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Operations Manual

Petrel 1 / Petrel 2
Standalone & EXT Models
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

Table of Contents
Models Covered by this Manual5
Feature List6
Turning On7
The Main Screen9
Color Coding9
The Top Row10
The Center Row12
Center Row Configuration13
The Bottom Row14
Info Screens 16
Compass (Petrel 2 only) 20
Open Circuit Menu Structure23
Closed Circuit (Int. PPO2) Menu Structure24
Closed Circuit (Ext. PPO2) Menu Structure25
Basic Setup26
Simple Example Dive27
Complex Example Dive28
Gauge Mode31
Resettable Average Depth31
Decompression and Gradient Factors32
Menu Reference33
Turn Off33
Single Sensor Mode34
Calibration Problems34
Switch Setpoint 35
Select Gas36
Radio Station Gases36
Select Gas Menu Styles37
Switch to OC/CC38
Dive Setup+38
Low Setpoint38

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Table of Contents (continued)

High Setpoint39
Define Gas40
Dive Planner+42
NDL Display45
External PPO2 Monitoring 47
Dive Log Menu49
Display Log49
Upload Log49
Edit Log Number49
System Setup+50
Dive Setup51
Deco Setup53
OC Gases 53
CC Gases 53
O2 Setup54
Auto SP (Setpoint) Switch54
Display Setup55
Compass Setup (Petrel 2 only)57
System Setup59
Advanced Configuration 160
Advanced Configuration 261
Firmware Upload and Dive Log Download62
Changing the Battery63
Battery Types64
Tissues Cleared65
Error Displays66
Storage and Maintenance68
Fischer Pin-out68
FCC Warning70
Industry Canada Warning70

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This computer is capable of calculating deco stop requirements. These calculations are
at best a guess of the real physiological decompression requirements. Dives requiring
staged decompression are substantially more risky than dives that stay well within no-
stop limits.

Diving with rebreathers and/or diving mixed gases and/or performing

staged decompression dives and/or diving in overhead environments
greatly increases the risk of scuba diving.

You really are risking your life with this activity.

This computer has bugs. Although we havent found them all yet, they are there. It is
certain that there are things that this computer does that either we didnt think about,
or planned for it to do something different. Never risk your life on only one source of
information. Use a second computer or tables. If you choose to make riskier dives,
obtain the proper training and work up to them slowly to gain experience.

This computer will fail. It is not whether it will fail but when it will fail. Do not depend on
it. Always have a plan on how to handle failures. Automatic systems are no substitute
for knowledge and training.

No technology will keep you alive. Knowledge, skill, and practiced procedures are your
best defense (Except for not doing the dive, of course).

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The Shearwater Petrel is an advanced technical diving computer for open and closed
circuit divers.

Although we strive to make the Petrel easy enough to use without reading the manual,
please take some time to read this manual to get the best performance from your new
computer. Diving involves risk and education is your best tool for managing this risk.

Models Covered by this Manual

This manual provides operating instructions for the Petrel Standalone (SA) and Petrel
External (EXT) models. Both the Petrel 1 and Petrel 2 hardware versions are covered by
this manual.

Nitrox Recreational (OC Rec) Mode

Operation of the Petrel when set to the "OC Rec" mode is covered by a separate
manual, see the Shearwater Petrel Nitrox Recreational Mode Manual. Although the
model of Petrel is the same when using this mode, a separate manual was written
to keep the instructions simple.

DiveCAN (Rebreather Controller) Models
For instructions on the Petrel rebreather controller models using DiveCAN
communications, see the Shearwater DiveCAN Petrel Manual.

Petrel 1 vs. Petrel 2

This manual covers both the Petrel 1 and Petrel 2 models. The difference between
the models is that the Petrel 2 has a digital compass and also supports Bluetooth
Smart Ready (i.e. dual mode Bluetooth supporting both Bluetooth Classic v2.1 and
Bluetooth Smart v4.0). Bluetooth Smart is used for connecting to iOS devices.

All other features are the same between the Petrel 1 and Petrel 2. Both models
use the same firmware file and firmware version number.

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Feature List
Depth, time and oxygen sensor display
Bhlmann decompression model with gradient factors conservatism
Optional VPM-B decompression model
Imperial and metric displays
Available in Standalone (SA) model and External (EXT) PPO2 monitoring model
A menu system that adapts to diving status
Automatic turn off after 15 minutes on the surface
Depth sensor rated to 450 feet/140 meters of seawater
Dive Planner
Any combination of oxygen, nitrogen, and helium (Air, Nitrox, Trimix)
Open and closed circuit, switchable during a dive
5 CC and 5 OC gases
Gases can be changed and added during a dive
CNS tracking
No lockout from violating deco stops
Automatic PPO2 set-point switching (configurable)
Two PPO2 set-points, each of which can be set between .4 and 1.5
Flexible user replaceable battery. Almost any AA type
Tilt compensated digital compass (Petrel 2 only)
1000 hour dive log memory
Log downloads and firmware upgrades using Bluetooth

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Turning On

To turn the Petrel on, press both

the MENU (left) and the SELECT
(right) buttons at the same time.

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Two piezo-electric buttons are used to change settings and view menus.
Except for turning the Petrel on, all operations are simple single button presses.

MENU (left)
SELECT (right)

Dont worry about remembering all the button rules below. Button hints
make using the Petrel easy.

MENU button (Left)

From main screen: brings up the menu.
In a menu: moves to the next menu item.
Editing a setting: changes the settings value.

SELECT button (Right)

From main screen: steps through information screens.
In a menu: performs command or starts editing.
Editing a setting: saves the settings value.

When Petrel is off: pressing MENU and SELECT at the same time will turn
the Petrel on.
No other operation requires pressing both buttons at the same time.

Button Hints

When in a menu, button hints label each button.

For example, the hints to the right tell us:
use MENU to change the brightness value.
use SELECT to save the current value.   
MENU hint SELECT hint

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The Main Screen

    Top Row


Depth, Time &
Deco Stops

Center Row

    Bottom Row


Mode, Gas &
Deco Info

The main screen shows the most important information needed for technical diving.

Color Coding
Color coding of text draws attention to problems or unsafe
situations. Sample warning -
a better gas is available
White text indicates normal conditions.

YELLOW is used for warnings that are not immediately

dangerous but should be addressed. Flashes

FLASHING RED is used for critical alerts that could be life Sample critical alert -
threatening if not immediately addressed. continuing to breathe this
gas could be fatal

Color Blind Users

The warning or critical alert states can be determined  

without the use of color. Warning - doesn't flash

Warnings display on a solid inverted background. Flashes

Critical alerts flash between inverted and normal text.

Critical alert - flashes

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The Top Row

The top row shows depth and time information

Imperial: In feet (no decimal places). DEPTH

Metric: In meters (displays with 1 decimal place up to 99.9m) 229 in feet


Note: If the depth shows a Flashing Red zero, then the
depth sensor needs service.
69.7 in meters

Ascent Bar Graph

Shows how fast you are currently ascending.
30 fpm
Imperial: 1 arrow per 10 feet per minute (fpm) of ascent rate.
9 mpm
Metric: 1 arrow per 3 meters per minute (mpm) of ascent rate.
50 fpm
White when 1 to 3 arrows, Yellow when 4 to 5 arrows, and 15 mpm
Flashes Red when 6 arrows or more.
60+ fpm
Note: Deco calculations assume 33fpm (10mpm) ascent rate. 15+ mpm

Dive Time
The length of the current dive in minutes. TIME

25 in minutes
The seconds display as a bar drawn below the word Time. It
TIME seconds bar

takes 15 seconds to underline each character in the word. Does
not display the seconds bar when not diving. at about 45s

Battery Icon
Yellow when the battery needs to be changed.
Red when the battery must be replaced immediately. OK

The default behavior is that battery icon is shown on the low battery
surface but disappears when diving. If low or critical then the
battery icon will appear while diving. change

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Stop Depth and Time

Stop The next stop depth in the current units (feet or meters). STOP TIME
This is the shallowest depth to which you can ascend. 9O 2
Time The time in minutes to hold the stop. Stop at 90ft for 2 min


Will Flash Red if you ascend shallower than the current stop.
84 62 9O 2
By default the Petrel uses a 10ft (3m) last stop depth. At this Alert - depth is
setting, you may perform the last stop at 20ft (6m) with no shallower than the
penalty. The only difference is that the predicted time-to-surface 90ft stop depth
will be shorter than the actual TTS since off-gasing is occurring
slower than expected.

There is also an option to set the last stop to 20ft (6m) if you

Surface Interval
When on the surface, the STOP DEPTH and TIME are replaced
by a surface interval display.
2hr 45mn
Shows the hours and minutes since the end of your last
dive. Above 4 days, the surface interval is displayed in days.

The surface interval is reset when the decompression tissues

are cleared. See the section on Tissues Cleared.



Sample surface main screen showing the surface interval

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The Center Row

The center row displays PPO2. PPO2 units are absolute atmospheres (1ata = 1013mbar).

The layout varies depending on the current mode:

Mode Menu Setup Center Row Display

Open Circuit 

 OC Gas

Closed Circuit

PPO2 Setpoints

  CC Internal Setpoint

Closed Circuit

PPO2 Monitoring  

1.29 1.31 1.28
(Only available   CC External Measured
on EXT model)

In CC mode, PPO2 displays in Flashing Red when less than 0.40 or greater than 1.6.

In OC mode, PPO2 displays in Flashing Red when less than 0.19 or greater than 1.65.

The above limits can be adjusted in the Adv. Config 2 menu.

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Center Row Configuration

In most modes, the center row displays can be customized.

 " !   

#(  ")

 ( $

Configure the center row in the System SetupCenter Row Menu.

The left and right positions can be set to display the following:

Option Description
None Blank (default value).
Max Depth The maximum depth of the current or previous dive.
Avg Depth The average depth of the current or previous dive.
@+5 The TTS if remaining at current depth for 5 more minutes.
Ceil The current decompression ceiling (not rounded to the stop
GF99 The Bhlmann ZHL-16C super-saturation percent gradient.
CNS Central Nervous System (CNS) toxicity clock as a percentage.
Clock The time-of-day in 24hr or am/pm format (same as system
setting). Does not show am or pm.
DET Dive End Time. The time-of-day when the dive will end (i.e. Clock
plus TTS). In 24hr or am/pm format (same as system setting).
Does not show am or pm.
Dil PPO2 The diluent PPO2 at the current depth (Only available when CC
is available).
FiO2 The fraction of inspired O2 as a percentage (Only available when
CC or SC is available).

The center position can only display PPO2. In OC only mode, the PPO2 display can optionally
be turned off.

Unfortunately, customization is not possible when using External PPO2 monitoring of three O2
sensors, as all the space is already used.

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The Bottom Row


The bottom row displays the current mode, gas and decompression information.

Circuit Mode
The current breathing configuration. One of: OC or OC CC
OC = Open circuit (when CC available, displays in Yellow to
indicate bailout condition) CC
CC = Closed circuit
SC = Semi-closed circuit (only available on EXT model) SC
Current Gas (O2/He)

{ 21%
O2/HE O2
The current gas shown as a percentage of Oxygen and Helium.
The remainder of the gas is assumed to be Nitrogen. 21/OO Air
79% N2

O2/HE 10% O2
In closed circuit mode, this gas is the diluent. In open circuit
mode this is the breathing gas. 10/5O Tx 50% He
40% N2
Displays in Yellow when there is better deco gas available than O2/HE a better deco
the current gas. 21/OO gas available
No Decompression Limit (NDL)
The time remaining, in minutes, at the current depth until
decompression stops will be necessary. Displays in Yellow when 2O
the NDL is less than 5 minutes. NDL

Once NDL reaches 0 (i.e. deco stops needed), the NDL display
is just wasting space. To address this, a few different values can
be set to replace the NDL (see Dive SetupNDL Display).
The options are:

CEIL: The current ceiling in the current units (feet or meters). CEIL
Flashes Red if you ascend shallower than the current ceiling. 74

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GF99: The raw percentage of the Bhlmann allowable GF99

supersaturation at the current depth. 8O%
@+5: The predicted time-to-surface (TTS) if you were to stay at @+5
the current depth for 5 more minutes. 2O

Time-to-Surface (TTS)
The time-to-surface in minutes. This is the current time to
ascend to the surface including the ascent plus all required deco 35

Ascent rate of 33 feet per minute (10 meters per minute).
Decompression stops will be followed.
Programmed gases will be used as appropriate.

The bottom row is also used to show additional information.

By using only the bottom row for this additional information, the critical information contained
on the Top and Center Rows is always available during a dive.

The additional information that can be displayed on the bottom row includes:

Info Shows additional dive information.

Screens: Press SELECT (right button) to step through info screens.

Menus: Allows changing settings.

Press MENU (left button) to enter menus.

Warnings: Provide important alerts.

Press SELECT (right button) to clear a warning.


The bottom row is used to display additional information

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Info Screens

Info screens display on the bottom row.

Press SELECT (right) button to step

through the info screens.

SELECT button

SELECT button

SELECT button

Info screens provide additional information that does not fit on the main screen.

Starting from the main screen, the SELECT (right) button steps through the info screens.

When all info screens have been viewed, pressing SELECT again will return to the main

Info screens time-out after 10 seconds, returning to the main screen.

Pressing the MENU (left) button will also return to the main screen.

The info screen content is optimized for each mode. Set the Petrel to the mode you will be
using (e.g. OC) and step through the info screens to get familiar with the content.

The next section describes the individual values shown on the info screens.

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Average Depth
Displays the average depth of the current dive, updated once AVG
per second.
When not diving, shows the average depth of the last dive.
Average Depth in Atmospheres (AvgATM)
The average depth of the current dive, measured in absolute AvgATM
atmospheres (i.e. a value of 1.0 at sea level). When not 2.52
diving, shows the average depth of the last dive.

Maximum Depth
The maximum depth of the current dive. MAX
When not diving, displays the maximum depth of the last 26Oft

CNS Toxicity Percentage

Central Nervous System oxygen toxicity loading percentage. CNS
Flashes Red when 100 or greater. 11
The CNS percentage is calculated continuously, even when CNS
on the surface and turned off. When deco tissues are reset, 1OO
the CNS will also be reset.

PPO2 (average PPO2)

Only relevant when external PPO2 monitoring is used, since
other modes already show PPO2 on the center row.
The purpose of this value is to show what PPO2 is actually .98
being used for decompression calculations.

When three external sensors are used, the Petrel votes on

the three measured values to decide what is the most likely
true PPO2. This value shows the result of the voting.

Also, when using external sensors and you have bailed

out to OC, the center row continues to display the external
measured PPO2. Use this info display to see the OC PPO2.
In CC mode, displays in Flashing Red when less than 0.40
or greater than 1.6. .36
In OC mode, displays in Flashing Red when less than 0.19 PPO2
or greater than 1.65. .16

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Diluent PPO2
Only displayed in CC mode. Displays in Flashing Red when DilPPO2
the partial pressure of the diluent is less than 0.19 or greater .99
than 1.65.

When performing a manual diluent flush, you can check this

value to see what the expected PPO2 will be at the current

Fraction Inspired O2 (FiO2)

The fraction of the breathing gas composed of O2. This
value is independent of pressure. .42

Tissues Bar Graph

Some Sample Tissues
The tissues bar graph shows the tissue compartment inert Graphs
gas tissue tensions based on the Bhlmann ZHL-16C model. 
Note that VPM-B also tracks tensions in the same way.

The fastest tissue compartment is shown on the top, and the On surface (sat. with air)
slowest on the bottom. Each bar is the combined sum of the
nitrogen and helium inert gas tensions. Pressure increases 
to the right.
After descent
The vertical black line shows the inert gas inspired pressure.
The boundary between the green and yellow zones is the
ambient pressure. The boundary between the yellow and red 
zone in the ZHL-16C M-Value pressure.
Note that the scale for each tissue compartment above the
green zone is different. The reason the bars are scaled in

this way is so that the tissues tensions can be visualized
in terms of risk (i.e. how close they are as a percentage to
Bhlmann's original super-saturation limits). Also, this scale Deep stop
changes with depth, since the M-Value line also changes
with depth. 

16 tissue
compartments  Last deco stop

Inspired inert M-Value pressure

gas pressure
Ambient pressure
Increasing pressure 
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Gradient Factor:
The deco conservatism value when the deco model is GF
set to GF. The low and high gradient factors control the 3O/85
conservatism of the Bhlmann GF algorithm. See Clearing
up the Confusion About Deep Stops by Erik Baker.

VPM-B (and VPM-BG):

The deco conservatism value when the deco model is set to
VPM-B. +3
If the deco model is VPM-B/GFS, also displays the gradient VPM-BG
factor for surfacing. +3/90
The pressure in millibars. Two values are shown, the surface
(surf) pressure and the current (now) pressure. PRESSURE mBar
The current pressure is only shown on the surface. SURF 1O13 1O11
The surface pressure is set when the Petrel is turned on. If
the Altitude setting is set to SeaLvl, then surface pressure is
always 1013 millibars.

The current temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (when depth TEMP
in feet) or degrees Celsius (when depth in meters). 73F

The Petrels internal battery voltage. Displays in Yellow BATTERY
when the battery is low and needs replacement. Displays in
Flashing Red when the battery is critically low and must be
LiIon 3.99V
replaced as soon as possible. Also shows battery type.

The raw millivolt readings from the PPO2 sensors. Only MilliVolts

available when external PPO2 monitoring is used. 42.O 46.O 43.O

Date and Time: DATE TIME

In the format dd-mon-yy 28-Jun-12 16:31

12 or 24 hour clock time. DATE TIME

Serial Number & Version:

28-Jun-12 4:31pm
Each Petrel has a unique serial number. SERIAL NO VERSION

The version number indicates the available features. The last 1234ABCD 2OOOO12
two numbers are the firmware version (V12 in this image).

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Compass (Petrel 2 only)

The Petrel 2 model contains a tilt-compensated digital compass.

Compass features:
1 resolution
5 accuracy
Smooth, high-speed refresh rate
User set heading marker with reciprocal
True North (declination) adjustment
Tilt compensation 45

Viewing the Compass

When enabled, the compass is viewed by pressing the SELECT (right) button once.
Press SELECT again to continue on to view the regular info screens.
Unlike the regular info screens, the compass never times out back to the main screen.
Press MENU (left) button to return to the main screen.

Compass Limitations

It is important to understand some compass limitations before use.

Calibration - The digital compass needs occasional calibration. This can be done in
the System SetupCompass menu and takes only one minute.

Battery Changes - When the battery is changed, the compass should be calibrated.
This is because each battery has its own magnetic signature that interacts with the
compass. Fortunately this effect can be removed with proper calibration.

Interference - Since a compass operates by reading the Earth's magnetic field, the
compass heading is affected by anything that distorts that field or creates its own.
Ferromagnetic materials (such as iron, steel, or nickel) should be kept away
from the Petrel 2 when using the compass.
A traditional compass should also not be placed too close, as it contains a
permanent magnet.
Electric motors and high current cabling (such as from dive lights) can also
cause interference and should be kept at a distance.
Being inside or near a shipwreck may also affect the compass heading.

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Marking a Heading
To mark a heading, press MENU (left) button
until "Mark Compass" is displayed, then press
SELECT (right) button to mark the current
direction. The display will then jump back to the
compass display. The heading is shown as a
pair of green triangles.

Mark the heading to This feature makes it easy

remember the current to determine if you are off
direction course

When the marked heading When facing the opposite

is off screen, an arrow direction, the reciprocal
points the shortest way heading is shown as a pair
back of red triangles

Only one heading can be marked at a time, it can however be changed. Once a heading
has been marked, there is no way to clear the heading arrows from the display.

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Press MENU (left) button to step
through the menus.

Press SELECT (right) button to execute

command or enter sub-menu.

Menus display on the bottom row.

MENU button
Petrel Turns Off

MENU button
button Enter
Select Gas
MENU button

Menus perform actions and allow settings to be changed

Starting from the main screen, pressing the MENU (left) button steps through the menus.
When all menus have been viewed, pressing MENU again will return to the main screen.

Pressing the SELECT (right) button when a menu is displayed, either performs that action or
enters a sub-menu.

If no buttons are pushed for 1 minute, the menu system will time-out, returning to the main
screen. Anything that had been previously saved will be retained. Anything that was in the
middle of editing will be discarded.

Adaptive Menus
Only menus necessary for the current mode are shown. This keeps operation simple,
prevents mistakes, and reduces buttons presses.

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The following sections show the menu structure in various operating modes.

Open Circuit Menu Structure

Main Screen

only Turn Off
Select Gas

Dive Setup+ Define Gas Conserv.

Dive Planner+ NDL Display

only Dive Log+ Display Log
Upload Log
Edit Log Number

only System Setup+ Dive Setup OC Gases
Deco Setup Display Setup
Center Row System Setup
Advanced Config

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Closed Circuit (Int. PPO2) Menu Structure

Main Screen
only Turn Off

Switch .7 > 1.3

Select Gas
Switch CC > OC

Dive Setup+ Edit Low SP Dive Planner+

Edit High SP Conserv.
Define Gas NDL Display
PPO2 Mode
only Dive Log+ Display Log
Upload Log
Edit Log Number
CC Gases
only System Setup+ Dive Setup
Auto SP Switch
Deco Setup
Display Setup
Center Row
System Setup
OC Gases
Advanced Config

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Closed Circuit (Ext. PPO2) Menu Structure

Main Screen
only Turn Off
only Calibrate

Select Gas
Switch CC > OC

Dive Setup+ Define Gas NDL Display

Dive Planner+ PPO2 Mode
Conserv. Brightness

only Dive Log+ Display Log
Upload Log
Edit Log Number
CC Gases
only System Setup+ Dive Setup
O2 Setup
Deco Setup
Display Setup
Center Row
System Setup
OC Gases
Advanced Config
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Basic Setup
Before using the computer there are several things that need to be configured. This is not an
exhaustive list of the pre-requisites for diving the system, but a suggestion of key tasks.

On a system with external oxygen sensors, calibrate the oxygen sensors.

In the System Setup menu set the units to metric or imperial, also set the date and time.
Depending on the model of computer, enter the gases that you will use for the closed
circuit portion of your dive, and/or enter the gases for you will use for open circuit.
The system will use the gases that are available in the order of oxygen content during the
Time To Surface (TTS) prediction. The system will use the next available gas that has a
PPO2 of less than 1.0 for closed circuit diving.
If the computer is in open circuit or is switched to open circuit during a dive, the system will
calculate the TTS based on the configured open circuit gases that are available. It will use
the next available gas that has a PPO2 of less than 1.6 for open circuit diving.

NOTE: These gases are used automatically only for TTS predictions. The gas used to
calculate the current tissue load and the current ceiling is always the gas actually selected by
the diver.

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Simple Example Dive

Here is an example of a simple OC air dive. It will help to introduce DEPTH TIME SURFACE

the screen displays as the diver progresses, the dive starts, the depth O 4hr39mn
increases. The display is showing the computer programmed for open
circuit (OC) air. .21

OC 21/OO O O
As we pass through 30 feet, the time-to-surface (TTS) shows one
minute. This shows that the computer is expecting the diver to ascend
3O 1
at approximately 30 feet per minute or 10 meters per minute. The dive
predictions are based on this ascent rate.
OC 21/OO 99 1
The no-decompression limit (NDL) starts off showing 99, but then
starts to show a smaller number as the depth increases. The 3rd 11O 3
screen shows that we will go into deco in 12 minutes.

OC 21/OO 12 3
We have now entered decompression. Our first stop, or ceiling, is
at 20 feet and we will need to remain there for up to one minute.
12O 8 2O 1GasPPO2

Although stops are shown in minutes, the computer will calculate and .97
change the ceiling in real time and the stop may be less than a minute.
OC 21/OO O 7

As we ascend, the ascent rate indicator shows about 20 fpm or 6 12O

21 811 2O2O 1
mpm. .34

OC 21/OO O 42
When we go shallower than our first stop, the stop depth starts to flash 12O 8 2O2O 1
19 12 GasPPO2

OC 21/OO O 42
When we clear the last stop, the stop depth and time goes blank, and
now we see a NDL of 99 minutes again. Once we surface, the depth
9 15 GasPPO2
is 0 and a minute later when the computer comes out of dive mode, .27
the NDL goes to 0 as well.
OC 21/OO 99 O
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Complex Example Dive

This is an example of the displays that might be seen on a dive. This example shows a
complicated dive with multiple Closed Circuit (CC) gases and multiple Open Circuit (OC) bail-
out gases. A normal, single gas CC or OC dive wouldnt have any button pushes at all, so
there isnt much to show.
The first step is to calibrate. Since we are on the surface and not diving, MENU will bring up
Turn Off, then Calibrate. Once the loop is flushed with oxygen, SELECT will bring up the
confirmation display, and another SELECT will calibrate.


O 45.1 46.3 44.O O

.85 .86 .84 .85 .86 .84 .98 .98 .98
Calibrate Cal. @ FO2= .98
Cancel Calibrate

CC 21/OO O O

Next, we check the closed circuit diluent gases that we have programmed. Entering the gas
selection function by pressing SELECT with the Select Gas menu item showing will display
the first CC gas that is available. MENU will increment to the next gas available. Another
MENU takes us back to the Select Gas menu item. Those are the only two gases configured.
We SELECT gas number 2, the Trimix 10/50.


.98 .98 .98 .98 .98 .98 .98 .98 .98
Select Gas Set A1 CC 21/OO
Next Gas Select
Set 2 CC 1O/5O
Cancel Select

The system will use both of these gases for our dive when calculating the TTS. It assumes a
diluent switch at a PPO2 of 1.05. That means that it will assume that you have switched to an
air diluent at 124 feet. This is only for the TTS prediction. The computer will always use the
currently selected gas for tissue loading calculations.

Then we switch to open circuit to look at our bail-out gases. Flipping through the gases with
MENU shows that we have three gases available. (Whether they are appropriate gases is a
subject for one of the web forums.)


.98 .98 .98 .98 .98 .98 .98 .98 .98
Set A1 OC 99/OO
Next Gas Select
Set 2 OC 5O/2O
Next Gas Select
Set 3 OC 14/55
Cancel Select

28 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

These are the gases that will be used to estimate TTS in the event that you switch to open
circuit during a dive. In OC mode, the computer will assume that you will switch gases when
the PPO2 of the next available gas is less than 1.6.

Automatic decisions of when to switch gases for the TTS calculation means that it is very easy
to set up your CC and OC gases. There is no need to enter a depth or a PPO2 to switch gas.
Any gases that are turned on will be used in the decompression calculation.

If a gas is available in the CC gas list, (entered and turned on),it will be used in CC, and it will
be used at an appropriate depth. The same is true for OC. It is always configured correctly if
you are actually carrying the gases you have entered and turned on.

If it is necessary to switch to OC while diving, 4 button pushes will do it. You will be switched
to OC and will be using the gas that has the highest PPO2 less than 1.61. Your OC gas
list is likely very different from your diluent gas list, but you set it up before the dive so it is
immediately available in the case of a bail-out.
Now switch back to closed circuit and start the dive.


.98 .98 .98 .98 .98 .98

Switch OC > CC CC 1O/5O O O

We have reached a depth now that will incur decompression soon. DEPTH TIME STOP TIME

The NDL is 8 minutes, and the TTS is 4 minutes. The TTS is 126 2
showing the planned ascent time at 30 fpm.
1.3O 1.29 1.29
The computer has automatically switched to the high setpoint. This
can be disabled if automatic setpoint switching isnt required.
CC 1O/5O 8 4

We are now at our maximum depth. Our first stop is at 90 feet.

257 8 9O 1
1.31 1.29 1.22

CC 1O/5O O 23
The diver is ascending to the 90 foot stop. Note the ascent rate
indicator showing a 20 fpm / 6 mpm ascent rate. The Petrel
98 15 1OO 1
assumes a 30 fpm ascent rate in calculating the decompression 1.3O 1.29 1.29
schedule. Since the diver ascended slower than was predicted,
there is now a 100 foot stop. CC 1O/5O O 22

29 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

But the diver missed the stop, and has ascended to 95 feet. At this DEPTH TIME STOP TIME

point, the stop depth and time is flashing red to show that the depth 95 15 1OO 1
is above the recommended stop.
1.3O 1.29 1.29

CC 1O/5O O 22
The diver switches to the other programmed CC gas. Note that if
you change the diluent on the computer you must flush the loop
95 15 9O 1
to change the diluent in the loop. At the same time the 100 foot 1.3O 1.3O 1.29
stop clears. It is common for the first stops to clear in less than a
minute. They mainly just slow down the ascent. CC 21/5O O 22

At 60 feet a problem develops that causes the diver to bail out to

6O 19 6O 1
open circuit. The first push on MENU brings up Select Gas. 1.3O .99 1.29
Select Gas

The second push brings up Switch CC > OC. A push on SELECT 6O 19 6O 1

does the switch.
1.3O 1.OO 1.29
Note that OC displays in Yellow to clearly indicate that this is a OC Switch CC > OC
bailout condition.

6O 19 6O 1
The system has switched the gas set from the closed circuit gas set
to the open circuit gas set, picked the gas with the highest PPO2 1.3O 1.O9 1.29
less than 1.6, and recalculated the decompression based on the
new profile.
OC 5O/2O O 36

2O 25 2O 3
At 20 feet, one push on MENU brings up select gas. .87 .95 .79

Select Gas
A push on SELECT enters the select gas menu, and another
SELECT picks the O2. Since the gases are sorted by oxygen
2O 25 2O 3
content, the O2 is the first gas offered. .87 .95 .79
Set 1 OC 99/OO
This was a multi-gas trimix dive with a multi-gas open circuit bailout, Cancel Select

and it required 9 button pushes.

30 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

Gauge Mode
Gauge Mode turns the Petrel into a simple depth and time display
(a.k.a. a bottom timer).

Change to Gauge Mode in the System SetupDive Setup menu.

Since decompression tissues are not tracked in Gauge Mode, changing to or

from Gauge Mode resets the deco tissues.

Extra-Large Depth Display (in feet or meters)
Extra-Large Time Display (in minutes:seconds)
Gauge - Surface Display
Maximum and Average Depth on main screen.
Resettable Average Depth

The Gauge display is organized as.

Depths along the left.
Times along the right.
Most important information (Depth, Dive Time) on the top row.

Gauge - Dive Display

The Stopwatch is only available in Gauge Mode.

When diving, starting or stopping the Stopwatch is the first menu option.

When stopped, the word Stopwatch displays in red.

When non-zero, the stopwatch can be reset. Reset behavior depends on Stopwatch Running
If running when reset, it continues running, counting up again from 0.
If stopped when reset, then it is set 0 and remains stopped.

Resettable Average Depth

During a dive, the average depth can be reset.
Stopwatch Stopped
While on the surface, the MAX and AVG values display the maximum and
average depth of the last dive. The AVG depth displayed on the surface is
for the entire dive, regardless of whether the reset average depth option was
used. The dive log also records the average depth for the entire dive.

31 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

Decompression and Gradient Factors

The basic decompression algorithm used for the computer is Bhlmann ZHL-16C. It has
been modified by the use of Gradient Factors that were developed by Erik Baker. We
have used his ideas to create our own code to implement it. We would like to give credit
to Erik for his work in education about decompression algorithms, but he is in no way
responsible for the code we have written.

The computer implements Gradient Factors by using levels of conservatism. The levels
of conservatism are pairs of number like 30/70. For a more detailed explanation of their
meaning, please refer to Erik Bakers excellent articles: Clearing Up The Confusion
About Deep Stops and Understanding M-values. The articles are readily available on
the web. You might also want to search for Gradient Factors on the web.

The default of the system is 30/70. The system provides several settings that are more
aggressive than the default.

Dont use the system until you understand how it works.

Graph from Erik Bakers Clearing Up The Confusion About Deep Stops

32 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

Menu Reference

Turn Off
The Turn Off item puts the computer to sleep. While sleeping, the
screen is blank, but the tissue contents are maintained for repetitive O
diving. The Turn Off menu item will not appear during a dive on any .98 .98 .98
model. It will also not appear after a dive until the End Dive Delay
Time has expired to allow for a continuation dive. Turn Off

The Calibrate menu is only available on the Petrel EXT model. It will DEPTH TIME STOP TIME
only appear when in CC mode with the PPO2 mode set to Ext. This O
menu calibrates the mV output from the oxygen sensors to PPO2.
.85 .86 .84
Upon selecting the calibration menu, the screen will show:
Top row: Millivolt (mV) readings from the 3 O2 sensors.
Middle row: PPO2 values (using the previous calibration).
Bottom row: The calibration gas fraction of O2 (FO2).
Cal. milliVolts

If you need to change the calibration gas FO2, do this in the System 42 46 25
SetupO2 Setup menu. .85 .86 .62
After flooding the breathing loop with the calibration gas (typically pure
Cal. @ FO2= .98
Cancel Calibrate

oxygen), press the SELECT button to perform the calibration.

Good sensors should be in the range of 35 - 65 mV at sea level in DEPTH TIME STOP TIME
100% oxygen, so a sensor will fail calibration if not in the range of O
30mV to 70 mV. This allowable range scales automatically with
changes to FO2 and barometric pressure. A millivolt reading is shown .98 .98 FAIL
in yellow if outside the allowable range.
CC 21/OO O O
Once the calibration completes, a report will be shown. This shows
which sensors passed calibration, and the value of the expected PPO2
based on barometric pressure and the FO2.

Back at the main screen, the displays should now all read the expected
PPO2. For example, if FO2 is 0.98 and barometric pressure is 1013
mbar (1 ata), then PPO2 will be 0.98. If any display shows FAIL, the
calibration has failed because the mV reading is out of range.

The Calibrate menu item will not display during a dive.

33 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

Single Sensor Mode

Cal. milliVolts

A single external O2 sensor may be used. O 46 O

.OO .86 .OO
To enter this mode, perform the calibration with only the middle sensor
Cal. @ FO2= .98
Cancel Calibrate


The Petrel will see that only one sensor is connected, and
automatically switch to single sensor mode.
CC 21/OO O O
Calibration Problems

One sensor displays FAIL after calibration DEPTH TIME STOP TIME
This could indicate a bad sensor. It has failed because the mV output O
was not in range. The sensor could be old or damaged, and should
be inspected. Damage and corrosion to wires or connectors is also a
.98 .97 FAIL
common problem. Fix the problem and recalibrate before diving. CC 21/OO O O

All sensors display FAIL after calibration

This could be caused by an accidentally unplugged cable or a
damaged cable or connector. Also, accidentally performing the
calibration in air or without a proper oxygen flush could cause this FAIL FAIL FAIL
problem. A failed calibration can only be fixed by performing a
successful calibration. CC 21/OO O O

PPO2 does not show 0.98 after calibration

If you use a calibration FO2 setting of 0.98 and are at sea level, you
probably expect the calibrated PPO2 to show 0.98. Sometimes you
might correctly get a different value like 0.96 or 1.01. O
This is because weather causes minor changes in barometric
.96 .96 .96
pressure. For example, say a low-pressure weather system has CC 21/OO O O
reduced the normal (1013mbar) barometric pressure to 990mbar. The
PPO2 in absolute atmospheres is then 0.98 * (990/1013) = 0.96.

The 0.96 PPO2 result is, in this case, correct. At high altitudes, the O
difference between FO2 and PPO2 will be even larger. To see the
current pressure, start at the main screen and press the SELECT
.96 .96 .96
button a few times (displays as Pressure mBar NOW). 99O

34 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

Switch Setpoint
This menu is only available in CC mode when PPO2 mode is set to Int.
The internal PPO2 mode is used to calculate decompression for a
unconnected rebreather. In this case, the setpoints are switched in the Switch .7 > 1.3
computer to approximate the rebreather setpoint.

During a dive the Switch Setpoint menu item will be the first item O
displayed, since the Turn Off and Calibrate displays are disabled 1.3
when diving. O2/HE NDL TTS

CC 1O/5O O 22
Pressing SELECT when this menu is displayed changes the PPO2
setpoint from the low setpoint to the high setpoint or vice-versa. To
redefine the PPO2 value of a setpoint, use the Dive Setup menu.

This menu item performs a manual switching of PPO2 setpoint. In

the System SetupAuto SP Switch menu, the Petrel can be setup
to automatically perform setpoint switches at programmable depths.
When auto setpoint switches are enabled, this menu item is still
available to provide manual control.

35 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT


This menu item allows you to pick a gas from the gases you have
created. The selected gas will be used either as the breathing gas .87 .86 .84
in open circuit mode, or the diluent in closed circuit mode.
Select Gas
Gases are always sorted from most to least oxygen content. DEPTH TIME SURFACE

Use the MENU button to increment to the desired diluent/gas, then .87 .86 .84
press the SELECT button to select that diluent/gas.
A1 CC On 21/OO
Next Gas Select
If you increment past the number of gases available, the display DEPTH TIME SURFACE
will fall back out of the Select Gas display without changing the
selected gas.
.87 .86 .84
An A will appear next to the currently active gas. 2 CC On 1O/5O
Next Gas Select

A gas that is off will be shown in magenta, but can still be selected. DEPTH TIME SURFACE
It will be turned on automatically if it is selected. Off gases are not O
used in decompression calculations.
.87 .86 .84
2 CC Off 1O/5O
Next Gas Select

Radio Station Gases

For computer models that support open circuit and closed circuit operation, the system
maintains two sets of gases - one for open circuit and one for closed circuit.

The way they operate is very similar to the way car radios work with AM and FM stations.

When you are listening to an FM station and you push a station selection button, it will take
you to another FM station. If you add a new station, it will be an FM station.

Similarly, if you are in the AM mode, adding or deleting a station would add or delete an AM

With radio station gases, when you are in open circuit, adding, deleting or selecting a gas will
refer to an open circuit gas. Just like the FM stations are selected when your radio is in FM
mode, the closed circuit gases are available in the closed circuit mode. When you switch to
open circuit, the gases available will be open circuit gases.

36 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

Select Gas Menu Styles

Two styles of Select Gas menus are available, Classic and New.

Change between the two styles in the Adv. Config 1 menu.

Classic Style Select Gas

The classic Select Gas style is as described on the previous page.

One gas is shown at a time.

Press MENU to step through gases, and SELECT to select the
shown gas.
Gases are sorted from highest O2% to lowest O2%.
Stepping past the last gas will exit the menu without changing the
active gas. Classic Select Gas
Upon entering the Select Gas menu, the first gas shown is always
the highest O2% gas.

New Style Select Gas

The new style makes visualizing the gas list easier. It also reduces
button presses for deco gas switches.

Shows all gases on the screen at once. New Style Select Gas
Press MENU to step through gases, and SELECT to select the
pointed to gas.
A gas must be selected to exit the menu (scrolling past last gas
wraps back to first gas).
The active gas is shown with a white background.
Turned off gases are shown in magneta (purple).
Gases are sorted from highest O2% to lowest O2%.
When diving and there is a deco stop, the first gas pointed to will Off Gases are Magenta
be the most appropriate gas (highest PPO2 less than 1.61). This
reduces button presses in most cases.
On the surface or when no deco stops are needed, the first gas
pointed to will be the active gas.

Active Gas is White

37 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT


O 2 45
Hr Mn
Depending on the current computer setting, this selection will show as
either Switch CC > OC or Switch OC > CC.

Pressing SELECT will select the displayed mode for decompression Switch CC > OC
calculations. When switching to open circuit while diving, the most DEPTH TIME SURFACE
appropriate open circuit gas will become the breathing gas for
O 2 45 Hr Mn

.85 .86 .84

At this point, the diver may want to switch to a different gas, but since
the diver may have other things to deal with, the computer will make a Switch OC > CC
best guess of which gas the diver would choose.


On computers with external oxygen sensor monitoring, there is also O 2 45 Hr Mn

an option to set the computer to calculate decompression predictions
using semi-closed circuit. This is enabled in the System Setup menu.
.85 .86 .84
Switch OC > SC
You can also switch to from CC to OC on a fixed PPO2 model. In that
case, the computer will use the user entered high and low setpoints.
O 2 45 Hr Mn

Dive Setup+ Switch CC > OC
The Dive Setup menus are available both on the surface and when

The values in Dive Setup+ can also be accessed in the Systems

O 2 45Hr Mn

Setup+ menu, but the System Setup+ menu is not available when .85 .86 .84
Dive Setup+
Pressing SELECT will enter the Dive Setup sub-menu.

O 2 45 Hr Mn
Low Setpoint .85 .86 .84
This item allows you to set the low setpoint value. It will display the
Edit Low SP O.7
Next Edit
currently selected value. Values from 0.4 to 1.5 are allowed.
A press of MENU will increment the setpoint. DEPTH TIME SURFACE

O 2 45 Hr Mn

Press the SELECT button when Edit Low SP is displayed and the edit
.85 .86 .84
display will be shown. It is set at the lowest valid value for setpoint, .4. Edit Low SP O.4
Change Save

38 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT


O 2 45 Hr Mn
Another press of MENU will increment it again.
.85 .86 .84
Edit Low SP O.5
Change Save


If SELECT is pushed, the currently displayed setpoint will be
selected, and the display will return to the Edit Low SP menu item.
O 2 45 Hr Mn

.85 .86 .84

If the highest allowable value, 1.5, has been passed, the value will Edit Low SP 1.5
return to 0.4. Next Edit


The high setpoint function works exactly like the low setpoint O 2 45 Hr Mn
.85 .86 .84
Edit High SP 1.3
Next Edit

39 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

Define Gas

The function allows you to set up 5 gases in Closed Circuit and 5 DEPTH TIME STOP TIME
gases in Open Circuit. You must be in Open Circuit to edit open circuit O
gases, and you must be in Closed Circuit to edit closed circuit diluents.
For each gas, you can select the percentage of oxygen and helium in
.85 .86 .84
the gas. The remainder is assumed to be nitrogen. Define Gas
Next Define


Pushing SELECT when Define Gas is displayed presents the function
to define gas number 1.
.85 .86 .84
1 OC On 99/OO
Next Gas Edit


Pushing the MENU button will display the next gas.
.85 .86 .84
2 OC On 5O/OO
Next Gas Edit


Pushing SELECT will allow you to edit the current gas. The gas O
contents are edited one digit at a time. The underline will show you the .85 .86 .84
digit being edited.
2 OC On 5O/OO
Change O2% Next


Each push of the MENU button will increment the digit being edited. O
When the digit reaches 9, it will roll over to 0.
.85 .86 .84
2 OC On 5O/OO
Change O2% Next


Pushing SELECT will lock in the current digit, and move on to the next
.85 .86 .84
2 OC On 5O/OO
Change HE% Next


Pushing SELECT on the last digit will finish editing that gas, and bring you
back to the gas number. O
Any gases that have both oxygen and helium set to 00 will not be .85 .86 .84
displayed in the Select Gas function.
2 OC On 5O/OO
Change HE% Save

40 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT


Pushing MENU will continue to increment the gas number. O

.85 .86 .84
2 OC On 5O/OO
Change HE% Save

Note: The A denotes the active gas. You cannot delete the DEPTH TIME STOP TIME
active gas. If you try, it will generate an error. You can edit it, O
but cannot set both the O2 and HE to 00.
.85 .86 .84
The computer will display all 5 gas entries available to allow you to A3 OC On 14/55
Next Gas Edit
enter new gases.
Pressing MENU one more time when the fifth gas is displayed will
return you to the Define Gas menu item.
.85 .86 .84
Done Edit

Only turn-on gases you are carrying

Only turn on the gases you are actually carrying on the dive. With radio station gases,
the computer has a full picture of the OC and CC gases you are carrying and can make
informed predictions about decompression times. There is no need to turn gases off
and on when you switch from CC to OC, because the computer already knows what the
gas sets are. You should have the CC and OC gases you are actually carrying turned

If you often use other gases, but not on this dive, you can enter the gas and turn it off.
You can turn gases on and off during a dive and you can also add or remove a gas dur-
ing the dive if needed.

41 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

Dive Planner+


Calculates decompression profiles for simple dives.

In closed-circuit (CC) mode, also calculates open-circuit (OC) bail-out (BO).


Uses the current gases programmed into the Petrel, as well as the current GF low/high
settings. VPM-B dive planning is available on units with the optional VPM-B unlock.
Deco profile is computed for the current circuit mode (CC or OC).


Enter the dive bottom depth, bottom time, respiratory

minute volume(RMV) and PPO2 (closed-circuit only).

Note: Residual tissue loading (and CNS%) from recent

dives will be used in calculating the profile.


Computes the decompression profile assuming the ascent Dive Plan Setup
will begin immediately. There are no settings to enter.
(RMV is last used value)


The Petrel Dive Planner is intended for simple dives. Multi-level dives are not supported.

The Petrel Dive Planner makes the following assumptions:

Descent rate is 60ft/min (18m/min) and the ascent rate is 33ft/min (10m/min).
For OC, the gas in use will be the gas with the highest PPO2 less than 1.40 for the bottom
gas, and 1.61 for deco gases (the deco gas max PPO2 can be changed in the Adv Config 1
For CC, the gas in use will be the gas with the highest PPO2 less than 1.05.
The planner will use the configured last stop depth.
For CC, the PPO2 is constant for the entire dive.
The RMV is the same while diving as during deco.
Semi-closed uses a metabolic offset.

42 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

The Dive Planner does not provide thorough validation of the profile. For example, it does not
check for nitrogen narcosis limitations, gas usage limitations, CNS percentage violations, or
isobaric counter-diffusion risks due to sudden helium switches. The user is responsible for
ensuring a safe profile is followed.


The results are given in tables showing:

Stp: Stop Depth In feet (or meters)

Tme: Stop Time In minutes
Run: Run Time In minutes
Qty: Gas Quantity in CuFt (or liters). OC and BO only

The first two rows are special, the first row showing the bottom time and the second showing
the ascent to the first stop. When diving, these two rows are not displayed.

Example Results Table for Closed-Circuit and Bailout.

If more than 5 stops are needed, the results will be split onto on several screens. Use the right
button to step through the screens.

For OC or BO profiles, a total gas consumption report is given.

Gas Usage Report

43 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

The final result screen shows the total dive time, the time spent on deco and final CNS%.

Results Summary Screen

If no decompression is required, no table will be shown. Instead, the total No-Decompression-

Limit (NDL) time in minutes, at the given bottom depth will be reported. Also, the gas quantity
required to surface (bailout in CC) will be reported.

No Decompression Results Screen

The conservatism settings (GF High and GF Low) can be edited in the Dive Setup menu.
While diving, only the GH High value can be edited. This allows changing the surfacing
conservatism during a dive. For example, if you worked much harder on the bottom segment
than expected, you may wish to add conservatism by reducing the GF High setting


.85 .86 .84
Conserv 3O/7O
Next Edit

44 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

NDL Display

The NDL Display option allows you to display four different values
during the dive. The display can be changed during the dive to .85 .86 .84
provide different information. NDL Display NDL
Next Edit

Pushing SELECT will make the NDL display editable. The first
choice available will be NDL. If you select NDL, the NDL will
always be displayed during the dive whether or not you have a O
decompression ceiling. .85 .86 .84
The next selection is CEIL. With this setting, as long as the NDL
NDL Display NDL
Change Save
time is 0 (you have a decompression ceiling), the raw ceiling will be
displayed instead of the NDL. This is the equivalent of the Man on DEPTH TIME STOP TIME

a rope. It will show your ceiling without it being rounded up to the O

next even 10 foot or 3 meter stop. Please note that there is very
limited information on the effects of following a continuous ceiling
.85 .86 .84
instead of stopping at stops and only moving up to the next stop NDL Display CEIL
Change Save
when the stop has cleared.

It is the authors opinion that all stops should be honored. It seems

intuitive that if you have bubbles, and you stop, you give the
bubbles an opportunity to be resorbed. If you continuously ascend,
the ambient pressure is continuously reduced which prevents
bubbles from shrinking. Because of this belief, the computer will
give one MISSED DECO STOP message during the dive and one
after the dive, and will flash the stop depth and time in red as long
as you are above the stop depth. It will use the increased gradient
though, and your calculated off-gassing will be faster than staying
at the stops.

The next option is to display the actual supersaturation gradient for

a pure Bhlmann (99/99) profile.
The selection is GF99. With this setting, as long as the NDL time is .85 .86 .84
0 (you have a decompression ceiling), the gradient will be displayed
instead of the NDL.
NDL Display GF99
Change Save
The number shown is the percentage of supersaturation. The
number is calculated by reference to the Ambient Pressure Line DEPTH TIME STOP TIME

and the M-Value line. It can be thought of as the current GF, but it is 34.7 15 24 1
different in a couple of ways. First, the current GF generates stops
rounded to the nearest 10 feet or 3 meters. So a gradient of 40 may
1.12 .98 .98
reflect a ceiling of 15 feet, but the computer will show a rounded-up CC 1O/5O 12 42
20 foot stop.

45 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

This number can be used in several ways. First, it can be used to calculate an aggressive
ascent that still has some justification in decompression science. For example, if a diver were
to lose a significant portion of their gas and needed to get shallow fast, they could ascend until
they reached a gradient of 90, then stop until it dropped to 80, then ascend to 90 again, etc.
That would produce a Bhlmann-like profile with very little conservatism. In an emergency, that
may be an acceptable risk.

Another use might be to do a slower ascent on a dive to sightsee, but to stay in the
decompression zone by keeping the gradient above 0.

Another use would be to observe the rapidly

increasing gradient in the last 10 feet to the
surface and slow that ascent.

All of this is based on gradient theory

that may be completely false. There
is significant disagreement in the
decompression research community about
the nature and practice of decompression.
Any techniques described here should be
considered experimental, but the concepts
may be useful to the advanced diver.


The last selection is @+5. This feature was inspired by Dan Wibles
CCR2000 computer (Thanks Dan!) It is the time-to-surface (TTS) if O
you were to stay at the current depth for five more minutes. This can .85 .86 .84
be used as a measure of how much you are on-gassing or off-gassing. NDL Display @+5
Change Save

For example, on a dive on a wreck, you go to the bottom until you accumulate the desired
decompression and TTS. After ascending to the second deck, you notice that the @+5 and
TTS are the same. That means that you can spend 5 minutes exploring this deck without
incurring more decompression.

Once you get to the top deck, the current has picked up. The line runs from the top of the deck
to the surface which is a distance of 30 feet/10 m. You see that your @+5 is 11 minutes and
your TTS is 15 minutes. That means that you can stay down out of the current for 5 minutes
and burn off about 4 minutes of deco. You may decide to accept the 80% decompression
efficiency and stay out of the current.

When your TTS is 10 minutes, you see that your @+5 is 9 minutes. Since the decompression
is not very efficient now, you go up the line and spend the last 10 minutes in the current.

46 DocRevD
Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

External PPO2 Monitoring DEPTH TIME STOP TIME

The next menu item is used to turn external PPO2 monitoring on and .7
off. By default, external monitoring is turned off and reads Int. for
Internal fixed setpoint mode. This setting can be changed to Ext. to
PPO2 Mode

enable external PPO2 monitoring from oxygen sensors.


Now the PPO2 of the three sensors is displayed. A valid calibration O

must have been previously performed (see the Calibration section). .96 .97 .97
This system is plugged into three sensors and using the PPO2
PPO2 Mode Ext.
Change Save
input from the sensors as the system average PPO2 used for
decompression calculations and CNS tracking. DEPTH TIME STOP TIME

A voting algorithm is used to decide which of the three sensors are
likely to be correct. If a sensor matches either of the other two sensors
.96 .97 .97
within 20%, it passes voting. The system average PPO2 is the
average of all sensors that have passed voting.
CC 21/OO O O
For example, here sensor 3 has failed voting. The PPO2 is displayed
in yellow to show that it has failed voting. The system average PPO2 is
the average PPO2 of sensor 1 and 2. .96 .97 1.26
.21 O .97
If all sensors fail voting, then the display will alternate VOTING FAILED
with the PPO2 measurements (which will all be yellow to indicate that
voting has failed). When voting has failed, the lowest PPO2 reading will O
be used for deco calculations (i.e. the most conservative value). .48 .97 1.26
Switch CC > OC
Switching to Open Circuit bailout with External PPO2 Monitoring
If you bailout to OC mode, the external PPO2 will continue to display .48 .97 1.26
on the main screen. However, the system PPO2 used for deco
calculations will change to OC mode (i.e. PPO2 is the fraction of O2
OC 21/OO O O
multiplied by the current depths pressure).
The external PPO2 continues to display because the diver may need to
return to the loop, and will need to know the PPO2 status of the loop,
even though the sensor input is not being used as the system PPO2. .48 .97 1.26
O .21

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If we now unplug sensor 1 and sensor 3, the computer will use O

voting logic to pick the two sensors that agree and will think the .97
PPO2 is 0. Sensor 2 will be voted out and flashing yellow. This is a O2/HE NDL TTS
limitation of voting logic, and the user will have to determine which CC 21/OO O O
sensors are correct.

With sensors one and three unplugged, we simulate the situation DEPTH TIME STOP TIME
of single sensor monitoring. If we calibrate in this situation, the
system will assume that this computer is only attached to one
sensor, and will re-configure for fourth sensor monitoring. .97
.21 O .97

It will no longer average the sensors or vote on them. Now the

single sensor is the only one considered and the PPO2 used for
calculations is the PPO2 of the single sensor.

The display brightness has three fixed brightness settings plus an
Auto mode.
The fixed options are: .85 .86 .84
Low: Longest battery life.
Med: Best mix of battery life and readability.
Brightness Auto
Exit Edit
High: Easiest readability, especially in bright sunlight.

Auto will use the light sensor to determine the brightness of the
display. The more ambient light there is, the brighter the display will
get. At depth, or in dark water, very little brightness is needed to
see the display.

The Auto setting works well in most situations.

The brightness of the display is the major determinant of battery

life. Up to 80% of the power consumption is to power the
display. When a low battery alert occurs, the display brightness is
automatically reduced to extend battery life.

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Dive Log Menu


Display Log .85 .86 .84
At the Display Log prompt, press SELECT to view the most
recent dive. Dive Log
The profile of the dive is plotted in blue, with decompression
stops plotted in red. The following information is displayed:
- Maximum and Average depth
- Dive number .85 .86 .84
- Date (mm/dd/yy) Display Log
Next Display
- Start- Start of dive
- End- End of dive
- Length of dive in minutes
Press MENU to see the next dive, or SELECT to quit viewing 163ft 40min
Start 2:10PM
Press Back to see the list of dive logs, and next to select the
next dive and View.

Upload Log
See Firmware Upload and Dive Log Download instructions.

Logs are uploaded using Bluetooth. Selecting this menu item

starts the Bluetooth connection and then waits for commands
from a desktop or laptop computer.

Edit Log Number

The dive log number can be edited. This is useful if you want
the Petrel log numbers to match your lifetime dive count. O
.85 .86 .84
At the Edit Log Number prompt, press SELECT to begin Edit Log Number
Next Edit
editing. While editing, use MENU to change the value of the
currently underlined digit, and SELECT to move to the next digit.

The next dive number will be +1 from the value entered here.
For example, if you enter 0015, then the next dive will be dive .85 .86 .84
number 16. Log Number= OOOO
Next Edit

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System Setup+

System Setup contains configuration settings together in a convenient O

format for updating the configuration before a dive. .85 .86 .84
System setup cannot be accessed during a dive. System Setup+
However, many of the settings are also available during the dive in a
single line interface. Although all of the settings available in Dive Setup
are available in System Setup, not all settings in System Setup can be
edited in Dive Setup.

The MENU and SELECT buttons are context sensitive to each sub
menu and individual setting.

When cycling through the sub-menus, MENU will carry the user to the
Example Menu O.OO
next sub-menu, while SELECT will allow the user to edit the options in Example O.OO
Example O.OO
this submenu. Example O.OO
Example O.OO
Next Edit
Once the user has pressed SELECT to edit a submenu, MENU will
cycle the user through the different submenu listings, while SELECT
will let the user edit those listings. Example Menu
Example O.OO
Example O.OO
Once the user has pressed SELECT to edit a submenu listing MENU Example O.OO
Example O.OO
will be used to change the context sensitive variable, while the Example O.OO
SELECT button will be used to move to the next field. Once the user Change Next

has pressed SELECT through all the fields, the new user preferences
will be saved.

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Dive Setup
The first submenu of System Setup+ is Dive Setup.

Dive Setup O.7
High SP
Mode OC/CC
Salinity CEIL
Mode sets which breathing circuit configurations are available: PPO2 Mode Int
Low SP 0.7
OC/CC (default) High SP 1.3 Edit
Next Edit
OC/SC (only on models with external PPO2 connector).
Gauge (e.g. bottom timer mode)

Important information for OPEN CIRCUIT divers

All Petrel models include Closed Circuit (CC) functionality.

Leaving CC mode enabled makes the Petrel more complex

and less optimized for OC diving.

Switch Mode from OC/CC to OC before performing an open

circuit only dive.

Also, when CC mode is available, then OC is treated as

bailout. This is why OC is shown as a yellow warning when CC
mode is available.

When changing to or from Gauge mode, the decompression tissues

are cleared. This is because when in Gauge mode the Petrel does not
know what gas you are breathing.

Water type (salinity) affects how the measured pressure is converted to
depth. Settings:
Fresh and Salt water differ by about 3%. Salt water, being denser, will
display a shallower depth for the same measured pressure versus the
Fresh water setting.
The EN13319 value is between Fresh and Salt. It is from the European
CE standard for dive computers, and is the Petrels default value.

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PPO2 Mode
Dive Setup O.7
High SP
Mode OC/CC
PPO2 mode is only set when CC is enabled. Salinity CEIL
PPO2 Mode Int
Low SP 0.7
High SP 1.3 Edit
On the Petrel Standalone (SA) model, this value is always Int (internal Next Edit
fixed PPO2).

On the Petrel External (EXT) model, this value can be set to either:
Int. (Internal fixed PPO2 set points)
Ext. (External measured PPO2)

The PPO2 Mode can also be changed, even during a dive, in the Dive
Setup menu.

When semi-closed circuit (SC) is used, the PPO2 mode must be Ext.

Low and High Setpoints

The Low and High PPO2 Setpoints are only available when CC is
enabled and PPO2 Mode is Internal.

Each setpoint can be set from 0.4 to 1.5.

The setpoints can also be edited, even during a dive, in the Dive Setup

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Deco Setup

Deco Model
May just show Bhlmann ZHL-16 with gradient factors model, or it
may allow you to switch between GF and various types of VPM-B. The Deco Setup
Deco Model GF
choices will be available if you have unlocked VPM-B. Conserv(GF) 3O/7O
Last Stop 6m
NDL Display CEIL
Next Edit
Can be adjusted in either the GF or VPM model.
For a more detailed explanation of their meaning for the GF algorithm,
please refer to Erik Bakers excellent articles: Clearing Up The
Confusion About Deep Stops and Understanding M-values. The
articles are readily available on the web. VPM-B has conservatism
settings from 0 to +5, with higher numbers being more conservative.

Last Stop
Allows you to chose where to do your last stop. The choices
are 10ft/3m and 20ft/6m. Note that this setting does not affect
decompression. It only makes the TTS prediction more accurate.

NDL Display
These options were previously covered in the Dive Setup+ section.

OC Gases
The next submenu is OC Gases. This menu allows the user to edit the
open circuit gases. The options contained here are the same as those OC Gases
1 OC On 21/OO
in the Define Gases subsection of the Dive Setup section contained 2 OC Off OO/OO
3 OC Off
earlier in this manual. The interface conveniently displays all five gases 4 OC Off OO/OO
5 OC Off OO/OO
simultaneously. Next Edit

For a description of how to appropriately set each gas, please see the
above Define Gas section

CC Gases
The next submenu is CC Gases. This menu allows the user to edit the CC Gases
A1 CC On 21/OO
closed circuit diluent gases. The options contained here are the same 2 CC Off OO/OO
as those in the Define Gases subsection of the Dive Setup section 3 CC Off OO/OO
4 CC Off
contained earlier in this manual. The interface conveniently displays all 5 CC Off OO/OO
Next Edit
five gases simultaneously.
For a description of how to appropriately set each gas, please see the
above Define Gas section

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O2 Setup O2 Setup O.98

This menu page is only available in Closed-Circuit (CC) or Semi- Cal. FO2
Sensor Disp Giant
Closed (SC) mode when PPO2 mode is set to external (see Dive
Setup page).
Next Edit

Cal. FO2
This setting allows you to set the fraction of oxygen (FO2) of the
calibration gas.

In CC mode, the calibration gas FO2 can be set from 0.70 to 1.00.
The default value of 0.98 is for pure oxygen, but assumes about
2% water vapor due to the divers breathing on the loop during the
flushing process.

In SC mode, the calibration gas FO2 can be set from 0.20 to 1.00.
This is because semi-closed divers do not always have oxygen

Note: When in SC mode the user cannot utilize internal PPO2


Sensor Disp O2 Setup

Cal. FO2 O.98
Sets the sensor display mode on the center row of the main screen. Sensor Disp FiO2

In CC mode, the available settings are:

Large: the PPO2 text is the normal large font. Change Save

Giant: the PPO2 text is larger. DEPTH TIME STOP TIME

In SC mode, the available settings are:
PPO2: the PPO2 is shown.
96% 97% 97%
FiO2: the Fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) is shown. CC 21/OO O O
Both: PPO2 shown is large font, FiO2 below in small font. In SC Mode, the center
row can show FiO2
instead of PPO2
Auto SP (Setpoint) Switch
This menu page is only available in CC mode when PPO2 mode is
set to internal (see Dive Setup page).

Auto Setpoint Switch configuration sets up the setpoint switching. It Auto SP Switch
Up: O.7>1.3 Auto
can be set up to auto switch up only, down only, both, or neither. Up Depth O7Oft

Down: 1.3>O.7 Auto

Down Depth O4Oft
First, you set the whether the Up switch occurs automatically Next Edit
or manually. If Up is set to Auto, then you can set the depth at
which the auto switch occurs.

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The menu options are the same for the down setpoint switch.

Example: Up: 0.7>1.3 = Auto, Up Depth = 70 ft. Auto SP Switch

Up: O.7>1.3 Auto
Down: 1.3>0.7 = Auto, Down Depth = 41ft Up Depth O7Oft

Down: 1.3>O.7 Auto

The dives starts at the 0.7 setpoint. As you descend past Down Depth O41ft
Change Next
70ft, the setpoint switches up to 1.3.
You finish your bottom time, then begin ascending. When
you ascend above 41ft, it switches down to 0.7. Auto SP Switch
Up: O.7>1.3 Auto
Up Depth O7Oft
When a switch is set to Auto, you can always manually override
Down: 1.3>O.7 Manual
the setting at any time during the dive.
Change Save

Each auto setpoint switch can occur only once per dive.

Either switch can be set to auto or manual independent of the other


The values 0.7 and 1.3 are shown as examples only. Other values
for the low and high setpoint can be adjusted in the Dive Setup

Display Setup

Two options are available:
Feet: Imperial units (depth in feet, temperature in F)
Meters: Metric units (depth in meters, temperature in C) Display Setup Feet
Brightness Auto
Brightness Altitude
Flip Screen
Screen brightness can be set to fixed levels or an automatic setting. Next Edit
Fixed options:
Low: Longest battery life.
Med: Best mix of battery life and readability.
High: Easiest readability, especially in bright sunlight.
Display Setup
Units Feet
Brightness Med
Altitude SeaLvl
The Auto option measures ambient light levels and then adjusts Flip Screen
the screen brightness to best performance. It provides maximum Change Save
brightness in bright sunlight, but then lowers brightess to save
battery life when the environment gets darker. Display Setup
Units Feet
Brightness Auto
Altitude SeaLvl
Flip Screen

Change Save

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The altitude setting when set to Auto will compensate for pressure
changes when diving at altitude. If all your diving is at sea level,
Display Setup
Units Feet
then setting this to SeaLvl will assume that surface pressure is Brightness Auto
Altitude Auto
always 1013 mBar (1 atmosphere). Flip Screen
Change Save

Diving At Altitude

When diving at altitude you must set this option to Auto (the Display Setup
default setting is SeaLvl). Units Feet
Altitude SeaLvl
Flip Screen
Further, when diving at altitude, you must turn the computer on
Change Save
at the surface. If the auto-on safety feature is allowed to turn the
computer on after a dive has started then the computer assumes
the surface pressure is 1013 mBar. If at altitude this could result in
incorrect decompression calculations.

Flip Screen
Flip Exit
This function displays the contents of the screen upside down. This
is used for systems with a permanent connection to a rebreather. It
Flip Screen
SeaLvl Altitude
allows the computer to be worn on the right arm. Auto
Display Setup

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Compass Setup (Petrel 2 only)

Compass View
The Compass View setting can be set to:
Compass View 9O
Off: The compass is disabled and the Mark Compass option Calibrate
is removed from the menus. True North + O

60, 90, or 120: Sets the range of the compass dial that
Next Edit
is visible on the main screen. The actual amount of arc that
is shown on the screen is 60, so this may seem the most
natural. The 90 or 120 setting can be used to see a wider

True North
In most places, a compass does not point towards True North,
but rather to Magnetic North. The difference in angle between Compass
Compass View 9O
these two directions is called the magnetic declination (also called Calibrate
True North + O
magnetic variation), and varies around the world. The declination in
your location can be found on maps or by searching online. Next Edit

This setting can be set from -99 to +99.

If you only need to match an uncompensated compass, or your

navigation is all based on relative directions, then this setting is not
necessary and can be left at 0.

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Calibration of the compass may be needed if the accuracy drifts
over time or if a permanent magnet or ferromagnetic metal (e.g.
Enable On
iron or nickel) object is mounted very close to the Petrel. To be Adjust True North
calibrated out, such an object must be mounted with the Petrel so
that it moves along with the Petrel. Next Calibrate

Battery Affects the Compass Calibration

Compass Cal.
Each battery has its own magnetic signature, mostly Factory Reset
due to its steel case. Therefore, recalibrating the
compass when changing the battery is recommended. Next Calibrate

Compare the Petrel with a known good compass or fixed

references to determine if calibration is needed. If comparing
against fixed references, remember to consider the local deviation
between Magnetic North and True North (declination).

Calibration is typically not needed when travelling to different

locations. The adjustment needed then is the True North

When calibrating, rotate the Petrel smoothly through as many

3D twists and turns as possible in 15 seconds. Keep metal and
magnetic objects away during calibration. The calibration can
also be reset back to the factory values. After calibration, it is
recommended to compare the compass accuracy with a known
good compass or fixed references

Tips For a Good Compass Calibration

The following tips will help ensure a good calibration.

Stay away from metal objects. For example, wrist watches, metal desks, boat
decks, desktop computers, etc. can all interference with the Earth's magnetic

Rotate to as many 3D positions as possible. Upside down, sideways, on edge,


Compare with another compass (not a smartphone, those are terrible) to

check your calibration.

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System Setup

System Setup
The first System Setup changeable option is Date, which allows Date 14-Aug-2O12
Time O3:28PM
the user to set the current date. Unlock
Load Upgrade
Reset to Defaults
Time Next Edit

The next System Setup changeable option is Time, which allows

the user to set the current time. The format can be set to AM, PM or System Setup
24 hour time. Date 14-Aug-2O12
Load Upgrade
Reset to Defaults
Unlock Code Next Edit

The next System Setup changeable option is Unlock, which

allows the user to enter in an unlock in order to change models and System Setup
Date 14-Aug-2O12
to set other features. Time 12:28PM
Load Upgrade
Reset to Defaults
Next Unlock

System Setup
Date 14-Aug-2O12
Time 12:28PM
Load Upgrade Load Upgrade
Reset to Defaults
Change Unlock Next
Use this option to load firmware upgrades. This starts a Bluetooth
connection and then waits for commands from a laptop or desktop

See the section Firmware Upload and Dive Log Download for
detailed instructions.


Reset to Defaults
The final System Setup option is Reset to Defaults. This will reset
all user changed options to factory settings and clear the tissues on System Setup
Date 14-Aug-2O12
the Petrel. Reset to Defaults cannot be reversed. Time 12:28PM
Load Upgrade
Note: This will not delete dive logs, or reset dive log numbers. Reset to Defaults
Exit Reset

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Advanced Configuration 1
Advanced configuration contains items that will be used infrequently Advanced Config
and can be ignored by most users. They provide more detailed Enter Adv. Config
configurations. Reset Adv. Config
System Info
Battery Info
The first screen allows you to enter the advanced configuration area,
or to set the advanced configurations settings to their default. Done Edit

Title Color
The title colors can be changed for added contrast or visual appeal.
Default is Cyan, with gray, white and blue also available.
Adv. Config 1
Title Color Blue
End Dive Delay O6Os
End Dive Delay Bat Icon Surf + Warn
Gas Select Classic
Sets the time in seconds to wait after surfacing before ending the
current dive. Next Edit
This value can be set from 20 seconds to 600 seconds (10 minutes).
Default is 60s.

This value can be set to a longer time if you want brief surface intervals
connected together into one dive. Some instructors use a longer end
dive delay when teaching courses. Alternatively, a shorter time can be
used to exit dive mode more quickly upon surfacing.

Battery Icon
The behavior of the battery icon can be changed here. Options are:

Surf+Warn: The battery icon displays always when on the

surface. During dive it displays only if there is a low battery

Always: The battery icon always displays.

Warn Only: The battery icon only appears when there is a low
battery warning (this is how the Predator operates).

Gas Select
The style of Select Gas menu. Either Classic or New. Classic style
shows one gas at a time in the large font. New style shows all gases at
once, but in the small font.

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Advanced Configuration 2

This section allows changing of PPO2 limits. Adv. Config 2

OC Min. PPO2 O.19
OC Max. PPO2 1.65
Warning: Do not change these values unless you understand the effect. OC Deco PPO2 1.61
CC Min. PPO2 O.4O
CC Max. PPO2 1.6O
All values are in absolute atmospheres [ata] of pressure (1 ata = 1.013
Done Edit

OC Min. PPO2
PPO2 displays in flashing red when less than this value. (Default 0.19)

OC Max. PPO2
PPO2 displays in flashing red when greater than this value. (Default

OC Deco. PPO2
The decompression predictions (TTS and NDL) will assume that the
gas in use at a given depth is the gas with the highest PPO2 that is less
than or equal to this value. Also, the suggested gas switches (when the
current gas is displayed in yellow) are determined by this value. If you
change this value, please understand its effect. For example, if lowered
to 1.50, then oxygen (99/00) will not be assumed at 20ft/6m. (Default
Note: Semi-closed (SC) PPO2 alarms and gas switch depths use the
OC values.

CC Min. PPO2
PPO2 displays in flashing red when less than this value. (Default 0.40)

CC Max. PPO2
PPO2 displays in flashing red when greater than this value. (Default

Note: In both OC and CC mode, a Low PPO2 or High PPO2 alert is

displayed when the limits are violated for more than 30 seconds.

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Firmware Upload and Dive Log Download

Bluetooth communications are used for both Firmware Uploading and Dive Log Downloading.

NOTE: Upgrading the firmware resets decompression tissue loading. Plan repetitive dives

.85 .86 .84
Log Upload

Start a Bluetooth connection by selecting the Upload Log menu.

The Petrel screen will switch from Initializing to Wait PC which will have a countdown.

Now go back to the Shearwater Desktop. Click start from the open Update Firmware Box, or
Download Log. The PC will then connect to the Petrel, and send the new firmware.

The Petrel screen will give percentile updates of receiving the firmware, then the Personal
Computer will read Firmware successfully sent to the computer.

After receiving the new firmware, the Petrel will reset and display a message stating either
firmware update success or failure.

Warning: During the update process, the screen may flicker or go blank for a few
seconds. Do not remove the battery during the upgrade process.

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Changing the Battery

NOTE: A large coin or washer is required for this section.

Turn off the Petrel

It is a good practice to turn off the Petrel before removing the battery. If removed while on, then
there is a small chance (about 1 in 5000) that the deco tissues will be corrupted. The Petrel
detects this using a cyclic redundancy check (CRC), so there is no danger. However, the
tissues will be lost and repetitive dives will need to be planned accordingly.

Remove the battery cap

Insert the coin or washer into the battery cap slot. Unscrew by turning counter clockwise until
the battery cap is free. Be sure to store the battery cap in a clean dry space.

Exchange the battery

Remove the existing battery by tilting the Petrel computer. Insert the new battery positive
contact first. A small diagram on the bottom of the Petrel shows the proper orientation.

Accepted battery types

The Shearwater Petrel can accept a wide variety of AA sized batteries. The Petrel can accept
any AA sized (or 14500 size) battery that outputs a voltage between 0.9V and 4.3V.

Reinstalling the battery cap

It is very important that the battery cap O-ring is clear of dust or debris. Carefully inspect your
O-ring for any debris or damage and gently clean. It is recommended that you lubricate your
battery caps O-ring on a regular basis with an O-ring lubricant compatible with Buna-N (Nitrile)
O-rings. Lubricating helps ensure that the O-ring seats properly and does not twist or bunch.

Insert the battery cap into the Petrel and compress the battery contact springs. While the
springs are compressed rotate the battery cap clockwise to engage the threads. Be sure not to
cross thread the battery caps threads. Tighten the battery cap until snug. Do not over tighten
the battery cap.

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Battery Types
After changing the battery, a screen will prompt for the battery type
to be entered.

The Petrel attempts to guess what type of battery is being used. If

the battery type is incorrect, it should be manually edited.

Having the battery type set correctly is important so that the Petrel
can give low battery warnings at the proper voltage levels.

Supported battery types are:

1.5V Alkaline: The common AA battery type that can be purchased at

most supermarkets and electronics stores around the world. Not
rechargeable. Inexpensive and reliable, they provide 35 hours of
operation. Recommended.

1.5V Photo Lithium: Fairly common, but more expensive than alkalines.
They provide about 55 hours of operation. Not rechargeable. Good for
use in very cold water. Recommended.

1.2V NiMH: Common rechargeable batteries used in digital cameras

and photo flashes. Can have high self discharge. Provide about 30 hours
of operation per charge. Can die quickly, so care should be taken to
ensure sufficient charge prior to diving.

3.6V Saft: The Saft LS14500 lithium batteries provide very high energy
density. However, their high cost makes other battery types a better
choice for most users. Provide about 100 hours of operation. Can die
quickly, so care should be taken to ensure sufficient charge prior to diving.

3.7V Li-Ion: Rechargeable14500 Li-Ion batteries provide about 35 hours

of operation per charge. Can be ordered from the internet. Have more
gradual voltage drop as discharged, so easier to determine remaining
capacity than NiMH rechargeables. Good in cold water.

NOTE: Battery operating lifetimes are given with screen on medium

brightness and at room temperature. Higher brightness and lower
temperature can reduce life. Lower brightness can increase life.

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Tissues Cleared
Some conditions will cause the decompression inert gas tissue loadings to be cleared.
When cleared, the tissues are set to being saturated with breathing air at the current
barometric pressure.

The Petrel does not lock-out when the tissues are cleared. If the tissues are cleared, then the
diver must take appropriate cautions when planning repetitive dives. The Petrel clearly notifies
when tissues are cleared, so that the diver has the proper information to make responsible

For example, after changing the battery, you will see one of these two screens:

Conditions that cause the tissues to be cleared are:

Firmware Updates: A firmware update will clear the tissues. Therefore, updating the firmware
in the middle of a dive trip is not a good idea.

User Request: You can clear the tissues manually in the System SetupSystem Setup
menu. Use the Reset To Defaults option. This will then prompt if you want to reset the
settings only, the tissues only, or both.

Slow Battery Change: Quick battery changes do not normally cause the tissues to be cleared.
A super capacitor stores energy to keep the clock running for at least 15 minutes during a
battery change. If battery removed for longer than 15 minutes, then the tissues will be cleared.

Corruption: A 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is used to verify the integrity of the
tissues each time the Petrel is turned on. If corrupted, the tissues will be cleared. The most
likely cause of corruption is removing the battery with the Petrel turned on. Therefore,
turning the Petrel off before changing the battery is the best practice.

Changing To/From Gauge Mode: In gauge mode the Petrel does not know what gas you are
breathing and cannot track tissue loading. Therefore, when changing to or from gauge mode,
the tissues are cleared.

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Error Displays
The system has several displays that alert an error condition.

Limitations of Alarms

All alarm systems share common weaknesses.

They can alarm when no error condition exists (false positive). Or they can fail to alarm
when a real error condition occurs (false negative).

So by all means respond to these alarms if you see them, but NEVER depend on them.
Your judgement, education, and experience are your best defenses. Have a plan for
failures, build experience slowly, and dive within your experience.

Each of the alarms will display the message in yellow until dismissed. The error is dismissed
by pressing SELECT.


This message will appear if the average PPO2 goes above 1.6 for
more than 30 seconds. 1.6O 1.62 1.61
Error Confirm
This message will appear if the average PPO2 goes below 0.4 (.19
for OC or SC) for more than 30 seconds.
It is not unusual to get this error immediately after submerging .3O .32 .31
with a manual CCR and a hypoxic mix. The first breath after Error Confirm

submerging floods the loop with low PPO2 gas. The situation is LOW PPO2
usually resolved by increasing depth such that when the error is
noticed, the PPO2 is no longer low. DEPTH TIME STOP TIME

This condition will also cause the LOW PPO2 display to appear.
Here, the computer does not have two sensors that have confirming
.3O .62 .11
Error Confirm
values. There is no way to know the actual PPO2, and the average LOW PPO2
PPO2 will be calculated as 0.11 (the lowest value is the most
conservative for decompression calculations). DEPTH TIME STOP TIME

This message will appear when your internal battery is low for 30 1.3O 1.32 1.31
seconds. The battery needs to be changed. The computer will also LOW BATTERY INT
flash the battery symbol red.

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Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT


This alarm is a notification that there has either been a very fast
ascent for a short period of time, or that there has been an ascent
of more than 66 fpm / 20 mpm maintained for over a minute. This 1.3O 1.32 1.31
alarm may return after being dismissed if the condition occurs Error CONFIRM



The alarm occurs when the diver has been above the minimum 45 5O 2
depth for a decompression stop for more than one minute. This
alarm will only appear once during a dive, but it will also appear
1.3O 1.32 1.31
once on the surface after the dive. MISSED DECO


This alarm will show when the decompression tissues are cleared.
All decompression information has been lost. 1.3O 1.32 1.31

This alarm happens when the computer does not complete all of DEPTH TIME STOP TIME
its tasks in the time allotted. It can happen occasionally from a 45
transient problem like a battery bounce after an impact. It can also
be the result of a hardware problem.
1.3O 1.32 1.31
Error Confirm
This reset shows up after a software update. This is the normal 45
event that shows the computer has been rebooted after the
software update. 1.3O 1.32 1.31
Error Confirm
This is not an exhaustive list. Please contact Shearwater if you
experience any unexpected errors.

The center row also shows permanent "Low PPO2" or "High PPO2" messages when the PPO2
is not in a safe range. These message will clear automatically once a safe PPO2 is restored.






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Storage and Maintenance

The Petrel dive computer should be stored dry and clean.

Do not allow salt deposits to build up on your dive computer. Wash your computer with fresh
water to remove salt and other contaminants. Do not use detergents or other cleaning
chemicals as they may damage the Petrel dive computer. Allow to dry naturally before storing.

Do not wash under high pressure jets of water as it may cause damage to the depth sensor.

Store the Petrel dive computer out of direct sunlight in a cool, dry and dust free environment.
Avoid exposure to direct ultra-violet radiation and radiant heat.

There are no user serviceable parts inside the Petrel.

Do not tighten or remove the faceplate screws.

Clean with water ONLY. Any solvents may damage the Petrel dive computer.

Service of the Petrel may only be done at Shearwater Research, or by any of our authorized
service centers.

Your nearest service center can be found at www.shearwaterresearch.com/contact

Fischer Pin-out
On the EXT model, the Fischer connector pin-out is as shown (looking into socket on Petrel).

1 = Common - (GND)

2 = O2 Sensor 1+

3 = O2 Sensor 2+

4 = O2 Sensor 3+

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Shearwater Petrel SA & EXT

Specification Standalone (SA) Model External PPO2 (EXT) Model
Operating Modes OC OC
OC/CC (internal PPO2) OC/CC (internal PPO2)
Gauge OC/CC (external PPO2)
OC/SC (external PPO2)
Decompression Model Bhlmann ZHL-16C with GF
VPM-B and VPM-B/GFS (optional)
Pressure (depth) sensor Piezo-resistive
Range 0 Bar to 14 Bar
Accuracy +/-20 mBar (at surface)
+/-100 mBar (at 14bar)
Crush Depth Limit 30 Bar (~290msw)
Surface Pressure Range 500 mBar to 1080 mBar
Depth of dive start 1.6 m of sea water
Depth of dive end 0.9 m of sea water
Compass Resolution 1 (Petrel 2 only)
Compass Accuracy +/- 5 (Petrel 2 only)
Operating Temperature Range +4C to +32C
Short-Term (hours)
-10C to +50C
Temperature Range
Long-Term Storage
+5C to +20C
Temperature Range
Battery AA Size, 0.9V to 4.3V
Battery Operating Life 35 Hours (AA 1.5V Alkaline)
(Display Medium Brightness) 100 Hours (SAFT LS14500)
External Connector Socket N/A Fischer 103, 7-pin
External O2 Sensor Type N/A "10mV in air" Type:
Zero offset
Linear response to PPO2
Temp. comp. in sensor
Common negative
Range 0mV to 100mV
External O2 Sensor Input N/A 100k
Weight 0.4kg
Size (W X L X H) 84mm X 74mm X 38mm 100mm X 74mm X 38mm

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FCC Warning
a) USA-Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy. If not installed and used in accordance with the
instructions, it may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.

If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be
determined by tuning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try and correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna
Increase the distance between the equipment and the receiver.
Connect the equipment to outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance
could void the users authority to operate the equipment.

Caution: Exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation.

This device must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or

Industry Canada Warning

b) Canada - Industry Canada (IC)
This device complies with RSS 210 of Industry Canada.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause interference, and
(2) this device must accept any interference, including interference that may cause undesired
operation of this device.
Lutilisation de ce dispositif est autorise seulement aux conditions suivantes :
(1) il ne doit pas produire dinterference, et
(2) lutilisateur du dispositif doit tre prt accepter toute interference radiolectrique reu,
mme si celle-ci est susceptible de compromettre le fonctionnement du dispositif.

Caution: Exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation.

The installer of this radio equipment must ensure that the antenna is located or pointed such
that it does not emit RF field in excess of Health Canada limits for the general population;
consult Safety Code 6, obtainable from Health Canadas website www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/
Contains TX IC: 216QEbzzMU

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