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.. , ..


-

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2008
681.335(07)
844.1573-5
542

:
,
..
,
..
, ..

542 - : -
/ .. , .. . : - . .
. -, 2008. 140 . 500 . ISBN 978-5-8265-0737-7.

-, -, -
(,
) - -

-
-
, -
-
.
,
-,
, -
, 3 5
200402 200503, 100400
311400, 210200 220300.
681.335(07)
844.1573-5

ISBN 978-5-8265-0737-7 .., .., 2008



(), 2008

..
..

5.11.2008.
60 84/16. 8,14 . . .
500 . 477

-

392000, , , 106, . 14

. techne , , logos , , [1; 2, . 1330].


, :
1. - , -
(): ()
() , () ()
;
2.
,
.
[3 11]
(, , ) (, , ) -
, , -
, . -
, -
.

: .
(), () (-
) ,
(), () () .
, -
[6, 7, 11] , -
. (-
) , -
(), () - ().
[3, 8] , ().
.
[3 11] , (.
.), () ( ) -
, -
, . () [4, 8] -
(), () (), -
: (), () () , -
. ,

.
-
[4] () () , -
[8].
(), () ()
[4, 8] (), () ()
. [6, 7, 11] ,
, - . ,
: -
, - [4, 5, 8].
- -
, [8],
-
. , -
-, - - , -
.

1. 2. 3.


a f1 b f0 a a
a
E
b E
a


n n
(i + ai )
a a
f1 = i ai f0 = Pa a
i =1 i =1 E

-

-

(T, t, R) 00 Ui = R2/R1Ui
U = k(U1 #
U U n U)
R2/R1=R20/R10 k = k i
= =
i =1 U n
&[
-
( ( - ()
) )

U = U #
U = + I = U = I = +1 1 kP = 2
1 +1 +1 I = I #1


R1 U A Yi
i =
n

R2
Y1
Y j
Y1 Y2 Y2 j =1

Y3
U

A A
Y2 R2 n n
I=I U =E
Y1 + Y2 R1 + R2
U= i Ai ; I = U Yi
i =1 i =1


, -
- (). -
-
, . -
,
.
-
, -
.
,
. -
, : , -
. , -
, .
, -
.
-
- .
,
.
, ,
. -
, -
.

[3, 6, 12] . -
. -
. -

, . -
, .
, -
.
-
[6 8, 11] - -
, [4]
[3, 10]. -

- . -
- - -
, -
, , -
.
, .
-
, . - . -
, .. - . , .. -
, -
.
1.

-
, -
.

1.1.
, -
, -
, - .
1. -
. , -
. k -
ki i- :
n
k = ki = k0n .
i =1

(- ) -
(, ), -
,
:
opt = lim i0 = . (1.1)
in

(1.1) -

opt = 1 . (1.2)

opt = 0 . (1.2)
(1.1) (1.2)
R2
opt k = lim k = k0 = (1.3)
R1
Ri .
(1.3) -
(1.2) F, F0
(1.1) . (1.3) -
F F0,
F
= 1 = 1 . (1.4)
F0
(1.4) (1.2) F
F0 :
= =
1 , F F0 . (1.5)

:
= (1.6)
(1.2). (1.6)
, :
opt = lim = . (1.7)
1

(. 1.1, 1).

.
1.1.

1. 1. 1. -
(+, , , ) (, , , d)
2. (-

2. , 2. , - )
() ()
3. 3. 3. ,
,
()

- -

-
U ()
I
+U max D
t DA
0 min
k U; (R2) Ama
A Ami
#U A
opt k = k0 = R2 R1 = =
k10 = k 20 = R 2 R1 D Amax Amin

- -

()

= 1 F F0 = 1 T = = R
A = T = N 0
=
opt = 0 opt = 0 Y2
U1 Y1 U2
opt = 1
e=
-
0

E U1 U2
R R1

0
U1 U1 e
R R2 opt e = 0 = lim U
0 R R =R R
opt = 2 1 20 10

-
. -
(,
, ) .
,
, -
.
2. (, , ) -
. -
, (, , ),
(, , ).
Ri, Ri0 :
R2 R20
= , (1.8)
R1 R10
ki0:
R2
k10 = k 20 = . (1.9)
R1
(1.8) (1.9)
R2
k1 = k 2 = (1.10)
R1 + R2
() , t, , R
. 0 A(t, , R)

A = (1.11)
Amax Amin

t = = R (1.12)

opt A = 0 . (1.13)
:
=
A 0 , FA F0 . (1.14)
>
(1.14) FA F0
A 0, -
. - A, 0, -
D = Amax Amin .
.
-
-
.
. -
-
, -
( ) , , -
(. . 1.1, 2).
, , ,
, -
.
3. -
.
-
. , -
, e e+ -

e = e + (1.15)

A
opt e = lim =0. (1.16)

(1.15) (1.16) A -
Ai A, T N -

k A = kT = k N (1.17)
(1.11). -- -
0
A = T = N 0 , (1.18)
, D:
A
= = . (1.19)
D Amax Amin
Amin (1.18) (1.19)

A T N
= = , (1.20)
Amax Tmax N max
A
A T N
= = , (1.21)
Amax Tmax N max
A0
A T N
= = . (1.22)
A0 T0 N 0
(1.20) (1.22)
(1.16), A Ai .
-- ,
, . (1.15) -
(1.16) -
( ) ( ) -
- (), -
.
, .
-

.
. -
-
, (. . 1.1, 3).
, -
, -
.
,
- -
, .
, ,
(), () -
( ). -
, . -
-

.

1.2.
- -
().
1. (. 1.1, ) [4] - (. 1.1, ).
2. I II (. 1.1, ) (-
):
e(Y1 + Y2 ) = U1Y1 + U 2Y2 ;
(1.23)
U 2 = e().
3. e = U 2 / :
U2
(Y1 + Y2 ) = U1Y1 + U 2Y2 .

. 1.1.
:
Y +Y
U 2 Y2 + 1 2 = U1Y1 ,

U 2 (U1 ) :
Y1
U 2 = U1
Y +Y
Y2 + 1 2

k = U 2 /U1 :
R2
k = , (1.24)
R + R2
R1 + 1

Ri = 1 / Yi , i = 1, 2 .
4. (1.24) , ( Ri , )
k 0 :
k 0 = R2 / R1 , (1.25)
(1.24) (1.25)
k = k0 , (1.25)
( Ri , )
1
= .
R1 + R2
1+
R1
(1.25)
1
= . (1.26)
1 k0
1+

5. (1.25) ,
k = k0
(1.27)
= 1 .
(1.25) (1.26) , -


= = 0 .
+ 1 k0

1
2
1
= = = 0.
+ 1 k 0 ( + 1 k0 )2 + 1 k 0 + 1 k 0

(1.26):

(1 ) = 0 ,


opt = 1 . (1.28)
, (1.27) (1.28),
, , ..
opt k h =1 = k0 = R2 / R1 . (1.29)
6. (1.26) :
1 k0
= , (1.30)

1
= 1 = 0 , k k 0 .
1 +
, (1.29) (1.30), -
:
k 0 = 1;
(1.31)
= .
,
R2 = R1 . , -
, ().
7. (1.29) -
: = 0 , U 2 U 1 .
( , )
(1.29), () -
: , .
(1.29) (1.30)
(1.31) (1.23),
U2 U2
lim e = lim = =0.

8. = 0 (1.23)
U1Y1 + U 2Y2 = 0 ,

Y1 R
U 2 = U1 = U1 2 , (1.32)
Y2 R1
(1.29) (1.30) -
(1.31) .
, ( ), -
8- .
, :
1. (. 1.1, ) (. 1.1, ) .
2. (1.23).
3. (1.23) = 0 -
(1.32) (1.29) -
:
= 1 ;

= 0 ; (1.33)
= .

, ,
: -
. (1.33) -

.
. [4, 8] -
, , -
.
k (1.24) k0
:
k = R2
;
R1 + R2
R1 +

R
k 0 = 2 .
R1
k = k0
R2 R
= 2 .
R1 + R2 R1
R1 +

k0

k0 = k ,

:
1
= = 1,
1 k0
1+

(1.33).

U2 R
= k = k0 = 2 ,
U1 R1

R2
U 2 = U1 ,
R1

U 2 R2
= . (1.34)
U1 R1
, , ,
, .

1.3.
.
1. (. 1.2, ) [4]
(. 1.2, ).
. 1.2.
2. (. 1.2, ) :
eY = U 2Y + I D ;
(1.35)
U 2 = e .
U e
, I D = I 0 exp 1 , e = U 2 / , (1.35)
U0
U2 U +U2 /
Y = U 2Y + I 0 exp 1 .
U0
3.
1 U +U2 /
U 2Y 1 + = I 0 exp 1 ,
U0
:
U + U2 / 1
U 2 = I 0 R exp 1 1 + . (1.36)
U0
4. (1.36) (. . 1.2)

U 20 = I 0 R exp (U 1 / U 0 ) (1.37)
(1.36) (1.37):
U 2 = U 20 , (1.36)

U2

=e . (1.38)
1+
5. (1.36) (1.37) -
= 1 .
(1.38) -

d U2
= d e d = 0 . (1.39)
d 1+

(1.39)
U2 U2
d 1 U2
= 1 e e =0,
d 1 + 1 + 2
, (1.38),

1 U 2 (1 + )
U2 U2
e e =0.
1+ 2


U2
1 1
= 1 U 2 2 + e , (1.40)

= .

1
=0,
1+

1
lim = 0.
1 +

(1.40) :
1 1 1 1
lim 2 + = + = 0 + 0 = 0 ;

U2 U2

lim e =e = e0 = 1 .

(1.40), :
opt = 1 =. (1.41)
6. (1.38) (1.41)
1
= , (1.42)

(1.36), = 0 U 2 = U 20 , -

= eU 2 / (1 + ) = e 0 / (1 + 0 ) = 1 . (1.43)
=0

7. (1.42) (1.41) (1.43)


(1.37) :
= U 2 = 0 ,
U 2 U1 .
8. (1.34)
U 2Y + I 0 exp (U1 / U 0 ) = 0 ,
(1.36) (1.43) (1.42)
, .. , .
, ,
, . 8, -
(. . 1.2).
1.4.
1. (. 1.3, ) -
(. 1.3, ) [4].
2. e U 2 :

eY = U1Y + I ;
(1.44)
U 2 = e.
3. (1.44) e :
U2 dU
Y = U1Y + C
dt
dU
I = C .
dt
T = C / Y = CR :
U2 dU
+ U1 = T .
dt

U2
1 U
dU =
T 0
U1 + 2 dt ,

e

. 1.3.
U 2 (U1 , t , ) -
:

1
U2 = (U1 + U 2 / )dt / (1 1 / ) .
T 0
(1.45)

(1.45) , -
.
4. (. . 1.2), (1.45)


1
U 20 =
T 0
U1dt , (1.46)

(1.45) :
U 2 = U 20 , (1.46)


U
= 2 dt ( 1)U 20 . (1.47)
U
0 20
5. (1.46) -
(1.47). , d
d , S:
d
= d [( S ) / ( 1)U 20 ] / d = 0 .
d

d 1 S 1
= = (1 ) = 0
d ( 1)U 20 ( 1) U 20 ( 1)U 20
2

(1.47),
opt = 1 . (1.48)
, () (1.46) -
(1.48) (1.46):

1
U 2 = U 20 =
T 0
U1dt . (1.49)
6. (1.47) 1 / = , -
:
= (1 S ) / (1 ) , (1.50)
(1.48) :
opt = 0 , (1.51)
,
1 1
lim = lim = = 0.

7. (1.49) (1.48) (1.51) -
e , :
lim = lim U 2 = U 2 0 = 0 .
0 0

e U 2 U1 .
8. (1.44),
:
0 = U1Y + I .
(1.46) ,
dU
= U1 ,
T
dt

U2
1
dU =
T 0
U1dt
0

,

1
U2 =
T 0
U1dt . (1.52)

, ,
8- .
, ,
(1.52) -
U1 :

U 2 = U1 , (1.53)
T
:

U1 dt = U1t 0 = U1 ( 0) = U1 .
0


:

t

U 2 = U1 1 e T = U 1 1 t ,

1
T

(1.53) . (1.53)
. -
:
U2 t
= k0 = . (1.54)
U1 T
(1.54) ,
,
(. . 1.6).
1.5.
1. (. 1.4, ) [8] (. 1.4, ).
2. e , e+ , E :

e (Y1 + Y2 ) = U1Y1 + EY2 ;



e+ (Y3 + Y4 ) = U 2Y3 + EY4 ; (1.55)
E = (e e ).
+

3. e , e+ (1.55) :
E U 2Y3 + EY4 U1Y1 + EY2
= .
Y3 + Y4 Y1 + Y2
, Y2 = 0 ,
Y4 1 U Y
E = 2 3 U1 .
Y3 + Y4 Y3 + Y4

. 1.4.
, Y4 /Y3 -
k 0 :

1 + k0
E 1 = U1 ( k0 + 1) U 2 k0 .

:
U1 (k 0 + 1) U 2 k 0
E= (1.56)
(1 + k0 ) / 1
, ,
E0 = k0 (U1 U 2 ) . (1.57)
(1.56) (1.57):
E = E0 ,

(1 + U1 / E0 )
= . (1.58)
(1 + k0 )
4. ,
(1.58) :
d (1 + U1 / E0 )
=d d = 0 .
d (1 + k 0 )

(1 + U1 / E0 ) (1 + U1 / E0 ) 1
= [1 + U1 / E0 ] = 0 ,
(1 + k0 ) [ (1 + k0 )]2 (1 k 0 )

,
* = 1 + U1 / E0 . (1.59)
5. (1.59) k 0 :

d* U1
= d 1 + dk0 = 0 .
dk 0 k 0 (U1 U 2 )

1 U1 / (U1 U 2 ) 1
k0
2
=
k0
(
1 * = 0 ,)
k0

opt = 1 , k 0 . (1.60)
6. (1.60) :
1 Y4
= =0,
k0 Y3
Y3 >> Y4 R4 >> R3 , R3 = 0 .
, k 0
R4 >> R3 R2 >> R1 .
7. (1.60) (1.57) -

e+ = e , (1.61)
(1.55) :
lim E / = E / = 0 = (e+ e ) .

(1.61) , -
U1 U 2 . (1.60) (1.61)
, , -
.
8. (1.61) (1.55)
U 2Y3 + EY4
U1 = ,
Y3 + Y4
(1.57) Y4 << Y3 -
.
(1.57) (. 1.4) -
F ( ) F (R) :
(U1 U 2 ) / E0 = R3 / R4 . (1.62)

, :
> 1
U1 U 2 , E0 = . (1.63)
< 0
(1.57) (1.62), k 0 = R4 / R3
0 = U1 U 2 ,
:

= . (1.64)
D
(1.64)
D = Amax Amin .
, ,

.
1.6.
1. (. 1.5, ) (. 1.5, ) -
[8].
2. -
, +, :
e Y = 0 Y + C dU ;
dt

e+ (Y1 + Y2 ) = 0 Y1 + EY2 ; (1.65)
U = +(e e ).
2 +

3. (1.65) + :
U2 Y2 dU
=E T ,
Y1 + Y2 dt
T = RC .
Y1 >> Y2 , k0 = Y1 Y2 = R2 R1 , -

1 E U2
dU = dt ,
T k0

. 1.5.

U2
1 E U2
dU =
T 0 k0
dt .
e-

U 2 , e = U 2 0, -
:
1 E U 1
U 2 = 2 dt 1 . (1.66)
T 0 k0
(1.66) (. 1.5) U 2 .
4.

1 E
T 0 k0
U 20 = dt , (1.67)

(1.66) (1.67)
:
U 2 = U 20 , (1.67)

1 S
= , (1.68)
1 1
(1.47).
5. (1.67) -
(. . 1.4, 5 7):
= 1 ,
, (1.69)
= 0 ,
e = e+ .
6. (1.69) (1.67) ,
(1.65)
dU E
T = ,
dt k0
k0 = R2 R1 .

U2
E
dU =
k0T 0
dt ,
0

(1.67), -
:
k0U 2
= . (1.70)
E T
(1.70) (U )
f (U ) :

= T k 0U 2 ;
E
(1.71)
f = =F E ,
1
k0U 2
F = 1 T T U 2 = E k0 .
(1.71) , - -
U 2 E k0
. f
E0i = E k0 U 0 = U 2
=1 f .
(1.70) -
U 2 E0i
T ( ) (-
), - - .

1.7. -
1. (. 1.6, ) - () -
[8] ,
(. . 1.6). (. 1.6, ) - (. 1.6, )
.
2. - e , e + , U 2 -

e Y = C dU ;
dt

e+ (Y1 + Y2 ) = U1Y1 + U 2Y2 ; (1.72)
U = (e e ).
2 +

3. e e+ (1.72)

. 1.6.
U2 U dU
= U1 + 2 T ,
k0 dt
Y1 >> Y2 , k 0 = Y1 Y2 .
t = 0, -
U = e , U 2 :
U2
1 1 1
dU =
T 0U1 + U 2 dt.
k0
e

(1.72) :
1 1
e = U 2 , (1.73)
k0
(. 1.6) e+ = U 2 k 0 .
U 2 e -
:

1
[U1 + U 2 (1 k0 1 )] dt (1 1 k 0 + 1 ) .
T 0
U2 = (1.74)

4. , :

1
U 20 = U 1dt , (1.75)
T0

(1.74) (1.75)
U 2 = U 20 , (1.76)
.

1 1
1+ S
= k0 , (1.77)
1 1
1
k0
S
1
S=
T
U 2 dt U 20 .

5. (1.76) = 1
:
1 1
= , (1.78)
k0
k 0 . , -
(1.77) :
(1 + S k 0 ) S
= ,
(1 1 k 0 ) + 1

d (1 + S k 0 ) S
= d d = 0 .
d (1 1 k 0 ) + 1
:
1 + S k0 (1 + S k0 ) S
=0,
(1 1 k 0 ) + 1 [ (1 1 k 0 ) + 1]2
1
[1 + S k 0 ] = 0 ,
(1 1 k 0 ) + 1
,
= 1 + S k0 . (1.79)
k 0 (1.79)
:
d k +S
= d 0 dk0 = 0 ,
dk0 k0
(1.79)
1 k0 + S 1
= (1 ) = 0 ,
k0 k02 k0
(1.76) (1.75)
opt = 1 (1.80)

, k0 . (1.80)
6. (1.80) :
1 + S 1 + 0
opt = lim = lim = = 1,
0 0 1 1 0
:
d 1 + S
=d d = 0 .
d 1
,
S 1 + S 1
+ = ( S + ) = 0 .
1 (1 ) 2 1

= S , (1.81)
, (1.77), S = 1 .
, (1.77)
S + S = 1 + S ,
(1.81) (1.80).
7. (1.80) S = 1 : -
U 1 U 2 , .. U 1 = U 2

1
T 0
U 2 dt
S=
= 1 ,
1
T 0
U1dt

U1dt = U 2 dt ,
0 0

.
, (1.75)
(1.80) .
8. (1.75) -
U 1 const :

U1
T 0
U 20 = dt = U 1 , (1.82)
T
-
U1
f =F (1.83)
E
U 20 = E T = 1 F -
f .
(1.83) -
F ( ) F (T ) -
:
U f
F ( ) = 1 = = F (T ) . (1.84)
E F
- :
.
9. (1.80), (1.84) (. . 1.6):
e+ = e , (1.85)
(1.72)
U2 U2
lim = = 0 = (e+ e ) .

(1.85) ,
F ( ) F (T ) (1.84).
-,
.
10. (1.80), (1.84), (1.85) (1.72)

dU
U1 = T ,
dt
t = 0, U 2 = 0, E :
E
1
dU = T 0
U 1dt
0



1
E=
T 0
U 1dt . (1.86)
U 1 (1.86) -
(1.83).
(1.83) (1.86) -
-
.
,
U 2 ,
, - -


= . (1.87)
D
, D = Amax Amin -
F ( ) , F (T ) .

1.8.
1. () (. 1.7, ) [4,
8] (. 1.7, ) .
2. - (. 1.7, ) -

. 1.7.
n n 1
e Yi = YiU 0i + YU ;
i =0 i =0 (1.88)
U = e .

3. (1.88) e -
:
n 1
1 n
U Y + Yi = YiU 0i .
i =0 i =0

i N 0, 1 -
U U 0i i = 0, n 1 :

< Y 0
U U 0i , i = i = , (1.89)
Y 1

n 1 1 n
U = iU 0i 1 + i . (1.90)
i =0 i =0
(1.90)
n 1
U = iU 0i = U 00 N , (1.91)
i =0
U 0 i = U 00 a (i ) U 00 = U 0 N max a (i )

n 1
N = i a(i ) . (1.92)
i =0

4. (1.90)
U = U (1.93)


= , (1.94)
( + N m )
n
N m = i i = i +1 = 1 .
i =0
5. (1.93) , -
= 1 . (1.94)
, :
d
= d [ ( + N m )] d = 0 .
d
(1.94)
1 1
= (1 ) = 0 ,
+ N m ( + N m ) 2 + Nm

opt = 1 . (1.95)
, (1.95), -
, ..
U0N
opt U = U = . (1.96)
N max
6. (1.90) (1.94) 1 -
:
= 1 , (1.97)
= 0 opt = 1 , (1.90) -
(1.96).
7. (1.95), (1.96)
(1.97) e = 0 , -

lim e = lim U = U 0 = 0 ,
0

(1.88). (. 1.7)
.
8. , (1.95) (1.97), (1.88) -
:
n 1
0 = YiU 0i + YU
i =0

(1.89) -
(1.91) (1.96) .
, (1.96) -

U N
= (1.98)
U 0 N max
F ( ) -
F ( R ) , .

1.9. -
- () (. 1.8)
i = 0, n 1

< 0
U U 0i , i = (1.99)
1
U U 0i , (1.99),
K i (1.57)
Ei = k 0 (U U 0 i ) . (1.100)

. 1.8.

(. 1.8) , -
[8, . 5.2.3].
U (1.99) (1.100) :
j 1
U 0 j = iU 0i , (1.101)
i =0
i j-
j 1
N j = i ai . (1.102)
i =0

(1.101) (1.102), U 0i = U 00 ai , U 00 -
U 0 N m :
j 1
U 0 j = iU 00 ai = U 00 N j . (1.103)
i =0

U 0 = U 0 n N m (1.103) ,
n 1
U 0 = U 00 i ai = U 00 N m . (1.104)
i =0
(1.103) (1.104),
N j = N mU 0 j U 0 , (1.105)
j
N U
= . (1.106)
Nm U0
F ( R )
F ( ) , (1.98) ,
.
(1.105) (1.106) -
(. . 1.5) -
, -
.
(1.106) (1.98) ,
, .
, [8, . 5].


-
, -
, -
, -
-
.
2.

-
-
,
, .

2.1.
: .
: U1 , U 2 , U 3 , U 12 , U 13 U 23 .
: (. 2.1, ) :
R1 = 15 , R2 = 16 , R3 = 17 , R4 = 18 = 3 .

(. 2.1, ).

R1

E
R2 E
Z1 Y1
I1 U
U I
I2
R3 R4 0 Y2
Z2

) ) )
. 2.1. :
; ; -
: , 0, U.
(. 2.1, ). . 0 , -
, U.
, :
1
Yi = , i = 1, 2 . (2.1)
Zi
:
2
I = Ii ; I1 = E Y1 ; I 2 = 0 Y2 .
i =1

I = U (Y1 + Y2 ) . (2.2)
:
U (Y1 + Y2 ) = E Y1 + 0 Y2 . (2.3)
(2.3) :
EY1 Z2
U= =E . (2.4)
Y1 + Y2 Z1 + Z 2
(2.4) , -
i = 2, n Z i :
Zi
Ui = E n
. (2.5)
Zi
i =1

[7, . 2.5] -
(. 2.1, ) (. 2.1, ) [8, . 1.4].
1. U1
, (. 2.1, )
(. 2.2).
E E E

E
R1 U1 R2
R2

R23

R2
R3 R4 R34 U1

R1
U1 U1
R3 R4
R1 R1

. 2.2. F1(R )

R3 R4 ,
R3 R4 17 18
R34 = = = 8,7 .
R3 + R4 17 + 18
R2 R34 ,
R23 = R2 + R34 = 16 + 8,7 = 24,7 .
F1 ( R) F0 ( R) :
F1 ( R) = F0 ( R) .

R23 = Z1 R1 = Z 2 .
(2.4)
R1 3 15
U1 = E = = 1,1 .
R23 + R1 24,7 + 15
2. U 2
, (. 2.1, ) (.
2.3).
E E E

E
R1
R3 R4 R34

R13

R2
U2 R1 U2

R2
U2 U2
R3 R4
R2 R2

. 2.3. F2(R )

R1 R34 ,
R13 = R1 + R34 = 15 + 8,7 = 23,7 .
, F2 ( R) F0 ( R ) :
F2 ( R) = F0 ( R) ,
, :
R13 = Z1 R2 = Z 2 .
(2.4)
R2 3 16
U2 = E = = 1,2 .
R2 + R13 16 + 23,7
3. U 3
(. 2.1, ) -
(. 2.4).
R1 R2 ,
R12 = R1 + R2 = 15 + 16 = 31 .
1: R34 = 8,7 .
E
E

R1
R12

U3
R2

R34

R3 R4
U3

. 2.4. F3(R )

F3 ( R) F0 ( R) , , F3 ( R) = F0 ( R) , , -
:
R12 = Z1 R34 = Z 2 .
(2.4)
R34 3 8,7
U3 = E = = 0,7 .
R12 + R34 31 + 8,7
:
3
E = U i = U1 + U 2 + U 3 = 3 , (2.6)
i =1

U 4 , U 4 U 3 .
: , .
4. U12
, (. 2.1, ) -
(. 2.5).
R12 = 31 R34 = 8,7 .
E E

E
R1
R3 R4
R34
U12
U12
R2 U12
R1
R12

R3 R4
R2

. 2.5. F12(R )

F12 ( R) F0 ( R)
F12 ( R) = F0 ( R) .
, :
R34 = Z1 R12 = Z 2 .
(2.4)
R12 3 31
U12 = E = = 2,3 .
R12 + R34 31 + 8,7
5. U 23
(. 2.1, ) (. 2.6).
1: R23 = 24,7 .
F23 ( R) = F0 ( R) :
R1 = Z1 R23 = Z 2 ,
E
E

E
R1
R1

R1
U23
R2
U23
R2

U23 R23

R3 R4
R34

. 2.6. F23(R )

(2.4)
R23 3 24,7
U 23 = E = = 1,9 .
R1 + R23 15 + 24,7
6. U13
(. 2.1, ) (. 2.7).
2: R13 = 23,7 .
F13 ( R) = F0 ( R) :
R2 = Z1 R13 = Z 2 ,
(2.4)
R13 3 23,7
U13 = E = = 1,8 .
R2 + R13 16 + 23,7
:
U1 = 1,1 B; U 2 = 1,2 B; U 3 = 0,7 B;
U12 = 2,3 B; U 23 = 1,9 B; U13 = 1,8 B.
E
E

E
R1
R2

R2
U13
R2
U13
R34

R13

R3 R4 U13
R1

. 2.7. F13(R )

2.2.
:
.
: U ( R2 ) R1 R2 10R1 ; ; -
, , .. = 0 ; k ( R2 ) .
:
R1 = 12 , R2 = 13 , = 3 (. 2.8, ).

(. 2.8, ) - -
(. 2.8, ).
(. 2.8, ) :
U
I= = UY . (2.7)
R

E
R1 Y1
U
U I

0 Y2
R2

) )

. 2.8. () - ()

( )
2
I = Ii ; I1 = E Y1 ; I 2 = 0 Y2 (2.8)
i =1

U :
U (Y1 + Y2 ) = E Y1 + 0 Y2 . (2.9)
(2.9) U (R ) -
:
EY1 R2
U= =E . (2.10)
Y1 + Y2 R1 + R2
1. U ( R2 ) R1 R2 10R1 .
(2.10), U R2 . -
. 2.1.

2.1

R2 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120
U 1,5 2 2,25 2,4 2,5 2,57 2,63 2,67 2,7 2,73
U
3
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,2
2
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1
R2
12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120
. 2.9. U(R 2)

(. 2.1) (. 2.9) U ( R2 ) .
. (. 2.9), U ( R2 ) .
2.
kU = U / E
R2
kU = . (2.11)
R1 + R2
[2, 3], -
:
R
k0 = 2 . (2.11)
R1
, k = k0 , ..
k = R2
R1 + R2
R2 1 k = k .
k= (2.12)
R1 1 + R2 0
k = R2
0
R1 R1
(2.12)
k R1
= = , (2.13)
k0 R1 + R2
R2 .
(2.11) (2.12)
= 1 . (2.13) , :
R1 >> R2 0 ;
(2.14)
R2 << R1 ,
R1 = R1 + R2 .
(2.14) , -
, t, T R ,
(t , T , R ) = 0 .
3. , = 0 .
(. 2.8) (R1, R2) (R10, R20). -
(. 2.10).
(2.10) :
R2 R20
U2 = E ; U 20 = E . (2.15)
R1 + R2 R10 + R 20

R1 R10

U2 A U20

R2 R20

. 2.10.
,
= U / U = 0; = U 20 U 2 = 0 U 20 = U 2 . (2.16)
(2.16)
R2 R20
E =E .
R1 + R2 R10 + R20

R2 R R2 R20
+ 1 = 20 + 1 = k = k0 .
R1 R10 R1 R10
, = 0 :
R2 R20
= . (2.17)
R1 R10
R2 R20
. = 0 = = 0,92 .
R1 R10
4. k ( R2 ) .
k = k1 k2 , (2.18)
:
U2 R2 U 20 R20
k1 = = k2 = = .
E R1 + R2 E R10 + R20
(2.17) :
R10 = 12 , R20 = 13 , R1 = 14 , R2 = 15 .
(2.18) :
U 20 R20
k2 = = = 0,52 = const .
E R10 + R20
(2.18) k R2. -
. 2.2.
2.2
R2 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
k 0 0,07 0,12 0,16 0,19 0,22 0,24 0,26 0,28 0,29

0,35

0,3

0,25

0,2

0,15

0,1

0,05

0
R2
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

. 2.11.

(. 2.2) (. 2.11) k ( R2 ) .
. k ( R2 ) (. 2.10) U ( R2 )
(. 2.8), . ,
-
.
2.3.
:
-.
: . -
-.
: R1 = 12 , E = 3 . R = R3 = R4 = 10 R1 ; R = R = R1 / 100 .

1. .
(. 2.12, ) (. 2.12, ) -
R -.
R = 0 , U 2 = U 3 .
U1 :
U1 (Y1 + Y2 ) = E Y1 + 0 Y2 , (2.19)
U 2 = U 3 :
U 2 (Y3 + Y4 ) = E Y3 + 0 Y4 . (2.20)
, U1 U 2 = U 3 , ..

R1 R3 E
Y1
U2 Y3
U1
R U1 U2 = U3
U3

Y2 Y4
R2 R4

) )
. 2.12. (), ()
U = E Y1 = E R2 ;
1 Y1 + Y2 R1 + R2
(2.21)
U = E Y3 = E R4 .
2 Y3 + Y4 R3 + R4
(2.21) , :
U1 = 1,56 ; U2 = 1,49 .
2. (. 2.13, ) ,
R 0 .
U1 (. 2.12).
U 2 U 3 :
U 2 (Y3 + Y ) = E Y3 + U 3 Y ;
. (2.22)
U 3 (Y4 + Y0 ) = 0 Y4 + U 2 Y0 .
(2.22) , U 2 U 3 .
(2.22):
U = ER + U 3 R3 ;
2 R + R3

(2.23)
U = U 2 R4 .
3 R0 + R4
E
Y3
Y1 Y3
Y1 U2
U2 Y
0
U1 Y0
Y
Y U1 Y Y0
Y
Y2 U3
U3 Y0
Y2
Y4 Y4
0
) )
. 2.13. - R
(2.23), :
U2 = 1,51 ; U3 = 1,49 .
3. (. 2.13, ) .
, :
(
U1 Y1 + Y2 + Y 0
)
+ Y0 = E Y1 + 0 Y2 + U 2 Y
0
+ U 3 Y0 ;

(
)
U 2 Y3 + Y + Y = E Y3 + U1 Y + U 3 Y ;

(2.24)

( 0
)
U 3 Y4 + Y + Y = 0 Y4 + U1 Y + U 2 Y .
0

(2.24):
U ( R1R0 + R2 R0 + 2 R1R2 ) = ER + R (U + U ) ;
1 R2
0 1 2 3

U 2 ( R + 2 R3 ) = ER + R3 (U1 + U 3 ) ; (2.25)
(R R + R R + R R )
U 3 0 4 4 0
= U1R0 + U 2 R .
R4
(2.25), :
U1 = 1,6 ; U2 = 1,50 ; U3 = 1,50 .
4. U13 , U 23 , U 33 U 0
:
U U
= 0 100 % . (2.26)
U0
. 2.3.
2.3

U3i, U2i, U1i, 2i, % 1i, %


U
U1 1,6 1,56 1,56 2,5 2,5
U2 1,50 1,51 1,49 0,7 0,7
U3 1,50 1,49 0,7
.
3 %. , , -
, .

2.4.
: .
: k ( R2 ) ( R2 ) k ( R2 ) -
.
: , R1 = 12 , R2 = 13 , = 3
(. 2.14).

(. 2.14)
U1 .
(. 2.14, ) (. 2.14, ).
(. 2.14, ) , U1
U 2 .

E E

R
R1 R2
U2
U U1 R1
T
e
U1
R2

) )
. 2.14. :
;
Y2
Y1
U1 U2
#

. 2.15. -

- (. 2.15) U1 , e , U 2
.
e :
e (Y1 + Y2 ) = U1Y1 + U 2Y2 . (2.27)
U 2 :
U 2 = e . (2.28)
(2.27) (2.28) :
e (Y1 + Y2 ) = U1Y1 + U 2Y2 ;
(2.29)
U 2 = e.
(2.28) e = U 2 , (2.27):
U2
(Y1 + Y2 ) = U1Y1 + U 2Y2 . (2.30)

(2.30):
Y1
U 2 = U1 . (2.31)
Y1 + Y2
+ Y2

U 2 (U1 ) . (2.31)
k = U 2 U1 :
Y1
. k= (2.32)
Y1 + Y2
Y2 +

k0 = Y1 Y2 .
:
k = U 2 = Y1 Y
= 1 ;
U1 Y1 + Y2 + Y Y2
2

Y
k 0 = 1 ,
Y2

1
= =1 (2.33)
Y1 + Y2
1+
Y2
opt = 1 .
(2.33)
Y1 + Y2
= (2.33)
Y2

opt = 0 . (2.33)

, k = k0 (2.33).
1. k ( R2 ) , , R1 R2 10R1 , (2.32)

R2
k= . (2.34)
R1 (1 + ) + R2

(2.34) k R2 . -
. 2.4 = 100 .
(. 2.4) k ( R2 ) k0 ( R2 ) (. 2.15).
2.4
R2 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120
k0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
k 0,98 1,94 2,88 3,81 4,72 5,61 6,48 7,34 8,18 9,01

12

10
k0(R2)
8

6
k(R2)
4

0
12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 R2
. 2.15.

. , k 0( R2 ) , k ( R2 ) , .. 1 ,
.
2. R2
= k k0 . (2.35)
(2.35) R2 . -
. 2.5.
(. 2.5) (. 2.16) ( R2 ) .
2.5

R2 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120
0,98 0,97 0,96 0,95 0,94 0,93 0,92 0,91 0,91 0,9

0,98

0,96

0,94

0,92

0,9

0,88

0,86
R2
12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120
. 2.16.

. , R2 -
2 10 %, -
(. 2.15).
3. k ( R2 ) (. 2.17), -
(. 2.14, ) = 25 .
k
:
k = k1 k2 , (2.36)

R
R20
R2
U
U1 R1 R10
U2

k1 k2

. 2.17.

k = R2
1 R ( + 1) + R ;
1 2
(2.37)
k = R 20
.
2 R10 ( + 1) + R20
, :
R10 = 12 , R20 = 13 , R1 = 14 , R2 = 15 .
k2
R20
k2 = = 1,06 = onst . (2.38)
R10 (1 + ) + R20
(2.36) k R2 . -
. 2.6.
(. 2.6) (. 4.18) k ( R2 ) .
2.6
R2 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
k 0 0,1 0,12 0,16 0,19 0,22 0,24 0,26 0,28 0,3
k
0,35

0,3

0,25

0,2

0,15

0,1

0,05

0
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 R2

. 2.18.

. k ( R2 )
(. . 2.11) - ( = 25 ) .

2.5.
: .
: k ( R2 ) ().
: R1 = 12 , R2 = 13 = 3 .

1. (. 2.19, )
R1, R2.
(. 2.19, ) -
(. 2.19, ).

. 2.19. () - ()

(. 2.19, )
( ):
e(Y1 + Y2 ) = U1Y1 + U 2Y2 ;

U2
U 2 = e ; e = = 0 .

,
U1Y1 + U 2Y2 = 0 .

U1Y1 U R
U2 = = 1 2 = U1k0
Y2 R1

U 2 R2
k = k0 = = . (2.39)
U1 R1
(2.39) k R2 . -
. 2.7.
2.7

R2 120 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 1080 1200
k 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
k
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
120 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 1080 1200
R
. 2.20. k (R 2)

(. 2.7) (. 2.20) k ( R2 ) .
R
. k ( R2 ) , k = k0 = 2 , = 1
R1
.

2.6.
: .
: U ( R2 ) U 0( R2 ) R1 R2 kR1 ,
k = 10, 20, ...
: (. 2.21, ) R1 = 12 , R2 = 13 , R3 = 14 , R4 = 15
.

(. 2.21, ), - (. 2.21, ).
, :
e (Y1 + Y2 ) = 0 Y1 + U Y2 ;

e+ (Y3 + Y4 ) = U1 Y3 + 0 Y4 ;
e = e .
+
R2

R1 0
Y1 Y2
e# U
R3
U1 e+ Y4 e#
#
U
R4 Y3

U1 e+

) )
. 2.21.

UY2 UY Y (Y + Y )
= 1 3 U = U1 3 1 2 . (2.40)
Y1 + Y2 Y3 + Y4 Y2 (Y3 + Y4 )
:
Y3
U 0 = U1 . (2.41)
Y4
(2.40) (2.41)
Y1 + Y2 Y3 + Y4 Y1 Y3
= =
Y2 Y4 Y2 Y4
(2.41), :
R2 R4
= . (2.42)
R1 R3
, :
U = U R2 ;
0 1
R1
(2.43)
R2 = R4 .
R1 R3
2.8
R2 12 120 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 1080
U 0,03 0,17 0,33 0,48 0,64 0,79 0,95 1,10 1,26 1,41
U0 0,03 0,3 0,6 0,9 1,2 1,5 1,8 2,1 2,4 2,7
U
3

2,5 U 0 ( R2 )

1,5

1
U ( R2 )
0,5

0
12 120 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 1080 R
. 2.22.

(2.40) (2.43) U U 0 R2
U1 = 0,03 . . 2.8.
(. 2.22) U ( R2 ) U 0( R2 ) .
. , U 0( R2 ) ,
, U ( R2 ) .

2.7.
: -
.
: U 2(U1 ) U 2(U1 , U 2 )
, .
: R = 12 , I0 = 0,001 , U = 3 -
D.

1. -
D, - () (. 2.23, ):
U
U
I D = I 0 (e U0
1) , , exp >> 1 , :
U0
U

I D = I 0e U0
. (2.44)
(. 2.23, ) (. 2.23, ).
U 2 :
U

U 2 Y = I D + 0 Y = I0 e U0
. (2.45)
U = U1 U 2 ,
:
U U 2 U1
I
U 2 = 0 eU0 = I 0 R e U0
. (2.46)
Y

U1 D U2
ID
U1
U2
R
Y
0

) )
. 2.23.
, (2.46) -
U 2 , .. U 2 (U1 , U 2 ) .
(2.46) U 2 (U1 ) :
U1

U 2 = I0 R e U0
. (2.47)
(2.47) U 2 U 1 .
U 2(U1 ) . 2.9. (2.46) U 1 U 2
. 2.9. U 2 (U1 , U 2 ) . 2.9.
(. 2.9) (. 2.24) U 2(U1 ) U 2 (U1 , U 2 ) ,
.
2.9
U1 0,2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
U2(U1) 0,13 0,17 0,23 0,33 0,46 0,64 0,87 1,24 1,73 2,71 3,36
U2(U1, U2) 0,12 0,16 0,22 0,29 0,39 0,51 0,66 0,82 0,97 1,08 1,10
0,96 0,95 0,93 0,90 0,86 0,81 0,75 0,66 0,56 0,45 0,33

1 U2 U 2 (U1 )
U 2 (U1, U 2 )

0,5

0 U1
0,2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

. 2.24.
. U 2(U1 ) U 2(U1 , U 2 ) ,
U 1 , U 2 . -
U 1 .
2. (. 2.25, ).
(. 2.25, ) (. 2.25, ).
, :
e Y = I D + U 2 Y ;
(2.48)
e = 0 .
(2.48) :
I D + U 2Y = 0 .
:
U1

U 2 = I0 R e U0
. (2.49)
, .
U 2(U1 ) . . 2.24 ,
,
U 2 (. . 2.9).

e# # U2

. 2.25.
R U1
U1 U2
Y
U2
D ID
0

) )
. 2.26.

3. (. 2.26, ).
(. 2.26, ) (. 2.26, ).
, :
U 2 0 U2
I
U 2Y = U1Y + I 0 e U0
U 2 = U1 + 0 e U 0 .
Y
U2
U U1
: 2 = eU0 .
I0 R
U 2(U 1 , U 2 ) :
U U1
U 2 = U 0 ln 2 . (2.50)
I0R
(2.50) :
U
U 2 = U 0 ln 1 . (2.51)
RI 0
(2.50) (2.51), U 2(U1 ) U 2(U1 , U 2 )
U 1 U 2 . . 2.10.
. 2.10 (. 2.27) U 2(U1 ) U 2(U1 , U 2 ) .
2.10
U1 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120
U2(U1) 0 2,1 3,3 4,2 4,8 5,4 5,8 6,2 6,6 6,9
U2(U1, U2) 0 1,8 3 3,9 4,6 5,1 5,6 6 6,4 6,7

U2
8
7 U 2 (U1 )
6
5
4 U 2 (U1 , U 2 )
3
2
1
0
U
12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120
. 2.27.

. U 2(U1 ) U 2(U1 , U 2 ) ,
U 2(U1 ) .
4. (. 2.28, ).
(. 2.28, ) . 2.28, .
, :
e Y = U 1 Y + I D ;

e = 0 .

U 2 e U2

U1 Y = I D = I 0 e U0
= I0 e U0
.
D
R ID
U1
e_ U2 U1
Y U2
_ #

) )
. 2.28.

:
U
U 2 = U 0 ln 1 . (2.52)
RI 0
, (. 2.27) U 2(U1 )
. , ,
U 2(U1 ) .
.
, ,
.

2.8.
: -
.
: U (t ) -
, , U : U = U 0t .
: R = 12 , U0 = 3 .

1. (. 2.29, ).
C
I
R
U
1 U U
e_ Y U
_ #

) )
. 2.29.

dU
- (. 2.29, ), I = C
dt
.
:
e Y = U Y + I dU
U Y = . (2.53)
e = 0 . dt
(2.53) Y = 1 R T = RC = 1 :
dU
U = T
dt
:
dt dU
= .
T U
t U
1 1
dt =
U1 0
dU .
T0
:
t
1
U* =
T 0
U dt . (2.54)


U = U 0t , t [0; 2] (2.55)
(2.54) :
t
1 U 0t 2
T 0
U = U 0 t dt = (2.56)
2
= 1.
(2.55) (2.56) U U t [0; 2] t = 0,2 . -
. 2.11.
(. 2.11) (. 2.30) U(t) U(t).
2.11
t 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2
U 0 0,6 1,2 1,8 2,4 3 3,6 4,2 4,8 5,4 6
U 0 0,06 0,24 0,54 0,96 3 2,16 2,94 3,84 4,86 6

7 U
6
U = U 0 t
5

3
2 U = U 0
1
t
0
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2

7 U
6 U = U 0t
5

2
U 0t 2
1 U =
2 t
0
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2

. 2.30.
. , U = const U (t ) , U t
U (t ) , .
3. (. 2.31, ).
- (. 2.31, ).
:
U Y = U Y + I C . (2.57)
(2.57) Y = 1 R , C R = T = 10 :
dU
U U = T ,
dt
dt dU
= :
T U U
t U
U U
T dt = dU .
0 0

:
R U
U Y
U
U
I
0

) )
. 2.31.
t
1
U = U U dt ,
*
(2.58)
T0

U * (. 2.54).
(2.58) :
U t
U = U * . (2.59)
T
(2.59) U t . -
. 2.12.
(. 2.12) (. 2.32) U (t ) .
. , U (t )
(. . 2.30) - -
, .
2.12
t 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2
U 0 0,006 0,02 0,06 0,1 0,16 0,24 0,33 0,44 0,56 0,71
U
1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2 t
. 2.32.
2.9. -
: - -
.
: - (U1 ) 0 < U i < E .
: R = 12 , = 3 .

() (. 2.33).
.
U i R1R2 -

t
1
U 0i =
T 0
U 0 dt ,

RC- . 1 , U i U 0i
. 1 U i = U 0i , ..

1 1
Ui =
T 0
U 0 dt ,


Ui
1 = T . (2.60)
U0

e_ U
R1
Ui
R2

. 2.33.
2 1 , U 0 -
, ..

1 2
U i = U 0 dt ,
T
1


Ui
2 = 1 T . (2.61)
U0
2 + 1 (2.60) (2.61):
Ui U
= 21 T ; =T i , (2.62)
U0 U0
.. U i k = T U 0 . T
max , U i U 0 .

U 0 = kU i max , (2.63)

R2
U 0 = kU max = E = 3,25 .
R1
(2.62) U i . .
2.13.
(. 2.13) (. 2.34) -
(U i ) .
2.13

Ui 0,3 0,6 0,9 1,2 1,5 1,8 2,1 2,4 2,7 3


0,09 0,18 0,28 0,37 0,46 0,55 0,65 0,74 0,83 0,92

1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0
0,3 0,6 0,9 1,2 1,5 1,8 2,1 2,4 2,7 3 Ui
. 2.34.

. , -
Ui .



; , , , -
; - -
-
, .
3.



, .
, -
() . -
F(R, T, , ) [3 9] F(R), F(T)
F() F()
R, (R, , ). -
. -
,

.
-
.
-
. [3] -
, (. 3.1). -
. -
-
. , -
.

3.1.

1. {1, 1} 2. 3. {1, 0}
I I I
Ii+ Isi+ Ii+
)

Isi

Ij
Ij Isj
Isj
Ii Isi Ii
Is Isi
W0 W W0
W0 W0j W0i Wi Wj Wi+ W0 W0j W0i

W0 j ( I j , I s , W0 ) Wj ( I j , I sj , 1) W0 j ( I j , I sj , 1)
)

W0 (1 I s I j ) (1 I sj I j ) (1 I sj I j )
)

m
1
I i (W0i , I s , W0 ) I sj = I
m i +1 si
I si (W0i , a 0 , a1 )

I si ( I i , Wi , 1)
I s (1 W0i W0 ) a 0 exp (W0i a1 )
I i (1 Wi )
)

I s ( I i , W0i ) I sj ( I si ) a 0 ( I i , W0i , 1)
i = 1, 2 i = 1, m i = 0, 1
W0 ( I i , W0i ) I si ( I i , Wi ) a1 ( I i , W0i , 1)

, -
. -

, -
. -
-
.
[3, 8]
(. 3.1). : .
X = { x j } 0m1 -
m1
0 0
X = x j Q A = { ai } 0n 1 :
0
0
X = Q {A, X}. (3.1)
0
X -
(3.1).
(), -
~
X0 = { x0 j }0m1 X0 = { ~x0 j } 0m1 . -
- -
, . -

~ ~ ~
xmin X0 xmax xmin X0 xmax
0
X Q:
~
A = Q 1 ( X 0 , X 0 ) . (3.2)
~
X0
0

. . 3.1.

3.1.
( ) [1] -
,
.
, [3].
: ,
-
. ( -
), -
. , , -
. -
. -

,
. -
- .
.
-
,
. -
.
.
, -
, , -
. ,
-
, .. ,
, [1, . 94].
, , -

, , .
-
[3, 8],
. -
{0, 1} (. 3.2). {1,
1} {1, 0}, {0, 1} {0, 0}, .
W Id,
I
W = W0 1 s (3.3)
Id
W0 Is,
1
0, 1 1, 1
[8, 12].

3.1.1.
0, 0 1, 0 0
{W0, Is} = {1, 1} . 3.3.
W(Id, W0, Is) . 3.2. (W01 W02)
(Id1 Id2), . 3.3, .
[12] Id1 Id2
W01 W02 . -
Idi W0i, i = 1, 2 W0 Is -
(3.1), -
(. 3.3, ). W Id -
(3.1) W(Id, W0, Is, W0i, Idi)
W01 W W02 I d 1 I d I d 2
(. 3.3, ).
W0 Is (3.3) -
{W01, Id1} {W02, Id2} -
, Is Id1, W02 W0.
W01 = W0 (1 I s I d 1 ) ;
(3.4)
W02 = W0 (1 I s I d 2 ).

(3.4) ( , , ). -
, W0 Is
W02 1 I s I d 2
= ,
W01 1 I s I d1
I I
Id2

Id1 Idj
Is Is
W W
W0 W02W0 W0 W0
1
a) ) j

n(a, b, 1
c)

a 2 j=n b

W0i, 3 Idj 7
I

4 6 8
{W0 , I s } (W0i, {W0 , I s } W(Id, W0,
I ) Is)

5 9 W0
?

. 3.3. - W (Id, W 0, Is).


{W 0, Is} = {1, 1}

W02 W02 I s I d 1 = W01 W01 I s I d 2 .

I s (W02 I d1 W01 I d 2 ) = W02 W01
Is
W02 W01
Is = . (3.5)
W02 I d1 W01 I d 2
(3.4) ,
W 0:
I s = I d1 (1 W01 W0 ) ;
(3.6)
I s = I d 2 (1 W02 W0 ).
Is
W 0:
I d1 I d1 W01 W0 = I d 2 I d 2 W02 W0 .

1
( I d 2 W02 I d 1 W01 ) = I d 2 I d 1 ,
W0
W0 :
I d 2 W02 I d 1 W01
W0 = . (3.7)
I d 2 I d1
W0j j- ( j = 1, n )
Idj, (3.3)
W0 (W0i, Idi) Is (W0i, Idi), (3.5) (3.7) i- (i = 1, 2):
I s (W0i , I di )
W0 j = W0 (W0i , I di ) 1 . (3.8)
I dj
3.1.2. {1, 1}
(3.5) (3.7) (3.8)
Idj i- , .. j = i = 1, 2. , Idj = Id1 (3.8)
I d 2 W02 I d 1 W01 W02 W01 1
W0 j = 1 . (3.9)
I d 2 I d1 W I
02 d 1 W I I
01 d 2 d 1

, Id1 W01, .. W0j(Id1) = W01.


(3.9) Id1 Id2:
I d 2 W02 I d 1 W01 W02 W01 I d1 I d 2
W0 j = 1 .
I d 2 I d1 I d 2 W02 I d1 W01 I d 1

I d 2 W02 I d1 W01 I d 2 W02 + I d 2 W01
W0 j = .
I d 2 I d1
W01 ,
I d 2 I d1
W0 j = W01 ,
I d 2 I d1
W0 j = W01 .
:
= 1 ;
W0 j (I 0i ) W0i , {W0 , I s W0i , I 0i } = (3.10)
0 ,
.. W0j (I0i) W0i {W0,
Is} {W0i, I0i} i = 1, 2 -
. W0j (I0i) W0i
.
W0j (Id2) = W02
(3.8) Idj = Id2. ,
(3.10) , (3.5) (3.7), , (3.8)
(3.3) {W0, Is} = = {1, 1},
.

3.1.3. -
. 3.3, - {W0, Is} = {1, 1},
-
.
- : (), (b) ( ),
1 n = a, b, c. 2 j =
n a, b, c. a 3 -
W0i Idi i- . 4
(3.5) (3.7) W0 (W0i, I0i) Is (W0i, I0i), 5 -
6 . b .
7 Idj , 8
(3.8) W(Id, W0, Is) 6 , 9
W0j. j
( j = 1, m ), -
. , -
.
{W0, I0} = {1, 1} ,
, {W0i, I0i} -
. W0 = const
Is = const, (3.8) -
. (3.3), -
(3.5) (3.7) (3.8) -
.

3.1.4.
{W0, Is} = {1, 1}
[1, 7]. - (. 3.3)
{W0i, I0i} - -
. -

7 I di W0i . 8 -
Wdi . 9
Wdi W0i , 0.
i
W0i W0i
i =
W0i
0 :
1 ;
i ( I 0i ) 0 , {W0i , I 0i W0i , I 0i } = (3.11)
> 0 .

i 0 i = 1, 2, W0i
I 0i {W0i, I0i}, .. .
, i 0, i 0,
, .
F() F() -
,
. W0i (i = 1, 2)
(3.8) Ii Wi:
W0 j (I di + Ii ) = W0 [1 I s (I di + Ii )] ;
(3.12)
W0 j (I di ) = W0 [1 I s I di ] ,
W0 j (I di ) i- Ii = 0, W0 j (I di + Ii ) = W0i + Wi .
(3.12) Ii Wi,

Wi = W0 j (I di + Ii ) W0 j ( I di ) .

(3.12)
Is Is
Wi = W0 1 W0 1 ,
I di + Ii I di

1 1
Wi = W0 I s .
I di I di + Ii

W0 I s Ii
Wi = ,
I di ( I di + Ii )
I di >> Ii
W0 I s
Wi = Ii . (3.13)
I di2
(3.13) , Wi -
Idi.

i- j- ,
.
(3.13) Wi Ii
(3.8) W0i I di . W I = W I ,
i-
WI W0 (1 I s I di )
= . (3.14)
Ii I di
(3.14)
W0i WI
= 02 s ( 1) ,
I di I di
, (3.13):
WI W0 I s
= 2 . (3.15)
Ii Id
(3.13) (3.15)
,
. -
{W0, I0} = {1, 1} -
.

3.2.
W0 - -
{W0, Is}, Is Isi,
Ii W0i. Wi c {1, 0} = =
{W0, Is} {1, 1}
Wi (I i , I si ) = (1 I si I i ) , (3.16)
Isi . -
Isi W0i Ii, -
[1] [8].

3.2.1.
Isi(Ii, W0i) -
[11] ( , - -) (
, ). -
Isi Ii W0i
F(0), F(1) [3, 8].
F(0) [7]
(k + fk) k- fk(0) {a k }0n 1 k = 0, n 1 :
n 1
F (0) = ( a k + fk ) . (3.17)
k =0

(3.16) Isi(Ii, W0i) -


Ii W0i. Isi = F(0) -
{ fk }0 = {I i , W0i } 0, 1, (3.17)
1


I si = (a 0 + I i )(a1 + W0i ) , (3.18)

I si = (a 0 a1 + a 0W0i + a1I i + W0i I i ) , (3.19)
: 01, (a 0W0i + a1I i ) W0i Ii .
k (3.18) , -
{W0, Is}, -
:
I si = I i (1 W0i ) . (3.20)
(3.20) (3.19) -
, k i = 1, 4 , -
, .. 01 = 01, W0i Ii
2. k- ,
(3.19) W0i
I i .
, . -
I i i- W0i i = 1, 4 .
I si ( I i , W0i ) (3.19) (3.20)
a k ( I i , I si , W0i ) . I si ( a k0 ) -
a k0 { } 2
0 () -
{W01 , W04 } .
I j -
I si ( a k0 ) I sj . I j I sj , -
Wj (3.16)

Wj ( I j , I sj , 1) = 1 I sj I j . (3.21)

. -
.
I si (3.19) -
.
, -
( ) ,
.
.
F(1) [6, 7]
a k fk k- fk (1) {a k }0n 1 , k = 0, n 1 :
n 1
F (1) = a k fk . (3.22)
k =0

(3.22) I si = F (1) , I i -
W0i fk ( I i , W0i ) = I ik + W0ki ,
n 1
I si = (a k I ik + bkW0ki ) (3.23)
k =0

ak, bk. 3 % -
(3.23) (3.20)
I si = c0 + c1I i + c2W0i , (3.24)
c0 = a 0 + b0 , c1 = a1 , c2 = b1 , .
k (3.24)
i = 1, 3 , [3]. -
1
I si + 2 I si +1 I I
si +1 si
W W0i +1 W0i +1 W0i
c1 = 0i + 2 , (3.25)
I i + 2 I i +1 I I
i +1 i
W0i + 2 W0i +1 W0i +1 W0i
, , -
.
(3.24) (3.25), -
W0i , W0i +1 , W0i + 2 , I i , I i +1 , I i + 2 -
Wj j- (3.21).
(3.21), (3.24) (3.25) -
-
. (3.24) , -
, -
.
[8]
I si Wi :
I si = a 0 exp(a1 Wi ) . (3.26)
Wi I si (3.26)
W0i , W0i +1 . -
I si (Wi ) W0i Wi W0i +1 . -
{ a k }10 , :
I si = a 0 exp (a1 W0i ) ;
(3.27)
I si +1 = a 0 exp ( a1 W0i +1 ) ,
(3.26). a1 -
:
I si +1 I si = exp[a1(W0i +1 W0i )]

ln I si +1 ln I si
a1 = . (3.28)
W0i +1 W0i
a 0 (3.27)

a1W0i = ln( I si a 0 ) ;
(3.29)
a1W0i +1 = ln( I si +1 a 0 ) .
(3.29) W0i +1 W0i = k ,
k ln ( I si a 0 ) = ln ( I si +1 a 0 ) ,

( I si a 0 ) k = I si +1 a 0 .
:
a 0 = I si k 1 I si I si +1 , (3.30)
k 1 = (W0i +1 W0i ) W0i +1 .
Wj I sj -

(3.26) (3.28), (3.30) a k0 { }:


1
0
1
Wj = ln ( I sj a 0 ) . (3.31)
a1
ak (3.28) (3.30)
I si I si +1 . a 0 = I si , a1 = ( DW DI )1 = W01 , -
: I s W0
. (3.26),
(3.18) (3.23), -
,
Wj = W0 ln ( I sj I s ) , (3.32)
W0 I s :
W0i +1 W0i
W0 = ;
ln I si +1 ln I si
(3.33)
W0i
W0i +1 W0i
I s = I si ( I si I si +1 ) .

I si -
I i . -
, -
.
:
1.

.
2. -
-
-
, -
.
3. -
-
.

3.2.2.
[6 9] I si -
I i ( I si , W0i ) -
I si ( I i , W0i ) , .
(. 3.2, 1) I si ( I i , W0i,1 ) -
I i W0i [12]
. (3.16)
{1, 0} = {W0 , I s }, I si
(3.20) I si ( I i , W0i ) :
I si = I i [1 W0 (1 I s I i ) . (3.34)
(3.34) ,
(3.20) {1, 0} {1, 1} :
W0i ( I i , I si , 1) = 1 I si I i ;
(3.35)
W0i ( I i , I s , W0 ) = W0 (1 I s I di ) .
: I i = I di
W0i ( I i , I si , 1) = W0i ( I i , I s , W0 ) , (3.35)
3.2. {1, 0}

1. 2. 3.

I I I
Ii+ Ii+
Isi+ Isi+
Ij
Isj Ij
Isj
Ii Ii
Isi Is Isi Is Isi Is
W0 W0 W0
W0 W0 W0i W0 W0 W0i W0 W0 W0i

W0 j ( I j , I sj , 1) W0 j ( I sj , I s ,W0 ) W0 j ( I j , I s ,W0 )
I sj I s
W0
(1 I sj I j ) I sj I sW0 W0 (1 I s I j )

I si ( I i ,W0i ,1) = I si ( I s ,W0 ,W0i )


I si ( I i , I s ,W0 )
= I i (1 W0i )
W0i ( I i , I s ,W0 ) = 1 W0i
Is I i [1 W0 (1 I s I i )]
= W0 (1 I s I i ) 1 W0i W0

I s ( I i , I si ,1) I s (W0i , I si ,1) I s ( I i , I si ,1)

i = 1, 2 i = 1, 2 i = 1, 2

W0 ( I i , I si ,1) W0 (W0i , I si ,1) W0 ( I i , I si ,1)

1 I si I i =W0 (1 I s I i ) ,

I si (3.34).
I si (3.20), -
{W0 , I s } W0i
I i , i = 1, m .
-
, .
W0i Wj .

. , -
.
(3.20) -
(3.34) I si {W0 , I s } .

-
.

{1, 1} .
{W0 , I s }
W0i I i i = 1, 2 .
(3.34) , -
i- (i + 1)- :
W0 ( I i I s ) = I i I si ;
(3.36)
W0 ( I i +1 I s ) = I i +1 I si +1.
(3.36) W0 I s -

I i +1 (I i I si ) I s (I i I si ) = I i (I i +1 I si +1 ) I s (I i +1 I si +1 ) ,

I s :
I i +1I si I i I si +1
Is = . (3.37)
(I i +1 I i ) (I si +1 I si )
W0 (3.36)
W0 I s = ( I i I si ) W0 I i ;
(3.38)
W0 I s = ( I i +1 I si +1 ) W0 I i +1 ,

( I i I si ) W0 I i = ( I i +1 I si +1 ) W0 I i +1 ,
W0 :
I si +1 I si
W0 = 1 . (3.39)
I i +1 I i
(3.37), (3.39) W0 , I s
(3.34) I si ( I i , W0 , I s ) W0i , W0i +1
I si j-
I sj = I j [1 W0 (1 I s I j ) . (3.40)
(3.16) (3.40):
Wj = 1 I sj I j , (3.41)
-
{W0 , I s } = {1, 1} :
Wj = W0 (1 I s I j ) (3.42)

I sj (3.40) (3.41) {1, 0}.


I si I i , -
, -
-
. -
-
,
. -
-
.
(. . 3.2, 2) I si ( I s , W0 , W0i ) -

{W0 , I s } I si W0i
. -
I i = I di {1, 1} {1, 0}:
I di = I s (1 Wi W0 ) ;
(3.43)
I i = I si (1 W0i ) .
(3.43) , W0i = Wi , -
I si W0i {W0 , I s } :
1 W0i
I si = I s . (3.44)
1 W0i W0
W0i (3.44) :
I si I s
W0i = W0 . (3.45)
I si I sW0
(3.45), W0i
I si {W0 , I s } . -
(3.44)
W0i , W0i +1 .
(3.44):
1 W0i
I si = I s ;
1 W0i W0
(3.46)
I 1 W0i +1
+ = Is .
si 1
1 W0i +1 W0

(3.46)
I si +1 (1 W0i )(1 W0i +1 W0 ) = I si (1 W0i +1 )(1 W0i W0 ) ,
-
:
I si +1W0i +1 (1 W0i ) I siW0i (1 W0i +1 )
W0 = . (3.47)
I si +1 (1 W0i ) I si (1 W0i +1 )
(3.47) ,
I i = I si (1 W0i ) , W0 , {1, 1},
(3.47). , -
{1, 0} {1, 1}, -
, , .
, I i = I si (1 W0i )
(3.46) W0
W0i W0 = 1 I s I i ;
(3.48)
W0i +1 W0 = 1 I s I i +11 .
Is {1, 1} (. . 3.1.1):
W0i +1 W0i
Is = . (3.49)
W0i +1 I i W0i I i +1
(3.49) Ii Is
{1, 0}:
I si +1I si (W0i +1 W0i )
Is = . (3.50)
I si +1W0i +1 (1 W0i ) I siW0i (1 W0i +1 )


, -
.

. .
(. . 3.2, 3) -
Ii Isi -
{W0 , I s } W0i , -
, {1, 1} {W0 , I s } . -
{1, 0} {1, 1}
Wi = 1 I si I i = W0 (1 I s I di ) = W0i (3.51)

I i = I di ;
(3.52)
Wi = W0i
Isi
I si = I i [1 W0 (1 I s I i )] . (3.53)
{W0 , I s } Isi (3.47) (3.50),
(3.37) (3.39), (3.18) (3.20)
I i = I si (1 W0i ) W0i = 1 I si I i

I i +1W0i +1 I iW0i
W0 = I i +1 I i
;

(3.54)
I = W0i +1 W0i
s .
W0i +1 I i W0i I i +1
{1, 1} {W0 , I s } , -
Isi (3.53) W0i , W0i +1
. Ii -
(3.53) W0 j {1, 1} (3.51)

W0 j = W0 (1 I s I i ) .
{1, 1} -
(3.53), -
.
:
1. -
.
2. -
:
.
3. -
, -
.
4. {1, 0} -
{W0 , I s } = {1, 1},
-
.

3.2.3.
(. 3.3) Wi0 (Ii)
I0 = const, Is . {1,
1} {W0, Is} {0, 1}:
Wi ( I i , I 0 ,Wi 0 ) = Wi 0 (1 I 0 I i ) , (3.55)
Wi0, -
I0.
w Wi0 (Ii) ,
Ii Idi Ii = Idi Wi W0i -
Wi = W0i, {0, 1} (3.55) {1, 1}:
3.3. {W i0, I0} = {0, 1}
1. - 2. -
3. {0, 1}/{1, 1}

I I0 I I I0
)

Ii+ Ii+
Ij Ii+
Ij Ij
Ii
Ii Is Ii
W 1 Wi 1 Wi W 1
Wi Wi Wj Wi Wj Wi+1, Wi Wj Wi+1Wj0Wi W Wj Wi+ Wi+1,
)

Wj ( I j , Wj 0 , I 0 ) = Wj ( I j , Wj 0 , I 0 ) = Wj ( I j , W0 , I s ) =
= Wj 0 (1 I 0 I j ) = Wj 0 (1 I 0 I j ) = W0 (1 I s I j ) =
I i < I j < I i +1 < I 0 I 0 < I i < I j < I i +1 = Wj 0 (1 I 0 I j )
)

Wi 0 ( I i , I s ,W0 ) = Wi 0 ( I i , I s ,W0 ) = Wi 0 ( I i , I s ,W0 ) =


I Is I Is I Is
= W0 i = W0 i = W0 i
Ii I0 Ii I0 Ii I0
)

I s ( I i ,Wi [Wi 0 , I 0 ]) I s ( I i ,Wi 0 ,Wi ) I s ( I i , I 0 ,Wi 0 )


i = 1, 2 i = 1, 2
W0 ( I i ,Wi [Wi 0 , I 0 ]) W0 ( I i ,Wi 0 ,Wi ) W0 ( I i , I 0 ,Wi 0 )

Wi ( I i , I 0 , Wi 0 ) = Wi 0 (1 I 0 I i );
(3.56)
W0i ( I di , I s , W0 ) = W0 (1 I s I di ).

Wi 0 (1 I 0 I i ) = W0 (1 I s I i ) ,

Wi0 (Ii, Is, W0) = W0 w (3.57)

Ii I s
w = . (3.58)
Ii I 0
(3.58) I0
(3.57).
Wi0 = W0 (3.57) -
(3.58),
Ii I 0 = Ii I s ,

I0 = Is, (3.59)
.
(3.58) , (3.59) (3.55) -
(3.57), I0
{0, 1} = {Wi0, I0}, {W0, Is} {1, 1}.
(3.57) -
{W0, Is} I0 Ii , Ii+1 -
Wi0 , Wi0+1 . -
, (3.57) i-
(i + 1)- :
Ii I s
Wi 0 = W0 I I ;
i 0
(3.60)
W I i +1 I s
= W0 .
i +1,0 I i +1 I 0
(3.60) Is
Wi 0 (I i I 0 )(I i +1 I s ) = Wi +1,0 (I i +1 I 0 )(I i I s ) .

I s [Wi +1,0 (Ii +1 I 0 ) Wi 0 (Ii I 0 )] = Wi +1,0 (I i +1 I 0 )Ii Wi 0 (I i I 0 )Ii +1
Is

Wi +1,0 (I i +1 I 0 )I i Wi 0 (I i I 0 )I i +1
Is = . (3.61)
Wi +1,0 (I i +1 I 0 ) Wi 0 (I i I 0 )
(3.55), (3.61) W0i , W0i + 1 -
:
W0i +1 W0i
Is = . (3.62)
W0i +1 I i W0i +1 I i +1
W0 :
I i = I s (1 W0i W0 );
I i +1 = I s (1 W0,i +1 W0 ),
(3.63)

(3.60) (3.55) Wi = W0i .


(3.63) Is
I i (1 W0i W0 ) = I i +1 (1 W0i +1 W0 ) ,

(Ii +1W0i +1 IiW0i ) W0 = I i +1 I i
W0 :
I i +1W0i +1 I iW0i
W0 = . (3.64)
I i +1 I i
(3.64) {1, 1}, -
(3.57) {0, 1} = {Wi0, I0} W0i = Wi (3.55):
I i +1Wi +1,0 (1 I 0 I i +1 ) I iWi 0 (1 I 0 I i )
W0 = .
I i +1 I i
W0
:
Wi +1,0 (I i +1 I 0 ) Wi 0 (I i I 0 )
W0 = . (3.65)
I i +1 I i
(3.61) (3.65) , :
{0, 1} (3.57) -
{W0, Is} {Ii, Wi0, I0} i- -
;
(3.58) Wi0, -
I0 Is
{Wi0, I0}, {W0, Is};
(3.58) I0,
(3.57);
(3.57) , -
(3.58) Ii = I0
Wi0;
(3.57) Ii = Is
(3.58),
;
{0, 1} = = {Wi0, I0}, -
{1, 0} = {1, Isi}, -
0, = Wi 0 . -
{1, 0} {0, 1} - Ii Isi
, {0, 1} = W0i -
.
{0, 1} - {W0, Is} -
.

3.2.4.
(. 3.4) Wi0 Iis -
{0, 0} = {Wi0, Iis}:
Wi = Wi 0 (1 I is I i ) , (3.66)
{1, 1} {W0, Is}
W0i = W0 (1 I s I di ) (3.67)
. (3.66) -
Wi0 Iis ,
.
(3.66)
(3.67) Wi = W0i Ii = Idi -
i (i + 1)- :
DW = W0i +1 W0i ;
(3.68)
DI = I i +1 I i .
3.4. {0, 0} = {W i0, Iis}

1. I1 2. Wi0 3. Iis

I I Is
)

Ii+1 Ii+1

Ij
Ii+1,
Ii+1, Ii+1,
Iiw
Ii Is Is
Iis Iis
W0W WW
Wi Wj Wi+1 Wi Wj Wi+1, Wi W Wi

Wi 0 ( I i , I is , W0 , I s )
Wj ( I j , Wj 0 , I js )
)

I is (Wi , Wi 0 , W0 , I s )
1 Wi Wi 0
Ii I s Is
Wj 0 (1 I js I j ) W0 1 Wi W0
I i I is

I j Is
Wj 0 = W0
)

I is ( I i , Wi 0 , W0 , I s ) Wi 0 (Wi , Wis , W0 , I s )
I j I js

Wi
1 Wj Wj 0
I js = I s W0 W
1 Wj W0 Ii (Ii I s ) 1 I is 1 i I s
Wi 0 Wis
)

W0 ( I i , Wi 0 , I is ) W0 ( I i , Wi 0 , I is ) W0 ( I i , Wi 0 , I is )
i = 1, n i = 1, n i = 1, n
I s ( I i , Wi 0 , I is ) I s ( I i , Wi 0 , I is ) I s ( I i , Wi 0 , I is )

Wi = W0i (3.66) (3.67)


Wi0:
I I
Wi 0 = W0 i s , (3.69)
I i I is
Ii = Idi Iis:
1 W0i Wi 0
I is = I s . (3.70)
1 W0i W0
(3.69) (3.70) -
Wi0 Iis {W0, Is} {W0i, Ii}.
(3.69), (3.70) , -
{W0, Is} (3.69) (3.70) i (i + 1)-
DW DI .
Is (3.69) i (i + 1)-
:
Ii I s
Wi 0 = W0 I I ;
i is
(3.71)
Wi +1,0 = W0 I i + 1 I s
.
I i +1 I i +1,s
(3.71) :
Wi +1,0 (I i +1 I i +1,s )(I i I s ) = Wi 0 (I i I is )(I i +1 I s ) .
Is:
I s [Wi+1,0 (Ii+1 Ii+1,s ) Wi 0 ( Ii Iis )] = Wi+1,0 (Ii+1 Ii+1,s ) Ii Wi 0 ( Ii Iis ) Ii+1
:
Wi +1,0 (I i+1 I i +1,s ) I i Wi 0 ( I i I is ) I i +1
Is = . (3.72)
Wi +1,0 (I i +1 I i+1,s ) Wi 0 ( I i I is )
(3.72) Is Ii Wi0,
Iis i (i + 1)- { DW , DI }, .. Is{Ii, Wi0, Iis}, Is
W0i, W0i+1 .
(3.66) Wi = W0i,
(3.72) {1, 1}:
W0i +1 W0i
Is = , (3.73)
W0i +1 I i W0i I i +1
(3.72) Ii, Ii+1, -

Wi +1,0 (1 I i +1,s I i +1 ) Wi 0 (1 I is I i )
Is = ,
Wi +1,0 (1 I i +1,s I i+1 ) I i Wi 0 (1 I is I i ) I i +1
(3.73).
(3.70) W0
i (i + 1)- :
I = I 1 W0i Wi 0 ;
is s
1 W0i W0

(3.74)
I 1 W0i +1 Wi +1,0
+1, s = I s .

i
1 W0i +1 W0
(3.66) (3.74) ( Is )

(W0i+1I i +1 W0i I i ) W0 = I i +1 I i ,
W0 {1, 1} -
{Ii, W0i} {Ii+1, W0i+1}. Wi = W0i (3.66), -

I i +1Wi +1,0 (1 I i +1,s I i +1 ) I i Wi 0 (1 I is I i )
W0 = .
I i +1 I i
Ii, Ii+1, -
W0 (3.69) (3.70)
(3.66) {0, 0} = {Wi0, Iis}:
Wi +1,0 (I i +1 I i +1,s ) Wi 0 ( I i I is )
W0 = . (3.75)
I i +1 I i
(3.75) W0 {W0i,
W0i+1} . W0 {Wi0, Iis}
Ii i (i + 1)- { DW , DI }.
{0, 0} = = {Wi0, Iis} :
- Wi (Ii, Wi0,
Wis), Wi0 (Ii, Iis) Iis (W0i, Wi0) {0, 1} = = {Wi0, I0}, {1, 0} = {W0, Isi}
{1, 1} = {W0, Is};
{W0, Is} {W0i, W0i+1}
i (i + 1)- { DW , DI }
{W0i, Iis};
- -
-
.

3.3.
,
[3, 8, 12].

3.3.1. {1, 0}
{1, 0} W0 = 1 Isi , -
W0:
Wi = (1 I si I i ) (3.76)
{1, 1} {W0, Is}:
W0i = W0 (1 I s I di ) . (3.77)
{W0i, Idi}
{Wi, Ii}, (3.76) (3.77)
I i = I si (1 Wi ) ;
(3.78)
I i = I s (1 Wi Wi 0 ) .
(3.78) Isi
I si = I s w (3.79)
w , W0 = 1 -
D = 1 Wi D0 = 1 Wi / W0 :
1 Wi
w = . (3.80)
1 Wi W0
(3.79) Isi = Is -
w = 1 . , dw dWi = 0 :
d 1 Wi 1 Wi 1 1
= = 0.
1 Wi W0 (1 Wi W0 ) W0 1 Wi W0
dWi 2


1 1 Wi 1
1 = 0 (3.81)
1 Wi W0 1 Wi W0 W0
(3.80) w
w W0 1 = 0 ,
(3.81).
w = W0 = 1 (3.82)
(3.79) (3.81) (3.80):
1 Wi = W0 W . (3.83)
(3.81) (3.80) ,
1 Wi
w (W0 = 1) = =1,
1 Wi 1
Isi (3.79)
Isi = Is, (3.84)
Is .
(3.84) Isi
(3.80), (3.82)
1 Wi
lim I si = I s = Is . (3.85)
W0 0 1 Wi
(3.80) (3.85) (3.79) , {1, 0} =
{W0, Isi} (3.76) {1, 1} {W0, Is} -
(3.85) .
,
{W0, Isi} = {1, 0} {W0, Is} = opt{W0, Isi}, (3.76)
Isi (3.77) {1, 1},
, .

3.3.2. {0, 1}
{0, 1} I0 Wi0 ,
,
Wi = Wi 0 (1 I 0 I i ) . (3.86)
(3.86) {1, 1} {W0, Is}:
W0i = W0 (1 I s I di ) (3.87)
Is I0, W0 -
Wi0.
(3.86) (3.87) I
{Wi, Ii} {W0i, Idi}
Wi = Wi 0 (1 I 0 I i ) ;
(3.88)
Wi = W0 (1 I s I i ) .
W0i, (3.88)
Wi 0 = W0 I , (3.89)
I , I0 :
Ii I s
I = . (3.90)
Ii I 0
(3.89) W0 -
Wi0 I = 1. -
(3.90), :
d I d Ii I s
= =0. (3.91)
dI i dI i I i I 0
I Ii :
1 I Is 1 Ii I s
+ i (1) = 1 = 0,
Ii I 0 (Ii I 0 ) 2 I i I 0 I i I 0
(3.90)
I = 1. (3.92)
(3.92) (3.90)
I i I 0 = I/ i I s ,
I0, -
Is :
opt (I0) = Is. (3.93)
(3.92) (3.93) Wi0
W0 . {W0, Is} -
opt {Wi0, I0} (3.86) {0, 1} (3.87)
{1, 1}.
, {0, 1} I0 -
Wi0, , -
{1, 1} {W0, Is}.
,
.
{1, 0} {0, 1}
{1, 1}
.
{0, 0} {Wi0, Isi}.

3.3.3. {0, 0}
{0, 0} = {Wi0, Iis} Wi0
Iis
Wi = Wi 0 (1 I is I i ) (3.94)
{1, 1} {W0, Is}:
W0i = W0 (1 I s I di ) (3.95)
. Wi (3.94)
Ii (Wi, Wi0, Iis), Iis (Ii, Wi0,
Wi) Wi0 (Ii, Iis, Wi), .
{0, 0} {1, 1} Wi0 Iis -
(3.94) (3.95) {Wi, Ii} {W0i,
Idi} . Wi = Wi0
Wi = Wi 0 (1 I is I i ) ;
(3.96)
Wi = W0 (1 I s I i ) ,
Wi0:
Wi 0 = W0 I , (3.97)

Ii I s
I = . (3.98)
I i I is
(3.98) (3.90) -
I0, Iis:
I is = I i [1 W0 (1 I s I i ) / Wi 0 ] , (3.99)
(3.97) (3.98),
Wi 0 ( I i I is ) = W0 ( I i I s ) .
Ii = Idi (3.94) (3.95) :
I i = I is (1 Wi Wi 0 ) ;
(3.100)
I i = I s (1 Wi W0 )
Iis
I is = I s w , (3.101)

1 Wi Wi 0
w = . (3.102)
1 Wi W0
(3.102) (3.80) - -
W0,
1 Wi 0 = [1 I is (1 Wi W0 ) I s ] Wi , (3.103)
(3.101) (3.102) Wi0.
(3.99) (3.103) (3.97), (3.101) -
(3.98), (3.102).
(3.97) {0, 0},
(3.99) (3.94):
I
Wi = Wi 0 1 i [1 W0 (1 I s I i ) / Wi 0 ] .
Ii
: , Ii Wi0 -
{0, 0} {1, 1}:
Wi = W0 (1 I s I i ) . (3.104)
(3.104) (3.95) -
(3.97).
(3.103)
(3.100):
I i = I is {1 [1 I is (1 Wi W0 ) I s ]}
(3.100),
(3.101).
(3.97) (3.101) ,
{Wi0, Iis} {W0, Is} I = w = 1 . -
(3.98) (3.102) .
(3.98) :
d I d Ii I s
= = 0 . (3.105)
dI i dI i I i I is
(3.105) :
1 I I 1 Ii I s
i s 2 [1 Iis I i ] = 1 I I (1 I is Ii )
I i Iis ( I i I is ) Ii Iis i is
(3.98) ,
1 I (1 I is I i ) = 0 . (3.106)
(3.99), :
I is
= [I i (1 W0 Wi 0 ) + W0 I s Wi 0 ] = 1 W0 Wi 0 . (3.107)
I i I i
(3.107) (3.106),
1 I [1 (1 W0 Wi 0 )] = 0 ,
:
opt I = 1. (3.108)
(3.106) (3.107),
(3.98) :
opt I is = Is. (3.109)
(3.108) (3.109) (3.97) Wi0
W0 . {W0,
Is} {Wi0, Iis} (3.94) {0, 0}
(3.95) {1, 1}.
opt w (3.102) :

d w d 1 Wi Wi 0
= =0. (3.110)
dWi dWi 1 Wi W0
w , ,

1 1 Wi Wi 0 1`
(1 Wi 0 + Wi (1 Wi 0 ) Wi ) = 0 ,
1 Wi W0 1 Wi W0 W0
(3.102),
w W0 1 Wi 0 Wi (1 Wi 0 ) Wi = 0 . (3.111)
(3.103):
(1 Wi 0 )
= [1 I is (1 Wi W0 ) I s ] Wi = ( I is I sW0 1 Wi 0 ) Wi ,
Wi Wi
(3.112)
(3.111) :
w W0 1 Wi 0 Wi ( I is I sW0 1 Wi 0 ) Wi = 0 .
,
:
opt w = 1, (3.113)
(3.111) (3.112). -
(3.113) Wi0 W0, (3.102).
(3.113) (3.102) Iis
(3.101):
opt I is = I s , (3.114)
(3.94) {0, 0} (3.95)
{W0, Is} {1, 1}.
{0, 0} -
{1, 1}
.

3.3.4.
{1, 1} ,
W0 j Ij.
{1, 1}
W0 , I s , -
.

Ii, Ii + 1 W0i , W0i +1 .
-
{W0 , I s } -
.
W0 j I j
{W0 , I s } .
{1, 0} W0 j
I j - {W0 , I s } , -
.
I si Ii -
W0i W0 = 1 .
I si , -

, () () ,
, .
-
I si W0i I i .
{1, 0} {1, 1}
-
.
-

W0 j ( I sj ) .
ai
{W0 , I s } {1, 1}.
-

.


.
W0 j I j {1, 0} -
I sj I si -
ai i = 0, 1.
-
W(I) - , -
ai (Wi , I i ) i = 0, m 1 .
(,
) j- ( j = 1, n ) i- Wi , I i , ,
I si ( I i , Wi , ai ) .
I si I sj -
- .
- , -

.
W j I j {1, 0} -
I sj I si .



-

, .

.

-, -, - -
(, ) -
-
- -
, -
.
-
, .
,
. -
: ,
.
-
.
-
, -
.
-
, -
-
, , -
.
, -
-
.
.
. , -
.
.
- ,
.
, . -
, -
, : , -
.
-
-
, .
-
, : ,
.
: ,
. -

: , .

1. , .. / .. , .. , .. -.
. : , 1989. 456 .
2. / . . .. . . : . , 1987. 1600 .
3. , .. / .. . : - . .
. -, 1998. 158 .
4. , .. / .. . : - . .
. -, 2000. 120 .
5. , .. . - / .. . :
, 1997. 72 .
6. , .. / .. , .. . . : -
, 1989. 248 .
7. , .. / .. , .. . . : -
, 2000. 328 .
8. , .. / .. . : - . . . -, 2001. 160 .
9. , .. / .. , .. . : - . . . -,
1999. 72 .
10. , .. / .. , .. , .. . : -
. . . -, 2003. 80 .
11. , .. / .. , .. . : -
. . . -, 2005. 148 .
12. . 2316761 , . G 01 N 27/04. - /
.. . // , . 2008. 42.

1. ... 8
1.1. .. 8
1.2. .. 15
1.3. . 20
1.4. 24
1.5. ... 28
1.6. ... 32
1.7. - . 35
1.8. ... 41
1.9. - .. 44
.. 46

2. .. 47
2.1. ... 47
2.2. .. 54
2.3. 59
2.4. . 63
2.5. .. 69
2.6. .. 71
2.7. . 73
2.8. 79
2.9. - . 84
.. 86

3. .. 87
3.1. . 90
3.1.1. .. 92
3.1.2. {1, 1} . 95
3.1.3. - .. 96
3.1.4. 97
3.2. ... 99
3.2.1. . 100
3.2.2. .. 106
3.2.3. . 114
3.2.4. .. 119
3.3. 123
3.3.1. {1, 0} .. 123
3.3.2. {0, 1} .. 125
3.3.3. {0, 0} .. 127
3.3.4. .. 132
.. 134

. 135

. 137