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4

...
-
. -
.
,
.
,
-
. -
.
-
.
-
( ) .
, -

.
. -
, -
.
-
. ,
.
, -
.

-
. .
, ,
/ .

,
.
4.1.
(modulation) -
, ,
(message signal), m (t),
, (carrier).


-
. -
, -
,
.
, -
,
:
g (t ) = A sin(t + ) , (4.1)
; .
(amplitude modulation AM) -
A () -
() . -
(4.1) :
g (t ) = A sin (t ) , (4.2)
(t) .
(4.1) (4.2), :
(t ) = t + (4.3)
(t) , -
, -
(angle modulation).
: -
(phase modulation PM), -

(modulating signal), (frequency modulation
FM), -
.
:

136 4.
V (4.4)
g (t ) = 1 + sin t V sin t ,
V

V sin t , -
V sin t . -
-
:
V V (4.5)
g (t ) = V sin t + cos( )t cos( + )t
2 2
(4.5)
V sin t , -
. :
V cos( + )t V cos( )t ,
(upper) (lower) (side frequencies).
-
,
, ( ).
- (full AM).
, . 4.1, -
.

. 4.1. -

4.1. 137
, , -
, -
, ,
(band). -
. , -
- -
(baseband signal), .
4.2. f -
.


0 fu fcfu fc fc+fu

. 4.2. - ( )

, --
, -
.
, 2, ,
, ,
,
. . 4.1 , -
-
2.

4.1
300 3400 -
, 120 .
.

-
- ,
g (t), . 4.3.

138 4.
-
,
.
V V.
. -
g(t) . 4.4.



Vc

Vm Vm
2 2

. 4.3. -


+
Vc+Vm

Vc
VcVm

Vc

+Vm

0

. 4.4. -

4.1. 139
V / V
(modulation depth) m:
V (4.6)
m=
V

(4.6) (4.4) -
, -
:
g (t ) = (1 + m sin t )V sin t (4.7)

4.1
- -

e = 5(1 + 0,5cos3140t )sin 2 105 t ,
:
) ;
) ;
) ;
)
.


,
V = 5
5sin 2 105 . ,
V
sin t = 0,5 cos 3140t ,
V
) , m = 0,5
) = 3140.

3140
f = = 500
2

140 4.
) = 2105.

2 105
f = = 100
2
V
) = 0,5 .
V
,
V = 0,5V = 0,5 5 = 2,5
, ,
V + V:
5 2,5 = 7,5

-
- ,
. -
. m , , -
0,1 ( , - ),
.
- -
-
, -
/. , m
, -
, -
. -
-
,
. ,
m
,
.

-
, -
. -
, .
, 99 %

4.1. 141
0,2 0,8, -
.
(4.6) (4.8),
m
- :
( ) (4.8)
m= =
( + )

(V + V ) (V V ) (4.9)
=
(V + V ) + (V V )

4.2
-
14 , 6 . :
) ;
) ;
) .
,
R:

V2 (4.10)
= ,
R

Vc2 (4.11)
P =
R
(4.6) ,
V = mV (4.12)
, ,
,

( mV / 2 )
2
(4.13)
=
R
2
m 2V (4.14)
= =
4R

142 4.
m2 (4.15)
= P
4
,
:

V2 m2 (4.16)
P= 1 + 2 =
R 4

V2 m 2 (4.17)
= 1 +
R 2

2m 2V2 / 4 R (4.18)
=
V2 m 2
1 +
R 2

m2 (4.19)
=
2 + m2

:
P 2 (4.20)
=
P 2 + m2
,
, ,
. -

, , -
, , , .
.

4.3
,
m 0
1 0,1. -
.

4.1. 143
-
.
, -
V V (4.4).

4.1.1.
-
. -
-
, , ,
.
(mixing).
(..
), ,
:

V = k + aV + bV2 + cV3 + " , (4.21)

V V
.
, , V
:
V = V sin t + V sin t (4.22)
(4.22) (4.21), :

V = k + a (V sin t + V sin t ) + b (V sin t + V sin t ) .


2
(4.23)

(4.23) :

aV sin t + bVV ( cos( )t cos( + )t ) ,


2
(4.24)


- . -
(4.23) (
) -
. ,

(square law), -
-
(. (4.23)).

144 4.
,
, ,
,
, .. .
, -
.

4.1.2.

, -
,
-
(linear modulation). -
-
; . 4.5.



C




C

Vcc
Vcc
L

. 4.5.

-
, -
, ..
( ). -
LC ,
, -
. . 4.6 , -
.
-
,
, V

4.1. 145
.
. LC- -
,
;
, -
. ,
.


Ic

IB = 0
Vce
0 Vcc


Vm

+Vm

()

0



. 4.6.

146 4.
V
Vcc ( :
) ( -
) -
-
.
I , , V,

V = (Vcc + V ) Vmin , (4.25)
Vmin -, -
, , -
V.
, -
, :
Vmin (Vcc + V ) (4.26)


Vmin = k (Vcc + V ) , (4.27)

k ,
.
(4.27) (4.25),
V = (Vcc + V ) k (Vcc + V ) = (4.28)

= Vcc + V kVcc kV = (4.29)

= (Vcc + V )(1 k ) (4.30)



,
(4.30).
. 4.7, , -

, . 4.4. , ,
-
, -
80%.

4.1. 147
4.1.3. -

- -
,

(t). -
.


.
. , , -
,
, .

+


+Vcc(1 k) Vm(1 k)

Vcc(1 k)

+Vm

0

. 4.7.

-

-
. ,
.. .
. 4.8 , -
-
. .
-
,

148 4.
, -
. ( -
,
)
(envelope detector).

:

R C V

. 4.8.

, ,

.
-
, V V. -
RC -
.
,
,

. -
R.
V . 4.9.
, -
,
() . -
, -
. ,
, -
, (negative
peak clipping) (. 4.10).

4.1. 149
. 4.9.

. 4.10.

, -
, -
. , -
, m
. 1 ,
2

(1 m 2 ) (4.31)
RC
m

-
m.

1
Connor, F.R., Modulation, 2nd edn, Edward Arnold, 1982, pp. 80-81.
ISBN 0-7131-3457-7.
2
(4.31)
. -
(., , [ . . ...
. . . , 1971]. . .

150 4.
4.4
5 2
4 .
, , 10 .

4.1.4.

, , ,
. -
-
, .. , -
.
. -
(balanced) ; -

. -
-
(double sideband suppressed carrier DSBSC).
-
(Cowan), -
. 4.11. -

, ,
.
, , -
, -
.
, .. ;
,
. -
-
, . 4.11.
,
, -
:

1 2 1 (4.32)
g (t ) = kV cos t + sin t + sin 3t + "
2 3

4.1. 151
kV cos t kV (4.33)
= + [sin( )t + sin( + )t ] + " ,
2
k .

a)



A B


)
+



0 t


.


. t

+



0 t

. 4.11. : () ; ()

(4.33) , -
, -
, -

152 4.
, . ,
.
-
, .
. 4.12 -
, -
, .
,
: , D1 D2 , D3 D4
, .
-
, D1 D2, , -
D3 D4 (. 4.12()).
-
, . -
,
, , -
. -
, , -
, .

4.5

.


DSBSC- ( ),
, ,
. 4.11() 4.12(), -
. -
.
- -
,
DSBSC-. -
(coherent detection). -
.
1. .
2. - (pilot carrier)
3.

3
- 10% -
. . .

4.1. 153
,
, .

a) D1

 D3 



D4
D2


)
+



0 t

+

0 t

+



0 t

. 4.12. : () ; ()

,
. -

, , . 4.13.

154 4.



(DSBSC) v
A cos mt cos ct

B cos (ct +)

. 4.13.

= AB cos t cos t cos(t + ) = (4.34)

= c / 2cos t [ cos(t t ) + cos(t + t + )] = (4.35)

= c / 2cos t [ cos + cos(2t + )] = (4.36)

= c / 2cos t cos + c / 2cos t cos(2t + ) , (4.37)


c .
(4.37) ,
, -
cos. -

. -
.
= 90 -
, . -
, -
.
, --
-
. ,
, (single sideband SSB).

,
. ,
,

4.1. 155
, -

(DSBSC), .

.
1 SSB-
DSBSC-:
. -
:
v (t ) = V sin(t + ) , (4.38)
.
-
(phase delay). -
, , ,
; -
.

4.2.
-
-. -
, ,
, -
. , (
), -
, -
.
, .
: , -

. -, ,
.
:

g (t ) = A cos ( t ) , , (4.39)

1
Connor, F.R., Modulation, 2nd edn, Edward Arnold, 1982, p. 125. ISBN
0-7131-3457-7.

156 4.
(t) -
. , -
() ().

4.2.1.
, m (t) -

m(t ) = V cos t . (4.40)
-
:
g (t ) = A cos [ 2 f t + cos(2 f t )] , (4.41)

cos 2 f t ; kV,
k , .
cos(2 f t ) -
, . 4.14. -
, -
. , (4.41)
,
, fc,
, ( -
) .
,
()

0 t

. 4.14.

4.2. 157
. 4.15. ,
,
() .

. 4.15.

, , -
-
, -
f, , ,
f V. -
,
f.
-
,
.

, , - -
. -
,
5.

158 4.
4.2.2.

-
.
, , , -
, -
,
. , , -
. -
- . 4.16.
+



()

fc

t
0

+



()

0 t

. 4.16.

, -
, :

g (t ) = A sin 2 f t + 2 k V cos(2 f t )dt =


t
(4.42)
0

4.2. 159
kV
= A sin 2 f t + sin(2 f t ) (4.43)
f
kV , ,
; -
, (
, sin(2 f t ) + 1 1), -
(frequency deviation) F. kV/f
(modulation index) M
:
kV (4.44)
M= =
f

(4.45)
= =
f
F
= (4.46)
f
, g (t) :
g (t ) = A sin(t + M sin t ) (4.47)
, -
, -
; (4.41) (4.47), ,
, , .
, ,
, V. , -
(4.47), -
V/f.
, -
Vf, V.
,
: -
Vsin (.. ) -
-. -
V,
. , -
, ,
M. ,
, sint.

160 4.
, -
,
,
(deviation ratio) -
, , -
:
m
F (4.48)
=
lf

4.2
-
75 , -
15 . -
.

m
F 75 ; l
f 15 .
m
F
= = (4.49)
lf

75 (4.50)
=
15
, 5.
,
- (
(4.47)), ,

:
g (t ) = A sin t cos( M sin t ) + A cos t sin( M sin t ) (4.51)

cos( M sin t ) -
:

M 2 sin 2 t M 4 sin 4 t (4.52)


cos( M sin t ) = 1 + +"
2! 4!

4.2. 161
:
1 (4.53)
sin 2 t = (1 cos 2t )
2

3 1 1 (4.54)
sin 4 t = cos 2 t + cos 4 t ,
8 2 8
, -
(4.52) , (4.53)
(4.54)
. , cos( M sin t ) -

cos( M sin t ) = a0 + a2 cos 2t + a4 cos 4t + " (4.55)
a0, a2, a4 .. ,
.
, , sin( M sin t )
:
sin( M sin t ) = a1 sin t + a3 sin 3t + a5 sin 5 t + " (4.56)
(4.55) (4.56) (4.51). -
,
, , ,
:
m, 2m, 3m, ..., m
,
2,
-
,
(4.51) 3:

2
Stremler, F.G., Introduction to Communication Systems, Addison-
Wesley, 1977, pp. 273-5. ISBN 0-201-07244-0.
3

(., , .. .
.: - , 1963.) . .

162 4.
A sin t cos( M sin t ) + A cos t sin( M sin t ) = (4.57)
= A a0 sin t + a '1 sin ( + ) t + a '2 sin ( + 2 ) t +
+ a '3 sin ( + 3 ) t + " + a ' sin ( + ) t .

-
, -
. -
Jn(M), n , M
. (4.57):
A sin t cos( M sin t ) + A cos t sin( M sin t ) = (4.58)
= A J 0 ( M ) sin t + J1 ( M ) sin ( + ) t + J 2 ( M ) sin ( + 2 ) t +
+ J 3 ( M ) sin ( + 3 ) t + " + J ( M ) sin ( + ) t .

Jn(M)
n M, -
. 4.17.
Jn(M)
1

0,8 J0(M)

0,6 J1(M)

J2(M)
0,4 J3(M)
J4(M) J5(M) J8(M)
J6(M) J7(M)
0,2

0,2

0,4

0,6 M
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

. 4.17.

4.2. 163
(4.58) , -
-
, .
, . 4.17, ,
n Jn(M)
n, . -
- ,
-
, , , -
m -

(. 4.18). , M
.

. 4.18. -

164 4.
-
,
,
,
. ,
,
Jn(M) , , 1 % -
J0(0). -
. 4.18,
, .

4.3
- -
, 5, -
15 .
, ,
1 % -
.

(4.58), , -
() nm,
n .
, , ,
Jn(M) 0,01.
, , -
,
M n . -
, 1.
, ,
M = 5, :
Jn(5) > 0,01

Jn+1(5) < 0,01.


, n, -
, 8.
, ,
, :
W = 2(8 15 ) = 240

4.2. 165
-
-
. ,
:
m
= 2 (
F+l )
f .

4.4

, ,
m
F = 75 ,
lf = 15 .

m
B=2 (
F+l
f = )
= 2(75 + 15)
= 180 .
-
- -
,
4.2. , ,
, -
, .
200 ,
.

4.2.3.
.
M > 1 - -
- (wideband FM)
. M < 1 - -
- (narrowband FM) . -
- -
, -. ,
, -

166 4.
. , -

/, .
- , -
(4.51),
g (t ) = A sin t cos( M sin t ) + A cos t sin( M sin t ) . (4.59)

M  1
cos( M sin t ) 1 ,

sinx x x, -
,
sin( M sin t ) M sin t .

, -
:

g (t ) A sin t + cos t ( M sin t ) = (4.60)

M M (4.61)
= a sin t + sin( )t + sin( + )t .
2 2
,

M M (4.62)
g (t ) = a sin t sin( )t + sin( + )t .
2 2
(4.5)
- . -
- -
, ,
,
,
.
. 4.19, -
, , ,
-
.
.
, -
, , -

4.2. 167
,
.
-
; ,
3 .
, -

20 .
-
-
(
)
.
- - .

M
2
c + m

1


c m
M

c

2

. 4.19.
-

168 4.
4.2.4.
-
-
-
. ,
.
(direct) , -
. -
, ( -
). p-n
,
, -
. ,
, , ,
, . -
-
( ), -
.
-
-

. ,
-
, -
-
.
, -
(indirect) .
-
,
, -
. ,
, -
. -
- -
,
,
.

4.2. 169
.
,
-
. -
()
, ,
(voltage controlled oscillator VCO),
-- .
VCO -
. -
,
-
. , , -
, -
/ .

4.3.


(frequency division multiplexing FDM) -

. -
,
,
. , -
,
: -
.
-
(FDM) -
, ( )
.
( ) , ,
, .
, -
. -
, -
,

170 4.
. ,

, .
. 4.20 ,

GSM.
124 .
200 .
935960
.
(downlink). ,
(uplink)

890915 . ,

45 . ,
3.
890,6890,8 .

3, 45 , ..
935,6935,8. (
GSM , ,
8
.
,
,
).

4.4.
/
(/) , -
-
. / -
,
.
,
-
/ -
.

4.3. 171


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 118 119 120 121 122 123 124
(
935960 )


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 118 119 120 121 122 123 124
(
890915 )
. 4.20. GSM

4.4.1.
,
- . -
:
n (t)cos[t + (t)]
, -
(. (4.4)), :

[V + m(t )] sin t , (4.63)



m(t ) = V sin t . (4.64)
,

g (t ) = [Vt + m(t )] cos t + n(t )cos[t + (t )] . (4.65)

,
(4.65), . 4.21.
[V + m(t )]  n(t ) , , -
/ . 4 , -
, V,
1:
V [V + m(t ) ] + n(t )cos (t ) .


(4.66)

1
Betts, J.A., Signal Processing, Modulation and Noise, The English
Universities Press Ltd., 1970, pp. 9899. ISBN 0-340-09895-3.

172 4.




t)
n(
(t)
1 Vc +m(t)

. 4.21. -

/,
n(t )  [V + m(t )] . (4.65)

n(t ) + V cos (t ) + m(t ) cos (t ) . (4.67)


(4.66) (4.67), , -
, -
, / ,
, / . ,

cos (t) , ,
, -
.

. /, -
(threshold effect),
. -
/
: ..
.

4.4.2.

. 4.22 -
. , -
() ,

, -

4.4. 173
,
. (/)
/
() . -
,
(, , )
, ,
.
, (/) -
.






((


 


()

(Rx) ( (

. 4.22.


/ -
. ,
W
,

/2 (. . 3.4 ).
(/) -
, -
. -
W
. , :
SR (4.68)
(/ ) = =

2W
2

SR (4.69)
= ,
W

174 4.
SR . -
, -
, :
(/ ) = (/ ) . (4.70)
,
SR (4.71)
(/ ) = .
W
. 4.23 (/)
(/).

:

-
2W. -
,
(/) 10 , ,
. 4.22, :
SR (4.72)
(/) =
2W


SR (4.73)
(/ ) = .
W
, / -
, ; ..
3 . -
(/) , .
,
-
, -
. -
, . ,
-
, .. (/) -
710 , (4.73). -
/

4.4. 175
- ,
,
. 4.23. 10 -
.

60 ( (

()

50
(M=4)

40


,


30 2 (DSBSC)

(SSB)

20

10

1


0 10 20 30 40

((


()

. 4.23.

176 4.
(DSBSC)
DSBSC -
.
/:
SR (4.74)
(/) = ;
2W

SR (4.75)
(/ ) = .
W
, -
/ 3 .
(/) -
; /
. 4.23.

(SSB)
-
/:
SR (4.76)
(/ ) = ;
W

SR (4.77)
(/ ) = .
W
, /
,
. -
(/) , -
, . 4.23.



(. . 4.22) , -
.
, , -
,

4.4. 177
,
, .

, .
-
, .
-
. -
.
, 2, , -
:

(/ ) = 3M 2 (/) . (4.78)

.. (/) 3M2
, . , -
, M > 1, (/)
. -
(FM improvement factor).
. 4.23 , M = 4, , -
/
13 . -
. ,
,
/ -
.
.
M. ,
M , -
, ,
. , , -
.
-
(/), .. M .
, :
BT = 2 f (1 + M ) , (4.79)

2
Schwartz, M., Information Transmission, Modulation and Noise, 4th
edn, McGraw-Hill, pp. 510-17. ISBN 0-07-100931-0.

178 4.
BT -,
(transmission bandwidth). -
, M 1,
(4.79)
:
BT 2 Mf . (4.80)

M (4.78),
:
2
B (4.81)
(/ ) 3 T (/ ) .
2 fm
, -
/ -
. -
(bandwidth
expansion), , -
, /.
(4.78) ,
M
. , -
M (
, ), SR .
/2
, SR -
(/), -

(/).
-
,
M 0,6. , M 0,6,
,
(4.78) , 0,3
. ,
/
, ,
- -
-
.

4.4. 179
4.4.3.
. 4.23 . 4.1
.
, , -
. , -
, , ,
-
(SSB). , , -
, -
.
-
, - -
. -
/ ,
. -
, / -

.

4.5.
-
. -
-
,
.
-
() ; -
()
(). -
, , , -
-
.
,
. -
-
, , , -
. , ,
, -
. ,

180 4.
4.1.


/ (
. DSBSC)
2W 7 10 .
-
.

- 2W .
- ,
SSB,
(DSBSC)
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4.5. 181
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1. Betts, J.A., Signal Processing, Modulation and Noise, The


English Universities Press Ltd, 1970. ISBN 0-340-09895-3.
2. Connor, F.R., Modulation, 2nd edn, Edward Arnold, 1982.
ISBN 0-7131-3457-7.
3. Schwartz, M., Information Transmission, Modulation and
Noise, 4th edn, McGraw-Hill, 1990. ISBN 0-07-100931-0.

4.5. 185
4. Stremler, F.G., Introduction to Communications Systems, 3th
edn, Addison-Wesley, 1990. ISBN 0-201-51651-0.
5. Zeimer, R.E. and Tranter, W.H., Principles of
Communications, 4th edn, John Wiley & Sons, 1995. ISBN 0-
471-12496-6.

186 4.
= 1,71 4 187