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# ..

,
2009, 2, . 6270
..
, ...
,
..

62

621.376.4

OFDM-
.. 1, .. 1,2, .. 2

2009 .
1
2

. ..
-
histat@rf.unn.ru
13.01.2009

OFDM- ,
(). , , , . , ,

1- .
: OFDM-, , , , , , .

, OFDM- ,
[1].
OFDM-
[2, 3]. , . , (
) [4].

[5].
,
[6], , , ,

. () ()
.
,
[5].

[7]. . OFDM-
, ,
..
,
.

,

.
(), [8].
, , . ,
,

.
,
, ,
.
1 -

63

OFDM-

2 3
.

4.
5.
1.

(1)
1

X T ( f1 ),..., X T ( f n 1 ), X T* f k
T T
k =1
x(t) [9]
n-
n 1

= lim

T /2

X T ( f ) = T / 2 exp( i 2 f t ) x (t ) dt .

,
.
,

, , [10].
( n > 2)
, ,
. , .
[1113], x(t) n-
2n ,
, n
: -
.
.

m
(n m)
, 2n
n-
Sn ,m ( f1 ,..., f n 1 ) = lim SnT,m ( f1 ,..., f n 1 ) =
T

= lim

T T

X T ( f1 ),..., X T ( f m ), X T* ( f m +1 ),...,
m

n 1

k =1

k = m +1

X T* ( f n 1 ), X T* ( f k

fk )

(2)

m [(n+1)/2], [s]
s. (2)
(n, m)-.

fk

k =1

fk .

k = m +1

(n, m)-

x (t ) =

n-
Sn ( f1 ,..., f n 1 ) =

## (n, m)- n x(t) n

Ak e i

k =1

exp( i 2 Fk t ) ,

(3)

A1, , An , 1, , n1 ,
( , ] ,

:

k =1

k = m +1

Fk Fk

= 0,

n
m

n ,m = w k k = const , w()
k = m +1
k =1

( , ] .
.
(n, m)- Sn,m(f1, f2,, fn-1) (F1,
, Fn-1) - , n

An ,m = ( Ak / 2) , n,m .
k =1

,
, (, ),
,
. , ,
. , ,
, [14, 15].
,

(T- ). (2)
(n, m) T

T-

T
Sn ,m ( f1 ,..., f n 1 ) .

64

.. , .. , ..

SnT,m ( f1 ,..., f n 1 ) =
= K Wn ,m ( f1 1 ,..., f n 1 n 1 )

(4)

Sn ,m ( 1 ,..., n 1 )d1...d n 1

Sn ,m ( f1 ,..., f n 1 )

Wn,m (T ; f1 ,K, f n 1 ) =
n 1
n 1
m
(5)
= T n 1 sinc(Tfk ) sinc T f k f k ,
k =1
k =m+1
k =1
sinc( x ) = sin( x ) / x . T-

SnT,m ( f1 ,..., f n 1 ) ,
(n 1)- 1 n
T .
(3) n = 3 m = 2 . , T
3

## PT ( f ) = S2T,1 ( f ) = Ak2 W2,1 (T ; f Fk )

k =1

, F1, F2,
F3 = F1 + F2 (. 1),
BT ( f1 , f 2 ) = S3T, 2 ( f1 , f 2 ) = A1 A2 A3ei (W3,2 (T ; f1

F1 , f 2 F2 ) + W3, 2 (T ; f1 F1 , f 2 F2 )) ( f 2 f1

f 2 f1 ) (. 2)
= arg B (T ; F1 , F2 ) = w(1 + 2 3 ) .

PT( f )

fT
F2T

F1T

(F1+F2)T

. 1

2.

OFDM
N

x = An e i n exp(i 2 n t / T )
n =1

(6)

N
,
f = 1/T = Fmax/N. - B (6)
Fmax
(0 < f2 < Fmax/2, f2 < f1 <
< Fmax f2) (f1, f2)
[N2/4] c: B = {Bm,n | Bm,n =
= BT(m/T, n/T), (n,m) N}, N = {(n,m) | 1
m [N/2], m n N m} (. 3).
() n,m = arg Bm,n = n + m n+m n (n =
= 1, 2,,N). :  = [1, 2, , N]T,
= [1,1, 1,2,, 2,2, 2,3,, [N/2], N [N/2]]T,

~~
(7)
A
= ,
2
[N /4]N- .
[16],
(N 1). [N2/4] ( N 1) . (N 1)- 1. ([N2/4] N + 1)- 2.

(6) 1,
 . an = [a1, a2,, aN], (7)
a1 1 + A = ,
(8)
T
= [a2,, aN] = [ 2, , N] . (8)

a1,1
1 A1
1 ,
= +
(9)
2 A 2
a1, 2
1 (N 1)(N 1),

= A11 ( 1 a1,1 1 )
(10)
1 1.
, . M-
M l = 0,K,2 M 1 . -

OFDM-

{B1, n | 1 n N 1}
- (. . 3).
(11)
(12)
n = 1 + n 1 1,n 1 , 2 n N .

|BT(f1,f2)|

, 1
, .

.
,
, ,

, , .

: c = ( N 1) N ~ 1 N >> 1 , ..
OFDM-, .

f2T

F2T
F2T

65

F1T

f1T
(F1+F2)T

. 2

f 2 F max/ 2

F max

f1

. 3

. M-
(2-)

l = w( 21 M l + 0 ) .
, 1

2 = A 2 A11 1 ,
(11)
, ,
. , ,
( , ] , (11) 2 = w( 2 ) + k 2 ,
, 2- k 2 .
, w( 2 )
, .
, N 1 .

1 = [1,1, 1,2, , 1, N 1]T -

3.

()
(13)
y (t ) = x (t ) + n(t ) ,
x(t) (6), n(t) N0.
,
-,
-. N

.
.
,

3-

66

.. , .. , ..

## BmRX,n = BmRX,n exp(i mRX,n ) = YnYmYn*+ m ,

(n,m) N ,

RX

(14)

^
:

Yn = 0 dt exp( i 2 n t / T ) y (t ) ,
)
m ,n = arg min mRX,n i , i = 0, ...,2 M 1 . (15)
i

, , , [5].

- (14),
(15) 1RX.
,
2RX.
,
-.
(LS). , (14)
,
( , ] , RX
[8, 17]. ,

Th
W
k=0

||||2

LS
W
K

. 4

RX ( i ) = RX ( 0 ) LS ( i )

k (i ) =

LS ( i ) w( LS ( i ) )
= 2
( K).
2

= w LS ( i ) ( i )

LS-

(i ) =

## ( w(mLS,n(i ) (mi ),n )) 2 .

2
[ N 4 ] ( m ,n ) N

RX
= = w( ) + k - T1 T2 ( Th). ( i ) < T1 ( i ) > T2 ,
( , ] .

) )
- - = (i ) , . 4. , RX ( 0 ) = arg B RX .
v
T1 T2 2- k ( 0 ) = 0 . i- . T1 , ( W . 4),

(15) ( D)
. )
(i ) , - T2 )
w( )( i ) = RX ( i ) ( i ) - . ( i ) = ,
= w( )( i ) + k ( i 1) . LS- - , .. LS ( i ) = A ( A T A ) 1 A T ( i ) ( LS). - .
2

67

OFDM-

(6)
A0ei0 -

4.

(6)
(13)
.

y (t ) =

Ak e i ( + )
k

k =0

(16)

exp( i 2 ( kf + )( t + )) + n ( t ) ,
k = 0 (6)
. (16)
,
. -
nRX = arg Yn

## mRX,n = arg BmRX,n ,

| |< f :
nRX = n + 2 n / T + ( + T ) + ,
mRX,n = m ,n + ( + T ) + .

(17)

,
,
, , .. .
, OFDM

. , ..
,
,
. m ,n = n + m n + m
n -

nRX = nRX n = 2n / T + n .
.
,
, ,
.

0 = 0 . ,
~ RX = RX RX

n

:
~ RX =
~ RX +
~ RX
~ RX =

m ,n
n
m
n +m

## = nRX + mRX nRX+ m 0RX = mRX,n 0RX ,

(18)

(16) (18)
( < f )
~ RX =
~ = = .

(19)
m ,n
m ,n
m ,n
0
m ,n
, OFDM- (18) ~ RX

n

, ,
f = 1 / T .
.

. , (18)
:
~ RX ) = Y Y Y * Y * ,
T RX = T RX exp(i
m ,n

m ,n

m ,n

n m n +m 0

(20)
(n, m) N ,

(4, 2)- S4, 2 ( f1 , f 2 , f 3 )

f1 + f 2 = f 3 (
f 3 = 0 ). , (18) , , (19),
~ , ,

m,n
m,n .
, , OFDM-
S4,2 ( f1 , f 2 , f 3 ) , , ,
, . - : = (N 1)/(N+1) ~ 1 ( N>>1).
5.

.. , .. , ..

68

0,1
0.1

BER
BER

0.01
0,01

1E-3
-

1E-4

1E-5
0

2-, .
2-, .
2-, .
2-, .
2-, .
2-, .

10

11

12

10

11

12

, dB
EbEb//NN
0, 0dB
. 5

0,1
0.1

BER
BER

0,01
0.01

1E-3
- 4-, .
- 4-, .
- 4-, .
- 4-, .
- 4-, .
- 4-, .

1E-4

1E-5
0

, dB
EEbb/N/ 0N
0, dB
. 6

OFDM- 2- 4- N.
(Bit Error Rate BER)

(Eb/N0).
. 5 . 6 (14)
,
( ),
- ( )

(14) 129
.

, (20)
130 (
). ,
(-

OFDM-

69

d / T = 23:
4- (.), fd T =
- 0,

- 0.03,

- 0.1

4- ( ), fd T =

- 0.10,

- 0.3

- 0,

BER
BER

0,1
0.1

0.01
0,01

1E-3

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

<E<E
dBdB
0>,
b b//NN
0>,
. 7

) 2-, 4-. ,
.
, -

.
,
OFDM- c (.. N)
.
- - ,
.
,

.

. 7.
fd
, -

d . OFDM- 130
4-

OFDM 4-. . 7,
d T = 23
5
3
.

OFDM ,
.
,
.
,

. ,
, .
,

,

70

.. , .. , ..

, . .
   
( - 08-07-97016).

1. . : . . /
. .. . .: , 2000.
800 .
2. Moose P.H. A technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction
// IEEE Trans. Commun. 1994. V. 42, 10. P. 2908
2914.
3. .., .. OFDM // . 2006. 10. C. 2326.
4. / .
.. . .: , 1999. 432 .
5. ..
. .: ,
1991. 296 .
6. .. .
.: , 1983. 320 .
7. .. // . 1996. 11. C. 6468.

## 8. .., .., ..,

..
: //
. 2008. 1(4). . 1016.
9. .., ..
// . .
. 1978. . 21, 1. . 81.
10. .., ..

// . 1987. . 75, 7. . 530.
11. Brillinger D.R., Rosenblat M. Computation and
interpretation of kth order spectra // in Spectral Analysis
of Time Series Ed. B.Harris. New York: Wiley, 1967.
P. 189232.
12. Swami A., Mendel J.M. Cumulant-based approach to the harmonic retrieval and related problems //
IEEE Trans. n Signal Proc. 1991. V. 39, 5.
P. 10991109.
13. Schreier P.J., Scharf L.L. Higher-order spectral
analysis of complex signals // Signal Processing. 2006.
V. 86. P. 33213333.
14. .., ..
- //
. 1995. . 21. . 16. . 2732.
15. .., ..
// . . . 1997.
. 40, 11. . 13881404.
16. Matsuoka T., Ulrych T.J. Phase estimation using
the bispectrum // Proceedings of the IEEE. 1984. V. 72,
10. P. 14031411.
17. Marron J.C., Sanchez P.P., Sullivan R.C. Unwrapping algorithm for least-squares phase recovery
from the modulo 2 bispectrum phase // J. Opt. Soc. Am.
A. 1990. V. 7, 1. P. 1420.

## A METHOD OF DIFFERENTIAL PHASE MODULATION OF OFDM SIGNALS

G.N. Bochkov, K.V. Gorokhov, A.V. Kolobkov
A new method of differential phase modulation of OFDM signals in the frequency domain is considered. In this
method of biphase modulation, bispectrum phases are information parameters. Noncoherent reception methods have
been proposed that use trispectrum and are invariant to a time delay and general phase and frequency shifts. It has
been shown that these methods asymptotically provide the potential noise immunity in the AWGN channel and in
terms of noise immunity outperform a conventional time domain differential phase modulation in fast fading channels with frequency offset.
Keywords: OFDM signal, phase difference modulation, polyspectrum, biphase modulation, noncoherent reception, noise immunity.