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Copyright & A K-C

.. , .. , . .


CAE -
ANSYS

,
151002.65 , 151900 -
221000.62

2013

Copyright & A K-C

621.433(07)
39.357
54

, . .
54

, . .
CAE Ansys:
/ .. , . . , . . ;
. -. : , 2013. 190 .

, .
.
CAE- Ansys. Ansys,
.
:
, : 151002.65 , 151900 -
221000.62

Copyright & A K-C

1.1

1.2

15

1.3

21

1.4

25

ANSYS

27

2.1 ANSYS

27

2.2

31

2.3

35

2.4 ANSYS

37

2.5 -

42

2.6 ANSYS

69

2.7

76

78

3.1

78

3.2 ANSYS

79

3.3

82

3.4

84

3.5

84

3.6

90

3.7

96

3.8

98

- 103

4.1

103

3

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4.2 -
5

105

112

5.1

112

5.2

115

119

6.1

119

6.2

120

6.3 ,

121

6.4

122

( )

141

7.1

141

7.2

143

7.3

149

( )

151

8.1 .

152

8.2

155

8.3

158

172

10

178

183

185

186

- 187

- 188

-
4

189

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. , ,
.
- - ANSYS ( ANSYS, Inc.),
(). ANSYS, Inc. ,
. 1970 ANSYS. 1971 Ansys 2.0. ANSYS , , .
: , , ; : ANSYS FLUENT, ANSYS CFX, ANSYS POLYFLOW,
ANSYS Icepak; ANSYS Mechanical, ANSYS AUTODYN, ANSYS LS-DYNA, ANSYS
nCode; ANSYS HFSS, ANSYS Maxwell, ANSYS Designer, Apache RedHawk.
Ansys : Airbus, Boeing, Lockheed
martin, Rolls- Royce, Toyota, Ford, Volvo, Daimler, Panasonic, Ericsson, Dell, Toshiba,
Siemens, Hitachi, Canon, Philips .
, 151002.65
, , 151900
5

Copyright & A K-C

-
221000 .

Copyright & A K-C

1

.
[1 - 6]:
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7

Copyright & A K-C

() : ,
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1.1
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f N e

i

j

N i , N j , N m ... m
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(1)

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u x, y

x, y

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u i

Copyright & A K-C

Ni, Nj, Nm , (1) .

1 ,
:
N i xi , y i I
N i xi , y i N i x m , y m 0

- .
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9

Copyright & A K-C

B e

(2)

:
u

x x

y
y
xy u

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[] (1)
Ni, Nj Nm.
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{0},
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10

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x

y

xy

[D] :
1

x y,
E
E

1
y y 0 x y ,
E
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21
xy xy 0
xy ,
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1
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11

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{} ,
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Vl

Fl

U V , v.
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d{} . (1)
(2) :
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(4)

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12

(5)

Copyright & A K-C

, , :
d d f p

(6)

d B N p

(7)

(4) :

e T

,
, :

d F d B dV N pdV
e T

e T

(8)

, . (2) (3)
:

F e BT DBdV e BT D 0 dV BT 0 dV N T pdV

(9)

k e BT DBdV

(10)

, , :

F ep

N pdV
T

(11)

, :

F e

B D 0 dV
T

, :
13

(12)

Copyright & A K-C

F e

B 0 dV
T

(13)

,
(2) (3) :

DB e D 0 0

(14)

, , . (1)
:

f N , N i

N ie

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(4):

d f N d , d B d

(16)

K Fp Fb F

F 0 R 0

(17)

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14

Copyright & A K-C


--, :

ai i

(18)

i 1

a i - , N .
i , . ,
-, , a i
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1.2
.
: , , ,
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ANSYS 150 .
, : 4, PLANE78, SOLID98, ..
Ansys Multiphysics : Mass, Link, Beam,
Pipe, Solid, Shell, Solid-Shell, Constraint, Contact,

15

Gasket, Cohesive, Combination,

Copyright & A K-C

Ansys fluid, Flotran CFD, Magnetic Vector, Scalar, Interface, Electostatic, Coupled field,
Superelement .. [7, 8].

SOLID185 ( 2.1).

2 Solid185

Solid185 :
- :

1
U X (U X i (1 s) (1 t ) (1 r ) U X j (1 s) (1 t ) (1 r )
8
U X k (1 s) (1 t ) (1 r ) U X l (1 s) (1 t ) (1 r )
U X m (1 s) (1 t ) (1 r ) U X n (1 s) (1 t ) (1 r )

(19)

U X o (1 s) (1 t ) (1 r ) U X p (1 s) (1 t ) (1 r ))

- :
UX

1
U X i L1 (1 r ) U X j L2 (1 r ) U X k L3 (1 r )
2
U X m L1 (1 r ) U X n L2 (1 r ) U X o L3 (1 r )
16

(20)

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- :
U X U X i L1 U X j L2 U X k L3 U X m L4

(21)

UX ip
X; s, t, r, L1, L2, L3, L4 , 0 1 ( L1, L2, L3, L4) 1 1 ( s,t,r).
1.2.1
:

K u F

(22)

[K] ; {u} ; {F} .


:

K V [ B (e) ]T [ D (e) ] [ B (e) ] dV

(23)

[B(e)] - ,
:
[ B (e) ] [ L] [ H (e) ]

[L] ; [H(e)] ,
; [D(e)]
; m .
17

Copyright & A K-C

u u (e)

(24)

{u(e)} , n :

(e) T

{u x1 u y1 u z1 x1 y1 z1 . . . u xn u yn u zn xn yn zn }

(25)

{F} , , :

F FB FS FC

(26)

{FB}, :

FB V [ H (e) ]T f B(e) dV ;

(27)

{FS}, :

FS S [ H S (e) ]T f S (e) dS

(28)

{FC} , ;
fB(e) , ;
fS(e) , , ;
[HS(e)] ,
[H(e)] .
18

Copyright & A K-C

(22) CAE- ANSYS , .


, Sparse Direct Solver, , LU [K]. (22) :

L U u F

(29)

[L] ; [U] ;
:

w U u

(30)

{u}
:

L w F

(31)

[K], :

K L LT

(32)

K L D LT

(33)

[D] ;
[L] , , () .

19

Copyright & A K-C

(21) :

L D LT u F

(34)

w D LT u

(35)

L w F,

(36)

{w} {u}.
1.2.2

.
, ( )
{ }, , { }, .. b c . :
k bb
k
cb

k bc b Fb

k cc c Fc

(37)

:


k
cc c F c

(38)

,
. :

20

Copyright & A K-C

b
0 c
c

[] .
(37):
{ b } k bb k bc c k bb
1

Fb

(39)


, { } { }
[kbb ]1[kbc ] . , { }=[I]{ }, :
b [k bb ]1[k bc ]

{ c } [ 0 ]{ c }
I
c

(37)
(38), :

[k cc ] [k cc ] [k cb ][k bb ]1[k bc ] ,

F
{F c } [ 0 ] b {Fc } [k cb ][k bb ]1{Fb }
Fc

Fc

.
1.3
.
, , .
- .
- , 21

Copyright & A K-C

, , , . .
, .

. , .
, , :
- ;
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- .

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.

, .

:

M 11M 12
...

M n1 M n 2


... M 1n x1 S11S12

... ... ... ...



... M nn x n S n1 S n 2

... S1n x1 0

... ... ... ...
... S nn x n 0

(40)

,
:
X i X Mi sin( pi t i ) ,

22

Copyright & A K-C

p i i i - , () Xi- - - i- , .
x1

X i ... ;
x
n i

X Mi

xM 1

...
x
Mn i

X i (40), , :
H i X Mi 0 ,

(41)

Hj :
H i S pi2 M

(41) ,
:
S11 pi2 M 11 ... S1n pi2 M 1n

Hi
...
...
...
0
2
2
S n1 pi M n1 ... S nn pi M nn

(42)

,
( pi2 ) n . ,
. ,
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23

Copyright & A K-C

, , , . , , . . .
,
X M i .


(42), (41)
( ).
, , . ( 1)
, ( 1)
. ,
, , H i ,

H i1

H in
Hi

(43)

H in .
, , H i , , |Hi| . (43) :
H i H in H i I 0

(44)

, i H i .
(40) :
24

Copyright & A K-C

[m]{u} [k ]{u} 0

(45)

:
u {} j Cos j t

(46)

(46) (45) :
( 2j [m] [ K ]){} j 0

(47)

det [ K ] w2 [M ] 0

(48)

fj

j
2

(49)

:
[ ] [m][ ] = E ;

[ ] [k ][ ] 2

(50)

1.4
.
(, ) (),
:

[m]{x} [c]{x} [k ]{x} {F}

(51)

, :
{u} {u max e i }e it
25

(52)

Copyright & A K-C

- ;
2f - ;

f - , .

(52) :
{u} {umax (cos i sin )}eit

(53)

{u} ({u1} i{u2 })eit

(54)

, (52) (54):
{F} {Fmax ei }eit , {F} {Fmax (cos i sin )}eit , {F} ({F1} i{F2 })eit

(55)

(55) (54) (51) :


(2 [M ] i[C] [ K ])({u1} i{u2 })eit ({F1} i{F2 })eit

([ K ] 2 [M ] i[C ])({u1} i{u2 }) ({F1} i{F2 })

(56)

, :
[ Kc ]{uc } {Fc }

(57)

.
, .
, ( Ansys full).
1
26

Copyright & A K-C

1 .
2 .
3
.
4 .
5 .
6 .
7 , .
8 .
9 .
10 .

2 ANSYS

2.1 ANSYS
ANSYS
: ; ; ; ; ; [7 - 9].
- ANSYS , , , ( 3).

3
27

Copyright & A K-C

,
, .
. ,
. , ,
ANSYS .
:
) File ,
, , ;
) Select , , ;
) List .
, ;
) Plot - , , , ;
) PlotCtrls - , . , , ,
.
) WorkPlane - , , ..
) Parameters , , .
) Macro - , .
) MenuCtrls -
ANSYS, .
) Help -
.
.
ANSYS.
28

Copyright & A K-C

ANSYS, , , ( 4).
- ,
.
+, .
, . ,
, . , , .

4
:
) Preprocessor - , , ..
, , , .
) Solution - , .
) General Postproc - ,
.
29

Copyright & A K-C

Command Window prompt.


. :
) - .
) - .
) - .
,
ANSYS.
, .
, .
.
- , (
, 5). , ,
.

5
30

Copyright & A K-C

2.2
.
, ,
ANSYS " ", . . . : Utility Menu > File > Change
Jobname. ,
( 6).

Enter new jobname ( stoika_v2). New log and error files , No, ,
Yes. ,
, Cancel.
, , , ,
.
.
: Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db Utility Menu > File >
Save as.
31

Copyright & A K-C

,
, ANSYS " ". ,
" " file.db . file.db
,
, : Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname.

Utility Menu > File > Save as :

SAVE, FILENAME, Ext, --, Slab,


FILENAME EXT, .
Save DataBase (
7).

7
Save Database to
, . Directories
, . Drives . 32

Copyright & A K-C

, Cancel , Help . , ANSYS db,


,
dbb.
.
, : Utility
Menu > File > Resume Jobname.db Utility Menu > File > Resume from :
RESUME, Fname, Ext, --, NOPAR, KNOPLOT

:
Fname, Ext , ,.
, ,
" ".
, .
Resume Database
( 8), .
Resume Database From
. ANSYS ,
ANSYS.
.
. , . : Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start
New. Clear Database
and Start New ( 9),
, , Start.ans, .
33

Copyright & A K-C

9
,
, . Read
file, start.ans , Do
not read file, . :

/CLEAR, READ
34

Copyright & A K-C

READ : START NOSTART.


2.3
. , Pan-Zoom-Rotate (
10). : Utility Menu > PlotCtrls >
Pan Zoom Rotate ....
Pan-Zoom-Rotate ,
. ,
, (), . , , - Window, , ( ) (. 10). (Top-Front-IsoBot-Back-Obliq-Left-Right-WP)
. , ,
:
- - ( Y+);
- Front - ( Z+);
- Bot - ( Y-);
- Left - ( -);
- Back - ( Z-);
- Right - ( +);
- Iso - ;
- Obliq - , , ;
- WP - .

(Zoom- Back Up-Box Zoom-Win Zoom):

35

Copyright & A K-C

- Zoom -
;
- BoxZoom - -

, ,
- WinZoom - Zoom , , ANSYS.

( 10).
.
, . . , - .

10 - Pan Zoom - Rotate


36

Copyright & A K-C

( , 10)
XYZ. , ,
ANSYS. X , Y . Z .
Rate, , .
Dynamic
mode. , "".
"" , "".
"" . X Y.
(Fit Reset Close - Help)
:
- Fit - , ;
- Reset - , , ,
;
- Close - ;
- Help - .
2.4 ANSYS

Ansys
.
CAD-
37

Copyright & A K-C

Ansys. . 3D SolidWorks Parasolid, SAT IGES, - x_t, sat, igs.


, .
. (, .), . , ,
,
.
:
Main Menu > Preferences. , Preferences for GUI Filtering ( 11), Cancel.

: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props >
Material Models ( 12).
Define Material Model Behavior :
Material Models Defined Material Models Available. Material Models Defined
, .
, " " Material
Model Number 1. Material Models Available , , Preferences for GUI Filtering. Material Models Available .
Material Models Available.

38

Copyright & A K-C

11

12
Ansys .
Material Models Available ,
. , .
39

Copyright & A K-C

,
, Structural Linear ( ), Nonlinear ( ) .
, ,
Define Material Model Behavior,
: Define Material Model Behavior > Material > New Model .... Define Material ID ( 13)
(" " ) , , , Cancel.

13
, Material Models Defined, ( ) Define Material Model Behavior
Material Model Number 2. .
Material Models Defined "" : Define Material Model Behavior > Material > Delete.
, : Main menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Write to File,
Write Material Properties to File:
40

Copyright & A K-C

14 ,

:
MPWRITE, Fname, Ext

:
Fname, Ext - , , .
: Main menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Read from
File, Read Material Properties from File:

15 - ,
:

MPREAD, Fname, Ext


41

Copyright & A K-C

:
Fname, Ext - , , .
2.5 -
2.5.1 .
ANSYS 150 . , .
, .
, , BEAM161. 8 : ,
, , ,
BEAM , , 161 - .
, , , I, .
,
, . , - ,
- , .
. ,
, , , . ,
. .
. - ,
,
42

Copyright & A K-C

, . ,
() .
- .
, ANSYS, , .
.
,
. ,
, .

.
() . . ,
, , . , ,
.
2.5.2
:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/ Edit/ Delete
Element Types ( 16).
Add Library of
Element Types, ( 17).
Library Element Types . ,
. , Structural -
43

Copyright & A K-C

; Hyperelastic - ; Contact - ; Thermal - . , .

16

17
, (Structural) :
- Beam - ;
44

Copyright & A K-C

- Pipe - ;
- Shell - ;
- Link - , ;
- Solid - , ( ).
, ,
. .
, , , . .
OK Apply :

ET, ITYPE, Ename,


: ITYPE Ename , , :

ET, 1, Solid185.
2.5.3
Ansys
Help ( 18).
,
.
Link.
. , , , , .
.
45

Copyright & A K-C

18 Ansys
.
Link11 , ,
UX, UY, UZ;
, , ; .
Link33 ,
, ..
Beam.
. LINK-, -, .
, - .

46

Copyright & A K-C

Beam161 , 3D ;
Link ; ; :
UX, UY, UZ, VX, VY, VZ, AX, AY, AZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ

Beam188 , ; :
UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ

Solid.
. 3 20, .
, ,
. PLANE, - SOLID.
Solid185 3D - Structural; :
UX, UY, UZ

Solid226 3D ; ,
:
Quad 4node 182 - PLANE182 , ,
.
:
47

Copyright & A K-C

UX, UY
2.5.4

MeshTool - Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > MeshTool.
MeshTool ( 19), , . ,
Close.

19 Mesh Tool
48

Copyright & A K-C

, MeshTool:
) SMRTSIZE, SIZLVL - Smart Size, SIZLVL 0 10;
) , , :
LESIZE, NL1, SIZE, ANGSIZ, NDIV, SPACE, KFORC, LAYER1, LAYER2, KYNDIV ,

:
NL1 ;
SIZE , , 0.05 (.. );
NDIV ;
ANGSIZ ,
) ;
) ;
) ( );
) ;
) , , , ,
:

VCLEAR, NV1, NV2, NINC,


: NV1, NV2, NINC (
) , .
) Refine , ,
:

EREFINE, NE1, NE2, NINC, LEVEL, DEPTH, POST, RETAIN

49

Copyright & A K-C

: NE1, NE2, NINC , .


2.5.4.1 " "
: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size
Cntrls > ManualSize> Global > Other Other Global Sizing Options ( 20).

20 Other Global Sizing Options


:

50

Copyright & A K-C

DESIZE, MINL, MINH, MXEL, ANGL, ANGH, EDGMN, EDGMX, ADJF, ADJM
:
MINL
( );
MINH -
( );
MXEL ; ( );
ANGL -
( 150);
ANGH -
( 280).
EDGMN ; ;
EDGMX - ; ;
ADJF - free ; 1;
ADJM - - free ; 4.
2.5.4.2
, " ", - . . .
MeshTool
(Size Controls).
51

Copyright & A K-C

, , :
- Global - ;
- Areas - ;
- Lines -
;
- Keypts - .
Set Global Global Element Sizes,
( 21). SIZE
NDIV. SIZE - , " "
; NDIV -
. SIZE 0,
NDIV.

21 Global Element Sizes


, Set
Elem Size at Picked... (
52

Copyright & A K-C

, , Lines), ,
"" , . , ( ) . Clear .
2.5.4.3
. .
- .
, . , , ,
. , , , .
-
, , () .
, . , , .
, . . ,
,
, .
, ANSYS , . , ( , ).
53

Copyright & A K-C

() , . :
) , : (
); ( ); ( );
) ,
,
;
)
, .
ANSYS. (SmartSizing) MeshTool
Smart Size ( 19): Fine - () ; Coarse
- . Smartsizing c :
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing> Size Cntrls > SmartSize > Basic.
Basic
SmartSize Settings ( 22).
( 1 10), Off, SmartSizing.

22 Basic SmartSize Settings


54

Copyright & A K-C

.
. ,
.
.
,
, . : Main Menu > Preprocessor >
Meshing >Size Cntrls >ManualSize > Global > Area Cntrls. Global Element Sizes ( 23).
EXPND . 1, , 2,
2 .
0,5 4. 1,
. 23, , 1, - , 0,5,
- , 2.
,
. Global Element Sizes TRANS , . "
" 2, .. 2
. 1,5, . , , , .
. : Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing
>Size Cntrls >ManualSize > Global > Volu Cntrls. , TETEXPND .
55

Copyright & A K-C

23 Global Element Sizes


2.5.4.4 ,
:
- , ;
-
, ( 24).
: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes > Default Attribs. Meshing Attributes (
25). , " ", .
Element type number
:

TYPE, ITYPE,
ITYPE , .
56

Copyright & A K-C

)
24
57

Copyright & A K-C

25 Meshing Attributes
Material number :

MAT, MAT
MAT ,
.
: Real
constant set number Element coordinate sys REAL ESYS, . , , . 58

Copyright & A K-C

, , - Cancel.
: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes
>Picked ... (, Picked Volumes Picked Lines).
, , . ( ) Apply, , Meshing Attributes, . (, ) , : Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes >All ....
2.5.4.5
, , - , .
:
) :
- Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db;
- Utility Menu > File > Save as ....
) ( ) : Main Menu
> Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesher Opts , , .
, . , , .

. ,
.
59

Copyright & A K-C

.
MeshTool :
)

Mesh: ( MeshTool)

, .
Volumes;
) (Free Mapped).
) ( Shape- Tet/ Hex ):
) Mesh.
,
.

: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh >
Volumes> Mapped > 4 to 6 sided.
Mesh Volumes, , 4 6 , . Apply.
: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing >
Mesh > Volumes> Free. .
, - ( ).
-.
.
- , , , ( - Volume). . , . . 60

Copyright & A K-C

, . , , .
,
:

VGLUE, NV1, NV2, NV3, NV4, NV5, NV6, NV7, NV8, NV9
NV1, NV2, NV3, NV4, NV5, NV6, NV7, NV8, NV9 ;
, .
VGLUE : Main menu >
Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Glue > Volumes. Glue
Volumes:

26 Glue Volumes

61

Copyright & A K-C

Pick All.

: Utility menu > List > Volumes : VLIST, ALL.

27 ,
( 27) ,
. Compress Numbers ( 28): Main menu > Preprocessor > Numbering
Ctrls > Compress Numbers.

28 Compress Numbers
ALL OK. : NUMCMP, ALL. 29 NUMCMP.
62

Copyright & A K-C

29

VGLUE
, . , .
.
MeshTool, :
) Mesh ( MeshTool) -
Areas;
) (Free Mapped);
) ( Shape - Tri/ Quad
);
) Mesh.
,
.

: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas
>Mapped > By Corners.
:

63

Copyright & A K-C

- Map Mesh Area by Con...

, ;
- Map Mesh Area by Con...

, .

: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas >Free.
. , , ,
, , . STOP, , , . , , , . -
, .
. " ", /UIS,ABORT,OFF. , CTRL-C
CTRL-P.
. " "
. - ANSYS
, ,
. , , . , , , . , , , - . ,
64

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,
. ,
.
, , .
, ANSYS
, ,
( AMESH VMESH) .
, . ,
. ,
, : Main Menu > Preprocessor > Checking Ctrls
> Shape Checking. Shape Checking Controls,
On w/Warning msg ( ), Off (
) .
, ,
. ,
, .
2.5.4.6
- , . .
. MeshTool, Mesh: Volume (), Clear.
Clear Volumes. ""
Apply.
65

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: Main
Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing>Clear > Volumes.
Clear Volumes.
"" Apply.
. ,
Areas.
2.5.4.7
-
:
- / ( );
- , ;
- ;
- .
,
.
2.5.4.8
: , ,
,

. ,

"". :
- ,
;
- , , ;
- , , (, ).
. MeshTool Refine At ( MeshTool) 66

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, , ,
Lines Refine. Refine mesh at lines. ""
, . , Refine Mesh at Lines (
30) ( Level of refinement) .

30 Refine Mesh at Node


, : Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing> Modify Mesh > Refine At> Lines. .

67

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(,
, ) , Lines .
, 31 32.
, ,
, . , ,
Mesh Tool .

31 -

32
2.6 ANSYS
2.6.1
68

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- , . , , .
,
(, ..) ,
, .
(
" "). ,
(.. ) .
"" ""
, , . , ""
ANSYS : , ..
, ; "" -
( ) ( ) ..
, .
ANSYS :
- ( , );
- - ( ).
, :
- -
, .. , ;
69

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- , . , .
, :
- - . ;
- .
- ,
ANSYS
.
, .
, .
2.6.2
.
:
- , ;
- .
, , ( ANSYS: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ); - ( ANSYS: TEMP). ,
(, UX, ROTZ, AY ..), (.. ).
ANSYS , , .
70

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. : Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads


> Define Loads> Apply > Structural >Displacement > On Nodes.
Apply U,ROT on Nodes:
- ""
( );
- Apply;
- Apply U, ROT on Nodes,
( Lab2: X - UX, Y - UY, Z - UZ
- ALL DOF), ; "" - ( 33);
- (
VALUE - " " );
- , Apply.
:

D, NODE, Lab, VALUE, VALUE2, NEND, NINC, Lab2, Lab3, Lab4, Lab5, Lab6
: NODE Lab .
: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads> Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes. Apply TEMP on Nodes.

Apply. Apply
TEMP on Nodes, .

71

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)
33 Apply U, ROT on Nodes

: Main
Menu > Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural >Displacement > On Nodes
Main Menu> Solution > Define Loads> Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes.
. : Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas.
. :
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines.
2.6.3 C ANSYS

72

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,
, .. , , , . ,
.
ANSYS, , . ,
- ( : FX, FY, FZ), (MX, MY, MZ),
- (HEAT).
- .
-
GUI .
/: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads> Define Loads >
Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes.
Apply
F/M on Nodes.
30.
: Main Menu > Preprocessor >
Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Heat Flow > On Nodes. " "
, ( Constant value).
2.6.4 ANSYS
. , -
(PRES), - (HFLUX) . , .
73

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, . : Main Menu
> Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines.
Apply PRESS
on Lines:
- "" ( );
- Apply.
- Apply PRESS on lines, :
) VALUE
, ;
) Value , ( ).
) , Apply.
, , .
: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define
Loads > Apply > Termal > Heat Flux > On Lines.
Apply HFLUX on Lines:
-
"" ( );
- Apply;
- Apply HFLUX on lines,
: VALI
, ( );
VALJ ,
( ); ,
Apply. " " ,
( Constant value).
74

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, , .
, . :
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure >
On Areas.
Apply PRESS on Areas:
- "" ( );
- Apply.
Apply PRESS on areas, : VALUE
( LKEY , , ); , Apply.
: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define
Loads > Apply > Thermal > Heat Flux > On Areas. .
2.6.5 .
: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define
Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity. Apply (Gravitational) Acceleration ( 34).
,
Apply.

75

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34
2.7
: Utility Menu > List > Loads > DOF
Constraints > On All Lines. DLLIS
Command, ( ),
( ), , ( ) ,
( ). File (
Close), . , . :

DLLIST, LINE
LINE .
: Utility Menu > List > Loads
> DOF Constraints > On All Areas. DALIS
Command, ( ), ( ) , 76

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( ). File ( Close), x .
: Utility Menu > List >
Loads > DOF Constraints > On All Nodes.
DLIST Command, ( ),
( ) , ( ). :

DLIST, NODE1, NODE2, NINC


, - : Utility Menu > List > Loads > Forces > On All Nodes.
FLIST Command, : ( ), ( ) , ( ). File (
Close), x .
, : Utility
Menu > List > Loads > Surface Loads > On All Areas. SFALI Command, : ( ), ( , " " LKEY 1), ( ) (
). .

77

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1 CAE- Ansys.
2 .
3 .
4 Ansys?
5 VGLUE.
6 Ansys .
7 Ansys.
8
?
9 Ansys .
10 Select volumes.

3

CAD-, 3D .
, ANSYS,
.
3.1
3D - CAD - :
*.sat, *.igs, .x_t - CAD, Ansys.
CAD- :
- , ;
78

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-
20- 30 ( 30000 );
-
;
- ,
,
.
CAD - , Ansys : - Ansys
. , - CAD-.
3.2 ANSYS
: File > Import > IGES ...(SAT
...). , , PARASOLID
*.x_t ANSYS Connection for Parasolid ( 35).

35 ANSYS Connection for Parasolid


79

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.
- d:\work_ansys.
: Drives
Directories. . File Name .

OK.
( 36). , Wireframe. ,
3D- ( 34)
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Solid Model
Facets ... ( 38).
:
/FACET, Lab

36 (Wireframe)
80

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37 - (Normal faceting)

38 Solid Facets
Lab : FINE, NORML, WIRE, COAR. WIRE. - NORML.
CAD-
IGES SAT, -
, CAD CAE .
CAD- , Ansys .
81

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CAD- ANSYS, ,
: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate>
Scale> Volumes. Scale Volumes
Pick All Scale Volumes. RX,RY,RZ , 0.001 - . IMOVE Moved, .
1000 ,
( ). ,
: Pan-Zoom-Rotate,
;
, ANSYS. : Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Pan
Zoom Rotate .... Pan-Zoom-Rotate. Fit .
3.3
: Main Menu > Preferences.
Structural.
.2.5 .
: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props > Material Models. (,
mat_15.dat mat_16.mp)
82

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. EX (
, .. /2), PRXY .
, ,
, , , , [10 - 13].
.
:
- 2600 /3;
- 0,3;
- 18 1,8 1010 /2
- 3 106 ;
- 0,2 /();
- 800 / ( ).
1 mat_16.mp

15

40

10

11

40

12

35

13

36()

14

32()

15

16

18

3.4
83

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Solid185 Solid186.
, . Solid185 , Solid186 .
Solid 185 .1.2. 39 Solid186.
:
1
u (u i 1 s 1 t 1 r s t r 2 u j 1 s 1 t 1 r s t r 2
8
u k 1 s 1 t 1 r s t r 2 u L 1 s 1 t 1 r s t r 2

u M 1 s 1 t 1 r s t r 2 u N 1 s 1 t 1 r s t r 2

u O 1 s 1 t 1 r s t r 2 u P 1 s 1 t 1 r s t r 2 )

1
(u O 1 s 2 1 t 1 r u R 1 s 1 t 2 1 r
4
u S 1 s 2 1 t 1 r uT 1 s 1 t 2 1 r



u 1 s 1 t 1 r u 1 s 1 t 1 r
u 1 s 1 t 1 r u 1 s 1 t 1 r
u 1 s 1 t 1 r u 1 s 1 t 1 r
u 1 s 1 t 1 r u 1 s 1 t 1 r )
2


.2.6.2. 40 Defined Element
Types, , Solid185.
3.5
,
,

84

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, , ,
, , .. ( 41).

)
39 Solid186

85

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40 Defined Element Types

41 Meshing Attributes
: Main
menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh attributes.
,
, .. 86

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, , . , ,
.
, , .
,
. . ,

.
10000-15000 (
Ansys nodes) ,
. 40000 - 60000
.
80000 120000
. CAE-
. , ,
( ).
, 36,
,
. LVL SMRTSIZE, SIZLVL :
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > SmartSize > Basic ( 42).
LVL, 10
( 43).

87

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42 Basic SmartSize Settings

43
43 ,
, 88

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. Meshing Attributes. : Main menu >


Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool > Mesh Volumes
, , ,
2, 5 ( 44).

44 Mesh Volumes
NLIST:
Utility menu > LIST > Nodes
45 . , .

89

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45 NLIST
3.6
.
.
ANSYS Ctrl+right button mouse ( Ctrl
). :
Main Menu > Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On
Nodes ( , , , ). Apply U,ROT on Nodes , ( 46, 33).
, [14- 18].
Force, Pressure.
, : --, .
, , - .
90

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, ,
, ,
, (, ) , , ( 47).

46 Apply U, ROT on Nodes


: Main Menu> Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Areas.
, (Force). (Volume), . 48 , - X, Y Z.
, VPLOT : Utility menu > Plot > Specified Entities
> Volumes . Plot Specified Volumes ( 49).

91

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47

48 VPLOT 5 6
92

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49 Plot Specified Volumes


, , , : Main menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define loads
> Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On nodes.
Apply F/M on Nodes, . , ( )
.
: VSEL, ASEL, LSEL, KSEL, ESEL, NSEL. VSEL
: Utility
menu > Select > Entities > Volumes > By Num/Pick > Apply
Select volumes, 5 6 ( 50).
ESEL, ..
(elements). , Select entities , 5 6 ( 50). 51
.
.
,
, .. 93

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. , ,
. , .

50 Select volumes Select Entities



Px, Py Pz ( 52). ,
, , .

94

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51 ESEL 5 6

52 ,
, ,
Apply F/M on Nodes Value
( 53, Px). , -

95

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, ,
FLIST ( 54, , ).

53 Apply F/M on Nodes

54 FLIST
3.7
: Static Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis ( 55) ANTYPE. SOLVE
: Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS, - Solve Current
96

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Load Step ( 56).


OK.

55 New Analysis

56 Solve Current Load Step


Note ( 57).
Close /Status
Command.

57 -
97

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58 /STATUS ommand
3.8
ANSYS .
3.8.1
:
Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution
PRNSOL. List Nodal Solution DOF solution Displacement vector sum OK ( 59).
( 60).
: ; X,
Y, Z, . , :

.
98

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. ,

. : Utility
Menu > List > Nodes... NLIST .

59 List Nodal Solution

60
99

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3.8.2
: Main Menu> General Postproc > Plot Results.
: Deformed Shape;
Contour Plot; Vector
Plot.
Deformed Shape
PLDISP ( 61), KUND
. , ; ; - .
62 63 : Def shape only
Def+undeformed, , .

61 Plot Deformed Shape



: Main Menu> General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot
PLNSOL.

100

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62 Def shape only

63 Def + undeformed
: (Nodal
solution) (Element Solution).
: Nodal Solu Element Solu. ( 64),
: (DOF solution), (Stress)
101

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.. OK
( 65). , USUM.
KUND,
.

64 Contour Nodal Solution Data

65
102

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1 CAE- Ansys.
2 Ansys?
3 ?
4 .
5 PLDISP?
6 NLIST?
7 .
8 ?

4

. ,
( , ).
.
4.1
ANSYS COMBIN14.
Combination

103

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( ) Spring-damper 14 ( , 66)
( 67).

66 Library of Element Types

67
COMBIN14 . : Main
Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete.
Real Constants, Add...
, OK Real
Constant Set Number 1, for COMBIN14. K Spring constant
3e7 .

104

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68 Real Constant
4.2
,
, .
COMBIN14 ( 69).

69 , COMBIN14
.
. , .

. , -,
105

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, -. , - COMBIN14. , , X, Y Z, .
. , - , .. . , K2. 70 K2
. Element Types COMBIN14 Options. COMBIN14 element type options.

70 K2 X
K2 .
, 68.
COMBIN14 , 106

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. : Main Menu > Preprocessor >


Modeling > Copy > Nodes > Copy. Copy nodes, (
71, ). NGEN.
, .
Copy nodes ( OK)
Copy nodes ( 71, ).

71 Copy nodes
Copy nodes .
: Utility Menu > List > Nodes NLIST ( 72).
( 72) 14097. - ,
107

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: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Delete > Nodes Delete Nodes . OK . NDELE.

72

.
: Main menu > Preprocessor > Modelling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes
( 73).
, Type Combin14.
Combin14 : Main menu > Preprocessor > Modelling >
Create > Elements > Auto Numbered > At Coincid Nd EINTF. Define Elements Between Coincident Nodes, - OK Select Nodes - Pick All ( 74).
: Utility menu > List > Elements > Nodes + attributes ELIST. 75.

108

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73 Element Attributes

74 Define Elements Between Coincident Nodes Select


Nodes

109

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75 - ()
- 73 - 75. , TYPE 3 4 COMBIN14 K2 ( 76).

76 Element Attributes TYPE

110

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77 .
, , -: Main menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Displacement > On Nodes. ( ).

77 ()
78 ( ).

78
111

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1 ?
2 COMBIN14.
3
?
4 .
5 COMBIN14.
6
.

5
, : ( ); . .
,
, 2 3 . , , .
5.1

: Main menu > Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis Modal. OK .

112

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79 New Analysis
ANTYPE.
: Main menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options. Modal Analysis ( 80). , -, MODOPT.

80 Modal Analysis
113

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, ,
(Lanczos). - Block Lanczos.
, . , , .
. ,
3-5% . CAE
Ansys - 100.
- .
, () . , ( ) . , ..
,
15-20.
No. of
modes to extract NMODE No. of modes to expand . 10-30 ( 80 20).
OK Block Lanczos Method ( 81). : FREQB Start Freq (initial shift)
FREQE End Frequency. , , , 0 300. ,
0 300 .
114

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To mass matrix, ..
.

81 Block Lanczos Method


5.2
: Main
Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE.
5.2.1
: Main Menu > General Postproc > Results
Summary ( 82) SET, LIST (LIST ).

80
115

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, 0 300
.
5.2.2
Ansys
.
Results Viewer, : Main Menu>
General Postproc > Results Viewer. Results Viewer
file_ansys.rst ( 83). Choose a result item
- 83.. Displacement vector sum Contour/Vector

)
83 Results Viewer

84 Results Viewer
116

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Animate Results Select Animation


( 85), .
Mode Shape Deformed Shape - , .

85 Select Animation
OK Animate Mode Shape.
Dof Solution, , , USUM.
OK Animation Controller ( 86).

86 Animate Mode Shape Animation Controller


117

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87
, .
.

1 .
2 .
3 .
4 .
5 , .
6 .
7 .
118

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CAE-
, : - -
, - - (Harmonic).


.
6.1

: Main menu > Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE ( 88).

88 New Analysis

119

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6.2
ANSYS : (Full), (Reduced)
(Mode superposn). : Main menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis
Options HROPT. ( 30000 50000)
Full (
) ( 87).

89 Harmonic Analysis
OK Full Harmonic Analysis, . , , ANSYS
( 90).

90 Full Harmonic Analysis


120

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6.3 ,
. , , , 0 300 , . ANSYS
Number of substeps. , ,
, .
ANSYS
. , , .
: , .. NSUBST ( 91) 25-50; ,
NSUBST.
( ,
).
: Main menu > Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Freq and
Substps ( 91). KBC Stepped
OK.
,
- constant damping ratio (
92). Main menu > Solution >
Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Damping DMPRAT.
121

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91 Harmonic Frequency and Substep Options

92 Damping Specifications
6.4
: Main Menu >
Solution > Solve > Current LS.
:
Results Viewer: Main Menu > General Postproc > Results
Viewer.

122

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6.4.1 -
, , , : X,Y
Z. .
: Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution List Nodal Solution ( 93). DOF solution. OK PRNSOL Command ( 94).

93 List Nodal Solution


94. 94. . : ,
,
. 94.
,
.
123

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)
94

Time History Variable , , file.rst - Main menu > Time Hist Postpro (
95, file_f.rst). , , . , , :
Add Data. Add Time-History Variable ( 96, ). . Add Time-History Variable : Nodal solution
124

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> DOF Solution,


X, Y Z. 96, Z:
Z-Component of displacement . OK
- Node for Data .
96, 6781. Time History Variables
( 97). ,
, . : Utility menu > Plot
Ctrls > Style > Colors > Reverse Video. ,
( 98). Graph Colors ( 99). 99, Graph Colors , 99, 1 - .

95 Time History Variable

125

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96 Add Time-History Variable Node for Data

97 Time History Variable


126

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98

Image Capture,
100. OK, ( 101). 102 - , .

99 Graph Colors 1
127

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100 Image Capture

101 ,

102 - 6781
Z
128

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.
6.4.2 -
,
, .. (). . :
- -. Time History Variables , Add Time-History Variable,
, , R_Z_2.
Amplitude
( - Time History Variables), Real. , : real(nsol(6781 ,U, Z)) (
X Y, , 103). : imag(nsol(6781 ,U, Z)).
nsol. NSOL, NODE,
Item, Comp . NODE , . Item U.
Comp - X, Y, Z - Z. real (nsol()) imag (nsol())
, . ENTER.

129

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103 Time History Variables



104 . 104
, .
,
0,1,,0,5 , .
6.4.3


130

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.
.

104 6781

. Ansys File Options /ASSIGN. : Utility menu > File > Ansys File Options
enter Ansys File Options. Ident Red cmplx U RFRQ, Fname
rfrq ( 105).

131

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105 Ansys File Options



Harmonic Analysis Reduced ( 106). Harmonic Analysis
: Main menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options. : HROPT, REDUC. OK Reduced Harmonic Analysis, OK ( 107).

,
. : Main
menu > Solution > Master DOFs. : Program Selected User Selected.
.
: Main menu > Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define
Define Master DOFs ( 108,
). , , 100.
Master DOFs ,
132

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. OK ( 108, ),
.

106 Harmonic Analysis Reduced

107 Reduced Harmonic Analysis


109
.

, .
, NSUBST: Main menu > Solution >
Load Step Opts > Time/Frequnc > Freq and Substps. 600.
133

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108 Define Master DOFs

109

134

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110 Harmonic Frequency and Substep Options


,
user_name.db.
: Main menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS ( 111).

)
111 - Solve Current Load Step

( 111. ) . Solve
Current Load Step ,
OK. OK Verify 135

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, ( 112). Yes.

112 Verify

Time History Variables. Result File Mismatch.

113 Result File Mismatch


Time History
Variables ( 114). Time History Variables : File > Open Results > Select Results
File - Select Results File
c rfrq ( ) ( 115).

- user_name.db ( 116).

136

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114 Time History Variables

115 Select Results File


137

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Time History
Variables
( 117).

116 - Select Database File

117 Time History Variables


138

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,
( 118), , , ( 119).

118 Time History Variables 6781

119 Z 6781
139

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, 120.

120 - Z 6781 NSUBST, 1200



1 .
2 ?
3 ,
.
4 ?
5 ?
6 KBC Ramped Stepped?
7 ?
8 Ansys?
140

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7 ( )

7.1
( 121) :
KEYW,PR_THERM,1.
, . , . Switch
Elem Type : Main menu > Preprocessor > Element
Type > Switch Elem Type ( 122).

121 Preferences for Gui Filtering

122 Switch Elem Type Structural Thermal


141

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123 Element Types, ,


Solid185,
Solid70. combin14 , .. .
, .. ,
Combin14, , .
, ,
Combin14. K2
Combin14 element type options Temperature DOF - Main menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Options ( 124).

123 Element Types Structural Thermal

124 Combin14 element type options k2


142

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. ,
:
- conductivity - , /(2);
- specific heat , /( ).
. - CAD-,
SOLID70 SOLID90, -
, . -
.
7.2
: Main Menu >
Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady State
( 125).

125
.
. :
- : Uniform temp (293 );
143

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- : Reference Temp (295 ).


:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Uniform temp ( 126).
. :
- ;
- ;
- .

126
, , . : Main Menu >
Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal. ,
, : - Convection; - Heat Flux; Temperature. , :
On Nodes; - ON Areas; On Lines;
- On Elements. .
, : Main Menu > Preprocessor >
Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Areas.

.
144

Copyright & A K-C

: Utility menu > Plot > Areas ( 127). CAE Ansys , .


Plot Numbering Controls ( 128)
: /PNUM /NUMBER .
.
: Utility menu > Select > Entities (
). , -
, , .

127

145

Copyright & A K-C

Apply CONV on Areas (129, ) Main menu > Preprocessor > Loads >
Apply > On Areas , . OK
Apply CONV on areas ( 129, ),
VALI VAL2I :
- VALI - ( 5 /(2));
- VAL2I (295 ).

128 Plot Numbering Controls


2 20 /(2)). . 1 10

240 960 ( ).

146

Copyright & A K-C

129 Apply CONV on Areas Apply CONV on areas


, , .
( 130).

130

147

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Apply HFLUX on Areas - Main
menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Heat Flux > On Areas.
967 970 , 2132 /(2)

131 Apply HFLUX on


Areas Apply HFLUX on areas
,
( ). ,
Ansys
Main menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Calc Geom Items > On Areas ( 132). Calc Geom of Areas
OK ,
(Areas).
148

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: Utility menu > List > Areas. 25 , .

132 Calc Geom of Areas


7.3
SOLVE
: Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS. : Main
menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu PLNSOL. Contour Nodal Solution Data ( 133) ( 134).

133 Contour Nodal Solution Data


149

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134
COMBIN14 (DOF) ,
(Real Constants) COMBIN14, .

1 .
2
COMBIN14?
3 , COMBIN14?
150

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4 .
5 ASEL.

8 ( )

, .
CAE - .
. . Ansys - [19 -21] .

:

UT
[ M ] [0]
{U }
[C ] [0]
{U }
[ K ] [ K ] {U } {F }

[0] [0] [C TU ] [ R]
[0] [ H ] {T } {Q}

{
T
}
{
T
}

(58)

[ K UT ] [ B] { }({N } )dV - ;
V

[C TU ] To [ K UT ] -

Nm
Ne
2

[C ] a[ M ] (b bc )[ K ] (b mj b j )[ K j ] [C k ] [C ] ,

k 1
j 1

a, b, bc , b mj , bj - ;

151

(59)

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N m , N e - , -

.
, .. . .
, :

[ R]{T } [ H ]{T } {Q}

(60)


:
[ K ]{U } {F}

(61)

*.rth. file.rth.
8.1 .
: Structural
Thermal, Preferences for GUI Filtering ( 135).
,
: , - . ,
:
Thermal to Structure - Main menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem
Type. ( 136) OK.

152

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135 Preferences for GUI Filtering

136 Switch Elem Type


:
Main menu > Preprocessor > Element Types > Add/Edit/Delete ,-
, ( 137).
. : Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Strucrural > Temperature > From Therm
Analy. Apply Temp from Thermal Analysis ( 138)
Fname Name of results file
*.rth,, file_f.rth (
Browse..., 139).
153

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137 Element Types

138 Apply TEMP from Thermal Analysis


, 295,

. Define Material
Model Behavior Thermal Expansion Secant Coefficient for Material Number. : Main menu >
154

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Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models ( 140, ). , Thermal Expansion (secant-iso)
Thermal Expansion Secant Coefficient for Material Number ( 140, ).

139 Fname Name of results file


Reference temperature , , 295o.
8.2
: Main menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Static ( 141).
, SOLVE
155

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: Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS.



: Main menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu
Contour Nodal Solution Data ( 142)
PLNSOL.

)
140 Define Material Model Behavior Thermal Expansion
Secant Coefficient for Material Number 4
156

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141 New Analysis


Contour Nodal Solution Data , .
, Dispacement vector sum, , OK , 143.

142 - Contour Nodal Solution Data


157

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143

,
.
, .

8.3


.
Solid98, Solid226 Solid227. , . , , 158

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.
, Solid90 .
144 , .

:
- ;
- ;
-
;
- ;
-
.

144
159

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.
structural, .. . Preferences for GUI Filtering : Main menu > Preferences. ( 145) structural OK.

145 - Preferences for GUI Filtering


. Solid226 Element
Types: Main menu > Preprocessor> Element Types > Add/Edit/Delete ( 146).
Add... Library
of Element Types ( 147). Coupled Field,
Brick 20node 226. Element Types ,
148. Solid90 Solid226.
Modify Elem Attributes ( 149, ), : Main menu >
160

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Preprocessor > Modeling > Move/Modify > Elements > Modify Attrib.
Pick All,
( 149, ).

146 Element Types

147 Library of Element Types


New attribute number ,
2, OK
, , , : Utility menu > List > Elements > Nodes +

161

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Attributes. Solid90
Element Types.

148 - Element Types

)
149 Modify Elem Attributes
162

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.
, . , , Combin14,
, : .
.
: Main menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Copy >
Nodes > Copy - Copy nodes .
OK ,
Combin14.
Combin14
( 150).
, : Types 3, Types 4, Types 5 Types 6.

150 Element Types


Real Constants: Main menu > Preprocessor > Real
163

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Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. Real Constants Add. Element Type for Real Constants.
,
. Combin14 OK.
Real Constant Set Number1, for Combin14.
K, 3e7. OK Real Constants Set1.
,
, 14,,88 /() (
151).

151 Real Constant Set Number, for Combin14


OK Real Constant Set Number2, for
Combin14 Real Constants.
Combin14. : Main menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete
Combin14 COMBIN14 element type options, Options, K2 164

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Longitude UX
DOF, Longitude YX DOF Longitude ZX DOF. Combin14
Temperature DOF ( 153).

152 Real Constants

153 K2 COMBIN14
:
- ;
-
COMBIN14 ( ).
Copy nodes: Main
menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Copy > Nodes > Copy ( 154, ).
165

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, -.
OK Copy nodes ( 154, ), OK, - , 155.

)
154 Copy nodes

155
166

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COMBIN14 : Main menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes. TYPE 3
COMBIN14. 3, 4 5 REAL,
1 ( 156, ). OK
. Define
Elements Between Coincident Nodes: Main menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create
> Elements > Auto Numbered > At Coincid Nd ( 156, ). OK Select Nodes ( 156, ). Pick All. TYPE , 6 COMBIN14, REAL 2.

156 Element Attributes



: Utility menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes ( 157).
167

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3, 4, 5 6 .
2.
, ,
: Main menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads >
Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes. Apply U, ROT on Nodes . . ( 157). OK
, Lab2,
158, .

157
: Utility
menu > List > Loads > DOF Constraints > On All Nodes ( 159).

. - : Main menu > Solution
> Analysis Type > New Analysis ( 160).
*.db : Main menu > Solve > Current LS.
: Solve Current Load Step
( 161).
168

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158 Apply U, ROT on Nodes

159 ,

169

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160 New Analysis

161
OK . . (
).
162 163 :
, .
.
, 163
:
170

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162

163

171

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, , , .

1 ?
2
?
3 .
4 ?
5 COMBIN14
?
6 COMBIN14
?

, ( .7 ). : Main menu > Solution > Analysis Type >


New Analysis, - New Analysis - Transient ( 164)
172

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164 New Analysis

Transient Analysis
Full - Ansys .

165 Transient Analysis



: Main menu > Solution > Soln Controls.
Solution Controls : Time at end of
loadstep, Number of substep Time increment Frequency ( 166).
14400 . Automatic time stepping 166 . Off - . Number of substep, Number of substeps. 173

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Time
increment, Time step size .

Frequency Write every substep.

)
166 Solution Controls

174

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.
- .

Time History Variables ( )
( 167). 168 7757 .
169.

167 Time History Variables


: Main menu > General Postproc > Read Results > First Set (
Next Set). .
175

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168 7757

169
176

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,
( ) .
Apply
TEMP from Thermal Analysis: Main menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads >
Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy.

170 - Apply TEMP from Thermal Analysis



1 ?
2 Solution Controls?
3 Ansys?
4
?
5 Apply TEMP from Thermal Analysis

177

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10 ,

,
. , , . , ,
,
,
.
- 630
1000 [22].
,
145 . .
, . , . .
0,1
0,2 , , , 0,05 0,1 . , .
- , .
.
.
178

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( ,
, ) , .
, , ,
. , 2 .
.
.
, . .
, 1 .
, .
2- -

- % -
100

,
x
y
z
x
y
z

0,07
0,68
0,32
0,2
1,9
2,0
()
0,30
2,2
0,9
14,0
- 0,32
1,75
0,32
0,9
5,0
2,0


1,2
0,8
0,06
3,4
2,3
0,4


13,6
13,6
11
33,8
39
69,8

4,5
3,7
0,3
12,8
10,6
1,9

0,64
1,07
0,06
1,8
3,0
0,4

179

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/. , -

.
, ,
, : X, Y Z.
, CAE- Ansys , .

COMBIN14.
.

, , ,
. , ( Volume), .
, :
-
VGLUE ;
- (Volumes);
- ;
- COMBIN14,
.
, : Utility
menu > List > Volumes. Copy Volumes, , -
. : Main menu
180

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> Preprocessor > Modeling > Copy > Volumes ( 171, ). OK ( 171, ),
(offset)
. 5.
172.

171 Copy Volumes

172 ()
181

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,
COMBIN14.
.

.

1 ?
2 .
3 ,
COMBIN14?
4
?

182

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1 / .-. , . . . . ;
. .. . .: , 2010. 1022 .
2 .
. . .. - .:, 1989.-520 .
3 / .. , .. , .. . .:
, 1988. 256 .
4 .-., .-. . -.:
, 1989.-192 .
5 ., . . .: ,
1986.- 318.
6

.:, 1979.-392 .
7 .., .., .. ANSYS : .
. .: -1, 2004. 512 .
8 .. ANSYS / . . .. .
.: , 2002. 224 .
9 , .. ANSYS [] :
. / . . , . . . - : , 2006. 112 .
10 : / .., .. , ..
.; . .. , .. .-.:,
1991.-1232.
11 / .. . - .: , 2005. -480
12 / .. , .. ,
.. - .: , 2004. -640
13 . 5- . .2. . ..
...-.:, 1976.-720.
183

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14 : -. 3- . .2. .1.

/ .. , .. , .. . . . .. . .: . .. : , 1995.-371 .
15 : / . . [ .]; . . .
. .- 5- ., . . - : , 2010. - 696 .
16 : 2 : / . . . . - . : , 2011., . 1 : . - , 2011. - 608 .
17 : 2 : . / . . . . . : , 2011. , . 2 : . - , 2011. - 584 .
18 ./ ...
2- ., .1, 1972, 663.,.2, 1974.- 519.
19
: / . . , . . , . . . - : , 2008. - 241 .
20
. , : . / . . . : , 2003. - 382 .
21 /
. . , . . . .: , 2012. 656 .
22 .., .. . .: , 1971.-264 .

184

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()






,

09

..
..
2013
185

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()


.1
1 CAD -
2 *.xt
3 ANSYS
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
.2
1 CAD-
2
3 ( )

186

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()

.1
1
2
3
4
5
5
.2
1
2
.3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7.1 -
7.2 -
7.3 MATLAB
.4
1 ( )
2 ( X, Y Z)
7 ( X, Y Z)
187

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()

.1
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
.2
1
2 ( )
3 ( ) ( )
4 T (t ) ( )

188

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()
-

" ,
. __________..

"__16___ "____________2012
"
-
:

( )
________________ . .________________________________
, , ,
1 : __800VHT______
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
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t=24
, - t=24

, - 5

11

12

13

:
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"_ 2012_._

: ) -;
) .
"
"
2012 .
189

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_____________________________()
_____________________________..
3.1
3.1.1
- ANSYS [] : . / . . , . . , . . . - . : -1, 2004. - 512 .
- ANSYS [] : . / .. , ..
, .. .- 2- ., . - .: , 2004. - 272 . .: . 269.
- [] : / . . . . . -.:
, 1989 . - 520 .
- : 2 : / . . . .
- . : , 2011., . 1 : . - , 2011. - 608 .
- : 2 : . / . . . . - .
: , 2011. , . 2 : . - , 2011. - 584 .
3.1.2
- : . 3- . .1. / .. , .. , .. .
. . .. . .: . .. : , 1994. - 444 .
- : / . . [ .]; . . . .
.- 5- ., . . - : , 2010. - 696 .
- .. . , : .- :
, 2003. 382 .
- ./ ... 2-
., .1, 1972, 663.,.2, 1974.- 519.
- : . . / . , . . .: , 1986. - 318 .

190