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2010

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2010

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. : , 2010. 108 .


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: .. , . ,
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)

, 2010
C

............................................................................................................... 5

1. ................................................................................. 6
1.1. ................................................................................. 7
1.2. ................................................................................................ 8
1.3. .......................................................................................... 12
1.4. ....................................................................................................... 13
1.5. ..................................................................................................... 15
1.6. .................................................................................................. 16
1.7. .................................................................... 18
1.8. ..................................................................................... 19
1.9. ............................................................................................ 21
1.10. ....................... 23
1 .................................................................................................... 28

2. ......................................................................... 33
2.1. ....................................................... 33
2.2 , ............................................. 36
2.3. ............................................................... 39
2.4. ............................................................................................ 43
2.5. .............. 44
2.6. .............................................................. 47
2.7. .................................................................................... 49
2.8. .............................................................................................. 51
2.9. ................... 53
2.10. ................................ 55
2 .................................................................................................... 57

3. ...................................................................................... 63
3.1. ............................................................ 63
3.2. .............................................. 66
3.3. ......................... 67
3
3.4. .............................................................................................. 71
3.5. ........................................................... 73
3.6. ........................................................................ 78
3.7. .......................................................................................... 80
3.8. ......................... 83
3 .................................................................................................... 86

4. ............... 91
4.1. .............................................................................................. 91
4.2. ............................................................. 94
4.3. .......................................................................... 97
4.4. .................................................................... 98
4.5. ..................................................................................... 100
4.6. .......................................................................................... 101
4 .................................................................................................. 105

............................................................................................... 108



.
: .. ,
.. , . ,
.. .
, ,

.
,
,
, .

.. , ..
.. ,
..
.

5
1.

,

. ,
,
.
. ,

, . ,
, ,
,
, .
, ,
.
,

: P , T .
, .
, ,
. ,

r
() U .
, , .
,
:
U x ( x, y, z, t );U y ( x, y, z, t );U z ( x, y, z, t ); P( x, y, z , t );( x, y, z , t ).

6
1.1.

.
V0 (. 1.1). dV .
Vo

. 1.1.

dt df
, dw = df dl cos (. 1.2).
dl = U dt , , V0 ,
r r
dw dt = Udf .
, V0 ,
r r
Udf .

. 1.2.

, ,
V0 ,
,
7
r r
dV = Udf .
t Vo
r r r
, Udf = div (U )dV ,
V0

r
+ div( U ) dV = 0 .
V
o
t

, ,
r
+ div( U ) = 0 . (1.1)
t
,

r r
+ div(U ) + U grad = 0.
t
r
U .
,
, ,
.
,
.
r r
dV =
df ,
U
t V0

, .

1.2.

V0 (.1.3). ,

r
Pdf ,
,
. ,

8
r
Pdf = grad( P )dV .
Vo

. 1.3. ,

dV
grad( P) dV ,
r
F1 = grad( P ) .

v r
r dU dU
F1 = = grad( P ) .
dt dt
r r
, U = U (t , x, y, z ) ,
r r r r
r U U U U
dU = dt + dx + dy + dz ,
t x y z
,
r r r r r
dU U U dx U dy U dz
= + + + .
dt t x dt y dt z dt
dx dy dz
= Ux , = Uy , = U z , ,
dt dt dt
r r
dU U r r
= + ( U )U . (1.2)
dt t
.
,
, . ,
,
. (1.2)
,
9
.
. ,
(. 1.4). ,
, .
. 0-1,
.

.1.4.

1 U1 ,
0-1 , , (U x) 0 .
12 , U1 = U 2
. ,

.

.
, 1, ,
, 2, ,
.
,
r
U r r 1
+ (U)U = grad( P ) . (1.3)
t
,
.
, ,

10
,
r
U r r P r
+ (U)U = +g. (1.4)
t
, ,
,
. . ,
. Q = TdS , Q = 0 ,
S ,
.
, dH = TdS + VdP, H .
S = const ,
dH = dP .
P V = const
P = const , = (P ) .
dP
H = + const , H = H (P ) .
(P )
,
H dH P dH 1
= , xi = x, y, z , grad H = grad P = grad P .
xi dP xi dP
(1.4)
r
U r r r
+ (U)U = H + g . (1.5)
t
,

r r 1 r r r
(U )U = grad(U 2 ) [U rot U ] .
2

r
U r r U 2 r
[U rot U ] = grad + H + g . (1.6)
t 2
, , ,
(1.6) rot , ,

11

r r r
rot U = rot[U rot U ] . (1.7)
t

1.3.

,
, ,
r
, U t = 0 . (1.6)

U 2 r
[ ]
r r
U rot U = + H g . (1.8)
2

,
, .

dx dy dz
= = . (1.9)
Ux Uy Uz

.


,

.
r
(1.8) l
[ ]
r r r
. U rot U U
r
l .
, z .
r r r
g = ( gz ) = l z g = l g g .

12
.1.5.

( )
f r
(grad( f ) )l = = f l ,
l
f l .

U2
+ H + gz = const , (1.10)
2
.

U2
+ H = const , (1.11)
2
, , .

1.4.

r
U = 0 , (1.4)
r
P = g .
,

P P P
= = 0, = g .
x y z

13
P = gz + const . ,
z = h , P = P0 .

P = Po + g (h z ) .
, , ,
. ()
.
d = SdT + VdP ,
(T , P ) .
T = const , V = 1 ,
r
d = VdP = dP , = P = g = ( gz ) .

+ gz = const .
.
,
( ),
.
, ,
,
. .

dT gT
< ,
dz cp
1 V
= , .
V T p

dT g
< .
dz c p
, ,
-,
g c p . ,

14
.

1.5.

,

U2
E = + ,
2
, ,
.

r

E U 2 2
U r U ( )
= + = + U + .
t t 2 2 t t t
(1.1) (1.3),

U 2 U2 r r r r r
= div( U ) U grad P U (U)U .
t 2 2
dH = TdS + dP ,
r r r r
P = (H ) , 2U (U)U = UU 2 .
U 2 U2 r r U 2
= div(U ) U H +

. (1.12)
t 2 2 2

d ( ) = d + d .

P
d = TdS PdV = d ,
2
P P
d ( ) = d + d = + d = Hd .

,
( ) r
=H = H div( U ) . (1.13)
t t
15
(1.12) (1.13),
E U 2 U 2 r r U 2
= + = H + div U U H + =
t t 2

2
2
r 2
U
= div U H + .

2

U 2 r U 2 rU 2 r
+ dV = div
U + H dV = U + H df .
t 2
2


2


, ,
, .
rU 2
U + H (1.14)
2
. H = + P , ,
rU 2 r r r
U + df PUdf .
2
,
,
.
.

1.6.

r
U . i -

U
U i = i + U i .
t t t

16
(U k ) U i U i 1 P
= , = U k .
t xk t xk xi

U i P (U k ) P
U i = U k Ui = U iU k .
t xk xi xk xi xk

P P
= i ,k , i ,k = Pi ,k + U iU k , (1.15)
xi xk


U i = i ,k .
t x k
i ,k .

i ,k

i
U dV = dV = i ,k df k .
t xk
i -
. ,
.
i ,k df k i - , df
r
. df k = nk df , n
df . i ,k nk i -
.
i ,k nk = Pni + U iU k nk

r r rr
Pn + U (Un ) .
i ,k
r
, n ,
r r
, n . n ,
,
2
P + U .

17
,
, P ,
.

1.7.


r r
= Udl ,
,
.
,
. ,
.
d d r r
= Udl .
dt dt
r r r r
dl dr = r2 r1 ,
r
- dl .
, ,
r
d r r dU r r d r
Udr = dr + U (dr ) .
dt dt dt
,
r d r r drr r r U 2
U dr = Ud = UdU = d ,
dt
dt 2

.
r
, dU dt = grad( H ) ,
,
r r
dU r dU r r

dr = rot
df = rot grad( H )df = 0 ,
dt dt
rot grad( H ) = 0 .

r r
= Udl = const ,
18

.
.

1.8.

C .

r r r r r r
Ud l = rot U d f f rot U = const . (1.16)
C f
r
rot U ,
, .
,
r
, rot U = 0 . (1.16)
. ,
, ,
( ). ,
. -
, . ,
r r
, , U = const, rot U = 0 ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
r
(U = 0). .
, ,
. ,
,
.
.
, ,
, . -,
, , ,

19
. - ,
, ,
( a << l ).
x = a exp(it ) .
. ,
, ~ ,
U x / ~ l . ~ , U t ~ .
2
U ( U / x ) ~ / l ; ~ 1 / T ~ / a , U / t ~ / a .
2

r r r
, U ( U ) , U / t ,
.
,
r r
rot U = rot(H ) = 0, rot U = const .
t

r r
U = 0, const=0 rot U = 0 ,
.
.
1.
r r
. Udl
.
r
2. U = grad , .

r
U r 2
[U rot U ] = H +
r U .
t 2

U2 U2
+H+ = 0 , +H+ = f ( t ), (1.17)
t 2 t 2
f (t ) .

20
U2
+ H = const .
2
. ,

const ,
.

1.9.

,
, ( = const ).
(1.4) H = P = (P ),
r
U r r r
+ (U)U = (P ) + g .
t
(1.1)
r
div U = 0 .
(1.7),
.

. (1.7) .
= 0 .
H = P + const ,

U2 P
+ + gz = const .
2
= const ,
, ,
U 2
P+ = const .
2

(. 1.6).
.
21

U o2
Pk = Pmax = Po + ,
2
Po ,
.

. 1.6.

,
.

Ux = , Uy = ,
y x

r U x U y 2 2
div U = + = 0.
x y xy yx
, (1.7) U x
Uy.
(1.9)
dx dy
= U y dx U x dy = 0 .
Ux Uy
,

dx + dy = d = 0 .
x y

22
,
= const .

1.10.

1.
. ,
,.

= ax + by + cz + Ax 2 + By 2 + Cz 2 + Dxy + Eyz + Fxz .
,
= 0 .


= U z = 0 z=0 , ;
z

= = 0 ==z=0, .
x y


= c + Ey + Fx , E=0=F, c=0.
z z= 0

= a = 0=b= ;
x k y k
= 2 A + 2B + 2C = 0, =+.
,
Z. ,
, .
= Ax 2 + By 2 ( A + B )z 2 + Dxy ,
,
, A = B , D = 0 . ,
= A( x 2 + y 2 2z 2 ) .

23
U x = 2 Ax , U y = 2 Ay , U z = 4 Az .
(1.9)
dx dz dy dz
= , = .
Ux Uz U y U z
2 2
x z = c1, y z = c2 ,
.
2 2
, , B=0 = A( x z ) .
U x = 2 Ax , U z = 2 Az ,
xz = const , .

(. 1.7),
. ,
, .

. 1.7.

2. .
.
,
( r ),
a r 1
= + A ,
r r
r
a, A .

24
. 1.8.

r r 3
= a r U = ( a r ) = ar r .

R

r r
G = U df .
2
U = a / R ,
( )
G = a R 2 4R 2 = 4a .
= const ,
r r
U dS = dV = 0 , a = 0 .
t V

rr
r An
= A(1 r ) = 2 (1.18)
r

rr rr
r An Ar
U = = 2 = 3 .
r r

rr r r
r 3( An ) n A
U= , (1.19)
r3
r r
n r . ,

25
r
. A
.
. (,
- ),
2
E= U dV .
2
,
,
dE = T dS Pd (1 / ) = 0 .
R. .
(1.19)
rr
E=
2
( )
4A V0 2 , V0 .

,
.
rr rr r 2E r r
E = m 2 / 2 = m / 2 = P / 2 , P = r = 4A V0 .

r r
, F = dP dt .
F , N ,
F .
r r r
= const, P = const, F = 0 ,
, .
R (. 1.8).

rr rr
, Un
r=R
= n . (1.18), (1.19)
rr
r 2 An r r r r 3 R3 r r
(Unr) r=R
= 3 = n , A = R / 2, = 2 n ,
R 2r
(1.20)

R3 r rr r
U= 3
[3n (n ) ]. (1.21)
2r
(1.17)

26
U 2 P U 2
+ + = f ( t ) , P = f ( t ) . (1.22)
t 2 2 t
, f (t ) = P0 .
, ,
r
d / dt = / t + ( / x)dx / dt +L = / t + .

r
d r d d r
= = r .
t dt d dt
(1.20), (1.21)
d R3 r
r = 2 n,
d 2r
r r r R3 r r r r
2r
[ 2 R3 r r 2
]
= U = 3 3n ( n ) = 3 3( n ) 2 ;
2r
[ ]
{ }
6
1R r rr rr
U = 9(n )2 ( n )2 6( n )2 + 2 .
2
4 r

(1.22)
r
P r = R = P0 +
2
8
(9 cos 2
)
5 +
r d
2
Rn
dt
.

,
.

27

1.1.
. h = 5 .
, = 103 /3.
.
P U2
+ + gz = const .
2
(z = h),
, .
, , z = 0 , ,
U l .

U l = 2 gh 10 /.
.

1.2. 1.1 ,
, h0 ,
S 0 ,
(S / S0 << 1).
.
,
.

U 0 (t )S0 = U l (t )S , U 0 = dh / dt .
,
dh S
= 2 gh(t ) ,
dt S 0

g St
h= + const .
2 S0

28
h = h0
t = 0 ,
2
g St
h = h0 ,
2 S 0

1.3. ,
, . P1 ,
1 ; : P0 , 0 , ,
.
2
. H + U / 2 = const ,

U l = 2H ,
H = H 0 H
.
P0
dP
H = .
P
= const P .
1


,

2P0 P
1

Ul = 1 .
( 1) 0 P0

1.4. l
. ,
,
P0 = P + t , P .
. , U / x = 0 ,

29
U 1 P
= .
t x

l 1 l P 1
U (t ) dx =
dx
dt + const = (P0 P )dt + const .
0 0 x l
,
t = 0 ,
. const = 0 ,

t 2
U l (t ) = .
2 l

1.5.
S1 P1 , S 2
Pa . .
.

U12 U 22
P1 + = P2 + .
2 2

r r
UdS = dV ,
t V
V . = const ,
,
U1S1 = U 2 S 2 .

2(P1 P2 )
U2 =
[
1 (S 2 S1 )2
.
]

30
1.6. ,
= A( x 2 y 2 ), A > 0 .
.

Ux = = 2 Ax, U y = 2 Ay.
x
= 2 Axy .
xy = const A .
= 0 . ,
,
. ,
A ,
, .

1.7. ,
(a) ( x, z ) 30o ( x) .

.
r
U r r P r r
. + (U )U = + g +a.
t
.

1.8.
h = 10 , 5
Pa = 105 .
. U l 20 /.

1.9. , 4
Pa = 10 ?
5

. h 30 .

31
1.10. ,
P = 1.003 P , .

Pa = 10 ,
5
= 1.5 /3.
. U l 20 /.

1.11. V S 0
0

.
U 0 ,
S . , .
. U l = U 0 S 0 / S .

32
2.

.
, ,
.
.
, .
,
. ,
,
. .

2.1.

,
, ,
. (1.1), (1.3),

U U 1 P
+U + = 0, (2.1)
t x x
U
+U + = 0. (2.2)
t x x
,
P = RT , R = R / .


1

P
2

c= .
S

P = const .
c = P = RT .

,

33
P = P0 ( x) + p( x ,t ), U = U 0 ( x ) + u ( x , t ) , = 0 ( x ) + ( x , t ) .
,
p
~ , ~ , << 1.
P0 0
,
( u / c0 ) ~ ,

c0 = ( P0 / 0 ) 2 .
1

, ,
M 0 = U 0 / c0 ~ .
, (2.1), (2.2)
U 0 1 P0 0 U 0
U0 + = 0; U0 + 0 = 0. (2.3)
x 0 x x x

U 0 u U
+ U0 0 + U0 + u 0 + u + 0 + 0 + 0 +
t x x x x x x x
(2.4)
u
+ = 0,
x
u U 0 u U u 1 P0 p
+ U0 + U0 + u 0 + u + + = 0. (2.5)
t x x x x 0 + x x
.
(2.3)
0 U 02 1 P0
+ = 0.
x 0 0 x
, (P0 / x ) = c02 (0 / x ),
0 1 2
c0 U 02 = 0.
x
2 2 2
U 0 < c0 / M 0 < 1 / ,
(0 / x ) = 0, (U 0 / x ) = 0, (P0 / x ) = 0 .
(2.4), (2.5)

34
u u
+ U0 + u + 0 + = 0,
t x x x x
u u u 1 p
+ U0 + u + = 0. (2.6)
t x x 0 + x


U = u / c0 , P = p / P0 , = / 0 ~ .


.
, ,
/ c0 .

x = x / , t = c0t / .
(2.6)
U U
+ M0 + + +U = 0.
t x x x x
(1) (2) (1) (2) (2)
,
. , ,
2

, ,
u
+ 0 = 0. (2.7)
t x
(2.6)
p 1 1 p 1
1
= = (1 + )1 p = 1 (1 + ...) p .
0 + x 0 1 + x 0 x 0 x
,
u 1 p
+ = 0. (2.8)
t p0 x

35

P P0 P + p 0 +
= 0 = = (1 + ) .
0 P0 0

1 + P = 1 + + ...
P = , p = c0 .
2

p , (2.7),
p u
+ 0c02 = 0. (2.9)
t x

2.2 ,

(2.8) , (2.9)
, ,

2u 2 2u
c0 = 0.
t 2 x 2
(2.8) ,
(2.9) ,

2 p 2 2 p
2
c0 2
= 0.
t x

,

u = .

u( x, t ) = / x . (2.10)
(2.9),

p = 0 ( / t ) . (2.11)

36
u (2.10),
p (2.11),

2 2 2
c0 = 0. (2.12)
t 2 x 2
v = c0t + x, w = c0t x,

2
= 0.
vw

= f1 (c0t x ) + f 2 (c0t + x ) , f1 f 2 .
(2.10), (2.11)
p = 0 c0 ( f 1+ f 2) , u = f1 f 2 .
t = 0 , x = 0

2p , .
p( 0,0) = 2 p , u( 0,0) = 0.

f1 + f 2 = p / 0c0 . 0c0 f = F ,
p( x, t ) = F1 (c0t x ) + F2 (c0t + x ) .
,
,
. p( x, t ) = 2 p = const ,
c0t x = const, c0t + x = const . ,
x c0 ,
,
dx / dt = c0 .
.
= C(+ )ei (t kx ) + C( )ei (t + kx ) , (2.13)

c
c0t x = 0 (t kx ) = const (t kx ), f1 f 2

. k = / c0 .

37
(2.10), (2.11), (2.13)

(
u( x, t ) = Ae ikx + Beikx eit ) (2.14)

(
p( x, t ) = c0 0 Ae ikx Beikx eit ,) (2.15)
(+ ) ( )
A = iC / c0 , B = +iC / c0 .
:
1. , p = c0 0u
p = c0 0u .
2. .
3.
x , .
(2.14), (2.15)
[ ]
u( x, t ) = B ei (t kx ) + ei (t + kx ) + ( A B )ei (t kx ) =
eikx + e ikx
= 2 Be it
+ ( A B )ei (t kx ) = 2 Beit cos kx + ( A B )ei (t kx ) ,
2
[ ]
p( x, t ) = c0 0 B ei (t kx ) ei (t + kx ) + c0 0 ( A B )ei (t kx ) =
= c 2 Bieit sin kx + c ( A B )ei (t kx ).
0 0 0 0
,
Reu( x, t ) = 2 Bcos kx cos t + ( A B ) cos(t kx ) ,
Re p( x, t ) = c0 0 2 Bsin kx sint + c0 0 ( A B ) cos(t kx ) .
, ,
, (AB)
, x .
:
1. ,
.
2.
,
cos , sin . ,
, , ,

38
,
.
3. .
.

2.3.

, ,

.
:
1. .
2. , (2.14), (2.15)
.
3.
.
,
.
, . ,
,
.
. , .
, :
p(0, t ) 0 , u(l , t ) = 0 .
(2.15),
, A = B . ,
(2.14)
( )
A e ikl + eikl = 0.
A = 0,
: cos kl = 0 .
,

fn =
(2n 1)c0 , n=1,2,3
4l

39
f1 = c0 / 4l , f 2 = 3c0 / 4l , f3 = 5c0 / 4l .

. .
,
.
(2.14), (2.15)

1 x 1 x
un ( x, t ) = 2 Aei t cos n , pn ( x, t ) = 2iAei t sin n c0 0 .
n n

2 l 2 l

1 x 1 x
un ( x, t ) = 2 A cos n , pn ( x, t ) = 2c0 0 A sin n .
2 l 2 l
,
(. 2.1.).
u / 2A p / 2c0 0 A

.2.1.

40
t = 0 . ,
.
, , ,
, .
(
).
. ,
, , ,
(t = T / 2 )
. ,
, ,
(t = 3T / 4)
. ,
, . ,
, (t = T ) ,
.
, ,
V (. 2.2.).
p( 0,t ) = 0 .

. 2.2. , ,

p( l ,t ) = pv
,

41
dm
0 Su (l , t ) = .
dt
, ,
,
.
m = V .
,
V
pV = c02 .
,
1
= p(l , t ) .
c02
,

V p
u (l , t ) = (l , t ) , (2.16)
0 Sc0 2 t
.
A = B .
(2.14), (2.15), (2.16)

c0 S
tg kl = .
V
.
kl << 1, l << ,
. .
, tgkl kl

c0 S
f = .
2 lV

42
2.4.

,
.
,
x ,

f a ( x, t )
Zx = .
u ( x, t )
,
Sp( x, t ) = Z x u ( x, t ) .
,
,
, x.
, ,
.
.
Z x = X x + iYx . (2.17)
,
, .
:
1. Z x = 0 , p = 0 .
2. Z x = , u = 0 .
3. , .
,
, , .
Z x = c0 0 S Z x = c0 0 S (
).
, c0 0 .
4. .
(2.16)
, V .

43
, p / t = ip ,

0 S 2 c02
ZV = i .
V
,
.

2.5.

,
f 0eit , , ,
(. 2.3).
Z 0 , Z l .

. 2.3. , Z 0 Z l

, ,

Sp(0, t ) + Z 0u(0, t ) = f 0eit ,
Sp(l , t ) = Z l u(l , t ) .
, ,
Z l .
Z 0 .
()
() .
(2.14), (2.15).

44
(
u( x, t ) = Ae x + Be x eit , )
p( x, t ) = c0 p0 ( Ae x Be x )eit ,

= + i ,
c0
.
,

(Z 0 + c0 0 S )A + (Z 0 c0 0 S )B = f0
(Zl c0 0 S )Ael + (Zl + c0 0 S )Be l = 0 .
.

Z 0 + c0 0 S Z 0 c0 0 S
= =
(Zl c0 0 S )e l
(Zl + c0 0 S )e l

( )
= 2 Z 0 Z l + c02 02 S 2 sh l + 2c0 0 S (Z 0 + Z l ) ch l. (2.18)

Z l + c0 0 S c S Zl
A= f 0e l , B = 0 0 f 0e l .

A B
,

u ( x, t ) =
f 0eit

[ ]
(Z l + c0 0 S )e (l x ) (Z l c0 0 S )e (l x ) ,

p( x, t ) =
c0 0 f 0 ei

[ ]
(Z l + c0 0 S )e (l x ) + (Z l c0 0 S )e (l x ) .
,
, ,
(l x ), .
,
, Z 0 Z l .
.

45

. ( r )

( r ) . u p ,
p

p Z l c0 0 S Z l 1
rp = = = ,
p+ Z l + c0 0 S Z l + 1
Z l c0 0 S
r = rp = ,
Z l + c0 0 S
Z l = Z l / c0 0 S .

rp = rei 2 ,
r , 2 .
,
. = ik ,
ikx
. re

[ ]
p( x, t ) = c0 0 A e ikx re ikx + re ikx + rei (kxkl + )ei ( kl ) eit =
= c A(1 r )ei (t kx ) + 2rAei (t + kl ) cos[k ( x l ) + ]c .
0 0 0 0
,
c0 A(1 r ) 0
c0 2 Ar 0 . , ,
. , , Z l = c0 0 S , rp = 0 ,
, ,
.
, Z l = , rp = 1, r = 1, 2 = 0,
.
Z l = 0, rp = 1, r = 1, 2 = ,
, .
.

46
,
, ,
. ,
, = 0 .
, (2.18)
c0 0 S (Z 0 + Z l )
th l = .
Z 0 Z l + c02 02 S 2
,
,
l Y0 + Yl
tg = . (2.19)
c0 Y0Yl 1
(2.19)
, . , ,
Y0 = 0, Yl = ,
(2.19) cos(kl ) = 0 , , 2.3.
, , Y0 = 0, Yl = ZV
, 2.4.
(2.19) ( 2.3).

2.6.

,

u u 1 p
+ U0 + = 0,
t x 0 x
p p u
+ U0 + 0c02 = 0.
t x x
w
= c0 0u + p , w = c0 0u p .

+w w
u = , p = .
2c0 0 2
47
u p ,

+ (U 0 + c0 ) = 0,
t x
w w
+ (U 0 c0 ) = 0 ,
t x
.

= (U 0 + c0 ) t x , = (U 0 + c0 ) t + x ( x ,t )
= (c0 U 0 )t x , = ( c0 U 0 )t + x w( x, t ) .

w
= 0; = 0,

,
= f1 ( ), w = f 2 ( ) .
,
2.2,
( x, t ) = C exp{1[(U 0 + c0 )t x ]},
w( x, t ) = Cw exp{ 2 [(c0 U 0 )t + x ]}.

, ( x ,t )
c0 + U 0 w( x, t ) c0 U 0 , 1 2
.
,
1
u( x, t ) = [C exp{1[(c0 + U 0 )t x]} + Cw exp{ 2 [(c0 U 0 )t + x]}] ,
2 0c0
1
p( x, t ) = [C exp{1[(c0 + U 0 )t x]} Cw exp{ 2 [(c0 U 0 )t + x]}].
2
.
~ , U = c + U ,U = c U .
1U 1 = 2U 2 = 1 0 0 2 0 0

48
~ ~
u ( x, t ) = A exp x + B exp x exp(~t ) ,
c0 + U 0 c0 U 0
~ ~
p ( x, t ) = 0c0 A exp

x B exp x exp(~t ) ,
c0 + U 0 c0 U 0
A = C / ( 2 0 c0 ) , B = C w / (2 0 c0 ).

u( x ,t ) p( x ,t )
, c0 + U 0 ,
,
c0 U 0 .
, ~ = i .
, ,
p(0, t ) = p(l , t ) = 0.
A = B .

Aexp i l exp i l exp(it ) = 0.
c0 + U 0 c0 U 0
( A 0) ,

2c0
1 exp i 2 l = 0.
2
c0 V0
,
(
= 0 1 M 2 , )
0 = nc0 / l , M = U 0 / c0
.
, ,
.

2.7.

1.5 ,
+ U 2 2 . = 0 + , = 0 + .
49
,
(
d = Tds Pd (1 / ) = P / 2 d . ) , = ( ) .
= 0 ,
( )
= ( )0 +
( 0 )2 2 ( )
( 0 ) + 2 + L
0 2 0
, U 0 = 0.

( )
= + = + P / = H ,
s s
2 ( ) H H P c02
=
2 = P = .
s s s s

c02 2 u 2
0 0 + H 0 + + 0 +
2 0 2
, ,
dV = 0.
, ,
0u2 c02 2
+ dV = EdV ,
2 2 0
0 u 2 c02 2
E = + .
2 2 0
= p / c02 = 0c0u / c02 = 0u / c0 ,
E = 0 u 2 .
.
, ,
r
(
U H + U 2 / 2 . )
r r r r
H = H 0 + H , UH = 0UH0 + 0UH + UH0 +L ,
r r
U = u . H = (H / P) s p = p / ,

50
( ),

r r
A = p u df .
r r
udf = udf , p = 0cu , A = c0 E .

2.8.


. , , ,
exp( x ) , ,

2 4 1 1
.
= 3 3
+ + cv c p
2 0 c0

= + i / c0 = + ik .
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
. ,
~ = + i . ,
exp( ~t x ) ,
exp( t ) . ,
,
.
, . ,
.
r
,
u p
+ ru + (1 / 0 ) = 0, (2.20)
t x

51

,
.
R > 10 ,
,
r = 2 R .

p u
+ 0c02 = 0. (2.21)
t x
(2.20) t , (2.21) x
,
2 u u 2
2 u
+r c0 2 = 0 .
t 2
t x
u = ( x ) exp
~t.

d 2
dx 2
[ ]
(~ + r )~ c02 = 0 .

( x ) = C exp(x ),
1, 2 = = (~ + r )~ c0 = (~ / c0 ) 1 + r ~ (~ / c0 )(1 + r 2 ~ ) .
~ << 1.
, r /
u ( x, t ) = [C1 exp( x ) + C2 exp(x )]exp(~t ) .
(2.21)
u
p( x, t ) = 0c02
dt + const =
x
= 0c0 1 + r ~ [C1 exp( x ) C2 exp(x )]exp(~t ) .
const = 0 , , , p = 0 .
~ << 1,
C1 C2 , r /

p( x, t ) = 0c0 [C1 exp( x ) C2 exp(x )]exp(~t ) ,

52
~ r
= 1 + ~ . (2.22)
c0 2

u( x, t ) = A ch (x + ) exp ~t ,
(2.23)
p( x, t ) = 0c0 A sh (x + ) exp ~t.
2C1 = A exp( ), 2C2 = A exp .

2.9.


.
,
. p 0 . .
-, ,
.
, ,
.
,

0 2 S 2
Z= + i M ,
4c0
S ,
,
3
M = 2 0 R .
2
Z R 2R
Z = = + i = + i . (2.24)
0 c0 S 2c0 c0

Sp(0, t ) = Zu (0, t ); Sp(l , t ) = Zu (l , t ).

53
(2.23)
th = Z . ( R << )
Z << 1. Z in .

th (l + Z ) = Z l = 2Z in .
(2.22), (2.24) Z , ~ = + i ,

2c0 r l
= , = n 2 .
l 2 c0
,
nc0
= .
4
l+ R

,
: p( 0,t ) = p( l ,t ) = 0 (. 2.1), ,
,
1.28 R .

l = l + 1.28 R ,
,
c0 n
fn = , n = 1,2,...
2l
,
.

, 1 , 3 l = l + 0.64 R
c0 ( 2n 1)
fn = .
4l
,
0.613R .

54
2.10.


, ,
.
,
.
SU .

(US )x+dx (US )x = (US )dx .


x

. Sdx
S ( / t )dx .
(US )
S = .
t x
.
(2.8), .
u 1 p
= .
t 0 x

2 (U ) u
S 2 = S = S (
0
U + u ) + ( 0 + ) .
t x t x t t
M 0 = U 0 / c0 << 1, , (U 0 + u )
.
2 u
S 2 = 0S .
t x t
2
, , = p / c0 ,
1 p 1 2 p
S = 0.
S x x c02 t 2
.

55
p( x, t ) = F ( x ) exp(it ).
F
d 2 F 1 dS dF
2
+ + k 2 F = 0, k = / c0 . (2.25)
dx S dx dx
F ,
,
.
2
, Ea ~ A S = const, A ~ 1 S .
1
. A( x) ~ (2.25)
R( x )

C
exp(x ) = F ( x ).
R( x )

S ( x ) = R 2 ( x ), dS / dx = 2RdR / dx, R( x ) = x tg , dR / dx = tg ,
dF 1 dR 1
= 2 + C exp(x ) = 2 C exp(x ) ,

dx R dx R x tg x tg
d 2F 2 dR 2 1 d 2 R dR 1 dR
2

= 3 2 2 2 + 2 C exp(x ) =
dx R dx R dx R dx R R dx
2 2 2
= 3 2 + C exp(x ) .

x tg x tg x tg
1 dS 2
= , (2.25)
S dx x
2 22 2 2 k2
2 + + 2 3 + = 0,
x tg x tg x tg x tg x tg x tg
3

2 + k 2 = 0, = ik .
x0 ,
, , .
x x = x x0 , x x0 .

56
exp( ikx0 ) = const, x x , ,

0c0 exp(it )
p( x, t ) = [A exp( ikx ) B exp(ikx )],
x + x0
x , x0
.

exp(it ) 1 / (ik ) 1 / (ik )
u( x, t ) = 1 + A exp( ikx ) + 1 B exp(ikx ).
x + x0 x + x0 x+x
0

.

2.1. ,
.
.
,
p(0, t ) = 0 = p(l , t ).
sin (kl ) = 0 . ,

c0 n
fn = , n = 1,2,3,...
2l
,
, (. 2.3),
k n = n / l .

2.2. ,
S1 , S 2 .
.

57

1U1S1 = 2U 2 S 2 + dV .
t V 1, 2

.
S1 ( S1 > S 2 ) , l1, 2
,
1 .
1,0 c0 S1 . 1 / t = i1 , / c0 = 2 / ,
1l1,2 / ,
, .
u1 + M 1 1 = 2,0 S 2 (u 2 + M 2 2 ) / (1,0 S1 ).

. ,
1,0 S1u1 = 2,0 S 2u 2 .


P1,0 + 1,0U12,0 = P2,0 + 2,0U 22,0 .
2
c0 = P0 0 ,
( ) (
P1,0 1 + M 12 = P2,0 1 + M 22 , )
P1,0 = P2,0 = P0 .
, c1 = c2 = c0 , 1,0 = 2,0 = 0 .

( 2
P + U df = )
t V
UdV .
1, 2

,
2
. P + U = const , P1 + 1U12 = P2 + 2U 22 .
, ,
2,
p1 = p2 .

58


S1u1 = S 2u 2 .

2.3. ,
, S1 , S 2 ,
Z 0 , Z l .
. (2.14), (2.15).
,
S1 p1 (0, t ) = iY0u1 (0, t ) .
Y0
1 = arctg Y0 , Y0 = .
0c0 S1
S 2 p2 (l2 , t ) = iYl u 2 (l2 , t ) ,
2 = arctg Yl + kl2 .
(. 2.2)
p1 (l1 , t ) = p2 (0, t ), S1u1 (l1 , t ) = S 2u 2 (o, t ) .

tg(kl1 + 1 ) = (S1 S 2 ) tg 2 ,
1 2
.

2.4.
, .
. , V
, .
.
, .
, ,
, .
x ,

. , x = l/

59
.
,
0 Sxc02
pV = c02 = .
V
, ,
SpV , ,
2.8, r f x& .

m&x& = SpV r f x& .
(m = 0lS ),

&x& + rx& + 02 x = 0 ,

r = r f / m , 0 = c0 S l V
.

2.5.
0.05 ,
150 ,
u0 = 1 /, 0 = 1.23 /3, 0 = 343 /.
. ,
2.5.
Z 1
rp = .
Z +1
(.
2.9), ,

1 + i 2
rp = rei 2 = , = 0.005, = 0.087 .
1 + 2
,
1
r= = 0.99 ,
1 + 2
60
2 = arctg(2 ) = 2.97 .
, , ,
(2.7)
A = S Re( pl ) Re(ul ) t .

Re(ul ) = u0 cos t .
S Re( pl ) = Re( Z l ) Re(ul ) .
,

A=
(
0 u0 R 2 )2 = 7.8 103 .
8c0

2.6.
.
: : r = 1, 2 = 0 ; : r = 1, 2 = .

2.7.
, V .
c S 2Yl
: Z l = iYl = i 0 , r = 1, 2 = arctg
V 2 .
Yl 1

2.8.
, 1 , 0.03 ,
3
293 , 29 10 /,
5
1.5 10 2/, 1.4.
: f1 = 165 , = 4.31 -1.

3
2.9. 3 10 2
. ,
61
u = u0 cos t , u0 = 0.5 /, 1.23 /3,
343 /.
2
: A = 0c0 Su0 / 2 = 0.316 .

2.10. 2.3, (2.19),


, , .
: .
S
( )
: ctg(kl1 ) = 1 tg kl2 .
S2

62
3.

3.1.

,
, , .
.


U i= ik ,
t xk
ik = P ik + U iU k
,

. ( )

.
.
ik
ik = P ik + U iU k ik = ik + U iU k ,
.
ik = P ik + ik
, ik
:
1. , ,
, .
ik .
, ik
, .
2. ik ,
[ ]
r rr r
. U = r ,
. ,
r rr
[ ]
U = r ,
U i U k
xk
+
xi
.
r
3. , ik U = const .

63

U i U k 2 U l U l
ik = + ik + ik ,

k x xi 3 xl xl

,
,
, () .
. ,
, .
,
, .
/ xk ,
ik

U i U i P U i U k 2 U l U l
+Uk = +
+ ik + .
t xk xi xk kx xi 3 xl xi xl
(3.1)

. ,
,

r
U r r r r
+ (U )U = P + U + ( + 3)(U ).
t
r
, U = 0 ,

r
U r r r
+ (U )U = P + U ,
1
(3.2)
t
= ,
.

U U
ik = P ik + i + k = P ik + ik . (3.3)
xk xi

64
(3.2) div ,


U i U k
P = .
xk xi

, , , ,
,
, .

r
U = 0 , , .
.
,
r
df ,
ik df k = (U iU k ik )df k = (P ik + U iU k ik )df k .
,
.
r
df k = nk df , n ,
r
U = 0 ,
Fi = ik nk = Pni ik nk , (3.4)
r
F , .
, ,
.


. , ,
,
(nk ik )1 + (nk ik )2 = 0 .
r r
n1 n ,
2

n1 = n2 = n , nk ik(1) = nk ik(2 ) .
r r r

65
3.2.


2
Ek = U dV .
2
E& k ,

U 2 U i
= U .
t 2
i
t
(3.1)

U i U i 1 P 1 ik
= U k + .
t xk xi xk

U 2 r r r r ik

t 2
= U (U )
U U P + U i
xk
=

r U 2 P r U i
= (U ) + + div(U ) ik ,
2 x
k
r
U U i ik .
r
div U = 0 ,
div ,

U 2 rU 2 P r
= div U + (U ) ik U i .
t 2
2

xk
div ,
.
r
( )
U , , ik
, .

U2 rU 2 P r r U i
Ek =
& dV = U + (U ) df ik dV .
t 2 2 x k

66

,
.

(E& k )d = ik U i dV = 1 ik U i + U k dV ,
xk 2 xk xi
ik .
(3.3)
2
U i U k
(E& k )d = + dV ,
2 xk xi
.

3.3.

,
(3.2)
U x U x U x 1 P
Ux +U y +Uz = + U x ,
x y z x
U y U y U y 1 P
Ux +U y +Uz = + U y , (3.5)
x y z y
U z U z U z 1 P
Ux +U y +Uz = + U z ,
x y z z

r
div U = 0 .

3.3.1.

, ,
r
U 0 .
, ,

67
,
. ,
, U y = 0 ,

U x / x = U / x = 0 .

2U
(3.5) P = const = 0 , U = ay + b .
2
y
U = 0 y = 0 , U = U 0 y = h ,
U = U0 y / h ,
. (. 3.1).

(3.3), (3.4)
U x U y U x U

xy =
+ = = = U 0 / h .
y x y y

. 3.1.


x ,
P = P ( x), P / y = 0 .
,
, ,
U y = 0 , .
U / x = 0 , U = U ( y ) , (3.5)

68
2U 1 P
= ,
y 2 x
y , x ,
dP / dx = const ,
.

1 dP 2
U= y + ay + b .
2 dx
: U = 0 y = 0 h a b .

1 dP 1 dP
U= y ( y h), b = 0, a = h.
2 dx 2 dx

(. 3.2), y = h 2

h 2 dP dP
Um = ; < 0.
8 dx dx

. 3.2.

, ,
U h dP
xy = = .
y y =0 2 dx

69
3.3.2.

U / x = 0 , U = U ( y , z ) .
P / y = P / z = 0 , x

2U x 2U x 1 dP
+ = .
y 2 z 2 dx
dP / dx = const = P / l = [P (0) P (l )] / l ,
l .
U = const U = 0 .
.
, ,
1 d dU P
r = .
r dr dr l

P 2
U = r + a ln r + b .
4l
(r = 0 ) , a = 0 .
P 2
b= R , U (R ) = 0, R .
4l

U=
P 2
4l
(
R r2 . )

P 2
Um = R .
4l
(,
)
R P 4
G = UdS = 2 rUdr = R . (3.6)
0 8l

70
3.3.3.

,
, (3.6),
P dP
= .
l dx

dP 8G
= .
dx R 4
,
x.
,
P
=
.
RT

dP 8GTR 1
= .
dx R 4 P
G x.
. 0 l,
16GTR l
P02 2
Pl = 4
;
R
P0 , Pl .

.

3.4.

,

U i U i 1 P
+Uk = + U i + g ,
t xk xi

71
(3.2) g,

r
div U = 0 .
.
,
T , L, U , P .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,

. U ,
, .
, , (U ) 2 ,
.

t = t / T , xi = x / L, U i = U i / U , P = P / P , xk = xk / L .
i

U U i U
+ Uk
( )2
U i
=
P P U
+ U i + g ,
T t L xk L xi L2
U i
= 0.
i xi

L U ( )2 .

U i U i P 1 1
Sh +Uk = Eu + U i + .
t xk xi Re Fr
:
L
Sh = ,
U T
Eu = P / U ( )2 ,
72
Re = U L / ,
( )2
Fr = U / gL .

,
. Sh
, Eu
, ,
, Re , ,
, Fr
. , Sh<<1,
, Fr>>1, .
, Sh, Re, Eu, Fr,
, .
,
. ,
,
Sh=0=1/Fr.
,

P = U 2 , Eu1 = Eu2 = 1 Re1 = (U )1 d1 / 1 = (U )2 d 2 / 2 .
() ,

.

3.5.

(3.2)

(U )U = 1 P + U .
r r r

73
U ( * )2
L , ~ U / L2 .
~ Re . , Re << 1
.
r
U P = 0 . (3.7)

. ,
,
r r
v . v , ,
,
r
v . ,
,

.

r r r
U v = rot A ,
r
rot A .
r r
(3.7) A v .
, ,

r rr
A(r ) = f (r )[n v ],
r
n , f (r )
r r
. f (r )r = f , v = const ,
r r
A = [fv ] .
r r r r r
U = v + rot[fv ] = v + rot rot ( fv ) . (3.8)
(3.7) rot ,
r
rot U = 0 .
r
v = const ,
r r r r
rot U = rot rot rot ( fv ) = (grad div ) rot ( fv ) = rot ( fv ) ,
r r
[r
2 rot ( fv ) = 2 [fv ] = 2fv = 0 . ]
, f

74
2 f = 0 .
2
f = const .
r r
, U v
.
d 2 d (f )
1
2 f = r = 0 , f = 2a / r + c . (3.9)
r 2 dr dr
c , U v
.
1 d 2 d 2a b
f = r ( f ) = , f = ar + + const,
r 2 dr dr r r
const ,
r r
U v f .
b
f = ar + .
r
(3.8),
r r rr r rr r
r r v + n (v n ) 3n (v n ) v
U =v a +b .
r r3
r
U = 0 r = R
r a b r r r a 3b
v 1 3 + n (v n ) + 3 = 0.
R R R R
r
n ,
r r rr
v n (v n ) .

a = 3R / 4, b = R 3 / 4,
3 R3
f = Rr +
4 4r
r r rr r r rr
r 3R v + n (v n ) R 3 v 3n (v n ) r
U = + v.
4 r 4 r3
r
(. 3.3), x v ,

75
. 3.3. (3.10)

3R R 3 3R R 3
U r = v cos 1 + 3 , U = v sin 1 3. (3.10)
2 r 2 r 4 r 4 r
r r
U = 0, U n = 0 (v n , n n ) . (3.8)
r r r r

(3.7)
r r r r
grad P = U = rot rot ( fv ) = (grad div( fv ) v f ) .
2
f = 0, v = const ,
r r
grad P = grad( div( fv )) = grad(v grad f ) ,
r
P = P0 + v grad f ,
P0 . (3.9)
rr
3 vn
P = P0 2 R . (3.11)
2 r
( ,
, , ).
r
v
r
r . , F
r
v ,
.
, ,
(3.4)
Fi = ik N k ,

76
r r
N k , nr .
, , U = 0 ( )

u r
rr = P + 2
= P + rr
r
1 U r U U
r = + = r .
r r r

r r r r
rr nr = Gn , r n = Gt .
, r
rr
.
r
v . ,
, .
:
r r r r r r
rr nr nv = rr nr v / v = rr cos ; r n nv = r sin .
, ,
F = ( P cos + rr
cos r sin )r = R df .
, (3.10),

( rr )r = R = 0; ( r )r = R = 3v sin .
2R
(3.11)
3v
P r = R = P0 cos .
2R
3v 3v 2
F = P0 cos + cos 2 + sin df .
2 R 2 R
, P0 cos df = 0 .
2
4 R ,

F = 6Rv .
.

77

,
.
Re << 1 .
r r
( )
U U ,
r r r r
, U v (v )U .
r
, v = const
r r
(vr )U = 1 P + U .

(C.W.Oseen).

,
3 Rv
F = 6vR1 + .
8

. , Rv / = Re << 1
.

3.6.


,
. ,
(
). ,
,
, , .
Re >> 1 ,
,

, .
,
.

78
, U y << U x ,
x.
U x U x 1 P 2U x 2U x
Ux +U y = + + , (3.12)
x y x x
2
y
2

U y U y 1 P 2U y 2U y
Ux +U y = + + (3.13)
x y y 2
y
2
x

U x U y
+ = 0. (3.14)
x y

1
U x ~ U , U y ~ U , P ~ U , ~ << 1, Re = U L / .
Re

L x
y, / L ~ .
2
(3.12). U L ,
U x / x ~ U x / x ~ U / L , U x
2
U . L / U . ,
, ~ ,
1.
,
U x U x 1 P 2U x
Ux +U y = + .
x y x y 2

(3.13) L / U 2 . :
2 2 3
~ , ~ , ~ 1, ~ , ~ .
,

P
= 0.
y

79
, .
P = P ( x), P / x = dP / dx,
,

1 dP dU
P + U 2 2 = const = U .
dx dx

U x U x 2U x 1 dP dU
Ux +U y = = U (3.15)
x y y 2 dx dx
(3.14), .

U x = U y = 0 y = 0 , U x = U y . (3.16)
.

3.7.


( 0 x < +) ,
1908 . (. 3.4).

. 3.4.

U = const , (3.15)

U x U x 2U x
Ux +U y = .
x y y 2

80
U
=y (3.17)
x

= xU f ( ).


Ux = , Uy = ,
y x
(3.14) .

f
Ux = = U f ( ),
y
(3.18)
U f 1 U 1 1 U
Uy = + xU f y = (f f ).
2 x 2 x 2 x
3
2

,

2 f + f f = 0 ,
, (3.16)
f = 0 = f = 0; f = 1 = .
. >> 1
f ( ) = , = 1.72 . (3.19)

(3.18). 3.1 , U x
U .

. 3.1.

U x U
2 0.65
3 0.85
4 0.97
5 0.99
6 0.999

81


U y = 0.86U .
xU
, , ,
, .

, U x
U . ,
, U x U
y . , ,
, U x = 0.99U , 1 (3.17)

= 5 x U .

,
(. 3.5).
,


(U U x )dy .
0

. 3.5.


, ~ U
, ,

82
U

= 1 x dy .
0 U
(3.17), (3.18),

= x U (1 f )d = x U [ f ( )]

.
0
(3.19)
= 1.72 x U .
, ,

U U 3
xy = x = f (0).
y x
y =0

<< 1 f ( ) a 2 2 ; a = 0.332 .
U 3
xy = 0.332 .
x
L

L
F = 2 xy dx = 1.328 LU 3 .
0

( )
C = F 2 LU 2 2 ,
,

C = 1.328 Re .

3.8.

3.8.1.

. 3.6 ,
. K

83
, .
, ,
, ,
.
,
, , ,

(. 3.7).

. 3.6.

. 3.7. :
,

,
,

84
1 dP dU
= U .
dx dx
,
2, dP dx > 0 .
,
. . ,
,

( 4). ,

, .

. .

1 dP 2U x
= .
dx 2
y y =0
01, (
dP / dx < 0 , 2U x y 2 )y=0 < 0
U x ( y )
y. 12 . , dP / dx > 0,
U x ( y ) ( 2).
, , (U x / y ) y =0 = 0
( 3),
.

3.8.2.

1,
2 (. 3.8).
,
.
, ,

85
.
,
,
.
,
.
,

x0 = 0.0575r0 Re ,
r0 , Re = 2U 0 r0 / .

. 3.8.

3.1. R P0 .
G .
, 2 .
. ,
, (. 3.3)
R R 4 P
G = 2 U (r )rdr = .
0 8 l
,
P .
P( x) = P0 xP / l .
P ( x) = P0 / 2 .
,
86
R 4 P0
x= .
16G

3.2. l , d ,
h , .
dP / dx = a , .
.
. , 3.3,

U a
= (h 2 y ) .
y 2
,
3.2,
2
U a 2ldh 3
Ed = dV = .
2 y 24

3.3. l , R ,
P0 , Pl , 0 ,
, .
. 3.3 ,

dP 8G
= 4
.
dx R

= 0 (P / P0 ) .
1


1
dP 8G P0

= .
dx 0 R 4 P
0 l ,

87
0 R P0 Pl
+1
4 1

G= 1 .
8( + 1)l P0

3.4. ,
, .
.

8
C= 2
.
U
SP
2Rl ,
RP
= .
2l

, , 3.1.
, , G = SU .
,
4 U
= .
R
,
64 2U R
C= , Re = .
Re

3.5. P0 , 0 ,
U 0 . ,
.
.
, .
. .

88
U 02 U1 2
P1 = P0 1 .
2 U 0


: US = const . ,
, U 0 .
, (. 3.8.),
U1 = 2U 0 . ,

P1 = P0 3U 02 / 2 .

3.6. ,
, l , R ,
P0 , Pl .

=
: rz
(P0 Pl )R .
2l

3.7. U r ,U ,
r
U (. 3.5).

3.8.
, U m ?
: U = U m / 2 .

3.9. 0.06
0.05
5
( = 1.5 10 2/) 0.4 /.
: C = 0.033, = 2.4 .

89
3.10. ,
.
34
: C = .
Re

90
4.

4.1.

1883 . , ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
.
, ,
.
,

Re = U d / 2 103 , U , d
. Re Re
,
.
, 0 (
) 1 ( ). ,
, ,
.
,
,
,
.

,

Re , , Re = U / 2000 . ,
.
.
,

91
.
, , .

,
.
() ,
,
.
. ,
.
U
U
. U
.
,
U .
.
,
, ( ~ l ).
~ U
l . ~ U / l ,

.
,
.
Re = v /
, v , .
Re Re ,
, ,
. Re ~ 1
,
.

92
. ,

.

.
,
U l.

~
(U )3
, [ ] =

=
2
; U ~ U . (4.1)
l 3
~ U l ,
(2/)
,
Ul Ul
~ Re, Re ~ ~ .


~ (U / l )2 ,

.
, U , l
. ,

(U )2 ~ P .

.
,
l , 0 , ,
. ,
,
.

v ~ ( ) ,
1
3
(4.2)

93


.

v << T ~ l / U .
,
~ U . = U ,
v ~ (U ) .
1
3

,
U ,
v ~ ( ) .
1
2

0 ,
,
.

v U v ~ ( )
4
3

4
3
1
3

Re ~ ~ ~ Re ,
.
l
1
3
~ (U ) / l
3l
(4.1), (4.2) Re ~ 1 ,

0 ~ l Re .
3
4

, ,
,

( 3
0~ / . ) 1
4

0
.

4.2.

-
.
, .
, U x = U , U y = U z = 0 , y

94
, .
y . ,
, x .
x - ,
y
( ik = U iU k ik , U i = U k = 0 ).
, .
.
,
.
Re >> 1 , ,
.

, y.

1 1 dU
= , [ ] = a = H / 2 .
y dy
2
, = v ,
dU v
= , (4.3)
dy y
, 0.4,
.
(4.3),
v
U= ln y + c . (4.4)

c
y = 0 , (4.4) . ,
y ( ).
~ y0 .

~ y0 , ~ v , (4.4),
Re ~ y0 v / . Re ~ 1, y0 ~ / v .

95
y << y0
, (3.3)
dU v2
= , U = y= y.
dy
, ,
.
2
, y = y0 U = U c , U c = v y0 / ,
. y0 = / v , U c = v

v 1 v
c = v ln = v ln ln .
v v

U 1 yv 1 1 yv
= ln + ln = ln ln .
v
.
( )
U yv
= 2.5 ln y y0 . (4.5)
v 0.13
()
.
U yv
= 5.75 log + 5.1 .
v
,
, ,
4 10 3
3 10 6 .

,

96
1 1

y r
n n
U
= = 1 ,
U m r0 r0
U m , r .
n = 6 Re = 4 103 ,
n = 7 Re = 105 ,
n = 10 Re = 3 106 .

4.3.

l , r0 ,
P = P1 P2 , P1 P2
, .
r02 P , 2r0l , = v2 .
,
Pr0
v = .
2 l
v (4.5), y y0 r0
.

4r0 P
C=4 2
= 2
,
U U l

2
,
.

r 0
U = 2 Urdr r02 . (4.6)
0
= CU 2 / 8 ,
2
= v ,

97
2 2v = U C . (4.7)
(4.5) (4.6), (4.7)

1
C
( )
= 2 log Re C 0.8, Re =
U 2r0

.

C ,
.

C = 0.3164(Re) ,
1
4

5
Re << 10 .
,
(.
3.4)
C = 64 / Re .

4.4.

:
, ,

. ,
. ~20%
~75%
,
~80%
.

. (4.5)
y =
v v
U= ln , (4.8)
a
U = U , a .

98
,
d / dx .
,
,
, (. 4.1).
.
,
~ U y / U x ~ v / U , - ,
, ~ v ,
(. , U ~ U c ~ v ).
d v v x
~ ~ .
dx U U

. 4.1.

(4.8),
vv2 x
U = ln . (4.9)
bU

2
2 2 v2 v
Cx = 2
= = 2 .
U U 2 U

v Cx
= .
U 2
(4.9),

99
2 C Re
= ln x x , Re x = Ux / .
Cx 2b
. .
,
(
)
C x = 0.0576(Re x )
1
5


( x ) = 0.37(Re x ) x .
1
5

,
,
x.

C = 0.148(Re ) , Re = UL / ,
1
5

4.5.

(. 4.2)
Re = Ud / , d .

3
C = 24 / Re Re 5 10 .
4 5
C. 2 10 1.5 10
. Re >> 1
. U , , d .

F ~ U 2 d 2 F = const U 2 S , S (
) .
.
4F
C= 2
= const .
U S / 2

100
. 4.2.


,
.
,
,
C.
5 5
1.5 10 2.5 10 .
, 45 .
,
C .

, .

4.6.

,
. .
,
,
.
(. 4.3, ) ,
, , ,
.

101
. 4.3. , :
;

(. 4.3, ) ,
, .
,
. ,
, ,
.
. D ,

.
,
.
Y1 Y2 XZ OC
OD .
,
.
Y1 = x tg 1, Y2 = x tg 2 ,
.
1 2
, .
.

102
, ,
1 = 5o , 2 = 10o ,
,
.

.
30 .
P1 P2 = 0.003U12 ,
U1 , P1 , P2
.
,

.
, ,
( ) (. 4.4).

R( x) = x tg . (4.10)

. 4.4. ,


, ,
, .
2 25o .

103
r
U x (r , x ) = U 0 ( x ) f ,
R ( x )
U 0 , r . f = 0.5
r / R = 0.4 , 0.01.
( , U x )
0.025 U 0 ,
.

.
2 2
~ U 0 , ~ R ,

~ U 02 R 2 . (4.10)
1
U0 ~ , (4.11)
x

.

Gm ~ U 0 R 2 , (4.10), (4.11) Gm = const x .
Gm ~ G0 ( ),
const ~ G0 / r0
Gm = G0 x / r0 ,
, .
r0 , 1.5 .
,
.

104

4.1.
0.01 , 1
370 , 1.23 /3,
1.5 105 2/.
.
,
ln = ln ,
= 0.13, = 0.4 .
= 0.14 . ,

yc = 0.14 / v , U c = 0.14v .
, 4.3,
RP
v = = 1.5 /.
2 l
,
,
yc = 1.4 10 6 , U c = 0.21 /.

4.2. , ( = 1.5 105 2/,


= 1.23 /3) 0.01 15 /
1.3 140 .
.
.

2n 2
1
2U m R r n

U = 2 1 rdr = mU m , m = .
R 0 R (n + 1)(2n + 1)
,

Re m = 2 RU m / = 2 104 . n = 6, U = 0.79 U m = 11.85 /.

105
v , 4.1
0.66 /.

C = 8(v / U )2 = 0.025 .

5
4.3. ( = 1.5 10 2/, = 1.23 /3)
0.02 , 5 0.03 /.
,
.
. ,
G 2R U
U = , Re = = 51784 .
R 2
n = 6, m = 0.79
U m = U / 0,79 = 24.6 /.

C = 0.3164(Re ) = 0.021 .
1
4

, ,
4.2,
2
lC U
P = = 609 .
4R

4.4.
0.1 0.2
5
( = 1.5 10 2/),
30 /.
. ,
4.3
( x) = 0.37(Re x ) x = 5.6 103 .
1
5

(.
4.3)

106
x = cx U 2 / 2 .
,

2L
F f = x dx .
L0

2F f 2L
C= = c x dx .
U 2 L0
C = 0.0576(Re x ) ,
1
5


C = 0.144(Re ) , Re = 2U L / .
1
5

C = 0.0095 .

107

1. .. p / .. , .. .
.: , 2003. 731 .
2. .. / .. .
.: , 2003. 840 .
3. . / . ; . .. .
.: , 1974. 711 .
4. / . .. , .. .:
, 1996. 336 .
5. .. : 2- .:
/ .. . 5- ., . . : ,
1991. 597.
6. .. .
: , . / .. . , 2006.
164 .

108

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