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2007

IV -

28-30 2007

ECOLOGY OF THE RIVER`S BASINS


ERB 2007
IV INTERNATIONAL
SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE
(September, 28-30, 2007)
PROCEEDINGS

VLADIMIR
2007

556
26.222.50
40
: 4- . .-. . /
. . . .. ; . . -. , 2007. 526 .

IV ,
28-30 2007 .
130 - , , , , , ,
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. 92. . 94.

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07-05-06088-.

ISBN 978-5-93907-032-4


, 2007

.
1. ..
..
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3. .. , .. , .. , ..

..
4. Zhang Yao-sheng Theory and practice about eco-emigration from origin
areas of three rivers .
1.
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13

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Some theoretical and methodical problems of the drainage basins of small and
intermediate water reservoirs are considered.


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, 07-05-00778-.
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As the result of irrigation areas decrease, many reservoirs are used for other
purposes in the south of Russia. Ecological consequences of both irrigation reservoirs
utilization for new purposes (such as fishery, recreation, water supply etc.) and their
elimination are considered in the report. Measures on unfavorable ecological
consequences prevention in the case of reservoirs operation at a new water level and
their new utilization or elimination are suggested in the report, the latter (reservoir
elimination) being the most dangerous variant here.


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17

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19

IV

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The soils and river basins are considered with positions of system approach. The
main aim is a determination of list and nature of soils-river basins relationships. As a
relief form, basins can be considered as one of the types of soil formation conditions
and factors. We have three main problems: 1) spatial borders conjugation, 2) relations
of processes of functioning of river basins and soil formation, 3) stability of soil systems
states in river basins.
The river basin functionality forms as combination of three main processes:
1) weathering (including soil formation); 2) slope processes (+ soil erosion); 3) channel
processes. All possible states can be record as inequalities, describing processes ratios.
Channel cutting creates the soil system fluctuations. The nature of slope catena changes
is depending on its positions in upstream, in the middle or lower parts of river basins.
Since time slope catena can changes the incidence, become concave or convex. Main
change touches the soil horizons of group , sometimes of groups . The steepness
increasing decreases the vertical migration intensity, which changes the structure of soil.
Channel junction points are dynamic areas of flood plain with variety processes of
flooding the plain and formation new channel, with deleting of separate pieces of flood
plain and disastrous quick their creation. Flood catena filling by alluviums is a complex
process, combining short-period phases of accumulation or destruction of soil cover and
long-period trend of constrative alluvium accumulation and finds its expression in flood
plain soil structure. These processes have different frequency in river basins, but the
separate places exist inside basins, where soil process has stability. We can discriminate
types of such places, where soil-geomorphic system has determined state. Their spacetime analysis reveals the particularities of basin and soil system dynamics and
evolution.

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23

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.

THEORY AND PRACTICE ABOUT ECO-EMIGRATION


FROM ORIGIN AREAS OF THREE RIVERS

Zhang Yao-sheng
Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China
Abstract: Nature reserve of origin areas of three rivers is the largest one of
China, Overall plan of ecology protection and construction about reserve of Qinghai
three rivers originis the largest ecological construction program in China at present.
For get better protection results, numbers of herdsman need to moved into small down
from pastureland, over 5104 people will become eco-emigrants. How to allocation
these people is a key program for the reserve construction. Investment from government
is needed, but build a new continual eco-assistance mechanism is important also. There
are many questions about eco-emigration be good for discussion. But Subsequent
production and life of eco-emigration is the foremost one. Finance from downstream
area is reasonable but need to find better practice method and theory direction.

26

1. Introduction
South Qinghai of China was origin area of famous rivers such as the
Yangtse River, the Yellow River and the Lancangjiang River. Nature reserve of
origin areas of three rivers is the largest one of China, which located at QinghaiTibet Plateau with N latitude 3139-3612 and E longitude 8945-10223. Its
total area is over 30104 km2.There are 1.65104 lakes, 6.66104 km2 wetland,
0.24104 km2 jokul and glacier, and over 180 biggish branch rivers in the region.
The area has huge function of riverhead self-restraint, was called as Water
Tower of China. Three rivers can provide downstream area 60 billion m3 water
every year. As a result of globe climate changes and human activity, wetland
shrinking and grassland degradation progressively in recent years. It has leaded
to frequent disaster in downstream area. For important ecological status of the
area, government of Qinghai province has built a reserve in the region in 2000,
and was upgraded as a national reserve in 2003. From 2004-2010, 7.5 billion
RMB of national investment will be used to this reserve.13 programs will be
carry on, and eco-emigration is one of the key program.
2. Goals of eco-emigration
According to construction programming of the reserve, the human
population and livestock population has exceed rational capacity, there are
5.58104 people will be transfer from the reserve entire to settle sites, and in
same time, there are 320104 sheep unit* livestock will be moved out natural
grassland, about 287104 hm2 grassland will be forbid to grazing. Government
will build a 45 m2 house and a 120 m2 solar warm barn for every family.
Engineering investment of the eco-emigration is 0.631 billion RMB, build
housing 45.63104 m2 and solar warm barn 121.68104 m2 in total.
3. Achievement and subsequent plan of eco-emigration
Eco-emigration in the reserve was started at 2004, there are over 30
emigration communities has been built, over 6000 family was be allocated.
Water supply, power supply and communication establishment have worked at
this communities. These communities were distribution at 18 counties of Qinghai
province.
29 new communities will be build in 2007, and 6455 family, 31017 people
will be allocated. It has been as a key task of government.
4. Effects of eco-emigration
4.1 ecological effects
Eco-emigration can reduce population of herdsmen and livestock in the
reserve, so can lighten grazing pressure of grassland, lead to vegetation coverage
increased, biodiversity get protection, the trend of grassland degradation get
reversion.

27

IV

4.2 economical effects


As a result of immigrant convergence, they can management their
livestock in a larger scale and higher lever. Some people change their production
action, engage shop business, handicraft industry, passenger transport and
freight. This kind of production actions and herborization, grazing husbandry
was main three components of economy in this region.
4.3 society effects
From high land move to lower region, from inhabitation dispersedly into
small down, their conditions get obvious melioration. Basic establishment
construction such as build school and road, developing communication and
energy supply, increasing community systematization and society civilization,
promoting economy prosperity and development. There are 22 downs in the
region was be used recruit eco-emigrants.
5. Build new eco-assistance mechanism.
Emigrants can get 5 years subsidy from government at present, but after
assistance period them will have some trouble about livelihood. So, need a new
continual eco-assistance mechanism.
5.1 Sustainable prompting mechanism
Increase emigrants Capacity by training and education was be thought as
an important factor for build a continual eco-assistance mechanism. More
craftsmanship can help emigrants cope with livelihood and adapted to new
production action.
5.2 Foundation system of river basin
According to the principia of exploitation from whom protection belongs
to whom, destroyed from whom restoration belongs to whom, benefit to whom
expiation from whom, build a new foundation system of river basin, for extend
foundation input channel and get more financing sources.
5.3 Financing management committee
Build a management committee that made from official, specialist and
NGO perform funds allocation and surveillance, harmonize all kinds of
contradiction from different benefit bodies.
*

sheep unit: a statistical unit in China, 1 sheep is equal to 1 sheep unit, 1


horse or yak is equal to 5 sheep unit.

References
1. Engineering consultation center of Qinghai province, 2005, Overall plan of
ecology protection and construction about reserve of Qinghai three rivers
origin, (in Chinese).
2. WANG Lan-ying, 2001, Thinking of establishment the source of three rivers
ecologic safeguard funds, Nationalities research in Qinghai (social sciences),
12(4):16-19.

28

1.

1.

-
( )
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Eco-climatic characteristics of the Volga River basin within the limits of
Tatarstan are considered. Features of its temperature regime and regime of humidity,
feature of water use and pollution of water are revealed. The conclusions on an
ecological situation in regions of Tatarstan are drawn.

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29

IV

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30

1.


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31

IV

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32

1.

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Landscape and ecological features of Ural river, determining the extreme
amplitude of the annual flow, are examined. One of landscape and ecological features of
Ural river is the relatively good valley nature ecosystem health under intensive
economic use of basin natural resources. The substantial fluctuations of annual flow in
dependence on precipitation is the main factor of the hydrological state in the basin, of
the aquatic geosystems structure and dynamics, of the ichthyophauna species set, of the
territory recreation and tourism potential, etc. Mentioned landscape and ecological
features of Ural river substantially complicate as the environmental and geographical
situation in the basin as well problems related to the position of Ural river basin within
two states territories.

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33

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35

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, 2000. 192 .

36

1.


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River basins are attracting an increasing attention because of their significance
for developing land management strategies. In landscape geochemistry, little is
currently known regarding the spatial geochemical differentiation of channel flows in
heterolithic basins. This paper reports the findings of a study aimed at assessing the
geochemical differentiation of stream sediments in the basin of the Guadalhorce river
(S=3158 2), Spain. The basin intersects two zones of the Betic Cordillera the
Internal and External with contrasting parent lithologies. 338 modern stream
sediments with grain sizes less than 2 mm were collected at 159 sites along the channel
system. Grain size analysis (using sieving and laser granulometer) was undertaken to
determine sediment grain-size composition and evaluate the role of grain-size factor.
Sediment geochemistry was described in terms of carbonate contents and relative
abundances of major and trace elements in a bulk sample measured with X-ray
fluorescence spectroscopy (SiO2, TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O,
P2O5, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ga, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Zn, Zr). A set of weighted mean values
for the element concentrations, using the information about site-specific catchment size,
was estimated to characterize channel sediment geochemistry and to evaluate sediment
chemical differentiation in the Guadalhorce basin. The results obtained demonstrate the
significance of 3, Mg, r, Ni, Pb, in sediment geochemistry of the studied area.
The role of subbasin size and bedrock parentage on element variations (Mg, Ca, Na, Cr,
Ni, Zn, Sr, Rb, K, P,Cu) within the Guadalhorce system is discussed.


.
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[1].


(S=3158 2).
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37

IV

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1000-1500 .


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. SiO2,
TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Cr, Cu,
Ga, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Zn, Zr
, O2 .


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38

1.

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0,20
17,51

SiO2
58,08
Ba
355
377
TiO2
0,44
Cr
142
102
Al2O3
7,70
Cu
<15
31
Fe2O3
3,68
Ga
<11
13
MnO
0,08
La
<19
25
MgO
3,06
Nb
<12
15
CaO
10,51
Ni
83
64
Na2O
0,39
Pb
28
35
K2O
1,28
Rb
55
75
P2O5
0,09
Sr
181
285
...**
11,17
V
77
123
Zn
31
75
CO2 .
5,57
8,06
Zr
144
165
* -
** -

39

IV


,
.
Ni r , Sr, Ba, Zn, Rb, V, , , O2, Mg
.


. .
Mg, Ca, Na, Cr, Ni, Zn Sr.

, -
-.
(
)
O2 (Sd = 1,3-2,6) Si, Fe, Al, Ti, Na (Sd = 0,9-0,3).

n Sr (Sd = 1,1-1,5)
Ca . Ga, La,
Nb, Zn, Pb .
Cr
Ni (Sd = 0,5-0,2). , , Mg, Rb, Cu,
,
.
P, , Mg, Rb
, . u Sr (Sd = 1,2-2,0).

,
(Sd = 0,6-0,3).
Sr (Sd = 0,90,6).
, ,
(Mg+Fe+i),
(Na ) .
/Na . , , , , .

40

1.


:
N Ni,
Sr. Si ,
,
.

.
,
, r Ni (Sd = 0,5-0,3), ,
Na (Sd = 1,3-1,8).
.
Al,Ti, Fe, Pb, Rb, Ba, La V (Sd = 1,4-1,8).

1.

2.
3.
4.

.., .., ..
- //. . . .2. : , 2004. .489-500.
B. B. . M.: ,
1983. 160 .
. .:
, 1990. 335 .
Turekian K.K., Wedepohl K.H. Distribution of the lements in some major
units of the Earth's crust. // Geological Society of America Bulletin
1961.N72 . 175-192.

..
, .
As a result of the statistical analysis of the meteorological and hydrological data
for Lake Onego watershed territory for the period 1951-2004 some changes were
detected. The analysis of general tendencies in the long-term series shows the presence
of positive linear trends for annual air temperature for different weather stations located
in this region and the different linear tendency for monthly air temperature. In the
annual precipitation time series also the positive tendencies were detected, about 45
mm/50 years for the Lake Onego watershed.
41

IV

Numerical experiments on the ECHAM-4 model show changes in the climate


and the hydrological regime. Our estimation shows, that at new climate all water
balance elements, exclude river runoff, will grow up. The climate and water regime
changes will demand changes in management of basic branches of economy in the
region.



- , , 1950-2004 .



, ,
.
+0.9 50 (
).
1951-2000 . ,
95%-

3.5 5.1 50 . .
( 1.5/50 ).
0.6 - 1.3/50
.
1951-1995 .
( )
0, 5 10 ,
, ..
. ,
1990-
.
0
1 4 .
7 ,
42

1.

5,6 4,7.

,
1931-1960 .
.

.
1884 2002
217 225 .
-
8 .
(
. ),

. ,
50-80.

280-450
.

, ,
,

( 45 /50 ).
.
.


. ,

50 (1951-2000 .) .
, 1953
- .
, .

.
43

IV

,
, ,
.

.


-4/OPY3 .

2000-2100 .,
.

.
2050 . 0.5-1.7,
10 40 ,
20-60 .
.

.
:
1-2
10 20%

, . 1.
,
1

3%, 2
6 %.
1

3 %, 2 7 %.

44

1.

.1. .
(100% -
)

, ,

, , , ,
.




, ,
.

.. , 2 ..
1


. .. , .
2
, .
, , ,
, .
,

,
. -

45

IV

, -
,
.

: , .

, .

,
, .
.. .. (1977),
27 /2
,
7 /2 . . ,
,
, .

(, , 2004).

,
,
.
.

( ), (
), (, , ), (, , ). ,
25 /. .,
13 /. .; 50 /. . 65
/. . (, 1990).
, ,
.

( 200 )

46

1.

, (, ,
.) (, , 1996)
(10% ).
,
. ,
.

.
.
.

1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

. , -
, 1977. 224 .
.., ..
. // -
. , 2004. . 15-17.
.. - .
.: , 1990. 229 .
.., .., .., .., ..,
.., ..
.// . .2. : ,
1996. . 56-70.
.., .. - . //
: , , . : 1996. . 45-52.

.. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. ,
.. , ..

, .
Physical, chemical and biological factors and processes of water self-cleaning
are considered. At that special significance has the information about physicochemical
parameters of bottom sediments which are provided with the safety of buffer properties
sediments and sufficient content of dissolved oxygen.
47

IV


. 60 %
,
-
[1]. , ,
.
,
. ,
-, ,
[2-4]. .
,
.
. 1 ,
.
(, ), , , . ,
.
, ,
, pH - Eh.
-
.
(),
,
.

.
,
, .
.
,
,

. ,
.

48

1.


()

:
-, ,







,





-


Eh-.
Eh- -
() . Eh

.

[5]:
K co =

( Eh > 0 ) c
Eh max

h
, (1)
H

K co ;

49

IV

( Eh > 0) Eh 0;

h (Eh > 0);


Eh max (+650 );
H (10 ).
0,
, = 1
.
Eh max ,
, :
K SPa =

[( Eh = E + 0 ,8 ( 25 t 0 C ) + 200 ) > 0 ] * h
6500

(2)


. Eh > 0
+300 .
10 . ( Eh > 0) / Ehmax 0,46.
,

. ,
, .
KSPa 0,46.

.
2-7
.
, ,
. Eh > 0
+185 , +427 .
h/ H 0,20,7. 0,2 KSPa 0,46.

2 .
. . Eh > 0 +50 . ( Eh > 0) / Ehmax
0,077, h / H 0,2. 0,015 KSPa 0,2.
50

1.

. [5], Eh > 0
97,5 1 .


, .
()
(), ,
, ,
.

- ,
,
.

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.


( - ).
--: , 2005.
.. //. 2000. . 372. - 2. . 279-282.
.. //. 2002. . 385. - 4. . 571-573.
.. //. 2004. . 396. - 1. . 136-141.
.. . ... : , 2006. 24 .

,

1
.. , .. , .. , 2 ..
1

. .., .
2
. .., .
Development of the project of an information database on rare, disappearing and
benchmark soils of natural wildlife reserves of Russia. The database will promote
ordering of available data, attraction of attention of experts and the public to studying
and protection of soils.

,
,
. -

51

IV

,

. ..
. 1905-1906 .
. 30-
,
, . . ,
,
.
,
,
,
.


, .

.
,
,
, ,
,
. ,
, .
-
,
,
.
,
,
().

52

1.

,
29% , 40 .
.
,
, -, . , ,
.

-
,

.
,
, .
, ,
.
.
,


, . ,
, -.

, .
,
, .. -
(
1 2 ).

(, ..),
, (-,
).
,

53

IV

. ,
;
; , ..
- (,
..).
,
,
.
,

,
,

,
.
.
:
,

, ,
, ;
( ) ;

- , .
:
,
. :
. ..

, ;

;

54

1.

,
, -;
.

:
)
(), - ;
) , ,
;
) , , ;
) ,
, ;
) , ,
,
.
-
,
.


( )
1

.. , 1 .. , 2 ..
1

. .., .
2
. .., .

The purpose of research: building of the project of section in the Atlas of soils of
Russia including the compact description of the basic types of soils of Russia under the
specific standard a profile (its morphology) the basic pedogen processes forming a
profile facial distinctions of the specific types of the soils in various climatic regions
(on the basis of literary data), chemical properties, that is building of a mode of soil. To
reflect in the generalized and systematized kind diversification of the soils reflected in
the edaphic map really existing in the nature (M 1 : 15 000 000). Images of soils
correspond classic definition of soil as is natural-historical body with features of genesis
peculiar only to it, constitutions, properties and geographical diffusion.
55

IV

:

( ) ,
, - ( ), ,
. ,
( 1: 15 000 000). -
, ,
.

, -
, , .

,
, ,

.
:
)
,
( 1: 15 000 000).
) ,
;
)
, ;
) ,

.
)
, , .
( ),
, ,
. ,

56

1.

,
, ,
. ,
, .

, .
,
, ,

.
,
. ,
.

.
.
,
, ,
-
, , .
,
.
,
, .
, , , ,
, ,
.

,
- .
(, , ,
57

IV

.),

. .
( .-. .-.),
( )
. . .
- . . .
, ()
, . ,

: () ,

,
; ()
,

.
.
.
,
- . - , . -

.
,
. , , ,
(45 ). , , l
. . , . . . ..
, .

58

1.

;
,

.. , .. , ..
. .., .
Floodplain soils are the particular establishments. Soil-forming factors and river
activity as well are the features of their formation. The spring flood waters make the
microclimate warmer and bring the great number of microorganisms and some elements
into the soils. The developing of soil formation processes is specific in the floodplain
soils.
Floodplain soils are fertile enough for agricultural use; but the most preferable
way of its use is the haymaking and grazing.


, ,
, .
,
, , , ,
. ,
.

. .. :

.

, 29,2
. , 20 .
( , , , ). 9,2 . , 1,8 . . , ,
10 .
4 . 8
. ( .., 1987).

, .. .
80-90% ,
.
. .
59

IV


,
.

. (10-30 ), , ,
, .

. (2-3 ) ,
,
,
3-5 .

(, , , )
,
.
.

, , :
, ,
. .
, ,
, , . , , . .

, , .
,
, ,
,
.
,

.
, , .

60

1.

. 7 , 7 15
.
. 16 30
, , , .
( 30 )
, .
(75 ),
(50 ), (35 ).
. (1987),
14 . 1 .
, 120-1300 /
, 30-330 , 16-180 , 12-132
P2O5, 1-8 SO2.
, ,
(, 1992).

200 , - , :
, , -, -, ,
. .
(, ,
), , Melosira. ,
.
.., .
.
, ,
, , ,
- . ,
- ,

.

,
,

61

IV

, : , ,
, . , , .
, , .
(,1992), 25-30 /
, 10-15 /, 5-7 /
.
,
, ,
.
- .

- . , ,
. -
.

.
, ,
. ( )
,
,
, ..
, ,
.
,
, .

,
, , .
,
, .

,
, .

62

1.

. ,

, , ,
.

.
,
(60-80%).
,
,
(0,05-0,01 ) (< 0,001 ). ,

(0,005-0,001 ) (< 0,001 ).
, ,
- ,
.

.. (1958, 1968, 2005) ,
(, 1977). .., : , , , .

-

: - (,
, ), - (, ), (),
(, ).
-
- . ,
,
, - ,
.
,

63

IV

, ,
.
,

- ,
.
, .
.
- ,
- ,
.
-
:
, ,
,
. , .

. , .
,
,

. .
-
- - .



(,1992) ,
,
- .

,
.

64

1.

.
- .
.
, 200 /.
, , -
. , ,
.
,
- . ,

. ((N60 P100
60) 2-2,5 .
,
-
.

.
, , , , 80-90% .
,
( ) (. .). "",
. ,
2002 . .
, .

. , , ,
.
(
), .
, ,

.
.

65

IV

1
(/),

2002
(.)
15,2
76,2
21,8
23,0

2003
(.)
30,1
72,6
65,2
41,7

2004
(.)
30,4
90,0
76,6
71,1

2005
(.)
27,2
100,7
72,3
60,8

,
: , , ,
, , , ,
.
,
, , , . , .
.

1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

66

.. , - -
. . . ., ., 1991.
..
. .:
. ., , 1987. .
64-66.
.. .
, 1958, 8.
..
(). - , 1968, 2005. 295 .
.. . .: . ., 1978. . 106-121.

1.


..
- ,
, ,
Sustainable management of Armenias water resources is to a great extend
dependent upon preservation and rational use of natural resources and biopotential of
agrosystems of the Sevan basin.
Lake Sevan has national as well as regional significance which is the largest
source of freshwater in the Caucasus.
Diffusion of extensive negative processes puts forth the necessity of launching a
complex system of protection of ecosystems of the Sevan basin.
With a view of preventing ecological-economical and social consequences,
degradation of natural resources and agroecosystems, pollution of Lake Sevan, and,
preserving the latter as a prospective water-supply source for the Caucasus, we have
developed a complex system of organic farming in the Sevan basin the introduction of
which system is currently under way. The implementation of this system will render it
possible to reduce pollution of the lake with agricultural waste, and to switch to organic
agriculture and animal husbandry through joint farms.



(. 1).
,
.
. 70
35 3 , 45% ,
20 . ,
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
, . ( 2), ,
, ,
,
,
.
20

15 .

67

IV

.
, ,
, ,
, ,
.

, . -,
,
, .


. , - , : 7000 /
400 /,
.

. 1.

68

1.



. , ,
, ,
.
, ,

.
,
.
, , , .
, ,
,
. ,

, ,
, . , ( ),
.


.

.
,
.
- , , ,
,
,
.

,

,
.

69

IV


,
. , , .
, - ,
.
, , .

.
,
,
.
(, , )

.

,
,
, .

,
,
.
: ) ; ) ()
; )
; )
.
.
,
. , , , .
70

1.

5
: , , , , .

, 10 .
2005 . .
, -
:
,
;
-
;
, , .

-
-
..
. . .,
The environmental-geochemical investigations were performed in recent
hydromorphic landscapes being the final member of the geochemical catena in the
catchment area of the upper reaches of the Moscow River. The data obtained during
terrain and experimental studies confirmed the development of the soddy, meadow and
bog processes providing the nutritients and water supply of plants. These processes
contribute to the maintenance of biological cycles. Soil of the floodplains with the
exception of the primitive loamy sandy soils of the low floodplain are well supplied
with organic matter, easily hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus. In the
hydromorphic landscapes, plants are actively accumulating nitrogen, phosphorus, and
sulfur. The geochemical barriers have been assessed in terms of the environmental
situation in the landscapes. In order to improve the latter, a system of monitoring of the
landscape components should be developed.

-
- .
,
() (-).

71

IV

, , , , , , , .

. . , .
.
.
.
, .
,
.

. () ,
, .
, , .
, .
- 7,48,5. 1-2 /.
- . -
- .
- ,
.
.
,
. 0 - 25 ,
25 .
,
.
.

.

. -
.
. -

72

1.

. , , , , , , .
,
( . 5,97-8,55, . 4,75-7,80)
,
( 97%),
.
, , .

, ( 5%)
.
0,3 5,2 -. 100 .
- ,
,
.
, .
2,6 45,3 -.
100 .
.
.
( 91,7-98,8%)
. -
, ,
.
0,01
0,70%.
.
. - . 4% , .

. , .
.
: N ,
.
,
.
73

IV

55 240 /.

, , ,
.
.
, .

. , ,
,
.

.
.
1,5 - 2,0 .
.
110 201
/ - .
.
.
- -
. , ,
. ,
,
.
.

,
, .

, , , .
. ,
,
n()2. n02. -
,
. ,
74

1.

,
, ,

.
.
, -
. , ,
.
- .
.
.
.
- - .
( 51,5 /) - . 7,2 . 6,2. , , , , ,
.
, , , , .
, , , ,
, , , ,
.

. ,
,
.

.
,

.
,
, , , ,
, . 75

IV


, , ,
, .


,
.
, , ,
.
, .
, , .

- .

- .

.. , ..
,
Some approaches to the estimation of water reserves aqual complexes ecological
status are considered. The main quantitative measures (parameters) and scales are
suggested. The integral long-term observations as a basis for Upper Volga aqual
complexes quantitative estimation were used. Several different levels of aqual
complexes ecological status under anthropogenic influence were observed.

,
.
, ,
.
.
. , , , .
76

1.

.
( , , , .). .
- . .
,
.
,
, .

, ,
.

.
,
.
, , .
:
, .
, .
1 5 (, , ,
, ).
,
. .. , ,
,
77

IV


. ,
,
;
; - ;
, . : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 .
-
:
()
().
5
1 5 ( 1 ( 1,0), 2 ( =
1-2,5), 3 ( = 2,5-4,0), 4 ( = 4,0-6,0),
5 ( 6,0)).

1 ( 16), 2 ( = 16-32),
3 ( = 32-64), 4 ( =
64-128), 5 ( 128).

.
, ,
, , . ,
.

, .


.

.

, ,
, .

.
.
78

1.

, .
- . .
, ,
.

, .
,
.
.

.
, 07-05-00778-.

..
, .
Land use history due to its long-lasting impact is an important factor in
determining the structure of modern forests. Using a range of archival data and forest
inventory data, historical changes in forest cover and land use from the 1760 to the
present across a watershed area in southern Moscow region were investigated. The
research approach to investigation of forest dynamics was based on the reconstruction
of the forest cover for several time slices: 1) The General Survey of 1768; 2) the end of
the XIX century; 3) middle-end of the XX century.
The study showed that land use formed a distinct pattern best explained by soil
drainage: arable lands were concentrated on gently slopes with well-drained soils in
middle and lower watershed areas, while smooth poorly drained uplands in upper reach
were mostly forested. At the end of the XIX century 20-25-years old birch-aspen forests
dominated the watershed area. Reforestation within the watershed started in 1890, the
first plantation of spruce and pine were conducted on glades and clearcut areas, and
later on abandoned agricultural fields. Over the past century areas of spruce forests
were significantly increased with simultaneously decreasing areas of small-leaf forests.

79

IV


. ,
, .
.

,

( , 2000).



. (, 2002), .
( 26 2)
30 - -
-
(, , 1992). .. (1969) - -
.

XVIII .
. , ,
.
: 1) 1768 ., 2) XIX
, 3) - XX .

1760- . (100 , 1:8400 )
(,
1354, 1355). ,

.
ArcView GIS 3.1.
1760 .
80

1.

1990 .
, : 1)
; 2) ; 3) .
60- . XVIII .
: 1%, 43%, 6%, 48%,
1%. 969 , 32 2.

.
,
. ,
.
:
, .
XVIII .
( ),
, ,
.
.. (,
1287) -
XIX .
. -- ,
, ..

,
.
XIX . 20-25 ,
, , .
1890
. 1890-1896 . , -
109 .
. .
1907 . : ,
,

320 . .
,
. ,
.
. 2-
81

IV

3- .
.

30
. ..

.


1957, 1968, 1990 2001 .,
. 1917-1935 .
.
,
, (,
, 1960). 1936 ., 1940
.
. 1936 . .
,
,
III-II .
1950- . 75%
, ,
,
, . 17%
, (42%) .
1950-1970- .
,
.



- ,
(, 1961).
-
, 1957 2001 .
85 94%.
,
( 2 16%),
- 82

1.

. 50
33%, - 7 15% (. 1).
1
1957-2001 .
1957
2001

, ,

, %

, %

46,1
3,3
113,8
8,2
-
97,7
6,9
212,4
15,2

705,5
50,1
465,2
33,3
-

24,1
1,7

2,2
0,2
8,1
0,6
-
13,2
0,9
32,3
2,3

27,4
1,9
229,2
16,4

187,0
13,3
197,1
14,1

43,6
3,1
2,6
0,2
,
38,7
2,8
1,7
0,1

33,7
2,4
24,6
1,8
,

4,7
0,3

211,8
15,1
80,2
5,7
:
1406,9
100,0
1396,0
100,0

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

. : , 2000. 221 .
.., ..
- . , 1960. 30 .
.. .
: - , 2001. 163 .
.. .
. . . . 1969. 22 .
.., .. , , (
// . , . : , 1992. . 28-48.
.. ( - ). // . : - / , 1961. . 83-86.

83

IV



(1944-1989 .)
..
,
There is made the list of the halophytic plants met in delta of the Amu-Darya.
The sequence of the time periods appropriating to various average values of outflow,
acted in delta is allocated and characterized. For the first time the line regression with a
high degree of the approximation, connecting species richness among the halophytic
plants of the Amu-Darya delta on the allocated time periods with average values of
outflow in these periods is presented. For the first time the line regression, connecting
percent halophytic plants in species richness of the Amu-Darya delta on the allocated
time periods with average values of water river mineralization in these periods is
presented.


[1]. ,
,
,
, .
, , -, ,
.
265 ,
1947 1989 .
[2]. ,
.
, (43,4%)
.
,
, [1, 3], [4],
[5] .
,
, ,
1944 1989 . [6]. , ,
5 ,

84

1.

, : 1944-1960, 1961-1970, 19711977, 1978-1981, 1982-1989 [7].


, ,
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
, .

(.1.),

:
3
2
Y = -0,0008X + 0,0539X - 0,2485X + 49,767
R2 = 0,9692,
X 3/; Y
, ; R2 .
.1. ,

,
.
1960 .

-,
.


, -,
.
53% . 85

IV


. 1956 . 1-
.. , 1958 .
.
.
1961-1970 .
.
-
20% [6].

; 1962 . -
- .

22%,
1%.

,
.
1982-1989 . -
32%,
42%.
(. 2.),

:
2
Y = 0,00008X - 0,1321X + 98,158
R2 = 0,9317,
X
/; Y , ; R2 .
, . 2., ,

. 529 / - 1239 / 1982-1989 . [7].


-
. -
19611970 . , ,

86

1.

,

1%.

.
1971-1977 . 28%,

23%
. 1970- .
19821989 .

.
, , 1970- . ,
,
,

.

1.
2.
3.
4.

.. Halophyta // . , 1973.
.. - . ., 2003.
..
. , 1982.
.. // . .
. -, 1981.

87

IV

5. .. . .1. ,
1961.
6. ..
(1944-1989) //
. .1. , 2006.
7. ..
50 // - . , 2004.


..

, .
,


..

, ,

.
.

.
, .
, ,
..
, ,
.
, ,
, .
. ,
.
(1883-1909 .)
,
,
, .
.
.
88

1.

()

.
-,
,
.
,
,
.
-, ,

.
..
, , , ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
.
()
, .
,
,
:
i ,
i .

()
,
.
,
,
, , ..
, , .

, .

, ,

89

IV

, . ,
, ,
,
.
, ,

, .

,
. ,
, . , ,
, , , ,
.
, ,
. .
,
, ? . .
,
,
.
,
.
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
.
.. : , ,
,

, ,
.
,
( ). , , ,
Homo sapiens

90

1.

. ,
, .

1.
2.

3.
4.

.. . .: , 1997.
.. : ,
, . / .. :
, 2003.
.. . ., , 1998.
.. : .
: , 2004.


(- )
.. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , ..
. .. , .
It is recommended to prepare The Complex Red Book of Vladimir region using
basin-ecological method of approach. The preparation of The Complex Red Book
should be done in several intercommunication ways such as biological, pedological,
hydrological, geological, noospherical and others. The preparation of The Red Book of
soils is especially acute because it is the base of The Complex Red Book as well as
regional or federal levels.



.
.

.

(, 1979,
1989, 1990, 2005 .) .
:
(, . . ..
, 2000, ),
( ., 2001, ).

(, , 2000, 2006 .).
91

IV



, .
,

.
. .

,
( ., 2004, 2007)
(. 1). , (, 2002;
., 2003 .).
: , ()

(, 1984, . 5).
, - ,
, ,
, . ,
, , ,
.

, , (.
. 1). , ,
- .
.
?
- . ,
, ,
, , , ,
.

92

1.

, -
,



- -





,
,

-


, - - -
.

, - , - -

- .

, . .. , : 80-90 %
45-50 % , 30-35 %, 35-40 %,
40-60 %.
93

IV

, ( )

.
()
. , .
,


( .. , ..)
( .. , ..
)
( ..
.. ). , ,
.. , 1-
,
..
.. (, 2006, 370 .)

- .
, .

,
.

,
,

1

.. , 1 .. , 2 . , 2 . , 2 . ,
3
..
1
. .. , .
2

3

There are three types of floodplain soils in the northern part of Mongolia: the
sod saturated soils, meadow saturated soils and swamp saturated soils. The
distinguishing features of morphology of these soils are the presence of gley-forming
and cryogenic processes. The content of nutrients is large but they are not available for
plants for the most part. Some elements are scarce so mineral fertilizes are necessary.
The soil degradation in northern Mongolia is insignificant but there are some sources of
soil cover disturbance.

94

1.

(. , ,
, ) . . ,
- . . .
, , ,
. ,
.
, , ,
.

,
.
, ()
.
.
.
,
.
, ,
,
.

, 3 ,
. , ,
8-10 ,
.
, .

,
.
, ,
.

, .

95

IV



- . , . ,
,
, - -,
.
. . , ,
, .
(1,8-2,4%) (0-20 58; 0-50 67; 0-100
84 /), (2035 -/100 ), , , - ,
.
.

-
-
. ,
. : ,
-- ,
, , n-Fe-, .

:
, , .
(6-10%)
(0-20 241; 0-50 322; 0-100 411 /),
,
(40-80 -/100 ). -
,
,
. ,
96

1.

-,
.

-
-
.
, ,
, .
- , .
. .
.
- (7-10%) (0-100 800-850 /) ,
. - ,
(30-60 -/100 ), - ,
.
, ,
, , ,
.
, , , .

. .


.
.
, . , .

97

IV


- , .
-
.
,
. .

.

. ,


2-4 , .

, :
, ,
,
, ,
.
- .

..
. .. , .
This article is devoted to the termogravimetric characteristic temperatures of the
alluvial soils and they granulometric fractions. Meanings of this temperatures are
strictly connected with energy of activation of termoactive and termoinert organic
matter and strength of connection of hygroscopic water with the organomineral matrix.
The difference of durability of organic compounds of different granulometric fractions
and some regularities are shown in this item.


, , -

98

1.

,
.
( )


.

, .
,
, ,
(, 1954; , 1970; , , 1977;
Shnitser, Hoffman, 1964).
.
, .
(. , . )
( , . ,
- ) .

. 1.
.

, (
.

: 1

7)
7
( , 2004).
(. 1).

( , - ) Q-1500D . , . , . , ,
(). 20-1000 , 10/.
(. 1),
.
,
, .
.

99

IV

1
(n=5)

4,2
1,9
0,8
0,8
0,0
0,0

7,1
5,0
2,8
2,3
2,1
2,1

10,9
8,1
5,5
4,7
4,2
3,1

8,5
6,9
4,8
3,6
4,3
4,3

.
. . . .
(0,01- (0,005(>0,01) 0,005) 0,001)
12,0
13,3
9,6
12,8
12,0
11,2

23,9
28,0
24,5
35,7
28,1
19,9

19,9
27,7
43,9
51,6
60,0
68,9

AU1
0-10
6,6
4,1
5,2
8,0 7,1 48,3
7,9
AU2
10-20
4,1
1,7
4,3
6,7 5,1 36,9
8,6
AU(q)
30-40
2,4
0,5
3,1
4,8 5,1 25,6
6,0
AU(q),g
65-75
2,5
0,7
1,9
4,1 3,6 13,5
10,3
~~
C(ca),g
90-100
2,6
0,0
2,1
3,2 4,6
0,0
10,3
* ,

16,5
23,7
12,9
23,6
20,3

27,3
30,8
55,5
52,6
69,5

8,1
5,0
2,9
2,4
1,9
0,3


, %

44,2
31,0
22,0
0,0
0,0
0,0

(<0,001)

AU1
0-3
AU2
3-22
AU(q)1
30-40
AU(q)2
65-75
~~
C(ca),q1
100-110
~~
C(ca),q2
130-140

(<0,001)

. . . . .
,

(0,01- (0,005
(>0,01) 0,005) 0,001)

, % .
( , )


.
, 1971; , 1985, ,
, 1979, Shnitser, 1964, Turner, 1962 . ,
, 10 , .
. 2 (), - () - ()

.
.
, ,
(. 2).
.

( , )

(229 245 ).
100

1.


.

() ,

,

,
.

. ,
. 2. , (),


,
(


. )

,
. ,
( ) 380,
302, 347.

( ) .
(532),
(539), (548) (556). , , .
. 2 ,
. ,

101

IV

101 ( ),
137. 116.
2

*, 23,1 36,7 101,4 244,5 380,4 450,9 531,8


, 25
61
142
289
430
480
586

102

682,6
810

, 21
23
74
169
310
402
480
585
**,
1,2 9,0 18,2 22,1 28,6 26,7 25,5
70,8
n***
27
23
27
26
27
9
27
0
14
0
,
21,7 37,1 109,3 236,1 352,8 448,8 556,1
727,0 920,0
, 25
51
126
268
372
495
582
810
, 17
25
78
210
311
400
518
635
,
2,4 7,2 12,0 14,6 17,6 29,1 16,2
52,4
n
27
27
27
27
27
23
27
0
26
1
,
21,9 39,5 120,6 221,0 343,3 459,7 548,2
798,5 946,6
, 25
50
151
238
404
534
573
897 999
, 17
26
95
191
292
419
524
690 890
,
2,1 6,6 13,8
9,8
24,1 30,8 16,0
52,8 35,4
n
27
27
27
27
27
26
27
0
27
19
,
819,2 899,4
22,6 36,2 137,0 228,6 302,3 455,8 538,9
, 25
50
162
271
357
494
570
909 950
, 20
26
106
184
254
421
517
672 840
,
1,5 6,9 15,3 20,8 23,5 18,6 10,9
72,5 29,3
n
42
42
42
38
42
42
42
0
42
13
,
21,7 40,5 115,7 243,0 346,8 453,4 538,0 669,8 720,8 865,0
, 25,0 55,0 143,0 288,0 393,0 490,0 583,0 700,0 792,0 929,0
, 18,0 29,0 93,0 192,0 301,0 355,0 490,0 612,0 640,0 815,0
,
2,1 5,9 10,7 19,9 21,3 28,5 22,9 29,0 35,6 42,7
n
43
43
43
43
42
41
43
25
43
11
* ; ** ; *** . ( )

. .

. .

1.

- ,
,
.

-

..
, .
Agricultural developing in the south taiga zone of the Eastern European Plain
started since the end of the middle Holocene. Then, in the second half of the first
millennium A.D. ancient Ugro-Finnic people developed valleys of the upper Kama and
its tributaries located further to the north within the middle taiga. It was a forced
reaction on martial nomad cattle-breeders invasion during the Great Migration of
People.
The new developed areas were completely isolated from the outer world except
for the only way by river, where ground wooden castles were built. Since that, a number
of large agricultural ecosystems (hundreds of kilometers long and 200-300 kilometers
wide) along the river valleys developed according to the same pattern up to the 20th
century. They are called "porechie" that means in Russian a "near-river-area". Due to
isolation the agricultural spatial pattern was never essentially disturbed or changed by
social events up to the 20th century. Thanks to very strict climatic limitations for fieldhusbandry these people practiced subsistence farming and ecological balance was kept
up due to free growth of the agricultural ecosystems (porechie) along the river valleys.
This area gives a unique opportunity to study agricultural ecosystems which
spatial pattern remained since the early Middle Ages.



.., - .
,

( ),
,
, .

. - , - ,
, , , ,
, VIII-III . ..,
,

103

IV

. ,
, , ,
,
, , . III-IV ..
. - ( ) ,
, , ,
[1].
,
-
, .

() .
, -, ,
. IX-XII ..
, "" . [1], .
( . ),
( ), .
;
. . XIV
,
"". ( ),
. ,
, .
,
.
( -)
IX-XII .. .
, - :
.
,
;

;
, . ;
104

1.

"-" .
.
. . (
).
,
, 1-3 , (), , (, ..),
. ,
.
,
XIX .,
. 1263 .
"
", 1463 . .
,
, ,
, -.


- .
. , XVI . -
( , ()
) [2].
, (),
, (,
..),
20 .

, 1701 .
.
, ,
,
,
[3].

105

IV

XIX ,
, ,

,
, , ,
.

,
.
:
,
( ) ,
;


;
,

,
;
-

.

.
, .
.

,

.

106

1.

1. , ., 1997. 758 .
2. .., .. . , 1958.
245 .
3. ..
II XVII , .:
, . V, ., 1962. . 78-95



..
, .
In the report it is paid attention to a wide circulation on Russian plain of the
karstic processes rendering in a number of areas essential influence on a mode of a river
drain. Influence of a wood on water balance and danger of destruction of woods in
karstic areas is emphasized. The karstic area in the center of Russian plain where
extreme displays of risk factors are concentrated is allocated: the big degree of fire
danger, the big size of a parameter of the relation of felling areas to forest resources, a
significant degree of destruction of woods, etc. The site of a watershed of pools of two
large rivers - Volga and Volkhov in northeast of Valdai hills where it is located natural
complex reservation Karstic lakes is marked. The general data on landscapes
are given. It is paid attention on unique role of these natural complexes in
water balance. It is told about a modern condition of landscapes of reservation in
connection with constant increase in recreational loading and absence of the organized
protection (with application of the analysis of space pictures). It is offered to allocate
water-security zones of reservoirs, in view of distribution of underground water
basins on karstic water-separate sites of the large rivers.

1.
.
. ,
.
.

( ), ,

.
2.
.
.
, , .
.
107

IV


. ,
, ,
. ,
,
(1000-2000 2 ),
, ..
.
, .
3. ,
, , . , ,
, , ..,

,
. ,
.
. ,
, , ,
, ,
, .
.
,
,
.
4.
,
: ,
,
, ,
..,
.
. ,
, , ,

108

1.

, . , ,
- .
,
,
.

.
1977.
( 17,7 . ,
4 . ), - .
5.
,
, .
(. 1) .

(), (), .
, , ,

, ,
.
6.
-


, , ,
. .

.
. 1.

( 1:100 000)
,
,
,


.




109

IV

, .

.
7.
,
.
,
, (. 2)
, (- ), ,
(-
), (- ),
(- ).

(- - -
). -,

,
. 2.
,
(11
.


). 10 .
,
-
,
www.geoengine.nima.mi
().
;
;
90- . ; ;
.
;

.
, . ,
, .
, ,
.
,
.
.
. ,
10-15 , ,
110

1.

,
100 .
,
, . :

,
. , ,
.

,
,
, .
8. ( )



.

.. , ..
1
, .
2
. .. , .

The surface drain is the result of geomorphologic activity of flow drain which
influence on impure geological substratum. The geomorphologic situation of concrete
site is determined in the process of the territory ecological estimation. The count of
drainage territory size and tier hierarchical situation in river network is also necessary.

, ,
. . ,
. -

111

IV

(..),
.


.

: (.), ,
( .. ,
..), (..).
(, ..).
..
, .
..
.
,
-, - ( )
, .. .
, , . ,
, .

, ,
, , ,
.
, .


.

(. 1).
, ,
, . ,
, ,
.
()
, -

112

1.

.
() ,
,
.
1

()
1
3
12
48
192
768

,
2
7
30
125
560
2500
11250

, 3/
0,0014
0,006
0,032
0,560
25,0
112,5

, 3/
0,07
0,3
1,25
5,55
25,0
112,5

, 3/
6
12
40
140
500
2000

,
/
0,10
0,10
0,12
0,19
0,30
0,40


,
, ,

,

- .
, , ,
, ,
.
10 / ,
,
.

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4,8 , 0,7 , 5,2 , 4,4 , 13 .
, .

, .

113

IV

.
, . () ,
.
, .

..
, .
.

.
, .

. , .
, :
,

- ..

- ().
().
,
.
.
,
.

, , .
, .

114

1.

, ,
,

.

-,
( = 4-4,5), ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
. , ..
,
,
.
, 0-10 10-20
, .
()
. 7,41. ( = 8,15). , ,
, ,
.

.
, , , .
.
5-10 .
(010 10-20 ).
- .
,

, . ,

, . ,
.
.

115

IV


. ,
.
.

. ,
,
.
(3 /) 2 . 23,5,
8 , 14, 4,6 10, 3 .
, .
2-3 . ,
,
.
,
, .
,
. , - .
5-10 . ,
.


.
,
. ,
.
2, 3-4, 5-6 .

:
, ;
;
;

116

1.

,
.
.
0,04 / 4,961 / .

( 30 ).
06-0596502---.

117

IV

2.


.. , ..
, .
The various action directed on increase of a water level in system of Lebyazhie
(Swann) lakes do not give appreciable results. Moreover, they have disturbed the natural
development of lake s geosystem. Restoration of Lebyazhie (Swann) lakes not probably
without creation of the landscape plan. On the basis of this plan the scheme of
admissible anthropogenic loading will recommended for lake s geosystem.

,
,
.

-, .
,
.

.
. , , .

.
,
3-4 ,
. - : , (
), .
73,29 .

. -
,

2-2,5 .
, ,
10-16 .
118

2.

, . , ,

- [1].
85 ( )
75 . . - 100-250
,
- . 12,1 2.
.
90
. ,
,
, ,
.
:
(
. , -3, . . , .
30,0 2;

). :
[1], [2].
10-15
.
,
(, .),
. ,
( , 30- , ,
).
:

. , , ,
[3].

, ;
- .

119

IV



. ,
() , ,
. ,
.
. ,

, [4].

.
- , 1994 .
. 2006 .
. 1896 3 .
45 .
,
, ,
. ,
, .
, , ,
. 1994 .,
, 328 /,
.
, ,
1100 /.
1,8 .
, ,
.


- , ,
, ,
. , .

.

120

2.

1.
2.

3.

4.

.., .. //. 1996. - 3. .


15-20.
..
: . . . . .
, 1996. 26 .
.., .., .., .. //
-
. . , 2006. .371-372.
//www. Kazan.org.ru.

.. , ..
. .. , .
-
.
,
. ,
, .
- ,
,
, (
, 2004).
-
,
.
,
, - .
. ,
, , , .

.

121

IV

-
: - ,
.
, .
, - . , ,
,
. ,
,

.

,
.

.
, ,
.
, , , ,
,
.
,
.

. ,
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.
, .

.
. ,
, (, 1976; , , 1977;
, , , 2004).
, , ,
.
.
122

2.

: ,
.

1:100 000.

.
-
, -.

, ,
,
, .
. .
I ,
I , , II , III-
II- ,
I- . ,
,
.

,
: , ..
.
, :
l, () L,
F, L, B;
,
L ( ,
, ),
D, K,
I, h,
A.

. 1.

.

.

123

IV

l,
L,
L,
B,
F, 2

L,
D, /2
K
I, %
h,
A

.
40
201
42
20
840
1,3
263,1
0,31
0,48
0,18
11,6
2,2

.
108
650
65
49
3185
1,4
990
0,32
0,69
0,2
22,6
1,42

4
:
(, ); 4-5
(, , -, ,
.), ;
3-4 ,
10-15 (, , );
6-7 (,
-, , , -, ,
.),
.

.
1-
, , (),
(). 2-3 ,
(), (),
,
. ,

.
700 . .
,

124

2.

, .
.
2- 4-5
(, , - ,
, . ),
. ,
6-8
15 . , - , - . 2 (
. ), .
,
(-, .).
.

.
, ( II ),
. .
3- 3-4 ,
10-15
(, ).
. . . .
-, .
, .

. .
4- 6-7
(, -, ,
, , , , ,
. ). , .
16 40 (, ).
.
, 2
( ,
. ).
, , . -

125

IV

. I 13
(-, , ). .
- ,
.

.
- ,
.
, ,
-
, , .
,
.
- . ,
1-3 , ,
.
10-15 . .



..
, .
Some features of the aqual complexes which were formed at the peat outworks
as a result of the peat excavation by quarry diging were considered. Morphometrical
features of these complexes are defined by the pit extraction technology. The degree of
pit water accumulation is determined by characteristics of a mineral bottom of bogs, the
geomorphological position of a pit bogs, the functioning of a drainage network. The
formation of a vegetation cover of these aqual complexes occurs rather intensively. The
small sizes of a quarry and shallowness are favourable for such a process. Accumulation
of organic mass in the form of floating bog can be a sign of the cumulative function
peculiar to bog complexes.


( 10%). , ,
,
.
, .
.

126

2.

.
() ,
.

.
( 4-12 ) (
), ,
1,5-2,0 , 0,5-3,0 .
10-20% .
( 45
125, 60 125 60 200 ), . 1
4 , 5-10%
. ,
.
,
, . , , ,

.


.
.
50-90 .
. , ,
: , ,
.

-, . , ,

, .

, .
, :
,
127

IV

,
.
.
,
. ,
,

125-130 .
132-135
. , II
,
- .
. ,
,
,
, , . ,
, ,
15
.
, ,
.
,
.

,
. , , .

. ,
. ( 1 ), .


.

128

2.


, .
, - -
.
, , , , , .

40-60 ,
.
0,5-1 .
,
.
.
, , , .
1974 2004 . ,
: 30
2 .
, .
.
.
.
,
. ,
.

. ,

( ),
,
.
, 07-05-00778-.

129

IV


.. , .. , ..
, .


.
, ,
,
- .
,

, .

: .
, ,
, , ,
, ,
.

, .

: , .
,
- .
,
.
,
, ,
, .



190 . , 70 . , 73 . , 40 . , 5 .
. 20 8 .

130

2.

, , - .
,
,
, 32 % , 75 % , 68 %
.
65 % ,
30 % ,
. 46 % .
, , ,
,
. , , , 65 %. :
,

;
;
, ;
;
.
( 1992 .)

, 2006 . . , -
0,3 : 5,7 5,4;
5,6 5,4.
, ,
0,1-0,2 .
. 1

. , 4
0,6 .
.
6,0 5,5,
0,5. .
131

IV

10

32,4

17

49,9

27

34,8

22

57,8

38

20,0

39

14,0

14

7,5

26

9,0

51

12,1

53

12,1

52,8

21,8

46

19,5

2000. 2004.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

6,1

5,8

0,3

6,4

6,0

0,4

6,9

6,3

0,6

6,8

6,3

0,5

6,5

5,9

0,6

6,1

5,9

0,2

6,3

5,7

0,6

6,4

5,8

0,6

5,8

5,2

0,6

6,2

5,9

0,3

5,8

5,4

0,4

6,0

5,5

0,5

5,6

5,4

0,2


, ,
:
1995 . 37 %, 2004 .
49 % (. 2).

, .
- . -

132

2.

100 . ,
20-22 . .
,
7
0,5 .
5,6 , 2014
5,2 , 2020
4,9.
2014 .
. ,
( 5,1-5,5). 73%. 2020 .
( 5,1-5,5) 80 . .
< 5,0.
2

1995
2000
2004


, %
< 5,0
37,3
46,9
49,2

,
, %
>5,0
62,7
53,1
50,8

,
,
,
. ,
,
.

-

.. , ..
. .., , .


. 133

IV

-
, -
(, 1955).
,
,
.
, - ,
- ,
.

.
.
,
.
, . , .
40 300 .

: .
,
. ,
- ().
,

(, 1972).

(. 1 2).
.
.


. ,

. , ,

, .

134

2.

. .

. 1. . : - , - (1) (2)

-
,
. I II

( 1,5 4,0 ).
18 70-100 .
- ,
(. . 1 2).

,
, (, 1982).

.


.
. ,
135

IV

-,
, .
(). , ,
.
,
.

,
(. . 2).
:
,
.

. 2. . : -
( - , -- ), -
; -
(1) (2)

,
-
136

2.

- ,

,
,

.

. ,
(, 1973).
, ,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

.. . ., 1955.
.. . , 1972.
. . .
. . . , . 3. ., 1982.
..
. .:
, . 92. ., 1973.
.. . ., , 1979.

-
:
( )
.. , .. , ..

, .
In article attempt to estimate influence of hydroalluvial works on an
environment and occurrence as a result of natural-and-anthropogenous systems
career's lakes, which further function as natural.

,
,
, .
137

IV


,
, .

: ,
, .
,

.


, ,
,
,
.
, , ,
, -
, 2 7 ,
.

- , :
2,5-3 ,
,
(
), (3-4 .)
, - ,
,
(
),
, ,

( 5 . ), .

(, 1988).
, ,
, ( ).
138

2.

10-15 , 6-15 (20) . 6-7 (10) , 35 .


, (
)
- ,
.
( 13,5 2,
),
.

(A, B, C, D)
(A1, B1, C1) (. 1, 2). ,
-
, .

(), ,
.
3- ,
, , .
-
-
- .
.
Analist 700 Perkin Elmer.
:
1) ,
, 1
15 .

. 7 .
, , D .
1, 1 1
. , D, 1, 1, 1 .
D, 1 1 .

139

IV

. 1.

. 2.

2)
, , 5
(, 1, 1),
, , ,

140

2.

,
(, , , ) .
3) ,
(1-5 ) (, C, D, C1), (
1),
, .
2-3 ,
: .
-.
4) ,
, ,
, ( 2 146 ).

.


.
,
,
, .
,
, ,
( , 2003):

( , , , );
, (


), ,
, - ;
.
,

,
. ,

141

IV


,
,
,
, , ,
.
,
() . (, 2006) ,
40 /,
- (-),
(, -) 4,3 /.
, .
,

,
. ,
, .
,
: ,
,
. (, ,
) ,
, , .
,
( 1).
, 2 (,
D), .

1. .. :
/ .. . .: , 1988. 271 .,
., .
2. 1 -

: 17.07.2003 .
142

2.

1549: . 17.07.2003 . 3107- / .. . 9 .


3. .. , // - : , , : III - (, 25-27 2006 .) / . . .. , .. .
: . . . -, 2006. . 153-157.



.. , ..
, .
The significant feature of the agriculture in Poduralskoye plateau within
Orenburg oblast is the visible sharp differentiation of farms by the structure of their
agricultural land use. As result of the agricultural land type distribution structure
analysis, four main types of farms were defined and described.
The degree of the environmental health compatibility of land structure of farms
is described. This degree was described with the analysis of generalized data from
ability of crops to protect soil.


, - -
.
.
, .


. ,

.

.

143

IV


():
1) 50%,

- ( .1 I).
, 40-45%
.
50% ,
40%. ( 2-3%) ;
2) 50 70%,
( .1 II).
10 25% .
14% , 3%.
, 40%
;
3) 70%,
- -
( .1 III). 5-10%.
35% 30%.
15 % .
12% 10%;
4) 50-60%
(15-25%),
- ( .1 IV).
15%. 10% . ,
45% 30%.
,
, , - ,
,
.
,

.
. ,
,
144

2.

,
,
( .., 1976).

. 1.
. : I, II, III, IV
(I .
; II -
, III - ;
IV - ; 1.
, 2. ; 3. ; 4. .


(, 1996; .. , 2004).
.
145

IV

,
56,2% ( )
61,1% ( ).
.

.

60-70%,
.
5560%,
.
,

,
45-50%.
, , , .

1. .., .., .., ..



- ( ).
/: - . -, 2004. 252 .
2. .
: - , 1996. 132 .
3. .. . : - , 1976.48 .



.. , .. , .. , ..
. .. , .
The different economic activity like agricultural, aquacultural, recreational,
transport etc. of Central Russia in historical period influenced natural landscapes. The
economy of settlers was of the same type in landscapes with similar conditions almost
in all historical chronosrezes*. Types of the land use of all contemporary landscapes in
Central Russia frequently changed at different scales. The results retain in several
changes of landscape complexes. The kind and the force of economic activity were not
146

2.

constant during time. However, the changes were different even within the landscapes
of the same type. They were under control of natural and socio-economic factors. The
latter is closeness to settlements. The former determines link between a type of a
landscape and a type of land use.
*Chronosrez is russian archaeological concept. It means a period while material
culture is homogeneous.


:
, , , .
- ,
, .

, , ,
. ,

.

,
- .
,
. -.

-- .
.
, .. (
) .
.

, , .
, -
.

147

IV

. .
IX-VIII ..
( ).
,
-, .
, , /
.
(
),
;
, -
( ).
- -
--
-
.
(VIII- . ..)
.
, , , ,
; :
, , ,
.
, .
,

.
,

.

. ,

.
,

.

148

2.

, , -, , .

XIVXVI .:
.
,
.

,
.
,
,
.

. ,
,
. - . . ( ).
XVII-XVIII . /
, XVIII
. XVIII
34%, XVIII
39%

.. ,
.
,
. ,
. ,
.
- ,
. ,

. ,
XIX . .

149

IV

XIX
,
, ,
.
()
, , .
/ : ,
.., .
, , .
: , ,
, , ( .)
( .), -
..
, , / .
XX , ,
. .
,
.
. /
, .
, ,
,
.
35 . 1,5-2,
, .
,
. . 60-70 .
, ,
, ,
. 70-80 . XX .
, ,
. ,
. , XX .
, , ,
, .

150

2.

,
.
,

,
.
, . ,
,
( ) ( .) .

.

1

.. , 2 .. , 1 .. , 1 ..
1

. .. , .
. .. , .

Alluvial soils of the right bank of Oka river were investigated.


Geomorphological profile included 5 sections. There are some sod alluvial soils and
meadow alluvial soil were dissected.
Soil structure and water-stability are satisfactory. These soils by their
agrophysical properties are available for plowing.
Mineralogical composition of these soils contains quartz, feldspors and micas.

.
,
. . :
( , ,
1-02), (
, , 2-02),
( , , 3-02),
(
, , 4-02) ( , , 5-02).
50-60- .

.

151

IV

(. 1).
.. ( ) (. 2).
1

(%) ()
10,25- 0,05- 0,01- 0,005<0,001 <0,01
0,25
0,05
0,01
0,005
0,001
, 1-02
0-20
33,3 30,8
20,2
3,5
5,5
6,7
15,7
27-37
25,8 32,8
26,0
4,3
4,8
6,3
15,4
50-60
27,7 51,1
12,1
1,7
3,9
3,5
9,1
80-90
39,4 51,0
1,4
1,9
3,5
2,8
8,2
94-103
13,2 54,3
17,4
4,0
4,2
6,9
15,1
115-125
54,3 37,4
3,8
0,9
0,8
2,8
4,5
, 2-02
0-5
18,8 21,9
30,7
7,0
11,6
10,0
28,6
5-10
16,4 22,8
32,2
7,1
10,6
10,9
28,6
30-40
4,6
14,4
40,8
11,2
15,3
13,7
40,2
60-70
8,2
17,8
43,6
8,1
9,7
12,6
30,4
80-90
2,2
26,5
39,2
9,1
11,5
11,5
32,1
120-130
10,3 29,3
36,0
5,5
7,7
11,2
24,4
, 3-02
0-5
0,8
13,0
51,1
9,1
9,8
16,2
35,1
5-15
4,8
11,9
43,0
10,4
20,6
9,3
40,3
20-30
4,8
12,0
43,0
15,4
8,7
16,1
40,2
50-60
0,2
17,4
47,6
12,5
6,4
15,9
34,8
70-80
0,7
19,2
45,5
13,6
6,0
15,0
34,6
120-130
0,5
15,4
47,2
12,5
7,9
16,5
36,9
, 4-02
0-7
2,0
14,3
43,0
15,8
9,1
15,8
40,7
10-20
1,1
10,9
44,9
14,6
9,0
19,5
43,1
30-40
0,6
14,0
49,9
15,5
3,9
16,1
35,5
50-60
0,4
11,6
47,6
16,4
6,3
17,7
40,4
120-130
0,5
14,3
49,0
11,8
7,2
17,2
36,2
130-140
1,7
12,1
48,3
8,9
14,5
14,5
37,9
, 5-02
0-6
36,0 14,0
25,9
9,2
6,1
8,8
24,1
10-20
39,0 9,7
27,6
8,0
6,8
8,9
23,7
30-40
2,2
13,7
43,4
13,6
10,0
17,1
40,7
50-60
0,5
16,7
48,1
10,9
8,3
15,5
34,7
70-80
0,6
17,4
48,8
9,4
7,3
16,5
33,2
,

152

2.

. ( 1-02)
, ,
, -, -
. - .
2
..
( ,
)
,

> 10 10-7 7-5


5-3
3-2
2-1
1-0,5 0,5-0,25
, 1-02
0-5
14,9 6,2
6,1/ 9,1/ 7,4/ 22,4/ 1,9/
30,6/
4,1
5,9
2,2
3,9
4,1
51,4
20-40
15,8 6,8
7,7/ 10,3/ 8,2/ 20,4/ 1,7/
27,2/
5,7
4,1
2,4
2,8
3,7
38,3
, 2-02
0-5
13,6 4,9
5,1
9,0/ 12,1/ 36,3/ 1,3/
9,0/
0,9
0,7
1,8
4,8
42,2
20-40
13,5 8,1
9,9
15,7/ 16,2/ 19,8/ 2,1/
7,0/
0,6
0,9
4,8
5,9
39,5
, 3-02
0-5
16,5 11,8 12,7/ 21,7/ 16,2/ 13,8/ 1,0/7,7 2,5/
2,5
5,0
4,8
7,9
36,9
5-15
29,5 8,8
16,7/ 18,6/ 11,2/ 13,5/ 1,0/9,6 2,3/
0,8
5,2
4,0
6,9
25,0
20-40
19,1 18,8 18,7/ 21,9/ 10,9/ 9,7/ 0,5/
0,9/
2,2
1,8
1,4
10,6 8,7
38,4
, 4-02
0-5
21,6 15,2 11,2 24,7/ 11,3/ 6,8/ 0,4/
0,5/
11,1 7,1
13,1 8,7
24,2
20-40
25,8 9,9
7,7/ 24,4/ 13,3/ 11,7/ 0,6/
1,2/
23,9 2,4
2,9
9,6
11,9
28,3
, 5-02
0-5
53,1 8,3
12,0 11,0/ 5,0/ 9,9/ 0,8/
2,1/
5,3
3,5
8,4
14,1
27,5
20-40
27,0 14,8
14,7/ 8,4/ 11,5/ 2,0/
4,0/
1,1
2,1
20,2 11,2
25,9

<0,25
1,4/
28,4
1,9/
43,0
8,7/
49,6
7,7/
48,3
3,8/
35,2
3,8/
46,8
1,5/
38,3
0,8/
33,6
1,9/
44,9
2,1/
17,3
5,6/
39,5

:
() 0,25-10,0 (%), , >0,25 (%), -

153

IV

( ) (. 3). ( 0,25 10,0 ) .


3


0,25
>0,25
10,0

.
,
( (.),

(),

)
%
%
, 1-02
0-5
83,7
5,1
.
71,6
.
.
.
20-40 82,3
4,6
.
57,0
.
.
.
, 2-02
0-5
77,7
3,5
.
50,4
.
.
.
20-40 78,8
3,7
.
51,7
.
.
.
, 3-02
0-5
79,7
3,9
.
64,8
.
.
.
5-15
66,7
2,0
.
53,2
.
.
.
20-40 79,4
3,9
.
61,7
.
.
.
, 4-02
0-5
77,6
3,5
.
66,4
.
.
.
20-40 72,3
2,6
.
55,1
.
.
.
, 5-02
.
0-5
44,8
0,8 . 82,7
.
.
.
.
20-40 67,4
2,1
.
60,5
.
.
.

(>60% ,
>1,5), ,
(40-60 % ,
1,5-0,67). ..
(40-60 % >0,25
) (60-75 %).
, .
.. .. (
, 0,25 10,0 ) .
-

154

2.

,
.
(>50 %) 0,5-0,25
(>60 %)
.
,
. .

(
1,3-1,4 /3, 1,5-1,6 /3).

(
),

(,
0,5-0,25 37,0 7,4%
).

, , .
(85-90 %),
(5-10 %), .
, , , .

. 45-61% ,
24-48 % , 10-15% .
,
. ,
-, - . ,

.

155

IV

,
,

..

, .
,
.
.
,

, ,
.
, ,
,
. , ,
, , , , .


.


. , ,

,
. ,
. . 2
, 10 ,
40 .
,
.
,
,
.

156

2.



1200
.
.

.
.
, , ,
. , :
1. , , .
2. , .
3. , .

, . 10 (52,3%)
,
6,2 %. 396 . 24,7 .
.
. 1,

, .
, 2000 ., ,

.
,

, .
, ,
:
;

157

IV

;
.

. 1.


, , , , , ,
, , . .
, , .
, , 2002
.,
. () .

.


,


, , .
(.)

, ,
.
,
, 5%
.
158

2.


(), 7
.
1. -.
2. .
3. .
4. + .
5. RDF .
6.
.
7. + .

.


.
-
.
. 20 ,
15-20 , RDF 30, 32,
+ 25 . . 11 , 1013 , RDF 20 , 20 ,
13 .
20-

.
, , , , . ,
, ,
,

159

IV

. 20 30 %.
, .
,
, , .
.
-

, , .

.. , .. , ..
, .
Soils biologic activity and biological methods role for soil cover ecological
condition assessment have been considered. The possibility of using nitrogen
microorganism cycle for soil condition forecast has been presented. Biological methods
of soil condition assessment allow carrying out environment condition integral
assessment, necessary for human and other living beings health insurance.


.
.
,
,
.

.

.

. ,
.

,

160

2.

, ,
.
, .

, ..


, .



.
,
.
,
. .
.
.


. ,
:
Azotobacter chroococcum ;

;

.
,
.

,
.
( 05-06-06201).

161

IV

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

: ./ . . .. .. . : .
, 2007. 288 .
.. . : -
. -, 1989. 336 .
..
. // , 1978, 6. . 10-14.
.. / .. [ .]. : - ,
2005.
.
. // , 2003,
2. . 202-210.

.. , ..
, .
Vladimir city soils experiencing various anthropogenic loads have been studied
applying methods of biologic diagnosis. Nitrification and denitrification processes,
being the most informative, have been chosen as soils biological activity indices. The
carried research allows making a conclusion that nitrification and denitrification activity
reflect soil processes dynamics and efficiently tracing soils ecologic conditions changes,
which take place in anthropogenically transformed landscapes.


,
.

.

.
,
. .
.
-

, .

162

2.

,
(). ,
,
() , .
.
. -, .
:
1. ,
(.
1);
1

1
2


/
()

()

NO2-,


NO3-

6-

14-

21-

28-

++
++
++
++
++
+

++
++
++
++
++
++
++
+
++
++

++
++

++
++

6,53

6,57

++
++
++
++
++
++

6,8

7,85

++
++

5,75

()

++
++

2. ,
,
;
3.
( ) ;
4.
,
(. 2);
5.
;

163

IV

6.
;
2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9




. 850-
.

.
.
.
. /

.
.

++

+++

++++

+++
+++

+
-

++

7. ,
, , . ,
, ,
;
8. ,
,
.
.
,
, ,
.
( 06-05-96502---).

164

2.

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

.. . . :1965.
186 .
.. . : -
. -, 1989. 336 .
:
-./ . . .. .. . : .
, 2007. 288 .
.. . : 50
. : 1952. 890 .
..
. // , 1978, 6. . 10-14.
.. / .. [ .]. : - ,
2005.
.
- . // , 2003,
2. . 202-210.



.. , .. , ..
, .
Different soil cavering plant species have been investigated as alternatives to
lawn grasses. Ecology resistaut ones have been selected. Shrubbery brauching of plant
extracts have also been carried out.


2002
. ,

.
,
.

,
(
).
165

IV


, .
.
,
.
,
-
.
.
,
.

.

,
: ,
.

: ( (Pyrola), (Oxalis), (Asarum), (Corydalis solida),
(Pulmonaria obscura), (Convallaria
majalis)); (Glechoma hederacea), (Lysimachia nummularia) (Veronica
filiformis) ;
(Arabis albida),
(Phlox subulata), (Ajuga
reptans f. purpurea).
( (Asarum europaeum) )
,
.
;
, , -.
, (Pyrola rotundifolia) .

166

2.

(Oxalis acetosella),
.
, (Lysimachia nummularia) ,
, .
,
. ,
.
, .
2
: (),
( , (Sedum
album, S. spathulifolium) )
, .

, .

, ,
,
. ,
.


.
, -.

.
,
, :
1)
,
, (
);
2) ,
.
( )
( -

167

IV

, -
).

,

.
.

, .


..
, .
Ecological intercommunications of components of landscape and conformity to
the law of change of properties of soils are probed, in connection with influencing of
different vegetable associations and with position of relief from the tops of watershed to
riverbed valley in the source of the small river. Built and analysed 6 transversal types,
43 soil cut and proper them geobotanic descriptions of source of the river Pechenka.

, , .

. .


, .
,
. 54
, 110 2.
,
2-8
. ,
-- - .
2001-2005 . 6 (), 41 134 ,
.
,
,
168

2.

. ,
, ,
, , ,
.
.
,
, ,
, . ,
, .

. 1. .

,
.
,

(. 2).
( )
:
.
. ,
( )
,
.
.
- ,
, (: , ,
169

IV

,
( 1, 53)).

. 2. - .

,

,
(. 3). 1
2,4-2,65,
.
.
,
.
.

, .

.
,
0,2 0,8%,

1,2-4,2%.

.
1.
, ,
0,6-1,0 % (. 4).
170

2.

3,50
3,00
2,50
1

2,00

1,50

(/)

1,00
0,50
0,00
0

10

. 3.

2,00
1,80
1,60
1,40
1,20

1,00

0,80

(/)

0,60
0,40
0,20
0,00
0

10

. 4.

,
, ,
, - ,
, , ; : , , .
2001
64 % ,
1993 86 %.

, .
171

IV

, .

: ,
.
,
( )
,
, ,
.
, -

.
,

.
( 07-05-00473-).

1. .. , . .: , 1956 . 308 .
2. .. .
. . IV
. (24-26
2002 . ) . 2002. . 121-130.

:


1

.. , ..
1
. .. , .
2

. .. , .

Cartographic analysis of change in concentration of same microelements (Zinc,


Copper, Manganese, Cobalt, Molybdenum, Boron) in European Russian soils has
shown that the soil of mountainous and mountain surrounding regions is enriched with
these microelements. For all other territories was found to be a clear connection

172

2.

between the distribution of sand sediment and the regional decline in concentration of
Cu, Zn, Co, Mo in soils. For Mn and B no likewise patterns were found.
Analysis of data of the content of the microelements in soils of different
granulometric composition for two regions showed that the concentration of all
microelements, except Manganese, is higher in the Chernozem regions soils in
comparison to the Non- Chernozem regions soils. The average content value of all the
microelements and the top limits of their natural concentration (+3*) are higher in
heavier, based on granulometric composition, rather than lighter soils. In addition, data
characterizing soils, in different regions, of similar granulometric composition differs
less than the data collected for light and heavy soils of the same region.


.

.
,
, ,
.

: - .
- ( ).
( )
, .

, ;

.
,
(+3*), 99%
(, 2001).

,
.

173

IV

. .

(, , , , )
.
:

( 0-20 ) (
, 1973);
(, , 1970)
(, 1969).
(, ), , -,
.

Cu, Zn, Co, Mo .
Mn B .

,
.

(, 1964; , , 1962;
, 1996; ., 1996; , , 2000; ,
1994; , , 1976; ., 2002;
, 1980 .) ,
,
.
, (, , ) (,
) ,
.

.

, (. 1).

174

2.

(
). ,
,
(
). ,


.
.

90
80
70

Zn,/

Zn,/

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

,%
1

110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

,%
1

. 1.


(+3*)

. ,
( , n 25-30)


( 2).
. 1, 2 ,
,
. ,
, .
, , ,

175

IV

(.1).
(+3*)
, (.2).

.
Variable: Zn, Distribution: Normal
Chi-Square test = 7,95092, df = 6 (adjusted) , p = 0,24172
16

14

No. of observations

12

10

0
0

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
Category (upper limits)

. 2.
( n = 111)

Ni
Cu
Zn
Pb
Sr
Mn
Cr
Co
Mo
B

176

+3*
21
62
12
32
41
90
12
28
138
234
1071
2427
38
7
18
1,6
3,6
25

+3*
30
89
25
58
125
22
102
245
663
1473
81
207
10
1,9
45

2.

, ,
,
.
2


Ni
Cu
Zn
Pb
Sr

13
10
37
14
74

23
98
33
214

40
22
59

Mn 594

1572

950

Cr

57

177

79

Co

12

19

Mo 1,7

3,8

86
51
114

2130

68

11
9
39
12
122

22
87

776

33
16
51
12
158

35
94

1152

12

20

1,7

3,8

1,4

14

42

37

72

41

127

510

806

66

95

+3*

+3*

+3*

+3*

+3*

+3*

71




(

). .

1.
2.
3.
4.

..
. : 1969. . 201-205.
.., . . :
1970. 180 .
.. . : 1985. . 207-234.
. . 1, 1973. 280 .

177

IV

5. .. - . :

. 2001. 86 .
6. .., .., .., .. . : . 1989. 87 .
7. . 6. : . 2005. .138-158.
8. .. . : .
1973. 100 .


, -
1

.. , 2 ..
1
, . -,
2
, .

, , ,
,
.
7 . ,
28,6%.
80 . , 1,6 . , .
10 . , ,
.
- 500 . 3
.
20-25 . 3
. ,
-
4,5 . .
.

.
,
,
.
-
, , ,
.
178

2.


,

.
. , 14 (,
, , .;
).

115 .
50% , 26% , 24%


.
,
, .
,
1,07, 3,09, 20 %,

.
, , , .

, , .


.
,
5 :
1. 65% SiO2
2. 5065% SiO2
3. 3050% SiO2
4. 30% SiO2
,

.
40%
.

179

IV

,

, ,
. ,
:

;
, ,
;
,
.
, , ,
, ,
- .


, , .
.

, .
, ,

.

,
, , , , .
, ,
,
.
.

,
, ,
.
.

180

2.


, .

, , , , ,
.

.. , 2 .. , 1 ..
1
,
. -,
2
, . ,

There has been developed a new reagent mode for clinker flotation with the use
of dewatered soap stock waste of fat-and-oil enterprises and it has been tested under
industrial conditions of Ognevka, Ltd.
The use of the new reagent mode will allow a significant reduction of reagents
consumption: of xanthogenate totally by 200 g/t, elimination of Oxal frother (totally by
200 g/t) and aerofloat (totally by 120 g/t) from flotation, thereby there is the increase in
concentrate quality and in the recovery of copper by 22%, of iron by 8.5% and of gold
by 18.9%. The reagent mode is recommended for introduction and mastering at
Ognevskaya concentrating mill.
Economical efficiency calculation to use this reagent mode amounted to
$1096245,6 annually per 100000 t/y of clinker.




, [1, 2].
,

.
,
. ,
27% , 41,3%, 36,1%.
.
.
181

IV


[3].
. , ,
92 % 0,074 .
, .
2,5 %, 55 %,
4,5 /. . 45 % 250 /,
200 /, 100 /
.
, ,
, . 120 /
210 /. , ,
: 15 %; 5 %; 10 %.
0,55 %.
.
.



.
,
() ,
.
, ,
() .
: ,
,
. -
.
1-1,25:1, . . -

182

2.

27 %, 60-70 %. .
5 3 3 200 . 0,5 , . 45 %.
1,5 .
: 48,1 %, 46,1 %,
15,3 %, 6,7 %.

, ,
,
, 92 .

1:1, 1:1,25, 1:1,5 ,
t = 25-30 1,5 .
3 % .
, .

, -92. :
250 /,
200 /.
100 /, 100 /
,
1:1,25.
.
1:1,25 -92
, , .
2777 :
2,5 %, 55 %, 4,5 /.
.

( 1:1,25).
, .

450 /, 200 /.
,
22%, 8,5%, 18,9%. -

183

IV

1. : 200 / 210 /, 120 /.




, 1096245,6$ 100000 .

.
1

1:1,25

,

, %,
/
Cu
Fe
Au

, %
Cu

Fe

Au

15

8,0

70,0

9,0

48,0 19,0

30,0

85

1,52

52,4

3,7

52,0 81,0

70,0

100,0

2,5

55,0

4,5 100,0 100,0 100,0

10

6,5

58,0

5,0

26,0 10,5

11,1

90

1,96

52,3 4,25 74,0 89,5

88,9

100,0

2,5

55,0

4,5 100,0 100,0 100,0

:
250/;
200 /.
:
100 /,
100 /.
:
400/;
66 150 /;
80 /.
:
150 /,
66 60 /;
40 /.

1. . 17620 .
/ .. [ .]; . 04.02.05; .
15.08.06.
2. . 17622 . / .. [ .]; . 07.02.05.; . 15.08.06.
3. , ..

/ .. / . -, 1982. 48.

184

2.


-
,
The condition of handling waste in Jordan has been analyzed. Recommendations
for the organization of waste management system in the country are presented.

, 10
, 28
% ( 7 %,
65 %).
, ,
:
(, , ;
3- );
(
;
);
(
, , .);
;
;
( ,
, .);
;
.

. ,
, , , , , , ,
.

, ,
. : 1948 ., 1976 .
, ,
450 .
15 %.

185

IV

,
,
.
,
- .
. 1988 .
, 1995 . , 1999 .
.
,
,
, , .
.
, ( 13.030)
( 13.020).
:
(): ,
( , , , ..);
;
;
( ,
)
.
(. 1).

7%

5%

1% 2%

13%

56%
16%

1. (%, )

186

2.

2001-2002 . 1.56 . /.
2015 .
1,6 2.5 . / (. 2).

2500

. /

2000
1500
1000
500
0

2002

2006

2010

2015

. 2.



.
,
,
.
100
, 13.1 % :
2003 . 62157 .
,
, .
,
, 7 50 .

,
.

( 100-110
1000 ),
(1-2 , .. 50 % ),
.
2002 . 112539 (. 1).
, 50 %
.
.

187

IV

0.7-0.9
1 . 24- -,
, 2500
2200 , .. 50 % ,
, , 12 10 50 /.
1
2002 ,

2892
9518
3525
18530
11331
12390

38821
55348
3324
7766
2264
8988
62157
112539

, (),
( -).

( .. 9.5 ,
), .
,
, .. ,
. .
,
, , .
: -, -, , ,
, .
.
:
1.
,
, ,
.
188

2.

2.
. ,
,
.
3. , ,
.
4.

( ).
.
,

.
5.
.

, .
6.
.
, ( )

.
7. .
.

.
.

.
8.
.
,
.
9.
.
.

.
189

IV



,

, .
:
1. , .
.
2. ,
? , , , ,
.
3. ,
.
, ..
, .

, ,
.
. ,
; .
, :
,
.

, .

( ).

,
. . , .

190

2.



.

.
1. ,


. ,
, , , , ,
, ..
2. ,
,
.
.
3. ,
,
. 24 35 .
4.
,
.

:
.
.
, , .
.
- ,
.
,
.
, .
, , , , . .
, .
,
191

IV

. , , . , ,
.
, ,
.

,
.

-
.. , ..
, ,
. .. , . ,
The problem of melioration of solonetz-solonchaks for the countries with
limited soil resources is one of the most significant problems.
In connection with the above-mentioned the processed technology of
melioration, assmiliation of solonetz-solonchaks through selection of halopytes and by
the method of halophytization of cultivated plants is cinsidered as the most rational
solution at present.
The received results may be used for the countries with analogous soil resources
and natural-climate conditions.

-
.
-
: - , ,
, ,
, ,
- ,
, .

-.
,
,
, .

192

2.

, , -

.

, , ,
.
, , ,
, , ,
.
300 .
.
,
, -
.
- (
).
,
.
-
- (
H 10,1-11,3). ,
, .

-
0,75-1,0 ., (
- 3,0-3,5 .)
.
,
, , -

- ,
,
,

.
193

IV

,

, - .



-
1

.. , 2 .. , 2 ..
1

, , -
2
. .. , .

The acceleration opportunity of process aerobic composting of peat-poultry


manure and sawdust-peat-poultry manure mixes with the help of microorganisms activators is shown. The opportunity of microorganisms-activators application as liquid
and solid inoculum is investigated at bioconversion. The optimum parity of
microorganisms of various physiological groups in inoculum structure and optimum
value an organic mix is established. Neutral value mixes and inoculum
introduction provided a steady temperature mode of a biofermentation and compost
disinfecting. The agronomical estimation has shown higher efficiency of composts,
received with use solid inoculum. Plant stimulate effect of composts was determined by
their positive influence on nitrogen-fixing activity, on mineralize processes activity in
soil and on reduction of nitrogen gaseous losses.

. ( .
2001).
,


.
, , - ( .,1997; 2004).
-
- .

. ,
( ). -
194

2.


. 1.
1
,
- () -- ()


( ...)
, %
, %
KCL
N , %
N NH4+, %
., %
/
., %
/
, %
:N

2:3

2:3

2:3:2

2:3:2

63
18
8.3
3.6
1.2
1.8
10000
1.0
3900
42
12

61
19
8.3
4.2
0.9
2.1
8750
1.3
3300
43
10

63
20
8.1
2.7
1.1
1.8
8300
0.8
5000
41
15

60
23
8.1
3.2
1.0
1.8
7500
1.2
4600
43
14



- .
(10-1-104)
9225-68; 10444.15-75.
: , , , - ( 1983; Domsh et al.,
1993).
22, 37, 45 60 .
, ,
.

,
-75-29. , ,
.
- - (.,
-, .) (. 2). ,
90 , , 60% ,

195

IV

. 5
, .
.
2
,

KCL

/100

V,%

/
25 2

,
%

N,
.%

5,6

1,3

10,1

89

113

94

1,64

0.09

5,4

1,93

13,2

83

293

135

2,26

0,12

-, - 20
50 ,
. Trichoderma, Monoascus, Botrytis, Penicillium,
Botryotrichum, Paecilomyces, Saccharomyces, Bacillus, Azospirillum ..
,
in vitro,
, , ..
... .. (), ... ..
( ), ... .. (), ... ..
().
.
Trichoderma (T.
asperellum et Samuels), .

,
, : :
= 1 : 2 : 2. I II
.

, . -

196

2.

. 103-104, 2
1 3.
I 10% .
.. ,
, .
: 24 ,
10.
, , , , .
, KCL/2 4,9 8,5. - .
,
5-9 ( . 2002).
,
1,5 3

.
-
, (NPK) .
82%,
II 235% (. 3). - 2,5 .
-
, - 57%.

,
2 . 24,7 22/100
. 2,4 ,
. - 1,5 2
.

197

IV

,
20 72 / . , NPK
34 /.
,
, , ,
(, 2001).
3
,
- :
)

I
II
NPK
0,95

/
,%
, %
4,12
7,51
82
12,62
207
125
13,81
235
153
13,06
217
0,28

/
,%
, %
9,14
11,69
28
15,44
69
41
16,91
85
57
0,46

,
-2

32,31,3 0.810,04
32,80,9 1.600,09

,
22

,
N-N2O

2 ,
/

62,0
67,1


/100

25 ,
/

II

1000 ,

-,

10,00,51
24,71,28

9,90,43
6,10,54

50,01,6
72,12,4

2,0
9,0

, -, Trichoderma, Botryotrichum, Monoascus, Paecilomyces


Saccharomyces, Bacillus, Azospirillum. ,

198

2.

, , .
,
,
.

.. , 2 ..
1
,
2
-
, .

, , ,
.
,

(.. , .. , .. ).

.


,
.

.
14050-99, (environmental audit)



, , ,
,
, .
,
, -
.

199

IV

:
,

;
;
( )
-
;


, , ;

.
(), , ,
,
.

, , - .

,
().

, , (HMSO 1993) .

(JSP) HELCOM. , , ,
. . : ,
,
.
200

2.




.

.
2000
.
(MEA),
(EMAS).

.


. , ,
, ,
/ .
, , , .
, ,

- .
,

(, , , ,
).


, ,
.

201

IV

.. , ..
, .
In modern cities plants are subjected to unfaveurable influence of many factors:
pollution dryness and condensation of soil. Selection of stable forms is very important.
The typical mistakes of phytodesign of city areas have been considered. Importance of
stable forms creation under conditions of multi-circle synthetic phytocynosis for city
greening has been emphasized.

,
,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
; ,
,
.
.

,
, .
.
(Begonia semperflorens), (Petunia x hybrida),
(Ageratum houstonianum), (Tagetes patula, T.erecta,
T.signata) . - : (Alternanthera
amoena, A. Versicolor, A. paronychioides), (Iresine lindenii),
(Coleus blumei, C. verschaffeltii),
(Pelargonium zonale),
(Echeveria) .

-.

,
. , ,

202

2.

. .

(Viola wittrokiana) .

3-4 ,

. ,
,
.
, , .
(Iris x hybrida),
(Hemerocallis), (Hosta) .

.
(,
) ,
.

(Chaenomeles speciosa).

- .

. 1-2
- , -
- .
,
, .

,
. ,
,
. 1
.

( (Lysimachia),
(Phlox subulata) , (Veronica filiformis) .).
(
), ,
203

IV

,
(Juniperus Sabina), (J. communis f. Depressa Aurea) (J. media f. Pfitzeriana) .

; .
(, ),
, , . (Portulaca grandiflora),
(Saxifraga), (Sedum album, S. spathulifolium .),
(Echeveria secunda glauca) , (E. agavoides)
(E. metallica) .
, .
, .

. , , 2006

. , ,

.

,
.
-
(Salvia splendens)
(Lobularia maritime) .

,
, .

, ..
.
,
.
,
, .

204

2.


.
.., ..
, .
Using soil samples collected on the territory of Vladimir city, we have studied
the adsorption of Cu(2+) cations from water solutions. We have also studied how this
process is influenced by the presence of Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) cations.
We have found that the soils in question, despite the man-caused contamination,
possess relatively high copper adsorption capacity. The presence of lead inhibits copper
adsorption even when the concentration of metals in the water solution is small. At the
same time, the influence of zinc is much smaller and becomes apparent only at higher
concentrations.
In the soil, the absorbed copper is mostly represented by fractions which are
relatively strongly binded to organic matter and mineral components; the abundance of
soluble fractions is insignificant when the concentration of the pollutant is low.


, -

.
,
,
.
. ,

. -
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
.
(.1).
, , ,
. -
- , , ,
, -
.
, -

205

IV

,
.
1

1
2

""
.

pH.

C, %

.,
(+)/1
00

6,90,1

2,40,1

131

812

7,80,1

2,90,1

413

702

7,60,1

3,00,1

383

1825

7,70,1

2,60,1

322

532

Cu,
/

, , -
-
[1].

(II) .
0,1 a(NO3)2.
, ,
.

,
Qmax
(.2).
, , ,
, :
,
3,8 . ,
, ,
. (.1)
,
,
206

2.

.
, , ,

.
, -
,
[2].
2

1
2
3
4
1
1

Cu2+
Cu2+
Cu2+
Cu2+
Cu2++Zn2+
Cu2++Pb2+

Q,
/

,
/

Q,
/

,
/

130
201
131
133
65
35

0,95
2,42
3,5
5,59
5,09
1,28

72
108
72
72
64
27

3,69
2,03
3,81
3,18
9,32
1,06

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207

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2. .., .. Cu(II),
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. 537-545.
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// . -. . 17. . 2003. 1.
. 8-15.


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In this paper we describe chemical properties of turf-podzol soils in the
crossection of the Pechenka river drainage basin. We study those chemical properties of
the soils, which affect their buffering capacity, i.e., resistance to chemical
contamination. In particular, we have studied acid and alkaline buffering capacities and
also the ability of soils to adsorb heavy metals (we used cations Cu(+2) in our tests). We
found that soils in question have moderate acid and alkaline buffering capacities, and
they are less resistant to alkali than to acid. We also found that the soils in question have
relatively low ability to adsorb cations of heavy metals.


,
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209

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213

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215

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217

IV

ADEMES ACTIVITIES IN THE FIELD OF CONTAMINATED SITES


Olga Kergaravat
ADEME French Agency for Environment and Energy Management,
49004 Angers, France
ADEME is the French Environment and Energy Management Agency. Its
industrial and commercial public institution placed under the joint supervision of
the Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Planning and Development and the
Ministry of Higher Education and Research.
ADEME aims to be the point of reference and privileged partner for the
general public, companies and local authorities, acting as the States tool to
generalise the best practices designed to protect the environment and energy
saving.
ADEME's mandate is to accompany and assist actors in the society and
the economy in the process of reducing and eliminating their environmental
impacts and managing energy, in the following fiends:
Waste and contaminated sites and soils
Energy
Air quality and noise pollution
Cross-sectoral action
ADEMEs missions in terms of the national policy on contaminated sites
and soils are developed around 4 main vectors, which are:
operations to secure orphaned contaminated sites;
coordination and support for the work of analysis and research on the
environmental and health risks of these contaminations;
advice and assistance to the agents and parties responsible (industries and
public entities) for contaminated sites;
consulting and participation in national, European and international
exchanges, with the aim of developing policies and management methods
for contaminated sites and of disseminating and promoting the knowledge
and skills acquired.
Operations to secure contaminated sites
ADEME assumes the execution of project management operations at
orphaned contaminated sites following decisions made by the government, who
entrusts it with these interventions. Prior to the Agencys intervention, in
applying the polluter-payer principle, the government undertakes administrative
actions against the responsible parties for the purpose of having the analyses and

218

2.

work done that are made necessary by the condition of the industrial sites. In the
event of non-compliance or insolvency of the responsible party, the government,
upon approval from the Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development,
entrusts ADEME with the necessary interventions by means of a prefectoral
decree.
In this framework, the Agency conducts more than 55 interventions on a
yearly basis. These have to do with such highly diverse operations as: securing
sites by removal and elimination of waste, monitoring of the surroundings,
maintaining clean up installations, impact and risk analyses and assessments, and
clean up operations.
The costs of intervention vary widely depending on the nature of the sites,
the vulnerability of the surroundings, the risks, etc.
Overall, ADEME devotes on average 10 to 12 million euros a year to
financing interventions as project manager at contaminated sites.
Coordination and support for analysis and research work
The refinement of techniques for identifying and treating contaminations
constitutes a challenge in terms of efficacy of action and the optimization of
reclamation costs. There is still room for improvement of the methods and tools
in this field.
That is why the Agency supports and develops research programs for the
purpose of improving the methods and tools of intervention.
The main research topics cover:
investigative methods and techniques,
behaviour and transfer of contaminants in the surroundings,
risk assessment and management,
evaluation and development of treatment techniques.
ADEME actively supports research partnerships by favoring the closer
relations between corporations and research laboratories. It also coordinates the
network of public research entities (CNRSSP, INERIS, BRGM, etc.) in order to
optimize the effectiveness of research efforts.
In fact, the Agency contributes support to remediation professionals,
especially to those grouped together within the UPDS (Professional Union of Site
Remediation Companies) whose overall business revenue amounts to 340 million
euros (2003).
Advice and assistance to agents and parties responsible for
contaminated sites

219

IV

Since 1999, the Agency has been developing a system of technical and
financial assistance directed to public and private parties responsible for
contaminated sites.
In fact, for industrial responsible parties, regional public entities and land
improvement agents, the issue of contaminated sites and soils has to be taken up
as early as possible in the course of decisions and choices they are called upon to
make in terms of their policies for dealing with the environment and land use.
Thus, in order to help the responsible parties in their decision making,
ADEME, in a partnership approach, contributes financial aid and technical
assistance to the responsible party whenever it calls in a service provider
(consulting firm) to carry out characterization studies (pre-assessment and
assessment) and studies to define the reclamation actions for its site (feasibility
study).
At the same time, at the level of local entities, ADEME supports, under
the aegis of the Prefects, the performance of Regional Background Inventories
(I.H.R.) of former industrial sites, in partnership with the BRGM (Bureau of
Mines and Geological Surveys), regional authorities, water utilities, public land
entities, etc.
These inventories covering former industrial activities likely to show
contamination constitute a data base that is critical to those involved in land use
management and urban planning.
Consulting and participation in national and international exchanges
Policies and activities in the field of contaminated sites and soils have
evolved in different ways within European countries. The experience, skills and
know-how gained are fertile grounds for exchanges given a growing demand for
coordinated methods and actions in a Europe where the recent expansion has
heightened such needs. In this vein, the recent communication from the European
Commission, concerning the needs for harmonizing policies and actions in site
reclamation, highlights this context.
In this framework, the agency participates in consolidating and
disseminating national knowledge and practices, and develops exchange
programs at the European level (SNOWMAN (Sustainable management of soil
and groundwater under the pressure of soil pollution and soil contamination)
ERA-NET 6th Framework Program whose goal is to coordinate research
activities and to strengthen exchanges between member countries) and at the
international level (NATO CCMS [Committee on the Challenges of Modern
Society]).

220

2.

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221

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varieties of landscape structure which creates conditions for the appearance of different
trends. It combines different aspects of landscape structure study of natural territorial
complexes.

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229

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The Vladimir region possess enormous the natural resource for development of
tourism and recreation. But in conditions of lofty human activites load it is wear out.
That is why the important significance give the land uses questions.

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237

IV

.. , ..
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The purpose of this work is research of structure of land and productivity the
basins of rivers Kirgach and Sudogda by methods of remote sensing. On base of the
interpretation space images was made the map of structure of land, were designed a
phytomass stock and productivity within river basins area. Also compared information
of space images for purposes of ecological researches with information of map materials
on this territory.


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239

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%
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%
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.

241

IV




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243

IV

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IV

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247

IV

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.
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[4]
( I). I Vrticillium dahlia 1.,
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.
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249

IV

1.
2.
3.

4.
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.. . . : . 1987. . 201.
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. 37.

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251

IV

30-40 . 21-28
. , , , [7].
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( 1977.) / . . . ..
. : , 1978. .170-185.
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. 7.
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), :
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253

IV

;
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);
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. 2.


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: ( ), ( ), , , (- ), ( )
(- ).

1. ., , 1999. 50 .
2. . ., . ., . . . ., , 2001. 86 .

(LEPUS EUROPAEUS) (LEPUS


TIMIDUS) -
1

.. , 2 ..
1
, .
2

, .

The research deals with the biology of Lepus europaeus and Lepus timidus in
Vladimir region. It contains large experimental part. The work represents the
peculiarities of hares nourishment, spreading and reproduction. Taking into
consideration the results of the research we can make the conclusion about the places of
residence of Lepus europaeus and Lepus timidus.
255

IV

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257

IV

. 2 ,
, ,
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.
.

1.
2.

3.
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258

.. : . . . .
. : . ., 1990. 335.
.., . . // 9, :, 2000. .
1047-1053.
.., ., .. . .
1964. 437 .
.. . 3- . . 1989. 316 .

3.

3.



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). 15
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1990 ,
2 , .


, .

259

IV


, .

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15

10

2005

2003

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1999

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1995

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1991

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1983

1981

1000

25

.1.
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0
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1990

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.
260

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;
(./2);
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Cd () ( 1000 );
V (
1.10-3).

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261

IV

,
, , , , , .
,
,
,
,
.
7
.
, .
05-06-06201.

1. .. , .. , .. , : 1994 .
2. // . .. : . . 2007. 91 .

..
. .. ,
Geographical position of Russia in relation to the basic centers of action of an
atmosphere and the sizes of her territory determine wide ranges of thermal both
hydrological modes and presence of the significant areas where circulating processes
determine occurrence of hydroclimatic extrema. According to experts of the United
Nations, the damage rendered to economic by adverse conditions of weather and change
of a climate, makes 70 % from damage of acts of nature as a whole.
Monitoring and the forecast of extreme changes of a climate and their
consequences, development of long-term strategy of hydrometeorological safety in
economic and social spheres, definition of a degree of security of the vital interests of
the population and an economy from negative influences are the important problem of
maintenance of steady development of Russia. Realization of this strategy demands
constant perfection of methods and technologies of supervision, gathering, the analysis,
accumulation and preservation of the hydrometeorological information. It testifies to
necessity of certification of various territories from a position of hydrometeorological
risk.

262

3.

On the basis of use of an integrated parameter of a parity of heat and a moisture


(an index of a climate of N.N.Ivanov) the author allocates regions of Russia on a degree
of a favorable environment for ability to live of the population.

, ,
. ,
,
.
,
300 800 . 2000 . 80 .
,
.
( 40
) ,
.



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100 ) (
).

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.). 60% , 0,10,2 2
.
263

IV


0,6 1 .
.
, - ,
.

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.
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;
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, .);

264

3.

2)
, , ;
3) , ;
4)
;
5) .

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265

IV

266

3.


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, ,
- .


.

, .
( - .. )
(. )
.

1. ..
. , , ,
, 2005. . 44-45.
2. .., .., .., ..
. ., , 2005. 312 .
3. . : , 2002.

.. , .. , .. , ..
, .
Heavy metals technogenic migration in the wastes-soil system represents
unstable, dynamic process. Heavy metals technogenic dispersion flow with the rigid
special connection with its source solid industrial wastes is formed in the soil section
(profile) and the observed technogenic HM anomaly is characterized by the dynamic,
instable parameters of polymetal pollution. HM redistribution in the soil profile is of the
clearly impulsive character. It is experimentally investigated kinetic of HM leaching
from industrial wastes and migration HM in soils in various physical and chemical
conditions.

() -
.
, ,
267

IV

, . ,
, , ,
.
-

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,
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-
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.

.
,
(5,9 %), (4,7 %), (2,9 %),
(1,4 %), (1,1 %) (0,2 %).
.

()
R0/R = f (x, t)
(R) (R0) .
W,
C, P t.
W, P, t
, .
,
25 /, :
;
(pH = 3); (0,1 ).
,
, .
, .

268

3.

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(pH = 3); ) (0,1 ).

.
:

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.
,


: 19 ,
11 , 23 .
,

. 3-4- .
, .
. 2.
, 5-6-
.
269

IV

14
12

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3

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.
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..

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0
3

. 3.
( )

, (
) pH .

:
m (t ) = m 0 (1 exp( Px t )) ,
m(t) ,
t; m0
(t = 0).

270

3.



, , : 1)
; 2)
; 3) , ()
; 4) ,
( HSO4, SO42, NO3 Cl .)

, ; 5)


, .
, , -,

- , . ,
, .
, 07-05-00473.

..
, .

. , 2003 2006 .

(, , .). ,

.
, 20052006 . .

271

IV

,
, .
(, ,
)
: , , , ,
.
, 70%
,
20% 10% .

40% (137Cs 90Sr), 20% , 20%
, 15% , 3% , 2%
.
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.

, (. 1).
1

,
,
,
:
:
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272


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2004
2005
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3.


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.

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( %) 21, 38, 83, 100.
.

9-25 /.

, , (. 2).
2006
- 2005
3,5 5,3%.



, ,
,
.

273

IV

2

,
(2005 .)

475
1946
1350
4460
5590
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2004

2005

. 1. , ,
2001 2005 .
274

3.

15.03.2006 . 6


, , . 66
(
, ), , :
37 ( 2
);
14 ;
8 ;
3 ;
1 ;
1 ;
1 ;
1 .
2006
( ) 1,856 (66
) .
2003-2006 .
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, 13
(, , , ,
).
,
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.
2005
35 /, 350 .

, ,

.
, 2005-2006 . .
275

IV

1991-2003 . (. 3).
3


1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
15,3 0,55 0,87 0,13 0,48 0,32 0,51 0,008 0,02 0,04 0,10 0,11 0,02

0 25,3
0
0 0,82 0,38 0,71 0,09 0,09 0,06 0,13 0,05 0,11

,
, .

.
, 06-05-96502--.


-

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, .

(): , ,
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(, , ,
).
,
, , .

(, . )
,
.
276

3.

,
, .

,
.
,
.

.
,
.

1998 2005 .
Microsoft Excel, ArcView GIS
Statistica.

DBF3
Microsoft Excel.
Avenue ArcView 3.1. . 1.

. 1.


:
:

277

IV

,
,
,
,
,
, /
,
, %
, ...
,
,
,
,


Statistica 6.0.
.

.
, ,

Statistica.
, , , (. 2) .

: , .
-0,8. 1998
95%- .
.

.
(. 3). . - , .

.

278

3.

,
.

. 2. (, ,
, )

.
,
.
( )
, , , . .
.

.

.
.

279

IV

. 3.
,


,
(. 4).

280

3.

. 4.

, - ,
. , - ,
, , ..
, ,
,
.

.
, , , .
, ,
,
, .
, 05-06-06201.

281

IV


..
, .

, .
.
, .
, , ,
.


.
1998 2005 .:
, /;
, . 3;
, . 3;
, . 3;
;
1-4 . , . ;
5 . , . .
- :
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
Statistica 6.0

282

3.

,
.

( 0,75 -0,75)
(. 1-3).
. 1, 2 , (.) (.)
, , .

. .

. 1. (.)

. 2. (.)

283

IV

. 3 (.)

(0,78). ,

- .

. 3. (.)

, 05-06-06201.



.. , ..
, .
New data about dynamics of volumetric activity in air of premises (on an
example of Vladimir city) are obtained. Statistical parameters of distribution of radon
volumetric activity are estimated. It is shown, that dynamics of volumetric activity of
radon in air of separate premises is described by the normal law of distribution. By us it
is established, that dynamics of radon it not classical Brown movement, and fractal
Brown movement.


, ,
, .

. - ,

284

3.

. ,
.
-222
,
, .
, .
, , .


.
,
.
.

. , :
-222 ;
;

.
, ,
. ,
. : ( -01-01 ) (-10).
2.6.1.715-98.
.
200 20 ,
:
20 180 /3 (. 1). -220 ()
.

.
,
; ,

285

IV

:
,
,
, (. 2).

. 1. 222Rn

. 2. 222Rn

(R)
(S)
R/S-. (R/S) ,
, . ,
. ,
, , ,
(.3).

286

3.

. 3. . 1


0,60. , ,
0,5 < H < 1,

.
.
-

. ,
, .

0,32. , 0 H <
0,5, , ; .
(. 4).
,
: ; ;
(. 1).

.
. , ,

287

IV

.
, , .

. 4. . 2

65

87

2. ,

26,5

28,0

3. , H

0,60

0,32

4. , D

1,40

1,68

1. , q

, .
1,0,
1,40 1,68.
.
, , -222
, .
-, -222
, .
, .

,
(. 5).
288

3.

. 5. 222Rn 2

,
.
. H
H
: t = t , t t,
.
t -

P = q t + 1,98 t H

.
95 %
q,
20-30 %.
, 05-06-06201.

.. , 2 .. , 2 ..
1
, .
2
,
. .. , .

.. ,

1, 2

Infusoria Paramecium caudatum are usually used as a test-object to determine


water media toxicity. The test-reaction is based on the cells mobility that is fixed by the
special photometer "Biotester-2" (Russia). This test-object has been used to find out
biologically active frequencies in the range of 120-170 GHz and to investigate isolated
and combined effects of nicotine in low concentrations (10-4 - 10-15 M) and the
289

IV

electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of low intensity (10 W/cm2). The resonant character
of EMR effect on the cells was found out. The EMR action at 156.6 and 161.3 GHz
caused the increase of infusorians mobility. The effect at frequencies 151.8; 155.7;
167.1 GHz caused the mobility reduction. Incubation of the test-culture with 10-9 M
nicotine solution resulted in considerably increase of cells mobility. EMR action at the
positive resonant frequencies (156.6; 161.3 GHz) on the cells incubated in 10-9 M and
10-10 M nicotine solutions resulted in the enhancing of the isolated effects. The
combined effects of the negative resonant frequency 167.1 GHz and 10-9 M, 10-10 M
nicotine solutions were lower than the isolated effects of the substance. So the
frequency 167.1 GHz was shown to reduce the effect of nicotine.


, , (),
.
,
, ,

[1].
,
()
[2].
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50-70
-.
[3].
.

. , .
,
[4]. ,

. ,
.

.
Paramecium
caudatum. ,

290

3.

, , .
, . , , , ,
, - . ,
, (
) ,
- [5].



,
P. caudatum .
- P. caudatum
120-170 . (120-170
) -87 .

1525 . 80 .
50 .
8-10 /2.
( 1000 /)
40 , 10 ,

-2.
-
150-170 .
.
, -, 156.6 161.3 ,
151.8, 155.7 167,1 .

10-4 10-15 -.
, 10 , .
, 10-9
, ,

,
.
291

IV


. 109
10-10 , (156.6; 161.3 )
(167.1 ) .
20 ,
10 ,
( ).
. 1.

, %

350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1

-
- 10-9
- + 10-9
- 10-10
- + 10-10

. 1.
: 1) 156.6 ; 2) 161.3 ; 3) 167.1

,
(156.6; 161.3 ) , 10-9 10-10 , , ,
-. .. 156.6, 161.3
10-9
.
10-10 .
(167.1 )
, 10-9 10-10 ,
. .. 167.1
10-9 10-10 , ,
.
,
, -.

292

3.

, (10-9 ),
120-170 .
167.1 , .
,

.

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

..
// . 2004. . 49. .3. . 551-564.
.., .., .. . :-, - 2004. 272 .
.., .., .., .., ..,
.. // . 1998. 1.
. 5-23.
.., .. . : , - 1988. 123 .
.. // -
. -:
, 1998. . 26-27.

.. , .. , ..
, . ,
The research of water from various sources of Vladimir city has been carried out
on presence of bacteria of group of an intestinal stick. Seasonal dynamics of number of
the given bacteria in superficial reservoirs has been investigated. Surface waters
utilization of Vladimir city epidemic risk for population health has been assessed.


, 30% [1, 2]. ,
.
.

293

IV

,

[3].

, .

, .
[4].
, , ,

.
:

.
:
1.
. ;
2. () . ;
3.
( . ).

,
- .
,

. ,
() ( 1300 5000 ).
( 140 930 ) . . .
. ,
, .

294

3.


, ..
0 2,99 , 2005 .
11 .
. , ,
, .
0 7400 .
, 2003 , 65,9%
2006 , 49,1%.
2003 . 2006 . 319 ,
, .. ,
175 54,9%. , ,
,
, .. 54% .


. . 1984 2003 . :
.

2003 2004 ., , 2003 .
3,76, 2004 . 1,08. , , , 2003
2004, .. , .
() .
. ,
, ,
50 90% .
.
,
.

295

IV


(US EPA), -
,
.
.
. .
-. -
4400, 58000.
- 1000,
10000. ,


.
, - 4,6,
153. , 3 63,9 %,
- 20 10,3 %.

,

0,018.
- 17-18
. .
.
1,8 %, .
,
, .

, ..
.
. () .
-

296

3.


. ,
.
,
, , ,
.
( 07-05-00473-).

1.

2.

3.

4.

.., .., .., ..


// ( ). ,
1996. . 159.
/.. , .. ,
.. // . , , . 2002.
5. . 55-58.
.., .., .. ,
. .: ; , 2001.
224 .
" 2004 ." . ..
; 2004. 190 .

.. , ..
, .
Are led the methods of the reduction of harmful influence on man and
environment in modern glass manufacturing including as again built modern
technological lines, so and previously acting, in the questions of the preparation of raw
material and charge and their transportation, of boiling glass, of type glass
manufacturing furnace and the methods of burning incineration fuel.

, .
-, - .

297

IV

, . ,
,
- .

( 96/61/ ), .

.
, ,
,
. .
:
0,2-0,4 (90% ), , , , ,
, ,
. , , ,
1 . %
, , .
,
- , - .
. , , ,
.
.
: ,
,
[1].
,
. , , . .
298

3.


, .. SiO2 .

, : ,
, , : , , .. [2], [3].

, , : 14 3 %,
, .
4-10 [4],
,
, 4-5 % .
,
-
. ,
1590 , , . ,
,
,
. ,
. ,
, , ..

, ;
,
,
, , , ;
,

.
299

IV

, ,
, ,
1,03-1,05.
:
, , .


.
SiO2,

.

.
,
.

.
80-85
, , ,
.
,

.
.

1.
2.
3.

4.

300

.., .., ..
. : , 1990. 144 .
.., .. . . : ., 1997. 82 .
.., .., .., .. . /
, 1987. - 2. . 8-9.
.., .., ..
. /
, 1990. - 11. . 11-12.

3.


.. , .. , ..
, .
In article are considered the methods of the reduction of gaseous accentuations
in glass manufacturing. Are performed the calculations of heat balance burning of fuel
founded on introduction enriched by the oxygen of air going on burning, in quantity 015%, as well as is determined the calorific capacity of received mixture in the
temperatures of heating air 900-1200, are calculated the temperatures of torch in the
initial parameters of process burning and shown advantages and the blemishes of
compulsory oxygen blowing as efficient method of reduction of discharging NO in
atmosphere in burning incineration fuels.

, ,

.


.
, ,
.
70-80%
,
.

NO, .

, NO,
, ..
, : NO 100 ., N2O 4,5
[1]. NO , : ,
; ; ,

.
.

,

301

IV

. :
, ..
,
, , .

. ,

[2, 3].

NO
. ,
NO.
,

. NO
. ,
NO.
.


.
. Combustion Tec. ()
70% NO
.
: ( 10% ) . , 2 , NO.
,
, NO 35%.
,
50% , 20-50%
,

5-10%.

, ,
, 0-15%,

302

3.

9001200 , , [4].
. 1 . 2.
1

, %

, %
O2

, %

N2

CO2

H2O

N2

O2

,
3/3

0
21
79
8,2
18
71,3
2,5
12,0
5
25
75
10,1
21,6
66,3
2,0
9,842
10
18,9
71,1
11,5
24,3
61,9
2,3
8,645
15
17,9
67,1
12,8
27,0
57,6
2,6
7,713
(%): CH4 98,91, C2H6 0,23, C3H8 0,13, C4H10 0,06, N2 0,64, CO2
0,03
35407,8 /3

2
3

, / (1)
, (2)
,
-

-
, %

0
5
10
15

1,15
1,1
1,1
1,1

,
900
1
4106,8
4731,5
5212,9
5690,5

1000
2
2270
2435
2550
2620

1
4247,9
4869,6
5349,2
5824,8

1100
2
2310
2465
2575
2640

1
4386,7
5006,0
5483,3
5956,8

1200
2
2350
2490
2600
2670

1
4533,6
5150,0
5625,3
6096,5

2
2390
2520
2630
2700

, ,
, NO ,
.
O2 , 5 % 200-300 ,
.
,
,
.

303

IV

.

,
,

, .
.
,
( -, , , )
.

. , .
-
,

.

( 25%),
.

NO
.
(300-450 . ),
,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.

304

.., .., ..
. : , 1990. 144.
.., ..
//. . : , 2000. 102 .
/ .. . :
, 1986. 456 .
.. .
: , 1968. 368 .

3.


.. , ..
, .
In article are considered the questions of utilisation of glass waste in Russia and
abroad, is shown the possibility of using secondary glass breakage as additive in
manufacturing of wall ceramic materials on acting technological lines.

, 30% ,

, ,

.

.
, , .
, , .
, 10%,
, ..
.
.

, .
0,3 .%.


[1]. .
, .. .

. ,
, . ,
,
90% 100 ,
.

305

IV

80-
.

.
,
. 90-
. , .. .
.

: , , , , ..

, , .
,
75-95% ,
5-25%
, 600-1100.

.

, .
300-500 2/
50-150 . ,
.
600-850 ,
900 ,
.
,
.

,
.

, .
,
, .
,
100-

306

3.

150 .
0,1-1,0 .
.
28 , 280.
15-20% [2]

.
,
, 6-8 %,

.
- . ,
.
, , ,
.

1. , /
, . 9. . , . 1 .: , 1987 . 65 .
2. .., ..
// , 2000. 10.
C.35-36.

.. , ..
, .
In this work is formulated the conditions of the social hygienic monitoring for
industrials enterprises; suggested the structure of the SHM, the structure of the indices,
defined the aim and the problems.

307

IV

-
, [1, 2, 3].
2006 [3]
.
- .
,
;
, , - ,

.

; , .

, .
,

.
, ,
.
:
,
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;
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;
;
;
,
.

.1.
308

3.

. 1.

.

:
-

.
:
;
;
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;
, ;
;
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;
, ;
:
;
;
;
;
1 ;
;
;
.
:

);
;

309

IV

.
:
;
, ;
;
:
;
;
;

;
;
;
.

,
,
.
, .
( 06-05-96502---).

1. 06.12.94 . 1146 .
2. 01.06.2000 .
.
3. 02.02.06 . 60
- .


..
, .
In article are brought results of the investigations of the snow cover and soil in
area of the influence glass enterprises and investigations of the sewages, which are
indicative of environmental contamination.


. (, , , .) ,

310

3.

,

. (1350-1400),
, , . . 2,7 .

. , .

,
.
( = 50 ).
2006 .
.
,
.
10-
( , -
), , 2000
.
(. 1).
, .
-
, , ,
(VI), , ,
.
.

, . ,
, , , (. 2).
.

311

IV

1.
2.
,
/
3. -,
/
4. -,
/
5. , /
6. ,
/
7. (VI),
/
8. +g, /

10
8,87
90,4

50
8,83
4,6

,
70
120
170
230
270 350
8,48 8,44 8,52 8,74 8,91 8,77
6,0

450
8,30 5,89

0,015 0,045 0,065 0,040 0,032 0,025 0,020 0,021 0,016 0,006
1,43

1,65

9,50

3,05

2,96

2,13

1,25

1,21

1,18

1,15

0,440 0,040 0,070 0,040 0,038 0,033 0,035 0,040 0,038 0,050
307,9 13,6 38,3 22,2 21,6 19,2 17,7 15,4 12,9 4,5
0,056 0,026 0,030 0,056 0,045 0,031 0,028 0,023 0,021 0,020
4,88

2,12

3,28

3,84

3,70

3,56

3,44

3,35

2,74

0,19

1.
2. -,
/
3. ,
/
4. , %
5.

,
10 50 70 120 170 230 270 350 450
8,20 7,53 7,80 7,30 7,35 7,39 7,47 7,33 7,29 5,86
79,5 50,2 339,1 97,8 83,6 67,3 53,8 39,7 33,7 22,5
700 502
0,3 1,9

348
2,2

426 526 649 734 625 575


3,3 2,4 1,8 1,4 1,5 2,5

400
1,7

28

39

34

38

178

34

37

35

37

36


,

(, ) ().
:
2,6 ;
400 / 734 /
(. 1, 2).

312

3.

400
350
/

300
250
200
150
100
50

40
0

20
00

30
0

24
0

18
0

12
0

70

20

. 1.
800
700

600
500
400
300
200
100

20
00

40

0
30

24
0

18

12

70

20

. 2.

, ,
.
.

,
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,

.
313

IV

500

500
/

10,04
7,95
7,66
6,5-8,5

Cr
0,020
0,053
0,028
0,020

, /
Mn
Fe
Ni
Cu
Zn
Cd
0,02 0,96 0,02 0,03 0,006
.
0,01 1,02 0,09 0,06 0,017
.
0,12 0,57 0,06 0,14 0,019
.
0,01 0,03 0,01 0,01 0,010 0,005


,

.
,

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, .
, .

,
.

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, ..
.
,

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[3, 4].

314

3.

,
, .
,
(), .

, ,
.
(.
1). - 2
(ZnSO47H2O, CdSO4H2O, NiSO47H2O,
CuSO45H2O, CrCl36H2O). : 17,2%, 1,31%,
2 6,96, 0,995 /100 .
. 1 .

(Z) (. 1)
[2].
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8-32 , 32-64 , Zc>64 [1].
1

1
2
3

0,25

1,49

15
30
50

38,50
79,49
131,49

, /
Zn

Cu

Ni

Cr(III)

Cd

26,17

5,08

6,84

8,62

150
300
500

100
200
300

100
200
300

100
200
300

,
.
. . 1.
, Zc
( 2).
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3.
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315

IV

,
H+. ,
,
H+.

. 1.


.
(. 2) [3]. ,
Zc CO2,
(. 2).

,
.

. 2.

316

3.

.
-, , , .

. .
.
,
.

. 3.
30
25

Kin g

20

15

10

5
0
38,5

79,5

131,5

Zc

. 3.

,
,
(Zc = 131,5). Zc,
38,5 79,5 . Zc,
131,5, ,
-, .


. . 2.
2

Z

38,50
79,49
131,49

93,12
28,82
78,01
88,58
23,12
46,97
84,63
17,45
7,42

66,65
52,89
35,50

317

IV

, 10% , 10-25%
, , 25%
[3].
,
. , Zc, 38,5 79,5
,
Zc, 131,49 .
.
( 07-05-00473-).

1.
2.

3.

4.

.. // , 2006, . . 36-37.
. ., . ., . ., . .,
. . - . // . 2006. 3. . 45-50
.., .., .. : .
/: - , 2003. 204 .
.., .., .. - // , 2000. . 193-201.



..
, .

,
, .

(184 /) (120 /), . :
48 /, 28 /. , , 40 100 /.

318

3.

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.
,
, .

, (12-25) .

, , , , ,
,
, ,
, , .
. 1.

. 1.


. ,
, .
- , ,
, , , . ,
: , ,
, , . , , (. 1).

319

IV

1
,
,

(
)
-
( )

Fusarium spp.

Penicillium

Aspergillus
flavus A.
parasiticus
Fusarium spp.

B1

Aspergillus
flavus A.
parasiticus
Phoma sorghina
Aspergillus
flavus
Penicillium


1
A



,
,
, .

.
85%
. (
) , , ,
.
,
.

(184 /) (120 /), . :
48 /, 28 /. ,
320

3.

, 40 100
/. ,
, .
. 2,
, (
2005 ),

: ,
.
2
( %),

(2005 .)















380
2950
1400
2500
1552
3800
4100
4680
5180
1600
1015
6040
2400
1400
203200



40
215
80
200
65
140
310
360
320
30
25
38
34
72
4020

,
%
10,53
7,29
5,71
8,00
4,19
3,69
7,56
7,69
6,18
1,88
2,46
0,63
1,42
5,14
1,98

2006 .
2003 . , (. 2)
.


.
:

321

IV

, ;
-
;
35

30

, %

25

20

15

10

0
2003

2004

2005

2006

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. 2. ,
2003-2006 .

;

;

.
, 06-05-96502.

.. , .. , ..
, .

. , , .


322

3.

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.
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.
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.
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.

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323

IV

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324

3.

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2
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2-4
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5

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54,19
46,89
53,11
47,01
52,99
48,43
51,57
58,65
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2
2
2-4-
2-4
5-8-
5

Mkd
( 4-

210
(p<0.05)
260(p>0.05)
280(p<0.05)
315(p<0.05)
250 >0,05


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Mkd.
Mkd ,
.
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.

325

IV

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.
Mkd ,
,

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90% .
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326

3.


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327

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328

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329

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330

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.

332

3.

1.

2.

3.

4.

.., .., .., .., ..


- . //
, , . 59, 6. 1995. . 179-182.
/ .
. , .. : . :
, 2005. 256 .
.. , ..

// 1
, 19-23 2005.
.., .., ..
// : . 1983. . 240

.. , .. , .. , ..
, .


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.


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333

IV

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) 1
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334

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<0,05

55,7.
48,58. , ,
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,

.

1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

.. . ;
. // . . . 2003. . 461.
.. .:
, 1971 ., 151 .
.., .., .., .., ..
- . //
, , . 59, 6. 1995. . 179-182.
.., .., .., .., ..
- . //
, , . 59, 6. 1995. . 179-182.
/ .
. , .. : . .:
, 2005. 256 .
/ .. , .. , .. //
. 2004. 1. . 54-59.

335

IV

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, .

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.
.
.


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,
, .



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3.

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2 :
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.
50 .
.
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100 ./., , .
. 40
.
1

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51,62
66,54
33,46

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0,15

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. 1 ,
68%
. .

1. .., .., .., .., ..


- . //
, , .59, 6. 1995. . 179-182.
2. / .
. , .. : . : , 2005. 256 .
3. .. , .. .

// 1
, 19-23 2005.

337

IV

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While researching clinical and biochemical blood parameters, considerable
parameters reduction in all principal working groups was observed, that demonstrates
assessed as the first sign of toxic impact of metals.


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31 11,972,22
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33 134,716,90 < 0,001 27 73,266,10 <0,05

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(/%)

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345

IV

6
,

Hb ( /)


.
n

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( /)
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Mm

Le ( .)
Mm

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60

145,51,42 >0,05

8,840,52 <0,001 7,430,28 <0,001

(II)

34

140,81,90 >0,05

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. (I)

29

150,02,45 >0,05

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. (II)

34

138,81,51 >0,05

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(I)

84

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135,04,56 <0,05 10,202,88 >0,05 5,100,37 >0,05

. (I)

35

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. (II)

16

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(I)

19

130,02,02 <0,001 9,701,66

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(II)

15

135,02,81 <0,05 12,701,80 <0,001 6,100,66 <0,05

297 147,50,61 >0,05

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. 133.
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353

IV

12. Frolkis V.V. Aging and life-prolonging processes. New York. 1982, p. 375.
13. .., .., ..
/ , , . III . , ,
2002. . 246.
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15. .., .., .., .., .., .. - , . . /
. . , , 2004. 19 .

..
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Toxic action of industrial factors and tense work conditions are affecting on
cardiovascular system, central nervous system and neuromuscular system functional
status of workers of main plumbic industry specialties during all working hours.


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The study on methods of mathematical statistics, information theory and GIS
technologies. Developed and tested method of assessing the impact on the environment.

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359

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30%

25%

26%

21%

23%

18%

19%

14%

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4%

4%

0%

27

33

39

45

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63

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323

(Pb)
39%

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203

28%

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46%
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32%
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(Mn)
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, 06-0596502---.

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Microsoft Excel
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, 06-0596502---.


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This work is the presented information of the social hygienic monitoring in the
Russian Federation, there are given suggested of improve the systems monitoring,
suggested the principles of the SHM.

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1965 . 40 8
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2 - 1977
3 - 1983
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5 - 1992
6 - 1996
7 - 2000
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71
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109
133
147
146
138

91
100
113
124
131
127
119
110


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2 - 1977
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4 - 1988
5 - 1992
6 - 1996
7 - 2000
8 - 2004

, %

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47,6
4,7
32,0
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371

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,
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,
%

1993
2002
1993
2002

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5,6
6,1
6,0

2,8
2,8
1,9
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25,
/

284
233
281
243

1993
2002

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5,9

1,8
2,0

344
250

143
105

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1,48

80
78

1993
2002
1993
2002

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5,2
6,1
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2,4
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219
161
307
237

213
116
177
138

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4,10
1,58
1,98

89
83
86
79

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222
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372


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2002 .
1,25
1,22

1993 .
2002 .
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65,9

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63,5

61,4

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50,5

47,2

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1,31

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55,3
58,2

43,5
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4.

-
.. , ..
, .
For functioning system of ecological management on any manufacture is
necessary constantly and to trace in time occurrence of "bottlenecks" of the enterprise
with the purpose of prevention of occurrence and development of brave (emergency)
situations. The technique is applied to the analysis of technological process of
manufacture risk-analysis with the subsequent construction of " trees of refusals " which
allow to track sources of occurrence of danger.



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.. - // 7- -. .
: . .
, 2006. . 79-82.
..
// . 1997. 1.
. 39-49.
Apel J.R. An improved ocean surface wave vector spectrum // J. Geophysical
Research. 1994. V. 99. P. 16.269-16.291.
Elfouhaily ., Chapron ., Katsaros ., Vandemark D. A unified directional
spectrum for long and short wind-driven waves // J. Geophysical Research.
1997. V. 102. P. 15781-15796.
Romeiser R., Alpers W., Wismann V. An improved composite surface model
for the radar backscattering cross section of the ocean surface. 1. Theory of
the model and optimization/validation by scatterometer data // J. Geophysical
Research. 1997. V. 102. P. 25.237-25.250.
Trokhimovskii Yu.G., Irisov V.G., Westwater E.R., Fedor L.S., Leuski V.E.
Microwave polarimetric measurements of the sea surface brightness
temperature from a blimp during the Coastal Ocean Probing Experiment
(COPE) // J. of Geophysical Research. 2000. V. 105. N C3. P. 6501-6516.

5. :

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5. : ,
,
FLOCCULANTS AND DEWATERING AIDS
Johann Dck
Friedrich-Alexander-Uniersitat, Erlangen-Nurnberg, Germany
Synthetic polymeric flocculants
At various stages of mineral processing it is necessary to separate aqueous
mineral suspensions into their component solid and liquid phases. Typical
examples of this are thickening of flotation concentrates, recovery of pregnant
leach liquors, and dewatering of tailings. In many cases, the mineral particles
settle out of suspension very slowly, so that the liquid-solid separation is slow
and incomplete. To improve the settling rate, high molecular weight organic
polymers (flocculants) are used to aggregate the suspended particles, and cause
the efficient separation of the solids from the aqueous suspending medium.
Stabilization of suspensions
In a mineral suspension there is usually a wide difference in particle size.
Some particles may be large enough to settle out quickly, while very fine
particles may not settle at all. The rate of settling of any given particle is
dependent upon its size, its density relative to that of the suspending medium, the
viscosity of the medium, and the interactive forces between this and other suspended particles.
The major interactive forces between suspended solids are of two kinds
attractive and repulsive. The former arise from short-range Van der Waals'
forces, the latter from overlap of the similarly-charged electrical double layers of
the particles. If repulsive forces dominate, particle aggregation cannot occur,
whereas, if attractive forces take over, aggregation and settling of the much
larger aggregates will take place. These attractive forces can operate only when
the particles are very close together. The shortest distance of approach between
particles is a direct function of the magnitude of the electrical double layer which
is itself a direct function of the charge on the surface of the particles. This surface
charge, therefore, has a profound effect on the stability of an aqueous suspension
of solid particles.
In aqueous mineral suspensions, mineral particles almost invariably carry
a surface charge, which is generally negative, except in a few instances where the
pulp pH is very low. This surface charge is due to one or more of the following
factors:
Unequal distribution of constituent ions.

397

IV

Ionization of surface groups.


Specific adsorption of ions from solution.
Isomorphous substitutions in the mineral lattice.
Dipole orientation.
Because of this surface charge, ions of opposite charge in solution will be
attracted towards the surface. There will therefore be a higher concentration of
counter-ions close to the surface, than in the bulk of the liquid. This
concentration falls off with increasing distance from the particle, so that there is a
bound layer of counter-ions at the particle surface, succeeded by a more diffuse
layer. Beyond the diffuse layer, is the bulk solution, in which the ionic
distribution is random. The bound layer moves with the particle, as the latter
travels through the medium, so that there is a plane of shear between the bound
and the diffuse layers. The potential at the plane of shear and the bulk solution is
the "zeta potential."
The zeta potential depends upon the surface charge of the particle, and,
since it can be determined more easily than the actual surface charge, is often
taken to be a convenient measure of that charge.
Most zeta potential determinations rely on electrophoretic
methods, and measure the mobility of individual charged, sus pended particles
under the influence of an applied potential.
Destabilization of suspensions
Destabilization of suspensions may be commonly achieved by one of three
methods:
Electrolyte addition.
Addition of hydrolyzable metal ions.
Polymer flocculation.
Electrolyte addition can bring about coagulation (as opposed to
flocculation) by two mechanisms.
First, the addition of any electrolyte to the suspension will result in
compression of the electrical double layer, and a lowering of the zeta potential.
The magnitude of this effect increases with increasing charge on the counter-ion,
so that for negatively-charged suspensions, trivalent cations (FE3 , Al'+) are more
effective than divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2), which are in turn more effective than
monovalent cations (Na+).
Second, counter-ions may react chemically with the particle surface, and
be adsorbed onto it. Specific counter-ion adsorption will result in a lowering of
the particle charge, and can reduce it sufficiently to enable close approach of the
particles allowing coagulation of the suspension to take place.
In mining applications, coagulation by either of these methods usually
results in the formation of very small, slow-settling floes. However, lime addition
398

5. :

, ,

is often practiced, either at the flocculation stage, or earlier in the mineral


treatment process, since such coagulation reduces the dosage of synthetic
flocculant needed to give the required settling rate.
Hydrolyzable metal ions (such as AP+, Fei+) are usually added in the pH
range and at the concentration level where the metal hydroxide is precipitated.
Under the proper conditions, the bulky hydroxide precipitate "sweeps up" the
suspended particles as it falls to the bottom of the vessel.
This approach usually works well only when there is a very low level of
suspended solids. Because of this, and because of the restrictions of pH reguired
to give a bulky precipitate, this mode of flocculation is rarely, if ever, practiced
in mining applications.
Highly-charged, water-soluble organic polymers are polyelec-trolytes.
Therefore, if this charge is opposite in sign to that carried by the suspended
particles, addition of such a polymer to the suspension will result in aggregation
by specific ion adsorption, as described above. However, the flocculating action
of polymer flocculants also proceeds via either "Charge Patch attraction", or
"Polymer bridging".
Charge Patch attraction occurs when the particle surface is negatively
charged, and the polymer is positively charged. The polymer must have a high
density of charge-usually one cationic charge to every 4 or 5 carbon atoms in the
polymer chain.
Initially, these polymers adsorb onto the surface of the particle by
electrostatic attraction. However, if, as is often the case, the charge density on the
polymer is much higher than that on the particle surface, the polymer will
neutralize all the negative charge within the geometric area of the particle on
which it is adsorbed, and will still carry an excess of unneutralized cationic
charge. The result of polymer adsorption of this type, is the formation of
positively-charged patches, surrounded by regions of negative charge. These
positive charge patches can then bring about aggregation through electrostatic
attraction of negatively-charged areas on the surface of other particles.
The most common type of polymer to operate by this mechanism are the
polyamines. These are condensation polymers, and are relatively low in
molecular weight, with the result that floes formed in this way are fairly small,
and slow-settling.
Polymer bridging: the process probably takes place in two stages, the first
of which involves adsorption of polymer molecules onto individual, suspended
particles. The size of the polymer molecule is such that considerable portions of
the polymer chain are unattached to the
particle. This results in either the ends of the chain being left dangling, or
loops of the unadsorbed segments sticking out from the particle surface into the

399

IV

medium. In the second stage of the process, the free ends, or loops of the
polymer chains contact and adsorb onto other suspended particles, forming
particle aggregates, or floes. If the polymer chains are long enough, this bridging
can readily take place without charge neutralization between particles occurring.
Clearly, bridging can only take place with polymers of very high
molecular weight, which need not carry a charge opposite in sign to that of the
suspended particles. The majority of synthetic polymers of this type are based on
acrylamide and its derivatives as the monomers. This includes acrylamidequaternised aminoal-kylacrylate co-polymers (cationic); polyacrylamide (nonionic); and acrylamide-acrylic acid co-polymers (anionic). The mode of initial
adsorption of such polymers onto a suspended particle varies according to the
respective charges of both polymer and particle. It may be purely electrostatic if
these charges are opposite in sign. If not, then other physico-chemical reactions
may take place. In the case of nonionic polyacrylamides, the most likely
mechanism of adsorption is through hydrogen bonding between the oxygen
atoms associated with hydrated metal ions at the particle surface, and amidohydrogen atoms on the polymer. In the case of anionic flocculants and
negatively-charged suspensions, adsorption may also take place via hydrogenbonding. In pulps to which lime has been added, polymer adsorption often also
occurs through cation bridging. In this mode, the divalent calcium ions can form
an electrostatic "bridge" between the negatively-charged particle surface, and the
negatively-charged carboxyl groups of the acrylamide-acrylic acid co-polymer.
Both non-ionic and anionic polyacrylamides are widely used in mining
applications. They can be manufactured with very high molecular weights (5-15
x 106), and thus are capable of forming large, rapid-settling, good-compacting
floes. Cationic polyacrylamides are rarely used in the mining area. They are
usually much less cost-effective than their non-ionic and anionic counterparts,
because of higher cost and lower molecular weight (2-6 x 106).

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The possibility of water quality standartization on the basis of indices
characterizing ecosystem integrity: basin selfpurifying and nitrifying ability,
permanganate oxidizability and hydrobiocenosis species composition or aquatic
organisms separate group has been considered in this research.
To carry out the research the water from one of the Vladimir region small rivers
has been applied. It has been stated that the most informative indices of small rivers
water quality are selfpurifying ability, permanganate oxidizability and species
composition of freshwater molluscums. Water nitrifying ability cannot be used as a
sensitive integral index of basin total pollution, as nitrifying microorganisms are
capable of revealing tolerance towards pollutants.


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2. . ., . ., . . . . . 1992, . 28, 1. . 69-71.


3. . ., . ., . . . .
. 1993, . 20, 6. . 707-713.
4. . ., . .
. . .
. . 11 19 1993 . . 131-132.



..
, .
The investigation of a river Oka water is made on the territory of Nizhniy
Novgorod region. It is established that the water can be classified as dirty. The main
contaminants are Cu, Mn, Fe, oil products and phenol. The sewage of cities Nizhniy
Novgorod and Dzerginsk make a principal contribution to water contamination.

, - , ,
.
.
.
, - .
1500 , 245 . 2.
. , ,
[1].
. ( 290 ).
- (23 %), (72 %), (0,2 %) (4,8 %) [2, 3].

3-4 : ,
, . -

411

IV


.
, ,
, .
. ,
, (.
1). . 1 , .
, ,
.
. , 20042005 .., ,
.
5,6-10,7 -./,
. :
8,1 /.
. 2.
1
.
, /

412

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

** -

, /
2004 .
2005 .
31 153
29 025
318 378
284 214
983
1 005
4 185
4 790
18 127
**
3 596 657
6 011 801
460
458
102 485
101 904
683
677
4 713
4 099
2 306
2 518
23 536
**
1 407
1 112
181
237
103 858
21 286
263 956
319 570
9 054
9 750

5. :

, ,

2
. , /

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

0,500
40,00
0,080
100,0
0,200
0,001
0,100
0,010
0,010
300,0
0,05
0,100
0,001
6,0
2,00
15,00

2004 .
2005 .
0,602
0,329
5,79
4,55
0,078
0,085
65,4
54,3
0,092
0,147
15,2
18,2
0,007
0,011
0,438
0,969
0,014
0,027
0,094
0,088
21,2
23,6
0,14
0,14
0,038
0,016
0,020
0,020
11,45
9,99
3,02
3,79
24,28
25,20

. ,
. ,
(711 ), (4-10 ), (1-3 ) (9 ).

, .

,

. - - , 5 , . , , ,
.

2004 . 4,5, 2005 . 5,4 , .
5 ().
,
2005 . 2004 . , 2005 . 2 ,
1,5 . 2004 .
413

IV

1,5-9,0 , 2005 . 3,0-11,0 .


, , , -
- .
. 2005
. 2 , 2004 .


. ,
. . . . ,
, (, .) .
, , , . :
. , , , , , - 5.
.

. . .

1. .. . .
: , 2002. 140 .
2. ..
// . : , 2003. . 160.
3. .. .
2002 // . : , 2003. 131 .

.. , ..
. .. ,
The application of fibrous chemisorbents has been substantiated for collection of
heavy metal ions, which are contained in low concentrations in surface-water flows. It
has been demonstrated in vitro, that application of chemisorbent of the grade -1 from
414

5. :

, ,

8.3 to 42 times decreases content of lead, copper, iron and zinc in model solutions, and
from 1.1 to 34 times in actual drainage of a sewage disposal plant. The operative
embodiments of various constructions of filters for supplementary construction unit for
water purification from heavy metals have been developed, manufactured, assembled
and tested on the sewage disposal plant "Pokrovskiye kholmy". The full-scale tests have
demonstrated, that the content of heavy metals in sewage has decreased from 1.4 to 7
times for different sampling times, while efficiency of water purification from heavy
metals has changed in the range of 30 - 86%.
In the course of the research effort execution the basis of new technology has
been developed the technology of supplementary purification of surface-water flows
from heavy metals using fibrous chemisorbents.

( ,
40) .
, ,
.

: , , , , ,
, , .

, , ,
: , ,
, , , . . , - , ,

[1].

.
: .
,
.
, ,
.

, . -
.

415

IV

,
,
, .
:
,


.

,

-
.
,


. (
) ,
, ,
.
,
- -
[2] .
30-100
, .
: 50%-
5-10
60 . - , :

( 40 /),
;

416

5. :

, ,


( 5-10 );
( 3 );
- (500-800 );
25-40% ;
.
,

.
,
.

.

(0.76-0.021 /),
: FeCl3,
Zn(C2H3O2)2, CuCl2, Pb(NO3)2. -1 -3. :
1) 8-42 .
2)
1,
-3.
3) Pb
: -3
, -1,

, [2].
4) -1
: > > .
-1 Na- -
.
. , .

417

IV

,
.
.

. , :

;
,
,
;

;

;
;

;
( ,
) .

.
,
. , ,
, , 4.3, 34.3, 9.7 1.1 .
-1
(
)
> > >>
-1
,
()
.

.

418

5. :

, ,

,

1.4 7 ,
30 - 86%.
( - )



.

.
- , ,

.
2004 .
, .

1. .., .. ., . ,1998,
1-3. . 115-131.
2. ... // ; , 1981. 191 .

.. , .. , ..
,
The problem of water mineralization is very actual for reservoirs-coolers of
energetic objects, because high mineralization of water does not allow reusing it in
technological process. Significant interest is attracted to low-cost methods of biological
purification. These methods are cheaply and more effective in comparison with the
known physical and chemical ones.
It is well known, that macrophytes are capable to absorb and accumulate heavy
metals, radionuclides and organic pollutants. However the problem of water
demineralization using macrophytes is not studied yet.
The ability of higher aquatic plants Eichornia crassipes, Ceratophillum
demersum and Elodea anadensis to demineralize of reservoir-coolers water from
nontoxic salts of alkaline and alkaline-earth metals was investigated. It was established,
that cultivation of E. crassipes for 10 days led to reduction of the salt amount (at 11,5%)
of reservoir-coolers water. The demineralization process with the help of C. demersum
419

IV

and E. anadensis were not efficient. It was revealed, that E. crassipes absorbed sulphate
and chloride anions (49,3 25,8%) and sodium and calcium cations (13 33,5%). C.
demersum didnt accumulate these ions, E. anadensis absorbed them in small
quantities.


.
,
,
- .

.

, .

(). , :
, , [1, 2, 3].

.
: - - .
- .
, 4-8
,
.
2,6
1,2-1,3 /.
,
, , ,
, - -.
:
(Elodea anadensis),
(Ceratophillum demersum) (Eichornia crassipes).
,

[1, 3, 4,]. , ,
, .
420

5. :

, ,

,
%


.
- 10
24. .
,
. 1.

2,6% 2,9% .
11,5%.
.
,
.

.
100
98
96
94
92
90
88
86
84

. 1.
10 , %

. - ICP-MS VG PQ ExCell, , , . . 1
, .
. 1 ,
(13%) (33%), ,
.
27%.
, , .
,
.

421

IV

, - -
49,3% 25,8% .
-. Cl-
3,24% 1,04% ,
.
1
10-

, %

- 8,0
- 8,0
- 1,0
+3,2
-2,5

- 13,0
+27,0
-33,5
-49,3
-25,8

+1,0
+0,4

,
- . .
.

1.
2.
3.
4.

..
// . 1973 4. . 118-125.
/ ..; ..;
. - . : , 1988. 188 .
.., .., .. // . 2004. 4. . 266-271.
..
// . 1998. 12. .18-21.

.
..

. .. , .
The results of research of the Kliazma water quality for the Moscow region is
proposed in the report. This region is characterized with the highest man-cased pollution
from Moscow city and other settlements in the region. It was found, that water is
polluted with biogens, heavy metals, organic matter. The concentrations values of
422

5. :

, ,

different pollutants within the river profiles have been determined for river flow from
reservoir to Vladimir. The research considers that the main source of river flow
pollution is domestic sewage water, which is insufficiently purified.

. ,
- - ( .., 1997).
, .
: (171,6 .
.); - (122,2 . .); (112,9 . );
(116,9 . .); (96,4 . .); (61,6 .
.); (53 . .) . .
(310, 5 . .), (152,8 . .) (43,8 .
.) ( 1 2005 .,
., 2005).
.
, .

,
(2003 .),
.
. ,
, .. . ( .. .,
2004) ,
- ,
, 700
15%.
,
, .

. (
. )
. 4 3/,
1 3/ ( .., .., 2002).
. 50%
423

IV

.
( , , -,
, , .).
,
(in situ) () (, ,
- ),
,
, .

- - 1995, 2001 2004 .

, .
.
.

. .
300-360 / (. , 2004-2007 .);
440-470 /.
100-150 /. ,
.
8300-12600 / (
. ) 22500-30000 / ( , ).
7-15
/. ( 800-840 /, .
, 2006-2007 .).

, (380-830 /),
. 2001, 2004
.
.
, ,
-

424

5. :

, ,

.
-,
. 296
/ ( ) 580 / (. ).
.
,
. . 7 8 .
, , .
,
.
.


.
2001 2004 .
. (
2001 2004 .)
.
( . ) . 2001 .
, (1 ). 2004
( 10 ) .

, , .
- ( 2004 .).
,
.
.
,
. 2004
. .
, , , , .

2004 .
1995 .
. .

425

IV

.. ( 25 )
. 1995 , . . , -.
10 . .
,
, .
..

: 1995 .
, 2004 . .
.
, , . 1995 ., , ., ,
,
.

(
).
5,7 57,8 /.
, - , -- -, .
, .
(20 /). ,
.
,

, , . ,
,
.
. .

/
.

426

5. :

, ,

.. , 2 ..
1
, . ,
2
,


, ,
.
.

-4.
-4 , , 80% 20%; (, , ) 50-60, 25-30 15-25%.
-4
, .
. -4.


. ,
1 /3 . (
0,5 /3) (99,8%)
, -4.

.

,
: ,
-4 60, 46 %.

.
, -4 ,
, , , -4
, .

427

IV


-4 ,
. .

.

-4.
1,6, 0,23 /3, -4 1,3 0,23 /3
.
(2 /3) , 15,4 % , (0,7 /3), 30
1,5
.
, , ,

,
-4 . .


-4 .

,
,
,
.


..
,
It is carried out research of water from various sources city Aleppo of the Syrian
Arabian republic on presence of bacteria of group of an intestinal stick.
Seasonal dynamics of number of the given bacteria in superficial reservoirs is
investigated. Poor quality of sources of drinking water supply that does water unsuitable
not only for drink, but also for an irrigation is shown very much.

428

5. :

, ,

- (
- , .
185,2 . 2) .
.
- -,
.
, , .

.
(.1).
1
2000-2001

2000
2001

5101
5781


45290
34629

1996 . (900000 ), . 1998


.
, ,
,
,
.

. [1,4],

[4]. 1982. 77%
, 13 , 1995
4% [2].
,
2003 .
.
[3], ,
429

IV

,

. ( ) ,
. . .
PH -
(.2).
2
(2003 .)

1
2
3

100

100
1, 2, 3 .
4 ( ).

, , .
2004-2006 . ,
(. 3).
3

. (-)

2004 .
2005 .
2006 .
2004 .
2005 .
2006 .

2400
3100
2300
4600
4500
8400

2400
2300
2300
6200
4500
6600

4400
4400
5000
12300
11500
14000

2003. 2006.
,
.
,
()
430

5. :

, ,

( 4500 14000 ) ( 2300


5000 ) . (. 3).

,
.
,
, :
;
;
;
;
.
( 07-05-00473).

1.
2.
3.
4.

. ., 1997. 82 .
. .,1999. 81.
. , 2005.
World Development indicators 1999, N. Y., 2000.


-
..
, .
The contamination of the cooler-reservoir from the drainage basin was
estimated. Some data on the basic pollutant sources were discussed. The estimation of
the Atomic Power Station sewage water influence upon the Udomlja-Pesvo water
system is given.

- 50 , 2 . . . , .
30 ,
.
. - 36,49 . 3/.

431

IV

, ,
.
.
,
( 2
).
50 /./. (18,2 3//).
,
. .
-
(1,50 ) : 2000 /; 90 /; 20 210 /;
500 /.
5 -
, 60 50
, . ( ) (. "") 300
. (. ), ( ) 600
. (. - . - . ), ( "")
600 . , . (/. "").
- ().
2,979 . 3/.
() ,
, , , . 100
. ,
.

- . (2 1500 ). . 90- 30 .
, 3 . , 6 . , 3 .
, 600 , 2 . . 500
900 . ,
.

.
21 : 19
, 1 , 8 , 3 .
3 071, 2 565, 91, 1 969 , 1 250.

432

5. :

, ,

(. "") ,
300 . ,
. ,
. . (/ "") 100 . . . ( "")
100 ,
. . 100 . .
200 . , 150 .
. 100 . ,
. (/. "").
,
154,61 . 3/.

.

.

, .
(. 1).
- 10 . . "", "", / "" ,
"" 60%, . "" 20%, ./. "" 10%,
. "", ./. "", ./. "", . "
" 5%.
1

- ( - /, - )


HCO3
Cl
SO4
Ca
Mg
Na
K
N
P
20

5000 / 773,050
6000 / 927,660
4100 / 633,901
370 / 57,206
300 / 46,383
300 / 46,383
350 / 54,114
200 / 30,922
750 / 115,958
1400 / 216,454
65,7 / 10,158
2860 / 442,185
433

IV

2001 . 7,748 ( ), 3,7136


(N2), 1,6004 (P) 2,4336 , 9023,5 . 1,59 /
1,87 / .

: 3,46 //,
0,42 //. 4 836 ,
-
16,733 /, 2,03 /.
999,25
3
/ , 991,2 3/, 1 983,45 3/.
9591 . 3/.
(. 2)
9 786,040 . 3/.
98 % .
6 :
(), (N), (),
(), (Fe), (20).
,
, .
..
2

-

/
779,201 0,2685 338,553 52,228

689
1378
366
5510
, ./
, . . 311,032 1,758 277,116 85,501

Fe

20

0,0537 443,01
55096
3,515

91
47,893 726,815



i=Hi Mi b ,
i i-
(), ; Hi
1 i- , ./; Mi i- , ;

1,08; 1,1.

434

5. :

, ,

12.06.03 .

726,815 . .
,
3 634,075 . . 18 170,375
. .
, 07-05-00778-.

..
, .
Condition of water resources is result of interference of nature and
anthropogenic factors. To estimate condition of water resources at a regional
(catchment) scale with aim of optimization in water consumption and water requirement
a computer-based water-management technology has been developed. This technology
based both on hydrological zoning of river basin and information about water using and
water consumption distributed over river basin.
Hydrological zoning is based on elementary watersheds as zoning units. Zoning
is realized by using information modeling system ECOMAG, which is version of spatial
distributed physically based model of hydrology cycle and pollution transfer in river
basin. Space schematization of the river basin (the allocation of river network, subcatchments of tributaries, elementary watersheds and slope elements) is executed on the
basis of digital elevation model using GIS-technology. Automatic catchment
fragmentation to elementary watersheds, construction of modeled river network can be
made with different levels of details and scale.
Different water-management regional monitoring data were used as
characteristics of anthropogenic load on river basin and water resources: water using by
agricultural, industry etc., inflow in the river network various types of return water
(clean, polluted, waste), pollutants content and other. This information in GIS-form
covers whole river basin including elementary watersheds. Using ECOMAG algorithms
information about water using, water management and water pollution in a regional
scale was integrated along length of river network.
This technology allows to get series of evaluation maps including maps of
distribution along river network of water resources, various pollutants, water
consumption for agricultural, industry and population requirements, water inflow in the
river network of polluted and waste waters. These maps display general condition and
tendency in water management situation and can be used in planning and rationalization
of water consumption processes for sustainable development of regions.

435

IV


.
,
.

. -

.
. .

,

.

,
.
, .
,
.
.
, ,
.
. ,
, .

. ,
, [ .,1994, 2003].
,
436

5. :

, ,

,
[,1982].

.
, ,
.

,
,
,
,
.

.

, ,
.
:
;
; ; ; ;
.


, .
(),
,
.

,
. () ECOMAG, : G, , [ ., 2003].
437

IV

G -
, ,
.

, ,
,

.
,

.

.

ECOMAG.
.
() ArcView
.
1) .
2) .
3) .
4)
.
.

.
:
.
:
, ,
.
:
.
.


438

5. :

, ,

, .

,
ASCII-
.
:

.
,
,
.
,

.

.. , ..
. , .
The work gives the analysis of the composition and characteristics of sludge
produced by the sewage and waterworks. For the studing were take sewage sludge of
wastwater treatment plant of Sergiev Posad (Moscow region) and Ostern waterworks of
Moskow.In the paper make a comparison chemical composition and environmental
threat this products. It also contains the review of the methods for using the sludge.


- .

.
. ,
. ,
, , ,
.
439

IV

. ,
.

.
, ,
, (. 1). .
. ,
, . , ,
.
1
( . )
(. )

440

5 ( )

6+
3+

/
/
.
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/


11,1
12,7
17,78
35,77
8,18
0,23
0,52
5,04
0,24
13,5
16,2
0,11
0,06
0,000743
0,25
0,15
0,002
0,5
0,5
1,91
0,03
0,02
431,86
349,43

232,70
11,00
267,50
403,50
7,5
18,89
0,14
0,56
9,1
71,9
84,5
1,22
1
0,025
0,18
3,26
0,128
0,01
0,17
0,06
0,29
0,09
620,4
455,5

5. :

, ,

( )
(NPK) (. 2). ,
, , ,
. , ,
. .
2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

i
(/)

217,000
31,000
14,000
20,000
7100,000
992520,0
14,000
78,000
6,000
1000000


(, / )
I ( /
II (, , , ,
, ,
)
, )
1500 [4]
1500 [4]
750
1500
200
400
250
500
4000 [5]
4000[5]
500
1750

1000
3500


, ,
(. 3).

.
,
, ..
(),
, .
, (. 2).
95% 4
.
441

IV

3


,%
,%
(P2O5), %
(K2O), %
(Pb), /
(As), /
(Hg),/
(Cd), /
(Ni), /
(Cr), /
(Mn), /
(Zn), /
(Cu), /


43
3.29
3.65
0.53
230-590

1.74-5.10
8.52-15.0
50-57
226-640
130-510
960-1080
490-1650

[1]
20
0.6
1.5

500
20
15
30
400
1000
1500 [4]
3500
1500


.
Cd u
. ,
2.1.7.573-96. 4
, .. ;
.
.

:
1. 95 %,
4 .
2. , , , ,
,
, ,
,
.
3. - ,
. .
. ,
,
, :
442

5. :

, ,

1. (
) .

. , ,

,
.
2. 4 , ..
.
3.
.
4. .
,
2.1.7.573-96 .
, , ,
() . .
5. ,
,

2-3 .
,
.
(, ,
..), .

1. 17.4.3.07-2001. . . .
: . 2001.
2. .., .., ..

, "",
" ", . 1. : -
--, 2001.

443

IV

3. .., .., .., ..



. .
4. 2.1.7.573-96.
.
5. 6229-91. - ()
- ()
.
6. " ",
.4. : - --, 2004.
7.
. : , 2000.
8. .., .. . :
- , 2004.

.. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. ,
.. , ..

, .
Methodological aspects of evaluation of ultimate load of organophosphorus
toxic chemicals on water ecosystems are considered. The efficiency of this approach are
demonstrated by the example of Vyatka River in Orichevsky area of Kirov region.

, ,
, ,
.
,
.
(v)
(g) ,
:
vg

444

(1)

5. :

, ,

:
dC/dt = - k Clim,

(2)

Clim () ,

, /3;
t , ;
k - .

[1] ,
1 , :
=

(3)

- 1 ;
() , /;
- , /;
- , /.
,
4-6 /.

1-2 / .

:
lim = 2/A

(4)

, Vx lim
(2 0,5) 10-4, (5 0,4) 10-5 (2 0,2) 10-5 /3
.
(g) (,
)
(G) (W),
(t).
( - ):
g = G / (W t)

(5)

,
( - ) :
g = G / (W t)

(6)

:
445

IV

F = F + F, W = W + W, G = G + G,

(7)

F , 2;
W , 3;
G , .
(q, q) (m, m),
:
G= q F, W = m F, G = q F , W = m F

(8)

g = q/mt, g = q/ mt

(9)

f = F/F, f = F/F, f = 1- f,

:
g = q f / mt + q (1- f)/ mt

(10)

, (1) :
q f / mt + q (1- f)/ mt k lim

(11)

(11),
[2], [3],
[4]
() .
.
. .
. 5-11 /(c2).
52 %.
(KV)
[4]:
KV = mKnOA,

(12)

KOA - ;
m, n - , . 2.
2
m n (12)
[4]
[3]

m
22,91
38
14
n
0,445
0,69
0,76

446

5. :

, ,

100- .
(12), , q 100qo, mo m:
qo (k Clim mo t) / (99f + 1)

(13)

mo = 8 /(c2), Clim = 210-4 /, pH = 7,1, k = 0,072 -1, t = 3600


( , 160,2 ), f = 0,5,
, q . 8,210-3 /(c2).
(Clim = 510-5 /, k = 0,061 -1) Vx (Clim = 210-5 /,
k = 0,00066 -1) q . 1,710-3 7,5106
/(c2) .


.
.
.
q , Vx . 70 %-
2,710-2, 5,710-3
2,510-5 /(c2) [5].
,
(q 8,210-3
/(c2) q 1,710-3 q 7,510-6 /(c2) , Vx
)
.

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

2.1.5.720.98. . . . .
15.10.1998 .
..
. : , 2002.
544 .
Thomas G., Smith K.E.C., Sweetman A.J., Jones K.C. //Environmen. Pollu.
1998. V. 102. P. 119-128.
McLachlan M., Horstmann M. //Environ. Sci.Technol. 1998. V. 32. P.
413-420.
.. . . IV . . . . 29-31.01.07 . : . ..
, 2007. . 100-104.
447

IV



..
, .
The necessary precondition of definition of an ecological condition of water
complexes is revealing anthropogenous sources of pollution. In work the estimation of
sources of chemical pollution of water complexes of a river basin of Volga from her
source up to Selizharovo.
For studying processes of pollution of superficial reservoirs the balance method
was used. The balance method allows to determine structure and a lump of pollution,
their arrival, the charge and accumulation in the water environment.
Work is based on the materials collected by authors in 2000 in regional
managements of an agriculture, land management, committees of natural resources,
bodies of statistics, and also on generalization of the given references.
The general receipt of the weighed substances with a superficial drain from
anthropogenous changed territories of pool of the Top Volga has made 231,388
thousand t.
The general dump of returnable waters from controllable sources of pollution
has made 21 327,9 thousand t.



.
. . .

.
,
, .

, .
. :

.
, 2000
, ,
, ,
.

448

5. :

, ,

,

:
,
(- ,
- ,
;
, ;
( );
;
;
;

;
;
;

.
-

.
1

4057,2
768,4
309,2
41 318,6
46 453,4
740 000

268
268
268
268
268
268


. 3 /

10 873,296
2 059,312
828,656
110 733,848
124 495,112
1 983 200,000

0,55
0,10
0,05
5,58
6,28
100,00


(
) 268 (. 1).
740 000 46
449

IV

453,4 (6,28% ), 5,58%,


0,55%, 0,05%.
5 134,8 (0,70%).

(. 2)
. , : () 1 100 //, () 300 //, (20) 80 //,
(N) 30 //, () 1,5 //,
() 2 //. , ..
5 300 //, ,
.
2

//
/
%
2 710
10 995,0
4,75
1 100
845,24
0,37
1 810
559,652
0,24
5 300
218 988,58
94,64
231 388
100

653
2 649,35
56,82
300
230,52
4,94
420
129,864
2,79
40
1 652,744
35,45
4 662,478
100

163
661,324
55,79
80
61,472
5,19
160
49,472
4,17
10
413,186
34,85
1185,454
100

30
121,72
39,63
15
11,526
3,75
100
30,92
10,07
3,46
142,962
46,55
307,128
100

1,5
6,086
18,28
0,75
0,576
1,73
30
9,276
27,86
0,42
17,354
52,13
33,292
100

26
105,487
55,07
2
1,537
0,80
26
80,392
41,96
0,1
4,132
2,16
191,548
100



231,388 ., 4,662 ., 20

450

5. :

, ,

1,185 ., 307 , 33,3 ,


191,5 .

,
1998 .
21 327,9 .
3/, 655 , 2 651,9 , 20 763,7 , N 308,5 ,
66,8 , 19,1 .


.
.. , ..
, .
Results of research of the contents, spatial distribution Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu and Zn in
a superficial layer of bottom sediment of the river White are submitted. It is established,
that accumulation of heavy metals and organic substance researched sites of the river
White are two in parallel proceeding processes. It is marked, that contents Fe adsorbs
Cu and Zn in fine granule fractions, and contents Mn - in large fraction.


.
,
.
. , ,
. .
, , . .
.
, .
,
( ) .
. .
,
.
.
451

IV

. , .
5990 2,
277 .
2197 . , ,
, ,
. .
, 25 10 . ,

1,0-0,25 < 0,25
HNO3: H2SO4: HCl : H2O2 = 2 : 1 : 1 : 2 [1].
20-30
. :
, - .

-
: Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn Zn
( 10-6 10-9 /). 3- .
0,01-5%. "Excel": , , , , .

, ,
Pb, Zn Cu . Zn
. , , Pb
. , Cu . .
, . : Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu.
" " ,
-
, , ,
. -

.

452

5. :

, ,

, .
" - " .
,
- , ,
, - [3-6]. ,

.
. , .
.

,
, -
. .
.
Fe (. ),
Pb
(. ).
Zn . ,
Cu . . ,
.
,
, . [2].
. , 0.25-1.0, < 0.25 . Fe (r = 0.99), Pb (r = 0.97), Cu (r = 0.69), Zn (r = 0.93), Mn (r = 0.45).
,
.

Fe Mn. 2006 . Fe Cu (r = 0.48), Mn (r =
0.44), Zn (r = 0.32), Pb (r = - 0.81). < 0.25 : r = 0.79 (Cu), r = 0.65
(Mn), r = 0.50 (Zn), Pb (r = - 0.70). 0.25-1.0

453

IV

Mn Cu (r = 0.92), Zn (r =
0.45) Pb (r = - 0.18),
0.37 (Cu), 0.25 (Zn) - 0.47 (Pb).
Fe
, Mn ,

. Mn Fe Zn Cu,
- Fe Mn.

. ,
, . ,
. " " .
, . , - .
.
.
Fe
, Mn
,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

454

. . : , 1984.
432 .
.. . : , 1967. 128 .
Balls P.W. // Netherlands Journ. of Sea Research. 1989. V. 23. No. 1. P. 7-14.
Horowitz A.J. A primer on trace metal-sediment chemistry. Alexandria, 1985.
67 p.
Steell K.F., Wagner G.H. Trace metal relationships in bottom sediments of
freshwater stream the Buffalo River, Arkansas. J. Sediment Petrol. 1975. V.
45. 1. p. 310-319.
Vasiliev O.F., Papina T.S., Pozdnjakov Sh.R. Suspended sediment and
associated mercury transport the case study on the Katun River. Proc. 4 Int.
Symp. on river sedimentation, Beijing. China: IRTCES, 1990. p. 155-162.

5. :

, ,


.
.. , ..
, .
Priority influence Mn and Fe on a level of the contents of heavy metals in
bottom sediments revealed under aerobic conditions. It is established, that normalization
of the contents of heavy metals on Mn and Fe eliminates the influence, connected with
features granule and physico- chemical structure of ground adjournment of the river
White.

,
,

,
.
:
-
- - , .
,


.
.

, .
,
,

.
, . ,

.

.
, :
(< 20 ) [3];

455

IV

, . Al2O3 [5];
[4],
[6], [2]. ,
, .. , . ,
(
)
.

Mn Fe ,
. .
, ..
,
HNO3: H2SO4: HCl : H2O2 =
2 : 1 : 1 : 2 [1]. (Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb Cu) -
( 10-6 - 10-9 /). 3-
. 0,01-5%.
, , ,
, . ()
, ,
,
[5].

(r = 0,32-0,80, r = 0,56-0,96
)
(r = 0,25-0,92, r = 0,26-0,87 ).

, Fe Mn

. ,


.
,

456

5. :

, ,

() (Eh > + 200 mB ).


() (Eh < + 200 mB)
,
, ,
(. 1).

. 1. Pb Zn 1 - 3 .
( 1, 2 , 3 ).



. .

. ,

. ( 3, . ) Pb Zn; Fe
. ( 5, . ) ( 7,
). .
( 3) Pb, . ( 5) Cu; .
. ( 6) Fe.
,

. ( 3) Pb Zn ,
( 3 4) Pb . ( 5) Cu.
457

IV



,
.
,
,
. .
,


, .


,
" " ,
.


, .
.
. . ,
. , .
.


- .

,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
458

. . : , 1984. 432
.
.. . .: , 1989. . 286 287.
Groot A., Zshuppe K., Salomons W. Standardization of methods of analysis
for heavy metals in sediments. Hydrobiologia. 1982. V. 92. P. 689 695.
Hirst D.M. // Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 1962. V. 26. P. 1147.
Horowitz A.J. A primer on trace metal-sediment chemistry. Alexandria,
1985. 67 p.
Loring D.H.// Marine Chem. 1990. V. 29. P. 155.

5. :

, ,

..
,
Cloths with immobilized Chrome Azurol S were used in the test determination
of 0.0005-0.5 mg/L beryllium and 0.0005-1.0 mg/L aluminum. When the reaction
products were preconcentrated on the cloth from 100 mL of a test solution, the detection
limit was 0.0001 mg/L. Procedures were developed for determining 0.1-100 mg/L
aluminum and 0.02-0.6 mg/L beryllium in solutions using cloth test strips encapsulated
into a polymeric film.


.
.

0,2 /, 0,04 /
0,0002 / .

,
. -
, ,

, .
,
: S () R ().

, .

.
.
: -.
. 1. -
.
-
,
. -
-

459

IV

, 4 80 . ,

3,0 8,0. 0,4-100
/, 1 60 .

. 1. -

- (. 2)
.

,
, .
.
.
,
.

. 2.
-
460

5. :

, ,

0,005-1,0 /, 0,001-0,5 / 20 0,001-1,0


/ , 0,0005-0,5 / 100 .
- - 10-15
. -.

.
,
- 30 %, 5,0 %. 0,4 - 0,2 -.


..
,
The amount of the spring and annual runoff under different land use scenarios is
defined on the base of geographic-hydrological analysis. If is found out that on the
modern land use the spring runoff has made up 19.97 mm, under the absence of the
plough-land the runoff has increased by 1.1 %, under the full ploughing up the runoff
has increased by 30.19 %.

.
,
20 , ,
.

.

,
,
.

, , ,
, ,
. , .
, ,
(), ,

461

IV

,
.
.
- ,
,

. , . .

. , .
.
.
- :
, ,
.

.
,
, ,
:
h = (h1f1+h2f2+.+hnfn )/F,

(1)

h , ;
h1,h2,hn , ;
f1,f2,fn , 2;
F , 2.
-
, . .
: , , ,
. ,
4,73% .
( ) 37,45%.
54,5% 3,31 % .
, ,
. .
0-5/.
462

5. :

, ,

2/3 .
1-5/, .
,
.
40,84%
. . ,
14%, - ,
.
, - 18,21%; ,
(11%); 3,31% .

: , , , .
15 .

1987-2005. ,
- ,

. 2 ,
; 3 , , ; 4 .
1 19,94 ,
.
,

- 41,84
38,65 .
- 37,65 31,36 .
. ,
41,84 , 2 37,65 ,
27, 51 .
.

.
20,16 , .. 1,1% .

463

IV

48,35 ,
37,05 27,51.
,
48,35
38,65 .

7,77 . 20,16 .
, - , ..
, - ,
5 .
.
. 19,94
25,96 , .. 30,19% . 43,07 ,
37,05 .
,
-
43,07 ,
21,14 .
.
19,94 19,60 , .. 1,7%
. 43,07 .

.
:
h = 1.17h+3.2

(2)


2.

: 26,13 (
19,60 )
.
26,53 .
, 33,57 , 7,04
.
, ,

. 4
464

5. :

, ,

.
19,94 ( 54,5%, 34,5%, 3,31%).
20,16 ,
1.1% .
(96,69% ) 30,19%
25,96 .
5,8 , 29,09%
.



..
,
It is carried out research of 152 tests of water from wells of area in Aleppo city
in the Syrian Arabian republic. Tests of water from wells have divided into 9 groups on
a degree of their bacterial and chemical pollution. In some cases communication
between concentration of chemical substances in water and presence Coliforms bacteria
is shown.



. . .
,
.

, .
.
,
.
,
. ,

.
. , ,
.
,
465

IV

, , , .
. :
Salmonella typhi ;
Shigella disentheriae ;
Vibrio cholera ; ..
,
.
.

2005 . 152
.
9
.
1:
.
. 45
(1994),
0,01 /, 0,05 /, 10 /.
7,89% .
2: ,
NO-3, NO-2 .

E.coli. , .

. 15,13%
.
3: ,
,
(, Enterococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Yersenia pseudotuberculosis,
Enterobacter cloacae) [2]. 5,92%
.
4:
, E.coli 2 : Pseudomonas agglomeras
Acinato lowfii [1]. 7,23%
.

466

5. :

, ,

5: NO-2
NO-3. NH+4 .
E.coli , [4].
31,57% .
6:
NH+4, .
, E.coli
. ,
NH+4
[5]. 9,21%
.
7: , NO-2, NO-3
NH+4 , .
, E.coli
. ,
,
. 4,6%
.
8:
, . E.coli [6]. 9,21%
.
9:
. E.coli [3].
11,84% .


:
1. 5 9 ,
E.coli
, .
2. 2 Pantoea spp.
Rhanell spp. .
3.
.
4.
( 4,7,8), ;
467

IV

5. 5 (31,57%)
,
NH+4, .
:
1.
,
,
;
2. ;
3. ;
4. ;
5.
, .

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

., . 2000-
. 280 c.
Mendosa Jose, 2004-Microbial Contamination and chemical Toxicity of the
Rio Grand, El Paso community college, USA. 255 p.
TNRCC (Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission), 1994,
Watershed Management Division, Regional assessment of water quality in
the Rio grand Basin Austin, TX. 320 p.
Eaton DW.; Greenberg AE.; Clescerl LS., 2002- Standard Method or the
Examination of and waste water, APHA Washington, 26th Edition. 370 p.
WHO. 1997- Guide lines for drinking water quality, volume land2.
Adams B., 1997, Ground water protection strategies.

.. , ..
, .
The main principles and indicators of ecological monitoring system of the small
river basins organization are presented.

2,5 . . , 44%
90% .

468

5. :

, ,

,
,
,
.

,
.
,
[1].

, ,
,
.
.
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
[2].

, ,
,
. ,
[2].
, ,
,
;
;
.

.

(
, ,

469

IV

..).
[2].

,
,
, ,
,

.


.
.
, ,
.
,
.
, [4].

,
(, ,
..).
, . ,
.

, ,
.
, [5]. , 20
, , [6].

470

5. :

, ,


,

-
. ,
,
, .
0,02 ( )
5-10 .
(, )

.
,

[7]. .

, ,
.

.
, ,

.

.


, [8].


( ,
, ..).
,

[9].

471

IV


.

.

, .



,
.



,
.
,
: ,
, , ,
,
[1].

,
, ,
, , , ,
,
.
,
.


,
.
( 06-05-96502---).

472

5. :

1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.
8.
9.

, ,

./ . .. . :
1998. . 164-166.
.., .., ..
:
. , , 2005.
.. .
. , ,
2005.
..
. , . . . , 2005.
.. . , 1977, 7.
. 18-28.
.., ..
. . . . . 11 - 19 1993 . . 131-132.
/ . . .
: , 2002. . 36-37.
.. //
. 2000. 2. . 31-34.
.. . , . ,
, 2005.



..
, .
The data about the chydrochemical conditios of the river Klyazma and its
tributaries are presented and analysed in the article.


,
.
,
, .

473

IV


. ,
,
, .
,
, ,
, , .

,
, .

.
,
. ,
.

, ,
2006 . 23 .
, ..

, ( 17.1.5.05-85
, , ).

.

,
. , ,
, , -
-Z.

,

. , , .

,
. ,
474

5. :

, ,

.

,

. ., . ,

4,5 3,5 , ; .
,
2,5 .

.
, , ,
.

(NO3-, SO42-, F-, Cl-),
. ,

[1]. -,
() .

,

(=6-7)
, , , , .
,

[2].
,
, ( , , ,
. ) ( ).
(
.), . (-
), . ( ), .
( ) .
, ,
.
,
:
, ;
475

IV

(NO3-, SO42-, F-, Cl-)



;

,
;

;
. .
( 06-05-96502---).

1. ./ . .. . .:
1998. 236 .
2. .. . 2.
. : , 2003. 544 .

.. , 2 ..
1

, .
, .

The necessity of water drainage surface status dilating as the territorial unit of
water use and the hole nature management is obvious.

, ,
- .
,
.
,
.
,
.

,

, , .
476

5. :

, ,



. ,
,

, .

,
, ,
.

, , ,

.
,
. .
, ,

.

, ,
:
- ,
, - ;

, ;

, , . ;

;
;

, ;
, -
.
477

IV

6.

.. , ..
, .
,
,

(), . , 250
. 1994 .
,
,
" ,

". .. ,
" . "
(, 2003, . 33).
: ,

, ,
,
,

..
,
, , .
, , ,

.
. , .
.
, ,
.

478

6.

. 2007
. ,
,
. ,
.
, ,


. ,
, ,
.

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, ,
.
. , .
, ,
, ,

, ,

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,
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;
,
.
, ,
479

IV

.
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480

6.

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. .. (2003) : "

- " (.6).
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.
481

IV

,
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482

6.

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. , , .
.

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,
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.
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.
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.

483

IV


-
..

, .
-

. .. ,

[2].
, ,
, .

,
- [3].

- .
- ,
,
.

- .

3-
,
,

[1]. , , , .
-
() .
:

484

6.

(), , -,
,
,
;
- ,
, ,
(, ),
, , - ;
-, ..
,
, , ,
.. .
() :
;
.
() .

.

, :
() ,
,
(, , , , , );
- , ,
, - (, , ,
, , ,
);
- , , - - (, , , ).

485

IV

-

, , .
,
( , , , , ,
, , .); -
( , , , , , , .),
, - .

.
, -
-
(), ( )
- .

.
( . , , )
- , .
- ,
, .
, .. , ,
, .
-
: 1) , , ; 2)
; 3)
-

486

6.

.
.
- : 1)

(, ) .
; 2) ()
, , , , .

.

(, , , , )
.
,
.
, -
, , ,
,
.
,
-
- .

:
, , ;
- ,
;
;
, , ;
487

IV

,
, ,
, ;
,
(
, , , );
, ,
:
;
.
,
- ,
:

. ,
(,
, , , , ), - ( , ), -
(, ).
- ,
.
() .
, :
, , , ,
, .
, ,
.
.
-

,
,
,
.

488

6.

1. 3- .
, 2005.
2. , .. / ..
, 1994.
3. , .. : / .. , 2001.



..
. .. ,
Basic directions of the Museum of Earth Sciences of Moscow State University
are highlighted in the presentation concerning problems of environmental education and
outreach: creation of expositions of environmental orientation; elaboration and
implementation of thematic lectures and excursions with environmental bias; scientific
work on environmental problems research; production of text-books for teachers,
students and pupils on environmental subjects. Methodological approaches are
considered of environmental problems display for different regions (Moscow, Moscow
region, European part of Russian plain, Baikal, Russia as a whole), characteristic
features of lecture courses and excursions in the Museum are opened up, updated
scientific directions of environmental themes are outlined, a brief list of text-books
developed by the Museum researchers is given.


( ) .

,
. XXI ,
179
1992 . --,
.

:
, .

, 489

IV

. ,
,
, ,
, ,

..

,

.

- . .. ,
1955 ,
, .

,
. (
, ,
, , )
,
, .


,
,
, ,
.
- , : ,
, , , . , :
, : ,
. ,
.

490

6.


. .
,
,
, , ,
.
, , , .
, , , .

. .
, ,
. ,
, ()
.
, ,
.
, , . ,

,
: , ,
: , , . ,
, .
,
.
-
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Main directions of ecologic education implementation in the Vladimir State
University have been described in this research. Brief description of ecologic
approaches towards the problem study of healthy way of living and favorable
environment value for health with the students of ecologic and non-ecologic specialties
has been presented.
The research of healthy way of life problems and favorable environment value
for health is executed on the motivational, problem statement, historic-cultural,
theoretical and practical stages.
Special attention has been paid to ecologic and social problems interrelation.

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Orientation at personality's interest's in the process of professional training of
student's ecologist's is adequate to modern eco-humanitarian educational paradigm. It
forms a personalities important qualities and interests which are necessary for effective
interaction with nature and it's objects through their use of a personalities oriented
technologies.




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499

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New educational pattern aimed at obligatory preparation for living in
information society has been considered. One of the key conditions of modern
professional education transition into new quality is a problem oriented teaching.
Problem oriented teaching scheme has been presented giving students the possibility to
acquire the technology of non-standard tasks solution.


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Last years the quantity of ecological offences constantly increases. In this
connection the requirement for highly skilled specialists in environment soil forensics
grows also. Expert judgements the experts possessing a profound knowledge in the field
of ecology, capable to reveal and estimate should give a degree of negative influence of
economic or other activity on an environment, and thus to have legal preparation and to
own methods of expert research. Preparation of not state judicial specialists in
environment soil forensics on the basis of Ecological Faculty of the Russian Peoples
Friendship University will promote expansion of number of the qualified experts
capable at a modern level to spend judicial-ecological examinations.


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The article deals with the necessity of the development of the formation of the
ecological consciousness, it also covers the aspects of the ecological education on the
basis of the Social Ecology course.

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The understanding of fundamentality of occurrence of a modern problem of an
environment has led mankind to formation of approach essentially distinct from to the
technological concept to construction of model of steady development. Full
harmonization of development of economy, a society and the nature is possible only on
the ways realizing ideas of V.I.Vernadsky about the Noosphere. Necessity to expect
ecological consequences of anthropogenesis influence on an environment and,
according to it to develop decisions on ways of development of a society and economy
in view of evolution of Biosphere, the Mankind to leads necessity of formation of
Sphere of Reason within the framework of which a criterion of national riches cultural
wealth and knowledge of the person living in harmony with surrounding Nature
become.
To keep an environment even in that kind in what it now is, it is necessary to
change the attitude to it. Nature protection movement movement for steady
development of a human society depends on comprehension by wide layers of the
public of value of environmental problems, from a recognition of new values, from
essentially new attitude to an environment.
The mankind achieves understanding of what to carry out transition to steady
development it is impossible, keeping present stereotypes of thinking. And, hence, the
education system should be subjected to radical reorganization. All system of training
and education of rising generation on all its steps should be revolved by the person to
the person and the nature surrounding it. For today modeling of system of ecological
507

IV

education and education of the future experts is a wide strategy of scientific search of
optimum ways of formation of ecological culture of the person. Display of culture of
wildlife management, a moral ecological position of the manufacturer, its ecologically
focused activity also should become, finally, steady development of the nature and
mankind as a whole.


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Complex geographical practices are very important part of school geographical
education. Students study natural and natural- anthropogenic objects practicing in real
conditions. They can see negative effect of human irrational activity and ecological
problems. School educational program is poor with observations and excursions.
Therefore it is especially significant because for students. We develop and regularly
apply methods of complex landscape, geographical field practices for students of last
years of education in Moscow Pushkin Lyceum 1500.

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The aspect of problem teaching elements use in ecological education of the
students as well as their modernization with the help of some NLP techniques are
considered in this paper. The use of the NLP achievement in the organization of studies
will enable the lecturer to appeal to the students subjective experience and
consequently influence more effectively on the process of ecological formation of their
consciousness.


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Teaching of landscape planning is carried out in the framework of ecologists
training. Due to the insulfficient abilities of students to deal with graphics methods the
course includes such related subjects as: fundamentals of composition and architectural
graphics, technological moments of species planting and miniconstruction.
Consolidation of lectures at practical classes is being paid much attention to.


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