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530.1(075.

8)
22.373
43

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() (. - ,
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..

. ., . .
43 . : , . - . : ,
2013.-290 .
ISBN 978-5-7417-0446-2

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530.1(075.8)
22.373

ISBN 978-5-7417-0446-2 .., 2013


K.M., 2013



-
( ), 2013

............................................................................................................................... 10
1. .......................................................................................................12
1.1. ............................................................................................................ 12
1.1.1. (12). 1.1.2. (12).
1.1.3. (12). 1.1.4. (12). 1.1.5. -
(12). 1.1.6. (13). 1.1.7. (13).
1.1.8. (14). .
1.2. ...............................................14
1.2.1. (14). 1.2.2. (15). 1.2.3 (15).
1.2.4. (15).
1.2.5.
(15). 1.2.6. (16).
1.3. ........................................................................................... 18
1.3.1. (18). 1.3.2. ,
(20).
1.4. ............................................ 21
1.4.1. (21). 1.4.2. (21).

2. ..........................................................23
2.1. ................................................................................... 23
2.1.1. (23). 2.1.2.
(23). 2.1.3. (24).
2.2. ...................................................................................... 24
2.2.1. (24).
2.2.2. (25).
2.3. ........................................................................................25
2.3.1. (25). 2.3.2. (25). 2.3.3.
(26).
2.4. ..............................................................................27
2.5. ........................................................................................27
2.6. ................................................................................................................ 28
2.7. ........................... 30
2.8. ............................................................................................ 31

3. ..................................... 32

3
3.1. ......................................................................................32
3.2. . .................................................33
3.3. ...................................................................................................................34
3.3.1. (34). 3.3.2.
(35). 3.3.3. (37). 3.3.4.
(38).

4. ..................................................................................................................39
4.1. .........................................................................................39
4.1.1. (39). 4.1.2. (39).
4.2. .................................................................................... 40
4.2.1. (40). 4.2.2. (40).
4.2.3. (41). 4.2.5.
(43). 4.2.4. (43).
4.3. ................................................................................ 45
4.3.1. (45).
4.3.2. (45).
4.4. ......................................................................................................46

5. ........................................................................... 48
5.1. ............................................................. 48
5.1.1. (47). 5.1.2.
(47).
5.2. ........................................49
5.3. ....................................50
5.4. ........................................................................................................51
5.5. ............... 52
5.6. ................................................................ 57
6. ..................................................................................... 59
6.1. ....................................................................................59
6.1.1. (59). 6.1.2.
(59). 6 ..
(60).
6.2. .................................... 61
6.2.1. (61). 6.2.2.
(61). 6.2.3. (62). 6.2.4.
(62). 6.2.5.
(63). 6.2.6.
(64). 6.2.7.
(65).
7. ...........................................................................67
7.1. ............67

4
7.2. .................................................................................................... 67
7.2.1. (67). 7.2.2.
(68). 7.2.3. (68). 7.2.4.
(69). 7.2.5. (72).

8.
............................................................................75
8.1. ...................75
8.2. .....................................................................................................76
8.2.1. (76). 8.2.2.
(76). 8.2.3. (77). 8.2.4.
(78). 8.2.5.
(79). 8.2.6. (80).
8.2.7. (80). 8.2.8.
(82). 8.2.9. (83). 8.2.10. :
(83).
9. ..................................................................... 87
9.1. ...............................................87
9.1.1. (87). 9.1.2. (88).
9.2. ...................................................................90
9.3. ............91
9.3.1. (91). 9.3.2.
(93). 9.3.3. (93).
9.3.4. (94). 9.3.5. -
(96).
9.4. ......................98
9.4.1. (98). 9.4.2. (98).
9.4.3. (100).
9.5. ..................102
9.6. ....................... 102
9.7. ( ).................................................... 103
9.7.1. (103). 9.7.2.
(105). 9.7.3. . (106).
9.8. ( )................................ 111
9.9. ...................................112
9.10. .......... 114
9.10.1. (114). 9.10.2.
(116).

10. ....118
10.1. ............................................................................ 118
" 10.1.1. (118). 10.1.2.
(118). 10.1.3. (119).

5
10.2. ......................................................120
10.2.1. (120). 10.2.2. (121).
10.3. ....................................................................................... 121
10.4. ..............................................123
10.5. ..................................................................124
10.6. ....................126
10.7. ........................................127
10.7.1. (127). 10.7.2. (127).
10.7.3. (128).
10.8. .................................................. 128
10.8.1. (128). 10.8.2. (129).
10.8.3. (131).
10.9. ...............................................................................132
10.9.1. (132). 10.9.2.
(134). 10.9.3. (135).
10.10. ............................................................................. 136
10.11. ......................................................................140
10.11.1. . (140).
10.11.2. (140). 10.11.3.
(143).
10.12. .................. 143
10.13. .....................................................................146
10.13.1. (146).
10.13.2. (147).
10.13.3. (149).
10.14. ................................................................................ 150
10.14.1. ^ (150).
10.14.2. (152). 10.14.3.
(153).
10.15. ............................................................. 156
10.15.1. (156). 10.15.2. (156).
10.15.3. (158). 10.15.4.
(159). 10.15.5.
(161). 10.15.6. (163). 10.15.7.
(164).
11. ....................................165
11.1. ......... 165
11.2. .................................................................................................... 168
11.3. ......................................... 168
11.4. ............................................. 169

6
11.4.1. , (169). 11.4.2.
(171).
11.5. ...................................... 172
11.6.
........................................................................................................................... 174
11.6.1.
(174). 11.6.2.
(176).
11.7. ................................................................................................... 178
11.7.1. (1748. 11.7.2.
(178). 11.7.3.
(179).

12. ..................................................... 182


12.1. . ..............................182
12.1.1. (182). 12.1.2. (182). 12.1.3.
(183).
12.2. ...........................................................184
12.3. ...................................................... 184
12.3.1. (184). 12.3.2.
(185). 12.3.3. (185).
12.4. .......................................................................................... 186
12.4.1. (186). 12.4.2.
(187).
12.4.3. (188). 12.4.4.
(188). 12.4.5. (189).
12.5. ................................................................................................................189
12.5.1. (189). 12.5.2.
(191).
12.6. ................................................ 191
12.7. .......................................................................................... 193
12.7.1. (193). 12.7.2.
(195). 12.7.3.
(197).
12.8. .........198
12.9. ................................................................................................................199
12.9.1. (199).
12.9.2. (196). 12.9.3.
(200).

13. ............................... 203


13.1. ......................................203

7
13.1.1. (203). 13.1.2. (204).
13.1.3. (205). 13.1.4. (206).
13.1.5. (207).
13.2. ............................................................................................................... 210
13.3. ........................................................................................... 211
13.3.1. (211). 13.3.2.
(213). (214).
13.4. .......................................................216
13.4.1. (216). 13.4.2.
(217). 1 3 .4 .3 .0 (218). 13.4.4.
( 221).

13.5. ...........................................................................................222
13.5.1. (222). 13.5.2.
(223). 13.5.3. (224).
13.6. ( )................................................................. 224
13.6.1. (224). 13.6.2.
(228). 13.6.3. (231).

14. ............................................................. 235


14.1. ................................................................235
14.1.1. (235). 14.1.2.
. (237).
14.2. ..........................................................239
14.3. ..............................................................................................................240
14.3.1. (240). 14.3.2.
(241).
14.4. .............................................. 242
14.4.1. (242). 14.4.2.
(243). 14.4.3. (244). 14.4.4.
(246). 14.4.4.
(248). 14.4.5. (250).
14.5. (jt-0 - ................................................................................................ 252
14.6. ......................................................... 255
14.6.1. (255). 14.6.2.
(-/)- (256). 14.6.3. (257).
14.6.4.
(257). 14.6.5. (260).
14.6.6. () (261).
14.7. ...................................................262
14.8. 4- - .................................................................... 262
14.8.1. (262). 14.8.2. (263).
14.8.3. 4- 4- (263). 14.8.4. 4- (265).
14.9. ........................................................................... 265

8
14.9.1. 4- (265). 14.9.2. 4- (266). 14.9.3.
(267).
14.10. ..................................................... 268
14.10.1. (268).
14.10.2. (269). 14.10.3.
(270). 14.10.4.
(270). 14.10.5.
- (271). 1 4 .1 0 .6 .0 (272).
14.10.7. (272).
14.11. . ......................273
14.12. ...................... 275
14.12.1. (275). 14.12.2.
(278).
14.12.3. (278). 14.12.4.
(280). 14.12.5. ( )
(283). 14.1.2.6. (284).

............................................................................. 288

............................................................................................................................... 289

9


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12
/.7.6. .
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(. 1.1.1 ):
|*| = |j| = |k| =
- :
(r)j = X, (r)j = , (r)k = z.
( jc, 9z)
() .
:
= .xi + j>j + zk,
, ,
= (, , Z).

. 1.1.1. {x,y,z} ()
{ , <, z } ()

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{, <, z} (. 1.1.1 ).

x = pcos<p, y = psir\(p,
z .
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: {, , <}9
. 1.1.2. -

x = rsm0cos(p, = rsin#sin#>, z = rco s0 .
1.1.7. .
-.

13
, -
= ( /),
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1.1.8. .
At -
(. 1.1.3):
= (/ + At) - ( /) . (1.1.1)
S / ,
(
1.2.1).

. 1.1.3. ,
. 1.1.2. L ,
{, 0, (} -

1.2.

7.2. /. . /
/,
(. 1.1.3):
( , . , ) - ( , ) ^ (1.2.1)
/ At

, At :
r(r + A /) - r ( /) dr /t . _
v = lim ------- - = . (1.2.2)
At
>o At dt
- .
v : v = i;t , i> = |v|,
, : || = 1.
S t\ t2

14
= J y(t)dt = vcp(/2 , (1.2.3)
'i
'2
5 = Ju (/)rf/. (1.2.4)

1.2.2. . Ov
-. ,
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1.2.3. .

civ _
~
< |
1.2.4.
.
:
, v = vt , = const. (1.2.6)

:
civ
= , = . (1.2.7)

. 1.2.1. 1.2.5. -
. - .
R. ,
- . ,
. 1.2.1,
1:

| (/)|= /?, | |= 2/? sin \ |= 2 y s in ^ ^ p ),

lim = , =1 1= =ov = , (1.2.8)


/-> / dt R
,.2
v= \\\= = coR, \ = ) ; 2 V"
= v = - = .
R
= - /
(.. ).

1
= . : = [, ].

15
7.2.6. .
(
) v = , || = 1,
dv dv dx
= = -- X + V --. (1 .2 .9 )
dt dt
dx/dt. :
|| = 1, , . 1.2.2,

|| = 2 |x |s in - ^ = 2 s i n - ^ . (1.2.10)

|| = <.
,
dx dep
( 1.2 . 11)
~dt dt
dx _L . -
x(t + 0
: n t t dx ,
:
*(/) dr
r/JII. ( 1.2. 12)
. 1.2.2. dt
,
R - v/R .
</
II (1.2.13)
dt
, (1 ..\ (
= ,,.
dr *1 (1.2.14)
= -
(// '
, ! . :
( ) (
) . :
' (1.2.15)
R , ih mm :
, \\\, #*w t /^
.
. * i
V (. 1.2.3) I \
, >

16
. 1.2.3. R
V
. , R
-

(..
), dt ds-V dt.
.
. ,
, ds = coR dt. .
ds, : co = V/R.
,
,
:
v = V + coR,
, .
:
v = y}(V + coR)1 = sjV2 + (coRf + 2 VaR cos cp,
(p V. co = V /R ,

v = ^2(1 + cos () = 2Fcos(?>/2). (1.2.16)
V = coR.
, v , /2.
:
vY = vcos((p/2) = V(\ + cos<0),
(1.2.17)
v = z>sin(#>/2) = Fsin cp.
.
, (. 1.2.4).
.
^ (. 1.2.4)
= R(l + cos cp) = 2R cos2(<cp/2 ). (1.2.18)

= +/?sin#?, (1.2.19)

~ 7 ]
- $ $ J
( ) ;? ! ^
.


xe =Rq>. (1.2.20)
,
= ,
:
. 1.2.4.
, . = -
, (1.2.18), (1.2.19),
V (1.2.20) ,
.
(<

):
= R((o + sm(p),
^ ( 1.2.21)
= /?(l + cos#?),
, (. 1.2.5).

. 1.2.5. ,

1.3.

1.3.1. .

. 2.
L (. 1.3.1).
,
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( ).
, /I,
( ),
, . 1.3.1. ,
.
L , . -

2 ,

18
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,

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.

. 1.3.1. ,
(. 1.3.1),
= / ( * ) (1.3.1) L
= f ( x )
(. 1.3.2).

dy
dx

.

-j{x )
dx.

ds = y]dx2 +dy2 = yjl + y '2d x . (1.3.2)



da,, :
d(y') d(tga) j da d 2y j _ 2 j
- dx = - dx = ----- = z-dx => d a = cos a d t.
dx dx cos2 a dx2

cos2 a = (l + tg2 a j = (l + / 2) ,

dx da:
*
da = - -dx.
1+ / 2
, ds
da:.
ds = R d a , (1.3.3)

19
3/2
ds _ K ! )
R= (1.3.4)
da "
.
= 2.
/ = 2 , = 2 , (1.3.4)
2
=- = 3 /2 *
(1.3.5)
R (l + 4<32* 2)
1.3.2. , .
= () , ..
:
* = *(/), y = y(t). (1.3.6)

, .
(1.3.6) ,
, -.dy _ ydt _
dx xdt
(1.3.7)
" ^ = ( ' ) 1 . [ 1 y x -y x
dx2 d x ' x d t\x 1
.
(1.3.4),
-
3/2
(1.3.8)
* (y2+ i 2)
.
v0. /
.

gt
x - - v 0cosat, y = v0 (1.3.9)

,
= v0 cos a, y = v0s \n a - gt;
(1.3.10)
x = 0, = g.
(1.3.8),

20
-gv cos
=- =- 3 /2
(1.3.11)
^ |^(;0 sin - gt )2 + cos2 a J
:

= . gvx (1.3.12)
.3
R
- , .

1.4.

1.4.1. .
dS (. 1.4.1). ,
, dS ,
( )
(. 1.4.1), |dS| = dS. dS -

. 1.4.1.
. 1.4.2.

1.4.2. .
(. 1.4.2). -
. dS ,
dt, :

v ceKT= i | . (1.4.1)

-
(/) (t + dt).
,
(/) r(t + dt ) :

dS |(/)| |(/ + dt )| sin(c/). (1.4.2)

21
dS = -- r (/) x r ( / + dt). ( i . !.:>)

r(t + dt) = r(t) + dr, iipiiiniMiiei

fiS = - r x r f r , (1.4.4)
2
:

V ceKT=^r ><v - . 4 .5)

( 1.4 .2 ) -
. d(p ,
(/) (t + dt) ,
dS = r2(t)dq>. - d(p/dt ,

= ^ 2. (1 .4 .6 )

,
Snap = absinO. h,

Snap = |a x b |. ,
( < -
, . 1.4.2), : NIM(, - 1>.

22
2.
,
, .. ,
: v .
14.

2.1.

2 ././. .
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, .
5,
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S.
2,1.2. .
:

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,
V = const (. 2.1.1). -
' S ' S R.

. 2.1.1. : S S'

t = 0 '
.
R = V (2.1.1)

23
-
S ( ) . , . 2.1.1,
S' ( O')
- '. = ' + R . (2.1.1)
= ' + V /. (2.1.2)
, 5'
X'. (2.1.2)
x = x' + Vt,
= \ z =z\ (2.1.3)
t = t'.
.
.
(2.1.3) / = /',
,
.
2.7.5. .
(2.1.2) :

= + V. (2.1.4)
dt dt
/ =
_dr f_ d T _ d T
~ d t' V dt ' dt

S S'. , (2.1.4)
:
v = v' + V, (2.1.5)
.
(2.1.3)
: *
( )
.

2.2.

2.2.7. .
3- -,
().
{,, z).
N , 3N (),
.

24

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2.2.2. .
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2.3.

2.3.1. . (
)
= \. (2.3.1)
v
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(2.3.1)
:
:
= const.
2.3.2. . :

: ,
.
, (2.3.2)
,
( ) .

25
2.3.3. . ,
, , , :

=- . (2-3.3)
dt
.
(2.3.3)
:
, ,
,
, .
.
(2.3.2) :

dp = dt. (2.3.4)

F dt dt.
(2.3.4) ,
.
F, *, i.e.
,

F
'3.5)
dt2 i
.
( , 1,
,
() F)(e), / = 1, 2,..., , -,
F , . L I, \ .

d 2r.
. = V!vi I I " : I .V3.6)
IF A=l
( eMenial, )
(2..3.6) ! eoOoll *|**| j* mihi.i n.ni.ix
, , I * . . i,
- |

26
2.4.

(..
):
= , + 2 + ... = m, v, +m 2v 2 + ... = const, (2.4.1)
.
.
(2.4.1)
, , , , ,
. ,
.

2.5.
,
, (2.4.1) ,
, + 2 = const. (2.5.1)
.
, ,
, + 2 = 0. (2.5.2)
, = Fl2 ,
, 2 = F2I ,
. (2.5.2)
F21= - F l2. (2.5.3)

, .
:
,
/ ,
.

:
,

.
,
, .

27
2.6.

, Fik, /, = 1,2,...,
F)(t , i = 1 , 2 , , /- :

(2 -6 >

.
dp/dt
:

= , (2.6.2)
/=1
,
( , ),

F" = (2 .6 .3 )
/=1

, ^ Fik . -
/\=I
Fik = -F^.. ,

1 4 ,-0 .
/,*=I
\:
F,2 + F21 + F13 + F3I + F23 + F32 = 0 ,
.
,

= F(,,). (..(>.4)
dt
, , , :
F f > = 0 , / = 1 ,2 ,..., , dp/dt = 0, .. (
). ,
2.4 .
,
, : F(?) = 0 .

1
, ,
, ().
. = const, , (2.6.5) ,

mivi = . (2.5.6)
at |-|
Vt. = dR c/dt .
, (2.5.6)
p = MVc. (2.6.7)
,
.
(2.6.7) (2.6.4)
dV
- = F(t'\ (2.6.8)
dt
, /
:

, ,
, ,
, .

, F(t>) = = 0 , -
/=I
: V. = const.
-
N
p(t) = ( tfc) ).
/=i
/ = 1,2,... -
S ( , -
). -

i f = --

*}) = ,- ,Re, R =V..


()=
/= |

29
, = MVC, () = 0.
, ,
( ), -.

2.7.
,
(. 2.7.1).
:

\ F 2 d^ F2I, (2.7.1)
dr

< = F,, d 2 _ F,,


dt2 \ dt1 mi
,

= f ,2 f 2i = -21- Fl2 (..7.2)


dt~ / | mi \m \ mi J
(,
\
F21 = - F l2).
1 1 1 /771/772
+ = - , // = - I .*.7.3)
/771 /772 m\+mi
//
, , - r 2 = r ecu.
- 1 2, imuy-
. 2.7.1. , -

= f I2. .7.4)
dt
>
/ . (2.7.4)

, , }
, .
(Rc) :
R = "?11 + "*22
+2
- = , - 2 1 2, m.ihiii
- 1 2

30
1 1\
. = +- r2 = R - - . (2.7.5)
77, + 2 -f 2
(/) (2.7.5)
.
(2.7.5),
, ,
.

2.8. .
, , : = ,
. ,
, mh
:
= ' 1. (2.8.1)
/

. ,
:
q| + 2 +... . (2.8.2)
, ,
S:
1 , = . 2 > , v , = Mv. (2.8.3)
/ i
v .
S\ V
S.
5 ' (2.8.2) :
Z p / = > Z wiv/ = A/v'. (2.8.4)
/ /
, S
vj = V; - V, v' = v - V . (2.8.5)
(2.8.4),
m ,.(v,.-V) = M (v-V ) => X X V/ - =M v-M V .
i i i
(2.8.3), V
(2.8.1).

31
3.


,
.
2^.
3.1.
. 3.1.1. , ,

( )

(. 3.1.1).

. V , .
( ,
),
v, vr.

dmr,
dM, d\.
+
dp = {M + dM){v + dv) + dmr\ r -M s. (3.1.1)
, (3.1.1)
dp = Mdv + \d M + \ rdmr. (3.1.2)
, - dM dmv
dM - -dm v.
:

(3.1.2)
dp = M d\ - udM. * (3.1.3)
, d p - ,

%jrd \ dM
= ----- . (3.1.4)

: u = const.

. , {dM < 0 ), -

32
v : u1\L v.
(3.1.4),
, dv dM
Mdv = -udM => = ------- ,
M
v = wIn + .
: ,
v = 0
= 0, C = wlnM 0. :

Mo
v = u In (3.1.4)

.
.. 10 1897 .

3.2. .
,
F (. 3.2.1).

(2.3.4)

EEC >
dp 2 ^
F
. 3.2.1. ,
+ , .
(3.1.3): F;

= Mctv-udM.
dp Fdt ,

dv dM
= ----- + F. (3.2.1)

.

..
1897 .
,

1904 .
(3.2.1) ,
. , dM /dt

33
. , dM jdt> 0 ,
,
, .
(3.2.1)

U = Ffl. (3.2.2)
dt
( )
, .
, (3.2.1), (
: v = const),
F, = -F .

3.3.
3 .3 .1 .

() ,
( ) v
(. 3.3.1). ,
0 ,
.

. 3.3.1.

,

. . dx dM
= ----- . (3.3.1)
dt dt
, . ,
u _L v, , (3.3.1) v,

34
dv rffl 2I
r = 0 => =0 v = const,
dt d t \2 J
. \ , (3.3.1)
d \ 1 v,
da
|c/v| = vda = V'
H i'
, (3.3.1)
d a dM
M V = - ---- . (3.3.2)
dt dt
- ,
.

. dM
d a - ---------- ,
v
, v - const,
:
w dM _ w jn f
- (3.3.3)
v A{ v [
,
, .. , .
3 .3 .2 .

v(). 90 ,
,
( ). .
/0.
: ju = -d M /d t = const,
.
,
(3.3.2):
da dM 0
M v = - ----- . (3.3.4)
dt dt

(3.3.3)
-
= (3.3.5)
v \

35
= 0 - jut. in

a(t) = In 1 - ML (3.3.6)
v ,

1 ( av)
= 1 - ----- .
Ml )J
= / 2
. 7ZV \
1 -
~~2u
.
: (.) (i; )
(. 3.3.2):
vx = i;cos[a(/)], vy = v sin [a (/)].
a(t) (3.3.6).

:
(=;/2) (tf/r/2)
= J z>sin adt = v J sin or . (3.3.7)
. 3.3.2. - (</=0) <"0)
da/dt
(3.3.4):
*d a _ 1 dM _
dt v dt v
(3.3.5)

= 0

da ( av)
= expl (3.3.8)
dt v MQ \
(3.3.7)
) ( * M0v2 u - v e x p (-K
-i v /llt)
= ------- - sin a e x p l------ \da = --------------- 2
jli { \ ) v +
:

36
( = /2 ) ( = / 2) ( = / / 2)

L= [ v d t = f i;cos a d t - v c o s a -------- .
J
(or=0) J
(er=0) J
(a = 0 ) du lac / dt
u i

(3.3.8)
r v 2 A/0 ( . M0v2 + -/2)
L = ------- - cos a exp I ------ \ d a - --------------- - -.
jli JQ J ju v +u

!{ 0 L V


*? -, , +
' c o s a d a = ------ = ,
'? - , \- ^ -
' sm a d a = - i .

3 ,3 .3 ,
: -
,
? , ,
,
, : = const.
, .
: ju = -d M /d t = const
. ,
,
,
:

{ = ycosry/,1 : = tfsin^y/, 1
v Y =i;sin<y/,J \ y = R (\-c o sco ty j
, = 0, = 0 / = 0.
, ,
R = /.

\ dM
= 0 = 0 ------ 1 , // = - .
. ) dt
, ,
. (3.3.2)
da 1 dM
- = = ---------------= const,
dt dt

37
1 dM cov <_ a w ^
--------- = ------- z=> M = Mn exp
M dt 0
:
c o -v jR .

= 0
uR ;
,
.
3.3.4.
.
:
,, d\ dM ^ /
= ----- + F. (3.3.9)
dt dt
, ,
: v = const,
:
F
U" dM /dt'
. 3.3.3. , F,
, = Mg,
,

- - - const => = M0e~kt.


dt 0
u = g/k.

. (3.3.9), F = Mg,
(. 3.3.3): *
sin adM = - Mgdt, Madt + cos adM = 0.
,
,

tga = => = arctgf ].

38
4.

4.1.
4 ././. . F
ds
(. 4.1.1):
dA = Fsds = Fdscosa = F ds. (4.1.1)

:

= ^ = F ^ = Fv. (4.1.2)
dt dt
1 2
. 4.1.1.
( 2) ( 2)
F
_ = jd A = j Fa's. (4.1.3) ds
) (

: 2 >1, : 21 = - 12,
ds.
4.1.2. .
F = dp/d t , (4.1.1) & :

dA = m ds = m vdt = m \d\.
dt dt
1 2,
:

An = \d A = ^ - ^ . (4.1.4)
(I) 1 1

=^ (4.1.5)

.
1 - 2 :
4 2 = 2- (4.1.6)

39
4.2.
4.2.1. .
:
1. ,
2. ,
3. .
2 -
,
(. 4.2,1):
(4.2.D

. 4.2.1.
.
,
1 2
, ( ),
:
= 0 => <f </s = 0, (4.2.2)
.

(F _L v), :
( 2) ( 2)

12 = J Fdr = j F \d t = 0. , -
0) 0)

Fj, = v x B .

,
, ,
. ,
: F v. dA = F \dt <^0.
4.2.2.
1. . ,
( ),

F = mg, (4.2.3)
g ( ).
,
g = const, ..
.

40
z,
g. = - g , g = const. ,
(jfp^pZ,) (x2, y 2, z 2).
Fds = mgds = mg:dz = mgdz ,

(2) ,
J J
Fds = (-m g)dz = mg(z, - z2).
/4,2 = (4.2.4)
(i)
, 1 >2 ,
(1) (2) .
2. . ,
,
, (. 4.2.2):

F = F (r )~ . (4.2.5)

. ds = dr,

Fds = F (r) .

,

2 = 2 =>
dr = dr.
Fds = F(r)dr.
. 4.2.2.
F, (2) r2
/4,2 = J Yds = J F(r)dr = (r2) - (^). (4.2.6)
( (I) n
-
) ,

, , .
4 .2 .3 . . .
,
(1) (),
:
/,=/4|0- (4-2.7)
U{) (
- ) ,
(1) .

41
1 >2
(U\) ( U2) .
(. 4.2.3)
1 > 2 > 0 >1, (4.2.8)

1 2, .
( 4 , = 0),

\2 + + )\ = 0 *
4)1 = 4
(4.2.7)
4 2 = U ,-U 2. (4.2.9)
,
. 4.2.3.
\2 .
U\ Ui

. ,


,
0 \ ,
. 4.2.4.
(. 4.2.4)

= > U\ ~ (
1 : 0 0 ' '
, : ()( + (() = 0.

U\ = = +( + ) = { + ) + = U\+
(() 1,
.
,
,-.2 = ^2 + At
= (/,.*, + (^ ) - (/,_ 4- )-><) = U [-U y
g ,
77777777777777?
(4.2.9).
. 4.2.5.
4.2.5,
: g = const .
.

42
1. (. 4.2.5). ,
, (4.2.3):
F = mg, g = const. z = 0
,

U(z) = | mgdr = J (-mg)dz = mgz. (4.2.10)
z z

2. .

^ GmM
F = ------ n, = . (4.2.11)

-, ( )
().

( = ), :
-/ ? GmM rdr GmM GmM
U(r) = J\Fdr = - * ---------=
f - JW dr = ----------- .
* (4.2.12)
/' r

rdr = rdr.
3. . .
,
:
F = *(//0), (4.2.13)
/ ,
. , / /0 = ,
= 0,
:
0 0 2
U(x) = $Fdx = f {-Kx)dx = . (4.2.14)
X X 2
4 .2 .4 . .
U() ,
F, . ,

:
dlA = dr - U(x, , z ) - U ( x + d x ,y + dy9z + dz) = -dU .

Fxdx + Fydy + Fzdz = -dlJ. (4.2.10)

43
. ,
(4.2.10) dy = dz = 0,

Fxdx = U(x , , z ) - U ( x + dx, , z).


Fx = - f - . (4.2.11)

, z,
:

F F (4.2.12)
1 dz
(4.2.11), (4.2.12)
grad ():

.dU ,.d U , dU
F = - grad U = - (4.2.13)
\ dz ,
1. (4.2.13)
,
U = mgz, z
, g = - gk
(. 4.2.5). (4.2.13)
F = -(i*0 + j-0 + k-wg) = m g.
.
2. U = kr7/ 2,
. ,
. (4.2.13) :

dU_ 1 , ( 2)
- ~ ( 2 + 2 + z 2) = - b ,
2
dU
- (x 2 + y 2+z2) = - ,
= - 2 2 ' 1
dU
Fz ~ U d- ^ 1 - - k (x2 + y 2 +z 2\ = -kz.
dz 2 dz 2 d z' ' >
, F = - / . - -
.
(4.2.13).

44
4.3.

4 .3 .1 . .
1 -> 2 ,
,
Al2=Ul - U 2. (4.3.1)
,

= 2- (4.3.2)
,
, + , = + 2. (4.3.3)

= +U (4.3.4)
(, , ) ().
(4.3.3),
:
, = 2, , = , + 1/,, E2 = K 2+U2. (4.3.5)
(
) .
4 .3 .2 . .
, ,
. 1 -> 2 ,
:

12 = ^ )+ 4 )- (4.3.6)

^() = /, _ / 2. (4 .3 .7 )

]2 = 2- 1 ,

An =Ut - U 1+ \) = -

(4.3.4),

2- { =,(2). (4.3.8)
,
. , At(2HCC) < 0.
: 2 <

45
4.4.

N mi9 i = h 2 , N.
S - ., v. = ;.
:

N :\ 2: (4.4.1)
/=| ^

5 ' V S
(. 4 .4 .1 ). /

I} = r / + R , V. = vJ + V ,

V = afR /df. v, (4 .4 .1 ),

N
_ + ( ,+ )
=
/ J V +-
V/=I
1 v =
/=| ^

= '+'+ .

N N . '2
P' = Z/V; '= ^ - -


S*

. 4.4.1. , <? : S S '

46
S' (). ' = 0

M V2
=' +

:


. ,
,

.

47
5 .

5.1.

5.7.7.
. ,

(. 5.1.1).

. ,
. ,
:
+ -+ b + 5,
/|(V|0 W|, V|
+ > b + ,
+ > ,
+-> 6,+62+...+| +2+...

,
,
( , )
,
:
+ + . % (5.1.1)
,
( )
, .
, :
+ > , (5.1.2)
.
5 .1 .2 .
:
, = ;

48
:
Z * /= 2

: , .

5.2.
(. 1.5.1).
:
v, +2\ 2 = w,v [ +m2v 2, (5.2.1)

| m2v22 . miVf , /5 2 2
22 2 2 1 ' '
v h v2 , a v(,
.
3- (5.2.1), (5.2.2)

{ R , (vL> vL> vL )}.


.
, (,
{*,;>}), (5.2.1), (5.2.2)
:

.
() , ..
:
]vx+m2v2 = w, v\ + m2v 2, (5.2.3)
m{o] x m2v2 W\V\2 t m2v2
(5.2.4)
2 2 2 2

i>l = - v l+ 2V,
(5.2.5)
v '2 = - v2+2Vc,

= mxvx +m2v2 =
+ 2
, = mxvx + m2v2, - +2.
1 - 2,
(5.2.5) :

49
v\ = v{, v\ = V,.
m]+m2 " w, + m2
.
1. : { = 2.
Vc =(>! + >2) / 2, (5.2.5)
v j= v 2, v2 =17,.
, .
2. .
2,
.
(5.2.5) 2 > :

Vc = v2;
v2 = v 2, v[ = - v { + 2v 2.
, : v2 = 0,

*>2=0, v\ =-V\.

5.3.
+ >
. 5.3.1. , = + 2.
V)0
() - .
: * \ / \ *
777, V, + 2\ 2 = / w V , ....

^20, V20
_ \ \ +m2v 2
. 5.3.1. -
.


/
(0 \2 + m2v 22 \ '2
1 MVL
= , + 2- = (5.3.1)
/ 2 2

50
2
ju = ,
, + 2
votii = v, - v 2 . (5.3.1)
,
.

: () = .

5.4.
- > +2 + ...,
, . :
<: + * , = 2 2 ,+ * 2. . (5.4.1)

% = () + ( > - (5.4.2)
, ,
(),
C = 2 X (* /)- (5.)

, 2 = ^ ( {)

.

Q = E % -E '= K 2- K x (5.4.4)
.
Q > 0 , (-
).
Q < 0, (-
).

.
(5.4.4) (Q < 0)
K ,= K ,- Q = K 2+\Q\. (5.4.5)
, ,
> 0.

, .

51


,
. , (5.4.5),
= | |- (5.4.6)
:
- >. .
, = ,

rrrvu = M V = . (5.4.7)
:
^ + , = {2) + .,. (5.4.8)
, = 2/2/ ., = 1/2 -
() (). (5.4.8)
*1 - * 2 = - " = -Q = e> 0. (5.4.9)
(5.4.7)

(5.4.10)
2 \
:

= (5.4.11)
2 -
, > .
, , (5.4.10),
:
1 L "tvj ] *>*
2 { MJ 2 { I ~

/ = - ------- ,
+
( ), a i;OTII = va . ,

= / / ^ / 2 .

5.5.
:
1 + 2 > 1 + 2.

52

:
| + 2 = 1 + 2 >

jL + j L = pL + j . ' (5-5)
2 , 2 2 , 2
,
. ,
2 : 2 = 0,
(5.5.1)
| " | "*>

pL = pL + pL ' (5-5-2)
2m, 2, 2 2
.
:
P i..+ P 2 t = P u + P2c = 0 , (5 .5 .3 )
2
\ Pic _ P\c Pic (5.5.4)
2m, 2 m, 2m, 2 m,
, , .
(5.5.3)
= - 2 [ = -P L = 0 . (5.5.5)
(5.5.4)
2 1 1 1 1
\ = +
2, 2 2 2, 2 .2 /

,
( ):
, => Pic =- (5-5.6)

:
= Vl V2,- = * (5-5.7)
,

(. 5.5.1):

. 5.5.1. .

,

53
(5.5.8)
] +2 , +.

Vi .

(5.5.9)

v[c. ,
v[ = v[t. - V ..
,
. 5.5.2.
<2 (. 5.5.2 ). Vc < vh,. ,
, v[
.

. 5.5.2. 1

w, >2 (. 5.5.2 ), Vc > vh..


^ -
: .
, ,
(. 5.5.3) , \ |
, v[ _L v[t.. . 5.5.3,

sin 6>max (5.5.10)

(5.5.8) (5.5.9).

54
. 5.5.3.

(wi > m i)

,
(5.5.10), (5.5.8)

v! = K cos0m x= v (5.5.11)
ml +m2
-
(0) ( 0). . 5.5.2 (),
v\ cos 0 = Vc + v]c cos 0C,
v[s\x\0 = vXcsin#c.
,

tg g = p- sin ^ .
Vc +vu. cos0c
, V\c (5.5.8) (5.5.9),

(5.5.12)
+ 2 cos 6
,


. ,
( 2 > ),
. 5.5.4.
=.
. Vc
, v'ic v"ic


.


.
, . 5.5.4,
v[c v"

55
v[ v" ,

. .
. ON
.
, . 5.5.4

v[ = Vc cos + v'w cos a ,


(5.5.12)
v2 = Vc cos - v\c cos a.

(py :

O N = Vcs \n 6 ~ v \c sin a => cos a = ^1 - ( Vc/v\v)2 sin2 .

(5.5.8) (5.5.9) Vc v[c = z;lt.,

vx = m\v\ COS04- - s in 2
/7 7 , 4 * 2

(5.5.13)
mxvx _ V
COS - sin2

,
, -,
=arcsin (w 2//77,), . (5.5.13)

w, - 2
WtSVm?|V =
cos /,.
/7 7 , 4 ,

( = 0) (5.5.13)

, , ,
,
,
(. 5.2).

56
5.6.

R\ R2 mx
2. , 2 , 1
v0 (. 5.6.1), , 1
.
2.7,
1 2, , ..
- = , - 2 . -
1 (,)
(2.7.5):

, = R
2---- .
-----
{ + 2

YYI
v, = V. + ------2 _ V) (5.6.1)
+2
v 1 2.

. 5.6.1. 1 2


, .
,


MV2 UV-
_|_ *^

2 2

(VJ = VC), ( ' = ),
:
/ - V - vn.
(5.6.2)
V /

57
,
. . 5.6.1 ,
v 0 v' , .
, (5.6.1)
v 0 :
,
z;.'cos0 = F - - -v0 cos 2 ^,
(5.6.3)
v\ sin = -i;0sin 2q>.

, 1
( v0)
( -).
Vc =m{vQl(m \+ m 2), ,
,
2sin 2
(5.6.4)
{ - 2 cos 2(
(5.5.12),
/?2 12
- - 2
6
( . 5.5.2 ).



.
. 5.6.2.
, 4
2<

(. 5.6.1).
. 5.6.2, ^
'
p = (Rt +T?2 )sin ^ => 0>= arcsin (5.6.5)
R l +R 2 J

,
:

- -2 = 2 arccos
\ R\ +Ru
(5.6.4) .

58
6.

6.1.
6 ././. .
(. 6.1.1).

v = coxr = (1? v - c o r sill#. (6.1.1)
= mv.
L = = v (6 .1 .2 )

(. 6.1.1).
L :
L = r x p , L = rps\ncp\ L_Lr, LJLp,
(p . L
,
.

. '

:
Lo = I > / r/ x v / (-1-3)
/
. 6.1.1.

. L0 = | vdV. (6.1.4)
L
,
,

.
6.1.2.
. ,
.
-
, ' '. -
' R, V,

59
, =*'/+R , V,. = v ,'+ V .
(6.1.3),
Lo = 2 > < / v - =

= Y , mirl v / + Z m/R v ! + Z mir! v + Z W/R v = (6.1.5)


/ / / /
= L + R ' + MR[. x V + MR x V.

p ' = l > , v,'


0 \

= /,-/

-
0 \
' . ' = , R^, = , V
.
L 0 = Lc + R , (6.1.6)
= MV ( ).
,

(
,
/ , ).
6,1,3,
.
-
(. 6.1.2).

,
1.4. dt
- . 6.1.2.
dS, V L
dS,

Vceia=dS/dt. (6.1.7)

.

60
(It - ,

rfS = ^ (/) (/ + dt).

, (/ + dt) = r(0 + vrf/. (/) (/) = 0,

dS = - r x \ d t .
2
, L = r x p = w r x v ,

v=i . (6.1.8)
2 2

6.2.
6.2. /. .
. -
. L = :
dr
*/(rxp) dp
= .
dt dt dt
dr/dt = \ p = mv ,
. ,
dp/dt = F. ,
( ):

= . (6.2.1)
dt
M = r x F
.
6.2.2. .
{F,}, {;}.
,
:
= , = r ,x F (.

, ]STF) = 0.

. ,
, - R, : = r /+ R .

61
= 2 > , XF; = ( < + R) XF, = r / x F, + R x 2 = 2 > / x F/ = M '
/ / / / /
6.2.5.
1.
, :
= 0 => L = const.
2.
, :
= 0 => Lx = const.

( ).
3. .
, -:
F(r) = F ( r ) v / => F || .
:
= rx F = F (r)rxv/r = 0.
dL/clt == , L = const.
.
) , ..
, . ,
L = v = const,
L.
, L,
.
)
. ,
. VceKT = L /2 , .
, , - t,

S = S0 + V ceicr/. % (6.2.2)
6.2.4. . ,
.
.
,
z (. 6.2.1).
4 = ( )- (6-2.3)

= 1]|+1 , = ||+ ,

62
_1_ ||
, z.
,
(6.2.3) r = R :
4 = ( ri x P i ) z = ( R x P i ) r = ^ h
( R , = sin ( (. 6.2.2).
. 6.2.1, R = rsin 0 , -
R.

. 6.2.1.

z (..
: R = const ).
u = coR, = - mcoR,

L. = mcoR2. (6.2.4)

. 6.2.2. . 6.2.3.

6.2.5. .
(6.2.1) z,

^ = . (6.2.5)
dt z
Mz .
, (. 6.2.3)
2 = , Fx = F s\r\(pF .
Fj. , ,
z, a (pF F R.
I R sin (. (6.2.6)
.
Mz =IFL.
, (6.2.4) (6.2.5),
,

mR 2 = , .= FJ. (6.2.7)
dt 2 1
6.2.6.
. ,
.
:
L = X > / x P/> M = 2 r , x F /.
/ /
, ,
, :
F ,= F r + I lV
k.k*i
dL./dt = ; xF),
:
cPL
= .
dt
,
. ,
Fjk = -F kr ,
, . ,
, .
= , X(F ^ + F + Fl3) + r2 X + F2I + F21) + r3 x (F ^ + F3I + F ,.) =
= (r, - r 2)x F l2+(r, -< 3)x F lj + (r2 - r 3)x F ,3 + M (') = M (,).
M*0 = r, x F,(<f) + r2 x Fj0 + r3 x Fj*0 . ,
(; - rk) Fik = 0
, .
.

64
,
.
6.2.7. . ,
, ,
.
(. 6.2,4). ,
.

L = r x p , = \. (6.2.8)
v .
(6.2.8) :
dL dr dp

= xp + rx .
dt dt dt
, dp/dt = F,
dL dr _ .
= x p + rx F. (6.2.9)
. 6.2.4. , - dt dt
v ( , dr/dt = vOTH -

), .
, v0,
\

" = v v Q. (6.2.10)
at




(6.2.9)


^ = ( v - v 0 )x p + M, (6.2.11)
dt
M = r x F . ,
, = || v,

= M - v 0 xp. (6.2.12)
dt
, : ,
(6.2.12) : dLj/dt = ,- - v 0 ;..
, (6.2.12),

=
//* M = Z r/xF<P = Z W <V,- (6.2.13)
/ / i
(6.2.12), (6.2.13*) . ,
p=:/wvc, m = Y Jmi,

65
vc .
,
: v c || v 0 , \ 0 = \0 vc = 0, (6.2.12)

dL
=,

.
.

Z, .. ,
.
,
Z':

= Mzi :;
dt
Z Z' .
, Z Zt.,
.

66
7.

7.1.
1687 . ,
, ,
3,

(7.1.1)

, . G

G = (6,673 0,001) 10-8 2/ 2 . (7.1.2)
,
( )
/,

. 7.1.1. __ GMm j ^\
F r2

-
(. 7.1.1).

, . ,
(1687 .).

7.2.
7.2.7. .
,
. ,
, (7.1.3).

gravitas

67
7.2.2. .
(7.1.3) .. F/
,
g = F / (7.2.1)
, .
.
,
:
GM, ,
(7.2.2)
- 1/ } >
( -, ,
. 7.2.1 ).

. 7.2J. ....
. ,
,

, ,
(),

( -
g(r) = -G ( A d V ' (7.2.3)
K |r - r f

( . 7.2.1 ). ,
dM , - ' dV\
dM = p(?'}dV'.
7.2.3. .
. ,
.

68
, dS
(. 7.2.2).
dS
/ = gdS = gdS cos <. (7.2.4)
S.
.
(..
).

(7.2.4) :
= gdS.
s
. 7.2.2. ,
dS
g,
.
.


, ,
= <j) goS = - 4 k GM. (7.2.5)

V , S\ /,
(7.2.5),
=J pdV, (7.2.6)

.
7.2.4.
1. .
R.
.
,
,
. ,
:

g(r) = * ( r ) - . (7.2.7)

S ,
(. 7.2.3).
-, g(r),

69
d = gdS = gdS.
(7.2.5)
= g(r) 4 2 = -AnGU{r), (7.2.8)
() , .
,
GM
, r< R ,
R2 R (7.2.9)
GM
J2 r> R.

, , ,

4
- , r< R ,
() = 3 ^ 3* (7.2.10)
4 7
= -/ 3> > ,

. 7,
g0 = - G M / r 2 . -
(7.2.9) , (7.2.7)
.

. 7.2.3. . 7.2.4.
.

,

2. .
R.

.
, -

70
(. 7.2.4).
,
dS _L g.
= gS = g 2nrh. ==-AnGM
, 2GM(r, h) 1
Sir) = --------- ---------- (7.2.11)
h
(, h) ,
. ,
,

< R,
A/(r, h) = < (7.2.12)
rh , > R.
,
2Gt
<R,
R R'
g(r) = < (7.2.13)
2G t
r> R .

,
= n R 2.
3. .
h
(. 7.2.5). ,


, ,
{z, 4* z}, . 7.2.5.

Z<
h/2 ^Si . 7.2.5.

.
*
i: ;'
,

. .
-
-ha t</s2 la S ^ ld S ^ a S

71
, , . , 0 < z < h/2
2gdS =-AnG p(2z dS).
, :

(7.2.14)

,
.
, , ..
.
7,2.5.
1. .
.
-
: dS || ( dS
). g = -G M rj 3,

,. ,0 GM 0
<7 = gdS = ----- c/S.

,
:
GM GM 2 '
= ----- S = ---- 4 = - 4 nGM.
2
2. .

dSj| dS - (. 7.2.6).

. 7.2.6.




dQ , ,
rfSji = dScos0 = r2dQ , ,

d<t>= - ~ d S n = - r 2dQ = -GMdQ, = - f GMdQ = -AnGM.


~ ~ (4*)
3. .
, ,
dQ.
(. 7.2.7). -

d = d] +d2.

. 7.2.7.

, ,
S~*I /
/, = gdS, = -, = GMdQ,
\
</2 = gdS2 = ~ ^ f d S 2 ,, = -GMdQ.
ri
, dS\ dS2
-, (. 7.2.7).
, ,
, dO = dO l +d<&2 = 0 .
,
.
4. ,
.
(. 7.2.8).
.
,
, d = d] +/ 2 +/3.
, 1, 2 3

73

: /, = - d 2 = +*/3.
,
, \dS\ = r2dCl, g = -G m / 2 ,
g^/S 2 . , ,
,


^ = /, + d<&2 + */3 = */| => = - | GMdQ = - 4 ttGM.
<4)
5. .

{mt}.
,
,
~ g GMj ^ . 7 2.8.
1 }
1
, - ,
/- .
. g
, :
o = < f g ^ = X <f g ,^ s = Z /
S S i
:
, . ,
, . ,
,
. , = -AnGMr
= (. :=-] nGM, = -AnGM, = /,..
/ / /

74
8.

8.1.

, ,
. ,
, ,
,
R : R.
, ,
.
,

( 8. 1. 1)
"
, ,
\ ^>. ,
.
, ,
:

_ mv1 GMm
= ----------------- == const, ( 8. 1.2)
2
L = m r x v = const.

6.2.2,
, ,

S = S0 + W , VceK
T
= L/2m. (8.1.3)

75
8.2.
8.2.1. .
.
1. ,
.
2. -
( ).
3.
,
:

, 2/ = const
.
1609
, 1618 .

( ) .
8.2.2. .

, :

_ mv GMm
~~ (8.2.2)
L = /wrxv.
.
(. 8.2.1):

v = v r + v x> vr =r, v= . (8.2.3)

. 8.2.1. ;

76
.....

L = \ , L = mrv1 = = const. (8.2.4)


<
=/ (8.2.5)
I In

mv2
-*( 2 - dr
2 \ [ m rV m f d r ^ | L2
= 2+ * 1 )= (8.2.6)
\d t j 2 \ d t ) 2mr2
I .ikiiM ,

GMm
= f - T ^ (*") ^ (^) (8.2.7)
2 2mr2
-
,| 1 . 8.2.2.

. 8.2.2.

()

8.2.3. . (8.2.7) (8.2.5) -


mr1 L2 GMm . L
= ------+ ------ : ". <= 1 (8.2.8)
2 2 ~ ~
= \/.

1 1}2 . L 2
= + --------- GMmu, <= . (8.2.9)
2 4 2
-{( ) , ,
- {). ,
L 2 ,,
. - ( =

11
du/dcp-u'
(8.2.9).
(8.2.9),

= {'2+2\ - GMmu.
2 '
8 2 10)
( . .

: = const, .
(8.2.10) < dE/d<p = 0,
:
d 2u GMm2
-+ w = (8.2. 11)
dcp2

GMm
= 0 + cos (, 0 =

, ,
(8.2.10):

IGMrr? 2.-
2 + 1+
L ) G2M 2m3

( ).
, :

* 1 [} I 2 EL2
------------- , = = -------- = ( 8.2. 12)
\ + cos 0 GMm 0 V mV
< 1 ,
() , . '
.
(8.2.12)
.
8.2.4. . }

, . 8.2.3:
< 0 ( 0 < < 1),
= 0 ( = 1),
> 0 ( > 1).

78
.
1. > 0
( > rmin) .
2. < 0
1 < ; .
3. = (^ )1 < 0 rmin
(. 8.2.2). .
0 < < 1 .
(8.2.12)

''min = 7 7 - > 'max = ' <8 -2 -13)


1+ \-

. 8.2.3. ;
.

(8.2.12) : / \
= 0.
, ~
(8.2.7). dU3{^ j d r = 0

L1 GMm (G M m \ / 0 . 1/1
= = \ - w ) <8-2-|4 >
GMm
= 0,
(8.2.12).
8.2.5. .

: drjdt = 0. (8.2.7) :

79
GMm GMm
-------- = E r~ + -------- r - = 0. (8.2.15)
2mrz 2mE

GMm t If GMm V L2
2E v l 2E ) 2mE
E > 0

GMm t GMm) 2 I F
''m in- 2 2E J
+lm E' (8.2.16)

: > rmin.
< 0 (8.2.14),

GMm ( GMm\ -
2 'Vl"2T j 2
(8.2.17)
GMm +j L
2 VI 2 ) 2
: rmin < < rmax. ,
rmin '
(8.2.13):

= = ]+
2 2n un /*m ax
=
'min V G2M zm 3 GMm
.
, .

.
&2.6. .
,
. (6.1.8)
VceKT = L /2 w = const.
2.7. .
.
, S.
. 8.2.4,

4-1 'min
_ 'max
(8.2.18)

80
. 8.2.4.

11 (8.2.15)

, GMm L2
~ + ------- --------- =

:

GMm J}
. +
'mm ^'m ax --------
,
= ---------
'm i n 'm a x ^ (8.2.19)

,
GMm
( 8 .2 .20)
2

,
: r,+ r 2 =const (. 8.2.4 ).
, , , ,
] -\-1 =2. ,
. 8.2.4 () PF\S, ,
,
'min
'max
= ~ 2
:

b = ^ja2 -(SF|)2 =,
8 2 21)
( . .

]-2
(8.2.19).

81
8.2.8. .
,

*^ _ L ( 8.2.22)
" 29
.
= nab .
2
= ------ .
L
b (8.2.21):
2nma L 4 2
L *
V -2
: = -G M m /la.
:

VGM
:

? L = i s K. (8.2.23)
2 42
.
,
. ,
,

mv2 GMm 2 GM
------= v = ------ , (8.2.24)
R R2 R
R .
v = 2k R /T, (8.2.24)
: R3/ T 2 = .
,
,
. ,
2.7

d 2r _ GMmx d 2r _ G(M + m )r
^ dt2 r2 r dt2 r2 r

QO
ju = M m/(M + m) .
,

(8.2.25)


, + .
(8.2.23)
-> + \
3 G(M +m)

8.2,9.
F

(8'2'26)
(>|)
.
:

R , = 5,98-1024 ,
R = 6380 , : v] = 7 ,9 /.
( v 2 ) ,
.
, : = 0,
(. 8.2.2).
.
= 0 = R :
g _ mv2 GMm _
~2 R~~ '

v2 = 11,2 /.
: ,
,
,
. 16,6 /.
8.2.10. : .
.

83
R0 .
.
, , .
: 1)
2) .
. , ,
, :

d 2r Gm2 m d 2r
ii
7 >u = => r-
N
I CN

r~ 2 dt2
.
:
1 .2 2 Gm 2 Gm
"
( = 0 / = 0).
.
= d r/dt ,

? yfrdr [Gm
l v Ro

- 0, :

1 Rq \fxdx
/=
4G/w | ]\ -

yfxdx _ %
2

(= 1 I S ,
4 Gm

. , x = sin20,

84
!2 /2 /2
| yfxdx _ j sin 9 2 sin 9 cos 9 d9
q yf L A, 0 cos 9
=2 j sin2 9d9 = J
0 0
( l - c o s 2 9 )d 9 = .

. .
, :
Gm 2Gm
-
1 ? dtz

.
.
2 = /?0.

2 4-2
2 Gm
2 G ,
2 ( ,
(8.2.25) -> + ).

V2Gm 2GmV
= J - ^ a3 = 2-J ^ 2 ) = -
2 \G m
.

t= L = l 1 .
2 4 V Gm
, , ,
. ,
(. 8.2.5) L = 0,

= 0, - \ .

. 8.2.5. ,
F2 F\ .

, , .
Ro *F\ F2 ,
.
F; F2

85

'min = 0 . ''max = >-

, / = 0
: r = 0, r = R,0 , .

.

86
9.

9.1.
9.1.1. .
(. 9.1.1).
<
As = RAcp.

o) = d(p/dt ,
:
v = coR.

. 9.1.1. .
;

dy ,
dcp. :
dt,
.
= d y /d t.

(. 9.1.1). , ,
/? = rsin # ,
v = cor sin#.

87
:
v = coxr.
,
dr = <.
,
.
,
( 1.2.5)
a = w x v = cox(coxr) = ()- yco2 - - a ? R.
() - 1 -2R
(. 9.1.1).
9.1.2. .
,
.
,
.
. (. 9.2.1).

. 9 .2 .1 . . 9 .2.2 .


-
(. 9.2.1)
p = R c + r,
Rc - , -
. ,

(.. )
(. 9.1.2).

88
,
.

dp = dRc + dr.
,
dr = c/cp .
d y/d t= , dR c / d t - Vc
,
v = Vc + .
,
. ,

.
' (. 9.2.3).
- '
. () (')
-
= b + '.

:
V = Vc 4- X ,

v = v r + ' '.
:
'
, ,
. = b + ':
v = Vc + ( + ') = Vc + b + ',
v = + '.
, .. - ',
:
Vc = Vc + coxb ,
= '.
,
,
.
,
Vc , .

89
9.2.
,
,
.
,
.
: v .

(. 9.2.1).
:

/
. 9.2.1.
.

.
.
:
v = V0 + .
V0 _1_,

V0 = co x b
( ).
b .

v = V0 = co x b + coxr = c o x r \
r' = b + r. b , b _1_ (
||
V0 = coxb). ,
: V0 _L b (. 9.2.2). V0 = bco,
- V q/ co. (. 9.2.2),
:

b ,
v = ' , .

90
, -
| , 0 \
. 9.2.3.

. 9.2.2. . 9.2.3.
Vo, b, ), '
V() =


R V0 (. 9.2.4).
dt V0dt.
, d(p
ds = Rd(p = V0dt
(. 9.2.4).

dt R
V0 _Lco,
,

. 9.2.4.
JVL = ^ =R '
V JR

.
V0 = co x b , , b ,
. 9.2.4, '
.

9.3.
9.3.1. .

.

91
. - ,
. (. 9.3.1).

: L = rx p . -
:
r = Ii l + r>

= +
:
L = = rj, || + +||, + 4 x P i-

.
, ,
. ,

L0 = .
, (. 9.3.2).

. 9.3.1. . 9.3.2.
- (
,
)

R = | |.

Lz = ( P i )z = rp sin a =emRv1 sin a ,


a r p . . 9.3.2,
, = w v , , -,

|Pi | = sin = mv sin .


vx = v sin
R , vx = coR
|, | = mv sin = mcoR.

92
Lz = mR2. ( 9.3. 1)
9.3.2. .
, . , ,
, :

=Z 4 = /< (9.3.2)
/ /

/ = Z w/ 4 - (9.3.3)

.
(9.3.3)

l - ^ R 2dm, (9.3.4)

/? dm .
9.3.3. .
.
1. / ( ,
) (. 9.3.3).
. .

dx. d m - ^ d x . (9.3.4)

= /

I = J 2dm = (9.3.5)
= 0

2. R ( ,
) (. 9.3.4).
,
,
I = f R 2dm = mR2. (9.3.6)

3. R ,
(. 9.3.5).

(, + dr)

nR1 nR 1 R2
> ,

93
/ = | r2dm = ~ y \ r2dr = mR2. (9.3.7)
r= o R 2

Z
x dx

0 / *

. 9.3.3.

Z Z

. 9.3.5.

Z MoMcniii

9.3.4. . m.i'im
.
(. 9.3.6).
- i :
1 = + z 2jdw, 1 = 2 + z 2^dm, I |( \ I v2^dm.
* > dm
. ipn p.inriu ma,
Ix +I y + l z = 2 \{x 1 + y- + z 2) . h 4 - / (9.3.8)
11141111,1

/ = J(x 2 + 2)^ (9.3.9)

.
, mu
.
1. ' ,
.

94

" i ii, , :
Ix = Iy = I2. (9.3.10)

, (9.3.9)

/ 0 = mR2.
11 (9.3.8),

Ix = Iy = I 2 = h 0 = l m R 2. (9.3.11)

2. R ,
.

. (, + dr)

dm = dV, V = 7rR3, dV = An r 2dr => dm = ^ - r 2dr.


V 3 R3
:

11, , (9.3.8):

3. R ( ,
, . 9.3.7).
z ,
. :

/ = J (x 2 -2 + z 2 ^jdm = 2 + 2jdm = / .
, z = 0. ,
(9.3.8) :

IX *" I IZ ~ ^ Z IX I 1Z

1 ~1 ,

Ix =I y = ^ m R 2. (9.3.12)

95
. 9.3.7. ,
. 9.3.8. //
R

4. R (. 9.3.8).
:
) ( z):

/ . = mR2,
2 10
) ,
:

1 = 1 { ^ +
5 J
9.3.5. -. zc
, z zc ,
I = Ic.+mR2. (9.3.13)

/ 1 z zc
, R , .
. *

. 9.3.9.
-. zc
,
zc

96
R - z zc.
(/-) - z zc
(. 9.3.9) Nv

R , = R C, - R . \

,
z:

/ = X m , ^ = X w/( Rc , / - R )2 =
/ /
= Z ^ ( R c. / - 2 r c., r + r 2).
/
, zc .

Z w/R r , / = 0 -
/
,

z0
z:
I = Ic + mR2, = 'jtrij.

,
, ,
.

,
(. 9.3.10).

. 9.3.10.
,

, /
. ,
-:

97
2
(9.3.14)


dy, , . 9.3.10.

12 b
(9.3.14) -.
,

(9.3.15)

9.4.
9.4.1. .
.
:

/ , /, ;
. z.
,

- .
dt
, ,
z. L = 1, :

dt
9.4.2. .

(. 9.4.1).
R
. , .

98

-, .. .
.
.
, :
1.

d 2z
m - = 2 T -m g ,
dtl
2.

1 = 2.
dt
, , ,
.
, . z
. , ,
,
6.2.5.

. 9.4.1.
///,
,

-


:
dz = -rdcp = -rcodt.
- .

dco
- m r - = 2 - mg.
dt1

,

99
( 2 \d (0
yl+ m r J - j- = mgr.

:
dca _ mgr
dt I + mr2 '

dco 1
- = ------- T g.
dt 1+ / / mr1
,
(.. ), / = mR2/ 2.

22
= =------ Jg-
R2 + 22

. 9.4.2. ,
1 dco I R2
= - = - = --------m g.
2 dt 2 2 R2+2r2
, ,
: r< zR 9
\2
g, a mg,

.. (//?)2 ,
.
, : = mg/2.
9.4.3. .
R
(. 9.4.2). , .
, .
wg, FTp
N.
. ,

mg sin .

00
:

ma = m g s \n a -F rp. (9.4.1)

I& = FR, (9.4.2)

(
).
(9.4.1), (9.4.2):
1(0
+ = mg sin . (9.4.3)
R

v = (oR => = coR. (9.4.4)


(9.4.3)
( /) g s in a
+ = mg sin => - (9.4.5)
\ " T+f/m R2
I = 2/2 ,
2
- g sin . (9.4.6)

,
/ = 2, a (l/? )g s iiw r
, , .
, .
,
.
(9.4.1):

_ . . mg sin a mg sin
/, (9.4.7)

, F ^
: FTp<Fr =kN = km geosa ,
.
^ mR2^
tg < 1+--- (9.4.8)

101
,

max =1 1+
-1 J.
.

9.5.
,
/,
L , , , ,
Vj = coRh Rj ,

_ m iVJ _ m ic 2Rj
/. 2 ./ 2
,
L = Ico:
z?
2 /'

9.6.
.
. -
Lc .
-
(,)
(R/)
(, 9.6.1)

. 9 .6 .1 . - /-
R/ = Rc+>/-

(Vc) (V/)
,
(v,):
V ,.= V c + v,..

102
Lo = Z w/R/xV/ = Z" 7<Rc xV; + Z w/1: xV<=
= R,- x Z - ,V ,.
\ i
+ Z w,/,<xVc + Z w'r/xv' = w R c xV c + L'.

.
, ^ , ,= 0 .

= L ' (.. )

. ,
L q R^ ^-> -t- L , = \/.

.

9.7. ( )

9.7. /. . ,
:

/
L = Z w<r'xv<-

v ;. =;.,

L = Z w/r/x(wxr/) = Z w- [Vw- (, )',]


/ /

a x (b x c ) = b (a c )-c (a b ). , L
.
:

2 ^ (*/ i z i )& ( Xi ^ x )x i J

Z mi(yt +z<2) Z ) )- Z (-w ,x ,z ,.)


.
jc > - b z -.

103
Lx = Z mi ( y l +z<2)
/
0)y + ft>v + - Z w ,
i
- Z w ,
/
2.

Ly = Z "/ .
i
Z w-(z<2 + x <2) * + - Z w i
/ /'

- Z w , "Z 1*11 o)y + Z w ,(x ,2 +y,2) (.

:
~ I ^ I* ^x z ^ z >

L y ^ 1yz ^2 *
L2 12 + 1Zy ( + 122z .


\
IX X I 1: ".V

f , = I 1 ' :
11

J z x 1 : / /

, ,
L = /.

*/ I Z ^ / t f + z <2 )
/
- Z w /
/
-Z mixizi
i

^ 1 I -Z * /w Z w/( z/2 + -Z * /M

I7- j
|
v
" Z mizixi
/' /
'im,(xf+yf)
i i
.
jc: =

Lx = 1-
, /**
, .. 7 ^ = 7 * . ,
Iyy= Iy9 Izz = 7Z
.

104

.
, ,
Iik = Ikj.

I xy I 5 ^ xz ~ I ZX > I y z ~ ^zy

, 6
: .
9.7.2. .
<9, ..
.
o = (o)x,a)y9a)z).

, ,

L = /co.


, ..

Lo = i 4 o -
, 10

Lq - L
.- /10 .

L = /,

1= = -^ (< 0 ,/ ).
v '

= / ,
. 10

/ 0 = ( ,/ ).

105
I^ "*1 :^:
10 = ( n ,/n ) = (;t, , . ) I ly y ^ y ly z ^ z

J =xn x + l zyn y - I :- n z

= I\ +1 + 122\ + 2Ixynxny + l l y - Y i y i + 2Izxnznx.

n , ^ ,
z (. 9.7.1),

= cos , = cos , = ^.
,

2 = 1, cos2 a + cos2 /? + c o s V = l.
/
10:
10 = / ^ cos! a + lyy cos2 + IZ2 cos2 ^ +
+ 21^ cos a cos p + 21y2 cos P cos + 21zx cos / cos a.

- ,
.
9.7.3. . .
= " / . 10 <9,
. ,
10,
'x x p l + l y y p 2y + ! z:P z
2+ 2 IxyP xP y + ^ y z P y P z + 21 zxPzPx * 1
- , , ^
.
,
z

, .
, z,
(x2, y 2, z 2).
,
,
(, yz9zx). , , ,

106
z (. 9.7.2), {\ ', z'}

= c o s <- sin#?,
= * 'sin ^ + y c o s (,
Z =Z.

( . 2 2 \
cos sin ( sin ( + cos q>
+ /
-2

+ 2x'y'sm2(p\ + ^ = 1.
~ )
, *
'\ . 9.7.2,
{*', \ z'}.

. 9.7.2. ()

,
(.. )

2 + 2 + a2Zz2 + 2^, + 2ayzyz + 2aa zx = 1

^ '^ "^'' z'z^ ~

.
( ajk) ,

*7' '' ~~^z'x ~~

107
: -

.
, (,
{*, , zj,

(1 0 0 "
XX

/ = 0 0

0
, 0

I XX *1 "** I z z P z " 1


, 122
.
,
:
I XX ~ I X > I ~ ^ 1 ZZ ^ Iz *

,

- ,
, ..
= ||. 2 = 2/ / 0 ,

/ = 1 / | |2 -
,

I0 = f x cos2 +1 cos2 + Iz cos2 .


,
.
, ,
1 =1 = 1.
10 = / (cos2 + cos2 + 12 cos2 ,
.. ,
.

108

(Ix = Iy = 12 = / | ), :

I0 = I\ (cos2 a + cos2 / ? + c o s V ) = /i,


.
, ,
.
, I)

, 2) .
, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
, -
.
.
,
, *:
= icy,
i .
S

0 o' ( /.
= 0 0 0 = 0
h
) ,0 0 , ,0, V 0 ,
, . (
,
: L .
,
,
L = i Ixcox + \ I vco + k I z CQ.

,
L .
/ | , / 2, / 3 .

:
/| = / 2 = / 3 ,
/, = / 2 / 3 ,

109
/, * / 2 / 3 ,
/1 = / 2, / 3 =: 0 .
,

, (. 9.7.3).
.
(. 9.7.4).

, .
.

12 12 '

. 9.7.3. . 9.7.4.
, , ,
,
: /

,
, , z , ,

b . 7
cos = , cos = , cos , d = \Ja +b + ,
d H d r d
d .

I0 = Ix cos2 + Iy cos2 + / , cos2 =

_ 22 +2 2 + 2 2
6 2 +2 + 2

9.8. ( )

mV;
* ..=
, Vc ,
. .

. v, /- ,

(9.8.1)
/
V/
V; = X ; . (9.8.2)
(9.8.1)

=I f (**> )2- (9.8.3)

(coxr,) = a; sin~ ( - 60 r f 11- cos (-- ri -(co r,) .

= E y f " 2'/2 - ( Wl/ )2] = [W -(**/)/] = ^ WL>

L=X mi [W/2 (/),] =, (>/) =Z w<r /


/ / /
,

: (,/). (9.8.4)

, z ,

K = ( / Xa>; + Iyo 2y + Izcol). (9.8.5)

III

. ,

.
. ' ,
\\ < (. 9.8.1).

. 9.8.1. ,
( , )

{*,, 2, *
jc3 Z
.

, ==0cos <, oh = sirup, 3 = .

9.9.

(. 9.9.1).
, .
, , z . ,
z. 1 = 1 * / 2.
,
z.
,
L .

112-
: L = const,
L,
( )
.


. 9.9.1.
. 9.9.2.
-
L

:
1 = ( ,. 1 = iy ^ y ' L Z = I - (0Z-

* , L
{*, ). Ly = 0 , = 0 .
, { , } , ,
L.
( )
L, /\ .
z .
,
i ! -
, .
, ..
z L.

< x = L x l I x> > z= L z l I z-

,
Lx = L sin #, Lz =Lcos0.

1 . praecessio , .


(or - sin , . = cos .
I
AX
IA Z
L
L
z (. 9.9.2).
z. L
. . 9.9.2,

,.,
Q lip = L/I x .
:
^ p = L / / v.

9.10.

9.10.1. .
,
.

(. 9.10.1).
. *3. L = / 3, / 3
.

. 9.10.1. ,
F;
F. -
.
( )

114
dL
= a x F. (9.10.1)
dt
,
{a, F }.
L ,
F
L
(. 9.10.1 ). .
,
dLA -L .

dL
= ftx L .
dt
ft .
ft, , . 9.10.1 ()

\dL\ = 2Ll s i n J - LLd(p,

d(p/dt = ft
, \dL/dt\
dL
ftL sin#.
dt
, :
|| = |ax F | = a F sin 0 .
,
aF
ftZ,sin# = /7sin # ft = .
L
, ,
. 9.10.1 :
f t F. ,

1 = F. (9.10.2)
L
, , ,
(F = 0) : f t = 0.
.
, ,
( ). ,

115
M = Z r/ x ( / 8 ) = Z w/r< x g = w R c x g = Rc xw g,
/ \ i J
R c (
).
9.10.2. .
(. 9.. 10.2),
( ). ,

.
,
.
9.9 ,
. , ,
-:
= 1 +2.
1 ,
, .
9.9,
L :
= l//; ,

.
( . nutatio ).

,
L (
) (
) .
:
dL . 9.10.2.
= m g.
dt
L.
-
L
acn = t f c o s a .
L

116
icp = c o s a ( L x ) = f t np * L-


cos
^

,
. ,
( ) - : = a cos
. ,
, -
.
f t np
(. 9.10.2).
= Q np,Q liyr.
0 - < < 0 < + .
,

. 9.10.3. .
,
2
.
. ,
. 9.10.3.
.
|>
:
= L cos a, Lx = Ls\na.

cos a sin
2 /. 2 /; ~ +~ ~ ,

117
10.


.
, .

, ,
, .

10.1.
10.1.1, ,
, :
= acos(cot + (0). (10.1.1)
: x(t + T) = (/),
= 2/. (10.1.2)
( ),
v = cof2n .
v ==1/ .
(10.1.1) ,

<p(t) = at+<Po (10.1.3)
, ( = (0
t = 0 .
,2. .

{,}
(. 10.1.1). 11 > <, |0 | , < .
- -
,
( - (of + (pQ. (10.1.4)
t

118
x(t) = acos(cat + (p0\ y (/) = tfsin(6yM-#>0). (10.1.5)
,
.

, *(/) (/) //2.
10.1.3. .
x(t) = acos(cot + (p0)
x(t) = -aG)S\Y\((0t + ), x(t) = - C I O ) 2 cos (cot + (p0),

+ 2 = 0. (10.1.6)
.
, y(t) (10.1.5).
(10.1.6)
= acos(cat + (0) (10.1.7)
<0,
, ..
v = x / = 0. x(0) = jc0, (0) = ^0.
v(t) = x(t) = -cosm(cQt + ), (10.1.8)
t = 0
x0 =<7cos^0, v0 =-coas\n(p0. (10.1.9)

a = ^ x l +(v J c o )\ (.1.10)

tg<P0 = 0/(*<>)
, (10.1.6),
= 2n/co .
.
,
(/), v(t) = x(t), .
(10.1.7)
:
x = x0l costf + 02 sincot. (10.1.11)
*0i 02

0| = a cos (Pq, 02 =-as\n(pl);


,------
= ] ,
+ 02, tg <0 = - ,/ .
( 10',2 >

119
10.2.
10.2.1. .
,
(. 10.2.1).

/. /
. F = mg,
. (..
) Fs = -m g sin 6,
. ,

- -m g sin 0. (10.2.1)
s
s = l0, a = d 2s j dt2,
cftejdt2 = -2 sin 0, (10.2.2)
= yfgJJ.

. 10.2.1. . 10.2.2.


0 = 0.
sin 0 * 0 .

d 2e /d t2 + 2 = 0. (10.2.3)
,
.
:
2
= 2 (10.2.4)

120
10.2.2. .
(. 10.2.2), ,
. ,
, F = /(//0), /
, , /
.
, .. = 1-10,
- F

^ - 4 + )2 = 0, (10.2.5)
dr
( = yjfc/m.

( 10.2.6)

10.3.
,
(. 10.3.1).

. ,
,

.

/ h 0 (.3.1)
dr
^ 1
. 10.3.1. - , . .
, ,
.
:

= X , & = miri J wRc


g= 8-

,
= -mga sin 0. (10.3.2)
( = 0,
d 20 /d t 2 + 1 sin 0 = 0, (10.3.3)

121
: - yjmga/IA.

= 27TyJlA/mga. (10.3.4)
,
^ = lu yjl/g j, :

/nP = / /" ^ . (10.3.5)


(10.3.4)
T =2 n p Q l. (10.3.6)

-
IA = Ic + m a \ (10.3.7)
:

/= + (.3.8)

' , /,
(. 10.3.1).
.
, ,
.
. (. 10.3.1) \

, . 10.3.1, qj-a' = /,


'=1 - =

- =
I,

,
, 1 /.
I ------ ------- - = + a = L
.
9 ( Ijm a )
, .
:

T =2 x J I j ^ =2 * f i j ^ =r .

122
10.4.
,
(/). ,
v = x. {, }
.

v v = .

| (/), (/'}, (
) . ,
{, } ,
.
-

= acos(cot +(0), = - acos\n(o)t + %). (10.4.1)

,
:

0 () (. 10.4.1). ,

.


.
( > 0 )

( ),

. 10.4.1 ( < 0 )
,
( ).

,
: = 0, = 0.
.

123
10.5.
, ,
.
Fip = - /? v , (10.5.1)
.
( ),
. , ,
R , F = -6nrjR \ (
13.4.4).
. -

= - - . (10.5.2)
:

(N
(10.5.3)
II
II


(10.5.2)
+ 2 + >1 = 0. (10.5.4)
.
,
.
(10.5.4)
*(/) = e~y,u{t).
(10.5.4)
u(t ) :
ii+(co2- y 2)u = 0. (10.5.5)
.
1. : < 0. ,

O) = jc 0 l - y 2, (10.5.6)
= acos(cQt + (pQ).
(10.5.4):
= ae~yt cos {cot + %). (10.5.7)
(fa .
2. : >

= ^ 2 -*>> (.5.8)
= 011 + 02~. :

124
* = ~' (,' +1~ ). (10.5.9)
j c 0 i x q 2 .
3. : = 0. ,
(10.5.4)
X = (0| +x02t)e-yl.
(10.5.7) , ..

A(t) = ac~r\ (10.5.10)



=\/, (10.5.11)
. (10.5.6)
.
. 10.5.1 ^/) .
. 10.5.2
( <0). ,
= 0, = 0,
. .

. 10.5.1. . 10.5.2.

. 10.5.3. . 10.5.4.
(
)

125
: >0,
, ,
(-) . <
, (10.5.9),
. *(/) . 10.5.3,
. 10.5.4.
* = 0, = 0) 1
).

10.6. <
. -

:
2 "

= + (10.6.1)

(10.5 3),
:
= - ( . + < ,; . ) . (10.6.2)

dE/dt = (? + >) = ( + (tfix).


* = -2 1 (10.5.4),

dE/dt = -2 2. (10.6.3)

, { = 0 ),
. ( > 0) : dE/dt 0.
: = 0.
: = co,st* , -
+ = 0 = A cos (co0t -q>Q),
0 = yfic/m , (10.6.1) :

1
=
1+ =^mcolA1 = const.
,
.

10.7.
10.7.1. .
, (. 10.7.1).
,

,

8 = In , (10.7.1)
2
\ *2 x(t)
(. 10.7.1). (10.5.6) , -
,
:
*,7+1 ~ - = 2/.
*,7+1 _ '4(^+1) _ -



:
. 10.7.1.
. 8 = = - = = = = . (10.7.2)
-
, 8 < 0.
( > 0) , (10.7.1) .
10.7.2. .
,
Q = co/2y. (10.7.3)

Q = /2 = /, = -,
, ,
, .

S = yT = iTtyjoL, (10.7.3) :
Q = k /8.

127
, Q,
.
10.7.3. .
1 . (10.6.1)
, .. 2 . ,
- W(t) ,
W(t + ) = e~2yTW(t).

W = (V(t) - W ( t + T) = { \ - e lyT ) (/)

: 2 <1, AW = 2yT-W(t).

W _ \ _ \ _ '
AW " 2 2 2 ~ 2

W
Q = 2tt . (10.7.4)
AW
Q.
.

10.8.

. /
,
, .
10.8.L .
{*, ) (. 10.S.1).

(9).
1>,, |()..1. -
2 + 1 (1 0 3 1) ;,|
* Vf/v
-
:
x = R ez, = lmz. (10.8.2)
, \

N = ^ 2+ / . (10.8.3)
, z :

128
= arctg (./) s arg z, (10.8.4)
z. :
x = |z|co s^ , = |jz|sin ^9;
(10.8.5)
z = |z |(c o s^ + /s in 0>).
z (10.8.1). z
(10.8.5) .

|cos^ + /sin#?| = ^/cos2 #>+ sin 2 ip = 1 .
z, = , + /, z 2 =2 +iy2

Z, + Z2 = (:, + * 2 ) + / ( , +2), ( 1 0 . 8 .6 )

z,z 2 =(2 -\) + *\2 +\)- (10.8.66)


, , (10.8.66)
/ 2 = (0 + 0(0 + /) = - 1,
/.
(10.8.66) ,
(10.8.5),
z\z2 = Iz i |Iz 2|[cos(!,i +<p2) + isH<P\ +<)\;
11 (10.8.7)
|z,z2| = |z,||z2|, arg(Z|Z2) = argz, + argz2.
, , (1707 .),
> 1 :
z n = (c o s ( + / sin (\ |z |. ( 10 .8 .8 )
1 0 .8 ,2 . .
:
z = \ z \ e i<p. (10.8.9)
, , ,
:
cos 40 + /sin 40 = el(p. ( 10 .8 . 10 )
(10.8.9) (10.8.8)
:
z,z 2 = |z ,|e *2 2 = r i z7
)(<\+() ( 10.8 . 11)
(10.8.8).
.

129
d 2x /d t2 =-2. ( 10 .8 . 1 2 )

= , c o s cot + C2 sinytf. (10.8.13)
, :
dx/dt = ax, (10.8.14)

d2x / dt2 = 2. (10.8.15)

= 3' +4~/. (10.8.16)


. (10.8.12)
(10.8.15) , a = ico.
.
: = \, : = 0 / = 0.
(10.8.13) = cos cot. , (10.8.16)
,

= ^ ( + - ' ) = ^ ( + ~ ).

cos cot = ^ (' + ). (10.8.17)

(0) = 0, :(0) = 1,

sin a t = j ' ( - ). ( 10 . 8 . 18 )

:
= cos cot + / sin (10.8.19)
,
, . (10.8.17)
= ia.
eat + e~at
cos iat = ch a t = ----- ------ . ( 10 .8 .20 )

, (10.8.18) c o - ia
:
al -at

sin iat = ish a t = i ------------ ( 10.8 .21 )
2

130
,
. ,

=\ + + 2+ 3+...= , ( 10 .8 .2 2 )
2! 3! & * !
1 1 ^2+1
sin : = :-----:3 + 5 - . . . = ( - 1 )* --------, (10.8.23)
3! 5! (2k + 1)!

cosjc = l - - x 2 + - 4 - . . . = ( - 1)* (10.8.24)


2! 4! (2)\
(10.8.22) ,
/2" = ( - 1)", i2n+' = ( -!) " /,

eix = \ + i x - x 2 - - i x 3+... (10.8.25)


2! 3!
,
, .
(10.8.23) (10.8.24)
:
, = c o s x + /sin x. (10.8.26)
10.8.3. .


+ 2 + coq = 0. (10.8.27)
z(/),
:
z + 2 yz + col2 = 0 - (10.8.28)
*(/) x(t) = Rez(/)>
(10.8.28)
_ 7Q/
z = z0e .
(10.8.28)
( - 2 + 2 i)Cl + >1) z0eiO1 = ,
Q:

Q 2 -2ijQ .-col =0 => Q v 2 = -iy y j ^ l - y 2. (10.8.29)


(10.8.28):
z = z 01e/n,/ + z02e^ J . (10.8.30)

131
, (10.8.29)
( <0) ( >0) :

z = e~r (z0lem +z02e~m ), = ^ ^ - 2 y < w 0>


' .---------- (.8.31)
z = e r'[ z 0leri +z02e r'J, = J y 2 -a )2 > .

:
= e~yt R e [z 01 (cos cot + i sin cot) + z 02 (cos cot - / sin cot)] =
= e~yt R e[(z0, + z 02)cos*y/ + /(z0, - z 02)sinatf]=
= e~yt ( jc0, coscot + jc02 sin cot),

*01 = R e ( z 01 + r 02) *02 = - Im (^01 ^02 )*


x = R ez
(10.8.31) zi z0
= ~'( 01>+02~'} , 0| = R e z 0,, 02 = R e z 02.

10.9.
10.9.1. .
(. 10.9.1):
F - F0 cos fit. (10.9.1)
, :
= - - fix + F0 c o s Q/. (10.9.2)

>1=/, 2y = Plm, f 0 = Falm, (10.9.3)
(10.9.1)
+2+< = f 0cosClt. (10.9.4)*


^ \\\\\\\\\\\\

z - x - Viy. (10.9.5)
, / q CosQ/
. 10.9.1. 1

:
f0(cos Qt + i sin Q t) = f 0elJQt (10.9.6)
, (10.9.4)
z + 2yz + colz = f 0eint (10.9.7)

132
|| ,
(10.9.4).
(10.9.7)
(zv) (z^) :

z (0 = z , ( 0 + z / (0
( <> self , / forced , -
//). z v(/) Zf(t)

zs + 2yzs + (OqZs = 0 ,
(10.9.8)
z / + 2yzf +(o'-zr = f 0eini.
10.8.3
(<0)

Z, (0 = 0~' cos (cot + <), = Jafi - 2. (10.9.9)


( * 0 ),
: zv( / ) > 0,
.
z f {t) ,
(/ 0) 0, . ,
.
z,(l) = z0efa'. (10.9.10)
11 (10.9.8)
( o ^ - C r + l i ^ z ^ ' = / 0\

______ (10.9.1 I)
z =
\ - Q 2 + 2 iyl
.
(0 (10.9.8)
: Xj = R ezy.

] - ? + 2i)l = Re~i<Po . (10.9.12)


R =^ c o l - t f ) \ A y 'C l \
2jQ. (10.9.13)
tg%
Q 2 - col

133
z , =
,int-i<pQ
J R
Xj = Rezy :

/ (/) = A c o s(n / + <0), = :....... (10.9.14)


/ ( ^ - 2)2 +422
10.9.2. . . 10.9.2
Q .
,

. , Q/w,
, .

. 10.9.2. . 10.9.3.


, < < < > Y\ = 0. , < 2 < , < 4
rt >eoJsl2

, = 0 ,
: = *01

=. / . (10.9. i 5)
" Q '|
* 0, (10.9.14),
dAjdco - 0:
,= > - 2 2 (.9.16)
>0/12 ,
Q > 0 .

134
(10.9.13), (10.9.14), xf (t)
. . 10.9.3 -
<0 Q. , <0 < 0 ,
I . .
10.9.3. . : <0.
11
(. 1 0.9.4). (10.9.16) {).
Q 0

(10.9.17)

> 0

(10.9.18)

' )
f = f {) = const, = 0, = 0 ,
(10.9.4).
/ . (1.9.17), ( 10.9.18 )
/
(10.9.19)
2

Q .
,
Q ,
: 1 - (JAU.


.
AD = Q 2 - Q , , Q] Q 2
,
. 10.9.4.
\/2 :
A0(co) = Anm/ j 2 .
. =0,
(10.9.17)
/ ... 1 / t

^(20 - 2)2+422

135

(* - Q 2)2 + 4 / 2Q 2 = %y2col

=> ( - q2 f = V (2>1 - q 2 )* 42
,
0 . ,

Q 2 - ] 20 => Q 2 = 2 ^1.

= ^ ^ = ><>+;
, l/>/2
2 = 2 - 2 = 2 .
,
:
An = c o j Q .
,
, .

10.10.

.
* 10,10,1 ,,
_ ,
,
. ,
(. 10.10.1).

, . / ,
\ 2 , . ,
(0, = 02 = 0),
.

:
\\ = - & + ( 2 - \ , ),
2 2 = - m 2g 6 2 - ( 2 - ,).

136

#, sin # , = :,/ / , 2 s i n #2 = 2/ / ,

,, = ( , - , ), ( 10 . 10 . 1 )

Ifl
22 + - 2 = - ( 2 - ). ( 10 . 10 .2 )

:
mg
= - 9 (10.10.3)


. , +^->
= ------ ^--, = +2. (10.10.4)

(1 0 . 10.3)
* , = cos(<V + $?,,), 0 = yfg/l. (10.10.5)
, ,
.
(10.10.1), (10.10.2) :

X, + 7 *, = (2 ,),
/ ]
.. g /
* 2 + *2 = ------ (*2 *1 )'
/ 2

= 2- ( 10 . 10 .6 )

.. g ,2
+ , = , = (10.10.7)
1 / ] +2

2 = /ju, Q 2 = ] -her2. ( 10 . 10 .8 )
(10.10.7) + 12 = 0
= cos (Qt + #?,). (10.10.9)

:

137
m,
*. = x , - -
/7 7 , , + m2x2 = (w, + m2)xc, /77, + m 2

*2 *i = y /7 7 ,
x2 = xt. +
/7 7 , + m2
(10.10.5) (10.10.9),

, = A cos ()0( + (0) ----- cos(Q/ + //?,),


/7 7 , + / 7 7 2
( 10. 10. 10)
., = A cos(/0/ + #?0) + cos(Q/ + //>,).
/7 7 , + /7 7 2

,
.
( )
.
: /77, =2 =, // = /77/ 2 .
:
, (0 ) = 0 , 2 ( 0 ) = ,
( 10. 10. 11)
,( 0 ) = 0 , ,( 0 ) = 0 .
, (
)
.
. (10.10.1 1 ) (10.10.10)
, , < /:

A cos ({) - cos //?, = 0 , Acos(p0 +-Bcos(p, = //,

- 0sin <0 + . sin = 0, - {) sin <0 - sin = 0.


2 % 2

( = (\ - 0, A ~ a j 2, = //.
(10.10.10)

, = - (c o s z y 0/ - c o s Q / ) ,
2 ( 10. 10. 12)
2 = (cos/y0/ + cosQ /).

138
cq= (Q. + cOq)I 2 ,
= Q -co{);
Q = co+ Aco/2, co0 = ca-Acojl.
(10.10.12)
. = tfsin(<y/)sin(Aty/)>
1 (10.10.13)
2 = a cos(cot)cos(Aco t).
: ^.
:,(/) :2(/) . 10.10.2. *,(/) x2(t)
, /2. ,
.
.
sin&>/,
A(t) = as\w(Aco t)
.
{) = 2//,
^ 2
7\ = ------- = ,
(/2
(. 10 . 10 .2 ).

.10.10.2. ' i m i '


( )

I 14
10.11.
10.11.1. . .

, .
(. 10.11.2).
, ,
(..
), ,
(. 10.11.2).
/ ( ) /- /? ( ).

()
,
(. 10 . 1 1 .2 ).
10.11.2. .
. ,
,
(- />///
) ,
.
,

.

/- . 10.11.2. ,
( . 10.11.3
) ,
:

140
ngl0(\ - cos %) = v\ => v] = 2gl0(1 - cos %). (10.11.1)
) ,
/|.
:

mv0l0 = mi;,/, => = v j ( 10 . 1 1 .2 )


l\
( , , ,
)..
,
:

/w g/,((l-cos^ ,) = -^/m;,2. (10.11.3)

/0
, ! .
<
(1 0.11.1) (10.11.3). (10.11.2) (10.11.3),

? / , ( ! - COS $!>,) =
1 / vl
2 I, g
vl (10.111.11),
<\\
/,3(1 - COS) () = Iq(1 - cos <0). (10.11.4)
. ,
,
:
/,3( l - c o s ^ +1) = //03( l - c o s ^ J , = 0 ,1 ,2 ,... (10.1 1.5)

.
(10.11.5).
! / 3(l-c o s # /) /,3(1-cos#/) (. 10.11.4).

/0. : 1 I.
/2,
<]9 2 II.
I III
(10.11..5). .
, . 10.11.4
, 1, 2, 3, 4 ,...

141
, .
( ),
:
rnvl
= - j L = mgl0(l-cos<pn).
(10.11.5), :

+1 =mgl0(l-cos<p+,) = mgl0 V
1
111
V
(1-COS !>) = E, n = 0 , 1, 2 ,.
v \t\ J

En =k"E0, * = (///, ) \ n = 0 ,1 ,2 ,... ( 10 . 1 1 .6 )

. 10.11.4. /,}(!-cos#*) /,*(1-cos#?), / >/,.


(10.11.5)

(|^,|<$:1)
: /? = /0 - / , /0.
(10.11.4)

(4> - )> *+, =/0>2 => %+, *11+ 12L?- => = (10.11.7)
\ ^ 0J

, n = YJ^ = Y ' ^

(10.11.7)
/ / 2 i ( 3h
<p(t) = (p0e , + ( 10. 11.8)

.
(10.11.6) :

142
E(t) = e2AlE0. ( 1 0 .1 1 . 9 )

10.11.3 .
.
. . , ,
, .. Fip = - 2 .
,

<p(t) = % e \ E{t) = E0e lr'.


,
,
:
(Pit) * <Peu -r)', E(t) = E0e2U-r)'.. (10.11.10)
, ( > )
.
(< ) .

10.12.
.
.

.

.
, .

. 10.12.1. *- . 10.12.2. -
, - ,

143

,
(. 10.12.1). ,
,
.
, ,
. 10 . 1 2 .2 .
,

. -
*),
(") = <*> + (1 0 .1 2 .1 )

. ,
.. ,

= (; ")-2. (10.12.2)
, .
( + 1)-
= {; )-2 + . (10.12.3)
,
.
,
) _ {) _ )
'+1
(10.12.3)
* /
() = ------- ------- . (10.12.4)
1 - (-2 ^ 7)
, 2 1,
f
(") = . * (10.12.5)
2

Q = coolly = / 9
/<>
(,,) = -^ - , = 2/------- . (10.12.6)
2
, 10.7.3.
, {)
. ,
,

144
. (10.12.3) .
\.
.
, = + ,

3 = 2~2 +
.. -
+, = ~2 +. (10.12.7)
(10.12.7)
{}, (10.12.4).
(10.12.7) \
. ,
, .
,
X = , Y = +| (. 10.12.3).

= , +1=. (10.12.8)
(10.12.7)
Y = e 2rTX + AE. (10.12.9)
{X , }.
(10.12.8) ( 10.12.9), , :

X = Y = ------- = ------- . (10.12.10)
1 - ( - 2 )

. 10.12.3. (10.12.7)

, (10.12.8) (10.12.9),
(10.12.7).

145
\. 2
(10.12.9) .
2 2 (10.12.8).
3,
(10.12.9). ,
, ( 10 . 12 .8 )
(10.12.9) .
,
,
(10.12.10) .
.
, ,
.

10.13.
10.13. L . 10.11
, .. ,

.
.
,
.
, .. ,
.
.
, ,
. ,
, .
.
- ,
.
,

(10.13.1)
dt

_ T_dA_
(10.13.2)
^ A dt
(10.13.2)

146
14 1 . ( 1 0 .1 3 . 3 )

,
(10.13.3), ,
. , , ,
. ,

:

(10.13.4)
I
/ .
10.13.2.
.
(. 10.2.2).

- 2 + * 2 (10.13.5)
~ ~ +~ '
, :
1 , 2 ^ [
14 = c l , - = 2;. /. ( 3.6)
() V
.
:
dF I
= ( + ) + 2. (.13.7)
dt 2

-\-- 0. ,

^ = (10.I3.X)
dt
= 2/2.

'V
AE = E(t + T )-E (t)= f Em - d t . ( 10 .13.9)

. , /
: | /tc\ c l / 7 \ ,
: \/\<\/ 2. ,
/ (3.9) :

147
(10.13.10)

, /
: || <$ .
(10.13.10) ,
,
,
: = cos 2 (coQt + %),
. ,
(10.13.10),

= - - . (10.13.11)
2

.

(io .i3 .i2 )


2
,

dE__ _
(10.13.13)
/ 2 '
,
I \[ = const. (10.13.14)
.
(10.13.6),
:

/ = = const, = const. (10.13.15)



.

.
L

. 10.13.2. ,
, \
,
)2 . , -

148
.
1\.
= mco2l 2j l .
/ = E/co-m col2 const.
:

= h\ -
10.13.3. .
()
v ,
(. 10.13.2). L .
,
,
.
,
.
, ,
V. .
ecu.
\V\-<- |<| (10.13.16)

v.

'
( * =f hi , ioiimioiiciiioi
i
V ' I ( III I /)

. * <;

Av = v " - v - 21'. (10.13. IS)

.


= J Vdt. (10.13.19)

, V :

149
T_dV_
1, (10.13.20)
V dt
(10.13.19)
AL = VT. (10.13.21)
V
T = 2L/v.

AL = 2V . (10.13.22)
V

(10.13.16) (10.13.18) \Av\<zv,


(10.13.22) |AL| c Z,. (10.13.18), (10.13.22)

v L. ; AL
dv dL, ,
\V/v\. , (10.13.18) (10.13.22),

=--. (10.13.23)
dL L

vL = const. (10.13.24)
,
vL
, ,
(10.13.16) (10.13.20). ,
2 2 .

10.14.
10.14. L .
( = 0).

d 2f)
I - - -mgas\x\6. (10.14.1)
dt 2
s in & :
+ = 09

150
0 = yjmga/IA .
. ,
(10.14.1):
0-\-] sin # = 0. (10.14.2)
,
: #,(/) 02{t)
(10.14.2), 0,(/) + 02(/)
. , k02( t\
.
,
.
.
,
dQ
dt = - j , (10.14.3)

0(0). ,
.
(10.14.2) 0: 00 + ]0sin 0 = 0,

+ ] (cos 0- cos ) = 0, (10.14.4)

0 ,
\0 0 = 0 . (10.14.4)

2 = 2 ] (cos - cos ) = - 2 ] [(1 - cos 0) - (1 - cos 0tn)] =


= -] [sin 2(6/2)-sin 2(6>/2)],

= 207 sin 2(#, / 2 ) - sin 2(<9/'2). (10.14.5)


0 < , >0,
. (10.14.3),
:
/4 0 , . 0
dO
r =4 U =4 f ^ ~ i- f - = (10.14.6)
0 2>0 sfsi
/sin 2 ( 6>
m/ 2 ) sin 2 C^/2 )
0

151
sin(0 / 2 )
s in a = ( 1 0 .1 4 . 7 )
sin(tf,/2)

:

- . da q = s i n ^ . (10.14.8)
J 1 ^ s i n a 2
T0 = I k / cOq
() .
(10.14.8)
1.
, ,
. 10.14.1. ,

q:
q - sin(fl,/2)
, 1 . 2 0 9 .
= 1 + -SU1 + sin + ...
4 2 64 2

/2

( 2 ? - 1 ) ! !
/ sin2" a d a =
2 2 "?!
(q = sin(0w/2 ) <sc 1) :

* 0 (1 + ^ / 1 ) . (10.14.9)

, ,
, (10.14.8),
- > q - > \ , 6-> . (10.14.10)
. 10.14.1 (10.14.8)
(,
<7 = sin (0W/2 ), ). ,
(.. q > 1) .
10.14.2. .
,

. , ,

.

1 .

152
-
| .
10.5, x + ly x + ajfix = 0
(<0)
x{t) = A ^eYl cos(cot + <0),

= yfcof- 2

2 2 / / , & 2
- ; = - =(co + coQ)(co-co0)* 2cQ Q(co-cOb) => ---- -

^ = _ ^ = J l _ = 2 liL = . _ f (io.i 4 .li)


{) (0 2 8 2 8 2
8 = {) .

:
: = {8 , ).
8 (8 ,)
:
(8, 0) , )
(,) a m o v 8+ ....
es
(10.14.10) (10.14.11)
2 '\
T(S9O J * T 0
8*2 16
,
.
10.14.3. .
, &^
*(/)
v {t)-d x /d t. {, v)
() ,
. ,
,
. , 10.4,

,

153
0 (. 10.4J).
, .
<
.
.

. , ,
, ,
.
. 4
,
*/2 , :,
( , -
).
,
0
, ,
:
1 2
- + m gl(\-cos6) - 0.

2 = 2(0,: ' Ep-m gl + COS0 (10.14.12)


v mgl
,
. 0 = 0, 0 = 0 ,
:

mgl(\ - cos ) = => = arccos . - )


m gl)
(10.14.12)
.
1- : 0 <$: Imgl. ,
: c o s 0 l - 0 2/ 2 , (10.14.12) :

2F
2 -col - - =
mgl 1 - 'm l2 m yngl
2- : 0 = 2 mga. (10.14.12)

1 = 4 >1 cos 2 (/2).

154
<, :
( ) 0 = 2mga,

^ (4 )-1^
= 4arctg < < .
exp(4ay) +1

, 0->7 / > :
,
.
, 0 = , 0 = 0,
:
,
0 = 0.
,
0 = 0, .

. 10.14.1. .
,
( 0> , 0<
)

3- : 0 2 mga. 0(0)
(10.14.12) , cos 0
.
:
qs ^
mgl
, ,
.
. 10.14.1.

155
10.15.
10.15.1. .
.
,
. 10.10 ,

.

(. 10.15.1). , (
)
:

.

. 10.15.1.
.

.
, , -
, ,
.
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
.
10.15.2. ' .
.
. ,

. *

,
. 10.15.2. ,
,
.
,
,
. 10.15.2. , , , . 10.15.2.

'

,

156
= ('). (10.15.1)
.
(*) (**)

' = - (10.15.2)
11
(, t) = u (x-c t). (10.15.3)

= () = a sin(Ax') (10.15.4)
(. 10.15.3):
( , t) = as\r\[k(x-ct)]. (10.15.5)
kc = , (10.15.5)
(, t) = as\x\(kx-cot). (10.15.6)
,
((, /) = kx-cot (10.15.7)
.
-
(* :
.
(10.15.6),
,

= 2/, (10.15.8)
. 10.15.3.

. , ,
, , .
, .
, :
_ _
(10.15.9)
2

,
, ..
: <p= kx-cot = const.
.
,
(..
> 0 ), , -

157
(-).
, , .
,
:
= ](x -c t) 2 =u2(x + ct)
,
:

u(x,t) = Wj( - ct) + 2 (x + ct). (10.15.10)


| 2 , . ,
(10.15.4),

(, /) = 2 s(a)t) sin(Ax). (10.15.11)



. 10.15.4. ,

2 = 0 , 1 , 2 ,..., (10.15.12)

: (,/) = 0.
.
, , ,
.
(, )
L,
. , (10.15.12) = L,
:
0 2L
L = = , /7 = 1, 2,... (10.15.13)
2
,
, ,
L .
10.15.3. .
, , .
, :
,(, /), i = 1, 2 ,... ,
(, 0 = 1(, /) + 22(, 0 + ...,
Cf ,
. , ,

158
, ,
.

u(x,t) = f ( x - c t ) , (10.15.14)
f(%) .
(, /) . = x ct
,
d2u d_ 2 d 2f
-c - =C
dt d$dt Cd f d t2 dt d4 / d42 '
/
du = 2 _ d df_
dx d<* dx d% dx2 dx .H . d42 '
t \ ,
2,

1 d2u _ d 2u
(10.15.15)
2 d t2 dx2
.

.
10.15.4. .
.
, ,
. . 10.15.5
dl , .

.
(, t).
,
+ dx.

159
f d u '1
dl = A\ + dx. (10.15.16)
dx
,
:

1.

(10.15.16) , d l^ d x , ..
,

. ( 12)

A(dl) = T_
dl ~
.
( (//) const) ,
.
.
.
, ,
,
( + dx) cos[0(x + dx)] - (:) cos[0(x)] = 0 (10.15.17)
(, ,
). 0
T (x + d x )-T (x ) = 0 => () = const (10.15.18)
, dx.
, .

(. 10.15.5) : *
= ST (x + dx)sin[0(x + dx ) ] ST0(x + dx)9
F2U) = 5T(;c)sin[^(x)] ST0(x)9
S , () const = .
F^'L) =

F {) =:ST0(x + d x )-S T e (x ) = ST dx. (10.15.19)

s\n0& 0 & tg0 = du/dx9 t o

160
F (1) S T ^ - d x . (10.15.20)
dx2
2- :

w, (10.15.21)

d m = p S c J l ~ p S d x , .
(10.15.19) (10.15.21),
1 2 2
(10.15.22)
2 d i2 2

= (10.15.23)
, .
, ,
(10.15.15).
, (10.15.23)
.
1 0 .1 5 .5 . .
-
(. 10.15.6).
,
. ,
, -
.
( \ ,
, .
+ 1 ,

-\-{) : + / + (: + /).

[ x + / + w (x + / ) ] - [ * + w ( jc) ] = l + = / + /

( , / ).
/,

_ /
(10.15.24)
~ I

161
X X + l X

. 10.15.6. - ,
()

= - => T = Es = E , (10.15.25)

.

.
2- :

2
pSl = [( + /) - T(x)]S *= SI. (10.15.26)
dt

, /,
.
(10.15.26) (10.15.25),
:

1 2 _ 2 _ [
(10.15.27)
7 ! 2 ~2' V*

, (10.15.22),
, .

162
10.15.6. . ,

.
(. 10.15.7).

. 10.15.7. \
,
. (/\

- 1 + 1

/7- = ,
= - * 0).

= -( - _,) + ( .f , - ),

= +1 - 2 + _). (10.15.28)
(10.15.28)
= 0 exp (ik x ^ - icot),
(10.15.29)
, :
|/] = "1. (10.15.28)

- ? = [, - 2 + ~, j , 2- 2 = 2tccoska.
:
co(k) = co0\s\n{ka/2)\, cOq = 2 yfc/m . (10.15.30)
,

0 < < 0.
: f a 1.
(10.15.30) = ,
= 0/ 2 .
= 1
un{t) ,
.
(10.15.28):

163
2 +| ~ 2 + ,-| _ 2 ____ 2 2
*<4+1 - 2 +_,) = () ^ ^ f\Ci
()~ 2
2 / 2
- - .
(10.15.28) :
1 2 _ 2 _ fie
2 ~ 2 ' ~
(10.15.15),
,
.
=
, , (10.15.29),
, : = 01^,,\
(10.15.29) :
, ( = 2/).
,
, .
10.15.7'. . ,
(10.15.14)
(,
). (10.15.15)

* a(x,t) = u{( x - c t ) + u2(x + c t \ (10.15.31)

u\(y) 2() .
, \
2 : *

( x - c t) = a] cos[Ar, ( - / ) + #>,],
(10.15.32)
2 (x + ct) = a2 cos[At2 ( + /) + ^ ] .

(]92),
((\,<2) (&,2)
.
,
.

164
11.

11.1.
, ,
() .

. ,
, ,
,
, .
, .
, ,
.

. II. 1.1.
S'

S.

S.
S\
S, ,
(. 1 1 . 1 . 1 ).
S' ' S'
.
. R0 - ' , a R
- S S',
R = R 0 + . ( 1 1 . 1 . 1)
, ' V 0 0:

( 11. 1.2)

165
S

dR dW_ d 2R
(11.1.3)
Va&' - dt *** dt ~ d t2
( <
).

S'
dr _ ch _ d 2\ (11.1.4)
~dt *~~dt~~d?
S' ,
1, j, ,
= br + j y + kz. (11.1.5)
^ S'

. dx %dy . dz
v = i + j + k ,
dt 3dt dt ( 11. 1.6)
. d 2x t d 2y d 2*
a = l r- + j f + k
dt2 dt2 dt
, ( - i, j, )
. , (- 1 1.1.2)

- = ( x i , ^ = (0 x j, f * = t o x k . (11.1.7)
dt dt dt

. 11.1.2. i:
|^ i| = 2 |i |s i r > ( ^ / 2 ) = |/(z?| => \di)dt\ = (o.
i(nd,)X \ d x
J - i , dfi-Lto,
d(p
d x /d t = c o x i.
i(0
**

(11.1.3) (11.1.4). (11.1.1)


(11.1.5)
R = R 0 + be + jy + kz (1 1 .1 .8 )

166
/ / ( -dx .ay , dz di di dk )
V = V0 + i + j + k X --- h V - + Z ---- =
0 V dt a d t, dt dt dt J (11.1.9)
V0 + v + (xcoxi +y(ox j + zcoxk) = V0 + v + coxr.
,
V = v + V llcp, Vliq) = V0 + . (11.1.10)
V . ,
, S' (
).
(11.1.9) ,
:
dV = dV{) ^ .d 2x , d 2y d 2::^
i I f + k i-
dt ~ dt dt2 J dt2 dt2
dx di dy d\ dz dk + d 2i d 2j d 2k ^
+2 x + y ? + z
dt dt dt dt dt dt ) dt2 dt2 dt2
:
. d 2x .d 2y d 2z
i r-+ j - + - = a, ( 11. 1. 11)
dt2 J dt2 dt2

dx di idy d\ dz dk dx . dy . dz . /,1110
------ + + ------- = -coxi + cox i + coxk = cox v, (11.1.12)
dt dt 1dt dt dt dt d; dt J dt

x f l + v l , ci2k _ ci(v>xi) </(w xj) < /(w x k )_


dr y dr dt 3 dt dt dt
fd<a . ( 4) dm . d\ dm dk
= * ------ X I + ( I ) X + V -------XJ + (I)X J +z x k + w x = (11.1.13)
l. dt d t) dt dt dt d t'
_ di.0
x r + to)x (a)x r).
~~dt
aa6c
* =++>
= 0 + ( ( ) + ( , (11.1.14)
= 2 .
. ,
S", S'.
^ 0 = 0

167
S'.
, ,
S'. , )
S'.

11.2.
F.
:
maa(k= F . (11.2.1)
(11.1.14)
:
wa = F + FM 1I, (11.2.2)
Fim, ,
F = F _ + F 0 - F kii1. (11.2.3)
:
Foc, =
FuC) = - ( )*web , (11.2.4)

Fuop = - 2wWX V-
,
.
Fcp = -w a cp =Focr+ F u6 = -w V 0 - / X ( X ) - wd> . (11.2.5)
, ,
S'.
(11.2.2)
5'. ,
S' ,
F FH.
*
11.3.
,
S' .
,
0 (. 11.3.1).
FnocT= -/m i0. (11.3.1)
, .
:
* = F + FnoCT. (11.3.2)

168
:
F = m g + N. (11.3.3)
1.
. = 0.
(11.3.2), (11.3.3) :
N = -(m g + Fnocr) = m (a 0 - g ) . (11.3.4)

^&
. 11.3.1. . 11.3.2. , -
*

,
(. 11.3.2) ,
tg a = ^ !oL = fo (11.3.5)
mg g
2.
. (11.3.2), (11.3.3) :
nm = m g + N - () => N = m(a + a 0 - g ) . (11.3.6)

11.4.
11.4,1. , . (
) /,
(. 11.4.1).

. 11.4.1 , . 11.4 1 I |\ iiM i i n i i h iim.nl ihi

/, /. |( |< |

) hi nit tit I |>| (.i


/wg,
Fu6 = -/ ( ),
- , || = /.
. ,
:
+ wg + Fll6 = 0. (11.4.1)
, Fli0 = -w w ( )
, . 11.4.1, ..
. v = , F u6 , ,
\\\ = colsmcp.
(,
|FuG| = | - | = mcov = mo)2ls\n<p. (11.4.2)
(11.4.1)
:
cos = mg ,
(11.4.3)
Tsm(p = Fn6,

g
COS " . (11.4.4)
co2l
(11.4.2) Fll6.
. ,
: < yjg/l , , ..
= 0, FuG = 0.

, . 11.4.2 ,
, {).

Fn = mco2R = mco2(r0 +/sin<p), (11.4.5)


(11.4.3)
:
F g sin
-= => c o s = -^ ------------- .
mg r0 +/sin#?
0 = 0 (11.4.4).
( 0 0 )

170
. , , : < 1,
co2l < g ,


(/;, = 0 0 *0) ,
( = 0 ,

.
I 1.4.2. . ,
( ), .
.
,
.
= w g Kj((|) mg
Fu6 (. 11.4.3):
P = mg + Fll6. (11.4.6)
.
| = ,/ -
8* = 8 + *i- (1 1 .4 .7 )
i*j_ -
(. 11.4.4),
F;i6 = < \, , = > \. (11.4.8)
, r = R cos (, R .

. 11.4.3. mg> . 11.4.4.



171
,
g, (11.4.7 -
g , g g = 0 :
8 8 = . 8 -

|g 3M x | = ^ 3,|H|,.?s in a >. 1 1 xg\ = a,gsm<p=(o2Rcos(psm(p,


sin = sin 2 <. (11.4.9)


2 g
,

* 6 ,3 8 1 0 * , >= * 7 ,3 -1 0 ' 5 '1, * 9 8 0 / . ;.4.10)



3,4- '3 1 . ;.4.10)


g
,
1,7 10"3 * 0 , 1.
g,. , a - /*[,.<,./* ^ -

1 g**
& = >/(g + a )2 ~ \ / 2 + 2 8
8 j
= g - a c o s q>- g -c o 2Rcos2 (p.
, g, . 11.4.4,
- . ,

cos?* (11.4.11)
g g
(11.4.10) g 0,34 %;
.

11.5.

.
,
,

172
FKop =-2mcox v. (11.5.1)

(. 11.5.1). (11.5.1)

^ = 2m cw sm p
( v
<). ,
.
.
1.
.
2.

( )
(. 11.5.2).
3.
, ,
. 11.5.1. ,
,
, v

( > ).

( ) (. 11.5.3).

N N N N

S S S S

. 11.5.2. . 11.5.3.


4. ,
:
, .
5.
(. 11.5.4).

173

.
,
.
,
:
- (- ), \
- (- ).

11.6.



.
) )
. ,
.
77.6. /. 11.5.4.
.
. ,

h .
(. 1 1 .6 . 1 ).
:
/ = wg + FKop.

g , * .
, > g = const.
FKop = - 2 aah(0 xv, -
()
,
:
\ = m g - 2 ( v. ( 1 1 .6 . 1 )
() F

.
( 1 1 .6 . 1 )
,

.
D
r r . 11.6.6.1. , -
v = gt. - ,

,

174
FKop = -2 /7 7 0 ) X V -2 /7 7 0 ) X g t.
( )

FKop = 2mcogt cos .
;>,
= Imcogt cos ,

1
= cogt COS0>.

, / = p h / g


1 '2 1 ,^
= - cog COS ( ( 11.6.2)

,
~ 1
,
(. 11.6.2). ,

v = g - 2 c o x g /.

v = g /-c o x g r . (11.6.3)

. 11.6.2. ,

FKop
FKOp = - 2 / 7 7 0 ) g / + 2 /7 7 0 ) ( x g ) . ( 1 1.6.4)
,
: Av = - c o x g / 2. AFKop
:

175
A F KOp = - 2 w c o x A v 2 w c o x ( x g ) / 2 , ( 1 1 .6 .5 )


(. 11.6.2).

|AFKOp| = lmco2g t2 cos . (11.6 .6)

, AF,,
,
= ^$ = 2?gt2coscpsmcp = 1gt2srnlcp. (11.6.7)

s ,
: ms = AFu ,
:

s = j^ o )2gsm2q>-t4. ( 1 1 .6 .8)

11.6.2.
. ,
. ,
{ = 0).
, ,
.
> =co(R + h \ ,
vQ= coR.
,
.
: L = mvx(R + y) = const, vx (
) .
: ;* = Q(/? + /). vm 4=co(R + h)^ ,
mQ(R + )2 = mca(R + )2, ( h<KR,y<$:R) :

_ (R + h f (, -
1 = -------- 1 + 2 - .
(R +
+)y )2 I R )
= h - g t 2j l ,

Q ( /) 1+ 1
R
:

176
/ 2\
= J n(t)dt = cat,, 1+
3R

lm = yjlhfg
/?. - . ,
-

,2
S = &R = cotniR 1 +
3R
- 0 = cotm
S0 -a)tmR.

,2
2 h t '2
bS = S - S 0 = 0)tmR ^ = ^(0gtl = i< y g
g ,
, -
(#> = 0). ,

(
).
,
(, ,
? = co(R + h)cos(py
vQ= coRcos #?. ,
cos#?:

'2 h f2
AS = -cog cos <p.

,
,
. ,
( ), ,
.
,

,
, ,
.

177
11. 7.
77.7.7. . ,

.
1850 . (. , J. Foucault). 1851 .
, = 28 / = 67 .
.-
98 .

. ,


. .
,
. 11.7.1.
.

. 11.7.1. , :
;
, ,
%

77.7.2.
. ,
.
.
= = 24 .

= 2/ 7 , 3 - 1 05 -1.
(. 11.7.2)
.

178
<.
(. 11.7.3):
= + . (11.7.1)

. 11.7.2. . 11.7.3.
(

360 2/>

,
.
cyB=cysin^, (11.7.2)

(() = = - . ( .7.3)
sin ^7
, {) >, ..
.
11.7.3.
. , ,
:
FKop= - 2 Wcoxv. (11.7.4)

(). .
,
(,,) , ()
:
= +. (11.7.5)

179
.
>(|
(. 11.7.4):
=+. (11.7.6)

- 2 wcob. v - 2 x v - 2 / v.
( - 2nuoL v)
,
,
.
( - 2 wcd v )
. , ,
( )
. 11.7.4. ( sina).

,
( + ,) ,
2
1 F, = - 2 70 (( v, = ---- sin , (11.7.7)

mr = -^ y^r-2/w a>Bxr. (11.7.8)

- : ,
.
:
+ calx - 2,
(11.7.9)
y + co-y = -2coJ9
0 = yjg/l.
,
. ,
z = x + iy. (11.7.10)
(11.7.9) i ,
z(t):
z + 2icoBz + coQZ = 0. (11.7.11)

z = z0eini. (11.7.12)

180
(11.7.11)
-Q 2 - 2 cd b Q + coq = 0 => Q = - y jc o B + % .

(11.7.11):
z = z0]e-i(O't4(O't +z02e~i(O-t+i^ , (11.7.13)

= & + C0q . ,
z0\ a , z 02 2
(11.7.13) : = R ez, = Imz,

= , cos[(<y, + ^ B) / - ^ ,] + a 2 cos[(^y, ->)/ + <2], 11 7


= sin[(dy, + ^ B)/-<p,] + tf2 sin[(<y, ->)/ + <2].
:
,, 2, (\, (2> .
0 .
(11.7.14)
27/ 0, , ,
. .
, = 0,
(11.7.14)
X= , cos[dy0 / - (\ ]+ 2 cos[*y0 1 + (2 ],
= -, sin \_(Oqt-<P\~\+ 2 sin[<y0 / + 2].
, ,
. , , = 2 = / 2, 2 =-(1 = % ,

= 8[/0 / + % ] = 0-
.
,
* 0 , , * 0 .

, . 11.4.1,
.
,
.
, (11.7.14), . 11.7.1.
^ = 0,25 .

181
12.
12.1. .
12.1.1. ,
.
,
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
F
(. 12.1.1).

S.
. 12.1.1. - ,
/ :
S <j = F /S.
F

, s
. ,
= -.
/.
/,
- ///
, .
12,1,2, ,
:
= / .
,
.
() .

182
, ,
.
()
( ) ;
, F:
F = 1.

.
/ S,
F = a S , / = si.
-
= ES/L
, ,
.
12.1.3. . (. 12.1.2),
/ () / ,
F, a = F /S .
(/),
(/ ). (:) ( )
:

f i = ^ 11-
/
.
:. 12.1.2.

([|)
:
/

| = - .
1

.
:
, , ,
.

183
12.2.
,
, (. 1 2 .2 . 1 ).
:

( , ) ,= * ,/
<, z,
::

( /.// , <7,/ , ( ) , = - / '" ,/




AL AL : /.
\ 'X J V^ ) \ X Jz

Alx _ Gy _ .
. 12.2.1.




z.
,
:
1
=-[< - ((7 + *;)],

y = ^ \ f y - ^ x + ^ z ) \ (12.2.1)

12.3.
72.5.7. .

.
lx,ly ,lz9 V = lxlylz.

= (lx +Alx)(ly +Aly )(lz + Alz ) - ! xlylz *

~ lylz ^ x + lxlzAly +lxlyAl2 -

184
lzAlxAlyi lyAlxAlz, lxAlyAlz , AlxAlyAlz,
.

AV
-----= +v + .. (12.3.1)

12.3.2. .
(. 12.3.1):

<* =, = <*Z =~-


(12.2.1)

= -

(12.3.1)
:

AV = ex + sy + s,=
- 2ft).

. 12.3.1.
,

AV _
(12.3.2)
V * 3 ( 1 -2 /)


.
(12.3.2) .
, ,
, AV = 0. (12.3.2) // = 1/2.
//

0 < // < 1 /2 . (12.3.3)


/ / > 0 ,
.
12.3.3. .
. 12.3.2. ,
, (. 12.3.2).
,
, .

, ( 1 2 .2 . 1 ):

185
ey = [ * y - M( v x + a z )]=0, (12.3.4)

e z = ^ [ ^ - { +< ) ] = 0 .

gx= F /S ,
ayyGz ,
z.
(12.2.4),

^ [ + -(2( +< +(?,)] = => V y+ tri= 2 t L a x.

(12.3.4),
1 22 (1 -2 /j)(\ + /u)a x
\= -------<
1- 1 -;/
=(/ {. -

1_ F 7
, (12.3.5)
(1 + / 1-2//)
, (// = 1/2) /, = .
, : = 0 .

12.4.
12.4.1. . .
(. 12.4.1),
.

,
. ',
.

,
. 12.4.1. , ,
. 12.4.1.
,

,

186
, .
.
,
. 12.4.1. ,
, .
, ,

= /, (12.4.1)
G . .
12.4.2. -
.
.
. ,
$}
FT = 2.

(. 12.4.2). ( BD) ,
() . , ,
,
& . ,
BD ,
F = 2cos(45)/7r = 2.

BD S = a2\f2. ,
, BD,

_ _ _ 2
a 2s / 2 ~ a 2J 2

. 12.4.2.
;

187
, (pic. 12.4.2
) -
(. 12.4.2 ).
12.4.3. .

(12.2.1). A", Y, . 12.4.2 ().
:
= , (JY = - , crz = 0. (12.4.2)
( 1 2 .2 . 1 )

= - ^ [ c rA ' - / / ( 0 K + 0 ' z ) ] = ^ r r .

y = [V ~ ( + z ) ] = (12.4.3)

z = - ^ [ CTz - / ' ( o ' . r + o v ) ] = 0 -

(12.3.1):
b V /V = x +Y +s: = 0. (12.4.4)
, .
12.4.4. . .
.
(. 12.4.3).
: | 2,
,
,
. ,
, ..
.
. 12.4.3.
, d0 = /2 ,
.
,
.
, d2 - (aj -~)2 = 2 1 (1 - sin /).
,

d = asj 2 ( \ - s i n r ) d 0^ \ - ^ j => = (12.4.5)

188
. 12.4.2,
. (12.4.3)
1+ ju 2(1 + //)
- ----------- = . (12.4.6)

, ( = /(7)

G= - (12.4.7)
2(1 + / / ) .

12.4.5. . ,

.
:

= ------ , G = - . (12.4.8)
3(1 - 2 ) 2(1 + )

. ,
.
.
(12.4.8) //,
9 KG \3 K - 2 G
= ----------, // = --------------- (12.4.9)
3K + G 2 3K + G

12.5.

12.5.1. . ,
(, ).
, ,
, .

M = fq>. (12.5.1)
/ .
,
. ,
dr
(. 12.5.1).
, .

189
.
,
.

. 12.5.1.


//?'(. 12.5.1).
,
g
r = Gy. (12.5.2)
dx dcp

y d x -r d (p . (12.5.3)
(12.5.2),

= Gr - f - . (12.5.4)
dx

.
dS = d r-rd a , d M **rdS ,

R 2 R 2 I 4 I

- f f -d S - f f r-Gr -rdrda = 27rG \ r 2dr = -------- .


r= o io r U a l0 dx dx 0 2 A .
/
d(p _
"~7
(12.5.1)

190
4
f = G. (12.5.5)
21

.
12.5.2. .
, .
,
: .
,
-. , . 12.5.1
(12.5.3), ,
.

12.6.
()
F (. 12.6.1). :
, .
dx dA = Fdx.

F=<
jS - E s - - , dA = E S dx.

11 = 0 = /
, H ES . ES (/) 2
[ = xdx = ( 12.6. 1)
{' /

U. / = s i ,
F=crS

1
= V, ( 12.6.2)
jc=

V = SL . ,
^ .. . 12.6.1.
, - 1 , = /

U 1
(12.6.3)
U~ V ~ 2
, (12.6.3)
:
as
(12.6.4)
U~ ~ 2 ' U ~ ~2

191


, (, ,
),
.

. (
):
' = crxdex + <Jydey + a zdez.
(12.2.1):

dA =^ [ * - /' , + e z ) \ d e x + ^ [ ~ ( + e . j ] d e y +

+\ [ s^ - ^ x +y )] dez-

dA = \ \_ x d x + y d e y + z d e z ] -

- [exdev + evdex + evdez + e2deY+ xd: + :dx ]

, :

dA = + +: ) ~ *+^
,

= \ ( +4 +: ) ~ 2 ( >
XSV+,,- +,)}
2
(12.2.1),

= U ^ xex +iTyey +<T..). ( 1 2 .6 . 5 )

.
1. . = crv = <
j z = - .

1
u = - 1 [sx + sy + ; j = - - P i r .

/ = - P jK ,
u = P2/ l K . (12.6.6)
2. . , (12.4.3)

192
1 + // \+
x = j r T = J ~ T' Z
=0,

<?x = T> a Y = ~T> &Z = >


(12.6.4)
1 1 + // ,
+ () ^ 2= . (12.6.7)
2 )\ E 2 G

Fr = rS
,
(. 12.6.2). ,


dx = a d y , '/777777////7//7/
Fr = 5 = GyS dx = a d y \ . 12.6.2.
,
dA = FT-dx = GyS a dy. 0

0

1
A =j G / S a d / = G Sa^r2 = ~ V ,

V = aS .
(12.6.7):
2
_ _ Gy~
( 12.6.8)
u~ v ~ ~ 2 2&

12.7.
12.7.1. .
,
. (. 2.7.1).
() , () . ,
(, .
. R , a d a
(. 12.7.1).
dl0 = R d a (12.7.1)
dl0.
( )
, ,

193
dl = (R + x)da, (12.7.2)

A(dl) = dl - dL - xda = dL , s =^ ! l = - . (12.7.3)


0 R 0 dln R

N
h/2
0 ...Z.
-h/2

. 12.7.1. , ,
.

,
(-),
{> * 1 =! ' (12.7.4)
dL R
, ,
, :
|<' = 0 => Jx</S = 0. (12.7.5)


N !1 JC
\ (12.7.4),
/2
......1....
-h/2 1_ . ,
_1
14 ^1
. ,
. 12.7.2.
. z ,
, N h
b
(. 12.7.2). , ,

\ /?2 , (12.7.5)
/2 , 1 ,

0= J J xdxdy = - b ( h * - h ^ => hl =h2 = -h .


y=-h/2x=-h, ^ 2
194
,
( . 12.7.1).
(. 12.7.1
) , :

M = \xcr(x)dS> (12.7.6)
S


. ,
(. 12.7.2).
(12.7.4) (12.7.6) ,
R :

= - I = \ x 2dS. (12.7.7)
R {
1
,
9.3.1. ,
[/,,] = 4 ( ,
2).
,
/ =/?, /,. = (. 12.7.2)
:
h/2 ( h/2 \
1h/2 ^J/2 2dx dy' = -12- b h \ (12.7.8)

.
. ,
. ,

. ______ ____
(. 12.7.3). - / \
-
, - < 12 7-3,

, .. , -
.
12.7.2. .

, .
.

195
1. ()
(. 12.7.2) ,
F (. 12.7.4). ,
.
.
1. , .. / ( * z)
h .
2. , .. <
.
,
, / !.

r = *(z). (12.7.9)

(1.3.4):
. 12.7.4. >
()
, ()
F
-
z. :
'2 1 :

=(*')' 12.7.)
10
(12.7.7)

1 ~ y = . ((12.7.11)
az
,
, ( z), -
. , :z.
, ()
(), F2 = F.
F, = - F , F.
: {F,, F} = {-F , F},

M =-(l-z )F . ((12.7.12)

- ,
(.. ).
(12.7.11),

196
d 2x Mzx
=> x(z) = - (12.7.13)
1? EIr 2~
:
(0 ) = , *'( 0 ) = 0 . (12.7.14)
,
.
2. ,
(. 12.7.4). ,
.
.
z.
( ), :

F i= m g i z l y (12.7.15)

. ,
, (
). ,
, ,

f, = - f21 |f,| = ^ ( / - 2 ) . ( ),

, ,
:
mg
( / - z ) 2. (12.7.16)
21
(12.7.11):
/2 mg
EL : - ^ ( / - 2 )3 *=- ~ ( / ~ z )4 +C ,z + C:
dr 2/ 2EI..I
\ Ci
(12.7.14),

4 z) = - ^ g - y Z 2(6/2- 4/z + 22). (12.7.18)

*(/)| = 7 ^ - /3- (12.7.19)


o tly
12.7.3. .
, b L , .

197
h<^L, b<zL .

, .

:
U = \udV , = /2. (12.7.15)

(12.7.3), (12.7.4):

{4 ) = ^ , s (4) = 4< -h/2<4Zh/2,



% , .

= - \ ( ) d4 = (12.7.16)
2 _l/2 U J .24 R2
, ,
:
R =L j l n .
:

I ct |
12.8.


t = 0
F. ,
* ,
. F ,
v.

(. 1 2 .8 . 1 ):
. 12.8.1. m = p S c t. i( 1 2 .8 . 1 )
, v9


p = mv = pSct v . 1(12.8.2)
:

198
dp/dt = F. (12.8.3)
(12.8.2),
pScv = F. (12.8.4)
:
F
= pcv. (12.8.5)
S
() .
( )
v , ( ) ,
/
/ = I{]-1 = ct - ( c - v ) t = vt. (12.8.6)

s .H jL . (12,8.7)
/
- / . (12.8.5) (12.8.7)
v/c = pcv/E,
:
= . ( 12 .8 .8 )
F ,
. , .
,
( 1 2 .8 .8) .

12.9.
/2 .9 ./. .
(. 12.9.1).
. \\\\\\\\\

/ (
).
dx, :
() .
,
,
.
S, . 12.9.1.

mgx
=
IS

199
A(c/.v)
:
A{dx) _ m gx
dx ~ISE
:
mgl_
2ES
12.9.2. .
W R
.
.


= - ^ - = - , <0,

.

V +A V :
. 12.9.2.
, R dA= d(A V ) = -P d (A V ) = -P V dsv.
S
,
: = - .
, . | | : V
.
> ,
= - J PVdev = ATJ evVd sv = y- V.
^
%
ev = - P /K , :

= v k ?1 = * Z r >k - ? - = 2;iR^ - .
u
2 3 2 2
12.9.3. .
R ,
/?, (. 12.9.3).
, /?,
//.

.

200
cbcdy, dx = dy (. 12.9.3).

,
:

. 12.9.3. R /;.
.
.

2 ,
(* ).
d a - d x / R ,

AP(dx)2 2< da-hdx = 2 hdx = 2 ~ [d xf.


R R

= 2 => = .
R 2
, /?:/?, ,
: , ,
.

AS
= * + * , = 2 *,-
:

201
ey = U a y - ^ a x +CT: ) \

e: = - [ .- / /( - ,+ ,.) ] .

<7 = =, < . = < ,

:
/1 ^<J 2 //
* =, = ( 1 - / 0 , *- = ----

f = 2, i - .

R,
:
AS Sk RAR AR 1 AS
=>
S 4nR 1 R 2 S
,
AR cr R
T = " ' , , | = (1- " ) a T '
, ,

2 ar 3(1 - M ) R Ar
R 2

202
13.

13.1.
, ( )
. , ()
.
,
.
.
13.1.1. . / ,
( ) ..
,
: = const.
.
.

/ ,
:
v = v(r, /).

,
: v = v(r).
,


(. 13.1.1).
, . 13.1.1.


.
.

.
0.
- .
,
, .
(. 13.1.2).

203
.

,
, ,
,
( ,
. 13.1.2. ,

, ).
0, 13.1.2. .
.
(. 13.1.3).
dt
dmx - p x(vxdt-Sx)9 (13.1.1)

dm2 = p 2(v2dt-S2). (13.1.2)

. dmx =dm x,
P\VXS X p 2V2S 2. (13.1.3)
(
)I (
).
fhy S2yv.i = 2>
p\y S\y V\
~~7V :
- A r vxSx = v2S2. (13.1.4)
,
,
. 13.1.3. .

J = p S v (13.1.3)
, S ,
.
/ = J /S - p v F
,
Sy V2
.
.
| /7, V,
( 5), 45,
V . 13.1.4.
(. 13.1.4). ,
.

dt ,

204
dm = pS- vdt , </, = \ xdm = (pSvdt) v ,.

p S -vd t , dp2 = (pSvdt)- v 2. dt

= | - = (^ )(2 )*
,
F, :
F= / dt = (pSuXv, - v2).
(
. 13.1.4),
F = J l p S v 2.
13.1.3. .
.
(. 13.1.5).
\ ( = fJS,), 2 ( F2 = / ^ ) -
dt
dmx = p xSxvxdt.

dm2 = p 2S2v2dt.
Pi. 52, V2
| 2

, . 13.1.5. .

J

dE\m)= exdmK, (13.1.5)



<"') = 2dm2. (13.1.6)

dA{ = F}dl} =P]S]vldt. (13.1.7)


F2 = P2S2

dA2 - F 2dl2 = P2S2v2dt. (13.1.8)



dE} =dAl +e1dml. (13.1.9)

205
dE2 =dA2 + 1dm1. (13.1.10)
,
dEx = dE2. (13.1.9) (13.1.10),
PxSxvxdt + xdmx = P2S2v2dt + 2dm2.

P]VXSX= dmx = dm2 = p xvxSxdt,

P\S\Vydt = (2 - e x)pxSxv{dt,
Pi

+ = -2 - + ^ . (13.1.11)
\2 ~
(1738 .).
(v2/ 2 \
()
. ,
,
V2
e = + gh + u. (13.1.12)

, ,

v2 .
+ + gh = const, (13.1.13)
2
.
const
. * -"!
13.1.4. .
,
(. 13.1.6).
.
()


. 13.1.6.
:
0. ,
, .

:

v0 ~0.

206
,

( . 13.1.6
). , ,
:

' U i +4ff. 4 + .
2 2
v0 0
:
v =^ H .
(1643 .).
13.1.5. .
(. 13.1.7).
. ,
.
,
,
v = cor.
.
d m g
dm-co2r ( . 13.1.8), ,
. dz,
> r+ r + dr
cp+ (p+ d(p.
dm = pdV = pdr-rd(p-dz. (13.1.14)
.
1. z (. 13.1.9):

-gdm - P(r, z+ dz)dSz + P(r , z)dS2 = ,


dm = pdS2dz , dS2
(
uz). (13.1.14) dSz =rdr-dq>.
:

? + /?g = 0. (13.1.15)
CZ

207
Z 1

- -j

3
. 13.1.7. . 13.1.8.

. 13.1.9. . 13.1.10. -
( z)

2. (. 13.1.10):
\-P (r + dr, z)dS]( + dr) + P(r, z)dSx()] +
+ [ - 2 P ( r , z ) s i n ( d < p / 2 y ^ d S 2 ( r ) + d m - 2r = 0,
, ,
, dSAr)~dz-rd<p,
dS2(r) = dz-dr. (13.1.14), (13.1.16)
:

~ = 0. (13.1.17)

(13.1.15), (13.1.17)
.
(13.1.15)
P = -p g z + M r ). (13.1.18)

208
/j () . ,
(13.1.17)

P=X
- p w 2r2 + f2{z), (13.1.19)
f2(z) z. /j(r)
/ 2 (z) , (13.1.18) (13.1.19)
.
:

P = ^pco2r 2 - p g z + C. (13.1.20)


: = 0. ,
= 0. z0, , (13.1.20)
= 0, z = z0, = 0, = 0 + pgz0,

P=P0 +^pa>2r2 - p g ( z - z 0). (13.1.21)

, = 0, (13.1.21)
,
:

z ( r ) = - + z0. (13.1.22)

,
.
(13.1.22) ,
. ,
z = z(r).
(. 13.1.11).
dm- g dm -2.

N = dm g + dm 2
,

,
. 13.1.11.
.

,
N :

209
Nr = TVsin a = dm co2r,
Nz - N cos a - dm- g.
,
2
tg = -
8
tg a =dz/dr,
:
dz 2 22 (13.1.23)
= ----- => z(r) = - z 0
dr g 2g
, , (13.1.22),
.

13.2.

, . ,
-
. ,
, .
()
.

S
h
F (p n c. 13.2.1).

. 13.2.1. F V. ,

, v
- , -
h :

F = ti S ~ . (13.2.1)
h
,
Fw = -F .
] (13.2.1)
( ) . (
)
[ 7 ] = - ^ -1. (13.2.2)

210
:
1 = 1 " 1, -: 1 = -2,
1 = 10 . :

v = n /p , = 2"'. (13.2.3)
(13.2.1) 1687 .
.
, ,
,
.
,
(13.2.1) :

= -> 7 ^ . (13.2.4)

rxz ,
: ,
z (. 13.2.1). ,
.

.
.

13.3.
13.3.1. .
( L) R ,
(. 13.3.1).

, .. ,
.
| L

. 13.3.1.
R

\-

x + x + dx.
dr. ,
, S = 2 nrclx,

211
FTV{r) = 27trdx-r1 (13.3.1)
F dr
,
,

^^) = F4Xr + d r )-F Tp(r) = ^ I n r d x t j dr =

. , , d ( dv\
= in d x d r rn .
dr l ' dr J
, :
dP
= [ () - ( + dx)\ Inrdr = - 2nrdr dx. (13.3.2)

,
2 nrdr.
:
/7 + / = 0 -

d ( d v \ dP n
------ r = 0 .
dr \ 11 dx
, ,

dv 1 2 dP
r n --------- = const.
dr 2 dx
= 0, , const = 0.
dv
(13.3.3)
dr 2ij dx

. ,
.
. dP/dx = const,

= ^ - (13.3.4)
dx L
(, \>2,
*).
(13.3.3)
:

212
4 /7 /
,
: v(R) = 0.
(13.3.5) ( )
.
,
. dS
. 13.3.2, dS
dt
dV - vdt dS dm - pdV = p v d S dt ,

vdt
dQ - ^ = pv-dS = pv(r) Inrdr . . 13.3.2.
dt dS
:, .. ,
,
R R

J
Q = pvdS = J pv(r)'2nrdr = 2 ------J ( /? 2 - r 2\rdr =
i 0 ^ L0 (13.3.6)
= np ?z A r\
87 L
.
13.3.2. .
, , L

. L
.
,
= ]- 2
U,

pU 2 = (13.3.7)
2
(, ).

(13.3.5)
52 4ijL
V = - . = (13.3.8)
4r]L R1
(13.3.7), (13.3.8)
4 tjL
R2
, .
, vmax : U ,

L L o ~ ^ - (13.3.9)

( ). , -
,
:
2
L^ Lo - ^ - . (13.3.10)

( L ^ L q)
.
,
. ,

K ~ 2 ^ n R 2L ~ p R 2L v2
^ (13.3.11)
( ).

~ F^L. (13.3.12)
:

" T]-2nRL-( - dV
- I -!. (13.3.13)

2 7rRL = S ,
v(r) (13.3.5). :
(13.3.14)
,
: ~
(13.3.11) (13.3.14)
P ^ m m ^ m a x ~ ^ m in ^ m a x => A n in ~ / ^ m a x &
, , (13.3.10).
13.5.2.
13.3.3. .
1.
() R\ R2

214
(. 13.3.3). ,
/,
-dr,
:

l___

dv dv
Inlrj ~ = 2nlrj dr = - (/} - 2) Inrdr.

|
dr r++ dr r_ _dr \ dr J _

dr l
*2
:

. 13.3.3. R\ R2.
() dry

.

R2 v(R2) = 0 ,
:
' 4
v(r) = (Pl -P 2) ^ H + c \n
41?7 * J

v(R ]) = 0.
v(r) :

2 -> , R:
R: -~ + 7 - - In
\n(R2/R ,) \ ^ 2 j
:
,
* _ * +{ * l * L
Q = p \ v(r) Inrdr = - ( {- )
i ilrJ

215
2. ,
.
, ,
v0 .
.
, ,
,
,
:

F(r) = -2 ]^- = const = F.


F
v(r) ------- In = , R{ < < R2.
27T7J
:. F ,
:
v(R,) = v0, v (R2) = 0.
v(r)
F
v0 + - In , = ,
27UJ

+ ,=,
2
In

:
_ 2
in ( )
:

v{r) = v I n f o / ' )
In f o / ,)' '

13.4.
13.4.1. .
,
.
,
, :
.

216

R = ^
=^ . (13.4.1)
77 V
/ , U .
13.4.2. .
,

[] = " 3, [/] = - [/] = , [?]] = - "1 - "1 = 1.


: ,
Re .
,
- / , (/,

v = f/f , = 2< ,R e (13.4.2)


V? Re,
f (
.
~ /.
~ /3. ~,

EK= ^ m U 2 ~ p U 2l \ (13.4.3)

, d U /d z - lI /l,
, ,
U. ~ /
A ^ - F ^ l - n U ! 2. (13.4.4)

p u 2i 1 _ PUI _ Re (13.4.5)
- nui ,,

217
, , Re I
, . ,
Re 1 .
,
.
, ,
. ,
ReKp 1800,
ReKp 1000.
13.4,3. .
, .

: = // (
), Fr = v 2/g l (g ),
= ///** ( )
. ,
.
.
, - .

, .
: ?
.
,
, , . :
, v -
;
/ ;
v0 . *.
, /7,
( ).
: , v, /, >0. ,

.

p,Tj,c,a, r , \ , l , v 0,T ,g (13.4.6)
.

218
(13.4.6) .
. :
v /v 0, r/l.

77 V/
:
2
= ( ), Fr = ( ), Sh = 2- ( ).
Si I
(13.4.6) ,
:

= f ( - ,R e ,F r ,M ,S h .
Vo \l J
,
.
.
.
Re 1 ( ), ,
. Re I ( ),
, ,
. ,
Re, .
, Fr ==z)\jg l
, (Fr<$cl)
.
Sh = rv0/l ,
> .
= v0/c.M > 1, ,
< 1 .
>, = 0.

.
,
.

R e = vl/v,
.
,

219
,
.
.
, , ,
,
.

, .
R = pvl/?j ,
/7 .
(Re, = R e 2)
, /?,/, = 212.
, , -
.
, /

v = u0f ( r //,R e ,F r ),
.. , .
, ..
. Re Fr
. ,
Re, = R e 2, Fr, =Fr2,
v Jl _ v2Ll ; _ v;
Vl V2 g,l, gJl

,
. :
/, = / 2. , /, * / 2,
: V \* v 2.
.
,
.
. /0 = 5
/^ = 5 . . 170 =15/.
, ,

220
/ = 80 ( ).
v = 0,01 2/ .
,

Re = = 2 ,1 107, Fr = = 0,022.
vo g 1
, , .
, (
), , .
,

: Fr, = Fr2. :

^ - = => V = VB = 6 0 / .' (13.4.7)


glo gl Vo

:

P = ^ ~ f m = p v 3l 2f ( Fr) (13.4.8)
l/v
(
).
, Fr, = Fr2. ( 13.4.8)
(13.4.7) :
! ' 1/2 ( 1 V /2
P = p v 3l2f(F r) = p v 30l 3 /( F r ) = />
^ J ^> J
0 = p v \ l \ f (Fr) .

'8 0 ?/2
= 5 .. 8 - 10 4 ..
5
13.4.4. . R
v Re 1 (..
) (1851 .):
F = -6nRrj\. (13.4.9)
.
, ,
:
F C\V + C^xP" +...

221
\ 2
: , R, 77.
, ,
\ = c*j/7/?, 2 = c2pR ,
\ 2 .
pRv
F * c]7jRv +c2p R 2v 2 Cl + 9 = 77/ t o ( , + 2 R e ) .

,
,
:
3 pvR
F = -67njR\^\ + ^R e I= - 6 nijRv (13.4.10)

.. (1910 .).
(13.4.10)
F = -67rr/R\ / (Re).
/XRe) ,
(R e c l)

A R e )* l + -R e .
8

13.5.
/3.5.7. .
,

(. 13.5.1).

. 13.5.1.
;

222
,
,
U.
.
13.5.2. .
, (. 13.5.1
). ,
.
,
:

2 2
+ - = / q + const. (13.5.1)

U .
dx

, dv1 , / t _ _ _
dx =----- dx. (13.5.2)
2
dx,
(. 13.5.1 ). ,
,

^ = 5 [ ()-( + )] = - 5 1 ^ = 1 /1 ^ 2 . (13.5.3)
2.

S , .
( ) Ly,
8. S ~ L y8,
(13.5.3) :

( 1 3 - 5 '4 )

:.
d(v2)ld x ~ U 2lx .

Fman~ p L yS d x (13.5.5)


( ) .
- S = Lydx

223
dv U
(13.5.6)

dv/dz - U / S
, v - 0
~ U .
(13.5.5) (13.5.6)
,
U2 U
Fnmn ~ Frp => p Ly5dx ~ Lydxi) => S ~

,
, > 0 ,
:

(13.5.7)

13.5.3. .
(13.3.10).
,
,
. , ,

(. 13.5.2):
S ~ R.
Lq U. , x~~L,

. 13.5.2.


yJvL/U > R => L> Lq ~ UR2/ v . (13.5.8)
, ,
(13.3.10). , , -
, ,
.

13.6.
13.6.1.
1. .
(. 13.6.1).

224
. 13.6.1.

( )
. (\ 2),
. .
:

+ p v 2/ 2 = const
.
.
, (;, = v2 = 0 ),
:

= + 2/2> .
,
. ,
. ,
, :
Fx = 0, Fy = 0 .
:
.
.
.
, ,
. .


.
,


, .
2. .
. 13.6.2.


.

225
1.
,
: Re 1.
,
(. 13.6.2),
V = 0 v ~ (/, -
.
,
. . 13.6.3.
,
,
:
Fx * 0, Fy = 0.

:
1 . ,
2 . .
,
.

. . 13.6.3.
, : \ 2,
.
| 2 : 0 = =- > .

: Fx * 0 .

. 13.6.3.


2

2.
, .
,
.

226
. 13.6.4. ;
;
(
1) ( )

(. 13.6.4).
( )
- U (. 13.6.4 ).

,
. 13.6.4 ( ).

()
(. 13.6.5).
,
,
.

N
/
. 13.6.5.

(
)

3.

, . ,

227
. (,
), ,
(. 13.6.6).

. 13.6.6.

, ,
,
.
,
, (. 13.6.6).
,
.
(. 13.6.7).
.
, .
, ,
. , .

.

. 13.6.7.

%

13.6.2. .
,
(). .. 1852 .

. . 13.6.8 .

008
. 13.6.8. .

U.

~ /
(. 13.6.8). ,
. :
1 )
2 ) ( ).
,
(
. 13.6.9 , : V\ > v2).
. 13.6.9 , ,
, .

, , .
, . 13.6.10.


. 13.6.9. . 13.6.10.

(
)

.
, ,
,
p v S = const.
P /p + v2/ 2 = const ,
, : <2,
.
, Fy
.
-:

F f =TpU, r = <j)Wl( (13.6.1)

U , ,
. ,
, . ,
/, Fy = /Fv(,).
R /,
.
voo> |v| = z; ( ).
vR = coR,
- 2 n R 'V K -InRrco.
-

F = InpRrcolv. (13.6.2)
,

.
,
.

F = 27rpR2lw x \. (13.6.3)
. 13.6.11. .
.
, / R,


,

230
(. 13.6.11). ,
.

mv = mg -f 2 /?2/ v.
, . 13.6.11,
:
Fx - -2npR 2lcovz , Fz =2npR2lcQVx
( ).

vx = -Q v z , vz = Qvx - g,

Q = ^2npR2//mjco.

;.( 0 ) = 0, i>,(0 ) = 0

= v.* - -
Q (\ l - c o s Q /), Q sinQ/.
, :

' = - ^ - (Q / - sin Q /), z - H (1 - cos Q/).


dr dr
:
(0) = 0, z(0) = , .
,
.
13.6.3. .
. - ,
, .

, .
.

, (. 13.6.12).
,
, .
,
(. 13.6.13).
, . -

231
,
. : F > 0.

\ /

7

/ \

. 13.6.12. . 13.6.13.

,
, .
, .

( . 13.6.14), ,
, (. 13.6.15).

V\ < v 2

. 13.6.14.

.
: \ 2. .
( \) .
, 2, ;||
, ,
( , 2
). 2
: .
K2D ,
.
.

232
. 13.6.15. () KiD ()

.

,
. ,

. .
,

S ().
()
, , (. 13.6.16).
= 0 . (
( = - 0. <> 0, / ^ > 0 .
Fy < 0.
:
= 2 / / ( - 0) = 2 //<.
, ju = /, 0 = 0.
0 0 .

. 13.6.16. . 13.6.17.

233
Fx
.
Fy /F x .
, ,
dcyld(p 2/t.
, , 40 = 40^ ,
: dcv/d(p = 0
(. 13.6.17). .

234
14.
14.1.

:
1) ;
2) (
);
3) .
.
14.1.1. . ,
, 1675 .
(Ole Romer, 1644-1710) .
(. 14.1.1).

-*--6

. 14.1.1. . .
/? = 778 .
/?3 = 150 .
7 := 11,9 .
= 1

L ,
.
t0 =L/c , .

/, =t0 + r + ljc .
/|
. -
=+1/

235
ln - *.
N\ 1 . / 0 (
, !
). ,

= 1---------.


.
N \ / 2 0,5 .
12 ~ = 300 , lNu2 ~2 ,

2R3
= ---------------------------.
( ^ ,/2
, ^ 1 *0 ^ 1 /2 * 1 7 .
300 ,
* ---------------- = 300000 /.
1000
= 299 793 /.
, . 1856
., ,
.
. , ,
,
.
. . (1856 .) ,
.
,
. ,
. %

, , .
, ,
, (
. .
.

1 (James ( lei Maxwell, 1831-1879) ,


, )
- 865 . 1
.

236
14.1.2. . .

.. 1 1881 .
, . 1897 .
(E.W. Morley) , 1905
. (D.C. Miller)
.

. 14.1.2. . S ,
( ), , D .
: - = L

. 14.1.2. 1897 .

1,5 30 .
, .
.

, 1 . 14.1.2
.

L L IL /c
* - / * ~ , ^ ~ * ~ . / / 2 *
c-V c+ V \-(V /c )

, , ,
, . 14.1.3.

1 (.. Michelson, 1852-1931) .


(1907 .)
.

237
{ctPB)2 ={VtPB)2 +L2

L tc
1 -
yl\-V2/c2

_ 2 L /c
( ~ 21
v n V4c*
1 2

A 2L 1
&l = t P A P - PBP = ----
1- V 2 lc 2 / 1 V2 / 2 J
2L 2^ /
1+ - LY1
\ 22 ; 1
( , /3 = Vfc 1 ,
).

. 14.1.3. , / 1 \
Clni / 1 \
/ ////
L/1!
1
/ 1

/ L/3 2
,
.
90 .
,
, / 2 L/3 2 .*

/ 7 - 4 , Z, = 11 ,

= 5,9 ) 5 , / 0 ,3 7 , ..

. 0 ,0 .
. 1905
1,5 ,
0,007* .
,
i

238
. , ,
, , .
1905 . . 1 ,
,
.
14.2.
,
V (. . 14.2.1).
/ = 0 , ,
,
.
L. ,
, .
S', ,

1 = / = 7 ~ -
(.. ) S

_L/2 LI 2
* ~ c + V
/ 1 -
c - V77>

. , tOA * t OB. , ,
S', S:
,
.

. 14.2.1. L


,

V


.
.

1 (A. Einstein, 1879-1955) - ( 1933 .


). 1921 . ,
.

239
,
L .
: t = L/c.
/ = 0
tnp = L /c ,
.

.

,
.
.

14.3.
J4.3.1. . \ 2 ,
(*|, z{) (2, z 2), t\
\ 2 .
2 t2,

(12 - ) := / 2 - \)2 +(2 - ^ ) 2 + (z 2 - z , ) 2 ,

2At2 - 2 = 0 .
S , V S ,

:

2At'2 - '2 = 0 .
,
(, , 2 ) *|,
P2 (x2,y 2,z2) t2. ,
, At = t2t{.

/ = \j(Ax)2 + {Ay)2 + (Az)2 ,
= 2 - }, = 2 - , , Az = z2 - z {.
()2 = 2(At)2 (/)2.
As, , .
ds

240
ds 2 = c2d t2 - d r 2 = c2dt2 - d x 2 - d y 2 - d z 2. ( 1 4 .3 . 1 )

ds2 > 0, .
ds2 < 0, .
14.3.2. . ,
.
: 1 )
, 2 ) .

, , 1,
ds2 = 0 , .
, ds2 * 0.
: S , S\ S2. , 5| S2
V| V 2 S. ds, dsx
ds2 ,
.
,
ds2 =a(V])ds2 ds2 = a(V2)ds\. (14.3.2)
a(V)
. ,

.
(14.3.2)
:
ds2 =a(V\2)ds 2 , (14.3.3)
V\2 S\ S2.
(14.3.2) (14.3.3),

^ 12 ) = - ^ - 0 4 .3 .4 )
(})

V| V 2, ,
.
, a(V) = const.
(14.3.4) , - 1.
,
: ds = inv.

1 , d l d t
: d l = cdt.

241
14.4.
14.4.1. .

. ,
S , S' V
,
.
,
c2t 2 - x 2 = c2t ,2 - x ' 2 . (14.4.1)

:
X = ' + fit, / = ' + St', (14.4.2)

. (14.4.2) (14.4.1)
'
, 8:
2(' + St')2 - (ax' + p t ' f = V 2 - '2,

2 2 - 2 = - 1 , 2(c2y 5 -a P ) = 0, c2S 2 ~ p 2 =c2. (14.4.3)


, '= 0 S',
(14.4.2) S
x = j3t', t = 8 t'.
8
S' S V = = ,

8 = VS. (14.4.4)
, 8 (14.4.3), (14.4.4)
(14.4.2). :

,4 4 ,'
x'+Vt'
- t= (14.4.5)
: 1 ! 2 2 ! 1
' /',
V
, x -V t '~ S X
= (14.4.6)
V*/cz ' l l - z ! *
,
:

242
=, Z Z . ( 1 4 .4 . 7 )

(14.4.5) - (14.4.7)
'.
.

, (
) = 0, t = 0.
, ,
:
:

/' + '
Ax' + VAf'
= At = ^ ----- (14.4.8)
J\-V2/ 2 \ I \ - V 2/ 2
= /, Az = Az',
:

At v

4 , A x -V A I
= . , (14.4.9)
V l - V 2/c 2 J \ - V 2/c 2
' = , Az = Az.

1At2 - 2 - A y 1 - A z 2 = 2At'2 - '2 - Ay'2 - A z '2,


.
14.4.2. .
S \ , .
' = / = Az1= 0.
(14.4.8),
/'
At = (14.4.10)
V l-F 2 /c 2
At' , S'
. (14.4.10)
,

1 ( . . L orentz, 1 8 5 3 -1 9 2 8 ) - .
. (19 0 2 .)
( . ). (1 4 .4 .5 ), (1 4 .4 .6 )
1904 .

243
S (At) S' (At'),
S.
,
. ,
S': dsr = cdt.
S dt,
dl = 2 + dy1 + dz~ = Vdt, V
S' S. S

ds = \lc2dt2 - dl 2 = c d t 4 \ - V 2i c2.
ds* = ds, , ,
:
dr = ds/c. (14.4.11)
14.4.3.
. , L0 (..
S', ),
V S
(. 14.4.1). L, S.

k 1
V
. 14.4.1.
=0 '

(14.4.6):
M .-p L U L .. * (14.4,12)
1h - r 2 /c 2
,
S, ..
= 0.
S S'.
: : = 0 :
S: S': \ ,
V = 0, V = 0.
2- : = 0 :

244
U = 0, ' = ,
S: S':
\ t = L/V, t' = Lo/V.
Ax = -L q, = 0, At = L/V.
(14.4.12),
L = L j \ - V 2/ c 2. (14.4.13)
, ,
,
. .
. (14.4.13) .
,
.
/, = / , X, = 0 ,
/ = 0, *: = L.
h = / 2 =
L .
(14.4.9),
L
Lo =

, , (14.4.13).
,
, (14.4.13). ,
:
( = 0, '2 = L0.

/;= /;, \ = ,
/' = 0, A
~ > 2 = ^0

(14.4.8),
L= _ _

,
(5)
,
V
/' + '
At = Lp /

\J \- V 2/ 2 f i ^ / c 2'

245

.
14.4.4.

1. .
. ,
(. 14.4.2). '
V.
L0, '
.

'
ysssssssssss

. 14.4.2.
(') ()

(Kf)
2 L 0 0 = 2 L q/ .
,
. 14.4.2 . .
V t ,
,

= 2 ^ + ( / 2 ) 2.


2 L0
=
sjc2 - V1
0 = 2Zq/ c , :

- - .
- ( / ) 2
2. .
.

246
0,
L.

0 = 2Z-o/c, = , + 2.
( ) ,
:

,= L + F
|,

L
| c -V
'

1

I '^
"}

. 14.4.3.

, ,
, :
2 = L - V t2,

L
2 = -------.
2 c +V

L L 2L/c
1 2 c -V c +V \-( V /c ) 2

, = *0/ \j\-( V /c ) 2 ,

2L/c _ 2Lq/ c
1- (V /c j1 ~ s ] \- (V /c)1 '

L = L0J l - ( V / c ) 2.
. ,
, V S.
W S.

247

, .
.
, , .
, S W = WQyJ \ - V 2/ c 2.
14.4.4. . ,
.
, 1 0 = 10 ..,
V = 0,6 ,
Ln0 = 8 .. (. 14.4.4).

LK= LKOy j\ - ( V / c y = 8 .. ,
tA = t B =LK/c
: LK= Lu0.
, .

v
[ \
I,1......... ;;-]>

1) 188888
v
. 14.4.4. . ,
;
( )

, ,
.

Lu = Lu0y j\- (V /c y = 6 ,4 .. ,
: Lk0 > Ln.

1 .. .

248
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
. ( , )
. ,
( ).
,
,
: 0 = 0 , /0 = 0. :
1 ( ),
2 .
* :
1: = LK+ Ltl 0 = 2Ln0, tn = L^/V = Lti0/K ,
!: tA = L j V = LnS)/ V .
, (0 = 10 .., 0 = 8 .., F = 0,6 )
LK= Lu0. , ,
, :

, 1 2 :
, ,

.
t'A -t'B = 6 .
,
, :
, . , ,
.
, ( )
, , ,
.

249

.
( 14.12).
14.4.5. .
'= (*/!<., u'y ,u'z ) S',
S
V.
u = (wx , uy9uz ) S.
(14.4.5):

At + ^ j A x
Ax' + VAt'
= At = - ----------- - (14.4.13)
V l- F 2 /c 2 V l - V 2/ c 2
Ay = A y \ Az - A z'.
u u'
Ar , Ar'
u = , u = ---- .
At At'
, (14.4.14) ,
- , :
' +
Ux =
(14.4.14)
\ + u'xV/ 2
' , :
-V
' = ^ . (14.4.15)
\ - /
(.. uz )
,
(14.4.14) : %

V l - V 2/ c 2 , V l- / 2
it = ----- - ^ , . = ------- ; *1-
,
(14.4.16)
1+ / 2 * 1+u'xV / c 2 *

, sJ \-V 2 / 2 , / l - V 2 / c2
= ----------- > uz = ----------- T T uz- (14.4.17)
\ - u xV /c 2 \ - u xV jc 2
, V <
. , ' = ,

250
(14.4.14) : - .
.
1. S',
, ' (*',
') ( ( S").
^^ 5.
cx =cGO$(p,cy =cs\x\(p.
(1.4.14), (1.4.16)

c '+ V ccos<p + V y ll- V 2 /c 2 , 12 - V 2 .


= = -- ----- , = ----- 7 = -- ----- csixup.
cx V c + V cos< p cx V +
1+ 2 + 2
,
: + - '2 +' = 2.
2.

V| v 2
(. 14.4.2).
2 ,
1 .


. 14.4.2. 1.
V|
(14.4.15), (14.4.17)
V2
2
1 :

( ^
2-\ V \X
vi V2 1-
l - v ]xv2x/ c 2
(14.4.18)
2 1

( \'
>2 = J ( y2x)2 + K r ) 2 = J K )2 + (viy f -- (14.4.19)
J
, \'2 2
,

/1 - 1 ^
%

9S1
, v2 =c (, 2 ),
(14.4.18) :
f v \2
v \x
*>2 ="% > V l y = . II ~
V J

2
/ 2\
V \X
2 = ^
+ 2 1 -
2 h ( V2 y f = j ( Vl x ) 2+C = ,
1 ) /

.

14.5. (:-/)-

(, /)- (. 14.5.1).
S
.
.
/,
(
). ,
,

= ct = - / .
1
2 . 14.5.1, 45
. 14.5.1. (--/)-.
.
, . 14.5.1 S.
, I 2
: & ,

s2 =(ct)2 - x 2 < 0 .
,
, :
s2 = )2 - 2 ><>.
,
. -
,
.

252
. ,
(
). (, /)- = 0, t = t0,
(14.4.6) ' = 0 ,
V = $ / / 0 .
, ,
.

. ,
(
). ( , /)-
= 0, / = /0, (14.4.6) /' = 0 ,

V = /0 /** *
(-/)- V
), . 14.5.2. ,
V
, 2 (. 14.5.26).

. 14.5.2: \ , 0\ Ki
,

\ \
ct c t' x = ct ct, ,
x = Vt, .. tg 6 = V/c. 2

.
S\
V S.
. 14.5.3.

( \ ct').
5' (*', ct') (14.4.6),
S (, ct) S :

253
V
ct - - X ' (.. /' =0),


ct = - /' (.. = 0 ).
V

x = ct (. 14.5.3).
(-/)-
. , S', ct\
= Vt. ,
,

Ct' = yl(ct)2 - 2 = c ty l\-(V /c )2.


(14.5.1), (14.5.2).

. 14.5.4. , S.
. ' S'.
, (I) (2) x = L
S S . 14.5.4 S'
. 14.5.46


, ,
14.4.3. . 14.5
( S')
S. 1 2 (1)
(2) = L S.
S . 14.5.4, S'
. 14.5.46. S
Q
As = L . 5"

254
,
:

L = L0J \- ( V /c ) 2 .

14.6.
(
) , ,
.
X. 1 1842 .
14.6.1. . ,
V,
0 .
, .
, / (
). /,,
/| = / H+ L /c .
/ + \
AL = VT\, ( L -A L )/c ,
.
L -A L
h -* +71+
- '- 7 - 7 >

= ' - ' , = 1 - 7 }

0
( )
\ ( )

y ll - V 2 / c 2
, 0
1- V i c -V ic
= (14.6.1) (\.
/- V 4 c l 4 + V!c
0

1 (Ch. Doppler, 1803-1853) , .


, . 1842 .
,
, .

255
= 2 / ( ),
= 2/7
ll + V /c /11^
= ( }
, ,
, .
. ,
V -V
I l - V/ C
= con ---------- . (14.6.3)
UVl + K /c
.
(14.6.3), (14.6.4)
, ,
.
.
14.6.2. (-4)-.
(-/)- (. 14.6.1).
( )
( ) V.
/\ /2,
.
(*-/)- , ct

45 ct.

. 14.6.1.

,
. ,
tg# = F/c, /| /2
,

. 14.6.1,
(/ + 7 ])/ = 7 j.
(/j + T )t\ = 7 .
,

256
1\. , ,

t\ -t ='tg<9 => /, = / H(l + tg<9). (14.6.4)


, 12

(ti + T )-(t,{+ Ti) = (tH+Ti)tg 0 => /l + r = (/H+7JXl + tg^). (14.6.5)
(14.6.4) t\ (14.6.:5),
r = 7](l + tg0) = 7i(l + F/<:), (14.6.6)
, tg - /.

: 7] = 0/ - 2/ 2 .
(14.6.6)

- \+/ (14.6.7)


.

.
14.6.3. .
.
, -
-.
(14.6.7)

1
= 1> (14.6.8)
\J \- V 2/ 2

a>= a>0J l ~ . (14.6.9)

.

.
14.6.4.
.
v ,
( (. 14.6.2).
, ,

257
, , (
) ^.

. 14.6.2.


.


, ,

V = i7cos#>. (14.6.10)

*
= (14.6.11)
\1 V 1\ v cos <

<0 .


J \ - v 2/ c 2
) = -------- *. (14.6.12)
f V
* 1 cos

^? = 0 = /2
:

> \1<?=//2 2
"-

(14.6.12) ,

(. 14.6.3).
/ = 0,
L, = L .

/, = L/C.

258
dt .
vdt.
,
= x tg ^ = const.

L2 - yj(x + vdt)12 -2 - ]2 + 2 vxdt + y 2 - y fl? + Ivxdt L + dt.


Lt
,

, . 14.6.3 / L = -zos(p (
, ).

t2 = l - - c o s # ? \dt.

, ,
:

1 $(

, ,

. 14.6.3.
.

, (

7 2
,
.
. 14.6.4
. ,
.

259
. 14.6.4.

, v = 0,6.

,

,
( . 14.6.4)
9
\

cos ( = -
V

, V : co s ( = vj2 ,
, // 2 .
, ,
= 0
( =
_ / I + / _ II - /
max ix -v /c m i" ]jl + v/c'
14.6.5. .
, .
,
, , , .
^
,

< = ---- ^ -----. (14.6.13)


11 V cos <
S
s . , = 0 = //2,

> = > = 7 ^ = 0 >



(14.6.14)
= a\nin = <= -
1+ V/S

260
, ,
: v : s.
(14.6.14) :
<, = < )( 1 + > ) , <ymin = ( \ - v/s ).
,

- -v s ^ - < v- . (14.6.15)
s 0 S
14.6.6. () .

. .
V
(. 14.6.5). () .
*
Lq. /0 ( ) .

/| = /0 + )/ -
t0 + ,

t'y ~ tri + + -V * = /.+ 1 .


D


= ,
14.6.5. ( )


__ V
^
\-V /c
,
= 0,5, ^ 1 = *
= 0,8, ||= 4 . ,
.
.
, (..
)
:

261
V
^ <.
AL 1+ V/c
,
,
.

14.7.
.
1. Bce (, ,
)
1. ,
,
.
2.
, ..
.

,
( ,

).

14.8. 4- -
14.8. L .

3-
4- ,
(3+1 )--.
(, , z) ^ /
,
(/, , , z). (/, , , z)
, 4-
,
.

1 ,
(. Poincare, 1854-1912) 1895 . 1905 .
.
. .

262
Ax( t,x ,y ,z ) A2(t + d t,x + d x,y + d y ,z + d z \
, :

ds = ^ c 2dt2 - dx2 - dy2 - d z 2 , (14.8.1)


. ,
3- dl,
dt, .. dl = cdt, : = 0 .
(14.8.1) ,

, 3-
.
4- 3- ,
, 3- ,
, .
14.8,2. . ,

ds2 = c2dt2 - d x 2 - d y 2 ~ d z2, (14.8.2)
, , ,
dx 2, dy 2 dz2 - ,
+ c2dt2. -
, ,
2 ^ 7 7
+ ( dl =dx +dy +dz ).
. 1
.
,
( ct, , , z )
. ds2 , ..
.
14.8.3. 4- 4-.
, .
, .
, -
.
- Q ,
.. , , , ,

1 (. Minkowski, 1864-1909) . 1908 .


3- 4-
, .

263
4-. : ,
, .
3- 4-
- 4- ,
. ,
:
= (/, 9., z) = (ct, ).
ct ,
(.. ).
4-
dc = ( cdt, dx9dy9dz) = ( cdt9dr).
= ( , Ayi Az ) 4 -
, , , 4-,
,
= ( ct, :, , z) ( d a - ( cdt;dx9dy9dz ) ):

At Ax Ax - ~ A t
c , A '= A V, A'Z =AZ. (14.8.3)
4 = >
A ' -

V2/c 2 y ll - V 2/c 2
, ,
( Ax, Ay , Az ) 4-.
4- = ( ),
= ( , , 2) .

= AtBt - A xBx - A yBy - A zBz = ,, - . (14.8.4)
, 4-, ,
2 =,2 - 2 - 2 - 2 = 2 - 2. (14.8.5)
(14.8.3) , ! , 2
, .. 4-:
= '', 2 = '2.
, 4- 4- 4-.
4- , ,
. , ,
F = Q,
,
. ,
4-, 4-,

264
4-. ,
4- .
14.8.4. 4- . 4- = (/,, wv, uv, .)

d a ( cdt dx dy d z \ ( dt dr \ /t . 0
= = 1 , , , \ = \ c , . (14.8.6)
ds V ds ds ds ds) \ ds d s)
ds , dr
dt. , ds
: dr = ds/c
.
d a 4-, a ds ,
(un ux ,U y,uz ) , 4- da,, ,
, 4-. 4-
,
2 d a 2 c2dt2 - dx2 - dy2 - dz2
u = =------------- ------------= 1
ds~ ds2
( d a 2 =ds2).

ds = \lc2dt2 - dr2 - cdt y ] \-v 2/ c 2 , (14.8.7)
\ = dr/dt 3- 1,
4-
1___________ V
(14.8.8)
^y j\-V 2/ 2 ] \ - v 2/ 2 ,

14.9.
4-
.
14.9.1. 4-. 3-
4- 4-
= 0 , (14.9.1)
0 , 4-.
4-

1 , ,
V , v
.

265
wnv
(14.9.2)
\ / \ - v 2I 2 / l - u 2 / 2
, ; ,
(
) = \.
3-

= = == . 0 4 .9.3)
y } \-v 2/ 2
w 0 .

1

s m(v) - (14.9.4)
>/ I
v /
, {)
. , m(v)
m{v) = */2 .
m(v) 4-
= (, \), 3- = \.
4*,
, (14.9.2) ,
' 1 = ? - 2 = '< (14.9.5)

()2 - 2 = ^2. (14.9.6)


14.9.2. 4- .
4-
. *
.
4- :
dp du 1 d(mc) 1 dp
8 = ds = ds
- : (14.9.7)
\C y j\ - v 2 / 2 d* c y /l-v 2 / 2 dt

1 m(v) ,
0 . .
, m(v) .

266
(23) ds.
(3-)
F = dp/dt. (14.9.8)
(14.9.6)
2 dm dp
= ,
dt V dt

dm 1 dp 1 dp 1
= - = - v = -I<v.
dt c m dt c dt c
,
4-:
Fv
= (14.9.9)
\ C 2y j ] - V 2 / 2 - v 2 1 2 )
,
(3-) F,
Q = F \ (.. , ).
14.9.3. .
a = dv/dt,
F.
,
(14.9.8):

= F.
dt - v 2/c
,

/
= F. (14.9.10)
-v-lc2 ^ l - v 2/ c 2f

.
v:
0 ,2
va
va + - - Fv va
- 2/ '2 1 - v 2/c mn W /

va (14.9.10),

= F --^ v (F v ). (14.9.11)
- v 2/c 2

267
, , ,
.
.
.
v(Fv) = Fv2 (14.9.11) :

7 = F, =

, Fv = 0
(14.9.11)

= F, =
<J\-v2/ c 2
.
:
Fv = 0 => \ = 0 => \ d \ = 0 => v 2 = const.
W|| m ,
. ,
,
m(v).
,
( )
.

14.10.
14.10.1. .
. F dr clt

dA - Fdr = F \dt = \ dt = .
dt m
m(v) = 0/ y j \ - v 2/ c 2.
:
( ' \
1 -
dA = - - =
m(v) 2() 4>2)= 2 () \ - v 2/ c 2

- \ 2 \ = ^ ^ d { m 2(v)c2} = c2dm{v).
2m(v) 1 - v 2/c
, dA

268
dA = d\) = c2d m .
m
, , v,
= 2 - $ 2 (14.10.1)
( : = 0 v = 0).
K(v)

, W f , - 2.
* ( )= (14.10.2)
VI - V 2/ 2
v< zc (14.10.2)
:
/ > > 2
_ mv

______ 1
1

+
~ 2
j l - v 2/ c 2 2

>
14.10.2. .

= -r 3 L = m c 2 (14.10.3)

, = $2
. ,
:
= mQc2 +K(v). (14.10.4)
(14.10.3) 4- (14.9.2)
, = /. ,
(14.9.4) m{v)

() = / 2 , (14.10.5)
,
.
, (14.9.3), (14.10.3) ,
:

v=
2 (14.10.6)

() 0 = 0, 3-

= ||, (14.10.7)
v = . (
).

269
(m0 0), , , ..

( c - v ) / c c 1, | | / 0 2.
14.10.3. . (14.9.3)
(14.10.3) v ,
2 - 22 =(02)2 (14.10.8)

= J p V + m 0V . (14.10.9)
(14.10.8)
. 4- (14.9.2)
4- (14.9.6)
p = (m(v)c,p). (14.10.10)
(14.10.3),

= ( /, ). (14.10.11)

(14.9.6):
(/)2 - 2 =(0)2,
, , (14.10.8).
14.10.4.
.
(14.8.3), 4- (14.10.11), :
- L F
E -V P y Px 2 ^
C
' = = p'y = Py> p'z = Pz- (14.10.12)
V i - * y l \ - v 2/ c :
,
: *

' + ' + ^ '
=
= > = , Pz = p'z-
(14.10.13)
y/l - V2 I 2 s l \ - v 2l c 2
. V
jc,
' + ' - VP
(14.10.14)
4 \ - V 2! c2 -Jl V2/ 2
.

270
(14.10.12) - (14.10.14)
, .
.
= ( / , ) 4-, :

I = 2 - 2 2 = inv. (14.10.15)
14.10.5. -.
(14.10.11), (14.10.9) , .4-/?
: ,
. ,
.
3-,
.

4- (14.10.15). 0
(02)2.
.
, -
:
+ - > + + + .
,
,
.

.
,
.
2
\ = 0 +

(02 + )2 ~()2 =(0 2)2 . (14.10.16)


4- :

/ = (2w 0c 2 + )2 - (pc) ' . (14.10.17)


2
= + ,
. .
4- -

/ = ( 4 02)2. (14.10.18)
(14.10.17) (14.10.16),

271
/ = (2 02 + )2 ~[(02 + )2 ~(02)2] =
(14.10.19)
= 4(02)2 +202.
: / = / . ,
(14.10.18) (14.10.19),
4(02)2 +?.02 = (402)2 = 602. (14.10.20)

.
, .

1 =(202 +2)2 .
/ = ( 4 02)2.
/ / ||,
2 = 202. (14.10.21)
,
(/?, )
02 .
14.10.6. . ,
, 4- ,
,
. ,
(14.10.11) 4-.

.

(14.10.12). : V <
- L f
, 2 .
= - ? = = = = = ~ ------2 = > = -
1 \- 212 <?
:
v' = v - V => p' = p - w 0V.
2
, > V > 0.
.
14.10.7. .
,

272
.
(), -. ,
, (), -.
(S') (5).
S .
. .
(14.10.12):

, 1 > ,-( ^1 )

Vcw =2/ .
:
Vcuh= c2p / e . (14.10.22)
, , ni\{h
v, , /;72, ,
( )

= |
2
= \ + /.

V =L 2 ___
_
BJ____2 = v ____
. *>
(14.10.23)
\ + w20c + 10

14.11. .
0
(. 14.11.1).
(. 14.11.1).
Mq ,
(- ) ,
(. 14.11.16). ,
. :

= ~w2x = vx = 0 ;
Wly = w2y = Vy - u> (14.11.1)
w\ = wf = w2 + w2.

273
()

()

|(w) ^(w)
. 14.11.1. ,
, , .
|w,| = |w2| = w

(14.11.2)

pi 2 , Ex(w)
, () .
(14.11.2) ,

:

> , w -> v -> 02. ,


(14 11.3)


2J
(. 14.11.2). :-

. 14.11.2.
Mq
0
, (14.11.3), 02 =2

274

= 0 2 - 2 0 2.
,
, {) > 0. ,

= ()2
,
{). ,
,

,

> 2 .
(14.11.3),
:

, .
,
. ,
.

14.12.
14,12.1. .
( 11).
, , .
S'
.
V 0 Vq . S'
.
11,
S' :

1 .

275
^^ ^ Fnocr . "**,
Fnocr =-^^, Fu6 =-WHH[C0,[(0,r]]-m[d),r], (14.12.1)
F k op ~ 2 ^ ]*

.
nig .
/,

F* =
GMm4 i*
(14.12.2)
- ( ).
,
:

Fif=mlfg, g = -Z ^y; L--


/
(14.12.3)
,
.
,
( )
a=F (14.12.4)
,
.
.

mina = mHg. 4 (14.12.5)

1604-1609 . ,
.
, :
min =mg* ,

.

.

276
.
1889-1908 . 1 ,

A/w _ Imin ~ I < 5 1 q-9


mg

1964 . . (R. Dicke, ) , i\m/m < 1 *, 1971 .


.. ()
/ < 10 12.

, .
( 5"), -
.
, ,
(
)
. ,
, ,

.
, :
w aorn = w ( g - a ) = 0 .
(-w a ),
g .

:
. ,
,
.

. , ,
,
( ),
.

1 (R. Eotvos, 1848-1919) .


, . 1888 .
, .

277
,

( , ).
:

(.. ).

, .
14.12.2.
. ( S')
S v.
J3 = v/c<z 1, ,
. S
.
S' ,
,
7,
- =- - * - . (14.12.6)

(14.12.6) ,
14.6.
( S')
( S ).
L .
. /
v = at. , L - c t -c v /a .
v ^ a L /c .
,

(14.12.7)
2 .
14.12.3. .

, ,
, g
:
g = -a . ,
,
. gr,2
(14.12.8)
~ 2

278
r12 - ,
| i*i 2 1L (. 14.12.1). gr,2 = > 0.

. 14.12.1.

, .

1 2

(14.12.9)
\ (1)
, ,

( 2)
<\-< = \%dr (14.12.10)
(I)
1 1 2 .
, ,
, ,
.
(14.12.10) (14.12.9)

(14.12.11)
\

2 = 7]^1 + J. (14.12.12)

, 1
( \ = 0 ), :

1 ,
.

279
2 =\ (14.12.13)

.
,
. (14.12.13)
.
, ,
() .
(14.12.13) .
,
.
(.. , : (Pi<0 \
, : 2 < 7].
, ,
, ,
. .
. ,
, ..

( - ( )2 = - ^ 22.

(14.12.13) 2 \

22^
, =71 1 -
22
, .
, = 1 1 = 3 / = 0,5-1016. ,
.

. ,
h
. ,
,
. ,

AT = {ghj 2), h
.
14.12,4. .
, ,

280
,
1907 . 1924 . . 1
-.
1960 .
. 2,

.

22,5 .
/ 2* 1 0 -14 ( 10%).
.
(
) .
, = hco,
. , , ,
E = hco 3.

: , -
.
,
, ,
( :
2 ):

(() = 0 (14.12.14)

() ,
(, 4,
-

1 (W. Adams, 1876-1956) .


.
2 (R. Mflssbauer, 1929-3011) -
. , ^-,
, ^ -
, .. .
1958 ., 1961 . .
3
.
4 ,
, (<= 0).

281
1. (14.12.14) ,
. ,
0 = 2, (14.12.14),
( ) = +mq>.
, ( < 0,
.
(14.12.14) , ,
< ,

{() = (0 (14.12.15)

cqq , ,
.
1,
<\.
\ =0(1 + ^ / 2). ,
2.
(. 14.12.1),
(0 2 - 0(\ + (21 2). ,

* _ (0\ - 2 _(P\~(Pi
( )2 1
1 ,
2 , q\ <(2\ >\ <>2 ,
, ,
2. ,
2 , ,
, *
. , , ,
.
2.

1 ,
, .
2 . ,
, , .
, , ,
.
, .

282
14.12.5. ( ).
(14.4.10) S \
S V, :

= ... 7.. ..... .. (14.12.16)


J\-V2/c2

.
.
, ,
V - 0,8 . - 25 ( )
. (14.12.16) -
- V = 15 .
.
,
.
, , , ,
, , .
:
-. ,
.
,
(-)
. (S')
. ,
.
,
: v<zc. ,
(14.12.16) ( )
\
(
V2
= -' = .
V 22
, a L
, , ,
: - 2 L / V ,
VI
T - T ' =- f . (14.12.17)
2
,
.

283
, .
, ,
(14.12.17) :
VI
(- = ~ (14.12.18)

( ,
, ).
,
, .
.
(14.12.12)

= '\\- ^ - ^ (14.12.18)

<9-(p = -g L
, g ,
. ,

(7- = - (14.12.19)

V
, .
(14.12.19) ,
, .
, ,
, 2 ,
: ' = 2 /. (14.12.19)

(- = 4 = (14.12.20)
1
(14.12.18) (14.12.20) ,

VL
- = ( - ) + ( - ') = . (14.12.21)

(14.12.17),
.
, -
,
.
14.1.2.6. .
.

284

. .
,
. ,
, : \(\<^2.

1

^ = - ^ = U [ 2 p ( p V ^ ) - ( l + p: )V ^ ], (14.12.22)

:
V 7
=-. P = ~ j= = (14.12.23)

/3<& 1 (14.12.22)
F = -wgrad#?. ,
,
. , v
, ..
, ,
.
,

29
2 = V + 1 + . ( 2)".

v : :
- 2 = 2/ + .

,
:

(p = _GM_ (14.12.24)

, .
(14.12.22)

1 , (80) (82),

.

285
(14.12.25)

. 14.12.2.
( , ). ()
(. 14.12.2).
. .*
. (

. / \ ( )
&< ~ tg(Acp) = , (14.12.26)
( )


. 14.12.2.

( ( ) ,
.
,
, . (14.12.26)
, ( )* /?0 , ,
(14.12.25) , ,

= v0, vy = 0 , r(r) = {X
V, = VT9

(14.12.25) .:
dp
----------- e .
dr

/30 =v 0/c. -
py ___ = 0

286
(14.12.26)

_ 2 ( 1 (| 4 . , 2 . 27,

, 0 = mv0/y j\- /3 q .
v0 > (
J3q -> 1) > 0. (14.12.27) -
:

= (14.12.28)

,
(.. =/? = 0,7*10 6 ),
( = 1,75".
29 1919 .
. 1,
.
.

1 (A. Eddington, 1882-1944) .


,
.

287

= 1/12 | 2,
waeM= 16605 10-24
= 9,1085 1028
= 1,6726-1024
= 330/
= 2,998 1 010 /
G = (6.673 0,001) 10-8 2/ 2
3 = 5,9742 1024
MQ = 1,989 1030
=7,35-1 022
/?3 = 6,366 - 106
RQ = 6,96 1 06
R3 = 1,737 106
rmin = 147098290 , 1 = 1 5 2 0 9 8 2 3 2
rmin = 363104 , rmax = 405 696

288

1. .. . . 1. . .: , 1989.
2. .., .., .. . . 1,2.
.: , 2001.
3. .. . . 1. .: , 1970.
4. .., .., ..
. . 1 / . .; . .: ,
2013.
5. .., .. . . 1. .
5- . .: , 2004.
6. .., .. , , . .:
, 2003.
7. .. . .: , 2011.
8. . . . .: , 2001.
9. .. . . 4. . .: , 1980.
10. ., ., . .
, , . . 2. .: , 1965.
11. . . .: , 1964.
12. .., .., .. , , //
. 1999. . 169. . 1141-1147.

289

. . . . . , . .
. .

21.06.2013. 60 84 1/16 . . . 18.1


.-. . 17,5. 1000 . 209



- ( )
141700, ., . , ., 9
E-mail: rio@mail.mipt.ru

-
141700, ., . , ., 9
E-mail: polygraph@mipt.ru
001182006