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B ramet cayvae erepacem pasGumactes na jiea yuacma, B npesesiax nepporo ysaciKa MbiCsIeIIIO PAcceyeM CTePAEIte na awe acm Hopaaisnm cevenem (pac. 2.4, 6, 8) F=22KH q=2A xH/« RG a #9 essay jefe HeKOTOpHM aliauiTMIecKIINE 76) So! i a Puc. 2.4 Hanpasiiesot upoxoasssix cw (pic. 2.4, 6 ~ 2) upmost # upeasionoxcesns, #10 OHM aBLOIeA pacturuBAIOUsE (1 € onoxtrrestnbivil), Ect peaysmiare pacuera auavemte Nj NOAy4HIeA CO s1aKOM aMHMyEy, TO 910 Gy;ler OBNANAT, IO R aelicminresnioent erepaceth # 910M cesent Ea Tlckomsky oe wacH cTepAnE sBAmoTEa panvonpanmna, To Nj a Meppom yuactKe B cevetM, onpereTteMon. Koopitiatoli 21, MoxkHo onperleninm paceMarpinas panHionecue ero mpazolk (pu, 2.4, 0) nHG0 neBoik (pie. 2.4, 4) HacTel B namieat eayuac sia onperereums N} npednownumeniee pacemorpers pasuosecHe npasolt wen — x eli mpieromeno Monniue cit (pie. 2.4, 6). Hasso Koopssniar COBMEMIZEM € LPABKIM KOHIIEBBIM CeNeHHEN Hepuoro yuacrKa, Och Z HaMpaBiiseNt natexo. 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B o10M curyuse HOMMYWTCA UpHAIEMOM HexaBEMMOCTH elleTRHX CHM, M KOsIEKIE HepopMaILI pAceMaTpIAKOT KAK CYMMY cILIOROI HL ‘eweparypuoit zepopaau grat 29) rae @ — Kox)dinutetr TexcnepatypHioro pacmmupenma warepHaa; ¢ —nepemat Temrepatypst Tera, Jas omHopoRHOrO cTepAILa, HarpyakeiIoTo Mo KOMLAM MpoAOABIINN cHAaMH PH paBHOMEpHO HarpeTOTO MO ATM, HOAyUHNE PL l= Fy tlt. @10) Tlomenyuansian snepeun dedopmayuu Bieasenee cw, MpiLIONeHIe X YUpYTOMY TeXy H BAIENRAIOLLME HEMeHEHMIE FeOMe:pHE Tea, CoREPILAKOY paGory HY a coomermylouax nepemeuenix. OWORpeMeHNO ¢ 9TAM R YpYFOM Tee NaxAILUMRAeIeX OTEMUAIKHAR oHEPCH FO Rehopwmporamie U. Tipit nciicrsim umansnieckix AEM HAFpySOK “CTR paGoTM ANUMUK CHI mpempaMacrex R kiientiecxylo aHeprivo ZRMxCHHA HacTaK Tea K. TIpAAR aueprentiecKoe COCTOsHIAE CHETEM! HO MOMENTS AeiCTRI sax CHI PADHBIM Hs, MB YCAIOBHAX OTLYTETANR paCceTmAINIA oHeprimt, ypanKeNe GaNaNca oMeprHN MORHO 3aIDNCaTH B caeayroutest site: WeU K. 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W =05P-AL @15) B cxow ouepous, Korma saupaxciuat & H sepopaaua © pacupexetensi uo oGsemy re1a TY panuoscpuo (Kak paveniarpreaewow caysae)noTeMgaNbayto DHEpHOsepopMPOREHIA CTEPAKA MOAHO TAIHCATS BRIE v=v{ ode. 2.16) U=at| Fede = 05Aiee? =0,5caai = 05Pat, @an ze, uosmepacieus cupasciniusoct (2.12). > yuetox (2.8) osOPOAHOTO CTEPAN € NOCTORKOM HOTepESHIM COHEMMEN H MPH = const Hs (2.17) noxyHO: PL Uae (2.18) Kjuniuitel ie tepeni noreimurarsiol! oxeprim jepopsaiuan sastieres THM = Lhe Hanpsennoe u decbopmupogatHoe cocmosnue npu pacmaxexuu u ckamuu crepacne, Onpexeme narpexcini, sosiaaroutNe na HeKoTOpOi MaKro‘oi momaaKe, cocTaBnMoMIct yron « ¢ 1I0CKOeTHO HopManbHoro ceyeHus (pe, 2.10, a). is yenonin 3 2 = 0, samcanoro iim orecteno act crepacix (pic. 2.10, 6), noaynn PA, = 04, @a9) rae A= noma nonepewore cewermu crepacia, Ag = A/cosa ~ nomen ankromioro cevemia. Hs (2.19) nerko yeranosie: procosa. 2.20) Packrasnibor monpmxcinie p no wopstant t Kacarcruoit x naxnomioitrtomanke (pus. 2.10, 9), © yreto% (2.20) ony peosa = acos*a; tT, = psina = OSosin2a, (2.21) “) 4 o a 3 Puc, 2.10 Tloxyxermnie aupexemin HoKashinalor, 0 201% oxo‘ Ht TOH ake TOUKH TENA RECHNIENIA HaNpOKeKEH, ROSHKALONLNK R cevemun, npoxoAM Sepes Ty TOHKY, 3aBHeST OT opHeHTarunH ITOH MnomaNKa, Te. oT yrsa a. Tp a = O we (2.21) exeayer, so Gg =0.%, =O. Thu @= 2/2, Te. 1m KpORONKHNIK TOMAR, oe pacrinyroro crepaus He msamvouciicmyior apyr ¢ apyrom. Kacaressaic HaMpAxcHa T= UpHENEMGIOT HAMOONSINN SHOE pH = 5/4, is nema cocraBIMET Tce = ¢/2. BOxWO o2MenAt, 10 [rz] = |Teyq/ay} CHEXORATENBHO, B mOGOMK ToNKe Texa Ha ABYX BSaINHO HIEPICNCUMKYApHEAK ILIOMAUIKAK KACATEMHBIC HANDARCHI pABH MCAAY COBOH Ho abcomomOlt semeaEEC. Dro Yenonue smsAetex oGite 2aKoHoMepHOETHO sNOGOTO HaNpHxEHMOTO COCTOMIN H NOCHT NasRaKe JaKoNa napuocmu te =0. D1 ostmsaer, 1 npostonsiisie exon Kacamenounx nanpaacenuit. Tenepe nepelitem & anlaney aebopMand pacpmyToM crepe, HaGmoeHh NoKasMIRAIOT, S10 ero YAIMHEHHE B "npononsitow Hanpan.teume conposoxtaeTex TpOMlopIHOKAMTsIGIN YMeHMIeEHeM TlonepesiX pasMepoR cTepAxtex (pH. 2.11) eam oGosnar: respounuenmen yaccona. Benwma j. anncra saxvoi sapsmnprcmnok Mapran omer oxcrpinemanso je pean warn je pmnar sem. 045 [s = Hl L a-sa Puc. 2.11 Tpu pacwoxerne crepacin BOSMMKAIOT He TO:ISKO mee, Ho H yrAOBHIE AEpopaNTH, Pacemorpio npsmoit yron ABC (prc. 2.12, a), oGparonaininil owpeskanit AB AC, w nexeopMnpoRanioM coctosi, AS-COSO. Puc. 2.12 Tipu pacroxcram crept torn 4, 8 1 C saiiuyr nonoxeme A¢, B¢, Cf coomeremenno, Benn Ye= £BAC — 2A'B'C rasnmaeTes yraonoii nedopManntel HME YFIORINE EBHTOM B TONKE A. Cossecim ToukH A H Ag H paceMoTpHM BSaMMHOE pacTionOxeHME ompesKoR ABH ABE (pue. 2.12, 6). Ha sT0m peynKe onteniaM scromoraremimie Toskn KH LW npamyio n, nepnewurKysizpryio ompesxy A¢B¢. Hs prc. 2.12, 6 nmeew: cons Rg! 1B fsanep = cone = aR ommyad € YHETOM Eggs =F MOAI BL $ASsina: wepascre 22 JL onpenenena «, enpoekmapyert stowanyio BLB'A’ a ock 1 ASsinw, = BLcos(a + wz) + LB'sin(a + w,), omkyna, yurambas MaMIOCTS YFATa Wz, Te. SiN, ¥ Wg, COSW, * 1, nomyuME Bicosa + LB’ sina = (223) B pesysprae Cooweenmoro paceworpons (2.22) (2.28) nonyam = ZO + sina. Omysa We.) =- 50 + sina. Cacnonareatia, ¥~ = Wy £0 +Wsina. 028) ConoeTan:i84 BRIpaxeHHe Vg € BRIPAKCHHEM THe (2.21) OKOHVaTETRHO MORySDK 3aKOH T'yka Jum e7tBHTa: yep (@25) ve reno = —£— nnuaaeres modem ebeuce wa sods ynpyevema Mamepuana emopoco pods Pacyembi Ha npoyHocmb u KecmKocms Mpu pacmsKenuU-cKamUU Ocnosnoit sazavelt pacueTa Kouctpyxumia anactea oGeeneucime ee Gesonacholt sxcrayaraiau, Buawiciinos yeroButes, oGecresmmaiouln Gesonaciyio 9KeMAYaTaNNMO KOHCTPYKIM, ARIAETER YouloRHE MpoNocTA, CylecTayiOT passin oGecrevera mpounocm KoneTpyKnIe, Mbt same Bcero GyreM Nomsomamses On HS 3X MeTOROR — pacteToM m0 onyexaemsim Haupexesia. CoriacHo s1oMy MeTOAy Jin KOHeTpyxuMil, paGoTuOUUK HA pacDUKeHKe-cAATHE, YCHIOBHE UUPOSHOCTH, COCTARIIEHHOE JUIK ONIACHOTO CeHEHIIA, MOAHO 2AIKICATe B TAKOM RHE! [ol = Gcem (2.26) € Mero Ie Oper ~ MaxCHMaanitoe Hanpancene & KoueDpyKivuy [o] — xapaKrepnEMKA MarepwIa, naskiaeMan donycKaeMuLN nanpaowcenuen. Tlonyexaemoe tanpaoxermie naxomtarex no ‘bopayae lol= @27 THE Gaye: — NOXEIBHOC HANPHACHHE, UPH AOCTIKeHHM KOTOPOTO H CTEPAHE HACTYIReT npedereNoe cocmoanue Mamepuana: WosBAMOTA WICTIecKHE AeopMALN, ecu MatepHAA CTEpEI — mAcTINM, HI HpONexomT paspymrenme, cos erepacetewAIOsHEN WE XPY"KOFO MaTepHaNa; 1 ~ HOPMUyeNI KoDdpIAgLENT zaaca NposHOCT Kpome opayau (2.26), nosmoxen szopofi napiaier yexosza npounoe mt Mater 2 2, 228) xr] THE Magers = HashBacTes JJeHCTENTEMSHSIM KOxpMUNEHTOM SAllAc4 UPOYOCTH, HOKASSISAIOUNOL BO CKONBKO pas HAO yseuIeHNTS MaKCHMaNAHOE HANPOKCHHE B CTEPKHE, HTOOM MATEPHAN CTEPAHA OKAIAICH # ONIACHOM (IIpesIEIBHOM) COPTORHIAA ‘Yerosue MpouHocT# B SaBHCHMOCTE OT EAH HOCTABALKHOH SANANH HOSBOAKET BHINOTENT, PacvieTM Ha MpOMHOCTS ABYX iOR: Hpoeknist x upoRepoUnn, JLIA CUPOEKINPORAKNOTO CTEPKIN MOTO TAKE OMELET ONYERAEMYIO HarPYSKY. Upoekmuwd packem sssoawmuor c yeswio oupesenewer pasMepox Nouepesubr ceveUNl aHeNeHTA KOHCTPYKUN UUpH accra paGorne HarpysKax 1 Marepite (AorlyeKaeMBX Kanpmkei). Thioctaste Honepetioro ceveKHs oMpesenAIOT Hs BRIpARCHIA Tol * ‘Popma cevenvl CTepAHA He RIIIKET Ha ero IIPONHOCTe IPH pactoKeHH (cxxaTMA). PopMy CexeHIA CTEPAKHN HEOBXOAIHMO SHAT TomBKO ans onpesieTeHHg pasMepos CeveHIKE MPH WsBeCTHOM sHaseNIH rLTOMaMH ‘hax iwiomane CevenHs 1 ero HhopMy, saxo. pasmepst CexeK Mpoeeporuma pacuem ssuiouumnor ja cupoeempowanuol KONETPYKIVM € \eAKIO UPoREpKH ee NpOLNoE TK, Lp Az (2.30) nponepowiom pacers xo:nxts Sirs HEReCTHM MAONLUAD ONKACHOTO CeUeMA, MaKpysKA H MacepHAN (NONYEKAEMOE HUIPARCIHE) Tipoxeposmit pacver ssimomaator no gopmyze (2.26). Onpedenenue donyckaemow mazpy2ku js capockmponaimoro ewe KoNeTpyxIwMl, pasMcput tioncpeaoro covets Koroporo M MEpiRaT (oKeKAeMRe HaNpxctuta) REcMIM, YeuoBie MposUtocMt & 0M cayiee ammcuaior# ate WWI < [ola 31) ‘3nax suavexe [N], onpezenstor zonyexaewyio warpyany [Pl “Tax kak jonyexaesnie nanpaxeimor ne wMeIoT TOMNOTO strateINA, a BuAGHpaIoTeA NpuGmnKer, TO npH NpoBepoHNON Pacvere MaxcHMankiie paSoune HANPRKEHIA MOLyT UPeRMuaTS AONYCKAEMME Ha 5%, Tlo 3TOH xe LPHEHE MOXHO OKPyrn Tonysemme B pacueTEX shaveIMNA MAOMaRH oMactor nonepeworo ceveumA su AOMYeKaeMOlt MapyskH TAK, TOG NakenManite HampaxcinA oTHNaANEE oF aoAycKacMEN He Goree eM ne 5%, Tlo sToit KC Mpieutie OKIE ORDYEIATS THoayseHNBe B PACHeTIX IHANEHVIX TOMA OMACKOTO TINePENHOTO CeYEMM TN AOMYCKAeMOH MarpysKH Ta, TOGH akcnansule Haupexcw OFUPIAIIC® OF iONYCKAMIX He Gozee est 1a 5% Tpit mpoekmmponantan oueMertTox KotiespyKUMil c1peMATeR CsleNaTe HX RO RCEX CeNENAX paeHompown sau Pacemorpetmbie Tpit Bia PACHeTOR 1m MPOIHIOCTE MOKHO BRINOMILATE He TOAKKO MpH PACTAACIMM HAH CHITIN, a TPH sioGom sate nebopmaui (cosure, Kpyeinm, HsrHGe) TIpH mMpocktaporania cTpOHTEAKHKIX KOHeTPYKIM pacteT Ha Npo‘WiocTs CTATKHKIX ac1eMeHTOR, rTostRep:xeMKIX Sempanatony pectmxcumo mt extemno, exeayer sumomura no popuyze o=TS Rye 232) An rae Ye~ Konduyuenm yeroeuis paGomss, upmnvaessit wo CHHIT (eM, raGs.2.1) son pyre HOPMAN. Ta6inana 2.1 ‘DaeMeims KoneTpYKIVAH Ye Koionnr oGujcemscnaax saul onop sojowanopHux Game 0,95 YueMerma cxepaxKHERBIX KOHETPYKKURI HoKPHTUAK HL HepeKpErT: 2) eAxarbIx MpH pacuerax Ha yeToisMBOCTE 0,95 8) pacrmnyrax R eRApH KONCTPYEIOAX 0,95 Crome coctastnte Gasikn, KOON, HecyuUE CraMteCKy¥o HarpysKy 4 ssuuomsenme ¢ soMouisio Gomtostx coesuuiewul, upu pacuerax ua upowHoe Ts 1 (Cestentot npokaTiinix H CRapHMIX SHeMeHTOR, HECYIMUIX CTETIECKYHO HAIPYIRY, "Npn pacteTax ria npostiocTs 4 Coxaite steNens us OMOWNAIX yroIKO, UpuKpewbIxeMBe Oxo HONIKOH 0,75 Tipunevanue: B enyvasx, He OroBopeNBMX B HACTORIIX HOpMAX, B PopMyzax cxeAyer MpHNMATE Ye = JUna xpynsix expomrenitax Marepuasion yesORIA NpoUHIOC TH pHMMAIOT BIE: Mpa pac oxen ou ‘Scams Sotme = Te S$ Oxtmes etme = (233) THC Code I Cadme — HOUYCKAEMBIC HAUPHKCHIOL IPH PACDOKCHIMK H CHKANU My HU Me — HOPMAMBHEIC Ko>dppraNeEKT sarraca nposoent no omottermo K upexe:ry upoxtoctH (1p, e>1). Jaa vemnpaanno exarax Geronnix saeNentor Gopmysa (2.33) sanncmmacten w wine: = Zs aky, 234) Pe a Kovpipuntest, upmamaemsait sy14 Gerona DoKeHOre, MenkosepmneToro H serKoro paumns 1,00; su0E sueHeTOrO aproxiasHoro— 0,85; JuuK weueTOPO HeasTOKIaBHOTO — 0,75. B uexorops cnysasx paGoTocuocoGHoeTs =ueMeHTa KONCTPYKUNM ONPEAEETE He TOLISKO eF0 HPOYKOCTO, HOH acecmkocmsio, Te. cHocoGHocmHo sneMeHa BOCHPMEMAT HarpYSKH Ges MegouyenaNX yupyrix xetopmaundt Tp PACHETaX Ha -KECTKOCT ONPEENOT MAKCHMAIKHNIE HePeMEUIENH ceNeHM H CONKCTARIMIOT IK ¢ jOMyCKAEMRINIE Hepemente1usns Yoronne xkecTKocTH, orpanisimaromce HEMeHeNHe LTH STeMeNTa, MMeeT c-enyToMi OGM RN: ars (ai, rae Al - usstercre pasMepos tera, [00] - aonyexsenas nessa sToro wsMenemt Yourisas, so upy pacoxenmm (cxamM) aGcoOMOe yaxnMeKHe ¥ OGuIEM sue OUpeeMeTes KAK axreGpanuecKas cymaa pewweumt Al no yuactKant ay fs, 2.35) Yyenonne mcemoer! mpm pac ooxcron (Caan) saris cnenyrOMn Opa NG)dz| ww =| [FS ] dno = [ Yesronue akecTKOCTH UpH HeIIpAHOM pac DHReNHH-C ATA: ant < fel are = 83-10% a, 0,032. = 3,2ex. Bapaxaen 1 upesessHoro HepaseHe ma IpeOyeMyio Hs YCuIOBIGN AECIKOCTH 1LIONIGts HOTEPEAHOTO CeseHI 2O00N 2000 +04 9g 9-5 we? = 000% a2 Ang == pF +108 m= 0,001 oF Tpramerp croiikn 13 yononna xeerKocM OUpEREnHM 110 opMy:te: ¥ fs-0.008 dng = Ave Fag = 00036 = 3.6 en, Oxontarexsno npummaent ie Byx jHaNerpon Sob, d=3,6 em Mpumep 7. Onpeacsim. rpysonommennoens it yaaumterice Gank, ecam R=160 MMs ; Pacwerias exema Gpyca H oitlopa npoxOBHIAIX CHLt HEOUpaRKeNH! Ha PAC. 2.15) 2 ew?; B= 2-105 Mila, I Pewenue. Tpysonodvennocms Gpyea ~ m0 MaKcMaitsitn HarpySKA, KOTOPYIO OH MOET BAIREPIKAN he paspyniaven, Taxa oGparom, HeOBXosIMO OLpEseIIAT TpeBVEMyIO HarpYSkY ee YeNORIL TpOHHOCTE of < Rum —— NJ = 4000 + 308 » (4.5 +6.04 + 4,) = 4000 + 308 -(10,54+ 4.) [nz Bamenmaem Ax qperseli crynem yesOBHe MpowloCTH, Ms KOTOPOTO NO alaAOrHH c mMpeABAyHUNM samHCsNE onpestextem TpeSyemyto nutouats rlonepeunore covert OsneM Kreuk MoeToROMT onops! ZU BTOPOTO Rap ONpELeMeTeA BLIPAKEHUEM: Ving = +¥; +¥, = ALA, +4; +4,] = 14145 + 604 + 8:12] = 261,200, ‘Taxioe oGpason, socroeda onopa, cocromIan 18 eryTEKCi pasmummol nome, auTOHINC To pacKony Mapua, eM onopa nocroximire no nce wuicoTe ceuetia Npumep 10. Onperezim, nosnioe yaamenne cTepaa, ¢ yueTOM coGeTEHKOrO Reca, a TaOKE NepememTeHHe cevema Mn, Toman onepeworo cetenax — A, Moxy.ts yupyroct — E, oGnemusili wee Matepuaiia - y. Pactemas cxema ctepais usoGpameH Ha ue. 2.23, ir} is Pue.2.23 Pewenue. ‘Ana pemeuna sana venomsyen npmimn nesagucuMoctA melicTeHs CH, a HMeIMO: OTRETEHO TocTpOHM snKOpKE pouoKHAIX cH oF AcHieTHHN cocpeHoTAeHHOH cHIs FM OT xeHemHA coGeTEHHOrO Keca, TO cc OT paEHOMepHO pacupenextemoi! uposomuoit narpysxit q = y+ A Pacuemmas cxema u smopsr uposousmemx cit Np u NV, wsoGpaxemst 1a pic 2.23. Tonos ysmeme crepawa At Syser cxnaauisamer 1 ystems, noayuenioro crepxueM or eiicmu cocpeaorotenoi cts F'n or alters cose menoro nec AL= Aly + Al. Vian 8 apyrow anne: . Nprlp, Ne-lg_FQ+e) y-ACatb+ +0 “ra * ea 2A va+b+o E ‘Jaa 10r0, 10681 onpejieitims Hepeweilienne Coens m-n OIGPACHIBAEN HACTs CTEPAHNL 1inKe CeMENI mn, a ee elicmEHE sancenmtem coepesow enol ew0H F’, pasnoii npoxommoi cwre 8 coven m- FE Nyon =F + (4D). B poylsin mone tony pecsenyo oxy, rp paren a pc. 224, (wp) Oy te A-reneps pemmaen Honyto samaHy 0 HaxoxkeMKN NoMHOrO YATINEHHE Al, YRE LA AaHHOTO crept (pHe. 2.23) Blan = Mans! + Slane : a Nader NeTIE" + Cat dle yan? mega * OEA EA Ea Fre. yee(ath) yee? E+ 2° Komnosumueiii 6pyc Bpye, coctomiit 18 pAsimPMX MeTepHION, sMaSKBACTEX KoMMONUMHsEN, ByZcM osm, “10 cossmHeHe arepnasios no Boel imme Gpyca oBecnesusaer wx comxecTHyto paSory. [Ip OM ceveina ocTaoTEA nnoeKen, @ selma eopwaiua omersioro Boroxim pastosepnaa, “roGor coxpanim smi npeAnOTOAiM ZAR TOPLCELIK couch, HArPySKY MoxHO OcyMIeeTHHT, HAMpHMEP, Heper wEcTKYIO OGolIMy, PaceMoTpHM Gpye, CoCTOmUT ws paLAIHHMIX MaTepHaNIOR Ha pue.2.24.1, a. Tp nocromctse xedopmaiuat ey nanpsxcuna pacupescsatatea no cevenmo LepasuoMeptio 1a puc.2.24.1, 6, 310 oGnaciserea passes moxtynelt postousuoli yupyrocmH cocTaRnatONUX MaTepHAOR a 6 Onemut%0, "ie. HanpsaeIn pactpenension’x MpaNo poneprGlonano MOAyaM YMpyrocT TTput onpoxetemu nepencutcnti x ysrmMcHt Moxuo HenonsoBeT GopMyak nk oxbopontioro Gpyca c sancuolk EA mT BA Pacem cmamuvecku onpedenumbix cmepxneebix cucmem Cmamusecsu onpederunan cmepocneean cucniena ~ 910 cHcTEMa, & KoTOPolI Nee HewaBec THM PeakiUMt oHOP H uyspeme yeux moxto oxpexemitas Hs ypanneni parsonecua (craraKn) Tina «pemeniay molt eTepaenol cHeTeMK NeOGKO:LAMO ULE B rie OGLeKT pasroneens, B cBxait ¢ sD, Ree cenere mn oxo pases a Ba TN: J mun — cuciemst, coctoamme 3 adcomomo xKeeTKHX (HeeOpMEPYeMMX) CTePKHCH HM O/MHOTHBIX HEReCOMBIX Gaepopnmpyesan) crepanel, JLnx cTePAHERKIX cHeTEM >TOTo THN OGRKTEMM paRMOReCTo mENAKOTER enehopMnpyeNbie erepac 2 mun ~ cycrenss, coctomune us HeCKOINI AEbOpMIIpYEME crepANE!, COGMMIEAE § OOH IWHRe, TOR coomumetuin ey 4 Goce crepe vasknalowea yeaanu, KoTOpHe H ABasloTeA OGueKTaMH paBIIORECtK jax cucTeM 2-TO TH Boe cocsumena 6 o1eweITEx CHCTEM HIUPEMPHBE, OMEKO CYILECTYIOT ONPEACTEHEIAE NpaBHLTa, HO KOTOPHINE BRONATEA Peakina H YoHMAN m eTepARKAN: = 8 miapipe, coctmoMten aGcomomio xceTknil azeMCHT cHeTeME € «GeMliy Ht © APYFOH xoneTPYKIUIE, Bera ‘oziaikator awe peaKibi - ropysostanssiag H 4 nepmskanmaa R; +B ulapiupe, coesuminotet teopsupyennil cTepxcette¢ aGComoM KECTIAN crEPAEM LI € pyro KOMENpyKIUE!, cor NorHuKacY O24 PeAKIUL, HANpaB:ICMAA BAO 970T0 CTEPAWE H PABHA LO BENHTUH YCILIINO, HOSHIKGIOLIEMY 8 Het B abcomomno sieeemnue emepoeunx nuxocda He eomucaem anympennus yeuruit, onu ne derpopsupyromen! = 8 wapupe, cocamuuowes eckoxuKo aegopsupyentux crepAxHel (ysoBOH apuupe), eostMKAIOI yu, nnanpassremuse stout 91x eteptie M exosHECA w 9TOM YS: Topasok peuiemix Gonkmmicmea sana 0 mporepke MpowocTH CTAMFIECKIE ONPERERINER CTEPATERKX CHETEM Mp acueTe no AORYeKAeMAIM HaNpAeRetUIA CRO:LATER K CRENYIONUNM 3TaHANE 1) axes Brypemme Yer (nposeNLAyIo CmAY NpH pac PBKEITEN-e KATH) H RIUMIAE OnAeMLIE CeveIT, 2) oupexenew nats 3) NOCHE BBLIBICHHA MAKCHMA/IDHBIX HALIPAKCHH HCHONASyeM yenoBMe uPoAKOcnt ((opmysts (2.26), (2.28), (2.32)) np pacrpexemumieexamn). Mpumop 11 AGcomomno xecTenit Gpye CD nostepannaeres cram cTepattem AB, IMeIOINN TIOMaNS Morepestioro cover 100 wae (pic.2.25, a). Onpeneniem 18 yestoRHx npoxHocTH cTepaHa AB ronyekaemyio Harpysky [P] nposepim, oGecnevexa 4H 2KeCTKOCTE cHCTEMM, CCM FoMyeKacTea Mepememtemme cexeimm D Gpyca mom aciicmues cum P tte Gonec 2 on. 150 Mila, moayas yupyroem E = 2-10 Ta, Honyexaewoe nanpexene npnior passsn [a] Pewenue. Menomsya meron cevennii, onpexeno coomontenve Mexay nposoabsio emnoli Nw etepaxne AB i narpysKolt P. Hs ‘yenonna pannonecr cx (pnc.2.25, 6) naxonmne IM, =0;_ P+1,5—N+Isina =0; Nsin30°_N+0,5 _N 1S is Touyexcemax upoxomnaa cxuta (N] sux crepanx AB as yenosiea ero upostiocm IN] = [o]4 = 150 - 10° - 100 - 10-* = 15-10? H = 15 KH. Honyexaewas varpyaxa sa cucteny [PI-IM/3=15/3-5 Ht Tipu marpyacmm cuctesm cepacns AB yntmucres na Al, a aGcomomo acct Gpye nonopatamacres, ocTapagch paonmelia, CueTeMa noc sepopmaant cTepKi AB nokasaxa LITpiKoBOH ME Ha pHeyHKe 2,25, 4, Hs tpeyroasaniKa ABC onpeaenseas uumny J crepacin AB: /=1/c0s30=1,153 x. Ha ochonawnt prima navasrsibx pasMepor mpiammaeM, “110 Haven yraa qr He waMeHeres, a ToRM Bn D nnepententarorea no nena. 1s upawoyronsuoro tpeyronuiuca BB'E waxozua BB! = B'E/sina, vax xax BB’ = 65,B'E = Al, 10 aN 15-10 1.183 — Hina FAsina’ = 2-10 -100-10-+sina0® = 173° 10" Tepewemenue towns D onpenersem 1s nozoGus peyronmnon CDD' 1 CBB" b5 $2 = 15; bp = 1.505 = 15-173 = 2,65 0m > [6 dReemwocts cuetemas ne o6ecnevena Creayer samenAm, 410 Hemsx MOBKICIT 2KeCTKOCTS CHCTEMM, MpHMeHHE jUIA crepaKIA AB Gortee Mpounyie Tats, TAK kak xapakrepveTAKoll CROHICTE MaTEPHaNA, RATHATOMTEH Ha ALCTKOCTS, ARARETEK MONTH YMPYTOCTH, 3HANEHTE KOTOPOTO /LL RCEX Mapox craneii npuepHo omunakono. Tlossicim xKccTKOCTS CHCTEMEI MOAHO, NGO YECTICWHE THOMAS MonepeMtoro ceveHHA erepxiia AB, 00 YMeHDIIIHR ero JUNKY. Tpumep 12. Onpexemm jonyekaemyto Harpysky [P] {UI CHCTEMBI HS JIBYX CTepAHeli, HGPOTOBICHHBIX HS JROPATOMMEHEBBIX IpyO oxumaKonoro nonepeoro coven (pue.2.26, a), JlonyeKaestoe nanpxcime mpm [¢] = 100 MIla Pewenue. entomsys werox coven, supesaem ysen Bic us ypassesnii pasnoseci cn EY = 0; Nasin45® — N,sin30° = 0: EY = 0; N,cos30° + Nycos5* + P = 0 AXON HENSRECTI NPONOMRIBIE CHI, ROSHKAFOUINE B TEPC, Hepes HarpysKy P (Pie. 2.26, 6) N, = 0,732P; Nz = 0,518P. onyoxaenyi uarpyany [P| onpexeinen we yenona nposnoens nanSonce varpyxcimorocxepxa Lw,]= [ol4, = 100 -10° = 20? ~ 16%)-10-F = 113008 = 11.3 xi. t= _ 3 0,732 0,732 panes Cage meni so copa 2 pyc Hap» ISP 4+0,518 = 70,710 Mla = 70,7 Mla, ‘110 upiosepHo we 30% wine stouyeKaeworo. Lax clepana 2 MOXHO HeHONKsoBATs TpyGy MewBaLero HOUepeHNOTO erepa, Tipumep 13. PaccMompu clepxHeRyIO CHETEMY, COLTORLYIO HE AEOMOMIO -ECTKOFO (HERepopuNpyeKOrO) cTEPAHA AC, ‘mapipro saxpenientoro B ToaKe A at nenecomoro (xebopsmpyextoro) crepxna BD, waparpuo saxpentemtor9 no KOMEN, sarpyAcentyio B Toake C coeperotoxertHo cxLz0H F (pne, 2.27) Pue.2.27 Pewenue. OGtextoM pasnoneens B fanHOM cnyvae GyseT sBames crepxeHs AC, Ana KoTOporo 1 Gye cocTaBANT: ypasHen pasrosecv, Tox jie mie nuenel KarpySkH, Ha OCHORAKIH HHEWIeNNBIX HAUE NAKA, H TOGKE A GystyT ROSHNKaTE JIBE PeaKIUNH Ry MH, a8 cteparie BD wostKaet yewise Nzp, Hanpanitenioe no cTepKto (P¥c. 2.28). COnpenesioa stecymyio cnocobkocTs (rpysonotheMsHocTs) saylHOl CHCTEMBI, TO ECTS NonyeMMyIO HarpysKy F, ec HIOULAMS CoCHUA CTEPAHK Apo = Sn, pactemHoe conpomsteHue MaTepuaita cTepaH R=200 MITa, Ja sroro Mexkiio cocraBif= cneayionwe ypanvenia paRionectts: Pne.2.28 Tlockommky 8 KonexHOM more pemiemie satu Gyser CROITEEH K onpeTEEHIMO YeHMB eTePAHE BD, To oeTanasem § poceworpennm ypasitenne pastoseen, coxepxanice Tomko Ngo, 10 écTs ypasitemte MoMenTos omiocrtrenio Tox A. Pacinies sasti0e ypastienne: IM, =F +2a Ngo “sin30° +a, orcioga meysnecmbe yee oF Nao = Finaae = 4 mos yoni mpowocn rep BD npn rpky Me cp, 4 e Re Asp =F 25 xi. Npumep 14. Onpenesun neoSxommsie parmeph nonepewbiK coven: MeTaUMMECKIN TIT B CTEPAHERO!! cHeTEMe MR yesIORN uposnocm, cca vara Ne 1 — 1s crt, pacsentoe coupommeHHe Rew = 210 MMs, uonepesnoe cexenne - msearep; oara Ne 2 — vs aownma, pactemoe conpomsmieme Rey = 130 MMl3, xpyrsoro nonepemoro cevems, Crepacienas cicTeMa ss0Gpaxcera a prc, 2.29, vase Hel Pewenue. Tloy actieTsuew sucumtet uarpysku 6 ToaKax onop cuctemat A, Bu C nosimnator peaxiuin Ry, Hy.Rp.Ha.Re.He. Kpome ‘oro, B TATAX BOSHUKaIOT yerumIA coomeTeTREHHO NV, WN, ‘Aa pemerns xamioit satan neoGxostuwo No ovepentt PAceMoTpeTS PasHORecHe AByX aGcomoMO wKecTKUX cTepAHEl Cuaana paccexaem cnereny ceverruest 1-1 no tare Ne 1 pace erpumaest pasnorecue irxnero Gpyca (Puc. 2.30, 6), a 3arem ~ pasonecne Bepxnero Opyca (pic. 2.30, a). His yenopnit pabHoRecus sta KIPKHEM HacTH GYNeM HAXONIET CHIME B nepBOit Tare Ny avs yeutosie pasnosecva suia nepxacii- N (pit 70m youne NY eamraeten yoke MsBeC TIN). ‘Hoa ouperetemma yous N, eoGxoauo sanmicate ypasiienne Momexios omiocitrensuo TouKK A (Puc. 2.30, 6): IM, =10-4-2-N,-4=0, oweiona NY, = 20m - yeuue pacroxems ‘Teneps, cuntas younue N, wsnecannt, neoGxonuMo paccMorpeTs pasvonecue cpennell waem, stim wero sanMeaTy ypasiiene Momcitos omocuexstio TouKu B (puc. 2.30, a): sind? +2 = 0, = Sage y= 563. 56,37 ~ yerumne pac power, Pue.2.30 Tanee, ua xaxroii Tara samcomaeM YenosHe MpONHOCTH H BLIpERAeM IHIOMAAH HoNepesMEN Cetemit A, = OMAN 1, Ag - noma arn Ne 2, TATA off = TS Rew, ages = Ms _20 Reg 210-10? Tho copranewy uprnuwaew umesaep [Ne0], A, = 10,9 er cag niowade covenua donna Giims He Mentaue mpebvewoil! 955210-4 mi? = 9,52 cxt?, acmmeckas nontage xpyroro ceveHHs: 4 = Ta BATS Le Fe dent, Npumep 15. Onpene:orm yer, RostmKaIOMINE B CrEPKHAX eHeTEMM (pH, 2.31) Hon AelieTHKEM BHEMIHEH NArPySKH Pewenue. Hox neliemmeM BHEIIHeI HarpYSKH R TOAKE OnOPHI eHETENB! A ROsKMKAKNT peaKIUM Ry, Hy & TAKE YCILIOR R CTEDKHI Nac Neo» Nee: B xavecme oGResTOR panHoneev B 910% saave BHIETYTAIOT AdCOMOMO rkEeTRHIK Upye ABM yaen C. Tooomy, sUH oupeneemis Hensnectimx yeni ciayasa paccekaem cucreny cevenuest J-1 no eTepxo BC a paccmarpunaem paniionece ipxutell acts (pic. 2.32, 6), a saTem pace Marpunaen pasonccue ysna C (pue. 2.32, a) Pue.2.32 ‘Aa oupesestemma youn Np- HeoGxosn0 sanvcaTs ypaseuue NoMeHTOs OTMocHTEnKHO TOMKKE A (Puc. 2.32, 6): IM, = ~30°2+Nge-4 +20 = 0, owetona Njc = 20 KH - yountme pactoxerms, ‘Teneps, cutrax youre Nyc MsReemN, HeOGXOIAMO paceMoTpeTs pasHowecHe ¥siia C, jUIx Yero sammcat ypasrienH eye npoexiutit ncex cHLT Ha BepTIKanKnyt0 H ropusoMTamsuTyIo ocu (pHe. 2.32, a): Nepsin30° ~ Ne sin45® Bpesymsrare noxyuacat cucTemy aByx ypanucmdl ¢ apyMa newspcc Tun: Coton =20 Das coy cpexcac ym » ropa CD u CE fiz 14.558 Ice = 17,9 eH Npumep 16. ‘sa cransusox (E = 2-105 MMs) ctepanis, mapumpuio coetmiemme 8 TouKe A, waxonatea non seliemnent cass P (pac. 2.33), Tepsnill crepaCcus uoteer MMAY ¢ H BIOMAs HoNepeMHOrO ceNeHnE F, wrOpOl WKY a H wIONAN « 2F. 1) Ham nessa: Hopwansinne Hampexeni, fie TayIOMIAK B CTEPAHIX. 2) Halim aGcomomyio u omocuteasayio acopwauum crepaneit, Bano: P= 130 xl, c Pue.2.33 Pwe.2.34 Pewenue. Crepisi mpaxpemtenst k cTeHe H Coenen! Mex COGOMT MraprMpaNn (TowKex B, CH A). LapHHpK npentionaraioTex ICANN, ©. TAKIN, qpenHe 8 KoTOpBX omyremyer. Harpyaxa P npiioxera e yare A. Tooomy crepann Gyayr NCMAITNATS TONSKO UPOnOsBHBE (PACTRFHEAOUUNE HI CAUMONOMINE) YCILIK, Le, B HOPE Ce¥eHIIAX CepAHEH HOSHIKACT ‘TOTHKO OH BY TPR CHOROH akTOp - npoxombKAS CHa N. 1. Jlax onpesestemms yori pacemotpim pannonecne yssia A (pic. 2.34), x KoTOpOMY npwiioxemst HarpyaKa P HBA emaneennx yenniot Nj, 1 Np, Jeliemyiouve Co eTopow crepxieli AB w ACW vanpanstentste #ytOme HX oct, Tp onpeneaeunm newsnccmian youl 8 erepAHAX OBKINO KpHIUATO CMTATS HX PACTRHYTAMH H COOTRETETECHHO ITONY Nanpanos ReKTOps CHM oT yaa, 3HaK Noe R pees AX Yer GyneT MOXMEPANTe NpaRieTAHOETS etenaKHOTO Hpennox0Xcimx 0 MANpannciHNA YcwHs, a 31MK MENYC YKAXCT ma 7, “TO 8 melictawTeMOcTH yee naMpasseno LUponmononoxwo 4 coomeTeTRYKOUM Crepes CHAT Tlonaras o6a crepana pactanymmn, nanpasnM yous N}, Np Tax, KaK HloxazaHo Ha puc.2.34. Jx miocKoit ene TEM! ci, HepeceKaloMuxen B OHOH TOKE, KAK HRBeCTHO 1 KyPCA TeoperImecKOH MexAIMKH, MOXHIO COCTABITT. TOKO ;tBa NNevABKCHMISIX YPABHIEMIN PaARHORCCHA = B AIVIE CYNO MPOCKH RCCK CHL Ha ABE OCH, HE MAPANLICABHBIE APYT JPYTY. B xasecrse raxix oceit siGepem on Xm ¥ (pn, 2.34), Torta ypannena pasnosecin npeitcTaRATeA ® Rie EX = -N,sin30° - Nacosa + Psin 45° = 0; IY = —N,cos30° + N,sina — Pcos$5? = 0. @ Vis stoi cuctent (1) MoxHO Gsuo Git onpesemimM HeHReeTIN YeILIR Ny, HN, emi Gs GoumH ISBeETIM SHANEHHA cosa H sina. Oupexean om semmimst, ZL s10r0 paceMoNpUM aaHMyIO CrepaHesylo cuctemy (pHc. 2.34). Hs town 4 onyenm neprensuyasp AD va upsuyio BC, nosy 8a upsvoyronsieix mpeyrousiuna DABD w AADC. Pue.2.35 Us speyrousumea ABD onpesienne AD: AD = ABsin30° = 1,5+0,5 = 0,75 ™. Ve speyromsunka ADG nonysue: AD _ 075 cosa = T= = —— = 0.375 sina = (1 —cos*a = J1— 0375" = 0,927. ‘Teneps onpenesiiM nemsnee nine yewa Ny, W.N2 Je CHET sIRyX JIANERDAKX ypanseMi (1). Tepenvmen. ypasnenns 8 cateayrouies sue: N,sin30° + Nzcosa = Psin 45°; -N,cos30° + N,sina = Pcos45*, ean sty encteny neniomnsys meron Kpantepa hz | £18308, 050] = sin30? -sina + cos30° -cose I-cos30" sina 05 -0,927 + 0.966 -0.375 = 0.798. 1 ppsinas® cosa P(sin45° - sina — cos45° cosa) = Slpcosd5® sina 0788 ana 64,32 KH. 1) simao®_ Paina?) _ P(sin30? “cost5? — cos30*sin4#5°) _ 1955 \cos30® Peos450| 0788 . = 159.5 aH. 2. Onperesue vopmansiiie nampaxenis, nelicmayroume 8 cTepate. ‘Hanpaxeniol 8 ctepxHAX onpertessiorex no popMyite x on Tw uepsoro cxeprn Ny _ 6432-10" OF a2i9- {ut BTOporo CTepATA Nz 139.2510 6 gy 2F e190 = 3, Haiitew aGcononiyio H omtocinexhuyio aeopsaiunt crepe AScomoTaaa nehopuainix cTepaHa ZaHHot! pase a $ Afcortionsa se/PopMawmis nepRoro eTepAHA Nye 6432-10 TB get EF ~ 2-10" 12-107 adie’ AScomiorsas ebopmanuin BTOporo CrEpAHA (aa 2° B.2F 2-408 24. 19-4 DOOR 0 Onioeinesniyio Aebopwaiino onpenenin Hs saKora T'yka one. Oniocuresnias zesbopnauna nepeoro crepe = PO = 268: 10-* = 0,268-10-%, Onweunessias aesopuatyia sroporo exepAcU 2 2 3 _ 335. 10-5 = 0332-10" eo Ba = 335.10-F = 0382-1 Al, = & Tlonamue o cmamuyecku Heonpedenumbix cucmemax Ochoenste nonoxeHuA. Canau Heo6xoduMble u donomHumenbHBIE. Jaa pemewia saxa4 conpommRTeHHA MaTepHaIOR EOGXOAMMO sHaT RCE BHEMHVE CHUN, eHeTRYFOMHE Ha KOUCTPYKUMO, BKTOWaR peaKIuG waTOxeUNBH ma Hee CBascH, His TeopenmeckKoi! MexaMNKH HBeCTHO, "TD AIA pasiORecHA TBEPHOLO TELA, HUIPYACHMOLO ILIOCKOH CHETEMO! Clu, AOCTEIOYHO KAIOAIED Ha TEHO IPH CHEK, a MArpyAKeHHOTO Mpoctpaie meno cHeTeMol! cit — uiecTs cumeli, CoomereTEEHNO WIR TAKHX CHCTEM MOAHO COCTABHTS Tp H mecTs HHesaBucHMGIX ypasHenit pasnosccus. Ecuu upit pace Mompemns sananioit cueTeMts, Haxomuuiciics 8 paswosecHOM CocTOmIM OT elicTRHM SAAHKMX BNENINIMX HAPPYOK, RCE PeaKIUM B CRAZAX FAXPEILTEHIOL MOAIO OTPENeAT ¢ NoMOMUKIO ypaRKentit Pasnosecua, Ges venlomsonamna onoumMTenbX yeaOBHi, TO TaKAK CHCTEMA HastIBaeTeA cmamuuecKu onpedewusmoll B peansnoli mpakmike acTpevaioTes TakMe KOHCTPYKIOAH, MPH pactleTe KOTOPHX O.NIHX THI YpaRHeN paRHOReCHR oxasanaeTea HenOCTUTOGHO, H CBASH C HEM TpeGyeTea (hopMysIMpoRAMKE OTOAMMTETKHBIX ypaRHeHMil, CHAAHHX € YeTORURNE edopauposaunis Kouctpysun CHeTeMB, # KOIOPAIX KOUMECTHO HAIOKCHHKIX CHAE GOKU, HEKEIA IHEIO HERABHCHMBIX ypasHeHll paRHORECTA, HarMaiorea cmamuuecku Heonpedenumulntu, B maumsoc1pocwat m cxpoitienbabix KoHCIPYKWUAX TAKE CHCTEML HAXOAAT UMMpOKOC UpuMeHeHHe. B osu cya eTuMHECKAK HeoMpereTIMOCTE ABAReTEA CYMHOCTHIO CAMO‘: KONCTPYKABH, i a Puc. 2.36 Tipucpanns 1axux KoucTpyku Moryr Gor: apsupozaimute yroukasut Cro (puC.2.36, a); AMM KPLUIA caMONETA, cocroauax xs OGunmxH 1c mpojoasiENeN peSpamn 2 (pwc. 2.36, 6); cOCTaNHON (ULUAP, HoAyeKABH nyTe HanpseKeHOIE ocak asyx 1py6 us pasmmumox marepuatos (pac. 2.36, «). B apyrux caywanx, ¢ yeubo nostuleMiA xecTKoCTA HaERHOCTA CHCTEMH, BROIRCK AONOIIGTENKME CRAM CREPX TEX MUMTMATANO HEOOXOIMBN, KOTOPHIE OGECIIEMABAIOT ee Kimenammeckyio wersMensemocTs. Hazoxenme ma cHcTeMy jlonommersimx chaseii mpespamaer ee B cTanMeCKIE conpenemimyio, Halioxamot, "10 KMHEMaNIIecKaR HEHEMCIEReMOCT. ILIOCKOH CHCTEMBI OGecrIeMMRACTCA TpeMs, a "upoctpaxe meHHO}l — mlecTaH0 CHAE Konc1pyxtam, cocTosutie 1 cTepaweli, coemMeMGIX mlapmmpanit, HassBaIoTea mapuupHo-cmeporenessimu. B THX KOHCIPYRUMUX CCT CIEPAKIM KOTOPHE OGECHIEUBAIOT FeOMEIPHIECKY!O HEMEMEHAEMOCTE KONCTPYKU H UPH YAIMEHIDK KOTOPIX evcTeva npespamactex B mexanumm. Taxwe crepaum GyneM nassieam neoBxoduMuMu, Ecai Ke MPH yAasIEIN HeKOTOPHIX crepacnelt reomerpir KONCIPyXuMM He HApyuactes, TO TaKHe CTEpAKHHE HasOReM suwaMuaN. Jiu ‘TAKHE CBAIK HASKIBAIOTES TOTAKO OTOMY, WTO OHH He TRAATOTEA HEOGKOsIANKIMH AIR OGECTINEHHE PaRHORECIA KONCTPYKIUIH Hee FeoMeTpHecKoll HeusMeHAEMOCTH, XOTL HOCTMOSKA HX auiryeTe® yenosEmNH sxcrIyaTayH To yeroBHAM NOGHOCTH 2KeCTKOCTH KOHETPYRIINIC MIME CBA MOTYT OKAAATHER HEOGXOMUM BMH, B crammecku ompesteaumolt cHcTeMe CTS TO:ISKO HEOGKOMHNGIE CTEPAM, B CTANMECKH HeOmpereIMOd MMH eCTepsHeH paBkO CTeNeHHI CTaNEeCKOH HeoLpeNeIMOC A a) ® ») Ha puc.2.37 npunesiensi cxen 3-X ILIOCKHX CHETEM ¢ GUINATUIMID) cRAMSMIN: a — CTEPPKTIEROII HloRECKH, 6 — crept, saxperewore oGorH KoRUAMH; 5 — cTepxCesoro KpomtTeiia. B cxeMe, 1oKasaitHoli ta prc. 2.37, 6, SCA cHeTeMa COCTOMT HS ynpyrinc smemen. Tloeser Sica HAROKEIEIAK CBxseH NPOHSROAITCA R OTOM cnysae cMeTVIONUM OOpasoM. Kaxkait cTepKeM eBaSaxi ¢ onopHoil nosepxnocTao AByMa costaMa, Becro Taki cusseit 8. [lapimp, cocaammomuit kom eTepauicii, cmmMacT HASH, OrpaHUNBa‘onIHe oTHOCITTENSHBili WIN BANNED wx NOKOpOT. 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MsMeHsx COOMOMLENKE xECTKOCTEH °uLeMeMTOH KONCIPYKIU, MOKHO McHATs pacnpertenene Yount MemAy HNO D1 OCoGENHOST CTAWECKH HLONPEAEINMAK KONCTPYKUMA JOSH YHMTAIRETCX NPM MpOEKTAPORAMIAK YOK upmentrmt Taxi cHeTEM, Cranmiecsit Heoupenenmne cuerewst o6:1a2aIOT HOBKULCHHON woxUBysecTsIOn. PagpyleHe ONKOF ILI HECKONIBKX, DHeMeHTOR (# AANCHMOCTH OF MHEIA AOONITEISHBIX CER) HE BEIEKIWACT HOTEPHO HeCYUIEH CHOCOGHOE TA KOHCTPYKUAH uestom. Tax paspyltenie axe AByXx crepatielt cucTeMe, HOKas@HHOi ma puc. 2.37, He upusomT x oTepe cuIocoGuOCHE ROCMpHIAMaT EHIY P OCTARIIUMHCA ZRYM CTEPAKHAMM, KONENHO, HIPH YOIORHH HX jC TATOO‘ uposocTA Cmeners cmamuyeckoti Heonpedenumocmu. Memoduka ee onpedenenus. Crammecki HeonpeesinMbie CHCTEMM XapaKTepUSyIOTCH cmenensio cmamuseckolt Heonpedenumocmu, KOTOPAA PaBEA Aueay ommnHED CRATE X MOMET GhiMe BBIMMCSIEHA KAK PASHOCTS MEY MNCHON HEIABCCTIBNC CHL H SHCHIOM HesaBHCHMBIX ypasicuit pasuosccus. To aueny commun s70it pasnocms cuctesa Gxsaior 1,2,3....n pas cTMIcexH HeoNpeAeMUMEsM JUIA pacseion coctaRMeten cHLIOBAA CXeMA 3aANNOlK cMeTEME!, Ha KOTO! yKagKiBaIoTeA ace MBECTIBIE Hh ewsncctiuae ciLioRsie GaKrOpH. Tip coctanseniat ciioa0i cxeMit ® caysiae onpenieneniia BY NpENUIK CHIOBHN akTOPOR MPUMeHETER MeTO: CexenIti cormacto KoTOpOMY KiDK/IOe SREHO CHETEMB PAS/ENACTER Ha KE HACTH B NPOWSROABNOM CevEHMH, saTEM OrGpacKImaToTes Wc, UUpisisarouute x OnOpULIM SneMCITAN, a HX AeiicTRHE Ha OCTARLUMCCA YacTH 2aMCHACTCA MpooTBULIME cluTaMt, Tlocae 270FO Ha EXEME TOKAMRAIOTER RCE IALAHIME RHINE CHLTAI H peAKUM On. Beem no oToit eXeMe YeTAMARTIRACTEs RoRMOAHOe HCHO HesaRVCMEL ypaRnemit paavonecus, Crenems ctanerecKoit HeOMpeeMIMOCT HOACMITBIBACTER, KAK PASHOCTD MERY HCHO HeHSSCCTAMX Clot I MHCIOM HesaBNCHMEIX ypeBHeHH aBrouects. Ha pue.2.38, a wsoGparen xpormrrefin, coctomnnit Hs AByx ctepxneli, maprupro ckpettienMK MeKay coSoit. BewasH © Tem, 10 Ha KoneTPyKWHO seliemyer JIN BeprAKAIBHOE YoHINE P, a CHETEMA aBIMETER MOCK! (Te. ACE IIeMeKIN KoUCTPYKIGME If BeKTOP BHEMIUIX CHA eKAT B OAHOH NTOCKOCTH), MOMYIaETES, STO YCHANE Rh CTEPAHIX erKo OMpertensIOTeA Hs yenoniti passiozecna yaaa A, T°. Bx=0, Iy=0. (237) Packpsimax 91H ypanstesais, Hoayuaen 2aNKHYTYIO CHCTEMY sNHNeiEIX ypaRHenuii omHocrTesBHO exRecTHBK youstit Ny HLN2, ® Kowpoll Konmiecto ypasHenli paako Kommecmy HensRee THX -N,—N,sina (zcosa~P = 0. HesW KoucTpyxiuio KPOMTeTIa yesOANATS, 1OSABNE eMLe Osa! CrEpAeUD (puC.2.38, 6), 10 youu B crepe Ny, N2 1N3 mpexinn cnocoGoM onpenenim Yrke He YRACTEA, Tk. MH TEX He ABYX YpaBsenAK pannworecs (2.37) HMEIOTER Ke TPE nerscemnc yeu crepatn, BTaKHN exy%Hx rosopar, so CHE TEMS Ox Pes eTaMEeKH MeOnpereamS a4 4 4 iy Yt Puc.2.38 Ha pye.2.39 mpxseyiensi upMepsi CraMeck# NeonpexeNIMB cHeTEM. B CTepAHE € AKCTKO 1aNeAMIBINIL KONIANH (pue.4.2, a) nosmmxator zc PeaKIBM, & yPABHICHHC PABHOBCCHK MOAHO COCTABMTS TOLTEKO OAHO, CHIEHOBATEMIO, KONCTPYKINDT ommt pas eTemmuecka eompenenuna, He napynias pastionecia crept, Moo oTGpocim ony Hs oop. a) 9 8) 2 Puc.2.39 Lax cnetenbt 8 4pex cwepaknelt(pue.2.39, 6) MoxHo CocTaBIT st8a ypaRHEsIE PABHORECHA, A HeNBECTHAIX CHL B cvcreMe Tpit, CHGORATENIO, CHETENA OF pA CrTITeCKH NEOPM. On 1 CTOPKHCH HE HY'CH ACHR paRHORCCHR eHeIEMN, H eF0 MOXHO O1Gpocits, PaccyAAH AHAIOTHAHO, OHO YeTAHOBHT, sO CHETEMA HH MeaMpex erePARKE| (pHE.2.39, 4) pmax craraveck eompenese, TLax onpeneseiia suyTpeImu CHI CHETEME HS TAM CTEPAHEH (pHe.2.39, 2) ueoGKoNMO BuIpEsaT H paceMorpem pasrtensio parnonecne yeaon Aw B, K Kex/10MY YBny MpHMGIKaIOT TPH CTEpARTIL(RCEFO TiaTs CTEPARIIH M, CENORATENAO, NAT hemucemiix cH), @ ypansteit pannonccus sim KaxGIOrO yaa MOAMO COCTABIS BA, Tc. RETO YeTpe ypabuicia, Cuca oui pas crameveckit Heonpene mio Haanosoun, sro ui npoctpasicmenioli cueTeMB CHU1 MOXHO COCTARH HIECT HEtABMCHAX YpaRNEI pannoRectE: 0; D¥=0;IZ=0, 1H apH = cywmy Mosterton scex cH11 omtocmrenmio aE Ke ocelt (EM, = OE My 0). Haw oGmero exyuan ex, eRAMMK B OMHOH MocKocTH - TPH HesanemMENK ypannierna (nanpmwep: TX = 0; ); EM, = 0}. B sactmmx cayaax TIOCKOH CHCTEMM MOAHO COCTABHTS 1B HCSABNCHMBIX YPARHCHMA PABHOBCCHA: LIA CHCTEMBI TapamICAbHMX cH (HaMPHMep: EM, =0; CY =0) w naa crete cma, amon jeliemaua KoropHx nepecexaiorea n onwoli rouKe (CX = 0; EY = 0). Jaa ena, ‘aun xeliemaa KOTYPAX EAT Ha ONKOT! UpAMOH, MOAHO 2amUICATS TossKO OAHO HetaBHCHMOe ypaBHewe (Hanputep: SX = 0). ia puc. 2.40 noxatann: upueps cocTaBHEIIU CHLIOBLIX cXEM H OlpexeHeNE cTENeN cTAnHecKoll Heompexe-nwoeM so opuyae Semm, re n= oGilee WieHO HeHRBECMIN CILI, RKAONAA PEAK OHOP; m + HCHO ROBMOKUAX JUN jAIMIO! cHeTEMM HesanvcHOMSN ypasueualt IMM 1pm ypasnen, enpaxatoue cysiy upoekiiil weex cnt wa 1pu wsanano nepuensnyanpune oon Pacxpbimue cmamuyeckou Heonpedenumocmu Onepawm 0 oupeteneHimo HeMREE TIN CHLTORKIX EXTOPOR B CTAMMECKH HEONPENCIMBCK CHETEMAK MpHETO asbivath packPHTIMeM CTAMMECKO! HeoNpesteTAMocTH, LIporwoUATEs OH eaeAyIOLNUM OGpazon. B HaNALIe HEXOIL IE. CHLIOROME exewsi cocTaRImOTeR ypannioHa pantionccits Tipu peurenm s0Gnx saat snes ypaRiennii aoxxHO Gort paso siNeay Hexsaecmm. Jin oMpes CTRPAWAN CTATIECKHE HEOMPEREMMN CHCTEM EMTETYET COCTARAATS YPARHEHIEE, TOMOAMAMONUE YPABHEIME PARHORECM NO NMEA HenssectHine cit. JTonomurTensibie ypaBHeNIE, HaShIBAEMIC YpacHenUANN coBMecmHOCMH MepeMewenuiT Hau deopsanuit, CoCTABIAOT, OMPETETAR MEPEMETIEHTE OTTEATBHK CTEPAHeM CHCTEMBI Ht YCTEHABMRAK MERAY HIMIT CRA, Tipoum commecmiocms eopMuposaiier BMpHKACT YCTOBHC, SAKNONAIOINCSCA B TOM, "TT KOHCIPYKIUNN oma aedopwusposanca Ges passemsiesiia HEUPCAyyeMOIPCHKOT BSAUMHOTO EPENCHIEHII OTICIMHAIK €€ SREHBES. Js oSuersens sammiceit ypanennii nepemenemnsit cmpoat cxeMty eFhopMacbtit ACeX YHpYTHX av1eMeNTOR HH exeMy aedopoponamoi cnctemss. JLx moGoi cTaMemMecKM xeOMPeeIMOH CHETEM RCETA MOTO COCTABIMTS CTOTBKO ZRONOAMITENKIKX YpARHeNH, CKONTHKO pas CHeTeMa craMeteckH HeompesTeHNa B ciny pasmmmofi nsamosanicyocm 2ceMeMTon, Pasmena MaXTATSRAEMKX camel H yorORK neopmponatms, Ypasuenua cosxecTHoeTH acopmawill cucTeM satutekisatoTeA Ho pasHiony, Ho RCE OMM BMpASIOT cooTHOMEKA AebopMat (nepememernai) ovensumx yrpyrix aneweron cneTemni, Hanpawep, Ha exene, wa pic. 2.40, # MI, = Als ana puc. 2.40, 2, Al, = Oly 1. K, Beck CIEPACHD HE MORET HE YILIMUTECR, HH yopOTETEC. HA exeMe (PHC, 2.40, a) MoxHO YoTAKOBIETH reoMeTPIHEEKOE comune seopsaunit crepasneli 1, 2 1 3 a Tig fe 4 Pue.2.40 D) Tlocae nony'ems yxasammsx reoMerpuuccKix coomoUIeHII SewrUMDL AGCOLOTEMX uSMeHcunli, umes crepacnell A; ‘saMenstor 10 saxony Fyka wx suipaxkenawn sepes youu NY ai,= Set Ee Tloayvemmie Tax oGpasom ypaniiemms, conepxanute 5 KavecTBe MeMsBeCTIBE NporoNBMMe cH, M aBIsIOTCA AONOMIHUTETLILIMHL YPARHCHMANH, ONH BKMOTAICT TAKE MOKAsATEAIH AECTKOCTH OTACTDMX SREHLER KOHCTPYKUB, BRODA TM CaMKIM 3aRNCMOCTS paCTpeneTeMH CHI BUYTPH CHCTEMAI OT -KECTKOCTH ee OTeMetHTOR, BMecTe ¢ YpABHENHIANH CTUTAC THEE oGujee wie ypasnennii pasno sweaty HeusEce MIX cH. Penlas wx, ONPesEAMOT HeSBeCTIBE BHYTpEUME (KPONONBHBIE) CLIK, B saxitosenite MOXCT Gam BRIIONMeHa OHEpreDMecKax NPOBEPKA PCLICHHA SaslaHH, OMA SAKIOYACTEA B COCTABCHINA HL yaoptersopei panevicrea paGoms RHEUIENX CHL A H CMM TlOTEHIHANIBNOM HPT se*opNatben SuleeesTTOR CHCTEMBI U Croxnste CriMMeckH HeonPedesmuBte CHCTEMS, # TOM "MesIE CTaMMECKH HeoNpeeMUNEHe depot (sueMteHT eps paGoraor ima pacoKeKMe, CKATHE) H CHIMMECKH HEOUPEEINNAE PAMK, PACCMAIPHBAIOTEA H KYpEE CIPOMTENKHO MeKAHHKH crepaxitesuix cuctew. B kypee componmaenas warepHasios paccMarpupalotea OGIO MpocTelinme cramMeckst eomperemmEse CHETEMM, K KOTOPHA OTHOC TE 8) NpaMnle CTepAHH NOCTOMMOTO, KYCONHO-NoCTOsMOTO H MepeMENHOTO CeNeNM, saKpenLTeMHBIe € ABYX CTOPOH, OT narpysin sclicmsytomel: poms oc crepats: 6) CHETEMAI IkapKpHO CORIIIHENRIX CTEPAKHEH © BOMOAHBIM RICHOYEHHEM 2KECTKHX HesleDOPMHPYEMBNK WEMEHTOR. Tip pemeni cranivecky MeOUpeEINMKX CHETEM, B CIEPAHIX KOIOPHX jelicTBYION UPONONBHBIE CILIA, MOAHO 1) axasus paGoms KoueTpyxIuM © ykasaweM jelieMyIONLX CHLIOBBIX faxTopOR HM BAINCHENHEN jeopMaIyi ee saeweros, oupeseieuse ctenenn cramsecKoil neonpenesunoc ms; 2) cmamuveckas cmopona sasaut — cocTasisiOT ypaBHeHUE PABHOSCCHE sLIX CHETEMM HI OTCENEHAEI co 3) 2eomempureckas cmopowa saxaun — nciaor, KaK Aebopmupytores crepalM cHeTeMS:, HSOGpaxalor eveTeMy 8 ACHOPMHPORANHOM BILIC, YCTINIRANRAIOT CRASH MORAY NePEMCLICHIMNGL OTICIBHKIX HeMeHTOR CHCTEMDS, cocTaRsator ypansiemet commectuocT« nepememenit; 4) @usuveckas cmopoua sanasn — supaxaer sehopwanm smemetres, coraacuo saKouy Tyka, epes nelle mmyionive & 1m HeraRecTHBNe Yeni; JOT HeHEBECTHBIE CHK, PEINAK CoBMECTHO CHCTEMY YpaBiieHit pasvionecHs H nepeMetttert :M HEOMPCHEMMMBIC KOHCIPYKIB AAapAKTepiByIoTes PsHOM OcoGeHMoCTE!, Ho cpaBHeHO co cTaNMICcKH onpenesasnen cHctewanH. Tak, pi SKCILIYaTALVs KOHCIPYKIMKE ROIMOKHO IMEHEHHE e& TEMIIepAIypH, BAISBAHHOE Yyouosuaun paGomsi Km eMeHom spemen roja. C MSMeHENHeM TEMMepaIYDM HSMHAOICS sMHelIMME PaswepHl seMeHTOE KONCTPYEIUE YRECUIRAIICS NPH HarpeRC, YMEHHINAIGTER HPI OXIHNRICHM Ha REHM Al, = alt, (2.38) rae qe Temneparypunii koopebunverr amnetinore pacunupermss (eM. pasnen «Cupasouuie aanmite»); [= zuma anewenTs At - usmeueune teaneparyps, (°C). B erannieeki oupexeaisx cue (pue.2.41, a, 6) aX JLIUKA CTEPAHA MOXKET CBOGOIMO IEMCWEINCA MPH HX Harpewe HIE OXIAAKCHIM Puc.2.41 B crammecki Heompesesineh CHCTEMA TPH HEMI TeMepaTYpAI ROsHHKaIOT RorontoreoEMe CHM, es FarpeTk repre, eerKo saxpestemtt 0 KoMAM (pHe.2,42, a), 70 eF0 ANIA le MOET IBMEIATICR: STONY NpenaIeMAVIOT weCTRME sarenka, B onopex (sae1Kax) RORTaHKALOT PEAKTIAE, CRUNATONUAG CTEDEH Tak Kak HexBweCTIAK eH RE, a YpaRHeIMe paRKONECHA MoxHO cocraRHM® ToxBKO ono: Zz = Ry Ry cueTewa oni pas cTenieck neompesesia Peuias reoMerpiriccxyio act 2aN0"H, COCMRIEEM ypaRseHe Hepeweuteati, Or6pocuM osLAY Hs OUP H 3aMCHIDK ce zeiemaue veinnceit cio Ry. Teneph crepacti pH HarpeRe MONET LINC Ha RENAN A, (pHC.2.42, 6 0 8 Ry albt += =0. Torna mpoombiaa cna B cesenmax cTepxtit N=-aEAdt: HanpmxeHME B CTEpRHE N aEMt. Onsen, so Hanpaxcimte 8 crepawe He saBHICHT OF mOMIAH CouCHNL OuleMeHTA: KONE IPYKIDEH HETOTORIAIOT € ONPeNETEXAOH TOXMOCTHIO. [IPH COOPKE CTANIKECKK HEONPEIIENHNBIX CHETEN, HMCIOUEX HeTOMNO ISTOTOHLTEMUNE CTEPAHK, CTEPANE UpHXOAMTE ebopseKpova (YAMS WIM YKOPALKESTE), pH 9TOM HNX ROSHHKAIOT HALPOKEHA, NASKIBLEMBIMIE HANLTRURINE 1K MONEDA, Pacemorpam cuctemy, ont u3 cTepacicit xoTopoli waroTersien Kopowe, eM tpeGyeres, nia Remy A (puc.2.43, a). Oupeaesmme sxyipersme cium: 1 HANpmACcHLE, SOSHUKAIONIE B CTEpAHEX cucTEMEI UpH ce CGopKe. CrepixKH actor omMHAKOBEIC parMepat 1 HsroToRsenB! Yer o7BOrO MaTepHa:T, q\ Puc.2.43 Tpit eGopxe cucremst sce tpi crepKW HeOGxONIMO yaIMIT, NPHIOKHE K MHD pactaruBaroNyHe cHst. B coGparoN ivle CHCTEMa MOKAIAHa MOTPHNORKNO JTAHRAMH (CM. pA.2.43, a). Bupexem ysen A (pwe.2.43, 6), CocTABHM ypanKenHa pantioncena cu Bx = N,sina — N,sina omysta N= Ny: Bz = N; — Ncosa— Nycosa = 0. Cyerewa oui pas CraMHeckH HeompeseIMMa. PaceMOIpIM TeOMEIPHNECKYIO acts 144 M COCTABHM ypagHeNHe nepemenjerti. Us cxemul, npemerassennoii na puc.2.43, a, eneayer, $10 Al; A+, tae 6 = Ypannenme nepememennit npinnaaer a Veenomsays takon 'yxa, esipannn yaumimenne Yepex HeinRecTHBIe CHT B CTEPAIN ML a * Facosa’ Peatit_ypannenmte nepevenennii ComMeIHO & ypaBneniamtn paRHOREEI, ony 20EAcos*a (Ot Re foes = Tas 2eostay Tievansuste Manpoxesiit YacTo CHeIBHLIKHO CoMIMIOT B CTAMIECKHC HEOUPEHICIUMBK CHCTEMEK, TARIX, HANDHMEP, KAK coesimienis © naniros 1 pexsGoosie coesmmens, Cossazax » DeweHTaX cTAMMeCKH HeonpeseNuMOlh CHETEMB HavabKBe ANP@ERCiMA, SHAK KOTWPAX UPOMIBOUOOACH SHAKY HANPHMLL OT BHCLIEUE CHL, MOKD HOBMCHTS NPOOCT KONCTPYRIBHL 11m yensisslonyexaextyi UK Hee HarpyKy. Pacupeneteue Yount MekAY aueMeuTaMH CHoTEMB Sans OF HX KeCIROCT. ECs YBeUEMe EC7KOCTH KAKOTO- Go oneMeta, 19 oH MpuMer Ha CeSs Gombe’ YoxLMNe. HaMeliie CooTHOMEKHE AKECTKOCTEM 2..eMeHTOR KOHCTPYKIUHH, NOHO ewer pacmpertenene yout Mey MN Smt ocoSemmocmH cTEMMEcKH NOMPEACHHOMX XOUCTpYKUM OTANI YUITMMaTECR pH MpockTponasumt sx ext TaKiK exe Text Crammecxit neonpeyennene CucTews! OS:a;AIOT HloBKNeHHON! «oxHBYYECTHIOn. PaSpYUHNe O;KOFO HK HECKOMIGKEX sueweuTos (B sasuemocm oF Mica JOMOMUMEEN CBxsci) HE BBISKIBACT NOTepIO HECYuICH CHOCOSHOST KOMCIPYRIUAK B nie1om. Tak paxpyieme axe Jays crepxtell » cHoTeMe, HOKazanKoli Ha pHc.2.39, « KE UPhOWUET K HoTepe EnocOGHOEH SocupHauMars cHAy P OCTABLINMHCS JB YAGE CTEPALAM, KONEUHO, NH YENOBHEL HK JOCTHIONNOI NpOuHOCL Beaksovete omeran ceayionne OcvioRnbie CRoliema ETANMECKH HEOMPeAEAMNI CHETE (Crammecks neomperesnvag cHeTeMa BRNAY nani NOGaROMIAX MIX cARBel, mo cpasneno coomenmyrouicit crmmccxu onpesemoli cucTewoll oxshinaeTea Gonce 2keC OH, a pH ACIMIMOM KapaxTepe MarpyACCUNNA "Huenin YeIOHA nosTysaioTes Mex, CieORaTEAKKO, 1 Goule 2XOHOMIFIKNIN 2. Pespyiene smu cEsNCi B HAFPYACHNOM COCTONUK, HE BCUET x PA9PYLCHINO BCCI CHCTEM B NEON, TAK KAK Jyutenme om caascih npusoaer x HOBO! TeoMeIPIECRH HEIMEHIEMOH CHETEME, B 10 BPE KAK HOTEPH C8ASH_B ETAMIMECKEH onpenesuavoi cic Tee npxBosuA K HBMEIHEMOF cHeTeNe. 3. [Ine pacers cramsiccxH HeonpereMMN cHcTEM HeOGKONIMO NpesDapireMHo sananaTKeR reoMerpHTeCKHMH Aapaxrepwemikaninnlonepesniux cerentit atewemon, te, axneteck wx DopMoi # paLepanit, 7K KAK HR HBMENEHME NNO x maemo yori w enmax H nonOMY pacnpesesemmo Yomi no RceX aAeMeHTAX cHeTEME! 4. Tip pacuere crammeckie HeonpesemDukX cHCTEM HeeGXOUIMO sapalce BAATPEMe MATEPHT KOMENPYKIMM, TAK RAK Ny Ns pune: HeoGxosHONO sHaTE cro Moy. yupyrocmt 5, B ctansecxu Heonpesienimssix cHeTEMAX TeMHeparyprioe noaeHcmne, OcasKka onOp, HeTOANOET WErOTORIENI H MoMHpKa BHISKIBAIOT HOSBLIeIMe ONOMIUATEASIIAK YoHLUM Peutesuc cTemecki MeOMpenenuMBIX CHCTEM Mo%HO BECTH, HCHOASSYs TPH MeTOMA: = pacer no ynpyroit craw jedbopMaiyit (7OMycKaeMBIM HanpeAxeKMEN); + pacer o paspymiaomas narpyskan = pacer no upesemHomy 1uiaemmecKOMy CoeTomEIO, B maummoctpocnus omaerex upesmowTenHe HepBOMY MeTOAY, a B cTpoMreNbeTBe — BTOpowy H 1peTREMY. cau & kavoctae dhususicckix ypasnctil ucnomayerca saxon TyKa, 10 TaKOH cHoco8 pacer HOCuET IaABAEe pacer no ynpyzou cmaduu depopmayui. Llocse oupeneien BU IPeUNX Yous — NpOAONLUAK CH B CTEPAHEX cTAMIMECKH neorperemmoii cHeTembt ~ scTacr sanava oGecnteyeHAs ce HposHOcTH. Tpit paceTe Ho yrpyroit cram eopmanuit cxeractes, “470 MpesletBHOE COCTOsEHE KORCTPYKIOM HACTYMAeT TOrsa, Kora OAK, anGomee HAMPAKeHMU, CTEPKEM’ TepeXONT & npesensitoe coctosmme (paspyuicea wim noreyet). Tostoy nocne ompereteuix yeunsii mo sTomy cmocoGy maxoxm MANPRACHUU B CRRPAIX 1 EMGHPAEM CTEpAXCH, B KOTOPOM sIeicmYer MaKCHMBNHIOE KapHcHHe, Hs yerToRHX UpoMOCHE TOTO HaHGoLIee HANpRKCHHOTO CTEPAUA TOO BBMHCIAEN JJOUYEKAEMYIO MArpYSKY, s1AG0 NlOLOKpAM ceNeMAK cTEpAHE Cacayer omen, «10 & Gommmcme crmnmecKit HeoMpeHeMMEN KONCTPYKINI B pesyayRaTe pacters Ho s1OMy cuocoGy TOIBKO § ONHOM CrepAHE HAUPAXCHHI GYAYT PaBHB! JOUYCKACMBOM, OCTLIBEBIC Ke CTEPAHH GyayT HenorpyAeHBL {Loc Pavenictsa uanpwxeiudi BO eeX outeMeNTAX KONCTPYKIVIN H, cxlenOATENANO, OFTHE RMNOAIENNX TpeGOBAEM, “IOGH AMPHOKCHIDL BO BCCK CTEPAHAX PASHULIIICS OMYEKAEMBM, 8 OGUIEM Cay'ae HeBOSMOKHO. Bropoit cnocoG pacvera cTamweckH HeOnpe7eTHMBIX CTEPAHEHKX CHCTEM HOCHT HasnaiMe pacweTa mo mpedenuomy nagemuveckomy cocmoxnwo. Bisroaps HaniKito AMMINX crepaHel § CTAMMECKH HeoUpeteAMMOl cHcTENE, HacTyTLIEHHE COCTOAMIA TeKYHECTA R ONHOM (HANGOTeE HANPAKEHHOM) cTePAHE eMe HE NpHROTHT K KapymtenHO reomerpmstecKott HeISMensemocMs Eceii KoNeTpyKiNaH. OCTAIBIBIC CTEPAHM, OCTABARC YUPYTENM, UPeHTeTByIOT IuacTITTeCKN se-bopseanyeme sroro crepata. Koscipykium upodoipxacr sAIOIMWTS CKOe MasHANeHNE, uepelian HS yupyroH cram paGor % yipyronnacnmeexyto. [pit yaemmienm HarpyakH m TulacTHMeCKyIo crazUUO paGOTM BoR:TeKaIOTeA Bce HORE CrepaKtH. H TOKO TOra, KOTAA B CHETEME HOTEKYT sce AMWHUE CTEPKEM H XOT GM oduN HeoGxodunust, KOHCTPYKLNH UpespaNtacte® MeXAHIOM H He MOKeF BKIONIOTE cHOM GYM, iO COCTOMME H CHITUETEA MpeNeNBNBIM MPH packere NO npeseABHONY mmcneeckomy coctosmmo, Taxis o6pasoM, pacer no mpeslenbiloMy Teac THMeCKOMY COCTOsIO CBOsUETCA K caeNTyIOMEMY: 1) onpenemse, cKoIKKo cTepAKeH 1OTAHO noTeUD, YTOGM KOHCIPYKIVA MpespaTWtack & MexaHGM, JJambHeiMN pacer RosMoxKeH mo [ayM RapwarTaN = com & mpeseMsHON COCTONHIM TEKYT BCC CTEPAHIE CHCTEM, TO, COCTABEN YpaBHCHNX PABHOBCCH KOHCTPYKIBIE 8 Uupegensuom cocTosiiM, HaXOsIIM 10 Hero sHaYEHKE UpesenbuOMT HarPYSKK Faye: + ces # MPeaemHOM COCTOsHMH TCT TOMEKO WACTE CIEpAHe, TO, He OUPexeMK HOpsAIKA uepexona crepaucit 8 WiMeMecKOe COCTOAHINE, PACEMATPHBAEM RCL KMHEMATHNECKH RORMOPKHIKIE RAPHAHTS! MPENETAHOFO COCTORIK KOH TPYKIBIH Haxoyuas us ypasiicuuit pasiiosecus npegemuylo Harpysky uix Kaxoro BapuatiTa, BUGupaeM 16 BCeX BapMANTION MMUEMALIELIOS snasenme mpenexsitolt MarpYSKM Fg. = Fig! 2) ms yerosn npousoem KoueTPYKINM NO MpeHeMHOMY COCTORIMO F < Fyg,/n GO wuUICNAEM onycKaeNyto harpysy, G0 noxxpaes ceverts cTepael Onsen, ‘1 pacter no upexemHoMy nnacnIecKoMy cocTomanO sBuCTEA Go:1ee SKONOMINHKIM, “eM pacer 10 ynpyrolt crasot xepopmaii. Hosroy pit epawvenint pexysimaroR pacera no JRYM cHOCOGaNt {O-PEKO HONE, 0 ONYeKACMAR HArPY3xa, HAiUIEMIAL pACHeTOM 0 NPeACABHOMY IIACTHNECKOMY COCTOSAMIO, BeeT|A HE MEIC HAYPYSKH, hnoaysemovi pacserox no ynpyro erauts acopwawin, Coomeremmerno nonasy covert erepacie, mate pacsteToM 0 npestensiony coctosmie, OsKHIM Gaete He Gomme cLiOMaNel cevexai, nonyseMIX pacer no yHpyrOH Cray egopmata Tpumepe! munoseix pacuemoe cmamuyecku Heonpedenumbix cucmem Pacesorpit ocuosunte ora pecviera crammeckit HeonpesesInMBix CHCTEM 1a upuMepe Upocreliann Kou IpyKui Npumep 17. Onpegemens nponomsimte cvs 8 ce ax cryMeMaTOre CTEpACA, HECTKO saKpemstentIOrO Mo KOHN (PuC.2.44, a. Peuenue. How aeticmsuet crus P 2 saeakax BosiaiKaior ouopubte peaKium R, UR. EMMeweWOe ypaBenNe paguoBecHA uMeet Bw B= Ry +Ry—P chegonaTerbHo, cHeTEMa OnW pas cTamecKH Heonperesioa, Jia pacKpAMMA cTuMeHeCKOHL MeomperemMocTK orSpoctos oxy Hs onop, nanprotep nepxmow (puc.2.44, 6), x coctanuM ana copa ypanicmie copMecmHocmH nepesteutet Tax xax amma cTepaRt He IOMEHECTER (0H AECTKO SOKPEITICH NO KOHIIM), YANMHEHKE BepXHel eT ETEPKH AlOMHO OA ‘anio ykopowenuo exw, Te. nepewemesme cesent C. be = Al, = Bly Ypastetne cosMeC MOC: HEpENEMIeHH MOKHO SAILICAM # HAOM BILIE, OUPEHEMNB NEpeMeIedE epREETO coxeRA A nog neliemmiex evr R, x P. Tak Kax 970 coven saxperiteso, ero HepeMenteHe Pansto Hy:10 6 = Al, ~ Aly = 0. Osesuio, 06a ypannetx conecmocm nepewentetntit pannos as Ha ocuonaiint saxon Tyka, ypasieunte conwcemioc™ nepewenscuil samaieM 8 BIE Rul _ Rol A” ea" ; eum Copwecmo ypasicse passiosectx x ypasieue nepewemtonni, nomyaiNe 3 Orem, “10 & Gonee xeCTKOIL HIDKHE!: “ACTH CTEPAH BOSHUKAT GONBILEA HO AGCOMOTHOMY SHASCHINO MpoOABHAR Npumep 18. K crepaino, saxpentemmomy oGouma oman, npitoxerta ocenas cura P (pic.2.45). Onperemm onoprme peaxioi Ry HR, cea nsweemans 1p, [2 HP. Pentene. 1. Cmamuueckan emopona sadau. x=0 BY =R+R-P=0 IM, Tlepsoe h apere yenonie yaoBnemopuIce ToxecmeNHO, TaKHM oGpasom, pacemorpenke cramecKoll cropount saa MpHBOIMT K omWOMY ypaBiieimuo ¢ ABy%x HeHSBecTBANAL RYR: @ Caenosarentno, aaa sansa oama pas (S=2-1=1) crammecks Heompestecna Ht AK ce PeUENH HyAHO COCTABITT eIe oaHo ypannesme, coxepxantee Te ae HeMsBeCTABIE R] H R2. Pue.2.45 2, Teomempuneckas emopona sadauu, Yeranosins cwssh meaty acbopwaninan yuacnKos sanoit J} 4/2 Benysae RepaspsIeNocTA YIACTOK JLIMEHOH [3 YKOPOTITES Ha CTOAEKO, HACKOMIBKO PAC THKETER YIACTOK jLUAHOK Al, =41,=6 ® Did W ects yexonHe ConMeEMIOCTA, RNIpaxEHHOE K jlepopmalUeEX. 3. Dusuueckan cmopona zadauu. TIna conmectuoro perientst (a) 1 (b) HYKHO, NOMsYack saxoHOM Tyka, BAIpATHTS eopmantAn (b) Hepes YeLTA: Nel, _ Ny EF EF a x MOR] BND-Ro Rls Be EF EF owiona Ry, =Ry ly oO 4. Onpedenenue neuseecmnstx, Peuraa (¢) conmecmo c (a) nonysne OnpeaesHe peakunm nop, MenlONSaYa MeTOR CeseIMH, MOKMO BBMINCAT BIYIpeIMmE uporoABIE CHT Imopa poqonbitsx cit mpesictanstera a pic. 2.36, 6. 5. Iuepeemuneckan nposepKa. cw P 4a siepemeutennn 5 pasta cymote noreuunawol sHepran zepopmaumt U sepxicit w woxteit PaGora A pucun saceit erepaxsut: A-U "ora P5 REL RE, a 72EF + 2EF 2EF(, +1) 2EF(, +1) 1. &, paneneTno y,louslerBopsercs. Mpumep 19. Onpesenit NponoqMHMe CHAI R CTEPABAX, Ha KOTOPHNC MoneITeHa aGcoMoTHO xecTKAR Gamka AC, HarpyAeNTAa cunoli P (puc.2.46, a). Crepacint wsrotosteubi #5 o7N0TO MaTepHaTa Ht UMEIOT O;UMIOKOBAIE MLTOMIaAM MoMepewutoro ceeNH Anos ewepacnelt pant 1, 121; 1, = 1.61. Puc.2.46 Pewenue. Hecnlonsaya Meron ceseniH, pacceteM cTepKU HM pAccMOTpHM paRHoRecHe oTCeveMOl HactH (pHe.2.46, 6). Coctanssew ypansienne panvionecra cH Tak ax HEUSBeCHILIX CHLI IPH, a ypaBuenit pasHosecua ssa, cHCTEMA OIE pas cramMMeckH Heonperemua. [lax penser 2404H HYRHO COCTARHTS O3HO yPasHeNHe CoRMEC HOCK epeMeMeHNt Paccmorpim reomempinieckylo acm sanau. Tak xax Gaxka AC io yeslonimo saan aGcomomo xecTKAs, 10 B PesysbraTe YIUIMNEHNR CTepAHH ONG TePeMECTHTEA BENS M TORepHETeA HA HeKOTUpHili yroz, ocTaBAACK. mpaMosmciHol Tlosoxexme cueTeMst roca neopMaiuin cTepkHET NOKaxaHo INTPIXORKIME ARENANIE Ha pHeEKe 2.46, d. Cocrasins ypanitcmue, cpassinazomce nepememene couennit A, Ba C eTepsxucii Al, — Al, "3a aa, 2Al,~ 3Al; +A; = 0. Venoassys saxon Dyka, snpasun nepemeutenis 4epes cin), eHiemmyIOUNe Ha TEPC ala ‘EA +o —3,6N; + L6N; = 0. Peanus nouzysentioe ypastenuie 1epemeuiennil cosMecTAO ypasHeHHaMH pasHonccus, Halixes Ny = 0,122P; Nz = 0,317P: N= 0.561P. Mpumep 20. Onpeseset mpojossubie CHUM, KOSHKaIOUE CTEpKiUEX cHeTEWM (pHe.2.47, a), Marepwaut, ruoMa HOnepeAIX covennii u anus scex cTepaneli muons 9 Puc.2.47 Pewenue. Tpwsenne wero cesemni, expesaen yumst A xB, samenms jelicTane oT6pomiemnsix sacrell cHeTeM cuuraN (pAc.2.47, 0), cocrasnsem ypasicunx pasnosecus cuLt ju18 Kaxcioro yaa mun yaa A Sx = NysindS? ~ N,sin45° = 0, omyaza Tz = N,cost5? + Nycos45° — Ny sua ysna BY x = Nesind5? — N,sin45? = 0, omynaN, = Ng: Yz= Nycosts® + Necost5 +N, —P =0. Maco somipe ypasHenis pAaBHORCCHA MMT. HEHSBCCTEBIX CHLT, CAENORATENBHO, CHCTEMA Osu pas cTaMTeCKH eonpenesa. Pacemorpum reomerpueckyio cropony 3aya4n. [Ip uarpyacenin CHCTEMM ciLIOH P ace ce CIEPKNH pacrArABaIOTeA H Aehopoponanniaa cieTeMa SANIMaeT MOOxEHE, NOKAsAHHVE NINPHKOBKIH ‘WHAM Hea PHkeYHKE 2.47, a Foam Ou cwepxens 3 GMT abcomoTHo -keCTKIM, TO MPH AeHopMaLUT CHeTEMAI NepeMertenA yasIon A i B Game Gat ommaxonnne. Tax Kax cTopxcih 3 pactarumactes, nepemeuicuse yaaa B Gonsine nepeweuewma ysna A nia yarimuciHe sToro erepasi by =o, + Aly. Ve extwu, ‘upeaerassemoa mo pucyuKe 247, a, miXomM coomouiCMe MOKIY HepeNeMeMMM yS108 H etopwaivean crepe Al, =e as45t' 98 = cosas Samutiew ypaeenne repementenni vepes egopmaiuan crepe ‘Al Aly poss? cosase * Ale . - Fienoxsys saxon Tyka, sspasion tepopsanum ctepasneli wepes scliemyrouyte 8 AUX tpostonsHe cx Nl Ml” NL Pacosts* * EA” Falco a? 1M, + Nycost5? — N, = 0. ean noaysensoe ypasvewie CoRMeCTHO € YpaBHesUAM paBHOREEHA, Haxo;UON 1, = Ny = 0,236P; N, =0,334P; N, = Ng = 0472P. Mpumep 21. Onpeacsam, yous 8 erepacuex cHeTeME:, BosiMKaroMNe & pesyasrare selicmua cum P. Jebopwausanae waccHsHo Gankn AC npeneSpeas, pre.2.48. Jano: £ Ey Fy=2R 2 Nh 12h 1,61 vez emer 1 Gaamneoancwapene stem Yreo Hanenemer=o Ly =the Sty 20 =0 owen ijeteth=P 2hyesm=P | @) 2, Teomempuneckas cmopona zadau, Tloy aelicmuens crim P Ganka AC onyenea w waKoMmes, sausE nonoxenue AC] (pue.2.48, 6). Wexont mi cHIOROH cXeMEI, OMpesteIEM CTETEKK cTUTIEcKoH HeonperemmMoct#: S-3-2-1, Creslonaremsio, s1H onpenezema tpex uewsnectimx cum Nj, N> N3 tpeGyetes onto Aonommerenitioe ypasuenue. Ono coctannaeTes us yenonHa commectioera nebopManiin crepasiell no exeMe JlebopmMpoBailioll CHE TEN ‘AI,— Al, Aly Al, . F ae ® wun 201, ~ 301; + Al; 3, Dusuveckax cmopona zadauu. Tho saxony T'yka unex oh aha ats = Fe = ae pa Male _ LONAl 7° ER EF Tlonctanass o70 (b), nomyyaest N,-3 © 4. Onpedenenue neurecmunx. Pemtaa cosmectao ypasxcau (c) u (a), waxoai 5. Iuepeemuneckan npoeepKa. PaGora 4 BHeMKeH cWIsI P Ha HlepeMenleHH 6 paBita CYMME HOTEHLNAIKHON DHEPrHH jebOpNANIM CTEpAHEH CHETEN wa-u Nit, | NE, eam @ 2” 26 F* 2EF rae atone EROER o= 2A, a Toxcrazasa nce # (@), nonysine 33,811,2-33.811,25 1: €, pasenetmo (@) yaos1emopseres. Mpumep 22. Onpeaenm yenma & cTepKHAX, BOSHUKaONIE Np cGopKe Ysa A Hs-sa MeTOUHOCTH 6 HSTOTORTeHIA sTeMeHTD ceucrens (yetpaneme Texttoaoruuecxoro sasopa 5) puc. 2.49, a Mano: E -E2-E; Fyp-2rp-2F; helh, é Pemenue. 1. Cmamuuecxan emopona sada. BY = RY +sing -Ri-sing BV = Ry Ry cose — Ry -cos@ sorta Ry = RY = Ry WR, =2R,-cosp @ 2, Feomempuueexan emopona mdaun. Thoene npimysimensnoft eGopsm xonetpysramt mapimp A saiiwer ronoxerme Ay (pie. 2.49, 0). Crepacmn 1 1 2 oaxytea pactanyman, B coomercTaiM ¢ om exewa nehopmaporantioll cHeTENK HoteeT BA, nOKasauNiA Ha pute. 2.49, 6 Croncis ctamriccxoit neonpercninwocm S-3-2-1. Mexoax 1s excwnt segopsnponaimoro cocrommns, cocTanaseM YeuOBHe COBMECTAMOCTH Aecbopmanpitit: al; a+ cose ® Ciporo ronops, yaummeme Al, noayumres, ecan wa t0¥KH B onNeaTs Ayry pawayea Ty OMNAKO, B cHMy aoe Aebopmaniii, A, MOxNO nonysHrTs, OMYEKAS nepreNANKynAP 18 TONKH A Ha HOROE HaNpARneItHe CTepAT B coSpaniom coctosminn yrox Memay cTepaHAMH I; GyseT MeHBMIe, HEM 2g. OstHAKO, B cHY ManoCTH ae*Pop\attt, HoaeHenne yriia g orpasiies Ha 5 iuut 6 sHaKe KocHHYca, HO Mecymfec CHO, 3.Dusuueckaa emopona sada, Cornacito 2axony F'yxa 7 ML a 2EF Seance Moyerabis 0 () oy N+ cosg + 2N, =——— © T 4. Onpedenenue neureecmnsis, Peaiaa cutetemy ypasrerit (c) w (a), © yueros, 10 N7=Ry, a N2=R2 mee: 26+E+F costo = 3° 1 + cos%9) re NV] i.N2 aK HasaeMBIe Mo:TaKHINE yer Npumep 23. Onpenesiis yer ® ereptox cveTe Mss, ROSHIKAIOKIME B peaysTbTaTe OROPOTA ZMRYXCTOPOHNlT REETOROIE CORK <> 1a yroa B®, Kectkocts CORK panita weCTKOCTH TPeTCrO CTEpATA (pH. 2.50). Tawo: Ey-Ey Mar RINTOBOH MapesKH ralinn- hy Ul y Al 8) Pue.2.50 Pewenwe. J.Cmamuveckan cmopona 20a, Cocramnxem ypaseniix paznouecix yasia A (pue. 2.50, #). Vuiersigas cuMeTpHio OTHOCHTEABHO OCH Y, uMeEN: BY = 2N, -cosp —Nz=0 Orer0a Ns (@) 2osp Coctanaxem ypasnienva pastionecua ysaia B (pn, 2,50, o) Brey —2hye’ 5 ree Toosa eres craiexoi neompereremoctnoxetmsaerer a 3-2-1 2, Teomempuveckas emopona sadauu, Th vonopre ara yong? cepa 3, coeosun myx wears ray a emu 6 = 23 8. Pue, 2.51 3a ever BBMMTARARME cTepaCHA 3 TouKH A HB cOmmmtex Ha RETIN 6, @ 3a CHET paCDOKCHA 97OTO CTEPAHR HW CDORKTL OnM pasoituyren Ha semmmAy AL, (puc. 2.51). Torta, Ha ocHOBAKIM cxeMBL sleopsposaHHOi cHcTeME, ycu1oBHe coumectocra sietbopManiil Oyler HMeTs Bit al core ae ~Al; oO 3, Dusuneckan cmopona sadaun. Cornactto saxony T'yka. a, Mis Male tT DEF’ apa Mb, a TBR EF @ ayo Mle 27 BR EF Snvce ft hy w yeaosmo, a 12 1 fy woxno onpenenms 1s pasenews xpoenun cmp na roprsomamuyio sepmnansayio oom (pie. 2:50, 2 ¢ tgosing = Iy-sin €: = Lycos + 1, -cosp Tlonerazsias (d) B (€), nosy: Mle Nats BEF cos6 * Feo $ 4. Onpedenenne nevssecn mets, Pearaa exeTexy, cocrannezmy70 1 ypc (a), (x) 1 (e), noayb 26 +EF -cos?2- cose © igeos + 2igcostg + gear" 25-EF -cos: costo tycos*$ + 21,cos*p + 41,c0s?$-costg 48 -EF -cost$ cosy Fo teas Fcare tyeos?$ + 21 Mipumep 24, Onpeacnm yorm 8 crepacuns cucteMss, BOSHUKAOLIME B pesyuEnIe HosBEeHN TeMteparypar BCX CTepaCHel a 2°C (puc. 2.52, a) Bano: F} Pewenue. 1, Cmamuseckan emopona radar. C yuerom conemerpin omiocitemsito ocit Y wMtcen LY =R, —2R,cosp = 0, na R; = 2R,cosp @ 2. Teomempuveckan emopona sadaru. B pesyssiare repstnecxoro pacuumpenun rouKa A uepemecnmex 8 Ay (pac. 2.52, 6). Hexoan us exes aormmpornmet oncrpytm oxo cormaimyesonve conse oem eps hee o 3. Duswiecnan cmopona sada. Kpalome eTepanm 1 snmmee cpemiero cTepksix 2; KPOMe Toro, ¥ KpAinOK cTEpAHEH KonpibunGieHT MET pacimmpermta Somme, em y cpesmero, To >10% mpwumne TowKa A y MepEAX cTepmnei onyeMUIACs Ost THEE, eM TONKA A y s1oporo crepes, eciH Gai on neopampowANce OmetHO, Ho TAK KAK OHH 8 TOIKE A CRARAHM LAPHUPOM, TO KOSHHKACT croronoe azanMozeicTene GoKOBN H EpestHero CTepAHeH. BOKOBME CTEPAHD, YIUINHAACK 22 CHET TEPMINECKOTO BowICHICTENA, Gyayr omnospemento yKOpAUHBATSCA B PesyABTATe ACHCTSIR ROSMMKAIOMICTO YCICINA, cpeMMAt ae CTEpAH GyACT YsLUMTAC ak 8a Cer TepAOHiecKOFO PACLIMPEHAR, TAK 1 8a CHET MexaKUtecKOrO stelle TRIKK Ha 1HETO xpallnx eTepKHET Caenozarenito Al, = ay sly st? Mb Tyedt® Mi pea hy Ag = 12a ly bee E We Al,= © rae ly = I, cosa noactasiiix (c) 8 (6), uony wos: 2N, + Nz cos" = aEF(1,2—cos*g) “At? © 4. Onpedenenue neuseec Peaaa enetey ypannew (a) u (A) © yerom, 0 Ry=Ny W R9N9, nosy: aEF(12~ cos") bt? 20 +cs%e) abF(2— cos) cos “At Tt caste Tipwmep 25. AScomono weetRnii Gpye O:MAPBETEN Ha IapHNPHO NeNOURIAHYIO OHOPY H IPHRPENLTEN K YM Cre PH OME smapimpos (pc. 2.53). Hexommme natmnse: a~2,1 m, 8~ 2,4 m, ¢~ 1,5 m, P= I2ew2, E = 2-105 Mil Tpedyetex nal |, youn x nanpoxeraia p cvepxton, muipasue soc Hepes cxEny OQ; 2. nouyexaenyto narpysky [Q],pupasiin Gossuice wx Hanpsoxesl 8 RYX crepAWANX jOKYeKAEMOMY HanpsEKeHINO [2] = 160 MI, 3. upeuemsuyio FpysONOsBeMHOCT CHETEML Qnp, H HOuyeKAeNyIO MarpysKY [Qyp]p ecm pesen Texyseem 6," 240 Milan sanae nportoem n = 1,5; 4, cparunts Remnant wonyexacw Harpya0K (Q] # [Onp Pewenue. Yowix Mi, a N2 ® crepxiox 441, BB}, wlapumpHo upuKpesieHHAX HO KOMLUM, HANPARIEKKI RAOT OCe ctepacnet, Peak onopst K meer ropisormansiyto coctastmomyto Hx, # nepriaasiyio coctasasomyto RK, TK. 978 onopa aux "npensremmyet ropisormankilomy 1 nepmikactaromy nepementernuo Tos K Gpyca. Taku oGpazom, kccro uncewa veTupe Hewsnce Tue peaxtumt (puc.2.54), a ypanucuult parwonceHs aux nn0cKoit eMETEMH! CHI MoxHO CocTaRINT Acero TpHL CuleORATENBNO, JaKHAK CHeTEMA O7NIH pax cTaMMECKH HeoMpeeMa. CranmecKs HeoMpeesMBIc CHCTEMM PACCHNTSIBSIOT NYTEM COBMECTHOTO PCUICHMA YPABHCH, HONYICHEONX B pesyasTeTe pacemorpen eTIMPHECKOM, reoMerpiFtecKoll HM dirsitteckKoll CTOPOH 3a, Ny % t Puc, 2.54 1, Halinew yours 1 nanpmkeins n eTepaktinx, noIpasi HX leper cHtty Q. mmiieexaa cTopona satan. Tlo YeHORMO x4zasK HeOTXOAHMO OnpenemiATs yeWINA N}, w.N2 cTANbHAIX cTepasnelt Ay, HBB}, a8 onpexexeauii peaxumit Hx; a RK wer HeoGxoammocm. Tlosway gocrarowso us TpcX SosMOAHKIX ypeBxeunit PABHORECHA HCHHONSIORATE OHO, B KOTOPOE He EXO; Gb! peaKtK HK, «RE. TaKIM saBAKeTA ypaRKenne 2 BILE EYMAEKE Momemiog acex eiu1 omociTesbiO mrapampa K: EMy = Nyh+Nzb— Qe = 0, me h = asin45® = 2,1 0,707 = 1,485 ™. Tlonctanasx n ypasnenme stasemns h, b, e, noaysM 1485N, +2407; = 150. @ a, /4 By A e 5: K iB 4 8, By Puc.2.55 Teomempuneckax cmopoua sadauu. Lion jelicmuens sueiuelt cman Q aGcomome xecrKHil Opye slowepuerex soxpyr 1ouKi K: Iapanpa A vB nocte sebopmauyar nepexonsr 8 nonoxedne Az 1 B2 coomeretmeno, Te. nepeMentaores 0 sepmmcani ua nosis 5, # 6 (pue.2.55). Hes noaoGwe tpeyrousinKos ADK u BB2K waxomsas z ® Bupanin yxopoverme AI, erepxna Adj x ysuumeme AL, erepan BBY, seper nepestememnr 5, 5, al, oe sin45?” 6, = My, oixyaa 3 ay 4%, Mysinas® niu © yeron paxewenma (b) asin45° 5 © Pusureckan cmopona sadauu, Vicnonsyx saxon Tyxa, sanncananii sya abcomommx xehopmannii, sxipasnm yummie empl sepes yeux Al, = Al; _Mav2 ‘EF EF @ THowembiia supaxciui () » yeaosue (6) Nyev2_Npb asin? EF >’ nese coxpanenne no N=N; © Pemaew conmectio ypantiems crane (a) # ypannere(¢): (uassn, + 24N, re N=N,= 2-9 =0; i= Na = zaqe 0 = 03860. Oupese:nes nanan x cxepain 1 2: 160,89 Ta, 2. Hatin Tonjexsenyio marpysry [Q], Tpmpasian Gomme mm nanpeKem myx cTEpAW TOTVeKAeMONY vanpacino [o}~ 160 MIL, 321 - [Q] = [ol. [e] _ 160-10° (= 35 = aan 3, Halen npeneniyio rpyso 240 Mla aanae mposmoent n= 15. Tit Yoornicaar inrppatt Jenene stwvces (Q] nemporeant m oScit creek camvana yaeniwumser mpao nyonopimovamso tarpyane, Tipu yeentiewma warpyakw no vetoropoR nent Q>[Q] wanpexetwe g, Ho sTOpOM crepace ocoaor npesens Teeyecml cp, a youme Np - Opemeasmoro simsest Nayy = e[F. Tp sms manpexeIme C2 DepBOK 1498 + 105 H. sentocTe cHeTEME! Onp, 1 ZOnYCKaeMy'O KarpYSKY [Onp]. ecu Mpenest TeKYIECT Gy clepRHe ocmetex Menbuze gp. B upoucece sasHeliero yECMNCHIN HArPYSKH KANPEXCHH BO BIOPOM cIepAHE oCTaIOTE HoCTOSIUBING, paBHIMH Upejlery TeKYYeCTH, a 8 NepBOM = BOSPACTAIOT, HOKA TARE He CTANOEATC paBIINH gp, yeHINe NY ups SOM PABHO Np = op -2F. 3H COLTOAIME CHCTEM HasaMAeTeS NpereMMIM, CoOMeTCTEyIONUAL weNepHamHO ee rpysontomemtiocm. jLatsueiinice, axe HesHaIMTENBHOe YBCINCHHe HArpySKH CBsSAHO C RecbMa GoxMMMMH tedopManHAN encTem, Bemisia Q, EKIMRAIOINYIO MpeseTBHOe COCTORIE, OFOSHANAIOT Opp H HaskiBalor npeeTBHOM Harpy3Ko Jaa onpencneinia Qyp, noxeTabion 8 ypaniicic (a) sisi cit, cooMeTeTEy.OMLIK PEAEMHOMY CoCTORMHO, KOT Q= Qn. Ni = Ninos N2= Non’ ABS + op + 2F + 24+0p °F =1,5Qry, “or FOARS-2+24) _ 240-106 -12-10-4-5,37 op = CAEP AAD AONE OT = 1.03 108 H, rd leg = 0687 10° H. 4. Cpanina nenmninsrnonyexacwnx Harpy2ox (Q] 1 [np] [my] _ 0.687-108 1@] ~ 0498-108 Creaosaremo, pa pactere ui npowocte sami cucramt no mpexemuoi aarpyske rpysououneamocTs oe ynenaumastea na 38 = 138, Pacem koncmpykyuii no donyckaeMbim Haepy3Kam. Pac4em cmamuvecku onpedenumbix cucmem no cnocoby donycKaembix Haepy3oK. B mpemsuyuen ssr0meMN MeTOIOR pacHera MBI HEXOATUM HS OCHOBHOTO YeAOBIN NPOHHOCTH Gage < [0] O10 repascucts0 TeGyer nisGopa PasNepon KONITPYKIUM ¢ TAXIS PACMETON, “TOG! HMIGONTITEE HaNPRACIUIE B CANON OMTCHON Ho MOKHO crams na APYryiO TOHKY spen, MoxHO sanam yenoRNe, TOG jelicmTEsMNON narpysKa Ha no1O xouempysiono ne npenocxozina stexoTopoil zonyckacwolt ening, Venopite aT Morxto SupAsiem TaKIDG HepancitcTBOx Pras $ Fron 3a TOMYcKaeMyo MArpySKY nazo nusGpam neKoTopyIo Ik HacTs Toi narpyskry, MPH KoTOpOM KONE yKIUMR NepecTENET Gymunowposan upsswinio, uepoctuier sautonum cxoe aasieeTeime, Taxen narpysic oBKtHO uAswACTeA upCHCIOi, Iorna—paspyniaiouel B LINPOKOM CMBIEME cosa (TX PASPYIICHEN KORCTPYKIBOL OApasyNeNaIOT mMpexpaINeAe nopmanssoit paGom). Birawectse npiepa nosawen cnevemy us anyx cranuimx crepneli ABM AC (pue.2.56), narpyxcrmc enol P P Pue2.56 Pacewaraimax ary enerewy OSH HyTeM, HaijteM yon Ny = N2 no opmyne: P Ny=N,= >= (ws pantionecis yaaa A). Oreioza nome KaxnOro Hs crepaicl pant P acre F2 iG 2ojcosa Ilo cnovoSy onyexacaam iarpys0x snvcca P< Pron Boose kavecme xonfifimuiena sanaca um KONCpyKIUMH 8 KeIOM Ty Ke RemMY k, KoTOpaR Gusta mpinUTa B steome Konfbuiewa sanica UIC MAMPI, MI MOND, IO Rem Poe Pron = = enema, onacnoll nemmiinoli Pay Gyset Ts, np KoTopol MINpOKEHOIB CTEPAEEK AOHLYT 0 NpeneMa TKyCT Prop = 2Fo7cosa Taka o6pasox, onyexaenas wezirmnia P pasa 2Fozcosa Pron = ke Yeronste npormocts nprmntaer RI 2arcosa << a yours, “110 yr onysaem: P< 2F{clcosa Oreo Tako OGpasom, pacer no AOMYCKAeMMIM HarpYSKaM PHBE 8 JAHIHOM CAySe K TEM Ae PesymISTATEN, STO Ht PacsieT HO TONYCKAEMBIM HAMPERCHHM. 1 REEMA HMEET MECTO ILIA CTAMIECKH ONpeeTIMEK KONCTPYKIOGH MPH paBHoMepHOM Pacrpenestemu naNpHxeHHi, Kora MaTEpHALI HO BCeMy Ce¥eMMO HeHONESyeTeA HOHOCTIO, Pacyem cmamuyecku Heonpedenumbix cucmem Mo cnoco6y donyckaembix Hazpy3oK Coscem apyrue pesyautamr Max nomyuiM, ecain GyeM Mpuwensen crocoS joMYeKAeMMX marpysOK K cTanHeCKHE HeOnPeNeTHMSIM CHCTEMAM, CR-PAHH KOTOPKIX IFOTORNEHAL IG NaTepHaTa, oGIAIaHOMer cnocoGEOCTO K GonAIME mactmseckin jebop\aiyiaM, HanpHMep Hs MaoyTaeposICTOM CTA, B xavectse npumepa paccMotpun cuctewy us 1pex crepaKcii, marpyascumsnx custolt Q (pac. 2.57). Tlyem woe erepacant cenanst 1s MatoyraepomucToli cram ¢ mpesenom texyyeent g-. Jf mr Kpaiinu crepaeil, Kax u Beuute, oGOsHANIC 5 LEY epesuero Ly, Jouyexaenoe uanpaxesne [2] = o,/k Puc.2.57 Kak 1 panisine, mpi pacers oToil CTATHNECKH HeonpErETHMOl! CRETEMM IATANNMER OTHIONIEHMEM MIoIaell eTepAKHEH; HpymeMt, 810 Ree "pa crepakia GymyT HMeTs osWuaKORyIO nitonas F. Hoary: LL, =N, 2.Ny+2N,-Q=0 3. al =Alycosa. Venonayx saxon Tyra, noxyon WM, = Nycosta retoRare10 Q x,=-— 371+ 2eqsta Qcosta wy, = 224 yy, TL + 2cos%a 7? Tax Kax NV > Ny c; nosromy noxGop iiomaan coven F Hao nporsnecnt no dpopayate: pee CS P21 Te teos@lo} Ty ae neniomy MOMayO HATO ATH GoKONKIM CTEPATUM; H HHK noAyaaeTEA HexoTOpKi AonomOTentuNt sande. ren capes annex pox; Yea momen ae 05 Qn = ‘ro n jarmom caytae exeayer nowEan nOK npereMHOi HarpysKo KOnTPyKUN? TAK KAK KOHCTPyKINA BKMOANEEA ve weerepuana, HOVONLETO MIOMANEY TEXYECTH, TNO ANRLOTHH © NPOCTAM PACTOEMHEM CTEPHCNA HS TAXGTO METEPHATA, 38 npeneniryio marpysxy caenyer usa Tpys, coomer-myromnit AocTHxemno coCTOAMU TexyecTH 31x sce KonompyKu 6 epeauuit crepaems nanpmxedt Gomi, eM Kp syenom, Hasonen ary narpysxy Q&, Toxa enna Q ne nocTar%a snore sHaventis, a ranweimelt redopwarin (onyeKarN TOA A) mpesyeren noxpacranne warpyskn., Kors ae Q enwenacwea paswnim QE, sansueliii pocr xepopmaua Gyner npoxexesur ye Gen ypenuenis narpyss, — KonCTpYRUAx noir wx c1pom Tina onpezenerx nemmnnar Q¥ paccorpis nocrenemtit xox zeopwaluM mameit eTepawnol cueTeMBE. Tax KaK epesvuti crepe nanmpoxen cruise xpaiix, 10 & HEM pal g HORNEY AO peta Texyerm Harpyany, coometemyiouyio 21oMy Moseiry, oGoanawin Oy; ona Byer pans: Q, = (1+ 2cos* any rae NT = Fo, — Yeu» epensen crepane, coometemytoule ero mpeneny TeRy eT Flanpaesns xpaiin eTepAISX, YMICIOUUD Ty Ae MIOUIAH, B OTT MONEHT eule HE AOKI) 0 npenena TexyueCT, H om expauut Gyayr yupyro componmumncs aamuciiuel aepopueum. Maa wre MOGs om ueopwaiya upouexosw, HeoBxowuimo saTAHeTiee yesIEeHME HArPYSKHC AO TEX HOP, HOKA Kpaiinux CIEPAHAX HALPRACHIAL TORE He JOHUYT AO Mpeeta eM SIPYT IK, HaMpEReTN rexy'teem, Jub torte Byxer Ao TArHyA npetemaa rpysonosTbeMteTs Kone MYR QE “Tae xax tpi narpysKe Or nauprrceino 6 epesnien crepe soy ye 0 PEteNa TeRYEEDK oy TO ApH sie ospacramtt rpyta om, a crato Girmh w younue N3, ocrmyra Gea yeenvenus. Hata CrMIGECKH HeONpeReTENAR CHET npenpanicea n cTzniecis onpenemuyio, cocToautylo m AByx crepanelt AB w AC x marpyxemye w TosKe A enol Q, sianpanseino am, xszecmunon yownnem NS, panniin Fc (pue2.58) PucdS8 ‘Taxa exewa paGoms namedi KoneTpyKiamt GyMer Hes MeCTO, TOK @sese Jina vxsoctpanom xora Aebopwammm pacearpmmacsiofi KONeTPYKLOM HEOGpasHM Tpa‘ceK SaBHEMMOCTE. MEATY enol Q ui nepeemennen f Tosa A (pne. 2.59) Q < Qp- Toxa onyexarte TOK A paRHo YANIHERMO cpemero CTEPAHS T oupexexteres bopmy:toii 7 fo, #8 = G+ 2c0s*@)EF Puc.2.59 Kak tomo Q Gyner sacmowamsen B npoweKyTse Q. Q,, Npu narpysxe Q nomioctso Henomsayerea MaTepHa BCeX TeX CTEPAHEHL Tarim oGpaioM, HOBHil MeTO PACKET HOSBOAKET PeAEOBAM CKPSIIMC pH CTAPOM cuoCOBE SALAS UpoNBIOCT 8 CTAMMECKH HeONEeNANKK CHETENAX, OGATHCH —MOBKINEMA YX puctemmot rpysono;teMHIOCMA —H sleicmATEABNOIE Pasnonpounocn xcex wacre xoncpyguum, He upexctanits wikaKix saxpyaucunil pacupocrpauit 2108 Mex Ha cay, korsta coomoulenne wiowaitel epestero m xpalinnx crepaRnel He Gyster paRHo es, Vixoxetmmie Buime Teopemmeckne COOGPAREHIA NPOREPATHCE HEONROKPATHO Ha OMBITe, MPMeM Rcerxa HaBMoTATaCk ocTaToutlo Garskax CxXOMHMOET, SenIHH MPereNbHol KarpysKH— BhiMNCAeHHO! H oNPereTeHEIOH NpH sKenepHONEHTE. Io ser YREPENHOCT B NpARHUIBHOCTH TeopeTIMeCKHEX MpesMOCKUIOK METOIIA AONYCKACMBX HArpYOK, Pacuem 2u6kux Humet Biexnixe metpesaewes eUe OAH BILT PACTNKYTH IEMEHTOR, IPH ONPENEEHHI NPOLHOCTH KOTOPAX BOKHOE SKANEHHE weer coGemenuali nec. 310 — Tak nashinaewite rHGkHe MM, TAKHM TepMMNIOM OGodtAAIGTCA FHOKHME QueMetrA R NHNLEX SuekTPONEpeHtaY, # KAHATHRIX OPO, 8 BHERUIIX MOCTAX H sIpYCHEX COOPYACHHAK. Tlyets (pve.2.60) mMeeTeA THOKAA HUTS MOCTORKHOTO CeYLNA, HAIpYACHHAR COBCTACHIIBIM RECOM H NOABEMIENHA B BYX TOUKaX, maxonAMLUXEH a pasuX yposnax. Tog, siicmHe coGeMCHIOTO cca INE NposHeAeT to NeKOTOPOH KpHBO!t AOB. Topisorransiax npoexiu pacctosmus Mexjty onopawit (ro¥KaMH ee saxperuiem), oGosszdaemax /, HoCHT HasRanHe npoxema, Thre uateer noctommoe cesenne, eweoMaTeHO, Rec ee pacMpenesTeN paRHOMePHO nO ee JUINNE, ODA npoReaKHe mu nesesMKo Ho cpasieino ¢ ee MpoxetoM, H ;LiKua KpuBOMl AOB wasio ouuMaeres (ue Gouee weAt 11a 10%) oF pL XOPsIAL AB, Bows caysae © ZocTHTOIHON CTeneHBIO TONHOCTA MOAHO CHNTATS, WTO REC ENT PaBHOMEpHO PactpedeeH He Ho ee JAKE, To 7UUHHE ee MPOEKIUE Ha FOpHEOHTAMSHYIO OCk, 7. e. B/Omk Npoaema I. J Sty Kareropato ruGxuex waredi sat m pacestozpns LIpuntem, 10 uirexcusHoct Ma’pySKH, pasHOMepHO pacupestexeHHott Ho mponery Wins, paguia q. ra Harpyska, HMeIomlaK pasMepHocT cura/dnuia, MOKET GbMs He TOIBKO COBCTBEHIKM BECOM 111, UpHXOMAMUIMICR HA EAMEMY ju Morera, HO M BCCOM atBsla HAM sMOGOH APyrOH warpySKOH, TACKE paBHOMepHO pacrpeneremiol, Cnenantioe onyinente © 3akoKe pacmpereeKix HarpysKH suasIrTeTAHO OBerYaeT pacsier, HO jeNaET ero BMeCTE ¢ TEM UpHGMinKeMIM; eC MPH TOWOM penTeIaH (narpyska Pacmpesteneita Brom KPHBOIf) KpHBOH Mponucamtex GyneT LHenaK TMK, To & MpAGOKCHHOM pelLICHH KPHBAA NpOBHICAMHA OKASHIBACTCA KBaIpaTHO napaGortO Fasano Koopmnnar muiGepeM R caMoll HiEHIeH ToNKe MPoRHeaHHA wETK Q, NoLOXEHME KOTOPO!!, HAN ToKa HeHSReCTHOE, OWCBMINO, SABHCHT OT BCMMMUEA HACPYSKKE 4, OT COOTHOMICENE MEALIY ALUMMOM MEME NO KpHBOH H JMO UponeTs, a TAKE OT omOCHTENAHOTO HosO-ACHA ONOPHAIX TOHeK, B TO4Ke O KACaTENBHAA K KPHEOH UPORHCAKION HID, O¥eRILIHO, ropiROHTANHA, Lio roll kacaTessHoll naupaRHM BIpano OCb X. Bupexem sya cetenion — 8 Hate KOOPANHAT H Ha paccTOREHH x OT Hatta Koopamtar (CeMeHHE mM —n) —HaeTs JeIMst vars, Tak Kak HiT mpesmosOxeHla rAGKOH, . € CHOCOSHOM cONpONMATKEA JIMIIK pactoKeWHO, To jeliemMe o1Gpomremofi waeT# 1a ocTasmIyIoca BOSMOXKIIO TOALKO B BILE CHAK, HampanneMoii no KacaTemoit x KpuBOii nposHcanns tT FB MecTe paspeta; wllve Hanparneiie 9704 CHCTAL HeROA MOO, Ha pue,2.61 npeietansena suipesaimaa sacTs nit ¢ jelicTaylouynMn Ha Hee cHLTaN, PaswomepKo pacmper HarpYSKa METCHCHBHOCTHIO q HaNpaBTeHA BephaAsKO BHU. BosrecTsue xeBol oTpoulcuHoll acne (ropisoMTanaes cHe1a H) HanpaRTeHO, REIGLY TOTO, $10 HIT paGOTAeT Ha pacDReKHE, wieKO. J[elieTEHe paKol o1GpouleHHOMK YacTH, cHL1a T, HaNpABIEHO npazo no KacateabHoli K KpHBOH NpoReaHus HiTM B 910% TONKE. Cocmpis ypapucue paBuogccHs BMpesmEIOrO YuaCIKA ue BOE CYMMY MOMCINOZ BCex CH OMIOCITCMHO ToskH npIIOKemMs CHLIKI T 4 sIpupaRxeN ee yo, IIpH 970M YSTEM, ONMPAACH a UpHBERENHOE B HAYALIE jlonyALeKHe, TO parxonelicmyromas pacnpereneunoll Harpysku HITEHCHBOCTAIO g OYBET gx, HH ova MprIOXeHA NocpemIMte oTpesKa x. Tora Hey -qx omyna ae == 2.39) .= a 239) a Oreo exeayer, ‘wo spimax oposite. mm aBxAeTEX nepaGo.rof. Kora oGe Tox noAweca TOR HaNOTATER a oxwom ypotne, 10 f, =f, =f. Bemouma f » anion eaysae Gysier Tax naskinaewoti cmpetol mponneanma, Ee serKo onpeueum, Tak Kak'R 910M cxy"ae, REILLY CHNMEIpIL, WUE TOUKA HTM HaXoWHICA ocpeAne Nposera, wo a=b=1/2; uoueiasian 8 ypazueuue (2.39) suavense 2u yf uonysacy: r-2 2.40) ‘Vs s10ii bopmyant Haxonum Benmunny cHmps H: qt at ea " a) — Fee aa nas — smn porn Oncysta exeayer, s10 cna T ysemunsaeres Or mise TONKH mM x OnlOPaM M Byer HaNGOLTHEH TONKAX HIOABeCA — rane, ne KacaTeAH K KPHROME NpORIICAEHEL WITH CoctaRsAeT HaNGoMMUIN yron ¢ ropioHEATMG, [pH MaTOM HPOBHeAHUNK HIE TOT rom He AOCTHTaeT GomRINHX sHaNeMH, NoTOMY ¢ NOCTATOSHOM [UK MPAKTIACH CTETEHKIO TONHOCTIE MOXHO CHHTATH, STO Yemme 8 1mm nocTomO H pasuO ce HanaKeHMO H. Ha sTy BemMunTy OGurMO H BereTER pacteT mpowoctH aim, Fem Bee xe Tpedyetea Rect pacteT Ma HANGOMBILYIO CILIY y TOUEK HomBecs, TO ANA CHMMeIpHIKOH HIE ce eMMAY ompereTHM ctegylonua uyren. Bepmixauisubie cocramisionie peakivei ouop pauist MEY COGolt M paz rlonoBiMe CyMMapHOF HarpysKs na mum, xc. qi/2. Topisommmaic coctasimonse pasust cute H, oupeacnsemoit no opmyzte (2.41). Tommie peaxuuat oop HHony'aiea Kak PeoMeTpIeCKHE CYMMt DINK. COCTABAHONX: 2 2 16P af fish aw pee oF e e Yeronne nposnocti sua rAGKOH Hint, ecam Hepes F oGosnela MLIOMANK CeEIME, MEET BALL o=Fsl Jancis Hapocexne H ero aHascaMem 10 dpopayite (2.41), Hoss ae ws oF Hs voit Popa npusanaman | g, FH [g] MOxHO onpeseme HeoSxoMNy0 expeay npossearu f. Peusexne pH >roM ynpoctimes, ecam m q nkmoveHt mm coGemetmbt nee; Torna q _ FE _ ae © 8F[e] Se] ‘te, gousumia F he noliacr s pacer emit Tsien nosweca HEMI HaXosETeN Ha PASHIX ypoBHAX, 1, Ho:eTABAAK B ypanHenne (2.39) suasenuN xa M1 x=b, naxommn fu f,: 2 we Aol oe Oreroi1a 1 stoporo supaxcents onpeensen nanpxerme F, tne y — nec emmys oGkewa Matepwata mer, 1 Mien 8 ninay, 10 ba" veo fh i wi loxeranio 970 suaveune b 2 Gopuyay onpexenemoro uavoxeusx H, oxowtaressHo onpexeases wt (242) + VA? iva ouaka 8 Yhawtenarene ykassiRaior Ha To, ATO MOFYE GhiTs se CeHHOBKE PopMI NpoRNEAKIIX MeN, TepRax ‘bop px moxmeat snevermm /T (sHax Moo nepe- BTopSOK KopieM) 7acT Hew Reputy MapaGoms! Neary onopastt soe. TIps Gomuien nammxexa 1 (siaK wuMyC 1epEA BrOPEIM KOPHEM) BepILIa HapaGoNs pacHOIORUTER seRee oNOps A. Tlosyseest nropyio opMy xpimol, Boswoxwa nl ape (POMeKYIONAaK MEKIY ABYMA OCHORNBIMH) opMA —~POBNCAHNA, Coomercmyiouian yesionio fF, = O; Torta navao KoopmMar O3 coRNenlaezea c TOSKOH A. Ta HiM wiaa dopma Gyaer Hoaysena 1 3aRHeMMocTH OF CooMOMIeMH Mexay sLiNHOH HTH HO KPHAOM upoRHcann AOB (puc.2.60) 1 suimeOH xopast AB. [Bemit upit noabecke Hirt na pasiihX ypoBHiAX HeBBecTHM expen NPosucaIN f, uf, Ko wBeCTIO HaDEAEUE H1, 10 ‘terko Kony‘, suavewuix paccroaaull a u bu etper nposueania f, uf. Paskocts h yposueli noasecks pasta h=h- Tloxerasin » 210 xpaxcime suaseme fF, 1 f,, MpeoSpasyen ero, nex B Bitty, 410 atb=l qa ae 7 =n n= 2A) “_2Hk boasor amar Kak atb-1 10 l Hh 1 Rh 2g 8 2tG Cacnyer iets ® pinty, "10 upx a0 Gyner uMer MecTo nepeas Gopma npopsicama wm, upH a, [RFQ A 24 [PH arate, 1) ia] d+ FEE sree, -1) ma af Onpene:ni 1 s1oro ypasnicin awexcHe Hp, wrkso ram no Gopayne (2.40) weeny f, B enywae, eco mpi nepexore of mepnoro Ko STopoMy cocTosMAO HarpysKa Ne HSMEHReTES, a WSMeNINeTEA HMI ‘TEATEpaTypa, To R TocHe7HEM ypanHHMNr WTERCHRHOCTE q, 2eMeHCTER Ha g,. B EAYTBE, CCAM ApH TepEKORe OF MepROTO KO BIOpOMy COCTOMULO He IGMeHNETeK TeMMIepalypa, @ USMCHACICH AMM HAIPYSKA, TO 8 TOM ypaRHeHNN cpeamit wIeH keasparnoli cKoUKe paseH Kys10. IlO.1y'eHHOE YpABHEHNe NpHFOsIHO, KOHESKO, H IPH NOKIEACHHH TENMIIeparypBI i YMEHBINEHH narpy3e, Brex cuysaax, KOI CTpeta NPORNCAKK He ARDIETER MANO HO CpaRKleMIO € NpOTETOM, RAIRE;TeINIE RRINLE GHOPMYsTR, emporo Tomops, HenpaMermiwss, Tak Kak AeficTAITeMBUAK KpHHax MPORKCAIIA GTM, Henig MMH, GyneT YaKe sMaSITETEHO ovimMamex oF napaGoms, nony¥eHHolt HaMM Giaroslaps NpeAOAEXeHHO O paBHOMEpHHOM pactPesceHHH HarPySKK to nporemy HME, a HE HO ee Ome, KaK-T HMeET MECTO B jLeieTRITEMRHOCTA Towne oxcveTs MOKAGMRAIOT, "TO BHeHHe MrpemMocm B Rowe waneKerma H, antRaunoit om upemuooxccauen, TaKosO: up oTHoUIeHHM //1<1/20 uorpemBocT He uPesocxosu 0.3%, upu f/l=1/10 ouuGKa cocraBiiaer YaCe 1,3%, a mpa /i1=1/5 norpemHocts HecKosKo, mpeBocxomnt Bonpoce! ana camonpoeepxu «Uo nassinaetex erepaxriew? Kaxoii avi narpyaccinia cTepAuianestinatowea ocentit pacpexeties (caxamien)? - Kakwe BHYTpeHEHe CHIOBbIC (paxTops! BOSEHKALOT B CeCHAH Opyca IPH Pac DOKeHAM M CxETHH? = Jalire oupetenetmie mops anympetmero cisionoro ‘baxropa ~ Kaxoit wn uarpyxccuna ctepacin naamactea pac ooscimes. (xan)? ~ tho umsasaior Hopwaniuols exL10i? + Kar oupexenaerca suavtuie uopwauoit cust 8 nonepesion cover? - Kare narpysxi tasnisator pacrpeaesemnar? Vaan pasMepHocn pass siesta cnn (8 cucTeMe CHD. ~ Kax nhecaserca snavetmte npozoastoll cam N'n nporsnoabiok onepesiom cevenmm: Gpyca? + ro mpexetuszacr cool amope npozonmaNx cH KAK ova cTpONTCA? 7 Kax pacupesieeni HopwabibleHanpmxenia cx 8 NOMEPEHIIX ceseHHIX LeINpansHioro pacmmIyTOTO Gpyea W Yemy xm pasa? ~ Bxaxux ceventx pac any iro 6pyca BosHKaior MaNGorBULMe HOPMANIBHBIE HaMIpHKEHION? + ro naabmaetes KecmKoCTHIO HlonepeuTOrO CeNeNNN pit pactEKeMHN? - Ka popmyanpyctes saxon F'yka? 3armunce opmyass adcomonion u omociTeasHolt npoxoxsHol xedopsauint Gpyca? + ro mperictanastor coGoit omopa npooasimx nepewenten + Kak yuurrsracrea coGe nse Bee Opyca B ANAMIMUYECKOM BLIpAKcHIA {1K NponOTAHOH CHM? cas Kitt OSs na MoxiTERE 1/2 w opm yanmenE Repmuaoro Gpyex NeeTEMMOTO ceveIM oT = Bue exsieu H Kakona opmyiia owepounoro pacsiera? ~ Kase nasauaiores onycKaeMste HAIpyACeKNS ju04 IUIACTASIIX H XPytIKUK MaTepHaTOB? ~ Kai nisnosicietes npockmaporosniit pacer? ~ Kaxue 1px xapaKtepubix siuia 34144 ne TpeHaiorex pH pacwere kia NPONHIOC Ts KONE pYRIH? + Tloey curmetes nosmoxsnim oncionente 0 5% daxnsveckoro Hampaxettia OT JonyeTAMOrO? - TloweMy neoGxoHMo BANTOMTS YenoRne eC TKOCTH? TIpHRe;LTE MpHMEDLA - Tipw nponejennn pacueta 1a MposHocTs Mo NpeENMHBIM COCTOAKHM ¢ HEM CpaBHABaIOT hakTHMeCKHE KaNpsKeHHA? - Kak pacnpexemowea no ce'teHito citiki YupyroctH Mp pacDoscHIM H exw? (HeonsoRATs TuMOTesY HLIOCKIOK enema), + Kase sasmtcsuictea snaenie upoxoasiofi cium 8 npoitssomsHoM onepeMHoM CovemMM CTepACA? - Kaxoro xapaxrepa HanpexcHiia BosHUKALOT B HONEPeHOM CeMeHHNE IPH PacDOKCHIE H C2KaAI: HOPMANSHBIE HK + Kak pacupesestensr HopMaisine MAUPHXCHIAL STONEPEMMX CeMCHIOX UCHTPAISHO-PacDIKYTOTO HIM UeMTpAMIBHO- exaToro erepaKiit Ho KaKoli opmy:e on onpestesbuotes? + Taye dopwyay nopwansan nampsxenit mpi pactoxenm-cxamm? Kaki npemiocktaKe HeHlomsytoTea NH Buse none 910 hopmymnt? ~ Kax samucnimaewes yesosue npostiocm Gpyca npr pacpoxenms (cama)? Kaxne stat saqas pemaioTes ¢ memon1o yononua upowiocn? = Bkakix exiumax usmepseten Hanpmenne? - Kas is Memeres Beswsnaia HaNpHxeHAE, eCsIK HNOMIAH onepesMOr ceveMMA Bospacters 4 pata? ~ Kare nasnavarores shai nposouisnoit cHakt # HopMaitsiore HanpsEKCHHA? ~ Kak cuxsanni ranotesa miockix cevenit (runotesa Bepxy.uin) M 2aKOH pacupeyieneiie HOpMaKHBX HaNpaKeHNl w nnonepestiox. ceueunt pactmyroro (cxkatoro) cTepxus? = Packpoline nowenie 90p NpOxOAKHRIX CH, HOpMAIAHKIX HanpyeKenAil M nepeemenil, [Lax ero OHM eTpoRTeA? ‘Kaxinc npapien npuepammaote mpi nocTpoemm amI0p? ~ Uro ioxesieaer nopa rpostoxsHolt cHtbi? = Hro npesictanssor COGOK omopst BHYTPEHHNX cHWIOBKIX GaKrOPOR? C KAKOMi esIHO Hx CTPOX? + Onmmnme texmxy noctpocmsx smopsr mpozomiB cut B Opyce, TArpy-ReHHOM HecKONBKENIE cocpesoTONEHIEM cHiama 10 ocH Gpyca? - Kax natin shave nponssuol cwnt # npoxronsiiot nonepesnion cexeiuin Spy aK AMNINCITS HEMPRKENIR B TEpEHHOM ceveNHE Gpyca MPH pacTaxeHa u cxaTIN? KaK OM PacrpexeeNst NO rronepestowy ceveri0? - Kax onpesenaor a6comomve yartmenie crynenaroro Spyea, tarpy:xertioro ecKorsKrttcrtaMtY? ~ Kak onpeneasetea ysyimienne npysmamuccKoro Gpyca ot co6crRenHoro Beca? = Kaxoe asmsnne oxasbmaer coGementtt Ree CTEPATUL NPI NpoeKTmPORAKIITCooPY REN? ~ Uo nomawaeres nox Gpycom passoro coxpotmenenx? ~ Bann opysns 20 opener ysviniesa Gpyca. Yio xapaxtepmyer npounrexenne AE KaK oH HAdRAeTEA? + Kaxne eopwatunt Gpyeca vasuiatores a6comonnnn w Kaxne omocHenTNON? - Uno nasnmactea yaimmennem crepxna (aGcomomoi nporomHoi acopmauneii)? Yo taxoe omocwrensias poriomiar aehopwanm? Kaxoas paamepnocm aScomenioit 1 omoctrerbsioit pexombItAX oper? = Ons TeXKI onpeAeCIK MPOZOALEENX onepewK AesopMaLDHt Spyca MpxtpactraccHNE-cHaTH? + Cranmioli eepxenm azmmoi 1,5 m wonmyter nos marpysxoi 1 3 wa, Heny pasnio omtocireabnoe yaramenme? Meny panko omiociesitoe cyermie? (= 0,25) ~ ro xapaxrepinyer soxynk ynpyroemr warepnaa? Kaxowa exunmu ynMepeniAa Moss yupyrocm? = Uro navsimaetex wozyneM ynpyroems E? Kak nmoier aemioka E na nepopwaun cTepAHR? + Uno nasbinaeres KecTKOCTMO TOepeTHOrO CeueHHA CTEpAKHA MPH pactooKerMM (CxaTHH)? = Omiocineasanie epopwauni a nepenenienn = Uro nomawaeres nor HECTKOCTAIO HP PAC TREN HI CaN CTEPIA? ~ Tips pacer a eee KOT = Tima 20% mpi pacse7a 1a kee KOT ~ Tpsoucps soma GeKoCH He paoToCHOcOGHOCT KONCTPYKIUH. ~ Cihopaympyite sakox Tyxa, Haramnce ‘popayist 2x aGcomemok mt oTHocHTEABHO NpoOAKENX sxpopMaLH crepxni - Uno mpowexogur ¢ nonepetMiMn pasmepanat CTepaKHM Mp cro pacwoKerun (cacanam)? = tho xapaxreprayer kongyprapterrnonepesnot neopwainan? + Miro raxoe xoxpaven Tyaccoua’ B kasin mpenenax ou wsmenserca? ~ Kak onpezeascrea koodpauucut Myaccona? = Kaxas paznita wey eTammeckn onperemvoi W cTaraveck Heonpenemvoll cTepxstenol eneTEMOH? ~ Kaxue cuTewis nasninator cramriecxu Reonpenemnanan? Kak YeraORIN crc CTaTNIeSKOH MCOFpeeHIMOCTE + B xaKofi noc-1eyosarensnocms paccuumisaior cramiuecki Heonpejesumsbie CHETEME!? + CkousKo ypastemdi crm HyaKHo COcTABITE UK CHETEN CHL, ex Ha OHO upaNcol” = CKomKKO ypaniennlt cramiki HyDKHO COCTARITS jUIK CHCTEMK! CHL, PACKIOAOAEHSIX KK FOO R MLIOCKOET, HO exoauica 8 Oso! ToUKe? = CkoIIKKO YpARHEHI CTAMHKH HYPRHO COCTARHTH SUI CHCTEMAI CHET, PACHOTOKENMX KAK YTOsIHO R ILTOCKOCTH H HE exonamueXca B os ToSKE? + Kaoe saumuie okastisacr Ha cTepaHcEyIO CTAMANECKH HeONPeeAMMYIO CHCTEME HSMCHCHe TeMAIepaTypH? ~ Kak yairraiaiotes # CTATAYECKH HEOUPECIINMBIX CTEPRHERBIK CHCTENAX MOMTEARHAIE HAIPARHUA? + Kak esetes pactier crammeckis Heonpesemmsnk cHCTEM Ho MeTOAY paspyllarouLK Harpy30K? + OGsxcaiTe mero pacer crammeckH HEOUPEHEMMMBIX CIEPARHEBLIX CHCTEM HO UPEHEMbHOMY COCTOREMIO? = Bo cxonbxo pas (npustepro) nonepenax eopmaiuin Merue mpoxozBHO¥ mpi oceBoM pactaKenan (CoxaTtH) craubibix creat? - Tipit nponexemmn nemsramet Gaim nonysemst pasate snavers xoxdpucmtenra Tiyaccona waa cman: 0,15; 0,28; 04, Yeausine, xaxne suavenne oumnGoue? ~ Barieame nporombHyto CIETY, BOSHAKALOMLYTO B TOMePENHOM CENCE PACTANYTOTO CTEPAKHA, ECM HOPMAZBIBIe HanpwxcHID 8 oTOM ceveHE pasHA! 140 MII, @ cro wioulans cocrasaser 100 nax2? + Onpeseienne wopmanbuBix H KacaTeABHBIX HanpaXcIn Ha HAKTORNBX MuOMLANKeX npH PactooKeNMMNt — CHAM, BEBO: ‘hopseyaat - Batzecit hopmyaly onpenesenii nopmanenbix Hanpsxen mpi pac DoKeNMH-coKaTAN, = Buonepeuniom cevemus pacrarytoro Gpyca BosuAKaIOT HaNpyEKeINA, KOTOPHIE HaSHIBAIOTeA ~Kectkoctmio Monlepesoro CeveHA MPH PACHPKENAH HasbiRatOT ~ Besonachaa npostioe 7 Gpyca pit pac taxenHH onpeneaseTeR no opMyae. - Aonycnonie nanprxcime aan nnacrMMsx MaTepHazos onpercamoT zo opsty ze ~ Jonyenimble KaNPOKEHHE IPH PACDHKEHN XPYFIKHX MaTepHa:IOB OTIpE;esLMIOT Ho popMyTE ~ Onacusine nonepewni coenien Gpyca amiseTes CeveMHe, B KOIOPOM elie TEYIOT HANGONBUINE = Lcinpaisesi pacnoxcimen Hastwator TaKolt Bi AeopsawaH, Up KOIOpOM B oNKePeHOM ceucHHH BosHAKaCT TOABKO O;IHO BHYyTPeHES = Cysemmetmen xecTkocta nonepetmtoro ceverma Gpyca aGcomomtoe yanmente - Fiona nonepesitoro ceverm Gpyca Hs YeOBH GesoTIacHOl MpoxHtocTAL TPH pacDPKeNHM oNpesIENAETeR 110 dpopMyne = Buavenne mpononsHoi cunki & ronepesHom ceveIM Gpyca BLNMCAAFOT Hs YeuoBHE = Hanpasenna » eneteme CH mMetor passepHoets = Yauinmenme pactayroro crepasiia onpenenteres 110 popysie ~ Tipu nowepostiom pacere cpasummator Tips upoexnmpowossom pacsete oupenessior = Yeouiosne xee1Kocm px pac oxen onpenenseTex Buiparceniem - Onueine pactera Ka uposHoeTs 0 UpeseNDAIMIM COCTORIOIAM OT PACHETA HO JOUYETANKIM HANPHPKEHHAM COCTONE B .. + Hedbopwenvan (ame 1) 0,12 (aun 12%); 2) 0,05 (numa 5%): 3) 0,2 (um 20%); 4) 0,1 (am 10%). He & H YEAOBME y) CHHETHOTER MPaKMHECKH MAsILIMM, Ceci OH HE HPEBOCKOZAT ~ Fes npesien nponoplvoxanksioe nt Marepuaia W coomereMyIONtax eMy sleopManuex pass o[]-100 MIla, £11-0,0014, orga Benmania Moaysia yopyroct pasta. 1) 83110 Mma; 2) 55782 Maa; 3) 71429 Maa; 4) 65822 Maa, - Kaxox dbianecxni emsien moaysix IOxra? 1. xonpnuetrr uponopiwonansuocnt Mexay nonepesHolt u npostomuolt nebopmauel; 2, Koxpdmulerr nponopaNoHEAMHOCTA MERAY HOPMANMIMIM HNpRMKeIMEM HL sHEHCTANOH serop antl, 3. konpmteHr nponopymoHaTsHOCTA NEY KACATETRIBIM HANPHKEUHEM H YEIOROI eopMaLHel ~My ponsictex Maxeiaarbias no aSconoTH0 ReMNNe NpoxonbaN ina, REMIKAIONBA 8 mpeReTaBeKHOM va peye erepaae? Reon 2 Se = Hewy paso Hopmauistoe Haupoxerne ( MIla) Ha perseM yuacnke HsoGpaxeHHOro Ha PHCYHKE CrepaKHA, ec: 29 1oMLaMs HoMepeMHOrO CEMA CTEpANA paBIEa 4 = Sem! Aetogt Resa A ® ®@ @ (erm Benny Bnemuel ews (8 KH), upunoxeMIoit x cwepAINO, HsOGpaxeHMOMy Ha pHeyHKe. = Onpe, Fade? SS [e]-zonane - Haiins niomays nonepesioro cevewax (8 eM?) ju npusenenmoro ua pHeylKe cTepxul I YesIORUA NpOSMOE TH 10°Mile ~ Bepnixaiisio pachooxcanisit cryniewsansil Gpye HarpyaceH Ha cmoGouHOM KoNUC pactarHsaroucl extol P. Hains pacrpeneewte MpoxosHOM CITI, HOPMATSHOTO HANpHKEHIM I OceBOTO NepeNeMeHH Nl sLtHHE Opyca. ZaraKB OMAR F, suum I, ynemeutit nec y, Moaysts LOura E iL F sit Opye marpyscert na enoGostHOM Kone cxTMMaLoMIel cHOK P. Hatin - Bepnisaciano pacnonorxemst erynena pacrpeneteine npoxomKHOH CIs, HOPMaIMHOrO HANpRKCHMA K OCeROrO NepeNeMleKAR no sLUAKE Opyca, sweet aontazh F, ‘ama f, yensusit nec y, Monyas JOura E. - Ha cepesiime secninnst AB, yeTaHoR-teHHOH rox YrTOM (4, HaXOAVTEA NesIOREK BecoM P. CxIrTaK necTAHNy Gaaikoll ¢ min coreuem romano F, moncetow mnepiyar J, ammo AB=I x souyntew 1Oura E, oupestearm suyspemmue yCruine enentenins, Croan rpenne ipeneSpers, 2 + Koncoususit xpau necér uarpysky P. Onpegesum suyipemme yews w nepementerst Gasikn AB, cuutas tary BC (a HE MOMeHIT epi HONE. jeune panier F, J; sony HOnra — E, Hepacpoxumol. [pvt sux Gane AB nut Teomerpysieckue pasmepks ykasaua 1a pH email: KarimovI@rambler.ru Adpee: Pocus, 450071, 2.Vipa, noumonuid augur 21 Teoperwueckas Mexannuka CTpontesbHas MexaHHka Ipuksagnas Mexanuka Jleratu Mammnu Teopus Malin wu MexaHH3MOB Hazvayenne nepesona Npowy noggepxare ana pasentua calira Cyn e Ornpasurs j 01:07:14_] [x HotLog |: