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4

(SDH)

124

SDH
SDH ,
PDH
,
, .
PDH:

(/),

.
PDH

AC: 1544

: 1544

EC: 2048

64

64

64

1544

1544

2048

6312

6312

8448

44736

32064

34368

---

97728

139264





125

SDH
SDH
,

,



126

SDH
SDH

,

,
,
, ,


PDH-
()

( )

127

SDH
:


[nm]

1800

1600

1400

1200

2x1014

1000

3x1014

800

600

5x1014

400

200

1x1015

[Hz]

128

SDH
:
[dB/km]


1.850

2.1310

3.1550

3.5
(~ 1/4)
SiOH-

2.5

1.5

800

1000
950

1200
1240

200 000 /

1400
1440

1600

[nm]
129

SDH

SDH ( - G.702)
SDH

. /

STM-0 (STS-1)

51,84

STM-1

155,52

STM-4

622,08

STM-16

2488,32

STM-64

9953,28

STM-256

39813,12

STM - Synchronous Transport Module


( )

130

SDH
SDH:


,

PDH-
: 1,5; 2; 6; 8; 34: 45; 140 /

()
, Ethernet

SONET,
STS-1 (51,84 /) 155,52 = 351,84
131


SDH
SDH:
1. ITU-T G.707 Network node interface for the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)
2. ITU-T G.708 Sub STM-0 network node interface for the synchronous digital
hierarchy (SDH)
3. ITU-T G.709/Y.1331 (2003), Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN).
4. ITU-T G.780/Y.1351 (2004), Terms and definitions for synchronous digital
hierarchy (SDH) networks.
5. ITU-T G.783 (2006), Characteristics of synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)
equipment functional blocks.
6. ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303 (2005), Generic framing procedure (GFP).
7. ITU-T G.7042/Y.1305 (2006), Link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS) for virtual
concatenated signals.
8. ITU-T G.803 (2000), Architecture of transport networks based on the synchronous
digital hierarchy (SDH).
9. ITU-T G.841 (1998), Types and characteristics of SDH network protection
architectures.
10. ITU-T G.957 (2006), Optical interfaces for equipments and systems relating to
the synchronous digital hierarchy.
132


SDH
SDH. G.707:
STM
SDH-, :

STMn
(PDH,
ATM Ethernet) STMn

STMn

133


SDH
SDH:
SDH ,
, , .

(Virtual Container; VC)


() STM , "" SDH
PDH.
""
(LOVC; Low Order VC) (HOVC; High Order VC).
.
VC11 1,5 /, VC12 2/, VC2 6/ ----- LOVC
VC3 34/45 / (LOVC) VC11, VC12, VC2 (HOVC)
VC4 140 /
134


SDH
SDH:

:
(Regenerator section, RS)


(Multiplex section, MS)
, STM-,
.
135


SDH
SDH:

, :
(Path) , "" VC
, VC "". VC
(LOVC) (HOVC)
(Route) , .
OAM - (Operation, Administration,
Maintenance)
136


SDH
SDH:
SDH
(), , , .

.
,
.
SDH
- .

(VC, TU, TUG, 137


AU)

SDH
:

/
1 544

C-11

VC-11

TU-11

x4
2 048

C-12

VC-12

TU-12

x3
6 312

C-2

VC-2

TU-2

TUG-2

x1

x7
44 736
34 368

C-3

VC-3

AU-3

x7
VC-3

TU-3

x1
TUG-3

x3
x3

139 264

C-4

xN
x1

VC-4

AU-4

AUG

STM-N


125 500
1, STM-1 = 3 7 3 = 63; STM-4 252

138

SDH
(mapping)

( )
.
: 1 (2048 /) 12

f=34/32*2048 = 2176

12

-
* -
139

SDH


( Pass Over Head),
VC SDH.
POH

: VC12 12
1

2
BIP-2

FEBE

NU

L1

L2

L3

FERF

BIP-2 (Bit Interleaving Parity)


FEBE (Far End Block Error)



L1L3

FERF

140

SDH
(Aligning)
,

(VC) TU AU.
VC.
(Pointer PTR)

:
AU-4
STM-1

141

SDH
(Multiplexing)
TDM () (TU)
(AU)
(TUG, AUG)

142

SDH
63xE1 STM-1

143

SDH
STM1 1

mapping

mapping

aligning

multiplexing
multiplexing
mapping
144
aligning

1. . . SDH: . - .:
"", 2003.-584 .: .
2. .. SDH. .: , 1997

145

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

SDH?
PDH SDH
SDH?
, , , ?
SDH

1

146