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1

01.02.05 ,

- ,

. .

- ,

..

2004
2

................................................................................................................. 7
1.
.................................................................................... 19
1.1. .......................................................................................... 19
1.2. ............................................. 21
1.3.
............................................................ 23
1.4. ,
........................................................................................... 23
1.5. ............................................................................ 26
1.6. ............... 27
1.7. ..... 30
1.8.
............................................................................................. 31
2.
........................................................................................................................... 36
2.1. .............................................. 36
2.2. ............................................... 36
2.3.
....................................................................................... 37
2.4.
........................................................... 40
2.5.

...................................................................................... 42
2.6.
............................................................................................... 43
2.7.
......................................................................... 44
3
2.8.
/
...... 45
2.9. ,
....................................................................................... 47
2.9.1. , ..... 48
2.9.2. ................................. 48
2.9.3.
....... 49
2.9.4.
................................................................................................. 50
2.9.5. .................................................................. 51
2.9.6. ..................................................................................................... 51
2.10.
............................................................................ 52
3. .
: ....... 66
3.1. .................................................................................. 66
3.2. .................. 67
3.3. .............. 69
4. -:
......................... 74
4.1. .............. 74
4.2. -M ......... 76
4.3. .................................... 76
4.4. - :
............................................... 78
4.5. Ra
-............................................. 80
4
4.6. 1 10 g
....................................................................... 81
4.7. 1 g
....................................... 82
4.8.
........................................................................................... 82
4.9. -
........................ 83
4.10.
- .......... 84
4.11. .................................... 86
4.12.
.................................................................................. 87
4.13. ............................................................ 88
5.
........ 110
5.1. , ........... 110
5.2. ......................................................................................... 111
5.3. ................ 112
5.4. ............................ 113
5.5. ........................................................... 115
5.6.
....................... 117
5.7. ............................................................. 117
..................................................................................................... 133
................................................................................... 136
1: .
........................................................ 150
2: .................. 153
5

;
;
;
t ;
r=r(r, , z) - -
;
u=u(r, t) ;
T=T(r, t) ;
C=C(r, t) ;
p=p(r, t) ;
;
;
a ;
Dc ;
t, c ;
n ;
;
e - ;
R - ,
;
E , -
;
na , ;
H ;
D ;
;
;
6
k ;
vf ;
Nu ;
Bi ;
Fo=at/H2 ;
Pr=/a ;
Sc=/Dc ;
Ta=H2/ ;
Gr=t(T1-T2)gH3/2 ;
Ra=t(T1-T2)gH3/(a) ;
Ma=(/)(T1-T2)H/(a) ;
Mac=(/C)(C1-C2)H/(D) ;
g0=9,8102 /2 ;
g=10-6g0 -g.
7

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1999 .
10
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MEPHISTO,
Space Shuttle Columbia -
12

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(., , [1; 13; 14; 15; 16]).

(., , [17]).
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Ra, , , [17]
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[20].
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[21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30].
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).
(., , [21; 22]), -
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.
13

[36].
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[37]. , -
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( . [38]).
(.,
, [39]), -
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[8; 40; 41; 42], [43; 44],
-
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(., , [45;
46]).
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[48], [49; 50; 51; 52] ..
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(. 5).
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14
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[1].
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16
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.
-
(03-01-06190, 03-01-00682), -

(. 74),
2239.2003.8, 17 -

. -
- -
-
(2001, 2002).

:
- -
-
-
;
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-
;
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;
17
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-, -
Ra;
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1999 . -

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-11;
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.



- VII . -
-
, , 2000;
- First Conference of International Marangoni Association, Giessen, 2001;
- 2001
XXI ;
- , -
, 2002;
- 4th International Workshop on Modeling in Crystal Growth, Fukuoka, 2003
18
- International Conference Advanced Problems in Thermal Convection, Perm,
2003;
- 21th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw,
2004;
- - -
.


, 5 , -
(127 ) . -
163 , 54 11 .
15 -
. [39; 59], ,
, ,
-
Ra Ma. [60; 61; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66], -
, -

. ,
, -
,
. [16; 67; 68; 69; 70; 71] ,
, Windows -
, ..-.. ..,
,
,
.
19
1.

-
. -
. .

1.1.
, ,
, [1; 14], -
.

, . , -
microgravity science , ,

. microgravity science
, -
- ,
, .

1. - (micro-
gravity science) , -
( )
, , -
, ,
.

( ,
), .
20
2. ( ) -
, , -
,
.
, -
.

,
, -
, .

: -
(
g-jitter). :

- .

3. -
, -
0,01 . -

,
0,01 .

0,01 , , ,
, ,
[72].
,
. -
. , -
21
-
, , [1;
14].
,
100 300 . , -, ,
-
. -, - -

, , -
g0,
(. 1).

1.2.

, -
.
, -
(, [73]).
.
, , -
, :

1. c, ;
2. ,
;
3. , ;
4. , ;
5. ,
.
22
,
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, , - -
.
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, .
, , .

g.
.
,
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: -
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,
.

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[14].
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100 , , -
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.
23
1.3.

-
. ,
. -
-
.
, ,
, , -
.
, . -
, .
. 1.1 .
() , -
, , -
( -
).
() , ,
,
,
.
-
, , -

().

1.4. ,

-
(. . 1.2).
24
-
:

1) , (, -
..),
2) , (-
, , ),
3) ,
( , -
),
4) , ( , -
, ..),
5) , (
..).

, , , , -
.

, -
.
,
Pr, Sc ..
,
Ma ( ) ..
-
, , -
. -
, ,
, ,
/. -
25
, , ,
-
.
,
, , .
-
-
2 5. , ,
, , ,
,
-
[73].
-
, , ,
, .
,
,
, -
, (. . 1.3). . 1.3
[72], ,
. ,
[72; 74]. , ,
-
.

.
-
, ,
, , -
, .
26

1.5.
-
-
. 2 ,
. 3
4 . 5
-
.
-
[1].
-
(., , [75])
, [76]:

u 1 d
+ (u )u + 2( u ) = u p + t (T T0 )n + r , (1.1)
t dt

u = 0, (1.2)

T
+ (u )T = aT , (1.3)
t

C
+ (u )C = Dc C , (1.4)
t

d
n = R0 + ( R0 ) + 2E [3(e R0 )e R0 ] + na (1.5)
dt
27
, -
(c=0). t .
, [76], -

. -
[1], , -
&,
, (1.1) r
, , , -
,
.
,
4, 5, -
, [15], -
.

1.6.

-
, .
, , -
[77]. -
, , -
,
, , -
[67]. , -
, , -
-
, -
(., , [73]).

28

g = 2E [3(e R0 )e R0 ] + na , (1.6)

(1.5), .
, (1.1) :
u 1
+ (u )u + 2( u ) = u p +
t
d d
+ (T T0 )( R0 + ( R0 ) + g ) + r
dt dt
,
. : H2/a, H2/ 1/0 (0 -
). -11 Ge/Si
( ) H=1
7.7 , 770 , 67 . -
,
, [53].
(1.1)-(1.5) -
. ,
: H, /H 2/H2 . -
(1.1) :

u g (T T0 ) H 3
+ (u )u + 2( u ) = u p + +
t 2
(T T0 ) d (T T0 ) d (1.7)
+ R0 + ( R0 ) + r
H dt H dt

=2/
( Ta). , (1.7) -
:

Ta=2/ , (1.8)
29

g (T T0 ) H 3
Gr= , (1.9)
2

(T T0 ) R0
Ta, (1.10)
H

(T T0 ) R0 (T T0 ) 2 R0 H 3
GrR= Ta2= - . (1.11)
H 2

. (1.8),
(1.9), (1.11).
(1.3) (1.4) -
:
T 1
+ (u )T = T , (1.12)
t Pr

C 1
+ (u )C = C , (1.13)
t Sc
r, t, u, , p, C, T .
(1.12) (1.13)
Pr=/a Sc=/Dc.
, ,
(1.1)-(1.5) .
1.5 -
. -
, , -
? : ,
,
(1.7).
30
1.7.
-
. , -
,
, -
. .. .

,
, QSAM -
-11 [8] (126, 5, 3). -
[78].

: H=1 ,
T=30. ( Pr=12 -
Pr=0.016) 1.1.
1.1 , Gr GrR
, , -
-
.
2 5
. -
-
-
.
,
,
[79].

1.1.
(Gr) (GrR) : -
31
(-1) (Ge/Si)
.
gmax, Gr Gr max, GrR GrR
/2 (-1) (Ge/Si) 1/c (-1) (Ge/Si)
4,510-4 310-1 2 3,510-6 1,010-6 6,710-6
-11 210-3 1,3 9 1,510-2 1,8101 1,2102
Shuttle 510-4 3,310-1 2,2 1,310-3 1,410-4 9,510-4
ISS 710-4 4,610-1 3,1 7,510-3 4,710-3 3,110-2

1.8.

,
,
[75]. ,
(., -
, [80; 81]), , -
, , -
.

, -
.
, .. [82].
[83]. -
, ,
=gH3/a, H , g
.
, <1.
, , -
,
. -
32
H=1 , (=0.0013 2/, a=0.081 2/), -
g~0.001 /2, ~9.5.
..
[32],

u u
(1.1) (T T0 ) .
t t
, -, .
, , -
,
, -
[84]. , 2, 4, 5,
, -
. -
, 2, 3 4,
,
.
33

. 1.1. .
() .
() .
34

. 1.2. : ,
: -
.
35

. 1.3. -
.
36
2.


.
,
. -
[1; 14; 76; 78].

2.1.
-
.
[85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 90].

, - (, , [85; 90; 91]).
, -
[89].

2.2.
90- -
-
,
,
[91].
-
(., , [60; 61; 62; 63;
64; 65; 92; 93] ).
, -
-
, .
37
2.3.

-
[94], -
[95; 96], -

. , , [97] , -


, , .
,
,
(., [60]
), -
[98; 99], -
.
, , -
[39; 59],
Ra ( .
[59] ). ,

[100],
. [59] -
,
(Fo*) Nu
(. . 2.1). Ra
. 2.2.
-
.
38
,
, -
. -
, ,
, [101; 102].

[59],
:

g=0.

v(t, x, 0)= v(t, 0, y)=v(t, L, y)=0,

u(t, x, H) T(t, x, H)
= , v(t, x, H)=0 - ;
y T x

T(t, x, 0)=1, dT/dx(t, 0, y)=dT/dx(t, L, y)=0,


T(t, x, H)
( + Bi T(t, x, H)) = 0 - ;
y

v(0, x, y)=0, T(0, x, y)=(H-x)/H.

:
L/H, Pr, Ma, Bi.
39
COMGA_W (. [60]) -
210x21 .
2.1
, Ma,
(L/H=10, Pr=1,
Bi=1).
-
[59].
-
, - , -
, -
, ,
, . , -
(
),
. -
,
.

2.1.
Fo* Ma. Ma(0) ,
, Ma(Fo*) , Fo*.
Ma(0) Ma(Fo*) Fo*
103 500 3
5103 2900 0.68
104 6500 0.38
5104 39000 0.105
105 81000 0.06
5105 450000 0,02
40
. 2.3 Fo* Ma,
Ma. Ma=Ma(Fo*) ,
, Ma=Ma(0) -
, . , -
.

2.4.

, , -
Ma, -
.
, -
,
-1 .

. , -
, - -
. - -
, -
.
: - -
, , ; -
.
, -
, .
- -
. -

, -, -11 . , -
41
:
R=(126, 5, 3).
: Pr=12, Ma=4.7105, L/H=5. -
, (1.4)
.
, ,
, -
, .. Ma=4.7105.
, , -
, ,
Ma , -

.
, -
, -
. -

, -
(>1 ) Gr Ma, -
, -
[9; 103].
, -
, [101].
,
Ma -
.
42
2.5.


-

-
. . 2.4. -
( -11, Gr~10)
(L/H = 4, Pr = 0.01, Sc = 10,
). -
, Ma ~ Gr, Ma, Gr -
,
. [1; 103].
. -
-
, , ( , ., -
, [8])
, Ma >> Gr,
(., , [53]). ,
Ma>102 -
, , , -
(. . 2.4), -

.
,
- -
, , Mac<<Ma.
43
2.6.

,
.
, -
, -
, -
.
[104; 105], -
C(Ma) .
,
Ma, -
, -, .
-
(L/H=4).
.
. -
Pr=0.016, Sc=10. : Gr=0.

(C). C Ma -
. 2.5. , Ma~1 -
, Ma -
,
.
[1],
-
. 5 -
.
44
2.7.

, -
, ,
, -
.
, , -
.
, -
,
-1 (Pr=12, Ma=4.7105) 5 (.
[66]). , -
.
-

[106]. -
, [107].
, -
, -
, [107; 108].
, -
,
. -
, -

. -
,
-
-
(.) -
45
-
-
. -
,
-
-
.

2.8.
/

-
. -
: -
, .
, ,
,
, ,
, -
.

.
.
(H=2 , L=4
). -
, (Pr=0.01, Sc=10, =2.510-4,
=0.0013). T=50.
g=10-
2
/2, -
46
, . , -
Gr=588.
. 2.6 ()
. , -
. , . 2.6 () () -
.
(. . 2.6 ()
()).
,

-
. -
,
, -
. -, - , -
,
,
-
. -, ,
,
,
.
, , -
,
-
.

,
-
47
, , ,
.
R=(-1500 , 106 , 106 )
, -
. -
05.11.2001.
,
X .
XZ
. -
(. . 2.7 ()). , ,
90 , (. . 2.7 ()).

-
5.

2.9. ,

(. 4)
-
.
,
. , -
, ,
.
-
,
. -
, , -
-
48
-

.

2.9.1. ,
-
(Ge c Si), -1,
(. 2.2).
44 .
-
. -
40 , -
10 /. n-
,
. -
.

2.2. .
, 2/ , 2/ Pr , K-1
-1 810-3 6.610-4 12 1.4510-3
1.310-3 8.110-2 0.016 2.510-4
10-2 1.4310-3 7 3.1410-3
1.510-2 8.810-4 17 1.110-3

2.9.2.
2.3
(2 , 1 ) 1 g (0.001 /2),
. -

.
49
, ,
.
-
. . 2.8 -1. ,

, .

2.3. (2 , 1 ) /. g=0.001 /2.


-1
4.510-4 4.110-4 3.710-4 8.610-5

, 2.3, ,
: -
-
.
Gr , -
, Ra.

2.9.3.


-1, , -
, . 0.1 g
(0.0001 /2) 1000 g (1 /2).
. 2.9 2.10 . ,
-
.
-
. ,

50
100 g, 1 g. -


, -1, -
.
0.1 10 g -

y=629x2+0,817x+9,1210-6,
.

2.9.4.


, . ,
-
, , -
, -
. 2.4
. , , -
, -
(<<0.01 ). -
,
,
. . 2.12
-11 (. 2.11),
, -
. ,
, , , .
-
10-3 /.
51
. 2.13 , , -
, -
, (. 2.4).

2.4. (
).
-1
, 2000 24000
, 12300 200

2.9.5.
-
1:1, -
-
. [7]
,
Ra -
.
.

2.9.6.
, 2.10,
-
.
,

( 10 g).
(
0.01 ).
52
-
.

2.10.

, -
. -
-
,

, -
.
1.
53

. 2.1. Nu(Fo), -
. 1 , 2 , 3
, 4 -
.
54

. 2.2. Fo*(Ra). , b, c -
.
,
b , -
,
c .
Nu(Fo)
(. . 2.1), .
55

1
2
1

Fo*
0,1

0,01
1000 10000 100000
Ma

. 2.3. Fo*(Ma) .
1 Ma=Ma(Fo*), 2 Ma=Ma(0).
56

Ma
80

0.8

. 2.4. ( -11, Gr~10) -


(L/H = 4, Pr = 0.01, Sc = 10).
57

0,20

0,15
C/(C1-C2)

0,10

0,05

0,01 0,1 1 10 100


Ma

. 2.5. -
. .
58

. 2.6. , , ,
.
() - ,
() - ,
() - ,
() - 45 ,
() - 170 .
59

. 2.7. , , ,
-
.
() ,
() -
.
60

. 2.8. .
1 g .
, .
61

10
-1
1
2
-2
10

V, /
-3
10

-4
10

-4 -3 -2 -1 0
10 10 10 10 10
2
g, /

. 2.9. V -
g. (1) , (2) .
62

1
10

0
10

T, K
10
-1
1
2

-2
10

-4 -3 -2 -1 0
10 10 10 10 10
2
g, /

. 2.10. -
T g. (1) ,
(2) .
63

. 2.11. g, -
, ( -11).
64

. 2.12. V, .
(1) , (2) .
65

. 2.13. T, -
. (1) , (2) -
.
, -
.
66
3. . -
:

, , -
. 4,
5, , -
.
,
, , ,
. -
, -
(, , [109]),
.

3.1.
,
- .. [110].
(.
2). , 4, 5, , -
, -
.
.
(FFT).
-
(DNS), -
, , ,
. ,
-
(RANS),
(LES) (., , [111]). , -
67
, ,
- Ra, .

3.2.
-
-
. -
[112],
,
.
R=1 , L=10
(. . 3.1). -
: Tc=300 K (z=0), Th=362 K (z=L). -
. (Pr=0.73).
Ra, R, 74 18700 (
).
.
[112] 93233 (r, , z) Ra
(70, 18700) 93265 Ra (3580, 18700).
-
: Z=10 , R=1 , =1 2/, Pr=0.73,
T=100 .
(=0.049 Ra=3580,
=0.256 Ra=18700).
83264 (r, , z).
-
-
(. 3.1).
.
68

3.1.
.
Ra [112]
. . .
660 0.094 0.0996 0.099 -
3580 0.064 0.0976 0.093 0.09399
8860 0.049 0.0935 - -
18700 0.034 0.0827 0.078 0.07986

, 3.1,
, -
[112]. ,
[112], ,
, - -
.
, .. [113],
1:1 -
.
, ,
Pr=0.71. 3.2 -
, , [113]
Ra=104 ( ).
Nuh c Nu , Numax -
Nu , RNu -
Nu ( ), U
, V -
.
69
3.2. H/D=1, Ra=104.
[113]
( x Z x R) 128 x 82 x 32 64 x 64 x 32
Z R -

Nuh 2.0096 2.1078
Numax 3.7070 3.725824
RNu -0.341 -0.334
U 22.84 23.02
V 25.23 25.49

3.3.

,
, ,
, , -
..
[114], -
-
Ra.
, : A=L/R -
, R ,
, Ra=gTR3/a . -
R2/a.
-
. . -
.
A=2, Pr=0.02. Ra, R, -
750 4000.
11 32 33 17 32 33 r, , z
70
32 32 32 r -
. [114] -
Ra=500,
. 3.3 -
. -
[114] 13 %. -
, [114].

3.3. .
Ra
500 - 0.296
750 1.47 1.38
1000 2.59 2.40
1600 4.49 4.17
2400 6.20 5.78
4000 8.32 7.27

. 3.2 3.3 . ,
[114]
.
3.3 . 3.2
Rac=430, [114] (Rac=472).
, [114] (. 3.3), -
, (. 3.3).
71

. 3.1. .
72

8
V

0
0 2000 4000
Ra

. 3.2. Ra.
, .
73

. 3.3. -
Ra=2400 () [107] () (-
=45, 90, 135 ).
74
4. -:

-
-,
, -

.
-
-
[1].

-
, . -
-
, , , -

(., , [3; 15; 115; 116]).
,
.
[16; 70], -

.

4.1.

, /,
, , ,
. -
,
75
, -
. -
- , -
.
-
, -
,
/. -
(., , [7; 71]).
. . 4.1 -
[58].
.
.
, , ,
.

. -
, , , .
-
. -
, -
, 10
.
. 4.1 . , -
.

[58].
76
4.2. -M
- (. . 4.2)
:
- ( ) P.
- -
, , : h = 31,5 , -
30,0 .
: h ~ 90 , ~
90 .
- ,
-
, (),
.
- , -
. 4.2, (. .
4.1).
- -
0.1 0 5 -
. -
0.01 0.
- -
[117].

4.3.
-
: 45.5 45.2
31.5
30 -. -
.
77
, -
50 .
-
:
- , .. -
.
- ,
.. .

, -
[15]. , ,
( 20 %), -
.
,
, -
,
.

, .
, -
,
. -
, ,
-
.
, -
.
-
.
=0.174 2/, Pr=0.705 -
78
t=3.1410-3; - =0.0849 2/,
Pr=0.708, t=3.1410-3.
:
2

P
~ , (4.1)
a
P0
P0 (., , [58]).
-
321632 r, z -
r (. . 4.3).

4.4. - :

-

Ra (., [58; 117]). , -,
, Ra
. , ,
-
. -,
-
.
. 4.4 . ,
Ra, , 103, -
Ra. . 4.4
.
,
( 65%) -
1 103 Ra. -
.
79
. 4.5 -.
, -
-.

(), - .
,
, - .
,
- , [117].
-
Ra -.
Ra<103, ,
Nu 1, ,
-
(. .
4.6).
Ra=103 Nu -
(. . 4.7). . 4.7 -
-
. ,
-
,
. , -
.
, -
, ,
Ra=1.
4.1
Z -
. , -
80
. . 4.8 ,
, . 4.9 -
, ,
. . 4.8 , ,
, ,
. , -
, .
Ra=103.

4.1. Vmax Z.
Vmax, / Vmax
Z, /
1.960347410-4 1.579998610-4
1.960341610-4 1.580011710-4

4.5. Ra
-
-
Ra , 10500 [117].

. ,
Q/T -
,
Ra. ,
Q/T . , -
, ,
, , Ra.
. 4.10.
Ra, ~ 9103. -
,
81
, ,
.
[117] :
, -
, .
, , ,
, -
.
-
. Ra=8500 -
, , -
. . 4.11 Q/T -
, .
1
~ 5 %.

4.6. 1 10 g

10g
, . -
-
R = (-416.0 , 86.0 , -807.0 ) z -
Z
. 4.12
. , ,
-
, ,
[15] .

[15], . 4.13 -
82
, [15], -
, -
. -
, ; ,
-
.

4.7. 1 g


1g. -
10-12 1999 .
R = (-705 , -85 , 0
) z
z . 4.14.
20:30 23:15
10.06.99, . -
, , -
.
, -
-
. 0.01 . -
, ,
. 4.15 ,
.

4.8.

-
. -
83

.
R = (-1500.0 , 106.0 , 106.0 )
Z Z -
4.16. x -
, , -
,
~ 0.002 K,
.

4.9. -

-
- , -
,
. -
70 . .
, :
- ,
-
.
- (H=9 , R=4.5 ),
:
- ,
-
.

-
R = (-1500.0 , 106.0 , 106.0 ) -
, -
84
, - -
(P=3 .) 4.17. -
-, 2 .,
4.18.
1 -
2001 .
,
2 g.
4.2 -.

4.2. -
( ~2
g).
. -, -,

=1 . =3 . =1 . =2 .

2.410-3 8.210-4 7.610-3 7.710-2 3.010-1

, -
0.1 , - 0.01 ,
, -
, ,

.

4.10.
-
- -
. 9 9 .
85
70 , -
. T=45 P=1 .
: =0.0849 2/, a=0.120 2/, Pr=0.708,
t=3.1410-3 -1. CO2 P=2 .
(4.1).
-
. ,
,
(4.5, 2.25) (4.5, 6.75), -
.
-
R = (-1500.0 , 106.0 , 106.0 )
- -
. 4.19. ,
-
.
. 4.20 ,
X -
. , , -
.
-
. -
, -
. ,
3-D, -
- .
, , -
,
-, , -
86
, -
.

4.11.
[1]
, (, , ),
,
.
,
.
, , ,
.
, [7] ( JUSTSAP
Space Shuttle). , -
, : L=10 , R=2.54 .
,
40 K.
[7]
/ -
. -
,
,
.
, , [71],
[69]. . 4.21 ,
, 4.7,
[7] (. : =0.01 2/, Pr=7, =610-4 K-1).
, , -
(, , 100 ),
, -
87
500
, , -
.

.
, , -
.

4.12.

[57],
1999 ., -
, -
-.

[57] -
:
1) ( -
65 %);
2) (
);
3) ( -
[117]);
4) ( -
, . 4.11)
-,
-
.
88
4.13.
, , -
, ,
[7].
, -
, , -
500 .
, -
,
, , [15].
,

, . -

.
- , -

. ,
-
Ra .
- -
,
2 . -
~ 0.15 1 g.
89

. 4.1. .
(1) - 45.5 -
45.2
(2) -
(3) - ()
(4) -
(5) -
(6) -
(7) -
(8) -
(9) -
90

. 4.2. () - -.
() - -
-.
91

. 4.3. .
92

. 4.4. , -
( ). (1)
, (2)
.
93

. 4.5. -,
( ). (1)
, (2) -
.
94

. 4.6. -
Ra, -
( ). (1) Nu
, (2) Nu
, (3) Nu -
, (4) Nu -
.
95

. 4.7. Nu -
, Ra=103. , -
.
() ,
() .
96

0 90

. 4.8. .
() , ()
.
97

. 4.9. . ()
, () -
.
98

Nu

1
10000 20000 30000
Ra

. 4.10. -
-.
99

0,1

Q/T
0,01

1E-3
0,01 0,1 1

. 4.11. Q/T
-.
100

. 4.12. -
. , , -
, .
101

. 4.13. -
. (1) -
, (2)
, (3)
[4].
102

. 4.14. -
. , , -
, .
103

0.1

-0.1

. 4.15.
(10 1999 ).
x y,
, z -
, .
104

. 4.16.
.
, ,
, .
105

. 4.17.
-,
3 .
, ,
, .
106

. 4.18.
-,
2 .
, ,
, .
107

. 4.19. 2-D
-, -
2 . -
, ,
, .
108

. 4.20. -
.
,
.
109

. 4.21. -
, . -
, , -
, .
110
5.

-

-11. -
. , -
, [67; 68].

5.1. ,
1
4 (H/D=4).

[42; 118]. -
: =0.0013 2/, Pr=0.016, Sc=10, t=2.510-4 -1.
-
.
-
: dT/dr(r=0.5, , z)=0, dC/dr(r=0.5, , z)=0.
: T(r, , z=0)=0 , T(r, , z=4)=50
.

, -
.
, .
. -
: (r, ,
z=0)=0, (r, , z=4)=1.
:
dC/dz(r, , z=0)=vf (1-k), k
111
, vf .
k=2.5, vf =0.5 [1].
, , : (r,
, z=4)=1.
-
-
.

5.2.

,
-11 [78].
R0 = (126 , 5 , 3 ) ,
,
. 5.1.
. 5.2 . -
-11 (. . 5.1) -
(., , [119; 120]). . 5.3
,
,
X =0.01496 c-1. -
, 67 ,
. ,
, -
, (. . 5.4).
,
[121],
.
112
X,
, -
.
-11
R0 = (126 , 5 , 3 )
A+Bsin(2ft). , ( ~ 0.002 )
, A
1.5 g, B 1 g.
,
-
[127] (. . 5.5). -
-11 -
, , ,
, -
-
.

5.3.
, -
, , -
,
. , -
X
, Y Z (. . 5.6). -
710-4 /. . 5.6 ,

(. . 5.1).
(. 5.7), -
:
113
1 H
< C >= (C (0.5, , z ) C (0.5, + , z ) )dz
H 0
(. 5.6).
, -
: <C> . -
(. . 5.7).

5.4. .

- (. . 5.8).
, X Y
, -
, . ,
Z ,
.
,
. . 5.9 -
(. (1.5) 1) , -
. , X
, Y -
, Z
.
X Y
(. . 5.10)
, Z .
.
-
-
(. . 5.11).
114
, () . 5.11
, -

. 5.12 (., , [8]).
, 5.9 -
(. . 5.11). (1.5) 1 -
, . , -
, (. (1.1)
1), d/dt. -, Z
, -
. -, Z
(. . 5.4).
-, R0 =
(126 , 5 , 3 ),
X . X -
, , , -
, -
.
, X Y
-
, Z. .
5.13 , -

. -
~550 (
. 5.13 ). ,
~1.810-3 , -
~1.510-2 (. . 5.3).
, InSb:Te -
-11 (. . 1 [8]). , , -
115
,
, -3. ,
,
Z
, , -

,
,
[53] .
, -
(. , [122; 123; 124]), -

. , -, -
, -
(. 2.5 -
).
, , -

[125; 126], ,
,
.
,
, -
, ,
, -
5 %.

5.5.
-
, -
116
. [33],

.
, [33], -
. ,
, .
5.1 -
,
. , , . 5.5
, -
. -
.

5.1. <C>
.

g=0.01 c/c2 g=0.1 c/c2 g=1 c/c2 g=10 c/c2


1 5.510-6 5.510-5 5.510-4 5.510-3
10 5.410-7 5.910-6 5.410-5 5.410-4


, [1]
, . . 5.14 -
1 .
-
5% 0.1 g0.
117
5.6.

, 5.1, 104
g, 10-2 g0, , -,
[127].

[127].

-11,
1.5 g (. 5.2), , -
[127] (. 5.5) -

. -
-11,
, -
7 %, -
, (10-15 %) [42].
, -
(. . 5.5), -
.
,
-
.

5.7.
-

-
-11. , -

118
-
. -
-
7% X
.
-
-3, -
, -
[8].
, -
(. [1])
.
, -

.
119

. 5.1.

R = (126 , 5 , 3 ). X,
Y, Z.
120

. 5.2. .
121

. 5.3.
.
(1) X, (2) Y, (3) Z.
122

. 5.4.
.
(1) X, (2) Y, (3) Z.
123

. 5.5.
.
-11. ,
-

.
124

. 5.6.
-
: (1) X , (2)
Y, (3) Z.
125

. 5.7.
()
, () Y, () Z.
126
=0 =45 =90 =135
A

. 5.8. -
t=10000 . A -
X , Y, C Z.
127

. 5.9. , -
. () X -
, () Y, () Z.
128

. 5.10. -

. A X
, B Y, C Z.
129

. 5.11. -
, . A -
X , Y, Z.
130

. 5.12. InSb:Te,
-3 (1987 .).
131

1500

1550

1600

1650

1700

1750

. 5.13. , -
Z . -
: () , () , ()
.
132

0,01
<C>/(C1-C2)

1E-3

1E-4

1E-5

1E-5 1E-4 1E-3 0,01 0,1 1 10


, g/g0

. 5.14. : -

1 .
133

1. -
, . -

. ,
,
Ra Ma,
. -
.
2. -
:
- ,
, ,
Ma>102
;
- -
- , -

-
, -
-
;
- -
-
. , -
, (Ge c Si)
(-1),
-
.
134
3. -
.
-
.
4.
-. ,
-
50 %.
5. ,
10 1999 ., -
.
6. - -
, 0.15 1 g
2 .
7. -
-11. -

, 2 8 % -
.
8. -
. , -
-

, .
9.
-
. , -
, -
Ma ~ 1.
135

., ..-.. ..
,
-
,
..-.. .. -
-
,
-
.. .. ..., .-. .. , -
,
., ..-.. .. -
,
., ..-.. .. , -
., ..-.. ..
.-.. .. -
-,
.. ,
, ,

-
.

( 03-01-00682, 03-01-06190),
2239.2003.8,

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1: .

-
,
.
, -
, -
.
20
, -
- [1-2],
COMGA
(COnvection in MicroGravity and Applications) , -
.
-
, -
, . -

- [3-
4, 6].
,
-
[5] - -
. -
- ,
, -
[6].
, -
- ,
151
,
. -
-
, ,
.

Fluent StarCD, -
. , -

, -
, . -

-
-
.

: http://ipmnet.ru/~yarem/ictam
-
: http://ipmnet.ru/~polezh/paper1, http://ipmnet.ru/~yarem/paper2,
http://ipmnet.ru/~yarem/paper3
- COMGA Windows :
http://ipmnet.ru/~ermakov
152

1. .., .., .. . -

. .: . 1987. 271 .
2. .., .., .. .
. .: . 1991. 240 .
3. .., .., ..
- -
// . . 1997. 3. . 22-
38.
4. .., .., .., .., -
.. -
- // -
. . 3. .
. .: . 2002. . 72-75.
5. .., .., .., .., ..,
.. //
. 5. . . 1999. .
183-186.
6. Ermakov M.K., Nikitin S.A., Polezhaev V.I. and Yaremchuk V.P.
Education and Tutorial in Modeling of Elementary Flows, Heat and Mass
Transfer During Crystal Growth in Ground-based and Microgravity
Environment // Journal of Crystal Growth. 2004. V. 266. P. 388-395.
153
2:


, -
. ..

- .
-
:

v
= F (t , v ) = G p , (1)
t
v = 0 . (2)

(1) .
(1)-(2) -
, .

:
x1 x0
= aF0 , (3)

x 2 x0
= bF0 + cF1 , (4)

x3 x 0
= dF0 + eF1 + fF2 , (5)

x0 , x1,x2
, x3 , a,b,c,d,e,f -
, d+e+f=1. -
(3)-(5) F0=F(t0, x0), F1=F(t0+a, x1), F2=F(t0+(b+c),
x2).
154
,

x3=x(t0+) + (3). (6)

(3)-(5)
:
x1 x0
= F0 , (7)

x2 x0 1 1
= F0 + F1 , (8)
4 4
x3 x0 1 1 2
= F0 + F1 + F2 . (9)
6 6 3
, F0 F1
(8) (9) . (7)-(9) ,
, , -
, :

x1 x0
= F0 , (10)

1 3
x2 x1 x0
4 4 = 1F
1, (11)
4
2 1
x3 x2 x0
3 3 = 2F
2. (12)
3

-
:

(6)
155
x`2=x(t0+) + (2). (13)

` , x`2 x2
(8). , x3-x`2=(2), .. || x3-x`2 ||=C3=err -
. tol , ,
, err=tol

new = fac , (14)

tol
fac = 3 .
err

:
fac<0.5, := new ,
.
fac>1.5, := 1,5. ,
.
0.5 fac 1.5 , := new, .

,
- ? ,
(7)-(9) x`2=2x2-x0. -
, x`2=x0+(F0+F1)/2= x0+dx()/dt, (t, t+). -
x`2 o() .

:
:

F(x)=H(x)+Ax, (15)
156

x1 x0
= H ( x0 ) + A x1 , (16)

(E-A)x1=x0+H(x0), (17)

E ( ).
(16), (15):

x1 x0
= H ( x0 ) + A x1 = H ( x0 ) + A x0 + A( x1 x0 ) = F ( x0 ) + A( x1 x0 ) (18)

(18) , A
. :

x n +1 x n
= H ( x n ) + A x n +1 + (1 ) A x n =

= H ( x n ) + A x n + A( x n +1 x n ) = F ( x n ) + A( x n +1 x n )

, (15),
(7)-(9) :

x1 x0
= F0 + A( x1 x0 ) , (19)

x 2 x0 1 1
= F0 + F1 + A( x 2 x0 ) , (20)
4 4
x3 x0 1 1 2
= F0 + F1 + F2 + A( x3 x0 ) , (21)
6 6 3
157

, -
. -
=1/2, =1/3 (2+21/3+2-1/3).
(19)-(21)
, ..
A(x1-x0) o(1),
A(x2-x0) o(1),
A(x3-2x2+x0) o(),
:

x3=x(t0+) + (2), (22)

tol
, x3-x`2=(1), fac = 2 , -
err
(14).

(19)-(21) -
:

(1)-(2) :

v
+ ( v ) v = p + vv , (23)
t
v = 0 (24)

() (23) v. -

G ( v ) = v v ( v ) v
158

(19) :

~
v1 v 0
= G ( v 0 ) + A(~
v1 v 0 ) p 0 , (25)

v1 = ~
v1 , (26)

v1 = 0 , (27)

A=. :

2 2 2
A = v 2 + 2 + 2 (28)
x y z

, .
(25) , -
(26) .
(26) (27), -
:

= ~
v1 (29)

(26) :
~
v1 = , (v1) -

.
(25) :

( E A)(~v1 v 0 ) = G ( v 0 ) + p 0 (30)
159

(28), ,

2 2 2
( E A) = ( E 2 )( E 2 )( E 2 ) + o( ) ,
x y z

(29),
, x, y z.
, v1, -
. (25), (26), ,
:

v 1 + v 0
= G ( v 0 ) + ( v 1 + v 0 ) p0 ,

v1 v 0
= G ( v 0 ) + ( v 1 v 0 ) p0 + (31)

(31)


p1 = p 0 + + (32)

, = (
), (31) (32).
, = ~ v1 = o( ) , =o(), -
(32).
160
:
1- :

~
v1 v 0
= G0 + A(~
v1 v 0 ) p 0 ,

v1 = ~
v1 1 ,
v1 = 0 ,
1
p1 = p0 + ;

2- :

~
v2 v0 1 1 1
= G0 + G1 + A(~v 2 v 0 ) p1 ,
4 4 2
v2 = ~
v 2 2 ,
v 2 = 0 ,
2 2
p 2 = p1 + ;

3- :

~
v3 v0 1 1 2
= G0 + G1 + G2 + A(~
v 3 v 0 ) p 2 ,
6 6 3
v3 = ~
v 3 3 ,

v 3 = 0 ,

3
p3 = p 2 + .

161

(staggered grids):

(. . 2.1).

. 2.1. .

u u i u i 1
=
x hx

2u ui 1 ui + ui +1
=
x 2 hx2

, ( -
) .

u i u i 1 vi vi 1 wi wi 1
+ + =0
hx hy hz
162
(. . 2.1).

u p 2u 2u 2u
= + ( 2 + 2 + 2 )
t x x y z

, -
ui (. . 2.1). -
.
:

hx h
f (x + ) f (x x )
x f = 2 2 = f + o(h )
x
hx x

- ,

hx h
f (x ) + f (x + x )
f x
= 2 2 = f ( x ) + o( h )
x
2

- .

, .
, -
:
f 1 f
x=x(), , -
x x ( )
.
163
( -
)
:

v
= v ~
p rot , (33)
t
2
~ v
= rot v, p = p + , =(, , ). (33)
2
, :

u p
= v w ( ) , (34)
t x y z
v p
= w u ( ) , (35)
t y z x
w p
= u v ( ). (36)
t z x y

(34)-(36) -
, .. .

( -
):
y z
x x
v w ,
z x
y y
w u ,
x y
z z
u v
(34)-(36)
.