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3 . . 65
2. .
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66
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f (x) g(x), d(x).
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cd(x) f(x) g(x).


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g(x):
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() g(x)
r(x)=Q.
f 0(x) h(x) , f Q(x)
fi(x). (1)
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(, fn+i(x)) .
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*) = 0 ( * ) * ) + *).
fi(x) = q , ( x ) f , ( x ) + f(x),

f n - t ( x ) = q - i ( x ) f _ t ( x ) + f a_ l (x), '
fn - 1 (X) = qn - 1 (* ) fn - 1 (X) + f ( x ) ,
f n - l ( x ) = Q n (* ) f n (x).
(2) , - f n {) / _ 1 (),
/ - 2 (), . . . , / 2 (), * ), /oW* , f n (x)
/ 0 /i (*)
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.
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4 + 23 + 2+ 2 + 1 3 + ~ 2 + .

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2 .
.

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(1)= (2)= 1, ()= (1)+ (2),

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.

XIII ,

( ).
72
2. (6), (7).......... (10).
3. ()
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(3), (4), . . (). :
.
4.
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(1)
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F k + 1 . k
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v (1), v(2), v(k).

5.

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3. .
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:
UI: n = 1 : = ; ;
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1/4: L: = U (2);
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;
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74
(75: :=;
U6: ] /( =
t : = (/);
: = (/); M: = u (t, );
t = <> mo : = w (, 7W)
;
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1/7.2: "]L =
t : = (L);
* L := (L); M : = ^ ( t f );
/ = <$> mo : = u (g, )

6. (/6 {/7.2
.

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3, 4, . . ., .

2.

k
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k
f(n)=F{n, f(n 1), f(nk)), (1)
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), (1), /(1 ),
f(2)=b, , f(k)=t. , /(1), /(2), . . .
(1)
f ( k + 1); /(2), /(3), . . . , f ( k + 1)
f (/+2) . .
,
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1
()=(1)
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f (n)=f(n2) , ,
2.
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:
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. . . , ck (1);
2 /() (1)
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U ,
/().
, / ()= /(1)
1 1,
1!=-1(1)!

f(n) !
f( 1) Ci.
f(n)=f(n2) +
+ 2(1)" Ci, 2
,
/(1), /(2) 2 ,
Ci+C2( - 1 ) = / ( 1 ) , ^ i+ c2(1)2= /(2):
_ /(0 + / (2) . / (2) / (1)
2

1.
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2.
.

/ ()= a i/ ( 1) + 2/ (2 ) + .. (nk)y (2)

ai,Ja 2, , -

.
76

:
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(2) ky
0.
3, 2, 2, 1.

:
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)= ./ ( - 1 ) .
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,
.


1 2.
,
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(2)
= ai - 1+ at -*+ . . . + ,

(2). 2
/(ft)= a,/(ft1)+ 2/( 2), =^ 0 (3)
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f(n)=af(n1), <2=^0 (4)
=.
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.
1. fi(n), f 2(n)
(3), 2 , o.1f1()+
+ / 2() (3).
77
. , h (), /* ()
(3),
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h (n)=a1f 2(n l) + a 2f 2 (2).
*, 2
.
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=Oi[aj/i (n l ) + a j 2 (ljl+ o j a i/ j (2 ) + / (2)],
.
2. -
,
(3). X" (3).
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Af,=^a1An~:l + a2A"-2 ^ 2 .
,
^"-1 2_2 = 0.

, 12"2= " *(2atX 2) = 0.


3.
(3) *. nXf
(3).
. ,2 2= 0
*, ax=2A,i, 2= ?. ,
(3)
<4(n)=2Xtf ( n - l ) - X ] f ( -2 ).
: /()=?
:
? 2At ( 1) Af^ + AJ (2) ?~ =
= 1 [ 2 ( 1) + 2] = Af-0 = 0,
.
1, 2 ,
2 CiX1+
+ 22 (3)
2. 1, 2, 3 ,

CtXI+CitiXl (3),
2.
78
,
(3)
?+2/? ^+^
,
.

2, f(n)
(3). , f(n)
/(1), f( 2). , 2
' ,
^lAl ^2^2 = / (*
^1 + 21 = / ( 2 ) .

2 ,
\ X2^ i= ^ 1X2(Xi2)
0.

. 2

c1X\ + c2-2.X\ = f(2).


2 ^ \=\
( 2 0 ), ,
.
2. ,

(4) 1 .

n- .

()=(1)+ ( 2), (1)=
= ( 2)1.
,2= -1
1+/5' , 1 V" 5
----- 2 2

79
,
1 :

, () .

3.
: , .
, ,
. ,
, .

3.
.

f(n)= a1f(n 1)+ ^( 2 ) + . . .+ a hf(nk)+v(n), (6)

. . . , ak , a v ()
, ,

.
. (6)

f ()= a j ( l) + a 2f (n2 ) + .. .+ a hf(nk) (7)

- (6).
. U (,, , . . . . *, )
(7). d(n)
(6). ,
, k , , . .. , s
80
U (, , s, n)+d(n)
(6).
[{/(, , . . . , s, n) + d(n)] a1[U (, , . . . . s, 1)+
+d(n 1)] ak [U (a,b, . . . , s , n ^ k ) + d ( n k)]v(n)=
= [U (a, b, . . . . s, n) aJJ (a, b, . . . . s, n 1) . . .
. . . akU (a, b, ... s, n ft)] + [<i(rt) ^ ( 1) . . .
. . . akd ( n k) v ()] = 0 + 0 = 0.
, w(n)
(6), k
, , . . ,
w(tt)=U(, , , n)+d(n).
()d(n).
w (n )= a iw ( 1 ) + . . .-\-ahw ( k)-{-v(n),
d(n)=aid(n1 ) + .. .+ a kd(nk)+v(n);

[.()d ()]=
=[(1)d(n1 )]+ .. .4 -ah[w(nk)d (nk)].
, ()d(n) (7) ,
, U(a, ...., Ch, )
, , . . . ,
. . . , ch. ,
w(n)=U(a, , . . . . a, n)+d(n).
.
, ,

( ) = |( - 1 ) + |( - 2 ) + 1 .
,
, 1.
()= (1)+ (2)
.
,

, ( 1 + , ( 1 = ^ .

-
'
81

.
, ,
,
.


,
, ,
.
. (6) v(n)=q(ri)\in,
q () /, s-
k= a 1Xk~1+ . ..
1. (6),
()", ()
l+s.
, s-
(), (,) (,p)J
(p)5+l. , ()=^0,
0- .
1()=1( 1)+ (2)+1 v(tx)
, 1. ,
1", q () 1", q ()= 1. 1
0- , ,
() 1, ()
, . . 1. |( ),
,
<-\--\-1,
1.
4.
\ ()= ) (1)+ ( 1) .

3.
, 1.
,
.
1. '.
, -,
',
, ( 5 . II).
CD ,
|A fi|^ |C D |,
(, CD)= (CD, EF). (1)
82
, a EF
-, , CD
.
' (1)
: .
()
.

-,
.
1 /1=1. ,
.
' ,
, -
( '1), ( '2)
. ,
-.
2 = 1, 2, . . . , .
, n = k + 1.

( 2).
, (1), -
,
,
CD EF. .
, -
, ', .
CD + 1.
.
2.
.

f ( n ) = F ( f ( n - 1), f ( n 2}),
f ( l ) = a, f(2) = b. W
f(n)
(2) .
/(1), /(2), /(3), . .. , /(), /(1), /(2) ,
.
, , :
/: d=f(n). f(n)
(2);
/1: = 1 d:=a; \
/2: = 2 d:=b\ ;
83
/3:
i:=2;
fi:
d:=b;
/5:
e\=a\
/6:
u:=d\ d:=F(d, <?);
'.=\

i= n
, > 2 2
F.

. ,
1 (
.2 F
1 ). ,
F
/(),
, ,
(2),
(/). , ():
f(n 1) f(n 2) \ (1)
\( 2)
F, F (/ (1), f(n 2))
F.

6 ( )= ( - 1 ) + 6 ( - 2 ) + 1 . (3)
= 1 = 2, F ,
|(1 )= !(2 )= 0 .

(3)
(. . .3 2):

2 ,
.

. . ()=()1, () - .
1 10 ()
0, 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 12, 20, 33, 54.
84

F 2 10
:
0, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.
,
| ().
1 / 1 + /S V

2 /
l/j/ .
> 1 , 1^5 > 1 .
, ,

1,6180 < - + 2^ 5 < 1,6181.



, . -
1 / 1 Y 5\"
-==^ F / >
0 -.
, 1 ~ < 1, :

0,6181 < 0,6180.

, ,
I () ~ |( 1^ 2 ^ ) 1*
1 /14- i/TiV
-= J 1 2 (. 28)

(
).
1. , ,
(. 1 5
. II) (1+ |/5)/2.

,
F, .
/() /( 1) /( 2),
/( 1) /( 2)
/(3). ,
85
, ,
f(n2),
f(n2)
.
,
, ,

1, 2.
,
.

-
\~-1 1 1 ,

?-,? .

,

,

.

,


/(/),
. 28.
(2).
,
,
1. , ,

f(n) f ( n 1), /(/),
:

</(*). - 1 )> =
/ <F( f ( n 1), f ( n 2)), f ( n 1)>, > 2,
<6, >, = 2.


: ,

.
:
f : > 2. d=f(n), e= f(n1) (. (2))
;
1: = 2 d:=b, := ;
2: d /' 1;
3: u:=F(d, );
/'4 : e : = d ;
/'5: d:=u
/'2.

,
.
F
. )().
> 2 :
</(). f(n 1))= (F(f(n1), f ( n - 2)), f ( 1)>.
(f(n1), f ( n2) >
| (1) F
.

1()=1(1)+1.
)(2)=0, = 2
(6, ).
()=\(1) 1"
. ,
\()='\(1)+1.
()=](1)+1 +.
,
|(2)=0, = 2, \()=2.
F ,
.
2. (. 1, . 2),
, .
3.
g(a)t

g(n)=G(g(n 1), g(n2), g(n3)),


g ( l)= p , g(2)=q> ^(3)= /'. ,
, ,
.
3. .
, f(n)=F(f(ti1),
f(n2)), / F
87
.
, - f
,
a F
.
U ( 1)
1-
n-. f(n) {, g, <>},
. .
F
.


, - (1)-
. .

,
V.
.
;
,
.
,
<>,
( g)y .
:
: /?, S. S,
R
;
74: R = ;
2 : U : = (R)\
: (J = mo S : = u (<>, a, S)
S: = - ( / , S);
4: S: = T ( a t xeocm(R), S)
:
/': 2. V
l -
- W
\- ( 1)-/;
U ' l : = 2
:=; W : = ; ;
U'2: V W 1 -
U'\
U'3: A : = V ;
88
U '4: V: = T (, V, );
(/'5: ]/:=-(<>, 1/);
Uf6: = V: = ^(g, V)
K: = r(g, , );
U7: W: = A
4> = 2
('?

4.
1. .
,

, .
. h ()
,
ft () [0,9]. ,
ft () -
.
/() :
I , ^ ^ 9,
) = ft( ) / ( 1 ( ) ) + .
\
f(ri)
; ,
f(n) /( 1), . . . , /( 10)
f (1 ()).
/( 1), .. . , /( h(ri)) (
);
.
/()
0, 19 . . .
.. . , , 0= , =0h(n0)1, 2= 1()1 , . . .
.... (-!)1, _i> 9 , 0 < * < 9 .
1. , 0,
nlf . . . * , 0 < ^ < 9 .
, 0, . . . , * ,
/,
/ (). , 0, nh
, / ()
:
f ( n k) = n h,
f(nh-i)=h(nk- 1)-f(nh) + l , . . . . / ( , ) = ( ) - / ( , ) + 1 .
89
, 0,
. . nk /i(n0),/i(ni),. .
, ,
(0), . . . . h(nh)
0, . . . , nh. ,
( ),
. .
,
,
,
.
,
- ,

.
-
,
.
,
.


.

f (n). (
) :
1 , . .
-
;
2 ,
,
s:=A(p), ,
.

. ,
. /(),
( , h
):
/1: n<Z9 :=\ \
/2: v:=h(n);
/3: k\= n 1v\
/4: /:= /(* );
/5: z:vl-\-n
z .
90
> 9. /1, /2, /3 .
/4 ,
, /(*),
(/, , k)
, . . /5.
/(*)

/ .
. ,

.
,
. , ,
. , ,
. .
2. . ,
.

- .
:
' ) ;
) , ,
;
) ,
.

,
.
, :
) ,
)
,
) .

.

. .
/(25). h(n)
,
= 3 ,14159 26535 89793 23846 26433 . . .
/1, /2, /3 .
:
=25, =3, *=21, /, /5
/(21).
91
:
= 25, =3, fc=21, /, /5;
n=21, =2, =18, I, /5.
/(18). :
= 25, =3, =21, /, /5;
n=21, = 2, =18, /, /5;
n=18, =8, = 9, /, /5.
/(9). /1 9.
.
: = 18, : = 8 , := 9, /: = 9
/5. /
() :
=25, =3, =21, /, /5;
=21, =2, = 1 8 / /, /5.
/5
/+ = 8 9 + 1 8 = 9 0 .
.
( ) .
: =21; :=2; : = 18; /:=90,
/5.
2x90+ 21= 201.
n=25, =3, =21, I, /5.
, .
: 3x201+25=628.
2. /(24).
4
,
.
,
,
, .
.
,
, .
3. .
, , ,
,
. ,
,
,
.

.

92
, , ,
(
, )
, ,
,
, .

, ,
f(n). ,
() .
,
.

. 29.

.
,
,
.
,
.

, , '
,
.
, ,
. . 29.

,
; F5 .
,
, ,
. .
.
,
.
93
* * *

,
,
.
, ,
,
. ,

. , \
,
, 1, 2, . . . , 1,
.

.
,
.
,
.
\ 1
1x2, 1 x 2 x 3 , . . .
, ,

/.
.

,
-

. 30.

. .
( . . . . -
, , 1961.)
2/+1 . (2+1)-
,
94
. = 1 ,
2, 3 :
, ,
(. 30).
1 (. . 2)
:
171. 2, A2n+i-
2, . . . , 2- 2
( )
.
(21)-,
(2+1)- (. 31).
3. .

5.

. ,
,

. , ,

,

,
.

.
1. .
.
(. 32). ,
,
. ,
.
95

().
- ,
, , ,
{, , }. , abacbc ,
,

,
.
,
.
, .

j
.... ..
1

.
1 1
1 1
1___ ___1
1 . 1-------- 1

. 33.

.
(
) , ,
, ,
(. 33).

, 1
.
= 1 ( ),
,
.
.
, 1 .
1. ,
.
,
: , = ,
1 ( sub (k))
(
one(k)).
96
L : ( ) {, , )
. . I
{, , },


',
L 1 : () (, ); ',
L2: ~] ( = V = ) : =
= 6 = z:=a
: =&;
L3:- : = sub ();
L4: l : = L ( x , , )\
L5: k : = L ( z , y , m );
L6 : /: = (I, , , k)
L2 ,
.
L4, L5. ,

. *).
1
z ( L4),

1 z ( Lb).
an= a_ 1 + l + a _ 1, . . an=2an-i+ \.. ,
=1. *=
= 2 an_i 2, 1 =
= 2 _ 1- ; , ,
211= 1 . 1 = 2 1 .
L L3: m:=sub(n),
1 L4 .
, 1
. ,
L, sub
, tn,

tn= 2tn^ + l ( 1)
/ i = 0 .
m:=sub(n) L4, L5
sub(n), t'n

*)
, (), {), . . . , ,

4 . . 97
sub
* ; = 2/;_+ 2 ( 2)
/ ^ = 0 .
(2 )
(3),
t'n tn=2 (t'n_l - t n- 1) + l, t [ - t = Q .
sn = t'n tn>

sn 2 sn_ j -f- 1 , = 0.
= 2" 1.
2. tn? 1?
. L ( , , ) L (, , )
sub(m).
, -
, ,
.
, .
,
.
,

, .
= . .

. ,
, /
L.
vn. L5 ,
L4. ,
L5
L4. =-.+ 1 ^ = 0 .
, vn= n 1.
.
, = 10
: 291=511 ,
.
2. .
L .


rn=2rn- 1-\-2, ri=Q. -
98
, = 22 , . .
. ,
, L (z, , )
L ( z, ) z , z
. ,
.
L5
:
L5.1: : = 1\
L5 .2 : k: = ;
L5.3: w: = ();
w = x w: =
w = z w : = x
w: = z;
k: = (ky w)\
: = ()

=
,
-> 1-w i2-*-.. .-> 1
1 ( 2 " 2
). sub 1:
L ( )
sub ().
3.
sub. ,
1.
3. . > 1
1{ n) = ^ ( L ( X y Zy 1), , L( Zy 1));
z { , }9
.
L(Zy 1 )
L(Xy Zy 1). L(Xy z, 1)
L(Xy ) .
, ,

. ,
,
.
. ,
2 ] , z,
X ) 57
z (/.
4* 99
L ( x , z , n 1),
w(x, )
(1 *) .

:
1 L{x, 2 , - 1 ) , - ( * , ), ( 1 * 1 ) ,

2 L ( x , y , n 2), (, z), (
) ,

3 L ( x , z , n 3), (x.y),

4 L(x, y, n 4), (x, z), '(H i),

, ( l I)
'J (x9y)t
( z * ) )* ,
. ,

:
1 L(x, , 1), " ( . ) , ( ) ,
L(x, , 1).
L(x, , 1) = ^(, ).
,
:
1 L (, , 1), v (jc, ), ( i l l ) ,
L(x, , 1),
L(x, , 1) = (* , ).

Z J ) 1,
( 1 ) 2. (, )
1 , ( , ) 2.
.
. I
L(x, , t) L(x, , i),
, i. i-
t,
f + 1 - .
100
:
L': L-,
L' 1: ()
(, ); /: = 2

l: = 'J (, )-, t: = 1 ',
V 2 :
, = /, (
I ( )
t,
,

/;
h: = sub ();
t = 1 t: = 2 t: 1

one ()
L'.\
(). ,
,
sub one.
4. .
L '2 .
($, /), s
{a, b, c },J , 1 2.
, ,
s /.
,
, , , .
, ,
.
xod(j),
XJ(x, ) (, )
, / .
U ( V
):
V : -,
L\: ()
l: = 'J (, ); t: 2
/: = w (, )\ t: = 1 -,
L '2:
U = (I, (t), (/, <))'*
n \ sub(n)-,
101
i>~ 1 t: = 2 t : = 1

one ()
: s /.
, s
/. , ,
;
1 : : = ;
2:
d: = (s);
t = 1 mo

d = :=
' d = y e: = z
: =
;
t = 2

d = x \ =
d = y : =
: =
\
v: = (v, d); s = (s)

s^=
5. .


() :

.
6.


.
vlt 2>
12 3
(1, 2). ( 2 3 l ) ( 3 1 2 J
( 3 ^ 2 ) .
/ , i
, / (1< *< 2, 1 < /< 3 ). ,

. vk t
atVk.

102

,
.
.
7.
: ,
, . .
,
, .
,
,
.
, ,
:
1 ,
2 ,
3
.
IV.



^
.

- .
. .

-- .
,
.
, ,

. ,
.
-
.

1.



( bi), (2, 2), . . .
(, ).
,
. . ,
2, ... .
x= a iy .
, 2, . . . , 2, ...
. . . , .

.
104
2, . . . ,
2, ... , .

i , x= a t. ,
,
blt b2t . . . , bn.
1. .

,
, . . .
. . . , , , -
. 1 2, ...
,
/2 .
,
. .
.
1 1000.
,
-? .
,
.
,

.
,
.* , ,
,
1 ?,
. ,

999 .

,
, ,
1. ,
500? ,

500 . ,
,
750?, ,
250? . . . 34 ,
,
,
105

.
1. N ,
1 N
10 .

1 . .
. ,
- ?,
:

; 2 3 5 6 7 8 3 10-

500 250 125 63 32 16 8 4 2 /

. 34.

/ (1).
,

. , . . . ,
( a i< a a< . . . < ). , k =
=[/ 2] , > ,
, ,
0 . . . , + . . . , . ,
,
. :'
: 0! < 2< . . .< .
k , ak= x ,
k );
1: k: = \;
2: 1\ \
: 1

> ft: = m + 1
I: =

.


106
1 .
a i < a 2< . . .<
[log2n ]+ l .
. ,
s 2 5_ 1< ^ 2 5,
^ s .
.
s.
s= 1, = 2. .
2 s,
k .
s = k + 1. ,
!% .
, 2k~l< n !2 ^ 2 k.
, k .
, ,
k + l. . 2k< n + h ^ 2 k+x
(2+1). ,
, ^ ( + 1 )/2 .
2_*< (/+1) /2^2*
.
2.
1000, 2000, 3000 ?
3. , [log2n ] + l
, log2n. (
n = 2 s.) ,
[log2n].
2. ,
,
.
.
,
.
/n- .

.
, ,
. , i
,
, at .
,
.

, .
107
,
, ,
. . 2. , 2^ m ^ lo g 2n.
2. ().
. . . ,
. \
. . . , .

,
. , , ,
,
, 2^ \ m ^ \o g 2(n\).
,
log, (!).

. i-
2, ____ *.

.
. i- >1, ,
(i 1 )- ,
,
. :
: 2, ---- - -
,
;
\: /:=2;
2: i ^ n
at

01 , . . . ,
i:= i + 1

at
a2i . . . , _; ,
aj-t /. , aJt aJ+u . . .
*-1 : af_i
a t- 2 *_ . . . , $ a^+i,
* . /
, ai-kt k = \ , 2 , . . . ,
,
k ,
/ = / k + l .
, at
108
(/=1). ,
6 , 1.

, - -\

^)(t1)= (1)/2. (+2) (1)/4
.
,

,
.

.
,
6 . ,

, 6 ,
-,
6+ 1. ,
,

,
4: x> a h 6 := 6 + 1 .
- alt a}+1, . . . , a t_j
, , a<_i
ait at,
.
,
aj.
aj, 1+ . . . , a i-lt at-i ,),
,
. :
\: i:= 2;
2: i ^ n

( /)

. . . . , d i~ 1,
r:=at\ t:=i;
t> j
at:at-i, t:= t 1 ;
a}:=r; t : = t + l

109
,
i llog2i]-fl ,
. . .
. . . , log2l- f log22 + . . .+ lo g 2 (nl) + n 1 =
= lo g 2 (nl)!+ n 1 .
4. 1 101
. , 11 ,
.

3.
.

.
at 2, . . . , *-*
( lo g 2i + l ) ,
,
dj-i /,
ctj+i, . . di -1
at .
i/+ 1 . ,
dt 1 -
/+ 1 .
dt ()
.

'0 2 ( i + l ) = ( n + 4 ) ( n + l ) / 2 -
1=0
.

,
log2n!
.
.
.
:
= 1 , ;
2 > 1 ,
, ,
1.
(
, , )
.

, d i< d 2< . ><dh i<.
/ i < / a < - . .<fh+i>
110
, fe+/
,
.
5. D / i < . ..
</
. i - , fv / 2, . /7
. q (p - \ - q = i ),
, dlf d 2, . ., elt . . ., et
.

, ,
.
.
,
(, , ,
).
.

.
.
1 . . . ,
aiy ai+1, . . . , cij fl;+b aj+2, . . . , ahy
D.

. ,
aiy ai+ly . . . , ahy ,
.

,
, ,
1 . .. , fen.
ai+1 , cij aj+1, . . . , ah>
biy bi+ly . . . , bh\ *
biy bi+1 , . . . , bh bh+ly bk+a, . . . , bmy
aiy ai+ly . . . , .
1 . . . ,

. 1 . . . ,
2 ,
2, 3 4, , . . .

. 4
( , ,
1 , 2 3),
111
.
.
,
, 1 . . . , . . . ,
.
, . . 35
. .
. . . , & 1, . . . . ,
,
.

. ,
,
. . . , 1 . . . , ,

. 35.

.

2, 4 . ., s-ro 2*.
,
s , 2s~1< in ^ 2 s, . . s l< lo g 4/t<.
, s<:[log 2n ] + l .
, ,
(Ilogj/- l) n lo g 2n.
* * *

,
. ,
.
, .
, ,
, .
6. .
1< 2< . . . < . k ,
+1, < ,
< .
.

112
2 .
1. .
.
1 , 2 , . . . , ,
,
{1, 2, . . . , }.

ii, *2, . . . , ih>
( ) 2".
,
- ()
&i, fr2, , i
.
2 .

.
. 2 ,

ait, /, . . . , ^, l ^ i i < t a< . .<Cik^ n .

,
.
,
,
,
. , ,
. . . ,
^, /, . . . , , sin (aix+ f . .+
+ ^) .
sin * ,

. sin, ,

, .
.

, , , .


alt
.

. = 6 , 0, 1, 0, 1, 1,
at, at , ,.
113
2, 4, 1, 1, , 1, , 1.
- 2 ",

1, 2, 3, . . . , 2". 0, 0, . . . , ,
,
0.
0 , 1 , 2 , . . . , 2 " 1 .

. :
\
0 , 1 , 2 , . . . , 2 " 1
/i- ?

.
1. 1% . . ., .
a,-lf a/2, . . ., ,
+ . . .+ / ,
?
2. , .
,
0, 1, 2" 1 . . . ,
. ,
, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ,
7, 8 , 9.

. ,
0 10" 1
. ,
.
,
,
. ,

. , ,
.

dk dh- 1 . . .du ( ,
),
, d fc lO ^ + d fc -ilO ^ -h . .+di.
, 10
,
.
, -
114
.
0 101=9.
0 21= 1. , 0 1.
N,
bmbm- i . . .bu 0^ b j< ll,
62 - 6 - 12 " - . . . + 6 1. . (1)
(1) , , ,
, 2. bi 0 1, ,
bi N 2.
bm2m~2+ bm-i2m~3+ . . .+ 2. N 2

bi N () ,
. . . ,2
().
2, 3, . . . , .
2 , ,
.
20 :
20=10x2+0
10= 5 x 2 + 0
5= 2x2+1
2= 1x2+0
1= 0 2+ 1
10100 , 1-24+ 0 - 2 3+ 1 -2 +
+ 0 -2 + 0 = 1 6 + 4 = 2 0 .
, ,

.
.
q ^ 2 </-
. 0
<71 . N <7-
N wsqs~1+ w s- 1qs~2+ .. .+Wi,
O ^ w ^ q i. N ^-
<7= 2 :
q
.
2. 20 - = 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8, 9, 10.
, <7- q .
<7< 10, , , . <7 > 1 0
115
.
. -
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 , 7, 8 , 9, , .
20 :
20=1x12+8
1= 0x 12+ 1

18. 155:
155=12x12+11
12= 1 x 12+ 0
1 = 0 x 12+ 1
.
-
, ,
, .
,
,
q 1 .
10100 101:
,1 0 1 0 0
+ 101
11001

:
v 10100
101
, 10100
+ 10100
1100100
%
3.
.
^- , 1, 10, 100, . . .
q, q1, q2> . . . q ,
^- ,
. : q
, ^-
.
4.
100!, q = 2, 5, 10? (100
).

116
N , (7-
. N? ,
k , qk~1
qk1. k ,
1. : qk~1^.N<.qk.
\^ \o g qN < k fe 1 =[logflvVl, fe=[logejV]+l.
5. 2100, <7 -
, q = 2, 5, 10?
, lg 2=0,30103...


. i 0 2" 1
i
. ,
.
= 5; 0
0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 30 , 0 , 0 , 1 , 1 ,
201, 0,1 0, 0 , 31 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 .
6. 30?
1, 1, 0, 1, 1?

N .

2 . ,
, ,
.
[N/21, N2 [N12].
: N > 0 . bi f b2t . . . , bm ,
0 , N = b m2m~1+ bm_12m-* + ...+ b l-,
1 : t: = 1 ;
2:
s:=[W /2]; b(: = N 2s;
N: = s; i: = i + 1

N = 0
.
,
N . ,
N < 2 ny

N = 0 i> n .
7. N 4944.
6703?


3. .
,
. . a lV /, . .
sin(a/i+ a /a+ . . -+;) .
, '
.
2" .

.

. /
0 2 1
.
. . . , ,
.
.
:
/, ,
/ + 1 , ,
,

. /
/+ 1 .
/
/+ 1 . .
,
, .
, ,
. ,
.

.
': 1 . . ,
. . . < 2
. . . + \ ( );
'1: k: = ,
' 2 : bk = 1 : = 0 ; k: = k + 1

': : = 1
:
S: s bf = 1 ;
S 1 : s: = 0 ;
S2: i: = 1;
53: i ^

bi= 1 , s: = s + a f;
i: = i + 1*


/ : = / + 1 ,
, /
. 2, ., +1,
+ 1 .
alt . . . , , +1
:
bn+i = l ,
( /= 2 ").
: ait . . . , .
sin (alt+ ,-,+ . . .
1^ < ... < .

;
M l: v: = 2;
2 : bv: = 0 ; v: v + 1
= -)- 2 ;
3: bx: = 1 ;
4: : = 0 ;
5: bn+i 0
s
5;
s:= sin (s);
s > , : = s;
blt . . . . bn+i



8. ,
,
,
. *
. Ml
M l: :=3,
3
3.1: ^ := 0 ;
3.2: b 2 : = 1;
4
4: m ^ s in ^ j)
9. , b l t b 2 ,
> + 1 . 1 , 0 .

119
3 .

. . . ,
2 . 2
.
, -
,
.
1 . . -
,
. . . , . .
, .
:
1 . . . , i<.nt - ,
,
, ^
,
.
2~* ,
. . . . , at
. ,
0i, . . . , .
ai{t ,, . . . , 0* , /,+ 0/+
+ . . .+at = . -
0 ^, ,-, ... 0^
,
+ 0^+ 2, . ,
,
.

. n-

. ,


.
,"
(. .
,
, ,
, ).

.
120

-
.
, ,
, :
, ,
, . 1
, 1 .

1 ) V/ V
1 , 0, 1
1 , 1,
1 , 1, 1


{0 , 1 }, , 0
1 ,
.
.
( 1 )
0
0, 0
0 , 0, 0
, 0, 1
, 1
, 1,
0. 1 , 1 (2 )

1,
1, ,
1, 0, 1
1. 1
I, 1,
1, 1. 1

( )
:
.
,
, ,
. , -
,
121

. -
, 0. , 1 , 0
, 1, 0, 0.

,
;
2 ,
;
3 , , 2,
.
, 1,0 , 1, 1.
1, 1
; . = 3
0 , 0 1 ,
:
0,
,
, 1
, 1,
, 1, 1
1

,

: 0 , 1 , 0 0 , 1 , 1 .
2 . .
,
< >
.
: bit . . . , 6,
0, 1,
k ( k ^ n )
k = n.

k ,
blt . . . , bky
.
51: bk = 1 / \ k ^ \ k : = k 1;
52: k ^ l bk: = 1
*, . . . , bht
+ . . . ,
,
122
. 1, 1, . . 1 ,
;
k=0.
,
,
.
(the backtracking
) ,
,
,
.
1.
, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 , .
?

, ,
,
,
.
. . . ,
- ,
,
.
,
,
.
--
,
.
,
7\ k
. . . , .
. . . , bk .
, k < n
. . . , bk k= n . . . ,
.
t ,
blt . . ., bk
. ,
.
: .
blt . . . t bn
blt . . . , bn ;
123
Cl: fe: = 0 ;
C2: / : = ;
: t \J k < n
]/

t: = T( k)


blt .. ., bH
\
fe = 0 ;
t:=T(k)

2.
?

3. . ,

. . . ,
.
,
k (k^si) } (1
bj= 1. , ,
.
S :
k
. ,
S'.

,
. S ', :
: /, k bu ... bk , ,
< . . . , bk , k= n
. . . . ,
. , := , \=\
74: s S';
2: z: = (s>M) V (=/\&).
' .
:
S'.
,
s0, Si, . .., sn , Si(l<t<& )
aj ...
bj= 1 ; s0 .
124*
s0, Si, . .. . sn
. . . , k,
S' , sh.

:
: , . . . ,
.
,
,-= 1 , ;
C U := 0,
2: t:=JI;
3: s:= 0;
4: t V k < n
*] t
k : = k + l , bk: = 0 ; sk: = s k. t;
t: = (k = n) ( )


blt . . . , bk k
\
k = 0 ;
t: = s k > M


,
, , s0, Sj, . . . , sh,
. bh.
,
1, / >
0, S{ s,_ j.

,
s0,' . .. , s.
:
'U k:=m;
'2: s:=0;
3: k ^ \ f\s^> sh~i k\k1;
'4: sh:=sh-i+ a k
.
. . . , ,

si, . . . , s ( >0).
125
, su ... sn
, ,
.
3.
.
4.
, .
5. ,
(d)t d ,
. ,
- ()
.
.
.
/i- ,
.
6. (. )
(. 6 . III, 5)
% ,
( i 1 CJ , /2, ... {
, ) .

4.

1 . .
?
1 0 ,

^ 2" 1 .
, ,
, ,

.
8 .
8 ,
.
,
. , ,
,
.
8 .

0 7, ,

,
8 0 7. , ,
126
. 36, *
24065137.
, 1 - 3-
.
,

.
0 77777777.

881. , 8 8.
:
0 88 1
,

.


. . . , &8.

1 .
1.
blt . . .,
, 1
. ,
< 8 8 1. . 36.


,
.
, -
.
, i- ,
- 1 , 2 , . . . , i 1 ,
.

,
.
,

. ,
i-
- ,
,
,
127
i .
, 88-/ .
. ,
,
(
, ).

i1
t- , ,
, -
,
,
.
. . .
.

i1 ,
. ,
i2 ^ .

, ,
. ,
.
. 37 26 (
),

4 4 x 4 .
2. 8 - .
, 8 ,
.


, ,
. ,
. , ^
. . . , bnt
0 1.
k ,
(
. ).
, fe=0, ,
, .

. ,
128
)
. 37 ,

5 . . 129
bi
.
Bek: <> ,
0, 1, 1,
k (k^Ln),
k= n.

k ,
. . . , bh,
;
Bek 1: bhn1/\k~ ^\ k:= k1;
Bek2: k ^ \ bh:= bh+ 1
.
(k) ,
, ,
- k.
.
: . 2, . . . , ,
0 1,
.
(.
)-,
1: fe:=0;
2: *:=;
: t\fk ^ = n
"11
k : = + 1 ; : = 0 ; t : = T (k)


bit . . . , bk k
. Bek;
/ = 0 ;
t:= T (k )

. . . , bh
, blt . . . , bh- x

k1 .
:
\ k. ,
. . bh
k . ,
k1
.
130
,
;
\: i: = 1;
2: : - ;
: i < k
~\(b{ = bk\/ \ b k 41*=/
mo i: = t + l
: = ;
3. b j \ = k t?
4. (. 5
),
, .
5. (. 5
)
0, 1, 2.......... 1.
. 0, 1, 2, . . . . n 1
(
).
2. . ,
.
. 38.

1 16.
* ,
. ,
,

,
,
,
.
,
, ',
5* 131
.

>for , .
,

.
, 8 , ,
8.
,
, ,
, .
.
,

. :

( ).
,
, ,
( ),
,
, .
,
. .
,
. 38 1 16
(
,
):
1
1, 2
1
1, 3
1, 3, 10
1, 3
1. , 11
1, 3, II, 8
1, 3, , 8, 1
1, 3, , 8
1, 3, , 8, 7
1, 3, II, 8, 7, 6
1, 3, 11, 8, 7, 6, 1
1, 3, 11, 8, 7, 6
1. 3, 11, 8, 7

132
1 , ; , 8
i, ,
1, 3, 11,12
1, 3, 11, 12, 13
1, 3, 11, 12, 13, 14
I, 3, 11, 12, 13
1, 3, 11, 12, 13, 15
1, 3, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16

6. - 2,
3, . . . 15 .

,
.
, :
'1 ,
;
2
,
.
,
.

.


.
.
i, j ,
.

( ). i-
/- , i-
/- (0 1).

. ,
,
, . . ,
. (.
6 . III, 5 6
).
, 12, bib,
Ctjy dt+sp . . ,
, .
,
133
. ,
.
,
, , .
, , , .
7.

. i, . . . , , 6/
/- .

, . 38,

/0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0\
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 100000
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 I 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
^0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1

, , , 10-
3-:
1. , 10-
4- ( ).
,
10 21!, 1() 4=0.

, .
,
, .
. bht ,
bk . . bh- u
134
\, ^ 2, ,
_ 1* .
. .. , bh :
**,
. ,
_1. bh:m.
,
, . . , bk-1
. .
. . . . bh ,
bh+i
: 2, . . . , - +
, , ,
bh+1:=m.

.
8.
, ( ,
). :
1, 2, 3, 4.
,
. ,
,
.
-
.
9. .
. ,
, .
,
,
. .
10.
.
?
. , ,
, (
).

5.
1. . (
)

.
.
135
0, 1, 2 ( ) 1, . . .
. . . , 1. -! . . . *

j- at,
,
.
<13"1 .
.
3" ,
( ) 0 3"1.
,
,

.

,
0 3"1
. =2,


,
. 39.
1.

.

1..........
/ = 1 , . . . ,
, ,. , , 1
.

Oi, . . . , , ,
. 40.
,
.
.
,
.
,
.
.
, . ,
,
136
, .
. 39
9 12 (. 41).
. 40 ,
. 42.
,
.

. ,
.

.,
. , 5 , , D,
, D, D , , D
, . 43.
BD .
,
.
(. 44).
, .
, .
,
.
.
,

. . 45.

. . 44
, , CDBC.
2. ,
. 44.

, ,
. . 42.
2. .
,
,
, ,
.
.
,
,
.
137

. 45.

,
: , ,
( ).
, ,
.
,
, ,
.

,
,
. .
1 .
,
.
2 .
,

.

- . 46.
.
(., ,
. , , , 1965),
,
. 46.
:
, .

.
, ,
, ,
, .
.
,
.
.
, , ,
, .
. (,
. 46 .)
(
) . -
139
V , ,
, .
, ,
, .
V:
. ,
.
W,
. ,
(
), ,

, , ,
. W
. ,
, V W ,
, , ,
.
, .
3. ,
, .
, , .
4.
(
), .
. 47, 48.
,
.

, .

.
,
140
,
.
, .

, ,
. 49.

, . ,
,
, , (
).
, ,
, ,
,
.
3.
.

. . . *

,
, ,
,
(,
)
. . ., . - 49#

. log2n
.
,
. . .

.
k , ah< u<iak+u

ah+u ah+2,
. . ,
, -, ( log2n )
, -,
.

z2, . . .
F(z)9
. F(z) .
141
F(z) ,
, . .
.
F(zi), F (zs), . . . . F(zm)
()
.
,
, .

,
.
.
,
.
,
.
.
, ( ),
.
.
. 50.
.


(
) .

( .
50). ,
,

.
,

(. . 50).
:
.
. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
.
142
.
, .
,
. , .
,
( ) ,
,
,
. .
:
, ;
2 ,
.

. ,
.
, F (),
,
, F(u).
,
, 7, 10, 6, 9, 6.
, . 51.

10/(10) QF(S) 11/(10 m o)

8 /(9 )
. 51.

6 5-

.
5. ,
, 7, 10, 8, 7, 8, 17, 5, 10, 4, 8, 6,
6, 20, 4, 17, 0, 9, 6, 3.


. ,
,
, -
143
.
zu z2, . . zm , Zi<
< 2< . . .< z m,
(. 52) .
, , ,
,
, ,
. . ,
. 53. ,
m = 2s1, , . 53,
,
$ , . .
log2(m + l) .
,
\
log2(m +l).
,

\
. 62.

()
-. . . ., . , , :
, -
.

1, 2, 3, . . . .
k ,

/ dii di . I . d j/
\dzi d2 2 . . . dihJ

du ,
t- , a d2t
,
t- . du dit 0,
. ,
k 2k
144
.
, k ,
,
-
.

d, 4 . dlt d2i
, i- , d3i, d3i
, i-
.
F .
:
: ,
d (. ), w v.
,
F ;
CU = 0
w := F (v)\ dt4: = 0; d2i: = 0;
d3l:= o ; dti : = te>; n: = n - f 1;

-,
C2: i: = 1;
:
d3i v
w: = dtl; -,
j: = i-,
v < d3l k: = l k : = 2;
i: = d ki

i = 0;
4: n: n -j-1;
* 5: w: = F (v);
6: dk ,-. = n;
C7:
c8 : din: = w;
C9: din: 0;
CIO: din:= 0
,
.
cit . .
, . . . , :
D: -,
DU : 0;
D2: i: = 1;
149
)3:

w
( , ,
)\
,-:=; . = *+ 1

i >
6 . , 1
.
7. 6 , ,

(
, ,
+ 1 .
8 .

, . ,
.
V.
,

.

1.
1. .

.
,
.
.
.
s,

. ,
s .
, s
,
, , .
1, . . .
. . ., ; , ,

1 2 ... 1
(ii / 1*1 * ( 1)
j'i, it, , . ., Zn_i, in 1, 2 , , , ,
- . , 1-
1-, 2- i- . .
, 1, 2, . . .,
, ,
{1, 2, . . ., ), . . 1, 2, .
.
147
s
.
, (1) / iJt / = 1, 2, . . .
{1,2, . . , }
, / 1
. . ,
(1) ^ \ )
, ii = kif i2= k2t . . . , in= k n.
{1,2, . . . , )
nl, \
1, 2, . . . , (1).
{1, 2} {1, 2, 3}

/ 1 2 3\ / 1 2 3 \ /123\ / I 2 3\ /1 2 3 \ /1 2 3\
VI 2 3) 9 VI 3 2) 9 V2 1 3] 9 V2 3 1) 9 \ 3 1 2) 9 \3 2 1)
{1, 2,. . ., }

- .
1. s {1, 2 , 3, 4, 5}
s(i)=ocmamoK(3it 5)+1. ,
; .
2. , {1, . . ,
. . ., q}, s(i)= (/, ?)+ 1 ,
, q , <7- .
. s(i)=s(j) />/. a(ij) q.
2. . -
s - .
, l^ a ^ /z , s ft.
, s
b { 1 , 2 , . . . , }.
, .
, . . s(b)=c.
:
>~>. (2)

( 1 ,2 , . . ., }. , (2)
,
.
.
(2), .
= .
148
. , . .


. , , = ,
, . . $()=. , s(a)=b.
, =, .
,
b
t I
.
, , , ...,
, s(a)=b> s(b)=c9. . s(r)= a
s.
,
/1 2 3 4 5 6 \
\ 3 2 5 6 1 4J (3)
1 , 3 , 5 ; 2; 4, 6.
, .
(3)
: 3, 5, 1;
5, 1, 3; 6, 4. ,
, , 9 . . ., , 9 . . ., , ; , . . ., ,, , ;. . .
,

. , ,
.
,
. , (3) (1 3 5 ) (2)
(4 6).
.
3.
) /1 2 3 4 5\
\5 4 2 3 1) :
) /1 2 ... \
W 2 ... )"

s
. , , (,
d) ( d /) d,
a= s(d)y /= s(d ), ,
a= f. =9 , s(e)=s(b)=d.
149

.

. , , (3).
(1 3 5)

(2)


(4 6)

({!)
,
,
.
4.

) (2 4 6) (1 3 5),
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151
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152
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s,
s(i), s(s(i)), s(s(s(i)))f . . . t(i),
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153
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154
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n > 1.


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157
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159
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<, [loga n )+ i.


169
; n ^ l , .
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:

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& - 1 = Qafln*
168
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= !ogt + 10 lg (1 + flt) + log, +K~S V~b

= 4,784971 . . . lg (l+ a x ) + 1,672275... <


< 5 1 g ( l + a 1) + l,7
(lg 10).

.
169
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170
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;
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+1 > +2
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k = [ n /2] + 1:

171
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173
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174
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179
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= (Pi + Pa + + P*+l)>

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180
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181
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