.
viz
Vol., vol
VP
vm
WC
WG
WP
wppm
wt.
WT
wt
WTB
WTD
Yd. yd
Yr,yr

- velocity
- ventilation
- viscosity
- . videlicet, namely
- volume
- variable pitch ;

- voltmeter
i
- 1) water closet
( f
2) water-cooled
- water gauge
;
- 1) waterproof '
2) working pressure {
- weight parts per million

- watt
- water tank
- weight
- 1) watertight bulkhead

2) water-tube boiler
- watertight door
-yard
-year

O rjA P .Jh ah U '


I

ai

Diesel c ig i n c s

'2 .

18

D oiicis

. 3

2S

Iu i n p s

t'' * * *

U ciiomoi /

\39

Aii/ili,

I
,5

9 '

,
D c c k m achinery and equipm ent

Py 1 i

57

S l c . 'u n ^ gcai

' 7

l. n.:nii>il

63

S h a l l . i u i a n c1 p i o p c l l c i s
\

0 ,

; . ' .

67 '

iluni- e u i i g o p e i a l i e n s
' ' [ 1 <

1 n '^

79

O d e r i n g s j v u e nai tr. i i i d ^ o n e i u ! s u ( plies

i0

PfJi' 11 i
Repain

. L1

M;i iiiiiiiii,i4 ; o,Niau;;a

C r <

i i o r n

i I ' c e ' rn c u a c i b i

i I c p p u A i r i c o u . i c . i])c;jiepic:* .

>>

125

ij w . x

G cnnncnociu
H n g .m. ucp.' ist.iioii. D u t i e s

W t . i jh k e c p ' . r . g

f'etIodic safely

lontincs

.j t i p p l e i n e a i

I lum py

123

'I ou3

G h c i i I ; ; n n.:i 3c i n c i U c f n n e. i i n e - i o o m

1Ic m u c i " . '


Fiiign c c u u ^ l . u m c u i

131

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