Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 461

&-am---

smannz p a . ~ ~ u mupu$ma
ezo x~accu$uxa% u-
u~
z*P
u npunqunnz 3 ,-

* s -*
Texxuueclrue nj$z$~azpa6omaz
--
3
c l(ez.TeM, u a ~ 7 z e p n ~ ~ n a~ x( ~eP~W,U H Z O M
038 Tmorpa*n~a: u r p ~ + ~sepcnca,
, nlrsa&r. ITep. c mm. n KoMMem.
C. M,I I o ~ o ~ a p e m-o .Cn6.: GXB-IIe~ep6ypr,2005. - 496 c.: HA.
ISBN 5-94157-345-6
& m a ROCBIIUlelIa runorpa+me - nc~yccrsyo+ophme~m npoumeae~niineqam cpea-
cTeaMu ~ a 6 o p an s e p m n , wn-opoe wMeeT n xy~omec~se~rrbrii, A ~exmrecrcufacnembr.
P a c c u a ~ p m a e m es m ~ e u t n ne p u m ~1160paEI nptmiexiemn xupn+ma a M nesa.F-
H O lIPW)'
~ KIlPU W SKpillIHOrO HPe&lCTilBAeHUflROC[ClePXMBtUOTM MHOXCCTBOM ~ B e ~ l e H ~ i i ,

MepoB, a m a c e X ~ A O X ~ C T B ~ H H OaMv ~c y m p a , K m a none3~aK aocrymra He TQA~KOmaaii-


Ixepaht, nesaTKuKaM a MeIrenxepaM nonipa+:nec~oro npou3~o~craa, tro a nceM, u m p e c y m
UIUMCJI BonpocaMu ~ o m m e p ~ oB~PCTKII. ii

Authorized translation from the english language edition, entitled COMPJXTE MANUAL OF TYK)GWHY, THE,
1st Edition, 0321127307 by FELICI, JAMES, published by Pearson Education, Inc, publishing as Adobe Press,
Copyright @ O 3 . All rights Itsenred. No p a t of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any Eo~mor by any means,
electm~ucor mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval system, witimut permis-
sion from Pearson Education, Inc. RUSSIAN lanbwage edition published by BHV- St. Petenburg, Copyright O 2004.
A~~opn30~a~ nepeBon
~ b t i i anr~niic~oiipeaaxuwn, sburylue~uloiiAdobe Press, Pearson Education, Inc, @ 2003. Bce
npasa aauunuetrb~.Hnra~arrqacrt. liacrusueii msrn tle MoxeT 6 m ~ocnpo~m~ener~a m u nepwana B ~ a ~ oGbri iTO
1IM 6 b l ~ 0+pMe H KaKUMU 6 1.1 TO tIU 6bXA0 CpeLlCI'BaMU, ~ Y L I LTO SAeKTpOHHbte UAH MeXaHH9eCKUe, RKAIO'lilll
+o~o~onupoea~ne n 3ann~bHa ~ a r m m iHi O C e~ m~ Ha, TO i~er paspemem Pearson Education, Inc. nepeoon
Ha pycctt~iiR3hIK *EXB-rhepGypn, @ 2004.

hemin NQ02429 or 24.07.00. l l o ~ ~ ~ s~ma amn ., 25.05.05.


QIopma~70~100%~. l l e w m o+cman. Ych.neq. A. 40.
Jon. m ax 2000 sx3.3a~a3NQ1070
"EXB-llmp6yprn, I8i3.54, Can~~-IIerep6ypr, yr. Ee- 5F.

ISBN 0-321-12730-7(~uuA.) 0 2003 by Adobe Press, Pearsons Education, Inc.


ISBN 594157-3454 (PYC.) O nepeaan na pycc~uiRBMK .EXB-ne~ep6ypr=,2004
n aTmorpa+ma - CllCTeMa o + o ~ M A ~ H E ~ R~ a 6 o p aPi BepCTKIl nesaTHoro II3AiLHEIR
BueAoM HAM ero s n e ~ e m (o~~a n p w ~ emnorpa+n~a
p: +e.qopoac~oro<<Anocrona>>,
TEiIIorpa+~Ka~ a 6 mBs<<reHepZlAbHblxCHlXZlAaX, HaA3llpaeMbIX BO + A O T ~ > >II T. XI.).
Tmorpa+w~a - COBOKyIIHOCTb XYAOXeCTBeHHbIX O C O ~ ~ H H O C~Ta~6~ o~ p ~ o 0+0p-
r0
MAeHEVr CePEIn, IJHKAa EIAH TyIInbl ~3niLH~ii
kInll HX 3AeMeHTOB (HaIXpWMep:TMnOrpa-
+ m a anbnna, mnorpa+n~aO ~ A O X KHasana~ XIX aerta, ~ m o r p a + n ~cepr?.iiabxx
a
B ~ I ~ C K Ok B
i ~ 3 e cPepnar
a n T. n.).
0 T H ~ I o ~ ~-
~ Kp)T
+HK BEinOBbIX
~ O C O ~ ~ H H O C~Ta~6~o~p ~ oOr ~oO P M A ~ H HPa3HbIX
R ne-
rambxx +OPM ( ~ a n p n ~ emnorpa+n~a
p: rasem~,mnorpa+n~amaKaTa, m o r p a -
+ n ~ a~ I I ~ K O BmKnH
o r, p a + a ~ a~ I H K H O T n T. n.).
Tnnorpa+n~a - xynoxecmeHHoe n p o e s ~ e n e ~ n nponym
e, TBopsecKoro Tpyna
xynoma~a-mnorpa+a- o+op~HTenan 3 n a ~ wm~u cepwn usnan~ii.TO 3nase~ae
TepMElHa HaXOnER.BbipaXeHHe B BbIXOAHbIX AaHHbIX KBHr II ~ e p ~(HaIXpEiMep:
fi MAAD
n p a u w Msanosa, mnorpa+n~aIIe~posa;+o~orpa+nn Qenopo~a,mnorpa+u~a
Cnnoposa w T. n.).

0 Tnnorpa+n~a - BonhoIlreHne xyAoxemeHHsro c r m a o n p e a e h e ~ ~ oru~onbl,


ii Ha-
lTpaBAeHHX B UCKYCCIBe neqaTM ( c ~ ~ B H EHaIXpRMep:
R.~, XIIBOHEICb lTePeaBEIXHMKOB,
KoHnpymnBncrcKaJr apxmemypa, mnorpa+n~an a n m 3 ~ an T. n . ) ~ . ~
HO&AX IIpe~AafaeMofiBaWeMy BHmaHEIIO KHIIrkl60Ab~leBCerO IIOnXOnHT OAHO E13
cospeMenHbIx onpene~eenii:aTnnorpa+n~a - rpa+nsec~oeo + o p ~ ~ e s anesamoro e
TeKcra nocpenmoM ~ a 6 o p a s e p m ( ~ o x i ~ a xnpoempoaanwe
a), m u HenocpenmeH-
Hoe MoAeAnposaHWe o 6 ~ n n~pao n 3 s e ~ e ~ nnesamd. a a q T 0 ,qeAaeT mnorpa+? - B ~ I -
6 u p a e ~rupacp?., ycraHasnnsaeT + o p ~ a m ,~ a 6 n p a ne ~BepcraeT, TO e m KoMnoHyeT
r(YTOBbIe~ Y K B ~CAOBa,
I, KYCKM TeKCTa, n m e f i ~ nnpyr OTHOCHTeAbHO.9p)Ta Pi OTHOCHTeAb-
HO KOAOHKH, c r p a ~ n u bP~ ~, ~ B O P nncra.
O T ~ ,I I p o c ~ p a ~ c r ~ oe p~r~a a~ xa ~ a s TeKcra
ax -
m ' q : e ~ o i iH ~ a ~ 6 o nmopgec~nii
ee M o M e m nemeanocmi. B TOM c M b I a e ~morpa+ma-
rpa+ma ~ u c y c m os ~ c n o s t aJ B~
pacnoAoxcemx, y x M e p x i m +OPM H a moc~ocmi~'.
M mnorpa+ma c s m a ~ ac ~ O H ~ M UIIXPHC~~TOB~X
T ~ K H06pa30~, H : rpa+a~an,
~ ~ H ~ T O
o ~BO PoM ~A ~ H N ~<<HCKyCCTBO
*, IIXpH+TaX', <<KOMlIO3HUJiX n e z I a T H O r 0 npOH3Be-
neHum, ccsepcma nesamoro w 3 ~ a ~ n s i 1u1 1T., A., TO ~ H ~ Z I ~TO,
I T , c O A H O ~CTOPOH~I,
~ oHa
sxonm B K p y r r p a + n ' q : e c ~ ~ x uc~yccrs,a c npyroii, crraocmcn K 06nacm T e x m K n EI
~emonoruiinonwrpa+usec~oron p o u s a o n ~ ~EIM~HHO ~a. arc n p e D a r a e T ee paccMa.rpn-
B a n =TOP. OHnpmonm o 6 p a 3 u b 1 moxoii H xopomeii m n o r p a + m H , n p w a x H a c
O T A H s a T b O n H y OT apy~02, U TyT me 0 6 a a c ~ x eK~a ,K ~ a 6 e m a nep~oii
~ b H n o 6 m b c n BTO-
POP C IIOMOUbIO KOHKPeTHbIX TeXHEI'ieCKHX RpHeMOB.
H ~ CMbICAa
T 4 O A r O paCCKa3bIBaTb 0 TOM, W O A)'YIIXe n0YepIXH)Tb H 3 KHHrH. $TOT
0'q:eHb R0Ae3Hblfi H S M C T ~ MCTO%IHK
I~~ n e p e F [ BaMEI.
r y ~ e H 6 e p rO K a 3 a h C X IIOCAenHHM, K T 0 H e BHAeA
c ~ s e p ~ omf in o r p a + ~ Ei ~ n~o .c K o A b K y no H e r o rup~+-
T a lcaK T a x o B o r o H e C y r q e m o B a h o , eMy ynahocb n36e-
xan. H H a n q o K m i n o r p a + ~ s e c ~KPMTIIKOB. ~x Y Bac
H e T T a K 0 f i B03MOXCHOCTE3, HO C 0 3 a a B a T b 0 6 p a 3 ~ 1 Be-
M i K o A e I I H o f i THIIorpa+HKXi BbI M O X e T e , IIOTOM)' T O
~ ~ Q A ~ T Honwr nonmpa+mi sa~esa~enbnax

-
& H sTa
KHEITa - BaLIIU He3ilMeHHMbIe IIOMOUHIMH.
Qn* H ?w~orpa+ma-TO ~ a 6 q a Hn K ~ KHa-
6qan - OAHOBPeMeHHO H ~ Y K O H ~HCK)'CCT-
BOM. B mfi 0 6 ~ a m c y u e m y m CBOH ~ ~ K O H M ~ IH, o m e
~3 K ~ P ~ nniopqywrcx.
I X ECTb m c r p p e m r =or-
pa+=, 6 0 ~ ~ ~3mKOTOPLIX o H e H C ~ O A L ~ Y HO ~T~~.
ceiiqac B ~ ~IO A ) " I I Z ~ Uc ~ M c~o G s e p m e ~ ~ morpa+x-
b 6
~ e c mcfppem
d - ~H;FHNII +a @am.
LUPH+~.I - TO ero X H ~ H L , H ona comaha c pa3-
BIT1'MeM O T p a W . &XHMy.IEmCSf KePHIlHfY Mf?TahAH-
Y~CKIIX n a T e p ,ewe cxna H a OTUOBCKOM K o n e H e ,
a B ~ a 6 o p eq ~ g l OH
~ nae p e x H A nepexon OT ropme-
r0 CBKHUOBOrO K XOAOnHOMY LP~+POBOMY. OHIIAaBEln
r a p T O B b I e ZfYIIIKH H AMHOTHIIHbIe CTPOKH, XOHrAMPO-
sah H a K h a s H a T y p e IBM, npo6~aahnep+opaynlo mn
C$OTOH~~OPH~U( MaUIHH. OH pa60~anCO I I I ~ H ~ T ~ M H
H a CTeKAe, IIAaCTHKe H C ~ ~ O T O ~ A ~ H KH,
~ , HaKOHeU,
C LI,E~+POB~IMII IIIPH+T~MH H a MarHkfI"H0M AHCKe.
K o r ~ na o m m c a n e p c o n a h b H b r e K o M n L m e p L I , OH
nonnahcn IIOBZLAbHOMy y B n e s e a H l o . H a 6 ~ p a nT e K C r
c n o ~ o m l Tandy
o ~ hKaypro?
~ l I I o c r a ~ e~M~y e Ha m c b -
M ~ H HCTOA ~ G Big Blue. A s a ~ rrpmren e ~ Macintosh.
Haxconeq, noxsmacb M a m m a , K o T o p a x p a 6 o ~ a n a
e 3 ~ p a ~yanee
co u r p w + r o ~ H a 3 ~ p a H~BHe . 6tu VT
XII IIpeauc~oeue

MeHIO, ~ O C B ~ r~
a p IH
u l TH
y p a ~M ~~ ~ M + T o B
I3 KerAXM, M O H a 3 H U a , -0 ~ L I B ~ I OKTy p -
cmHbIe anonyxnpmIe HasepTiLHm. UIPEI+Tman m o n b ~ P O C I ' ~ I MPI A O ~ ~ H L I MSTO,
K ~ U C A ~MGO r C HEIM CIIPaBPWbCII. B p e 3 y A b T a T e ~ a 6 0 pO K a 3 U C R IIOXOXHM H a IlIlCLMO
IlIaHTXiCMCTa 0 B L I K p e , COCTaBAeHHOe M3 ~ Y K B BLIpe3aHHLIX
, E13 f a 3 e T H b I X 3arOAOBKOB.
&um nepexonm OT ~ ~ K B ~ H H O - U ~ + ~ OnBe Os a~ TOm m e r o ycrpoiicrsa K n p a m e p a M :
MaTpmoMy n 3 a ~ nea ~ 3 e p ~ o ~ Ky ,( P O T O H ~ ~ O P H O M ~ B ~ I B O AH~a nesamble
aBToMaTy,
+ O P M ~ I n, H a K o H e q , K W+POBOH neqam. OHnpoasnranc~crr MOHOXPOMHO~K memoii
nesam. Paspernetme 300 dpi c M e H m o c b H a 600 dpi, a s a ~ Hee K~o T o p b I e ycrpoiicrsa noc-
TITAM pa3perne~m3 000 dpi. P O s t S c r i p t CIU ' YHMBepCaAbHbIM X3bIKOM IIoAPirpa+EUI.
,@CIIM HasUHZiA C 13 LUPII+TOB~IX + ~ & o B , a 3 a T e M n e p e I I I e A K CTaHAapTHbIM 35.
Hosb~eu I i + p O ~ b l e ~ P I I + T ~ I1,1 0 ~ 0 6 ~ M0U e H b K M M 3AeKTpOHHLIM KPOAFiKiLM, nAOAM-
hElCb B HeI3MOBepHbIX KOAMPeCTBaX, M OH C K y n U MX AIOXHHaMM. 6 n 6 m o ~ e POCAa, ~a Pi
eMy ~pe6osanacbB c e 6onee 0 6 a e ~ m 1ne a c ~ aM c n e q M a n b H o e n p o r p a M M H o e 06ecrreqe-
m e AW , y n p a n e ~ u rTr ~ K U M+ O ~ O M . K O MHYXHLI ~ m e m ~epcEZiir a p m q x . 1 Gararnond?
T o n b ~ of l ~ M M y OH . npn06pe~ahBCe HOBbIe BePCHM K X ~ C A OI I ~P O~ r p a M M b I - BePCHIO 1.0,
sepckw 2.0 n T. n., a a s e p c m w B n e p e B o n e c X ~ L I Knpou3~onme~eii
~ o 3 ~ a s a nep~o c T o
<<BbIMOraTeAbCTBOB. Ha 3TOM nyTll a B T 0 M a T W I e C K W n p O B e p K a IIpaBOIMCaHMX O l y q M A a
H a c mican r p a ~ o m oa , ~ e 3 a y p y c b 1online npmenn K 6 e n ~ o c crn~o n a p H o r o sanaca.
Bcero 3a H e c K o n b K o n e T M ~ ~b16poca~n
I uenym n ~ n y q a r ~ o a 6 o p am p a + ~ a ,a Ha-
60p TeKCrOB nepemen K CaMOMy TBOPYY TeKCTa. C ~ G YCaMbIe ~ C T ~ ~ ~ O B ~ T ~ AKLHHa - L I ~
6opy n o K y n a T e n x crann ropa3no T e p m e e . B ~ e m on o n n r p a + n ~ e c ~K~a xn b I s e K T e -
n e p b Bnl)eVZUOTCR 3HaKM ~ I O h l a a, A B A~~ + M C 3aMeHI.l- ~ A m H O e mpe. COBC~M 3a6~w
o KO~OTKOMmpe, o K a n m e m , o xopomef B b I K n l o q K e 13 o n p a n m m b x x nepesocax. IIpan-
na, H H o r n a pacnpoqmmenw a npennaraha H ~ Mnpo+eccao~anba~~e ~ a 6 o prupa+-
~1
TOB, A a H I l p O r p a M M b I ZtBTOMaTM3MpOBaAPi HeKOTOpLIe T M X I O ~ ~ ~ + I ~ Y ~IIpOUeCCbI.
CKM~
HT~K. B naHHbG MOMeHT BCeM, KM) p a 6 0 ~ a eCO~ U I ~ H + T O M , -0 YCBOHTb BCe, T O
m TO nommocb B HOBO$. K cqamm, peme-
6bu0 B mpoii ?wrorpa+me, 13 ~ o c n p Bce,
m e =OH ~enpocroii3a~auu- B B ~ U M Xpy~ax:n p e K p a c H a n a K o m m a s K w a , B K O T O P O ~ ~
e m BCe, T O ~eo6xonmo CO3AZlHlW 06pa3uo~~ ~ ~ B O C X O A H?wrOrpa+l.XKM.O$

@Pam P m r a ~ o
npo$eccop
Rochester Institute of Technology
School of Print Media
.
r~aEta1 n y ~ K
b C O B ~ ~ M ~ H H O ~
~~norpa+ixce .....................................5
C T ~ O E T T ~~ AAO~K H U~~ a 6I 0~p a................................. 5
nhowanaa nnrr nmep a npo6e~b1......................... 7
B ~ m p ae s ~ e p o suxpuQra Ha ero PHCYHOK .... 9
E)BOAXOIWXI3 aBTOMaTH3afWl.................................. 11
IInqru,aa Maurnma - nepsax HacTonbxax
n e s a ~ ~ca ns ~m ~ .................................................
a 11
I I e p e ~ e w e ~ Kapenca
ae ................................ 11
MOHOUMPHHH~I~ I ~ I P H ............................
~ I 12
A ~ H ~ I ~...................... 14
~ ~ o I I o ~ u H o H E ~IlI~ktcpTb~
MOHO^: I I O ~ C Y ~uT p m ~ H ~ K O...................
B 15
ki3~exemeIIOXXTHII
gKOMIlAeKT ~ a 6 o p ~ ouxp~C$Ta*
ro (font) ........... 17
@o~orpa+n~ecme IIIPUC~..I .........................18
~ A ~ K T ~ O H H ~ I ~ .................................19
rup~(-P~bl
Hacrohb~b~e CacTeMbI M ~ H W n p a ~ a n a............. 20
M O A ~Postscript
A~ ............................................. 21
Pacrposbrii nposeccop ................................... 22
Annapamax H ~ ~ ~ B E I C E I M O.........................
CT~ 23
Postscript-rupu+~ ........................................... 23
Pac~ep~lsawirr PostScript-rupa+~o~ .............. 24
Bb~xon~oe pa3peme~neM ~ a q e m m o p a + ~ a......................................................... 25
H e n o c r a ~ ~ n ' p e r nWYSIWYG
n~a ..................................................................... 27
~ ~ ~ ~ A H ~ H T ~ 3KpaHHOrO A ~ H O CnpenCrZG3AeHIlR
T ~ ...............................................28
H e n o c r a TeKCTOBbIX
~~~ ... .....................................30
penaKTOpOB .......................

.
rila~a2 E ~ H H HTNlXOMeTpHH
~ ~ I ........................................ 33
A 6 c o ~ m b r ennmubx
e n 3 ~ e p e ~ n............................................................................
x 33
&%XU Pi IIyHKTbI ..................................................................................................... 35
Orrpene~e~ue ~ e r n...........................................................................................
s 36
Y C A O B H0~6I0~ 3 ~ a ~ en ~o ~mm p a i + n ~ e c xenaHnu ~x ..................................... ..36
Me~pnqecx~e n a~rhniic~we e a n ~ n u bn ~3 ~ e p e ~ ............................
ns . . ...........37
Omocm-enb~breenn~nuarn 3 ~ e p e m x.................................................................... 37
Kerellb~axmnama ............................................................................................... 38
H ~ I Ha OCHOBe ~ e r e A b ~ 0............................................................
~ F ~ P M3HBKOB 2 3 8
npo6enb1 Ha OCHOBe ~ e r e n b ~ o..........................................................................
fi 40
T m b ~npo6e~oa..................................................................................................... 41
M e x c n o ~ ~ bnpo6e~bx
re ........................................................................................42
Apyme efimawr m ~ e p e m x...................................................................................... 42
LTnyepo ..................................................................................................................... 43
H ~ I ~ ...........................................................................................54
B ~ I H O C3AeMeHTbI
Mcsesaxo~uae3AeMeHTbI: 3ULlbIBbI KpaCKU ........................................................55
Orrruqec~aeO C O ~ ~ H H O C T P II H C ~ H urpa+~a
K~ .
..
............................ ........................56
Pa3Mep BCe MeHXeT ............. . . . .................................................................................. 57
Mac~ep-06pasw1 .
.
............................. ................................................................... 58
Q O ~ MMultiple
~T Master ............................................................................ .......60
O C H O B HXapaK~epnmKn
~I~ KIpPi+Ta ........................................................................ 61
I.LIpa4.f.1 c 3 a c e ~ a a~ 6e3 a HMX ........................................................................... 61
H a c b l ~ e ~ ~.........................................................................................................
om 63
YPOBHH HaCbIWeHHOm .................. .... .........................................................
6 4
Hamon ( ~ O C T ~ E ~ 0 qO~BaK)....................................................................................
~ 64
H ~ K A O H~Ha~qI ~e p ~ a.....................................................................................
~m 66
~ ~ T H o c(LUMPEIH~)
T ~ I U P B + T ~ ............................................................................ 67
r a p ~ m y p b( c~ e ~ e j i c ~UIPEI+TOB
~a) .......................................................................67
Ponesax w,acca+mauna IIIPH+TOB .........................................................................68
H e a n ~ a ~ KIpPi+IT0Bble
m ~ e +GAIA ..................................................................6 9
& I ~ T o P~h~~CCM+HKUHS ~ c K ~ ~ K I ~ M + T O B ..............................................................70
CT~~HHH aHTHKBa
UI ....................................................................................... 70
S B a ......................................................................................... 7 1
~ e p e ~ 0 ~ H Zml .K
HOB= a m m c ~ a.................................................................................................. 73
np06he~b1H ~ ~ B r a p~~H n ~G .................................................................................
yp 74

.
I'nasa 4 IUpn@~osare@aiinbr ............................................... 77
&a BHAa KOMIIbKYTepHblX IIIPIIC~~TOB ...................................................................... 77
Conepmmoe III~H+TOBO~O + a h a .......................................................................79
Q O P M ~ T ~IIIPM+TOB~IX
I + ~ % o B ...........................................................................81
Q o p ~ Postscript
a~ .................................................................................................
82
Q o p ~ TrueType
a~ .................................................................................................82
@ o p ~OpenType
a~ ...............................................................................................
84
~UPH+TOB ................................................ 84

.
.
M ~ X C I I A ~ T + O ~COBMeCTnMOCTb
M~HH~
ITpo6nem1 KOMIIAeKTa 3HaKOB ................................................................................85
Ta6mybr ASCII a Unicode ................................................................................ 86
ITpo6nem1 Konaposamrr q a + T o s b ~ x+aiino~...................................................87
3 a n ~ c r s o ~ a ~ nBbH1~eK I IMac ......................................
~ O I ~ CHK
~XHLIX BH~KOB .............................................................................................88
Ynmma Character Map (Windows) ......................................................................... 89
Ymnma Key Caps (Mac) ..........................................................................................90
Mac OS EI Unicode ................................................................................................ 91
Cne~tian~m urn ~ B H L I ~ +aka1 ...................................92
~ e ~ L T ~ ~ H ~ T ~mpu+~onbre
3 ~ a B~HeucTaHAapTa Unicode .................................................................................93
OCO~~HHOCTEI +OPM~TOB IUPEI+TOBLIX + ~ G A O B ..................................................... 95
OCO~~HHOCTEI +OPM~TOB B cHcTeMe Macintosh .....................................................95
O c o G e ~ ~ o c+OPM~TOB
m B CucTeMe Windows .......................................................96
CHCT~MLI YIlpZLBAeHEIfiILIPH+T~MEI ..............................................................................98
PenaKTopbl rupw+~a......................................................................................................99
Je+ac. ape a npyrxe s e p ~ o g e ...............................................................................
a 127
K~BLIYKH ......................................................................................................................
128
~ H ~ KUlTpHXOB
E I ............................................................................................................
129
Apo6a ............................................................................................................................
129
T a 6 y m o p ~..................................................................................................................
1 130

.
r ~ a 7~ Ha6op
a TeKCTa ~a KOMnbEoTepe ................................ 133
klcropm o n ~ y xc a c r e ~ a ...........................................................................................
x 133
Tanorpa+nreceae n a p a ~ e ...............................................................................
~p~~ 134
r i p o 6 n e ~ aBbIneneHaa + p a r ~ e m aTeKcra ......................................................... 135
K ~ pKa 6 o ~ a WYSIWYG
e~ .........................................................................................
136
~ ~ ~ e AX Bepma ...........................................................................
P a c ~ p o IUPEI+TLI 138
L I ~ I Postscript H ATM ..............................................................
~ K ~ X I HLLIPI?+TJ, 138
I'apamypa a ee HaqepTaHaa ................................................................................ 139
~KPXIHLU HMEITaUIU OTCYTCTBYIOllIeTOIIXpII+Ta ............................................... 141
~ K P X I H L ILU~LI+TLI
~ +op~a~ TrueType
a ..........................................................142
K ~ OIIepauaoHHbIe
K CIlCTeMbI JTlpaBNfHIT LIIPM+T~MII .............................................142
H c n o p q e ~ ~ rupnclp~osb~e
b~e + a i i n ~........................................................................
~ 144
~0TepXHHbIeIIIpIl@oBbIe +*LI ..........................................................................145
& y 6 m p o s a ~ ~ bm 1 ep ~ + ~ o s bcl3aiin~1
~e ...................................................................
147
y6naposame HOMepOB ~ N + T O B ........................................................................ 147
B ~ e n p e ~ IJ.IpFi+Ta
ae B AOKyMeHT ............................................................................ 148
B ~ e n p e m eg a m rupx+~a...................................................................................... 149
ABTOPCKO~ npaBo B o6nacm I I I ~ H + T.......................................................................
~ 149

.
YACTb I1 KAK BEPCTATb TEKCT ....................................... 167
& E I H H ~ I ~CTPOKH H ~ A ~ T H b lHf H
i TepAHHbRX ..................... . . ...........................160
n p 0 6 A e ~ b 1Y3KHX KOAOHOK .................................................................................. 161
B H 3 y a A b H b l e 3 + + e ~ T b 1 H n p 0 6 A e ~ b 1BbIPaDHHBaHHR ....................... . ............ 163
Jo~ep&e rnasy ............................. . ......................................................................
165

.
r n a ~ a9 l l I a p n ~ anonocax ~ a 6 o p a .
KerAb H EiHTepAEXHbRXC ..........................................169
&HHa CTpOKH NAH Q O ~ M ~KOAOHKN
T ..................................................................... 169
Kerhb N + O P M ~ T KOAOHKH ...................... . . ..................................................... 174
~ ~ ~ A I ..............................................................................................................
I H ~ X ~ 175
ABTOM~T~I'I~CKH H~H~T e p A H H b X X ...................... . ...................................................178
&T~~ANH~XX B TeKCTOBbIX p a M K a X ...................................................................... 179
~ Z ~ B H C H M O COTT~~ U B K UOT K W A R ............................................................................ 180
~ I H T ~ ~ A H H Ei
~ XOT~EIBKU
X ......................................................................... 182
C A B H ~AHHHH IIIpH+Ta .............................................................................................183
~ H T e p h H H b X XB BbIBOPOTKe ............................................................................. 185
ACIIMM~T~H H HYT eH
p A~HIH~b X~X B B m A e H T H O M ~ a 6 0 p e....................................185
k h T e p A N H b x ~B HeTeKCTOBOM ~ a 6 o p e................................................................... 186
~ I H T ~ ~ A ~ In H p H~~Ra x6 0 p B e HeCKOAbKO KOAOHOK ................................................186
Oco6b1e n a p a ~ e ~ p m b rp n Q ~ a.................................................................................. 188
~ I I K B K~e r ,A b H + O ~ M ~KOAOHKEi T ..................................................................188
POCT~ O Z I H ~ ~I YX K B............................................................................................. 188
O~IQZI.X I l I H p H H a 3HPKOB ....................................................................................... 189
H ~ C ~ I L ~ ~rrrrpHXOB H H O C.....................................................................................
T~ 190
r p o r e c ~K, e r s H msipnna ~ O A O C ~~ aI 6 0 p a...................................................... 190
ra~HHTYpb1 H H H T e p A H H b R X .................................................................................... 191
Mecra paspb~aac r p o ~......................................................................................... 203
P e r y n q o s a ~ u en p o 6 e ~ ....................................
o~ ......................................................
204
PeryhuposaHue nepeHocoB ............................................................................... 2 0 6
3 o ~ b nepe~oca
1 ........................ .
. ..........................................................................
208
Cnoco6b1nepe~oca............................................................................................... 208
Bxnbl A ~ + U C O B ..................................................................................................... 209
C m u n e p e ~ o c o........................
~ ....... .............................................................
210
go6asneme B a o ~ a p nb e p e ~ o c o.........................................................................
~ 211
Bm-e +op~a~ n ao ~ o ~ca ~6 o~p a.......................................................................... 212
M ~ X C A O Bnpo6enb1 H ~ I ~ &i+naroabrii ~ a 6 o p............................................................ 212
Merncnos~b~e npo6enb1 11 BbIKAWYKa no + O P M ~ T ~.............................................. 214
& i a n a s o ~ bu~ s ~ e ~ anpomefi e ~ m .............................................................................. 219
h P 0 H XIpHHyAHTeAbHaX
~ BbIKAWsKa ............................................................ 220
npHeMb1 p a s p ~ q ~Hk npo6ne~b1i .........................................................................
222
M ~ M ~ HU~ ~HM HB HH~~ K O BB ~ O U ~ BC~ ICK A~ W ~ K .........................
H . . ...................223
.
.
l l p o a e p ~ aYCT~HOBOK+ ~ H K W E I n e p e ~ o c oH ~B ~ I K A W W H ..................... ............225
Y c r a ~ o ~nomp o n ~ m r .....................................................................................
o 225
Bbmsnemie ki ycrpaHe~uen p o 6 n e ~BepCTKH ..........................................................225
Pasperne~~m b ~ue c x a ~ ~~ Oe K ........................................................................
H 226
O T A W Kn~e p e ~ o c o.............................................................................................
~ 226
McIIpaBheHue npo6enoa .....................................................................................227
np06he~b1uweTa>>a63aua ..................................................................................... 228
Bucmne ~ O K .........................
H . . ........................................................................
230
Cnace~ue~ B ~ O B ................................................................................................
~ I D 231
I I o ~ o w b<<cupme>> ...............................................................................................
231
Bep~manbHoeBbIpaBHHBaHIle ................................................................................. 232
B ~ ~ T H K u ~BbIpaBmiBaHEle
Ho~ TeKCTOBOrO ~ A O .............................................
K ~ 234
Kopwopb~B TeKCTe .................................................................................................. 234
B c Tpamoro ~ ~ KPM ....................................................................................... 236
M e a a pa3pbIBa c r p o ~ .............................................................................................. 203
Peryh~iposamenpo6eho.s ............................................................................................ 204
Peryhrposm~en e p e ~ o c o.......................................................................................
~ 206
30Hb1 nepe~oca .......................................................................................................... 208
Cnoco6b1nepe~oca................................................................................................ 208
Bx,qb~ne+acoa ........................................................................................................209
C ~ n e pHe ~ o c o....................................................................................................
~ 210
JI, 0 6 a ~ n e m eB choaapb n e p e ~ o c o......................................................................
~ 211
B m m ~ i e+ o p ~ a ~nohocbr a ~ a 6 o p a................................................................... 212
M~XC~OB H ~ I ~Fi +haX'oBb~ii ~ a 6 o p......................................................... 212
npo6enb1
Mexcho~xb~e npo6ehb1 Fi BbIKhlosKa no +0pMaTJ' ............................................... 214
&ma30Hb1 H3MeHeHPUI ~ ~ I I P o I I..............................................................................
I~~~ 219
hp0ll.I~ Fi IIpkmynMTeAbHaR BbIKAlosKa ........................... .
. ................................220
npFieMb1 pa3pWKH Fi np06heMb1 ......................................................................... 222
b ~ e ~ e mupm m e B H ~ K O BB nposecce B~IKAIOYKEI ................................................. 223
n p o s e p ~ a~ C T ~ H O B O +K~ H K ~ I I I In e p e ~ o c o~i~~ b ~ ~ n l o.......................................
wa 225
YCT~HOBKM no YMOAZI~HF~H) ..................;................................................................. 225
Bbm~heme~i y c r p a ~ e ~n~pioe6 h e ~sepcncn ........................... . . ......................225
Pasperne~~bre ~ l cxamxeh ~ CTPOKH ....................................................................... 226
O T A ~n K e p~e ~ o c o.............................................................................................
~ 226
M c n p a ~ h e ~npo6eno~
~ie ....................................................................................... 227
n p 0 6 h e ~ b <<riBeTas
1 a6aaqa ..................................................................................... 228
B ~ i c m ce r p o ~........................................................................................................
~i 230
C n a c e ~ ~Ni eB ~ O B ~ ................................................................................................
I, 231
n0MoIIXb <<CHpOTeB............................................................................................... 231
Bep~nKaAb~oe BbIpaBHFiBElHFie ................................................................................. 232
Bep~FiKaAbHoeBbIpaBHHBElHHe TeKCTOBOI'O ~ A O ..............................................
K ~ 234
Kopwopbr B T e ~ c r e.................................................................................................. 234
B c ~ e m p~saa ~ o r oK P ~ S........................................................................................... 236
r ~ a 12 .
~ aOTCTJ'IIBIEi BbIPSLBHWBaHHe ................................... 257
B W ~OI T ~ I ~ ~ .......................................................................................................
O B 257
O r c ~ y n. 6 y ~ .....................................................................................258
a ~ p ~ a6saqa
llomorm~b~e 0~erym.1............................................................................................ 259
B H C ~ Y~ HO~ K EIHn o c ~ o m m e0~crym.1........................................................... 260
A63am1e OTCTYII~I ............................................................................................... 260
A63au~b1Go ~ c r y n p +~n a r o s o ~na6ope ....................................................... 262
h a 3 OT a63aq~oroo ~ c ~ y n.............................................................................
a 262
OTcrynb~BTIDKICOG .............................................................................................2 6 3
&c?ynb1 no TOYKe EZhH 3H;LKY ................................................................................ 264
H a K n o ~ ~ KOAOHKH
b~e ~ a 6 0 pH a 0 6 ~ e ~ a ~..............................................................
ne 265
HaKno~~bre ~ A O K HTeKcfa ................................................................................266
npkmukmb1o 6 ~ e ~ ............................................................................................
m s 266
O ~ T ~ K~PXM0)TOhbHkiKOB
~ H H ~ ......................................................................268
O ~ T ~ KO ~~ H ~ ~H K ~Tnenpasmbnofi
O B + o p ~ b l.......................................................271
Bbxpa~misame~ Y K BH TeKCTOBbX ~ A O K O B................................................................272
C-rpa~~lua H cema r u p ~ l + ~....................................................................
a 273
T e ~ m o s a aPpaMa H ee BbIpaBHMBaHHe ..........................................................273
B~PH-I BepTElKaAbHOrO BbIpilBHuBXIHX .............................................................274
B b r p a s ~ ~ s a mnoe sepxy .....................................................................................275
Bbrpasmswne no uem-py ................................................................................... 276
Bbrpa~nmameno HH3Y ................................................................................... 277
B~lcsque3HaKPi .........................................................................................................277
B~3yahb~oe BbIpaBHHBaHEIe .........................................................................................278
Coaepma~ue XXl
XXII CoJepxanue

.
r n a ~ a14 CTPYICTYP~n0KyMeHTa
m npasmna ~ ~ n o r p a + m ~ u ....................................... 313
C-rpyr~qpm~e ~A~M~HT .............................................................................................
LI 313
~ ~ ~ O A O BrAElK HBLI ......................................................................................................315
~OA~WOAOBKM .........................................................................................................316
O c o 6 e ~ ~ oO m T ~ H B O KB 3WOAOBKaX .................................................................. 319
~ ~ T J T B~ 3WOAOBKaX
L I .........................................................................................
320
~ ~ ~ O A O BBK0H 6 0 p ~ y.............................................................................................
320
B L I A ~ A ~UHMH T ~~TI................................................................................................
~~I 321
P ~ X H c-rpyr~qp~x
M A o ~ p e m Ma orna~neaae..................................................... 322
00pMa XIpeACTaBAeHIvr CrpYKTJ'PbIAOKyMeHTa ................................................. 323
Ornasne~~ ...........................................................................................................
e 324
C p e ~ c m aH m ~ r a q ~..................................................................................................
n 325
H y ~ e p a ~ ~c lrrpr a ~ .....~ q ..........................................................................................
; 326
K O A O H T ~ ~............................................................................................................
ALI 327
C ~ p o npononmeHlUl
~a ..............................................................................................
328
Map~epbiKo~uaMa~epaana............................................................................... 330
H ~ ~ ~ B M TeKCTOBbIe
C H M ~ I3AeMeHTLI ~ .........................................................................
330
n o n n ~ Hc n~e r e a n ~................................................................................................
~ 331
CHOCKH .......................................................................................................................
332
kern^ II x m e p n ~ m r r xB C H O C K ~ X ........................................................................ 333
~ l e ..........................................................................................
B b ~ p a n m a a ~CHOCOK 335
Y K ~ ~ ~CHOCOK M
.
T ~ A.................................................................................................
r
336
B C I I O M O ~ ~ TyKa3aTeAM
~ A ~ H L I(MHA~KCLI)
~ ...................................................................
337
LUPII+T M kern^ AAX y ~ a 3 a ~ e n............................................................................
ei 337
C m u O T C T ~ ~ OyB~ a s a ~ e n ...................................................................................
ef 338
C ~ m Bb n o ~ 6 o p..................................................................................................... 339
CT~lnbC OTcTynaMM ............................................................................................... 340
np06ne~b1p a s p ~ ~ c-rpa~~lu aa B y~a3a~enrrx ..........................................................
340
~ ~ 6 n ~ o r p a + ~ s oe n c ~~ ocea ..................................................................................
~~e 341
IIp06hem1 ~ H I I + I ~ ~ I I P O B ~ H H OIIOAXOAa
~O K IIOCTpOeHIIIo T ~ ~ A M..................
U 350
rapHHTYpa. KerAb H MHTepAHHbXX .......................................................................... 352
B ~ I P ~ ~ B M BB~~HaH6 X n ~ u .....................................................................................
ax 353
~TCT~IB I ~Xsef
I ax ~ a 6 m u b 1.............................................................................
354
P a s r p a m i ~ m e n ~ n~ m b ~r e i i ~B ~ a 6 n ~ u a............................................................
x 355
T e m k i ~ a~ a 6 o p ~a a 6 m 4............................................................................................
355
COTHOLII~M~ IlIMpPiH KOAOHOK ki npo6eno~MeXAy HHMM ....................................357
~ H T ~ ~ A H HB ~~ X aX6 n ~ u ......................................................................................
ax 358
~ I H T ~ P A~ I~I ~H~ ~~ ~ ~ H W Y H TAMHeeK ~ A L H.....................................................
~ I X 358
~ e q ~ p o s a mTiee~ c r aMemy n m e i i ~ a m..........................................................
i 361
Bb~paswi~awle 3WOAOBKOB H AXIHbIX .................................................................... 363
n p o 6 n e ~ b BbIpaBHHBmX
1 YHCAOBbIX naHHbIX ...................................................... 364
Bucswe ~ H ~ KB YMCAOB~IX M ~ a 6 n ~ q ...................................................................
ax 366
B~IP~BHMB~LHH~ 3 H Z O B BaAIOTbI ..............................................................................368
f i ~ e i6e3 i ~~~~ a ~ e m..............................................................................................
iii 369
kIMmpykre ................................................................................................................. 370
.
rnasa 17 T e x ~ o n o mc ~ w n e i i .............................................. 385
Karc p a 6 o ~ a T ~HOAOITIX CTmefi ............................................................................ 385
eeX
Pacnesama ~a6mub1 c m e i i ................................................................................... 387
C'I'HAHCUMBOAbHbIe Li a63mb1e .............................................................................. 387
C m a uenyrouero a63a4a ......................... . . ................................................. 388
Cosname m a ............................................................................................................ 388
Hachenoaamie m e i i ..............................................................................................389
Co3ame ems Ha O C H O B ~cymemymuzero Te~cra............................................391
kTcno~b30same~a6-u cruneii .............................................................................392
Ynaheme m e i i ...................................................................................................... 393
Mow+nmpym~neY C T ~ H O B K...............................................................................
~ 393
EIcno~bsosanne m e i i CO~A~HFIX nepeonpeneneIMii................................394
~ I O n~3C aK~ em~ ae i i ..................................................................................... 3 9 5
~ e n c~pymypan o ~ y ~ e w.............................................................
A 6 3 a u ~ crunw ra 395
Phmopmpoaa~aem e i i ........................................................................................ 396

.
rnasa 18 npo6ne~axpa3peme~~ur
n p sd~sone
~ ......................399
I ' I p e v e m a sbico~oropa3peruem ....................................................................399
~ ~ K T Oonpenexmane
P~I, Y ~ T K q O n~ @ a npa n e ~ a m ................................. 400
nesam c M ~ K E I M p a ~ p e m e m .............................................................................
e~ 400
H36eraiiTe Men~oroKerm ................................................................................... 402
EIa6erah-e B~IBOPOTOK n Te~craHa +one ...........................................................402
H36eraiiTe na6opa non y r n o ~ Te~craKmxnoro Kerm ..................................402
3 ~ p a m ~ 1q i in + .....................................................................................................
~ 403
IIIpn+-rb~, qR~3 ~ p a ~ n onpencrasnemx
r0 ............................................................. 403
dpyfue cnoco6b1y A p m e m pa360p~moc~n Ha 3~pane ...................................... 405
Tmorpa+ma n ~ o s a rnay~nxia i ...................................................................... 4 0 7
b ~ ....................................................................................................408
l I e p c n e ~ m CSS
ZITO M O I ~ Tn e ~ a m~ a c ~ w w ~ e ..................................................................409
K o M M ~ H T ~ ~IIepeBOn9HKa
HH .................................................. 413
K rnase 1 ..................................................................................................................
413
K rnase 2 ...................................................................................................................
422
K rnase 3 ...................................................................................................................
424
K rnase 4 ...................................................................................................................
432
K rnase 5 ...................................................................................................................
434
K rnase 6 ..................................................................................................................
436
K rnase 7 ...................................................................................................................
439
K rnase 8 ............................................................................................................... 439
K rnase 9 .................................................................................................................
442
K rnase 10 ...............................................................................................................444
K rnase 11 .................................................................................................................
446
K rnase 12 .................................................................................................................
447
K rnase 13 ...............................................................................................................
449
K rnase 14 .................................................................................................................
451
K rnase 15 ...............................................................................................................
455
K rnane 18 ............................................................................................................... 456
qpyrmn C A O B ~ M ~-, K ~ Knpo-
K ~ KU C T O ~ ,q06mbc~,
O
+ ~ C C M O H ~ ~~
~aH 6On p a Pi B IIepByIO
n B e p C T a T b TeKCT.
osepem, oxia nocamqeea rupucPry B nomrpa+m, XOTR
TCM, K T 0 ZIHTaeT TeKCT C 3 K p a H a MOHFiTOpa, BCe P a B H O
nymna ~ ~ l n o r p a + n s e c ~nao xn a e p m K a , n o c K o A b K y
B b I B o n rupe+~aH a 3 ~ p Hae 0~6 x o n m c f i 6e3 H e e .
K n ~ r aopram30sa~aT ~ K H M06pa30~,w o B ~ MO- I
me-re M C ~ O A L ~ O B ~ee T Lnaomo: ax ~ Y ~ ~ H K U OKT,O P ~ I ~ ~
cnenye-r r I m a T b OT KOPKU AO KOPKM, M K a K cnpanos-
H o e ~ ~ K O B O U C T B OK, KOTOPOMY 0 6 p a ~ ~ m cno 1 1M e p e
H~O~XO~MMOCTM.
TO PYKOBOACTBO nOCBffWeH0 H e CTUheBbIM OCO-
~ ~ H H O C T X rMu p ~ + ~(style
a guide), a ero n p n M e H e m m
(execution guide). B KHMre H e O ~ % B C H I I ~ T C XH,a n p M M e p ,
n o s e M y nywue ~ b 1 6 p a nr a p H m y p y Bembo, a H e rap-
~ m y p Garamond,
y a 06cyx,gae~crr,KaK E I C ~ O A ~ ~ O B ~ T ~
~b16paHHb1ji LUPU* Ha&keXaL4MM o6paao~. Xoporuati
,UM3alH H e B O 3 M O X e H 6e3 r p a M O T H O BbInOAHeHHOrO
~ a 6 o p rau p F i + ~ a .
n p m ~ l h ~al m
~ ~rpa+MKM
HeCKOAbKO C T O A ~ T I 38
~~~,
BTO BpeMff T e X H O A O ~ k CMAbHO
i M3MeHIlhACb, HO U e A b
y T H ~ ' I o I ' P ~ ~ M KOCTahaCb
M XIpeXCHek n p a B l z ? b ~ b 1 2 BbI-
60p n a p a M e T p o a ~ a 6 o p rupn+~a
a M sepcncn, ~eo6xo-
AMMbIX XlpMffl'HOrO M nOAe3HOI'O W e H M R . XOTR
B KHMre ~ ~ ' ~ R C H I I ~ T K
C aI K
I , IIpaKTUYeCKW nOAb30BaTbCR
COBPeMeHHbIMM K O M n b m e P H b I M F i CpeACTBaMU, R nFi-
cah npemne B c e r o o H e n p e x o n r r r r r M x n m H a x . C C ~ I A K ~
H a KOHKPeTHbIe n P O r P a M M b I CBeAeHbI K MHHHMYMY
(T~M
H e M e H e e , BO3MOXHOCTII 6 0 ~ b m m I aI p O l p M M
~ p M H M M a A M C bBO B H U M ~ H H ~ ~) . P O ~ P ~ MMeHHKlTCR,
M ~ I
HO y p O K H 3 ~ 0 f iK H H r E l 6 y n ~~ e i i C T B F i T e A b H b 1H A A a 20-fi BepCHEI nm6oii ~aIX.lefI I p O T a M -
MLI, K a K ~ Y A T O3 T a BepCHX BbIILIAa TOAbKO W O .
He BCe C # ~ Y H K U H O H ~ A ~B03MOXHOCTkl,
H~I~ KOTOpble O ~ C ~ X A ~ H ) T C eCTb
II, B K~X~OG
nporpaMMe m a onepawio~~oti c k i c r e M e , HO HH o n H a 113 HHX H e n p w y M a H a a p e a ~ ~ a o ~ a -
H a B TOM MnH WHOM n p H A o X e H H H . h 6 0 ~ TyX n ~ r p a C j I yHAH 11a60pw~~y OCTaeTCX TOAb-
KO H w e m c x , =froo,g~axcnb~ B c e OHH 06ae,g~~xrcrr B o n ~ o inip o r p a M M e . B TO x e B p e M a
a O n H c a A MHOXeCTBO IIpHeMOB, I I O 3 B O A ~ U @ i X~ 0 6 F i T b ~ Xf tO p O u l e r O aa6opa B CYUleCTBy-
K ) ~ H X n, o K a ewe H e y H m e p c a n b H b r x n p o r p w a x .
I h 3 p p e s H b I f i ~ a 6 o IIOAy%L€TCR
p TOAbKO npki I l p H C T U b H O M BHHMZLHHEI K M P i p I l W a M
~ e ~ b g a i i r u I ne~aheii.
ix OHC T ~ O ~ C nonqac I I H a AOMX K ~ ~ ~ A LEI H O ~ perue~uf,
COTHXX
cyuremesao B n E I a I o q H x H a ero r p a + ~ ~ s e c ~n poeen c T a B n e H H e . Ha6op urpaC#l~a H sep-
CTK~ ~ p e 6 y mK~a ,K O A H a X n b I H-CaA MOG K o M e r a , n p e a e A b H 0 f CTOGKOCTM,cnoco6aoii
IIpOTEIBOCTOXTb O ~ B H H ~ H H RBMH3AHUIHeM BHMMaHLIII K MeAOYaM.
MbI OnHCLIBaeM 3TOT IIPOLleCC, 0Tp;UKPH)T eAHHCTB0
TCXHHKH, T e X H O A O r H l i H OIILITL, HaKOllAeHHbIX 38
500 AeT, c T e x nop, K a K n o A y - r u n a c B o e p a s s m e cwc-
TeMa neqam EIorm~ar y ~ e ~ 6 e p r ao"c H o B a H H u H a
npuaxpine nonaaxworo rupa@a. 0 Y e n b M H o r o OTKP~I-
TIlti H ~ 3 0 6 p e ~ e mn fe in p e m e M y ~ c n o ~ b 3 CyK Px~ I -
T b I e B O ~ O A O Y KIIPEIBbIYHblX
~ CerOAHX KOMnLIOTePHLIX
H ~ ~ O P H ~c ImXx e M (H A r n e B c a ~ b r xH ~ ~ ~ H T X ~ ~ T ~ A L -
HbIX TeKCTOBbIX I I ~ O U ~ C C O ~ ~ X P) . OH ~ C ~ X A ~ H E I H
m p ~ + ~H ea0 6 0 h c b 6e3 CAOB, B KOTOP~IX e c T b KOP-
IM HeMeUKOrO, ( P P ~ I ~ ~ ~ c H
K KTaAbXHCKOTO
o ~ o X3bIKOB.
kI H e B 3 T Z - I H a MHOrOBeKOByIO 3 B O N O W H ) KHHrO-
n e s a T a m R , + y H A & f e W T a A b ~ b ~ e I I p H H ~ E I I I b IH ~ ~ O P H ~ I X
npoueccoa nerre B c e r o nom'rb, o 6 p a m r r r ~ cK ~cno-
co6y, KOTOpbIM ryre~6epr3CtAYMaA ~ a 6 ~ p I aU p~P ibc p ~ .
B 3~0fir n a B e ~ s n a r m c nO C H O B ~ IH ~ ~ O P H ~npouec-
I X
COB H HCTOPWI MX Pa3BIITIIX.

~ A ~ B H Z ~WS eI R IXOABHXHOrO J l I p H c p ~ aCOCTOEIT B TOM,


'YTO K-aJI 6 y ~ a ~A ~aa B K T a K, a X A b I f i 3 H a K IIpeIIHHa-
HEIR, KZiCAaJI u H + p a EI CHMBOA OTAIlBaeTCX B BHAe
peAbe+a H a OTAeALHOM MeTaAAHYeCKOM ~ A O K ~ ~ .
3 T M ~ A O K I I(AMTepb1) BLICTpiUiBaIOTCX pXAaMH EI +0p-
MHPF ~ O 3 a ~ Hea B~L x c T y n a m u r n e sac-
K TY
eKcTa,
TM ~ Y K BHaHOCXT KpaCKY H I I p l i X H M a D T ax K 6 p a r e .
0 6 b 1 Y ~ b 1 f iP ~ ~ E I H O B
I I I~T Ia M
~ n~ PiCIIOAb3YeT C X O X H ~
IIpHHU,Hn, 3a HCKAIOSeHHeM TOrO, T O IIIPH+T B HeM
He pa36upae~cx.
n p ~ o p m e ? . B ~ 3 0 6 p e ~ IIOABHXHOrO
e ~ ~ a I.UpH+Ta,
BOBMOXHO, IXpIPEIH2lAAeWCHTK O ~ ~ I ~ KOTOPLIe
V ~ M , 38 MHO-
ro BeKOB A 0 r y ~ e ~ 6 e p iyme
-a I I e s a T a A a IIOABMXHLIMH
~ A O K B M I I , BLIIIOAHeHHLIMH H 3 K e P a M U -
~UPU~TOBLIMH
KH. ~ ~ H N ryre~6epra
K ) H y X H O ~ L I A On p e B p a T M T L MAeK)
B eAaHyfO C H c r e M y ~ a 6 o p a ne4am r n p ~ + T a (o6aenu-
HHB KOHCl'pYXLIHH) IIpeCCa, 3aIIMCTBOBZLHHYH) Y BHHOAe-
AOB, yI
c ~ e m o iMie T a u m e c K o r o m n x , ~mii O B ~ -
POB). O K O H ~ Z R A L H L I MPe3y&TilMM CXMM CraYqa-
pa3MepOB J3 IIpOMLllIlAeHHOe IIpOM3BOAcTnO 3THX Ma.AeHa-
KE~Xne=IaTHbD[ ~ A O K O B - m p i (pac. 1.1).
&AX ~ a 6 o p aTeKCTa IIO TeXHOAOrMH r y ~ e ~ 6 e p 1 - a
GAOKH, OTAIlTlIe PI3 C n A a B a CBHHUa, BLICTpaHBWHCL
B pn,q~~, KaK c x e M a m s H o n o ~ a 3 a ~ a pac. 1.2. (&a
Ho
PHC. 1.1. C H C T ~IIOABHX-
M~
T o r o Y T O ~ L Ine4a-m 6 b m a n p a ~ m ~ ~G o ~ KfB,L IAOAXHLI
H ~ I XAMTep r y ~ e ~ 6 e p r a
6b1~a
OCIIOBaIIa H a OTAIlBKe K a X A O r O 6 b m 3 ~e p K U L H L I M X , ~ a 6 a p a ~
MXb B CTPOKH U e A y e T
3 H a K a H a OTAeAbIIOM M e T a h A H - C n p a B a HaAeBO. K CYaCTLIO, 3 T a O C O ~ ~ H H O C T CTaPklH-
L
H3
YeCKOM ~ A O K ~ . BCeX p a 3 M e - HOG CIlCTeMLI K a H y A a B Ae?y.)
pOB 6 n o ~ aM e H I I A a C b TOAbKO
T a ~ k p~ me L 1 A m e p (CTPOK T ~ K C T ~Y) K A W L I B U H
IUMPMHa B COOTBeTCTBHH C LUH-
OaMH n 0 A APYrMM M I I O A j Y U H CTpaHMlly, a 3 a T e M BCKI
~ M H KOa X~ A O r O 3 H a K a . Ilpo6e-
K B c e x CTOPOH QHKCM-
n p ~ ~ o y r o n ~M~a cyc ymC ~ O co
A b I M e X A y CAOBaMH o 6 e c n e ~ a -
~ahHC6
b o ~ e Y3KHMH
e ~AOK~MX, P O B W M p a ~ o i i&X
. YBeAHseHIlX npo6ena M e X a y C q O -
BbICOTa KOTOPbIX H e AOCTIlraAa K a M H BCTaBAXAMCL TOHKHe M e T U A M s e C K M e IIOAOCKH
ypOBlIX IIeYaTHbIX 3AeMeHTOB. ( u n o t t b i 7 ) . QTOT nposecc ( w s ~ e ~ e x~ m z ne p n ~ ~ ~ ~ r n a )
Ilpopeab ( c x r ~ a ~ y p aH"a) rrepe- ~a3b1~a-m %a ILIIIOHLI, (adding lead, a o c z o B -
< ~ H a 6 ~ l p a TH
CTOpOHe K a X A O r O 6 n o ~ a
HO < < ~ 0 6 a ~ nCeB~ HH a Ue ~ D )B
. HaCTOXIUee B p e M R T e p M H H
n o h f o r a n a p y i c e r1a6opwa~a
I I p a B a A b H O p a C U O A O X H T b AUTe-
lead n e n p e x w e M y ~ c n o ~ ~ 3 y AX e ~ ocnna c a H m paccro-
p y a ae nepenyran, aanpaMep XHHX M e X A y c ~ p o ~ oHi iCOCeAHIIMH CTPOKZiMM, KOTO-
6 y ~ n yd a IIOXOXYH) Ha nee, HO p L I e p a c n o n o x e H L 1 BbIrue M m x e .
nepesepHyTyIo ~YKBY p B n p e ~ C T a ~ A e H H 0CXeMe
fi H e M e H e e BaXHLIMH, YeM
n e 4 a T H b 1 e , XBAXDTCX n p 0 6 e h b ~ b 1 e ~ A ~ M ~ H T L pI O
* ,A L
KOTOPLIX KBK pa3 M COCTOMT B IIpaBMALHOM IIO3MI4U-
O H E I ~ O B ~ Hn eWs a T H L I x . T a ~ u en j o b e ~ b l " (blanks) npa-
MeHRAHCL, H X I p H M e p , AAX CO3AZLHMX OTCTYIIOB I? 3 a B e p -
IUeHHX He3aKOH9eHHbIX CTpOK B KOHUe a63aua.
PEIC. I .2. C x e ~ a m v a o enpen-
CTaBAeHlle + ~ ~ I M c H Pj'YHOrO
T ~
~ a 6 o p IlOKa3LIBaeT,
a W O IIpOUC-
XOAHT <<3a c ~ ~ H o B&COBPeMeR-
>
HOG K O M I ~ ~ I O T ~ P~aGop~ioil
HOE
CEiCTeMe. P X A ~ I
3IIBKOB CAOXe-
HbI B B U a e CTPOK TeKCTa, a KOH-
W I C T O K ( K ~ Kk i OTCTYII~I) 3a-
n o , w e f m r n p o 6 e n b ~ bM
l a~T e p H -
aAOM. B pyYHOM t3a60pe
n p o 6 e ~ b ~ b 1MaTCpU&4
ii ~eo6xo-
AHM AAR TOTO, ~ 0 6 b K3aMbI-
1
KaTbD, Y A e p X U B a T b H a M e C T e
~ A O T H ~I I P
I R~M O Y T O A b H P i K ,
aT a x e n e p e M e r u a n BecL ~ A O K
KaK e n u f l o e uenoe u nesaTaTb
ero, H e a o n y c K a a cMeueHkIx
OTAeAbkIbIX 3HaKOB

B K O M I I ~ I O T I ~ ~CIlCTeMe
HO~~ ~ a 6 0 p TeKCTa
a KaHcAaR 6 y ~ -
sa HAH 3 ~ p aac n o~n a r a e T c x B n p a M o y r o n b H H K e , pas-
M e p b I KOTOpOrO aHWOI'HYHb1 IIOBepXHOcrIl CTaPUHHbIX
MeTahnHYeCKHX A I l T e p (PHC. 1.3). K ~ XK 4 BO B p e M e H a
ryre~6epra,T a K a R n n o w a n K a (bounding box) onpene-
AReT IIpOCTpaHCTBO, KOTOpOe KXKflaJI 6 y ~ s 3aa H H M a e T PEIC. 1.3. B n p o r p a M M e (pen=-
H a n e ~ a ~ ~crpamue.
ofi ITpoGen M e m n y ~ s o 6 p a m e m e ~ T o p e m p a + ~ a )o y e p T a I l u R 311a-
KO8 0 ~ 0 6 p a x a m ~B cOTAeAb-
~
3HaKa H ~ O K O B ~ I M E
I'paHIlUaMH
I IIAOIUWtKH, K O T O P ~ I ~ ~
abIx npmoyronbaulcax. TOYKU
~c~ (side bearing), onpenena-
a a 3 ~ 1 s a e no~yanpoule,u'~ H a KOHTYPe YKa3bIBalOT M e C T a
eT, HaCKOAbKO A a h e K O OYKO" 3 T O r 0 3 H a X a PaCnOAO- COeAUHeHUX OTpe3KOB n P R M b I X
X e H O OT OYKa C n e n y I o I U e r o 3 H a K a . ~ O A O ~ H L I me
M m u K P N B O ~ I ~ E I ~ ~ ~ ICIeLr IMXe I r r o B
POBbIe IIAOIUaAKU AOnyCKaloT B3aHMHOe n e p e K p b I m e
( p ~ c .1.4). Ha6opwu~uuu+poaoii enoxw M O I ~ Tp a 3 -
MeIUaTb nro6oii 3HaK1 KaK UM B3AYMaeTCR, TO eCTb CO-
B e p r u e H H o C B O ~ O ~ H ropasno
O, Aer'Ie, ' I e M o 6 p y 6 a ~ b

cyma n o ~ a s a ~ K
oa,K B npo- KPOIIIegHLIe M e T a h h U ' I e C K H e AUTepbI, U3MeHIITb +OP-
MY 3HaKOB U BeAU'IUHy npo6eno~M e X A y COCenHMMU
CHMBOAaMH B U H ~ P O B L I XUIPII+TBX.
K ~ HK B p F H O M ~ a 6 0 p e B, UH+POBOM ILIPW+T~
MenyW o6pauam oco6oe B H U M m H e H a npo6em B H F -
pr? CTPOKU H M e m a y CTpoKaMM, H a n p H M e p , o m c m y n b i
a63aya (paragraph indents) UAU om6uaxy'"extra space)
M e X A Y 3arOAOBKOM N OCHOBHLIM TeKCTOM. XOTII3TN
o 6 ~ a c H~aa~ ~ ' I ~ T H Co TGp a H H u e K a X j " P . 3 IIYCTLIM MeC-
TOM'^, B ~ H nOp e A c T a s n m b HX B K a g e c T s e ~ H ~ K Onpo-
B
6 e ~ aa, H e IIpOCTO He3aHRTbIM IIpOCTPaHCTBOM E t l H ny-
c ~ o ~ o(voids).
ii
ECAUU CYIUeCTBYeT B ~ a 6 0 p eo ~ I U ~ U ~ B ~ C HC-
T H ~ R
TIIHB, TO O H a m a C H T , 'IT0 H a CTPaHMIle H e ~ L I B nyC-
~ ~ T
TOT, a TOAbKO n p o 6 e n b 1 (spaces) M e X A y ne'IaTHLIMU
3AeMeHTaMU. kl ~oo6weCMbICA ~ a 6 o p LUpU+Ta
a COCTO-
HT B per)'AEIpOBaHAH BeAH'IHHbI npo6e~oaAAR TOrO,
~ 0 6 O ~~ ~ 1C ~ ~ ' I U 6B a~ a ~ Mcp m ~ "' I e p H o r o u 6eno-
T L
I'O. B 3TOM KAIO'I K T ~ ~ C ~ ) I I ' I ~ C~K~ M
P M O H I I Y H CTPaHEI-
O~~
qe, T. e. cTpaHHue c BLIneprnaHHLIM << y a e m o w na6opa
(type color), a TaKme s e p m ~ ni p K neqam TeKcra,
K O T O P L ~AerKO U IIPMXTHO 'IUTaTb.
B A I ~ ~ ~p aH
Ha
3 MHe p~O B
ero PHCYHOK
LT.I~H+T~
Master
r y ~ e ~ 6 e n306pe~
pr CncreMy nesaTIi
B H ~ ~ U H &B m OH IIpOCTO IIO3aHMCTBOBU
+MU,
c T p a H m , HO RX

KOTOpiLII K TOMY B p e M e H H 6 b m a BeARKOAeIIHO


y KWIIrpa- Master
f l T o~r 0 ' I T O ~ ~OII I p a B n a T b OXHABHIIEI 'IRTa-
pa3sWa.
~ e n e i ir, y ~ e ~ 6 eRp ero
r n o c n e n o B a T e A I i 6 b 1 n ~B b w y m -
A e H b I O ' I e H b T O g H O B b I n e P X H B a T b PRCYHOK ~ Y K B ,
KOMIIO3HUEDO CT'paHHU B COOTBeTCTBIlR C CyIUeCTBJ'IO-
Master
PEIC. 1.5. Tpu CTPOKU npen-
W R M R T O r A a KHUXHbIM HCKYCCTBOM R 3aKOHaMR K a h -
CTaBAXKlT OANII M T O T Xe
narpa+mil? m p u + ~ ,c n p o e K T l i p o s a u b I olru
Mamepa ~ a h n ~ r p a + uH a~n,p x M e p , y x e ~ H ~ A R , C UCIIOAb30BaHHeM P a 3 k l b l X M a -
'ITO OAHH R T e x e 6 y ~ ~ pasaoro
b 1 p a a ~ e p an o n x H b I c~ep-06pa3uon".Bepxasx c?po-
H M e n p a s a b ~ nponopqmi.
e U l p ~ QMr e n K o r o p a s ~ e p a xa o c H o s a H a aa o6paaue AAX
MeAKOrO u p u + ~ a ,K O T O P L I ~
A e r s e BOCIIPRHHMaTb, e c A R 6 y K ~ b fv b - ' I Y T b LUMPe R
nPRMeHlleTCII, IIanpUMep,
HaCbIWeHHee. B KPYIIHOM LIIPRC$T~ T e Xe 3HaKR M O r y T B CIiOCKaX, 011 FiMCeT CaMbIe M a c -
RMeTb 6onee H 3 R W H b l e + O P M ~ I : TOHLlIIe, CBeTAee H C U B I ~ L Impwxa,
~ caMym 6 0 ~ ~ -
C 6 o ~ b m e i iH I O ~ H C H P O B K O ~(PLIC.
~ 1.5). Korna BMeCTe IlryIO UrMPUHY 3IIBKOk3, TO eCTL
B C T p e Y a l o T C a ~ Y K B Mp a 3 H O r O p a 3 M e p a , T O T a K R e T e napaMe-rpbr, KoTopbre npma-
KIT e M y P ~ ~ ~ O P Y U B O C THeB3M-
L,
H e 3 H a Y W e A b H b I e pa3AR'IIIEI H e ~POCPK)TCX B r A a 3 a , Ii
pas H a ero M~AOCTI,IIO onlorue-
B UeAOM TeKCT K W e T C I I OAHOPOAHbIM.
HUH) K P a 3 M e P Y C T P a H H U h I .
~ O C K O IXpR
~ ~ MC3"l'H'IeCKOM
K ~ ~ a 6 o p Ue O B O A m - C p e a ~ s csT p o K a c+op~npoaa-
HH 6b~111 BbIHjCK&eHbI C 0 3 n a B a T b OTfieAbHbIe KOMIIAeK- Ha c n o M o u b m 06pa3ua, npea-
T ~ nIe Y a T x b I x A m e p nna K a x n o r o p a a ~ e p arupa+~a H ~ ~ I I ~ = I ~ H I InnsO ~ OO ~ L I S H O ~ O

( ~ e r n a ' ~TO) ,AAH HRX C n e A o B a n ~ a x u i r p a + ~ ~ e c ~ o iKiH H X H O ~ O ~1a6opa.HNXIIIIR-


no o6pa3uy nna n n a K a T r I b I x
~ p a ~ l 6~ ~l nweoc r e m e H H o . 3Ta n p a K m K a cyuemo-
~ U ~ H + T O Bero
, 6onee Y3KMC 3 B a -
B a a A 0 B T O P O ~IIOAOBRHLI XX B e K a , K O r A a n0 MPOHHIi
KU M MeHbLUaR IIaCbIIUCHHOCTL
cynb6b1 T ~ X H H ~ ~ C K nporpecc
LI~ B o r n e n B npomnope- cneuaanmo n p n c n o c o 6 ~ e ~ ~ r
YkIe c 3 ~ 0 iCi A O X H O ~~ ~ e x n o ~ o m e6b1m
i i . p a 3 p a 6 o ~ a ~ b 1 aria K p y n r r o r o r u p ~ + ~ a
c n o c o 6 b 1 , c ~ O M O W ~ KKOTOP~IX
J ~ 3 0 6 p a m e ~ uo Tea e A b -
HOrO 3 H a K a MOrAO 6 b l ~ bYMeHbILIeHO KUi YBeARseI-I0
B HeCKOAbKO p a 3 , C H a Y a a C n O M O W b l o AMH3, a 3aTeM
6naronapa MaTeMaTR'IeCKOMy M ~ c I u T ~ ~ R ~ o B ~ H R I O .
~ e r n b6, ~acTep-06pa3eup,nn ~ e r n n6 ~ e r n b6, MacTep-06pa3e~p,nn ~ e r n n11
If it had been intended to leave it in the discretion of the legislature to If it had been mended ta leave it in the discretion of the legislature19 a p
apportion the judicial power between the supreme and inferior courts portion the judicial power behveen the aupreme and inferior courts accord-
accordine to the will of that body, it would certainly have been useless ing to the will of that bod", it would certainly havs been useless to have pro-
to have proceeded further than to have defined the judicial power and ceeded further than to have defvled the judicid power and the tribunak in
the uibvnatj in which it should be vested. The subsequent part of the which it should be vested. The subsequent pan of the section is mere sur-
section is mere surplusage-is entirely without meaning-if such is to plusage-is entirely without meaning-if such is to be the construction. If
be the construction. If Cangress remain* at liberty to give this court ap- Congress remains at liberty to give this court appellate jurisdiction, where
pellate jurisdiction, wherc the Constitution has dedared their jurisdic- thc Conatitution has dedared their jurisdiction will be original, and origi-
tion will be original, and original jurisdiction where the Constitution nal jurisdiction wherc the Constitution has dedared it shall be appellate,the

~ e r n b8, ~ac~ep-06pa3eU
~ n ~ne r n n6 ~ ~ e r n n11
~ e r n b8, ~ a c r e p - 0 6 p a s e~n
If it had been intended to leave it in the discretion of If it had been intended to leave it in the discretion of the
the legislature to apportion the judicial power be- legislature to apportion the judicial power between the
tween the supreme and inferior courts according to supreme and inferior courts according to the will of that
the will of that body, it would certainly have been body, it would certainly have been useless to have pro-
useless to have proceeded further than to have de- ceeded further than to have defined the judicial power
fined the judicial power and the tribunals in which it and the tribunals in which it should be vested. The sub-
should be vested. The subsequent part of the section sequent part of the section is mere surplusage-is entire-

PMC. 1.6. Q p a r M e ~ T b l T e K C T a ~ I C X O A~Ha c~~Ie~p ~- 0 6 p a 3 eUu P M + T ~MOXHO ripe-


- -

neB0iiKohoHKe~a6~-1~u* 0 6 p a 3 0 ~ b l ~KBK
a ~ bB IIIPM+T AM3 CHOCOK, T a K M B IIIpM+T
TOM, creriepuposamitm c n o M e
AAX K p y n H o r o r a 3 e ~ ~ o ar a
or o n o ~ ~ a .
u r n ~acrepo6pa3ua,n p e m a 3 H a -
SeHHOTO AAX M e A K O r O KCTAX. P ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ OT MT ~Y
O ~M
P~K
+ MM
Y~CKM
CMXC T ~ M ~ ~ I A M
C ~ ~ B HUX
U CT +~p a r M e K I W d E I AoBOAbHbI TeM, T O H e H a 0 C O 3 ~ ~ a PMCJ'
T h HoK q k l + ~ a
T e K C r a B ~IpasoiiKOAOHKe ( O C I I ~ AAff K GKAOTO K e r M 3 , XOTR 3 T 0 CKa3aAOCb H a KaYeCTBe
n e Y a T H b I x M3.4aHM6. Korna JLIPEI+T ~10601-0 K W A R +OP-
MMpYeTCR M3 OAHOTO ~ a c ~ e p - 0 6 p a 3 u( Oa ~ ~ I Y HnOp o e K -
TMPYeMOTO KBK C T ~ H A ~ ~ H
T aH
6 0 ~p HI b ~
1 i i~ LLIpM+T1"), TO
H e e k~ K p y m e e , OH ~ a 6 p Gonee
a~ MeAKMfi ILIPM+T K a X e T C R C X a T b I M M TPYAHbIM AM3 ZrTe-
pa3pexeImo. 3 r o smano, ecm HMR, a K P Y I I H L I ~ ~- r P O M O 3 A K M M 41 p a 3 p e X e H H b I M .
o6pamm BHUMaHHe H a K9IIUbl B p e 3 y A b T a T e OTAeAbHbIe CMCTeMbl T M I I o ~ P ~ + M K H ~ CTa-
"
CTPOK. Fonee T ~ M H *~4 B I e~T 8
M ~ A K O ~qO a + ~ .,y.rrue
a coyera-
AM p a 3 A e M T L ~ a 6 0 p ~ b lIIIpMCt)T
ii (KHHXHOTO K ~ T A R )M

eTCX C OCTahbHbiM I I I P I I ~ M
Ha (display)
~ K U M ~ ~ ~ H T H ~ I ~UPH+T
~ (KPYIIHOTO K ~ ~ A RTex-
).
crparwe. P . s y ~ e e ~ u rl u, p ~ ~ + T , HonowYecKoe perueme 3 ~ 0 inpo6ne~b1
i T O A ~ K OH a w -
cre~epupmanmSi113n o r n o m e - C X3).
~ T ~2A.
H a e T C ~ ~ O ~ M H ~ O B(cd.
ro ~acrepo6pa7ua,m n a neme,
s e M III~EI+T, C M ~ C L U T ~ ~ ~ ~ O B ~ I I -
H b G A 0 H y X H O r O K e r N I , KiiK BO
+ p m e m a x npaoii K O A O I ~ ~ ?
Ewe H e ycneha IIpOCOXHyTb K p a C K a H a r y ~ e ~ 6 e p r o ~ cEH~AHH,
~ o i i K a K lIOXBUAHCb nonpa-
X a T e A H C I I O A O ~ H ~ I MXe
H H ~ ~ ~ O P H ~ IHMIIeYaTHbIMH
EI CHCTeMaMH. KOAHY~CTBO
m p ~ + -
TOB YBeAHYHBUOCb, N IIAarEiaT IIOnYARPHbIX U I ~ H + T O B C T U 0 6 b I Y H b 1 ~
XBAeHHeM (ewe
O n H a TPaAHUHX T H I I o ~ P ~ ~ H K EKOTOPilR
I, n o - I I p e X H e M y IIpOLIBeTaeT). HHK~KHX
CTaHAap-
TOB A M n p 0 I I 0 p I l H f i U Ii p a 3 M e p O B UXpH+Ta H e CyIIleCTBOBahO.
~IOYTLI 400 A e T npouecc ~ a 6 0 p aN n e Y a T H m p ~ + ~H eaC H A ~ H OOTAHYUCX OT Y e H -
6 e p r o ~ c ~ o rT
o .~ K C~ aT6 u p a h c 6s y ~ s 3a a ~ Y K B O a~ nocne
~ , s a n e p m e ~ mneqam m p l r + ~
p a ~ ~ b ~ n Ha er0
~ ~H ~~ O' ~,X O A H M6Ob m o CHOBa COpTEtpOBaTb no KaCCaM, YTO I I O p ~ a h O C b
MHOrOWiCAeHHbIM ~ ~ A H ~ I M
nOAMaCTepbRM. ~ T H MHeCYaCTHbIM HYXCHO 6 b ~ 06e3om~-
O T A H V ~7s OT
~OZIHO Is, a 0s OT Os, O p H e H n i p y s c b T O A ~ K OH a n e p e B e p H y T b I e u 3 0 6 p a x e -
HHR H a M a h e H b K N x M e T a n n m e c K H x nmepax, p a s ~ e pK O T O P ~ I X H e n p e n b I m a n cnu9e.r-
H 0 f i rOAOBXII. K a x ~ b ~Hiai6 0 p ~ b l f Ui e X (cabinet) MMeA HeCKOAbKO KaCC (cases) A M A m e p :
n p o n ~ c a b r e ~( "d a w c ~ y ~ t p. a~c~n ~o h) a r a u c b B ~ e p x ~ eKia ic c e (upper case), a c q o s ~ b ~ e ' "
( ~ u n y c ~ y ~ t . 1- ~ "B H H E I X HK~a~c ~c e (lower case). M rope TOMY n o A M a m e p b m , K O T O P ~ I ~ ~
C O P T H P O B U MeAAeHHee, 9 e M M a C T e p ~a61lpa.1 IUpH+T.
B0 B T O P O ~IIOAOBHHe
~ B e K a TPM OCHOBHbIX H ~ O ~ P ~ T ~ HU3MeHElAU EIR cnoc06 na60-
pa UXpH+Ta. 3a AeCXTHAeTEle ANHOTHn H MOHOTEfn IIOAHOCTbH3 BbITeCHHAH I13 IIPOH3BOA-
CTBeHHOfi C + ~ P ~ I
TeXHOAOI'NH) PYYHOrO ~ a 6 o p a .

nepsax HacTonaHaa neuaTHax cHcTeMa


HOIIepBbIM H 3 3THX H 3 0 6 p e T e ~ H f iC T a h a I I H U l y I I i M MaIIIHHKa Remington. OH^ COeAHHH-
A a HeCKOAbKO OCHOBOllOAaraKIllIHX li~efi,KOTOPbIe COXPaHHAllCb B COBPeMeHHblX ~ a 6 o p -
HbIX CNCTeMaX N IIpOAOXHAH nyTb TOMY, YTO T e n e p b H a 3 b I B a l o T < < o + H c H ~ I~~a~6 o p a BOn-
,
~ 0 u ~ e H H b IBf KOMnbHlTepHbIX
i TeKCTOBbIX P e A a K T O p a X .
72 Yacma I. Ocnosa~munozpa$u~u

B TO B p e M X K a K I I e s a ~ a I o w H i iy 3 e A HeIIOABHXeH. B 3AeKTPOHHbIX n P H H T e P a X O ~ ~ I S H O
nepeMewaeTcs n e Y a T a a ronoaaa.
l l p u ~ u u nnono6~oron e p e M e w e H u r r K a p e T m , K O T O P L I ~ no-a~rnufic~a
~ ~asbrsae~crr
escapement, n p H M e H X e T c a BO acex ~ a 6 0 p ~ o - n e s a ~ a r o Tr er x~H~oxn o r m x . l l o c ~ Te o r o KaK
masnura H a naruywefi M a r u m m e H a x a T a H o T n y w e H a , 6 y ~ a r nae p e M e w a e T c a (escapes)
O T H o c m e h b H o n e s a T a I o w e r o ysna B nonoxcewze r o T o n H o c T H K nesam cnenyrowero 3 ~ a -
a ~ a 6 ~ p aTeKCT
K a . K o r ~ BbI e ~ e H a KOMnbXQTepe, I I p O H C X O ~ H TTO Xe CaMOe: IIOCAe T o r 0
K a K 3HaK IIOXBHACX H a BKpaHe, K y p C O p CaBHraeTCX B n p a B O H a PaCCTOXHUe, 3KBHBaheHT-
H o e IlIXpHHe B ~ e n e ~ ~Go~ fK iB ~I.
C n e I l H a h ~ 3 ~ p 0 ~ a 3AeKTpOHHbIe
~ ~ b I e CHCTeMbI ~ a 6 o p alTO-IlpeXHeMy npHOCTaHaB-
AHBaIoT n e p e M e w e H H e K a p e T K H A M TOrO, Y ~ 0 6 b 1H a A O X U T b OAUH 3HaK H a ~pyrofi.Ha-
U ~" ~ I S H +OPMUPYKITCII
n p H M e p , ~ Y K B ~C I,qHaKpuTuYecKHMH ~ H ~ K ~ M O O CAeAYIoUHM
06pa30~:6 y ~ a ~a a 6 ~ p a e B~Oc~x~ I Y H Ononoxwwi,
M a nepeMeweHHe KapeTKu npnocTa-
HaBAUBaeTCII A 0 T e X n O p , n O K a A H ~ K ~ H T H Y ~ c K
3HaK
H ~ ~H e Pa3MeCTHTCEI H a ~ e f i3. a ~ e ~
BbIl7OAHXeTCX nep€!MeLIleHUe H a rUHpHHY ~ Y K B L IH HpOAOhmaeTCII O ~ ~ I Y H ~
L aI 6
~o~ p&
. l
HaCTOAbHbIX U3AaTeAbCKUX IIPOrPaMM 3TO yXe H e CrOAb XapaXTepHO.

E ~ K BAaTUHCKOI'O
~I ~ A @ B H T ~ , IIpHMeHXeMbIe ~ O A ~ U I H H C T B O M
~ B P O ~ ~ ~ ~ XBbIKOB,
C K N X
UMeIoT PP3HYIO IUUPUHY. M ~ o r 0 0 6 p a 3 ~KOHTYPOB
e H HX UIHPHH - r A a B H a R n p H s H -
~YKB
H a CAOXHOCTH T U ~ O ~ P ~ ~ ~ ) E Q
IKO PUM*~~I .~ Y K B
CKAaflbIBahIICb CTOAeTSiXMU AAX TOrO, T O -
6 b 1 CTaTb 'laCTbIo 1 1 p e 3 B b I s a f i ~ 0 T O H K O ~U~ C A O X H O ~ B
~ H 3 y a h b ~ 0 f i CHCTeMbI a A X W e H U R .
E ~ K Bc 0~3 In a a a ~ u c b6e3 yse-ra 6ynyweii nesam H a nuruyweii MarUHHKe, 11 nce n o n b r m a
MOnePHU3HPOBaTb a h + i l B ~ T H n p H n a T b 6 y ~ @O
~ P Ma ~ ICTEIAHCTH'IeCKU
~ 6onee O n H o p o n -
HLre II 6onee n o n x o A a r r J H e ~ n r M
r exaHusecKoro B O C ~ ~ O I I ~ B ~ A06b1s~o
~ H H X T e p n e n u +H-
aCK0. b I I I j T J J H e MaUIHHKH H e O T A H s a h H C b COBePUIeHCTBOM (a YX T e M 6onee I I e p B a H
Monenb 1879 rona), H neno ewe y c y r y 6 n a n o c b T e M , TO TPYAHO C n p o e r c T E i p o B a T b Ma-
ILIHHK~,B K O T O P O ~K~ a x n a s 6 y ~ s a n + a a ~ ~ nonysana
a 6b1 c B o e Y H m c a h b H o e n e p e M e w e -
HHe K a p e T K H (escapement). B ~ e c r oT o r 0 ~ 0 6 ~ ~P E 1I C ~ O C O ~MaUIUHKY UT~ K LUPM+TY,
H3TOTOBHTeAU n p ~ c n o c a 6 n rUpH+T21' ~ ~ a ~ ~ K MarUHHKe. T ~ IIOXBHACX K MOHOUIHPHHH~I~
LUpH@T (monospaced type). B MOHOrUHpIIHHOM IIIpH+Te BCe 3HaKH HMeIOT OfiHHaKOBYIO
UIHpHHy, IIOBTOMY ~ a 6 o p ~ aMaIIIHHa rr 6 ~~ O1H a HH 6 b 1 n a ) 0 6 e c n e s ~ ~HX
( K ~ K O a eI~I e s a T b
o n u H a K o s L r M n e p e M e w e H H e M K a p e T m . He aamao, K a K p 6 y ~ B~~ H yI a x H M a e T e H a K n a -
BHaType, KapeTKa n e s a ~ ~ oMarUHHKx
ii nepeMerrJaeTcx H a OnHHaKoBoe PaccToxHHe.
Courier Helvetica PMC. 1.7. B MOHOIlIUpUHHbIX
qu+mx, I I 0 ~ 0 6 r i b J XCourier, uce

AAAAAA AAAAAA 3HBKU IIOAY'ialOT OAWHilKOBbIe


pa3MepbI no rOpU3OHTE4AM. OAU-
rrrrrr rrrrrr ~ t a ~ o u omipum~
ii MOX-
C~BOAOB
I10 A O C M S b 38 CqCT )'BCAUYeHWI

aaaaaa aaaaaa no~yanpomeii(nyc~oe


CTBO no c r o p o ~ aK ~
npocrpm-
axnoro 3~a-
~ a )K, ~ nK o ~ a a a l ~I loa npumepe
a m i i , m 3a c s e T u c K a m e m
pucyma 6 p u , T O ~ L I B T I I C H ~ L
ee B c x e M y GOAUA p a 3 ~ e pAAR
iiiiii iiiiii Bcex,. ~ ~ O I ~ O ~ U U O H ~ A ~ ~
rupu+~,aanpmep Helvetica, no-
3BOMeT 6 p a COXp;ulU7%
~ CBOU
' I HK o~MGm m T e p a r u p u + ~Courier - 3TO
~ ~ H B ~ I AAR
c<eCTeCTBellHblea n P O n O P U U U U
H a CaMOM A e A e IIIPHC~)T IIHII.IyIIIe6 MBIIIHHKH, BCe 3Ha-
IlIUpUHbI
KH Y H e r o O ~ U H ~ K O BIIIHpHHbI
O~ (PIIC. 1.7). T ~ Mme
,
TPYnHO I I p U A a T b 3 H a K a M C00TBeTCTByIoU)'W IUUPUHY,
H a n p u M e p , o Y e H b YPKMM 3 ~ a (1,~i Ha3 n~ a ~ nap e~n H -
, H e n o M e p H o pacrrrapmu sa c s e T nohyanpo-
~ a w r a )HX
urefi TaK, ~ 0 6 b 1 0 6 e c n e ~ n n~obA x o A s m e e n e p e M e u r e -
Iule KapeTKH. B 3 T 0 IIPOKPYCTOBO A O X e BTHCHYAH H
OYeHb IIIHpOKIIe ~ Y K B (M, ~ I W, 0).
XOTIIMOHOIIIHPHHHbIe IIIPEI+T~IHapyXLIUU eCTe-
CTBeHHyIo + O P M ~ BHBKOB, OHH C b I r p U H B a H F n p a K -
T H ' I e C K p POAb. HX IIPOAOAXalOT IIPHMeHRTb B T e X
IIpHAOXeHHXX, me X e A a T e A b H O 3HaKH K ~ X A OCTPO-
~
KII B b I p a B M B a T b B Y3KHX B e P T I I K U b H b I X C T O A ~ U ~ X .
K p o ~ eTOrO, U H + P ~ I B ~ O A ~ I U U H C TIUPM+TOB
B~ HMe-
IOT O n U H a K O B p IIIHpHH)', n 0 3 T O M y HX MOXHO H a 3 B a T b
MOHOIIIHPHHHbIM IIOAMHOXeCTBOM 06~19~01-0
ILIpHcp-
T a . M o ~ o m a p m ~ o c T~ be o 6 x o n AAX
~ ~ aTOrO, ZITO~~I
MOXHO 6 b ~ A
0 e r K O BbIpaBHHBaTb YHCAO B +HH;LHCO-
BbIX Ei MaTeMaTUYeCKEiX ~ a 6 m u a x(PNC. 1.8). Korna
no K ~ K O G - A U ~IIpUYUHe
O KOMIIbIOTepHaR CHCTeMa HAU
nptlmep H e H a x o n m ~ p e 6 y e ~ o m
r op ~ + ~TO
a , OH Y m e
Bcero s a ~ e w r e MOHOILIH~HHHLIM
~c~ ILIPH+TOM Courier,
XOTR ~ L no
I TOG n p m a H e , YTO Courier C H A ~ H Oo T A w x a -
eTCX OT OCTUbHLIX, H H a T a K p OIIIH~KY TpYAHO H e
O ~ P ~ T U T BHHMZiHHR.
L (%TO TeOpeTH9eCKH. A IIpaKTH-
SeCKM, eCAH IIpOCMaTpHBaTb I l e S a T H L I e H3AaHHR, OCO-
6 e ~ r ~a 3 oe ~ ~ b O1 e~ ~ R B A TO ~ MOXHO
~ X , nerKo 06sapy-
XHTb ILIPHQT C 0 ~ r l e rH ~ ~ ~ A H T ~S T
C 0RI I,O A M e H a
nporrrna ~ e s a ~ e s e ~ ~ o i i . )

PMC. 1.8. E O A L ~urpa*


~ O
TOB BKNOWUOT 0 6 b m 1 e 4M+pb1 M o ~ o r u ~ p ~ - To~ m
I I E ~ K O B LnI ~p~ , HO HAeR n p w a T b
(liningfigures),noKa3aKHLIe B s e p s ~ a o r~p a ma r e ~H H o e YHWO IIIHPHH 6 ~ m 3a a ~ a ~ ~ m o i i .
X H ~ G4 a m PNCYHKB. Tame ~4 ~ ~ O H ~ B O A H TMaIIlHH
~ A U n o - n p e X H e M y IlMeAH AeAO
p b 1 HMeHn. O A H H ~ K O B ~ I G
P O D M, c npo6ne~oiin e p e M e x n e m K a p e n c k i , k~ e c m ~ O ~ B O A ~ L
w o a m e e Bcero, o n m a t c o ~ y m K W O M Y 3 H Z y MMeTb YHIiKailLHYIO UIMPHHJ', 3 T 0 no?.pe-
qq. B C ~ M O Mnene orm Ten-
D a B h R t O T MOIIOIUMPMHHOe nOA-
6 y e CO3AZiHkUr
~ OYeHb TOYHOG H C A O X H O MBLUHHLI.
~
MHOXeCIl30 3HatcOB B 0 6 b 1 9 ~ 0 ~ H 3 0 6 p e ~ a ~ en enp~B L I x H~~OPHLIX
CHCTeM C T a p a -
urpu+~e.P a s e ~ m ou q a H no- AHCL p a 3 A e A H T b 3HaKH I L I ~ H + T ~H a ~ H K C H ~ O B ~ H H O ~
3BOhReT YMCAaM T O W 0 BbIpaBHFi- s~cn~
o a ~ e r o pno~ mapme.
ii C ~ LY ~I K~nonaaann
H ~
BaTbcX B T ~ ~ ~ I I Y HKOAOHKaX.
~IX
B OAHY rpynny, c a M L I e m H p o K H e - B n p y r p , a o c ~ a b -
Bo B c e x MOHOLUHPMIMLIX cucre-
MaX C ) T l J e C I B ~
HeKClIDpbIe T O -
HLIe -B HeCKOAbKO nPOMeXJ'TO'4HbIX.

6ne~brc n p o 6 e ~ a ~Hu a, n p m e p , ECAHBLIXOAHAO naTb n o n o 6 ~ ~ 1~xa ~ e r o p ~TOi i ,


no- B c e r n a w+pa 7 K ~ ~ K ~ T C X LUPIPHHLI 3HaKOB M O r A H ~ L I T LB b I p a X e H L I YHCAOM
chenca o~opaamoG. o ~e Ae H H m L I AO
B ~ ~ a n a 3 OT nxm. B BTOG c x e M e Bce
Ye~bxpm e e ~ O K xa6pam1
M
3 H Z H IIpOeKTHPYlOTCR TaK, Y T O ~ L ICOOTBeTCTBOBaTL On-
w + p w craporo emu (morns
Ha3bwaemIMH lowercase figures).
HOG H 3 IMTH ~ a T e r o p & , a ~ a 6 o p MaILIHHa
~ a ~ 6 y ~npe-
e ~
Tame m + p b ~ melor pa3w1e m- 0 6 p a 3 0 ~ ~ 1 ~
3TH
a ~LUHPHHLI
b B OAHO H 3 nRTH COOTBeT-
p m r , w o a e n a e T PIX M ~ A Oq l r - CTB~IOIWX n e p e ~ e m e ~KapeTKki.
~ii
BAeKaTeAbHbIMH AAX +MI%~HCO- HO Y T O ~ L IBTHCHYTb BCe 3HaKH UIPII+T~B T a K O e
BLIX mem~
M ~ a 6 m uB, K ~ ~ I ~ I H
X~~OALIIIO
SHCAO
~ ~ a T e r O p H i i ,T a K E l n I l H H a Y e IIpHAeT-
OTC>rl.CTBUe B e p T H K a h b H O r O Bbl-
CR H C K m a T L UX PHCYHOK. kI AAX T o r 0 Y T O ~ L IC03AaTL
cowm B n e Y a T A e u l i e
P~BIIIIB~HWI
6ecrroprna nponopyuo~aana~u" u i p u @ m , TO e c T L C o x p a H m b HCTOPH-
s e c K H e s e p T b I 0 6 p a 3 ~ 0p~p H O r 0 ~ a 6 o p aKOAEIYeCTBO
,
~ a T e r 0 p E i gWEIPHH HYXHO YBeAHYEIBaTL. TO Y A U O C L
BbIIlOAHHTL MOHOTUnHbIM H AHHOTHIIHLIM CIICTeMaM.
H a 6 o p M~a ~
r u I l H a MOHOTU~I" O T O M a T u 3 U p O B a A a Ha-
6 0 p ~ b f iiipOUeCC. B Hefi Pi3 KOTAa r O p R r e r 0 M e T a A A a
no O ~ H O GO T ~ B OTae-HbIe
~ C ~ m e p L I (C YAUBU-
~ e A b H 0 f c~opoc?.bIO)
i Pi COCrZiBNYUlCb B 06~~1~10CTPQ-
KY TPK, KBK eCAU 6 b 1 OHM ~ a 6 u p a n ~ cBpY9HYIO.
b
kI, TaKUM 0 6 p a 3 0 ~y M e H b I l I U OrpOMHyKl a O N 0 P)"i-
HOrO T p Y a a , C 0 3 A a B U a C b BCR CTPaHUUa: CHPi3Y BBepX,
o A H a c r p o K a H ~ apyroG.
A Korna p a 6 o r ~ fU H K ~nesa-
TI? 3aKilHSPiBUCR, l l I p P i + ~ XIAitBImCX, Pi BCe IIOBTOPX-
nocb caarana, pa36upam m e p b I no KaccaM yxe He
6bno Hj'XabI.
~ p P i H ~ I l I I P i a h b ~ b 1 HOBIIIeCTBOM
h4 MOHOTUIIa RBPi-
h a C b B03MOXHOCTb pa6om C KAa~~aT'J'pofi U 3anPiCb
' JH
IH
A
'eo+p
aeII HaliCaTPifi M K O M W C # ~ O P M ~ T U ~ O B ~ H U R
(C#lopMaTa T O K , BeAPiYIlHbI O T T O B Pi T. A.). 3 a T e M
IIep+oAeHTa UCnOAb3OBaAaCb A M pa60m1 ~ a 6 o p ~ o i i
M a u H b I T ~ me,
K K ~ nema
K npuMeHxeTcrr, HanpPiMep,
B MeXLlHPiYeCKOM IIPiLlHEWO (IIHL~HoA~).
MH+OPM~YMX,
3anUCiLHHU H a ~ Y M ~ U K HAeHTe,
O~
no cyzyemy PinemPirHa TOG, KOTO~U B H a c r o x w e e
B p e M X 3aIlPiCbIBaeTCR K O M I ~ ~ I O T ~ P HI O
I P~o~~ P ~ M M o ~ ~ ,
~ e B TeKCTOBOM p e a a x T O p e UAU
KOrAa BbI ~ a 6 q a e TeKCT
n p O r p a M M e BePCTKPi. B o - ~ ~ P B ~+IEX
I K,C E I P O B U ~ C ~
mPipma ~ a x ~ oGi~i K B ~( nI e p e ~ e w e ~ uKapeTIcPi
e no- PHC. 1.9. B MOHOTHne, 11CnOAb-
C T ~ ~ O M ) ' ) ,3 a T e M 3HaYeHPiX 3TUX IUUPPiH CyMMHpOBa- 3 y l O W e M C X e M y PI3 18 en11HHII
nncb ao T e x nop, n o K a aocrurana ycra-
PIX c y M M a H e A M 3WaHEIZ JDEipHHbI CUMBOAa,
H O B A ~ H H Oa A
~~U H b I CTPOKU. B KOHUe K ~ ~ CTpOKU o G K B X A ~ I 3~H a K A O A X e H n O n a -

onepaTop AonmeH 6bn p e m , 'ITO B e n a T b c O C T ~ B - nam B OAIIY 113 sapwee npenyc-


MOTPeHHbIX K ~ T ~ T O P M Ha~ ~p H. -
LUMMCR n p o c r p a H c m o M B K o H u e ~ O K M o : c r a B m ero cyme 6 y ~ s M a (snepxy) pasm
KaK y n P i r r r y r u e i i M a m i m P i UAH p a c n p e n e n m b ero no- 15 e n H H H U a M , 6 y K ~ a f J- 8 en>!-
POBHy M e X A y CAOBaMPi CTPOKPi, P a C T R x l l B U CTPOKY A 0 H N U I M , a 6 y ~ i~ - a TOAbKO
MaKCUMaAbHO A O I I Y C T U M O ~AAPiHbI.
~ TOT lTpOUeCC, 4 eAHHkiUaM
PMC. 1.10. TaG~uua,o~o6pa-
xa~oulax,KaK B m p u + ~ eAM
M o w m a pacnpenenruo?.crr3 ~ a -
KU no K a T e r o p m M B cooTeeT-
CTBUU C UX OTIfOCUTeAbHbIMU

13 E & Q V C B T O E A w P T R B
1 4 D A Y f l $ m a e Y U G R a ~ w , V
15 K N H f f l f f i X D N K H m U n X U
18 CEE% !A /4 W M - ... M W % Q ? X a

H ~ ~ L I B ~ ~e bM~ u I z~l l~~ o(justification),


Li o ii nonpo6ao 06-
cyxnaeTcx s 24. 70.
T o r 0 Y T O ~ L Ia O C T N 9 b pa3p(eAeHIfX B B O n a I3 BLI-
BOaa, K~XALIG IUPU+T AAX MOHOTMIIa A O A X e H 6b1~
IIpOeKTupOBaTbCR C IIpHMeHeHHeM CTaHAapTHOrO CIIO-
co6a 3 m a H H f 3 UIIipMKbI K a X a O r O 3 H a K a . ~ T llINPMHb1
H
BLIP~UKWCL B ennamax, o n p e , q e A a e M L I x nna c a m =
IIIHPOKUX 3HaKOB, 9aWe BCerO M MAX W, KOTOPbIe
memi ~ ~,L(UHHLI~',a
I U M ~ W H 18 6onee y 3 ~ H eB H ~ K H-
COOTBeTCTBeHHO HeCKOAbKO MeHbWJ'IO, K a K IIOKa3aHO
Ha pxc. 1.9 I3 1.10.
B npoyecce pa6o~br~ a 6 o p m u ~n ea p + o n e a ~ a
B MOHOTEIIIe, ~ O A O ~ HHbIHellIHeMY
O KOMIIbIOTePHOMY
AHCKY, ~ E I K C E I P O A K ~ K O G3 H a K MAIl
B B~a~I I~a p a M e T p a :
npo6en GLXA H m a T H a KAaBUaType M KaKOBa UX llIHpUHa.
I I p m u n m a n ~ ~ pa3msne
oe M e m a y TeM, s ~ 6o ~ T o ~ r A a n0 C p e c - r B y e T cef sac, coc-rom
B TOM, YTO mipma 3 ~ a c~o Bap e M e m o r o rupn+~ao n p e n e m e T c r r rie K a K o n H a 113 18
B03MOXHLIX, a K a K OAHa H 3 TbICRSII EMIi 6onee BapHruITOB. ~ H ~ K H
COBpeMeHHLIX ~a6op-
HbIX LUPW+TOB, TaKEiM o6paao~, FOpa3AO 6 n m e K HX ecTeCTseHH0-HCTOpII~eCKEIMnpo-
IIOPUMXM. fi113&~epa~ rupn+~a6 0 ~ b u He e H ~ X H O6 e c n o ~ o m b c 06 x ~ C T ~ T I I Y ~ C Ha-
K~X
pyUI€!HEMX, BbI3BaHHbIX OI'PXiIISeHHbIMli BO3MOXHOCTXMII ~ a 6 o p ~ oCEICTeMbI. ii
Ha6op~asMXIIEiHa AliHOTIlII (knotype)", K O T O p U IIOXBIUaCb I I p m e p H O B 3TO me
npem, n c n o ~ ~ s o ~ na on ~a o 6 ~ yc m
n c r e M y n o n c s e T a runpm BH~KOB,HO c ~ p y r o fU~ALK).
B~ec-roiwna O m e n b H b r x m p o H a C 0 3 A a B a n a + o p ~ yAM uenof c r p o ~ n o m m z i s a n a ee
U~AHKOM - h e o'type (cTpo~arupn+~a).3To cmpoxoormuonaa A a u l u n a (linecasting
machine) c m p m o r o neiimm*: H m a m i e K A ~ B Mn p~ m o npeo6pa30~~1sanoc~ B~ e f m n e
MalLIIIHbI, a H e B 3 m C b A M IIOCAeAyIoIUerO BbIBOAa.

BO B p e M e H a p P H O r 0 ~ a 6 o p CAOBO
a f0nt3"Te~MEiH, K O T O P ~ Inpon3oruen
~ OT C T ~ ~ O + ~ H -
U~~CKOI-C
o noBa, 03~asam1ueroa + o p ~ o ~ r t a m
x n % a m e n )3 ~ a s m o
OAHY HAM 6o~ee
KaCC, 3ZUIOAHeHHLIx AliTepaMkI OfiHOrO KerAX. C~ 3 0 6 p e ~ e m
MOHOTLVla
e ~ Pi AIZHOTIma
IIOA CAOBOM font ( K O M ~ A ~ KXIIp&i*a)
T CT&W nOHHMaTb ~ a 6 o p + O ~ M (HM JAampuZJ),
C KOTOpLIX H a A e Y , K O r A a ~ p e 6 y e ~ cOTAHBaeTCX
x, IU~II+T.
KOMIM~KT~I MeTaAAllYeCKHX UI~EI+TOB GLWH n p e ~ ~ a 3 H a s e ~ ~oco6oro 1 CIIOCO-
6a n e s a T n - 6 b ~ c o x o Ene2amu3' (letterpress). npu BLICOKOM cnoc06e n e g a T x n e g a m L I e
~A~M~HT I M O I ~ T6 b n b n +o~orpa+nn, a H e TOMKO IIIPII+T) C O B A ~ ~ T C IBI L I c r y n a -
(aL TO
IOIUUMU IIOBePXHOCTIIMH, H a KOTOpbIe HaHOCHTCR K p a C K a , a 3 a T e M IIOA AaBAeHIleM I I e p e -
H o c n T c a H a 6 p a r y . O ~ A ~ CpT a cHn o,n o m e H H b r e H n m e yposm rupn+~a,H e n o n y q a I O T
KpaCOYHOrO CAOH, H e B C ~ B KOHTaKT
~ T C Gy~arof, n 0 3 T O M Y COBABIOT H a 6 y ~ a r e <cIIy-
cTbIe, (npo6e~b~b1e) 06nacmi.
Ho B cepedme A s W u a T o r o s e K a o + c e ~ ~ arrnoc~arr a nesa~b" (offset lithography)
C T U a s p e 3 B b 1 s a k 0 IIOIIyAfipHbIM c n o c o 6 o ~ 113-3a O s e H L ~ 1 1 3 ~ C0 ~2~ ~ C T O U M O C T~E A
I.O C -
K H o+ce+"'
~ - TO no c p e m y + o ~ o r p a + l ? . ~ e c ~ n fnpouecc, B KOTOPOM n306pame~ne
CTpXiUUbI 3KCIIOHEIpYeTCR H a TOHKYIO H f ~ 6 ~ y IleYaTHyIO
Io + O ~ M Y , n O K p L T +OT0-
3MYALCHOHHLIM CAOeM. K o r ~ a3 T a Q o ~ 0M
6 p~a 6 0 ~ a ~ a Mema, nesaTHLIe
KaK O~ABCTEI
nOAy.laIOT cnoco6aocrb OTTUKEiBaTb Bony, HO IIPNHIlMaTb neYaTHyIo KpaCKy. nplX YCTa-
Home n e s a ~ ~+oO iP M ~ I H a ~paxuamxu&cx 6 a p a 6 a ~B nesa~noiiMamaHe oHa cHasana
cMasanaeTcx ~ o n o i ia
, s a ~ Ha e +~o p ~ yHaKaTbrsaeTcx KpacKa. X h p ~ a xKpacKa o n a h -
KIlBaeTCR YBAaXHeHHbIMU YaCTXMH I I ~ Y ~ T+0pMb1 4aCTH C T P ~ H I ~ U ~ I ) ,
H o ~ ~ (npo6enb~b1e
HO IIpHHHMaeTCR O ~ A ~ C T I I M HKOTOPbIe
, + O P M I I P ~ T a306pameme. k l 3 0 6 p a x e ~ a eCHa-
sana nesaTaeTcrr H a n p o ~ e m y r o s ~ bsari, e ~nepeaocmcrr H a 6 p a r y .
~ i i a s a ~ yme
TaK0g Y ~ B O ~ H H nepeHoc
~ I ~ ~ KpaCKZi MOXeT nOKa3aTbCX M Z ~ A O ~ + + ~ K T I I BHO H~IM,
y Her0 eCTb 04eHb BiUKHOe CAeACTBHe II npeEIM)'lLleCTBO:OH n03BOAReT a 3 0 6 p a x e ~ mHa
n e s a ~ ~ o+i o
i p ~ e6b1~bHe3 e p ~ a . a(right-reading),
~ ~ ~ ~ a TaKm me, K a K H a o m c K e .
npw B ~ I C O K OnesaTx,
~~ y KOTOPOG KpacKa HanpxMp nepeHocmcx H a Gy~ary,nesamaa
IIOBepXHOCTb m e e T 3epKahbHOe o ~ o 6 p a x e ~ aKea,K H a Pe3HHOBOM IlITaMne. TO He-
CKOAbKO yCAOXHReT Py.lHYW BePCTKY T ~ K O GCTPaHIIUbI.
Passame nnoc~oiinesaTtI o 3 ~ a s a h o~ n nesaTHaKoB
x H ~ O ~ X ~ ~ T ~ A ~ H
+ EOI ~
C RTYL~ C -
Koro onacKa m p a + ~ a ;Bce, TO EM ~pe6osanocbTenepb, - TO + o ~ o r p a + a s e c ~ o e
a s o 6 p a x e ~ u em p a + ~ a ,~ o ~ o p b MomeT
rii 6b1n nepeHeceH H a nesaTHyIo + o p ~ y M . e~an-
AHY~CKE III~H+T
~~~ ~ L I ABbITeCHeH, HapOXJtaACII + o ~ o ~ a 6 o p .

nepBb1e + o ~ o ~ a 6 0 p ~ b BbITAXAeAEI 04eHb IIOXOXe H a AEIHOTMII Er MOHOTHn.


Mar~~Iib1"
1e
HOH a MeCTe MaTpZiU, B KOTOPbIe 3&UiB&AEI
r0pSis~iiMeTahA, B 3TIlX HOBbIX MaIUEMaX
~e60hbmoii~
pa3~emancx c edr a m c k 1 3 0 6 p a x e ~ m ~~Ha ~ K O Ayq
m o r p a ~ x s eH B. cBe-
~ an, p o x o m sepes Tame HerambI 3 ~ 3aa~ H ~~ K O M~ ,K C ~ O H H ~nxO aB3 0~ 6~p a m e ~ mHa
+crro6y~aryH, IIepeMeWaJrCb rOPEI30HTZIAbH0, C03AaBaA CTPOKII, a BepTElKanbHO - CTpa-
I m K O A O H K ~m p a + ~ a . TO noxome H a npaauan namyurefi MamaHKx.
H H U ~u
C TOYKU s p e ~ m~ a 6 o p ay, $omozupu$ma BamHbIM npemymecmoM o ~ a 3 a n o c( ~~ e
roBopx y x e 06 OTC~KTBIIII Kmna pacnnaBAeHHOm MeTanna y nac non ~ O K O M )TO,WOm p a + ~
MomHo ~ a c m a 6 a p o ~ ac ~noMoWbm
b cepm A M H ~ .&ianason ~ e r n e fnonysaeTcrr as
enIlHCTBeHHOr0 KOMnAeKTa ~ a c ~ e p - o 6 p a s sI4
o3~eA
, HHCTBeHHOr0 U e H O s H O r O HOCHTeAX.
mei ren o n o m nocTenemo yMemmImo pamep n n e H o s H m ~ o c m a e i i
C o a e p m e ~ c ~ ~ o s aT
no onnoro Heranma pa3MepoM 2 x 3 nmiihla (pac. 1.11). 3 a ~ o
~ P M + TMOXHO ynenasa-
BaTb, n0Ka OH He IIOTepIIeT pe3KOCTb. L.PEI+T&AX KPYnHbIX 3UOAOBKOB nOAXeH 6b1~b
~ a 6 p a nHa Mamane, c n a 6 m e ~ ~ oHocmeAeM
G c 6 o ~ e Ke P ~ I I H ~ I M H0 6 p a 3 u a ~ a .
PHC. 1.11. O6paseu nneeov-
HOrO IiOCHTeAR I I I ~ H + TB~Ha-
TypaAbHylo BeAH.iHHy. OHnpk1-
M e H m C R B C ~ ) O T O I I ; ~ ~ YC-
OPH~IX
~ p o i i c ~ s aMergenthaler
x VIP
B 1970-x roaax. B ~ e c c~Ee iexco-
TOPbIMH A p ~ T k i M H LLIPHC~)T~MH
HOCIlTeAb YCTaHaBAHBaACX H a
CIIeUMaAbHOM 6apa6a~e,KOTO-
pb6i s p a a n c n c o r p o ~ ~ oCKCF
ii
POcl-brO. A p CBeTq HCXOA%IIJ,U~~

~ Y K B ~ Koraa
I, oHa n o n a a a a
B HymHoe nonomeme. Hso6pa-
XeHHe I I I ~ H C ~3)K
TC~
nOHHpOBa-
AOCb H a C ) ? O T O ~ ~ A ~ H K ~

I I o m m ~ A ~ L U H T~ La ~ 6 1 i p o ~ m e
+o~orpa+mec-
qm
KMX ~ H + T O Bem B 195@xr o ~ a xK 3 ~ c n e p m e ~ -
TaM C 3 n e 1 c r p o ~ ~ e ~ y q e~
so (an??
pi ij ' 6 ~ 0 9 (nono6aoG
TeM, KUIOpLIe M C n O v B TCIeBII3Opax II MOHFTIOP~X)
TOTO,Y ~ L IIOBbICIlIb
I SeTXOCrL ~upII@2.XOTEI
3111
M MeHee K I W M
n o m m He ysemaxicL ycnexoM, T ~ He
KIAaM nOBIBktlEICL pa3mYHbIe ~ a 6 o p ~ bMarUMIbI,
1e KOTO-
pLIe Morm nepesocm 11306pamemec 3AT npmo H a
+DKlrvleHKy. ~ C Y H O K3HaKOB reHepIlpOBaAcEI He +mO-

rpa+m a, Hanpom, co3nasanc~no MaTeMam-


~ ~ ~ H~a s ~ p a ~ eTO
s e c m o r m c a npmo . 6 b m nep-
BLIe 3AeIcrpOHHbIe LUPII+T~I.
H ~ ~ O A nocrumesaelvr
L I ~ M 6bno omcame osep-
T ~ H H G3HaKOB, KOTOpbIe 3aTeM 3illlOAHlihI?CL (filled)
DeTOM H a 3KpaHe. HOB Te BpeMeHa ~ O A L ~ ~ TKOH- B O
B~ I I C ~ I B ~ A O CcL~ O M O ~ L osem
T ~ O O KI ~OALIIIO~O
~MC-
na n p m b m O T P ~ B K O BII npoc~eiinnixKPUBLIX. Ha6op
~ p y n ~ oqr uo @ a nenpemekfy 6 ~ nnp o 6 n e ~ a m s e ~ ,
TaK KaK sacm ~ Y K BIIMeAII 3aMeTHLIe pe3KIle JTALI
U +~CKH. ? h a TeXHOAOflis M ~ C I U T ~ ~ U P Y ~ KOHTYP-
M~IX
HbIX LIIPH+TOB 6bma CO B p e M e H e M yCOBepIUeHCTnOBa-
H a , a ceiisac o H a c r a a c r q a p T o M BO B c e x H ~ ~ O P H ~ I X
c M e T e M a x (PMC. 1.12).

PHC. 1.12. K o v 3 ~ a B~ w(P


a
p o e o ~rupn+~e ( n e ~ b ~3i i~ m )
COCTaBAeH U3 OTIiOCMTeAbHO
~ e 6 o ~ b w o sncna
ro nprr~blxOT-
pe3KOB Fi K P M B O A F ~ H ~ ~ H L IKOH-
X
V O B , NAA BeKTOPOB, KaK no-
~ a s a H~aopucyxe cnpaea.Bo-
TepbI nOAyYkiAll LlOCTaTOYHO RaM5lTU Ii B b I ~ l i C m e A b -
o6ue, T ~ K O ~
KOHTYP MOXHO
~ a c w ~ a 6 n p o ~no
a ~A bM ~ O ~ O HOG MOIUHOCW, w 0 6 b 1 BbInOAHRTL pa60-r~C n e u M m -
pa3~epa,nOKa C O X ~ a H R m C Rx- ~ E I P O B ~ H HHO Z~ ~
L ~ O ~ H
C tO
i C~
T e M b I , HO 3a rOpa3aO
xonahie nponopunn M e H b W p O QeHy. \T~lnaq~b~i
MUIMKOMnb~ ~ ~ Cne-
&AR
U E ~ W ~ M ~ O B ~ ~a6opxoii
H H O ~ ~ CHCTeMbI 06nanan TOAb-
KO 768 KG& nwmu.) n e p s a T a K a a cneu~anssupo-
B a H H W CHCTeMa 6 b n a p e W 3 O B a H a H a I l e p C O H U b H O M
KOMnbmepe B 1985 IO' &).'
Bo-BTOP~IX,
~ O ~ B H A MA aCa ~e p a t r e n p m e p b r , KOTC-
pble CMOrAEI BbmOAHXTb P O A b HeflOpOfliX HaCTOAbHLIX
n e s a T H b I X CBCTeM. ~ O A O ~ H ~A S
a 3I e p H m T e X H O A O r a Z
BCKOpe 6 b ~ npMMeHeHa
a &C3 ~ o w ~ a 6 o p wagToMaTOB
rx
C BbICOKUM p a 3 p e I I I e H H e M , OHU 3aMeHMAU MaLUUHbI H a
3At?KTpOHHO-ApeBbIX ~ p y 6 ~ aKx .~ TOAbKO
K CTahkI IiC-
~ O A ~ B O B ~ nT aJ 3, e p ~ b 1 eycrpoiicma, T a m e M ~ ~ H ne-
L I
p e c r w 6bm npocTo H ~ ~ O P H ~ I Ma" c, K o p e e npespam-
nucb B YCTPOGCTB~+ O T O B ~ I B O ~(imagesetter), ~
n o c K o m x y B npouecce n e s a T u , q o K y M e m a H e T pas--
swr M e x q y xumcrpau~eiiw ~ M + T O M .
O~ep?dQiOHHbIe (31-1 IIepCoHaAbHbIX KOM-
nmmpo~,aBooAyllIeBnembxeD xtaemm t i c c n w o B a x n m c o -
ro uempa Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC),cram H C ~ O A ~ ~ O3B ~~ Tp rn ~a ~T O Y H O ~
o ~ o 6 p m e ~ne.~a~nofi
m crp-I. Tame K a q e m o , H a s w o e W M G (what you see is
what YOU get - WO BLI BH@l'R, TO H IOAY J' XE!), 03Ha'iaeT, cpem npoqero, BO3MOXHOCTL ~ a 6 ~ -
p a n TeKCT 6 e 3 H3yW2HMX Ol-pOMHOrO ChOBapR MXI- K O M W ~ O P M ~ T ~ O B L ~ HEGUi
H X . BCe
npeqawo B L ~ - H a 3 q a ~ eTO , B c e 6y,4mB e - m c m e m H H a ne~amoiiq;1IICILle.
I x3,T 0 , M O X e T 6 ~ mCilMOe
B - ~ ~ T B ~ P T ~W , B m H O e , IIOIIBHACII P ~ ~ f i c r i p
-tR3LIK, n p H -
3BaHHbIji OnHCLIBaTb BCe IIe9aTHLIe ~ c o 6 b 1 m a >H>a CTpaHHIJe. P a 3 p a 6 0 ~ a ~ ~ ~b 0~ ~f ni X i H e f i
Adobe Systems, RBLIK P ~ ~ f i c r i~pLt I AOAHHM H 3 MHOI'HX R3bllCO6 OnUCaHUR Cmpalllly (page
description language - PDL), HO CaMLIM IIOAHbIM Pi M H O ~ O O ~ ~ I ~ ~H IO~C HO ~M~ ,H HOH O
B L I H r p U B p e 3 y n b ~ a ~KOMMepYeCKOI'O
e KOHTPaKTa Adobe Systems C C@PM~MEI Apple
Computer H Mergenthaler-Linotype, ~ ~ H ~ H ~ H H LIIPOH~BOAEIT~AJKMH
IMH rrpo+ecc~oe--
HLIX HP~OPHLIXCHCTeM.

Monenb Postscript
BOBMOXHO,
~ A ~ B H
O TOA ~H ~ E I T ~ A ~9He pOT~0 f i II3LIKa Postscript ( TeXHOAOI'HW
K ~ O M ~ X3LI-
Ka H er0 ~YHKUUOH~ALHLIX
B O ~ M O H C H O C T ~IfBAReTCff
~~) TO, 9 T O OH H e IIPIIBII3aH HH
K KaKOMy KOHKPeTHOMY KOMnLHYTePY H IIpHHTePY, K a K H K K O H K P ~ T H OO
~II~P~UWOHHO~
CWCTeMe HAW KaKOMY ~ L TO
I HU GLIAO n P O r p a M M H O M Y 0 6 e c n e ~ e ~ w mOH
. IIOAHOCTLH)
annapamno nesasucluz. T e o p e ~ ~ s e cc. r~p aua H u a , o n u c a H H a r r H a a s b r ~ ePostscript ( o n ~ c a -
HHe BOBMOXHO B YHHBePCaALHOM A s c I I - + o p ~ a ~ eM ) ,O X e T ~ L I T Lc03aa~aH a ~ 1 0 6 0 ~
K o M n L m e p e H H m e 9 a T a H a H a A H ) ~ O Mn p H H T e p e , BLIBeAeHa H a ~1060ii3 K p m HAH H a
y c ~ ~ o i i c r aKoo,T o p o e ~ p y n n~p eon y c M o T p e T L sapwee. h 6 w K o M n L m e p H a x nporpaivma
M O X e T BLIPa3HTb ce611 B KOMaHAaX R3LIKa Postscripst.
X ~ M PK~ ~ t S c r iOIIWCLIBaeT
pt BCe 3AeMeHTLI AOKYMeHTa K a K ~ a c m a 6 ~ p y e ~ 6th.- b 1 e
m0pn'ble O ~ ~ ~ K T BTO
L I . OBHaqaeT, S T 0 OH O n p e A e A X e T O ~ ~ ~ K KaK
T L IBeKTOpHLIe KOHTJJPLI
UAH TPaeKTOPkIII, KOTOPLIe IIOALBOBaTeAL M O X e T M ~ C L U T ~ ~ N P O BIIPOEi3BOAbHO
~TL W OTO-
6paxam H a ycrpoiimax C N O ~ L I Mp a 3 p e m e ~ a e A0
~ . IIORBAeHHR R3LIKa P o s ~ S C~ ~
OA~ LP- ~
rUHHCTB0 KOMIILK)T~PHOGr p a + ~ ~ HH LUPH+TOB npe,L(CTaBAIIAH co6oii 6 m o ~ b 1 eK a P T b I
(bitmap), T. e. ~ s o 6 p a x e ~cm
KoHKpeTHbIM p a p e r u e m i e M , nony.raeMbIe T o s K a sa ~ o s ~ o f i
(KWU H 3 KOTOpbIX OIIHCbIBaeTCII OAHHM 6 i m u u ~ . i + p o ~ b I XAaHHbIX). B HOBLIX YWOBU5lX
LLI~M+T CT~HOBHACR npoero o m 133 BWOB M ~ C I I I T ~ ~ H r~p~a~+M ~wO .~ ~
22 Yacma I. Ocltosb~munozpaq5uh-u

&W n p e o 6 p a 3 o ~ a ~OIIHCaHIlX
~ x CTpaHPiUbI H a R3bIKe
PostScript B ne-iaTHym npaaauy PostScript-KOM~HALI
AOAXHbI 6 b 1 ~ bI I e p e B e A e H b I B KOMaHAbI KOHKPeTHOrO
BHeUIHerO ~ c T ~ o ~ ~Teope-rurec~a
cTB~. ~ a ~ 0P of sit S C ~ i p t -
m e p n p e T a T o p MOX~T G ~ I nporparmoii,
T~ pa6mmweii
HOIIOCKOAbK)'
H a O ~ ~ M I O MnePCOHaAbHOM KOMIIbKXePe.
B ~ I ~ E I ~rlpOUeCC
H L AGO C T a M W O CAOXeH, TO YaCTO
HHTepIIpeTaTOp 6 ~ (M 1O C T~ ~ ~ T C X<<YePHbIM
) RWMKOM*,
OTAeAbHbIM n P 0 4 e C L O P O M , I I p e A H a 3 H a S e H H b I M TOAbKO
A M IIepeBOAa P o s ~ S C ~ ~ ~ ~ - K OBMMaUMHHbIe
W,~ IIHCTpYK-
UHM, KOTOPbIe 3aCTilBAHIQT BHelIIHee YCTPO%CTBO,
HanpH-
M e p n a s e p ~ b ~npamep,
fi (ne~a-
0 ~ 0 6 p a X a ~c bT p a a P i u y

PHc. 1.13. B PaCTPOBOM YCT-


T a n ee ~ i 3 0 6 p a x e ~ a e ) .
~ O G C T B KaKUM
~, IIBAXeTCX +o- T a ~ o fY e p ~ b I f iRWMK 0 6 b 1 4 ~ 0Ha3LIBaIOT paCmp0-
T O H ~ ~ O P HaBTOMaT
~ I ~ ~ MAU MO- o a u npoyeccoput (raster image processor - RIP). H a -
HHTOP KOMIKbWTePa, 3 H a K f l P U - 3 B a H H e BOCXOAMT K I I P O + ~ C C H O H ~ A ~ H O MX
Ya p r O H Y
c y m ~ c x n p o 6 e r a m m n ~ no
H 0Tpaxae-rcnoco6, C IIOMOWbIO KOTOpOrO ~ i a o 6 p a ~ e m e
NCTPaHAUe" A Y g O M , K O T O P ~ I ~
B TeAeBHAeHMH CO3AaeTCR H a 3 K p a H e 3AeKTpOHHO-Ay-
no nyTx B K n m s a e T c x UAH B ~ I K -
NosaeTcrr. Ha pacyme nyq y x e Y ~ B o ~ T ~ ~ ~ K H . ~ ~ K M ~ ~ A ~ Y ~ o c A ~ ~ o B ~ T ~
MHOTOKPaTHO BbIIIOAHUA pas- r o p ~ 3 0 H T U b ~ oCTpOKe
% CKaHMpyeT T a K H a 3 b I B a e M b I e
B e p T K y no r O p H 3 0 H T a A U , PUCYX PaCTpOBbIe AHHMM (raster npOliCXOAPiT OT AaTPiHCKOrO
cK M ~ ~ I M
nonepesHbIM npo6e-
CAOBa <<rpaGnn*),
KaK n o ~ a 3 a ~
Hoa pMC. 1.13. T a ~ a e
TOM CTPaHUUbI T O H K U ~ + p a r -
r O P M 3 0 H T U b H b I e AHHMII PEICYIOTCR H a 3 K p a H e C B e p X y
MeHTUK 3 H a K a
AOHPi3Y C O ~ P O M H OCKOPOCTbH).
~~
AJT ( ~ O T O K3AeKTpOHOB B 3AT, A y Y A a 3 e p a B Aa-
3ePHLIX I I P H H T e p a X HAH + O T O H ~ ~ O ~ H L I ~XB T O M ~ T ~ X )
BKAIOYaeTCR Pi BbIKAIOSaeTCR TOrO, P T O ~ ~
C 0I 3 A a T b
TeMHbIe a CBeTAbIe TOYKH, KOTOPLIC? M b I BEIAHM H a 3K-
p a H e anu H a 6 y ~ a r e~. R T H O
nyYa k~ Y a c T o T a , c ~ o ~ o p o i i
OH M O X e T BKAIOSaTbCSJ Pi BbIKNOVaTbCR, O n p e A e A X e T
pa3Peuexue yc~poiicma,TO e c T b s ~ i c n oT o q e K , KOTO-
p b I e OH M O X e T CO3AaTb B K a X A O M A I O G M ~HAM CaHTII-
MeTpe.
YHCAOT o s e K , qbe nonomemie RIP , a o n m e H ~ a ~ a x a o jC
B ~ I Y H C A X TH i T p a H H u e , or-
POMHO. C T P ~ E AAX
I U ~ a s e p a o r onpamepa c p a 3 p e r u e ~ ~300 e ~T o g e K H a A H J ~ M(dots
per inch - dpi) c o A e p x m 6onee M m m o H a T o q e K . ~ P pa3perue~m
H 600 dpi 'IHCAO TO-
YeK np116mxae~cx K 4 MAH. kI fiaXCe n p I I HM3IIIeM YpOBHe p a 3 p e I I I e H H R Y + O T O H ~ ~ O P -
HbIX aBTOMaTOB 3 T 0 'IHCAO B 0 3 p a C T a e T a0 16 MAH.

0 6 e c n e q e ~ ~annapamoi
e H ~ ~ ~ B I I C I I M O C T I nI ,p e A n o m e H H o e F I B ~ I K O MPostscript, 6b1h0
p e B o n m u H o H H o . B TeYeHEie cronemti nocne ryre~6epra n1060ii IIIPH+T A o m e H 6 b 1 ~
COOTBeTCTBOBaTb TOMY O ~ O P Y ~ ~ O B P H H HKOTOpOe
J, IICIIOAb3YeTCR AAX n e Y a T U . A0 KOHUa
AeBXTHaAUaTOI'O B e K a H e CYLIJeCTBOBaAO C K O A ~ K O - H I I ~ Y IIPIIHXTbIX
A~ CTaHAaPTOB AAFI TH-
n o M e T p x g e c K u x m ~ e p e ~ ~ Korna
l i i . p a 3 ~ m +
e o ~ o ~ a 6 o pnpmeno
a K ~H~'IHT~A~HOMY
p e m s e H H I 0 K o M I I ~ T, O p ~ 4 I I H
X ~ ~ O P H ~ ~CHCTeMaMII,
MEI K ~ X pAa 3~ p~a 6 0 C~T~a h~ ~
n p e A A a r a T b CBOX C O ~ C T B ~ H H
J.IIPII+ToB~I~
~I~ TeXHOAOrHM. M yX eCAH K T 0 npw06pe~an
CHCTeMy, TO OH 0683a~6 b 1 I~I O K p a T b y T o r 0 Xe n p o A a B u a H UIPH+T~I, KOTOpbIe MOrAH
CTOElTb uenoe COCTOXHIIe, 'IaCTO CTOAbKO x e , CKOAbKO U CaMO 0 6 0 p y ~ o ~ a ~ z i e .
K p o ~ Teo r o , e c m p a 6 o ~ a~ a 6 p a B~oa ~ ~ oc Hi ciT e M e , TO o H a 6b1Aa n p ~ ~ ~ 1 K3 ~a e~i ia
H a B c e r a a , AO T e x nop, n o K a H e saxoqe~cnn e p e ~ a 6 p a ~ u bn e p e + o p ~ a m p o ~ aB~c be ue-
AIIKOM. PaGo~a,BbIIIOAHeHHacI B 0 ~ ~ 0CHCTeMe, fi H e M O r A a HCnOAb3OBaTbCX B ~pyr0fi
(IICKAHJY~HIIIII C p a i H e ~ ~ A K H~) O
. ~ T O MH Y
e YflHBHTeAbHO, ZIT0 MHOrEle U3AaTeAH C P W O -
CTbIO IIPHHXAII HaCTOAbHbIe II3AaTeAbCKUe CUCTeMbI CO BCeMM IIX HeAOCTaTKaMEI npOCTO
AAX TOrO, ' I T O ~ ~ I I ~ ~
OT~AUKTaTa
~BEI PT
~ ~~~ C ~ T Y M K ~ - M o HH o3 a~T ~P aAT ,I IIPHBFI-
~ ~I I ~ c T ~
3 W H b I X K ~ ~ 1 l ~ a h b HTeXHOAOIMH
0fi C O ~ C T B ~ H H E I KO6e11m.~m
~. R3bIKa Postscript AaTb q H C &
TY armapaqm H ~ ~ ~ B E I C H M O3B)nIaAEI
CT~ n p m s r a T e n b H o , K a K neHEie MOPCKHX c u p e H .

Pos tScript-rupt~+~
dAX Tor0 ~ 0 6 OC
~ BO
1 ~OAUT~C
OTX BHeUIHerO Y C T P O ~ ~ C T BFI3bIK
~, Postscript A O A X e H 6 b 1 ~
CO3AaTb C O ~ C T B ~ H H
MIIP,
~ I ~H
~ e ~ ~ B E I C R U I OT
N ~ AHKTaTa
~ TeXHOAOrIIH, KOTOPYHJ IIOAAep-
X I I B a h I I CyrrIecTBOBaBruIle T O r A a CHCTeMbI, HeCOBMeCTIIMbIe flPYr C APYrOM. LUPU+T 6 ~ 1 ~
KAHJ'IeBbIM MOMeHTOM 3 ~ 035a A a 9 H H CaMbIM CAOXHbIM ee 3AeMeHTOM. XOTXp a 3 p a 6 0 ~ -
'IIIKII Postscript H e ~ o r m n p e A B H A e T b nocheqxomero p a 3 ~ m nx o ~ ~ l r p a + m e T c e~x -~ i ~
HOAOIU~~, T e M H e M e H e e , Adobe c r a A a BCKOpe OAHO& H 3 BeAYLIJHX K O M ~ ~ H MH Hp ~
a. ~
P ~ ~ t S ~ l i p t - r u p I I XpaHHT
@ ~ 3 0 6 p m e m 3HaXa
e B B W e KOHTYPHOrO PEICYHKa. A KOHTypbI,
B CBOHJ oqepenb, nocrpoem ~ 1 OTP~BKOB 3 n p m m mmm3 EI ~ p m o m e k m C e w e m o B . KPH-
BbIe &33be, KOTOpbIe n O A Y ~ I I A I ICBOe H a 3 B m H e n0 HMeHIl + ~ ~ H U Y ~ C K O
M~a TOe M a T H K a
1

U ~BTOMO~~IA~U
H HOX~eOH e p a , OTKpbIBLUerO KOMnaKT-
cnoc06 KPLIB~IX,
O ~ U C ~ H UCH A O ~ J X - TO ~e x e I

KPMBbIe, KOTOpbIe c e k a c ElcnOAb3ytarCH BO BCeX IIOIlyAHp-


HbIX BeKTOpHbIX P e A a K T O p a X . K o r ~ ~ a p e 6 y e ~ CO3AaTb
ca
LUPU+JT o n p e A e n e H H o r o K e r A x , o s e p T a H H e s ~ a K~o nam
p y e T C H I13 + a h a , M ~ c I I I T ~ ~ U ~ ~P~a CTTCp OI BI b I M np0-
u e c c o p o M 40 ~ p e 6 y e ~ o pas~epa,
ro a s a ~ 3anomxe~-
e ~
cx ~ A ~ M ~ H T c~ M pa3perueme~
U B H e m e r o ycrpoiima
( ~ U C .1.14): 3 K p a H a MOHIITOpa, n p H H T e P a HAM + O T O H ~ -
6 0 ~ ~ 0 1a -B 0T O M a T a .

PHC. 1.14. Y ~ ~ o I U ~ HCXeMa


HW~
HaAOXeHUX PaCTPOBbIM np0- ~ P U H X Tp ~e I u e H U e 0 TOM, K a K U e ElMeHHO I I u K c ~ A ~ I " "
UeccopoM ovepTaaax a ~ a H~a a CTaHyT Y a C T b I o 3 H a K a , AOCTaTOYHO CAOXHO. PostS~ript-
cemy, npeAcTaBJmowym co6oi-i U H T e p I I p e T a T O p P a C C M a T p U B a e T BCK) CTPaHHIJY K a K
COBOKYnHOCTb nMKCeAOB H a
wxe -
CTpaIInue, n a 3 a n o ~ ~ e n n
ceTKy nmcenon. Ilpouecc, c ~ O M O U ~ HK) o T o p o r o osep-
TOMB TeX IINKCeAOB, YbEI UeHT- TaHLHIIe 3H;tKa HaKAaAbIBaeTCII H a T a K F CeTKy U n p U H U -
p b ~nonaAamT B npeneAbI KOH- MaeTcH pememe o TOM, ~ a ~ onmcen
ii s a n o ~ ~ ~Use-
~e~cx
Typa. B 3TOM CAyYae rOBOpXT, TOM, H ~ ~ ~ I B ~~ O ~~ Z T
O H CK O URU
cemlcu (grid fitting).
vTO 3HaK 6 b 1 paCTepH30BaH
~ B I I ~ o c T ~ & L I ~BMa p U a H T e T a K U IIOArOHKa COCTOHT
(rasterized) B TOM, Y T O ~ ~H I a h o m m o s e p T a H x e 3 ~ a H~a acemy
B onpeAeneHHoM n o n o x e H m i ( ~ m o p o e3a~ae~cl1KOM~H-
AaMU, O n 1 1 C b I B ~ ~ MCTpaHZfUy)
U U 3aITOAHeHEleM TO*
KO T e X TIXKCeAOB, 4b11 U e H T p b I I I O I I a J ( W H a KOIITYp
BH)PT"P~o6nam, o r p m l ~ ~ e ~KOHTYPOM.
~ o i i K ~ no~asa-
K
HO H a PUC. 1.15, A a h e K o He BcerAa noAyqaeTca y~as~bG
B U ~ Y ~ L & H Lpe3YAbTaT,
~ O C O ~ ~ H HI IOp U HUBKOM p a 3 p e U I e -
HW ( ~ a n p m e pH, a 3 ~ p a ~ oe m o p a )K, o r A a ma3 MO-
X e T p a 3 N n a T b OTAeAbHbIe IIkucCeAbI, U OAUH H e B e p H O
p a 3 ~ e ~ e ~ ~n UbK1Cie Ai cnoco6e~IIOCTaBHTb 3 p H T e A l r
B TYIIHK. kIwor~aH e K m o p b I e r m K c e a 1 ~ b m a ~ co3~a- m ,
B Z I I p O B a h b I B IIEIKCeAbHOM 11306paxe~m. kI A a X e He-
6o~bruoU e 3 M e H e H H e n O A O X e H U I I KOHTYPa n0 OTHOLUe-
H U I ~K C e T K e n o M o r a e T A O ~ E I T ~ C I 6onee
I IIOAHOrO
COOTBeTCTBHII + O P M ~ I 3 H a K a N IIUKCeAOB.
BKADYeHbI B KOHTYP N +OPMP 3HaKa BOCnpOEi3BOnli-
AaCb C M ~ K C E I M U
TOY ~CT
HO H 3, HepeaKO
bHO ~ IIpHX0nll.r-
CX npw6era~bArne K EI3MeHeHMD +OPMLI KOHTYPa.
AAX AOCTHXeHEIX 3TOr0 UIPH+TOBO~~ c~a6mae~-
cx cneuwahb~oiiw~c~p)rttuweii~"( n o ~ n p o r p a ~ ~ oKO-
ii),
TOpaR Ha3bIBaeTCX XEiHTEiHrOM (hinting). OH^ YAy'IXLIa-
eT + o p ~ ys ~ a ~ npencTanneHHoro
a, oTHocw-renLHo
H ~ ~ O A ~ D E 'IMCAOM
IM IIIlKCeAOB, eCAH IIpkIMeHIIeTCX
U I P H ~ TMeAKOrO KerAR EiAK Y BbIBO&HOrOY C T P O ~ ~ C T B ~
oYeHL Hwmoe pa3perne~we~'.
C caMoro Haqua Adobe Systems npennomEina co6-
meHHyro cwmeq xmmiHra rn PostScript-rnp~+~o~,
HO oHa He 6bwa 6ecmamoii B mmwe OT npo'Iux KOM-
nosemoa xsbnca Postscript. IIovroq n p p e paspa6m-
YMKM MOr'AEI C03AaBaTb P o s ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ - c oXLBIpnM
Cf3-~ ~ T u M I~. 15.
PklC. I ~O q e p ~ a ~ sl ~~e a ~ a
TbI, KOTOpbIe He B ~ I ~ N L ~TaK
~JUXOPOUIO,
I KaK Y Adobe, OZIFHb p e A K 0 nOAHOCTLHJ COBlIa-
A a e T C C C T K O ~ (CM. PHC. 1.14).
3a a c w s e H w e M BbIsoAa c B~ICOKHMp a 3 p e m e ~ a eHe-
~.
O c o 6 e ~ n~ op IWIBKOM
~ pasperue-
KOTOPbIe jYaCTHHKEI KOMITbKTePHOrO U li3flaTehLCKOrO HHII (KPK I I a s K p a i r e K o M n L I o T e
coo6rrrema IIOYYBClXOBahu ce6x YX3BAeHHbIMPi TaKWM pa, IIOKa3aIIHOM I I a PHCYHK~),
nonoxeHueM ~ e u e i iu, + T M ~ I Apple w Microsoft p e m - o s e p T a t 1 a x Y a c T o nonana1o-r

hM C03JtaTb~ 0 ~ b +
I joi p ~ a Ko~opb~ii
~, H ~ ~ B WTrueType. B H ~ ~ A O ~ nHo A
L oIX~e H H x . y Bep-
xHero 3 ~ a U~e Iar r p L l TOALKO
nonpo6~b1e
CpZiBHHTeAbHbIe XapaKTepMcMKH 4 0 ~ -
HeCKOAbKkD: nMKCehOB OKa3bIBa-
MaToB XLIPHC$TOB: Postscript, TrueType w OpenType - m C X B I l F P H KOMTYP;1, n 0 3 T O T
HOBOTO + O P M ~ T ~ 06aenmxmrrrero
, 06a yIIOMsHyTbIe, 6 y ~ ~ o3 m
a 6 p a m e ~ a hl ~
l a1
n o~
n o~- ~
IIpHBOflXTCXf3 Zil. 4. my. IIo woG n p x s u H e r ~ p o r p a ~ -
MHCTLI B B O A ~C I ~ e u H a h L I I L I eHA-
CTPYKLIHH NAII n o a n p o r p a M M L I
(XHHTIIHT) I l p H KOAHpOBaHHII
I I I ~ H + T ~ ,KOTOPLIe 3aCTaBAXIOT
MIMC?IIEITL @OPMY KOIiTYPa T a K ,
Y T O ~ L I ~ L L UBKAIOZIeHbI
I IIyXIILIe
IIHKCeALI, K a K l l O K a 3 a N O H a I I R X -
PHC~HOK COBPeMeHHOrO UEI+POBO~O I U P E ~ + T CO~CTOHT
Ei3 TOYeK.Ha 3KpHe MOHNTOpa C pa3peUIeHkieM 72 HAM
96 ppi (pixels per inch - r m ~ c e n oHa~ mi&)m e a H L I e
I'I'iC. 1.16. n o p r p c ~6 0 a 0 l l ~
(Bodoni) M r u p ~ + i . , ~casear~~lh~fi
cro rihncrle\I, AM v e x p a s p e m e -
IIIG~eKpalla. L I GO.ZI,LUC
~ ~ IIIIK- ~
CC.\OB M C I I O . \ L S ~ ~ . I H
' CIlopl-peTe
H
M u l p ~ + i . e , .I.esi Go,\ee xle.l.Koc M
peanac.rliqlloe ~ 3 0 6 p a x e 1 1 ~ e
rlo.\!.qac.i.cn. 'Tpri ) . B ~ . \ M * I C I I I I ~ I X
~ . ~ : ~ o ( i p a x ~upu+ra,
c~l~n npea-
CTaBAeHHLIe 3AeCL, MOXCHO YnO- I a 1

A O ~ U TBLIBOaY
~ H a 3KPLH, Ha-
CTOAb~blfiIIPUHTeP H @ O T O H ~ -
6 0 p ~ b 1 f aBTOMaT
i
A 4 a Aa Aa
T O 9 K H AOCTaTOYHO BeAHKH, Y T O ~ L I~ L I T LH e 3 a M e T H b I M H
AAX ma3a. B T ~ K O GCHTyauMH 0 4 e H L TPYAHO O n 0 3 H a T b
H a 3 K p a H e K O H K P e T H F rapHHTJ'pY 3 K P a H H O r O VIPH+-
B H e M IIPOCTO MO-
T a I I p H 0 6 b 1 ~ ~ 0 h . 1K H U X H O M KeI'Ae.
X e T H e XBaTliTL IIMKCeAOB AAR 11so6pame~11~ ~ e o 6 x o -
AMMLIX aeT&Iefi ~ Y K B L I (PEIC. 1.16). ~ A TRo r 0 ~ ~ 0 6 ~
).sEIAeTL IIIPN+T H a 3Kp2lHe T a K Xe OTYeTAIIBO, K a K H a
CaMOM A e I I I e B O M A a 3 e p H O M I I p a H T e p e , H ~ O ~ X O A U M O
YBeAUWiBaTb 3 K p a H H O e m o 6 p a m e ~ IUpM+Ta
~e IIO MeHb-
meii M e p e no 300Y1,o n H a K o npx T ~ K O Mp e n w e H E i H y x e
H e BUAHO CTpaHMUY B IJehOM.
Korna paspeme~aep e n m m a e T c a , TO n u K c e n L x
CTaHOBRTCR M e H L U I e no P a 3 M e P Y , a fieT&IH M HIoaHCLI
+OPM S H ~ K O Bn e p e n a I o T c x nce 6onee RCHO H TOYHO.
B a x ~ EIo TO, YTO npx B ~ I C O K O Mpa3peme~11aMOT 60-
nee TOYHO )'CTaHaBAMBaTbCR n p o 6 e . x b 1 MeXCny 3HaKaMI4,
9 T O BAMXeT H a p a 3 6 0 p 9 1 f ~ o c ~IIb ~ ' A O ~ O Y M T ~ ~ M O C T L
PI
r u p ~ l + ~ a , TOALKO OKOAO 1000 dpi
n p pa3peme~1111
~
BLI B c T y n a e T e B O ~ A ~ C T LKOTOpYIo
, YaCTO H a 3 b I B a I o T
~IIIPII+TOBLIM K a Y e c T B o M n (typeset quality).
Ho K p o M e p a s ~ e p an m c e n o B H e ~ e a e namao,
e KaK
OHM IlOTOM 0 ~ 0 6 p a X a I o T ~ @
R .O T O ~ A ~ HnK
o -~n p e X H e M y
IiBAReTCX IlpeHMylUeCTBeHHbIM HOCHTeAeM AAIi ~ ~ O ~ ~ C C M O Hp&a 6
~ 0 ~O1IlIpPi+-
~ ~HCO ~
e HSb~TOUHO H p e 3 K O . ~ ~ c T H U Kcepe6-
TOM, IIOCKOALKY IIHKCeAbI H a H e f O T O ~ ~ X U ~ I ~OTS C H
poconepmawxxx coenwaesnii, n s ~ e m m ~ uun~e Te npa e ~ c n o m p o ~ ac n~e m
T o M , AocTa-
TOSHO KPOXOTHLI, IIOBTOMY n e p e A a S a nHKCeAOB o 6 n a n a e ~PeSKOCTbH) II XeCTKHMH
rpaHHqaMu. ,LT,nrrc p a B H e m a : ~ P H + T ,H ~ ~ ~ Y ~ T ~H aHC H
T ~L
@HI O~M n p H H T e p e B L i c o K o r o
r r ? n a 3 e p ~ nprrmepe
p a 3 p e m e ~ u rm o ~ Ha 6 p a r e (name e c n H 6 y ~ a r M
06~1saoii a enosaa-
H a ) H e CTOAL OTYeTAHB, IIOCKOAbKY HH OAHa H 3 BTHX T ~ X H O A O ~ I IH
Ge c n 0 ~ 0 6 I~l eap e A a -
BaTL p e 3 K H e r p a H I i q b I TOSKH. H XOTIi TOUKH B YKa3aHHbIX TeXHOAOrHRX M O T 6b1Tb
OYeHL MeAKHMN, BCe p a B H O OHH CTPeMXTCII j'BeAHYHTbCX H C03AaTL H e p e 3 ~ I I f ~
i p a HAH
f
opeon.
AARJ'MeHbLUeHPW Y ~ p I i + ~CTYneHSaTOCTH, a KOTOPaR 06pa3ye~cxn p H HeBbICOKEiX
a ~ a q e ~ ~paspemea~x
rrx ( ~ e ~ 1000 e e dpi), H e K o T o p L r e n a s e p a b ~ ne p l r m e p L 1 ~ c n o n b s y ~ o ~
T e x H o h o m m , n o ~ ~ a e m j~ m a 3 s a m 4e n e p e ~ e ~ ~p ~ a s1 ~i ie pTOqKND (variable dot size).
H ~ M ~ HMOWHOCTb
RII A a s e p a , T a K H e n p H H T e p L 1 CO3AaH)T 6onee MeAKIIe TOPKII, U e M
B O ~ L I Y H O Mp e X H M e . Korna 3TH T 0 4 K H pa3MeWaK)TCIi BUOAL KOHTYpa 3 1 I a ~ a ,TO OHII
s a n o n ~ c r mc?yneamw,
~ 0 6 p a 3 y e ~ b r eBMHMLIMH n a K c e n a M n BAOAL K ~ H B ~ IHXH a K n o H -
HLIX A H H U ~ ,T e M CaMbIM CMRTYBX O T O ~ P ~ X ~ H 3
HHI a~K a H c o 3 A a s a a IIAAl03IlKl n e Y a T a
TeKcTa npa 6onee B ~ I C O K O Mp a 3 p e m e ~ a u .

~ ~ ~ l WYSIWYG
H e , q o c ~ apexxMa
Ha 3 a p e pa3BHlTW HaCTOAbHLIX H3AaTeALCKIIX CMCTeM T P i n ~ r p a + I I ~Ha n o A N r p a @ ~ u r6 ~ m a
BCTpeBOXeHbI HaIXeCTBHeM B a p B a p O B , TOhnHBIUNXCR y BOPOT. P~BOA~OUIIOHH
6~0 Ip~~ b 1
6 0 n b m e i i UaCTbfO H e HMeAII OnbITa, a OT HX OPYXHR - I I P O r P a M M BePCTKH C 3aYaTOSHbI-
MII BO3MOXHOCTEIMN TEIIIO~P~*HKM, H e HaMHOrO IIPeBblLUalOLUHMH T ~ K C T O B L IP~e A a K -
TOP, BPIiA AH MOXHO 6 b m o O X M a T % C O ~ A K I A ~ H I I XCTaHAapTOB KaYeCTBa n p e X H e r 0 B p e -
MeHz (ancien regime).
B A ~ ~ C T B H T ~ A L H O C T H ,~ ~ O P H ~XHCTPYMeHTaM
I M HaCTOAbHLIX CMCTeM no~pe60~a-
AOCL MHOrO BpeMeHH, Y T O ~ L IAOI'HaTb ~ < A E M 0 3 a B P O BKOTOPLIX
~, OHH 3aMeHHAEI. (&AX CPElB-
+ o ~ o r p a + ~ r e cH~H~c Te p y M e m I y x e A ~ B H On p e s o c x o A w a CBOHX
HeHIur: K o M m m e p m r e
n p e n m e c T s e H H H K o B 113 < < c T a p o r o pa)).)
C a ~ o neo c n e n H e e n o K o n e H H e u n + p o s b ~ x HH-
cTpyMemoB no-npex~e~ y
cTpa,qaeT OT O T C Y T C T B ~H e K o T o p L I x s a m ~ emnx
f +YHKUHO-
H ~ A ~ H ~
BO ~ M O X H O C T ~K~O~ T, O P ~ I M H06nananu & a x e H e n o p o r x e C ~ ~ ~ H ~ A H ~ H ~ O
I X B ~ H H L
CMCTeMbI, H a n p H M e p , lTOAHbIM ~ a 6 0 p +oY~H K U H ~ AAli P ~ ~ O T LC IT ~ ~ A M U ~ M M .
28 Yacma I. Ocnooal munozpa@uxu

EOAL~HHCTBO O ~ B H H ~ HB H ~ ~
HeCOOTBeTCTBHH T ~ ~ ~ O B ~ H 6I bI m R oMBLI3BaHO npIIHfiTH-
eM npozpailumu sepcm~u" (page makeup programs), K o T o p L I e CTUH HOBLIMM C u c T e M a -
MH ~ a 6 o p aCTaHAapTOB
, TeKCTOBbIX PeflaKTOPOB. TO,'IT0 T e n e p L HCge3AH T e , Y b e E CIIe-
IJIIaAbHOCTLH) ~ L I A~ a 6 0 p TeKCTa, H n P O r P a M M L 1 BepCTKH C T U H c+epofi AeRTeALHOCTH
r p a + ~ r e c ~ u~xm a i i a e p oII ~x y A o m H m o B , T O A ~ K OO c A o m H H A o npo6ne~y.
no CyIUeCTBy, HHTepC#)efic, K O T O P L I ~AAX ~ 0 6 ~ e r ~ e X~H 3~HfH iHOBIIYKOB 06ecnewi~a-
e T ynpaBAeHHe c mnorpa+a-
n o M o m L m M e H I o H MLIIIIII, H e x B n f i e T c x X A e a h b H L I M AAR
YeCKOrO ~ O ~ M ~ T H ~ O BB o~- IHI e p
HB ~
bIx
~ , . 3TO CAHILIKOM MeAAeHHO. B CTapLIX KOAIIpyIo-
IIIHX CHCTeMaX ~ O P M ~ T I I P O B ~ BLIIIOAHXAOCL
HI~~ CO CKOPOCTLH) ~a60pa,H 3 T a CKOpOCT%
~ H ~ Y M T ~ A L BHLOI m e , Y e M B L I a e n e H x e , wensorc, nepeMerueHEre, KoTopLre H C ~ O A L ~ ~ ~ T C R

B ~ O A L I I I I I H C T BCOBPeMeHHLIX
~ HaCTOALHLIX CHCTeM. Bo-BTOPLIX,MHOXeCTBO I I a p a M e T -
POB T I I I I O ~ P ~ + I I K HA e r ' I e O n p e A e A s T b C IIOMOIULIo KAaBHaTypHLIX KOMaHA. Hanp~~ep,
BLI M O X e T e IICIIOAb30BaTb +YHKI.~HK) IIOMCKa H 3 a M e H b I BCeX OTCTYnOB, C03AaHHLIX
c nOMOIUbH) KAaBEiILIH <Tab>,B a 6 3 a u ~ b r i OTCTyn
i oII~~A~A~HH oE%
ILIHpHHLI.
T ~ HM
e M e H e e , 3a HCKAIoYeHIieM HeCKOALKHX I I ~ O ~ ~ C C E I O H ~ A L HCUCTeM,
LIX HCnOAL3ye-
MLIX KpYIIHLIMEi II3AaTeALCTBaMH, W Y S I W Y G - H H T e p @ e f i c C MeHH) II CIEiUOrOBLIMIi OKHaMM
x y , q o - 6 e ~ a o o~o6paxae-r
npouecc ~ a 6 o p Ta e K c r a . Ho o r p n u a ~ e n b ~ b rpi ei 3 y n b ~ na p~ m e H e -
HE~RT a m mrrep+eiico~COCTOHT H B TOM, TO n a p a M e T p b 1 m n o r p a + m , K o T o p L r e H e snpa-
MBaloTCX B 3 7 CXehly, IIpOCTO ~ ~ 1 6 p a c b m m a3
c an&iHTpLI IIHnpYMeHTOB.

E C ~ AMe p X a T L ee 3KPaHHbIM 3KBHBah€!HTOM, CTBHO-


O T n e Y a T a H H y I o C T p a H I I U y PXAOM C
BHTCR 09eBUAHLIM, ' I T 0 BLI IIOAYYIIAII (What YOUGot) - 3 T 0 B AY'IIlIeM CAy'Iae I I p I I M e p -
Hoe o ~ o 6 p a m e T~o~r oe, 'ITO B ~ BIIAenEi
I (What You Saw), K o r A a c o s ~ a ~ a ee.
n a Htlsrcoe
p a 3 p e L U e H H e 3 K p a H a A e A a e T HeBO3MOXHLIM TO'IHOe BOCnpOH3BeAeHHe CTPQHIIIlbI. B Mac-
m ~ a 6 eloo%,TO ~ a c m a 6 eM, E I H E ~ M ~ A L HHL H
eCTL B p e U L H O M I ~T~e p B U ( ~ p H p a L L l e ~ I I e ) ,
C IIOMOULIo KOTOpOrO M O X H O ~ a 6 a p a m npo6en~1M e X A y 3HaKaMM, no ~ p a i i ~ eMi ei p e ,
B A e c f i m pa3 rpy6ee, Y e M m m e p B a n L 1 , ~ i c n o n ~ s y e ~ nbers ae T H L I M y c ~ p o i i c ~ ~ o ~ .
ki nHKCeAb1, C IIOMOIULH) KOTOPLIX CTPOHTCR s306paxe~11eI L I ~ H + T H~ a 3 K p a H e , TaK-
Xe ' I e p e C ' I y p BeAIIKH AAX TOrO, ~ T O ~ AOCTaTO'IHO
L I TO'IHO I I e p e A a B a T L +o~M)' 3HaKOB.
Ha PHC. 1.17 nm6oe COBIIaneHIIe M e X A y nHKCeALHbIMH 3HaKaMH ( A ~ B U KOAOHKa T ~ K C T ~ )
H IIX BePCMXMH C BbICOKHM p a 3 p e I I I e H H e M ( U ~ H T ~ ~ A L KOAOHKB)
H ~ R MOrYT nOKil3aTbCfi
EiCKAIoYIITeALHO C A Y ' I ~ ~ ~ H L I M I&Xe
I. BapMaHT C p e X H M O M CrAaXHBaHHff (anti-aliased),
~ a e s v o m a d uo q .a~+l-ldrnamamadeed a e m h ~ v a a i
199 new aaedne EH ~ U I E B O ~ U '~I I~L ~~ X~~ H~~EVd I 5 t
Laxam evagodu O J O H ~ O Lm~avali'aduoavi7 ' d a m t d u e ~
'tuo~+udrn 03 gunedauo 50Vt15 X I S ~ O L O X ~ HE V ~
. a ~ e d nEH
~ ;m ~ a v f f e ~ 3 ~ 0.1
adu
- 0 m a h x u 3 ~ m a daavog KVV O H ~ O VOLC L OH ' ( m o n ~ a d
s d ~ d a ~a 3 m e d e BEEVJ E E ~ KIIH
~ 3 si7aa) U J ~ O U L I ? ~ ~BE-EU
a m a v z v u ~ a d ua o a s v a u r d o ~ ~ v
~
-aLh EVV W C I H S V ~ J X V I O LaeffIsg ~ + ~ d $qHHa!KZVJ3
rn
- 8 o a . k ~Xwa~ncadu-ouOLC gav
-an xmridogcrr KVU O I I ' K H J B R ~ U . ( L I . ~m d ) eva3xm e a r IIVU HIIVO 5 eneHE aoxtidm
I
- 3 o a KVU I I ~ U A ~ I aavog (~n111au oIewoHHamq3erz Xlfxatu &ern& a1q~sm~4~1la .Laenso3
- L L 3 a u n ~ a d? L H h . l K W 3 I ' I 9 0 . L h grsdo~ow'KI~HEBEIXBV.I~a m i x a d tuama~aruadrr3 K3La
' 1 s v a 3 n ~ 1 1a1qda3 ~qrravnegoa)an - ~ r n s ~ Oa H
d ~ V ~ L I ~ ~ E H
&Ha++€ E LOLG .aIsmiamIs3eH
-r~ovon~ o n e d rn~rr~rrearimv~3 dilh3adah - a x tcX~eds oz 'a~sv~aa:, d h ~ a d a ah x ~ d ~ m
a r u u x a d a . L + I I ~ ~.~+udrn
O L : e ~ + ~ i d ~1il%axen3n
m I?HLatueE OHHa9030 VIOL8
0.1.E OIII13PIH ?OXEX 'SLUY
-aaadrro o~~soduaa znlr~hoaedu3
H ~ xUx e v a 3 n m g d a i 7 e 'MIIHVO aH 1 ~ 3 ~ 0 1 e x e d g o ~ o
Fag ~ ( B X I I O ~ O~H e a a v ISUH
) B O ~ ~ H E I I X E I ~ ~ M ~ H O L I ~ I ~ H ~ ~ ~ H & V I O H H
-awedgoca o ~ o a o x u d ~o m Jovag . ~ . ~ v a ~aIsaoH
m u mLoImrffegoVm~ai7aaslrodu3onoJa
-011dah k l ? V a V HXO\'U O H H a 9 0 3 0 mi7 OJ ' a ~ e d n 8BH ~ o i e ~ ~ h ~~+v~ al ddrei7aoH
n
~ ~ . L ~ H C B ~F ~I ~OXLYOO H
VO grqdo~ .OIUHKOL3
-OH 'a~+admo a r ~ ~ ~ a v a e ~ 3 a a d u
-03 , ~ O H C I V ~ ~ %HWm~a ~~ V~ a x ~ v g m
~ ni ds au d a ~u
a o t ~ s v a . ~ u s ~ v g uodwr q Laen
~vo~
a r r e d x ~B H wueaogi(dr rsxawag '(emovon m m d u ) exeHE X E ~ U H
&C#I~?drn a o V a 3 n U u
a o x ~ z . ~ ~ ocs-EM
~ a ~ 'r~ -ed~
1 . 1' 3 ~ d EH aova3nuu xl.rda3 5odXe 1c3~aXdurudor$g ~ q d o ~ o n
A>.qIIIee IIpeACTaBAeHHe IIpOCTpaHCTBeHHbIX O T H O I I I ~ H HM
~ 6 0 ~ b m eI I O X O X e H a TO, S T 0
3aTeM 6 y ~ Hea I~I e s a T ~ o i CTpaHHlJe.
i HOB TO me B p e M R T a K O e o ~ o 6 p a x e 06~a~sx.i-
~~e
BO: IIOCKOAbKy IIIPH+T BeAHK, TO r A a 3 a ~ p e 6 y m ~
MeHbIIIHX n p o 6 e ~ oAAR
~ KPpHOTO
rupa+~a,s e M AAR ~e-oro. A p y r a ~ HcAoBaMH, ~ a c m a 6 ~ p o ~Aaa e~T uxoporu~ii e 06-
3 0 p OTAeAbHbIX A e p e B b e B , HO HCKAlOYaeT BHA BCerO AeCa, a B e A b 3 T 0 H eCTb B3rAR.4
6y~yrrle1-oY w r a T e m .

H ~ ~ O C T ~TeKCTOBbIX
T K E I PeAaKTOPOB
C O B ~ ~ MI I~p OHr p aHM M
~ bII BepCTKH
~ BCe 6onee COOTBeTCTByIOT ~ p e 6 o ~ aT H~l I Omr p a~-
+IIKEI, HO HaA HMMH I I O - I I p e X H e M y AOBAeIoT HX POACTBeHHbIe CBX3H C TeKCTOBbIMH pe-
AaKTOpaMH. M ~ o r x en p a B I l n a TeKCTOBbIX PeAaKTOPOB HeCOBMeCTUMbI CT~~AMUMOHHO~
I I P ~ K T H K O~~ a 6 0 p aP. a 3 p b 1 ~M e m a y HUMH O ~ Y C A O B A ~IHI p e X A e BCerO T e M , YTO MHOrMe
U3AaTeAbCKHe CHCTeMbI OCHOBaHbI H a KOMMepYeCKEiX TeKCTOBbM pe,llaKTOpaX, HCIIOAb3Y-
eMbIX Kame~cx,YTO n o ~ o 6 ~ aOCHOBa
I I p e a ~ a p w r e A b ~ opi ai 6 o ~ b 1
C TeKCTOM. rr o6ecne-
YIIT IIOCTORIMOe BAHXHHe TeKCTOBbIX PeAaKTOpOB H a KOMIIbIoTepHbIe ~ a 6 0 p
E i BepCTKY.
K C O X U e H H I O , TeKCTOBbIe P e A a K T O p b l OPHeHTMpOBahHCb C K O p e e H a KOAMseCTBeH-
HbIe, 9 e M H a Ka'IeCTBeHHbIe IIOKa3aTehII. n p a ~ ~paa ,3 p a 6 0 ~ s ~TeKCTOBbIX
~ u PeAaKTO-
POB, K O r A a I I P H C ' I Y I I W K AeAy, EI H e I I p e T e H A O B U H H a CO3AaHHe n p O f p a M M BepCTKM.
K CYaCTbIO, ~ ~ ~ P ~ ~ O T IY U r pKa M
IpO H M BepCTKH 0 6 p a ~ I l n M ~KbIIIPH+TY KBK K o6.1ac-
TH, B K O T O P O ~ OHH MOIYT f l 0 6 a ~ U T b 3HaYHMOCTH CBOHM IIPOAYKTaM H O ~ O G T HCBOHX
COIIepHHKOB. B A ~ H H O
KH~ H r e MbI H e CTaHeM OCTElHaBAHBaTbCR H a TOM, S T 0 H e M O X e T
6 b 1 ~ bPeIIIeHO T H I I o I ~ ~ + H Y ~ c K u M HCpeACTBaMH, a TOAbKO H a TOM, YTO MOHCeT H AOAXHO
6 b 1 ~ bCAeAaHO. C O B ~ ~ M I~I p OHr pH
a M~
M bII ~
BepCTKH M O T T e M HAU MHbIM C I I O C O ~ O M
BbIIIOAHHTb IIPaKTUYeCKH BCe, H a YTO C I I O C O ~ HCIleJJHUdi3HPOBaHHatl
~ ~ a 6 0 p ~ aCMCTe-
rr
Ma. fl OnTHMHCT H H m e I O C b , W O BCKOpe IIPOfpaMMHOe 06ecneseme C M O X e T YAOBAeTBO-
PIITb BCe B 0 3 P a C T a f O U H e T ~ ~ ~ O B ~ UH ~HAR~ T ~ A ~oC
~ IK
~ ~O? c~T B ~ ? H H o c T
BHI I O A H O ~M e p e .
H a 6 0 p T e K c r a - pro wcxyccmo y n p a B n e H H R npo6e-
AaMH, n 0 3 T O M y A h a BCeX I L I ~ H + T o B ~ I x HHCTPYMeHTOB
CaMbIM Cj'IUeCTBeHHbIM RBhReTCIi TOWiOCTb H 3 ~ e p e H H f I .
E~~Io~J~+~
~ O C K O A ~ KT Y I I pK e~ 6 y TOHKHX
e~ HaCTpOeK,
B H e f i HCnOAb3YIOTCR OYeHb MeAKEie enEiHHUb1 ( ~ ~ U H E I -
UbI ~ U n ~ e m ~ U UOTAEisHbIe
' ) , OT 6 o ~ e eV Y ~ ~ I eXn H -
HHU, IIpHMeHReMbIX B apyI'HX p e M e C A a X H TOprOBAe.
XOTRMeTpH'ieCKaJI (A~CIITUSH~SI) CUCTeMa IIpOHEiKAa
B T H I I O ~ P ~ ~ E I S ~ C IlpaKTHKY,
K~IO O C O ~ ~ H HBO E ~ p o n e ,
yI I I ~ H COXpaHEiAaCb
~ T ~ Ei CBOR C O ~ C T B ~ H H ~yHEiKa.AL-
SI
H ~ enaaaua,
A ~ o ~ o pn ao ~
- nl p e x ~ e ~c syw r a e T c a o6we-
npaemoii.

E~IIHIIU ~I
H3MePeHHB, KOTOPbIe BbI EiCnOhb3yeTe emen-
HeBHO - HeBXXCHO, A I O ~ I M H~ I+ Y T ~ IHAM CaHTEiMeTPLI H
MeTPbI, - OTHOCXTCR K ( P U K C U P O B U H H ~(fixed),
~A~ HAM
a b c o ~ w m n b w(absolute) e,quHLiuaM. TO ~ H ~ Z I H YTO T,
~ I O ~ I BMc e r n a - n m f i ~ ,a M e T p B c e r n a - M e T p .
y ILIpH+Ta eCTb c o 6 c m e ~ ~ b B1 aep H a H T b I ~ ~ C O A I O T H ~ I X
enmuu - n u K u 2 (pica) H 6onee M e n m e AOAH n m -
nyltlcmal (point).
~ J ' H K T , K O T O P ~HCIIOAb3yeTCR
~ ~ B KaYeCTBe CTaH-
A a p T a X I O W BO BCeX COBpeMeHHbIX KOMnbIOTePHbIX
H ~ ~ O P H ~CEiCTeMaX,
I X nORBHACR OTHOCHTeAbHO H e a a B -
110, n p k i H x u i B K o M n a H m Adobe Systems B npo-
ero
UeCCe p a 3 p a 6 0 ~R 3~b I~K a O n H C a H E l R C T p a H H U b I
Postscript (6onee nonpo6~y10~ ~ + o p ~ a u06 am ~TOM
II3bIKe CM. 6 2 1 7). XOTRT M I I O ~ P ~ + H Y ~ C K TIYHKT E~~I
1 34 Yacma I. O C H O B
munozpa@u1~u
~L
I

PHC. 2.1. H 3 0 6 p a x e ~ l l r rA w e - ~ M K M(picas)


e K ( B ~ P X H R R YaCTb PUCYHKB)
IlpUBeAeHbl KaK AOKa3aTeAb-
CTBO n p e m q w e m n p m e H e H m
IlyHKTa U nUKU AASI KLIpki*~a,
IlOCKOAbKy IIOCAeAHUe o6ecne-
Y U B W T 6onee MeAKMe n p U p a - MnnntIMeTpbl (millimeters)
4 e H U I I . Y HUX H e T A ~ C I I T U Y H O ~ ~
A e m o m pacYeTa B M m u M e T -
pax, HO OHM 6ohee Y A O ~ H ~ZIeM I,
a m ~ u f i c ~ causc T e M a c ee ~ m k -
MaMH U A P O ~ H ~ I M H flOARMA
~ f o f i ~Ba H . M BABe
~ Y e p H b I e no- (inches)
AIO~~M ~I
AOCKU AeMOHCTpUpyWT 3aMeT-
~ y m p a ~ ~ u uB yB e A u Y m e a M e -
~ ~ ~ H C Ku U PostScript-~~HKTOB
X
H IIUK. n p ~ pla 6 0 ~ e cCpecrBy-
fOWEIMI-3 AOKyMeHTaMH OYeHb
B a X H O BbIIICHUTb, K a K o f i IIYHKT 15 PostScript-~MK
(Postscript picas)
UCnOAb3yeTCII ( P o S t S ~ r i p t - I l y ~ K ~
UAU ~ M ~ ~ u K Z ~ H ~CYK HK U T~) ~

15 aMepuKaHcKMx nMK (American picas)

C y r r I e C T B O B U 3 a A O A r O A 0 3 T O r 0 , eAMHOTO C T a H A a P T a ,

onpe,qmmero em ~owntii p m e p , H e 6bn0 AO 1883mas.


Torna accoqxauux ~ ~ n o r p a +CLUA o~ npHmnaKM~A-
p O M y P e I I I e H M I o : IIYHKT P a B H I I e T C I I TOYHO 0,0138 A&-

M a , E t h H OKOAO 1/72 A I O i i h l a . TO T a K ~ a 3 b 1 B a e ~ b Ul Ge -

puxancxuu" nynxm. K o ~ n a m Adobe n cnenana ewe o n u H


mar M n p x p a B m n a n p K T T O ~ H OK 1p2 samu . q m i i ~ a
(~enepbTO PostScript-nynlcm). TOT I I ~ H K Tcaenan ~ 0 3 -
I e~C Y e T M 3 T H I I O M ~ T ~ H ~B ~ C K O
M O X H b I M T O ~ H I~I e p

~ H ~ A M U
~ 3M
C e PKE I T~e A b H y I O CMCTeMY. A0 3 T O r 0 MO-
M e H T a H e C y U e C T B O B U O CTOAb yno6aoro KO~++IIUEI-
e m a ( p ~ c 2.1).
.
~ O C K O A ~M K
HM~ H O H b I A O K y M e H T O B IIO-EPeXHeM)'

CO3AZUOTCX H a OCHOBe a M e p I l K a H C K O r 0 I I y H K T a , M O X e T
Purl 1
11
~ L I T L ,H B a M CTOEIT IIePeCTPOHTb CBOIO I I p O r P a M M Y Agate [ S H ' ]

C P o ~ t s c r i p t - I I y ~H ~a ~
~ aM ~ ~ H K ~ HEc FK TH. ~y~ np0- Nonpareil [6']
Minion [7']
r p a M M , KOTOPbIe n03BOARIOT C a e A a T L T a K O e H3MeHe-
Brevier [E']
Me, COOTBeTCTByIorrIEle KOMaHALI XpitHIITCX B IIyHKTe Bourgeois [9']
MeHm Preferences ( H a p a M e ~ p bno
~ pon~a~mo). Long Primer [lo']
H H KB~C u c T e M e Postscript cocrom n 3 12 I I ~ H K - Small Pica [ll']
TOB, 3 T 0 BHaYEIT, YTO B a I O f i ~ POBHO
e 6 m K . K ~ mK K a Pica [12']
C T a a PaBHXTbCX 12 n y H K T a M - 3Ua.,4Ka, HO 3TOMY English [14']
+ ~ K T YyXe H e OAHO CTOAt?TEIe. H ~ ~ B o H ~ Y Z ~ A LAaTEiH-
HO
c K o e CAOBO pica, 0 3 ~ a s a m m e e< < c o p o K a > >c, r a o acco-
Great Primer [I&']
UElElpOBaTLCX C P U M C K O ~ K
~ ~TOAIIY~CKO
UePKOBbIO,
~~
IIOCKOALKy ~ e p ~ o - 6 e n OfieXHUe
oe CBXIUeHHHKOB MO-
PHC. 2.2. H ~ S B ~ H nna
U I I HCKO-
T O P ~ I X~ e r ~ e in ip ~
u M, e m B m u e -
HaXOB HaIIOMHHFlAO A l o a R M O I I e p e H H e COPOKH. Ka~m- CII ~ A O R S b N H b l M U~ a 6 0 p u u ~ a -
TO 0 6 p a 3 0 ~ CAOBO pica CTaAO T a K X e CBX3bIBaTLCX M H ( X O T I I H e K O T O P b I e Ei3 H H X
c o n p e a e n e m b I M E i UepKoBHbIMH n p a B m a M k i H K ~ O - + p a ~ r r y 3 c ~ o r no p o u c x o x t c n e -
HBMH, a yXe IIOTOM EI HCIIOAL3OBaTbCX A X 4 0 6 0 3 ~ a r e - HHX). Hpexcne YeM ~AHBAIIT~
CBOHX K O A A e r 3 H a H H e M H a 3 B a -
~ ~ p w + r r a . (Ao nesmansa-
HIW K m o m m e c K o r o p a 3 ~ e p a
H H ~~ e r ~ e 3ka n, O M H H T e , s T 0
T o r 0 B e K a IIIPEI@~M P a W Y H O r O K e r M IlpEICBa41BWCL
t iO
~OA~UIUHCTB 3 HUX BOSHUKAH
o c o 6 e ~ ~ bH English am St.Augustine,
1 e~ ~ B ~ H HWa ,n p m e p , A 0 IIOXBAeHHR COBpeMeHHbIX
a H e TOAbKO YEICAOBbIe O ~ O ~ H ~ Y ~ H H ~ .K
EIX O T E13
O ~ ~ CIT a~H n a p T O B , n 0 3 T O M Y B H e K O T O -
p eia c r a s A e H L 1 H a puc. 2.2.)
T a m x ~ a s s a ~nu P ~ I XC A Y Y ~ X X c o B n a n e H H e nx
p a s ~ e p aco n y~ m M-
~ H ~ Y ~ HB H
T a x BeCbMa ~ ~ H ~ A H ~ H T ~ A ~ H O ~

H ~ KMH~ ~ H K HT C~ ~I O A ~ ~ ~AM ~ M ~ ~ ~p H
~ TECI X a sH~Xe -
~ O cBr p a m u L I H ee ~ A ~ M ~ H T OHanpmep,
B. B nmax
(HAM B m K a X H I I ~ H K T ~ 0x6) b r s s o BbIpaXaIOTCX IIIEIpn-
HbI KOAOHOK, IIoAefi, IIOAOXeHIW U M I O C T P ~ ~ EH
I ~APY-
~
rElX 3AeMeHTOB BePCTKH.
TOALKO
B IIYHKTaX H3MepXIOTCR 6onee MeAKHe
= i q e BLI-
3 A e M e m b r . A 6 3 a u ~ b r eO T C T p L I , H a n p k i M e p ,
pamamcx B n y T a X , saxe e c A H HX 3 ~ a ~ e n ~p e suL Ie-
m a e T n u K y . 0 6 o T c T y n e n p m e C K ~ ~ ~ YTO
T L ,OH p a s e H
18 IIyHKTaM, Y e M 1 IIEIKe H 6 IlyHKTaM, kiAH o ~ ~ oIIEIKe fi
36 Yacma I. O c ~ o o amunozpa~ulcu
~

C IIOAOBMHO~~.
I / I H T ~ ~ A M H L X XHAM
, PaCCTOXHHe Me3KAy
CTpOKaMM, T a K X e B L I p a X a e T C X B IIyHKTaX H HMKOrAa
B IIMKBX.
P a 3 M e p JITPH@T~ M 3 M e p X e T C X MCKAIoYHTeALHO
B IIyHKTaX (a C IIpHXOAOM K O M I I b l o T e P H L I X CMCTeM
M B AOAXX I I Y H K T ~ ) , XOTX B Espone BCe 9aWe A M 3 ~ 0 f i
JJe- llpllMeHXeTCX M u h A H M e T p . A ~ o o 6 W eIIOHIiTHIi
< < p a a ~ re up p ~ + ~B an y H K T a x p M a K e r A L x.up~+~a,ma-
AH CMHOHMMaMII.

Onpeaene~~le
paswepa m p a + ~ aB nyHKTax (~ernx)
~ a 6 o p a( K P ~ T -
B 0 3 B p a I l l a e T HaC K B p e M e H a M p y Y H O r 0
Koe o n M c a H t l e ciu. o n u r u e zn. 7). Korna K a X A a X 6 y ~ -
B a OTAMBaAaCL H a CBOeM C O ~ C T B ~ H H O M
~ A O K ~ A
, OK
~ L I T LC A e r K a BLILUe M HeMHOrO IlIMpe, Y e M
AOAXeH ~ L I A
OYKO ( O T I I ~ Y ~ T O Kc) a M 0 f i ~ Y K B L I . TO npeBLIrueHae
C Y e T L I p e x CTOPOH IIpenXTCTBOBahO KOHTaKTY ~ Y K B L I
C flpyI'MMM 3 H a K a M H H a 3 ~ 0 f iM COCeAHMX CTPOKaX.
M p a a ~ e pr u p ~ + ~B ar r y H K T a x (K~~Ao
Ln) p e n e m c s BLI-
c o ~ o i ni ~ ~ e ~Y o acTi ai ~ A O K B~ L, I r u e oepxnezo lCpaR c a -
MOG B L I C O K O ~~~Y K B L MI H M X e NU3tCHeZO K ~ U R@C@bl C CU-
a017 dnunnou" nuxnezi"racrnalo (PHC. 2.3). Korda r u p a + ~
CTaA IJEI@POBLIM, TO K W A b C T a h P a B e H BLICOTe o 6 p a ~ -

PHC. 2.3. K e r h b XLIpxf$~a OAH- AXIoLUerO K a X A y I o ~ Y K B YXIpXMOyrOALHPiKa, ( c B ~ A ~ H H I ~


HaKOBO OIIpeAeAReTCII B M e T a h -
AEIYeCKOM ~ a 6 o p eH B 4Mf$p0-
BOM. I I o ~ a 3 a ~ a b 1n ep m o y r o n b -
HHKM nPeACTaBAIIH)T &Be
KeI'eALIIbIe IIAOlUaAKIl M e T U -
AMqeCKMX A U T e p HAM A B e K e - A M 3aIIMCM BeAMYElH B IIMKaX M IlYHKTaX YaCTO MCIIOAL-
reAbHbIe IIAOWUKH ~ U ~ $ ~ O B O I ' O
3 ~ a s e ~ ~
s y e T c x + a n ~ r u P i ~ Aa e~c a T n Y H a s i T o s K a .
rupn+~a.Pi T e , M npyrUe onpe-
B e n a I o T Irpoc-rparicmo, 3 a ~ ~ ~ u6
a - picas, 11 points,, (G mm, 11 garno
~ ~ H K T O BO) Y ~ H L 3 m ~ -

e M 0 e ~ V K B ~ MHHa C T p a H U I I e c L m a m K a K &. 11 picas, HAM npocro 4 . 1 1 p,,. &w T o r 0


w 0 6 b 1 H e C M y U a T b HOBMqKOB T H I I o ~ P ~ + H K H , KOMIILHYTePHbIe I I p O r p a M M L I qaCTO EICIIOAb-
3YKU C O ~ C T B ~ H CHHTaKCHC:
H~I~~ BMeCTO +~AJ=.LUHBOG A ~ c X T M Y H OTOYKH ~~ IIpHMeHfIIOT KOH-
CTPj'KUUIo a 6 p l l ) > , '%TO 0 3 H a Y a e T <<6picas, 11 points>>. IIOCKOAbKy KOMIILIoTepHLIe
U I P H + T O B ~ I ~CEiCTeMbI II03BOAIIIOT HCnOAb3OBaTb n p o 6 ~ ~ 3HaYeHHX 1e IIyHKTa (YTO HeB03-
MOXHO 6 b ~ n0 p H M e T a M H Y e C K O M ~a6ope), T e n e p b n o ~ o 6 s o eB b I p a X e H H e M O X e T A&-
C T B m e A b H O 0 6 0 3 ~ a ~ aAeCRTHYHble
m AOAJ4 IIyHKTa. H a n p ~ ~ e3aIIHCL p, <O;pl1.5~0603~a-
Y a e T u 6 picas and 11'1, points, (6 n a K H 11'1, ~ Y H K T O B ) .
U H O ~B KAa q~e C T B e 0 6 0 3 H a - I e H H ~IIHKH HCIIOAb3YeTCII 3HaK PaBeHCTBa, II03TOMY 3Ha-
qeme a 2 4 picas* MOXHO 3 a n ~ c a ~ b u24=~.
KaK
K o r ~ aemsaea
a K e r n s a a n ~ c ~ ~ s aBen ~ y HcKsT a x , TO 06b1-1~0 IIHLLIYT: cc 12-point type,
(rupa* K e r M 12)m n n o M e Y a m o m u.npnxo~- <c12r we, (pycc~oro3~~mahema H~T).

WAX H e K o T o p b l x n a p a M e T p o B c T p i U I a u b 1 , H a n p n M e p , AM o@e3nozo $op,aama (trim size),


T. e. G o ~ MCTpiUIHUbI
~ T ~ KHIirH HAU X Y p H a h a IIOCAe UIHTbX H O K O H Y ~ T ~ A ~0H6 pOe 3~~~1 1 ,
HCIIOAb3yKUCfl 0 6 b 1 ~ H b 1 e MeTpHYeCKHe HAH ~ H ~ A M G C KeAHHHUbI
H~ M3MepeHEIX.
&w onpenenemis p a 3 ~ e p oe A
~e M e H T o a Ha cTpaHxue a~rnuiic~arr c w c T e M a XOTX
H HClTOAb3YeTC?, HO OYeHb P e a K O , B OCHOBHOM IIOTOMy, T O 6a30saa eAkiHMrJa, WGM, YepeC-
.lyp rpy6a, a 06pau~e~rie KA ~ O ~ H ~ 3 I~Ma ~ e m m YChOXHReT pa60~y.n p a ~ ~AeCX-
TOAbKO a,
m=Ie f i m j i h l b ~ - 0 6 b 1 w ~ C inapme-rpB H ~ ~ O P H ~n pI oXr p a M M a X , HO B c e p m ~ OHHo uema
c~yrrrawr,T a K KaK npasma H ~panmmimrAEIZic~ofi~ 3 ~ e p m e ~ bc s~c roe Mf Li I B c e r A a o c ~ o -
B ~ I B W C ~H a ~ O A O B I W I ~ U , Y e m e p L u , BOCLM~U,L u e c T H w u a T L I x AOMX, a H e H a ux nets-
TEnHbIX 3KBUBaheHTaX (B KOTOPbIX YHCAO AeCRTH'IHbU Pa3PfZAOB AOCTETaeT T P ~ X ) .
8 ~ 2 33 w a H H X + O P M ~ T ~
CTPaHHUbI Y a m e HCnOAb3YeTCII MeTpHYeCKaX CHCTeMa, H e
TOAbKO IIOTOMY, YTO ee eAHHHUb1 MeAbYe, HO T a K X e nOTOMy, YTO AeCXTHSHaX CEICTeMa
6onee COBMeCTHMa C K O M ~ ~ H V ~ ~CPI IHCO
T ~~ M~ OM
~ e~ p .

Ornnocume~anb~e eduxuya~u u e p e n u ~(relative units) H e n o A y s a I o T +EIKCHPOB~HHLIX 3 ~ a -


Yea& B ~ ~ C O A H ~ T HeAHHHrJaX
~IX TaKHX, K a K IIHKEI, AIOGMLI MnIl MEmAEIMeTpbI. OTHO-
CIiTeAbHbIe eAHHHUb1 I I p O I I O p U H O H ~ L H OH3MeHRlOTCX no M e p e TOrO, K a K O ~ ~ ~ K T L I ,
KOTOpbIe OHM OIIpe,Z(eAXIOT, YBeAHYHBaIOTCX HAH YMeHLLLIaIOTCR.
T ~ K eAHHHUbI
EI~ YAO~HA
~ IM p a 3 M e p H M X COOTHO-
l u e ~ M f iM e X A y 0 6 % e K T a ~ E l ,+ ~ K T I ~ ~ ~ C pKa I3 M
I ~e p b I
KOTOpLIX MOrYT H3MeHXTbCR. O I I ~ ~ A ~ A R
OAHH
SI o6ae~~
B ~ I C O T OB~ ~9 OTHOCEITeAbHbIX eAMHIILI, a C O C ~ A H U-
~~
B 10 OTHOCElTeALHbIX eAHHHU, BbI M O X e T e 6 b I T b Y B e p e -
HbI, UTO n p H A I O ~ O MOAHHaKOBOM ~acma6apo~a~m
I I e p ~ b I f iB C e r A a 0CTaHeTC.X H a 10%M e H b I U e BTOpOrO.
A e c n H 0 6 0 3 H a q a ~ bHX B ~ ~ C O N O T H ~ eAHHHUaX,
IX TO
MaTeMamsecKoe BbIpaxeHxe am c o x p a H e H x x HX OT-
HOCllTeAbHbIX P a 3 M e P O B CTaHOBHTCR r O p a 3 a O CAOXHee.

B ~ P i I I 0 r p a C l l H ~~e ~ H A ~ M ~ H TO ~T HAO ~C HHT ~


OA~~ H~ O ~ ~
e ~ n ~ a u ea fBiM e T c s xezeLmaz (xpyz~az)ulnaguz' (em),
HAM n p o c T o K e r e s H a r r (~pymarr). 3 ~ a q e ~~e ~r ee ~ b ~ o i i

PHC. 2.4. B r a p H u - r y p e wpm+-


BCerAa p a B H 0 K e r N O , KOTOpbIM ~ a 6 ~ 1 p a e ~ cTeKCT.
11 EM,
H a n p H M e p , K e r A b LUpN+Ta PaBHSIeTCSl 11 IlyHKTaM, TO
T a ITC Friz Quadrata g e T b I p e
3 H a K a (EIa TbICXSY, A A U H H O e H K e r e A b H U P a B H a 11 IIyHKTaM. H e c ~ o ~ pHrar CBOe H a -
T U p e , MHOrOTOqUe N KOMMeP- x e K e r e h b H a a OTHIOA~H e pama I m p m e 6 y ~ -
3 ~ a ~ (em),
YecKoe at - gco6a~~a.)nonao- BbI M, El A ~ ~ ~ C T B E I T ~ AO~gH Ob, p e n K O 3 T a 6 y ~ IIOA-
eH ~ a
CTbIO 3 a H U M W BCIO I I A O W W K y ,
HOCTbK) 3aIIOAHReT K e r e A b H y I O nAOul2l,4Ky ( ~ H c .2.4).
P a B H y I O ~ e r e A b H 0 f i .Y e ~ b 1 p e
3 H a K a K O M M e p ~ e C K O r Oat n O K a -
3blBaIOT, T O , H e B 3 U p a X H a M3-
MeHeHue xerq urapaHa s ~ a ~ aB ~ ~ n o r p a +
r o~p a~se~ o6 0 a m e n a p a M e T p o B B b I p a x a -
OCTaeTCX P ~ B H O1~K ~~~A~HoS.
HX ~ ~ C O A I O T BeANYHHbI
H~I~ Me-
eTCR B A O M X K W ~ A L H O ' ~I e~M, B IIHKaX Ei nyHKTaX. To~y
HXDTCII, a OTHOCUTeAbHbIe OCTa- I I p e ~ p a c ~ b Infpi n M e p - LUHPIlHbI 3HaKOB. K ~ ~K~ I A
OT-O

IOTCII HeN3MeIIHbIMU. O ~ l e p ~ a - M e q e H O B l T p e ~ b I A y l U e f im a B e , IUPiPHHbI 3HaKOB E13Me-


HUX ~ Y K B M B H U X H e M PXAY PRIOTCR B OTHOCHTeAbHbIX eAEIHElUaX, a HMeHHO B A0-
( ~ a x n a rpacnohoxesa
r H a nno- M X KereAb~ofi.
WaJlKe B COOTBeTCTBNU CO CBO-
B MOHOTMIIe I T e p B O H a ~ W b H OElCIIOAb3OBahaCb CXe-
e i rapamypol u ~ e r n en~o K)a -
M a UIEiPPiH ~ Y K B OCHOBBHHZUI
, Ha 18 A O M X KeI'enb~ofi.
3blBaIUT, YTO p a 3 M e p K e r e h b H ~ f i
(em) H e RMeeT H x r e r o o6~ero TO o s ~ a q a eTO
~, m 6 a 6~ y ~ (B~ TOM
a wcne H npo-
C I I I u ~ U H O~~ Y K B ~ IM 6en) M O X e T MMeTb OAHY E13 18 AOnYCTEIMbIX LUMPHH.
LUMPHH~I B H ~ K O Bs a u e o n p e n e n r r m c b B A o M x K e r e n b -
HOG (EI de fact0 I U H P M H O ~A~p Y r OTHOCElTeAbHO A p y r a ) , a
H e ~ M c A O Ma 6 c o n m ~ ~ b 1e nxH H x U , H a n p u M e p IIYHKTOB.
K ~ TKO A ~ K OB M o H o T m e O n p e A e A x A c s p a 3 ~ e pnpme-
HReMOrO K e r M ( 3 H a ~ e H 1 4 e~ e r e h b ~ o f i C
) ,p a 3 y BbIqMC- c 32 ; wx 248 ; N space
c 33 ; wx 328 ;N exclam
ARAaCb &AMHa ~ a 6 n p a e ~ oCTPOKM
a6con1o~~aa ii B CO-
C 34 ; WX 328 ; N quotedbl
OTBeTCTBNM C UIIIPMHO~~
BXOARIUMX B H e e 3HaKOB. c 35 ; WX 769 ; N numbersign
n p e A e C . ~ bT ~ K O ~
CMCreMbI COCTOHT B OTAeAeHMU
c 3 6 ; wx 495; N dollar
C 37 ; WX 786 ; N percent
CO3AaHMR PMCYHKa 3HPKOB B IUPEI+TOB~IX +ahax OT C 38 ; WX 822 ; N ampersand
KaKsx 6b1 TO HM 6 ~ 1 ~~~ C0 O N O T H ~ M
IX npc-
3 ~ e p e H M f i .B C 39 ; WX 2 19 ; N quoteright
c 4 0 ; wx 3 7 0 ; parenteft
~
THBHOM c A p a e AAR K a x a o r o K e r M no'rpe60~anc~
6b1 c 4 1 ; WX 370 ;N parenright
C B O CIIMCOK
~ ~ ~ ~ C O ~ T 3HaseHFifi
H ~ I X IIIMpIlH AAR K m - C 42 ; WX 500 ; N asterisk
C 4 3 ; WX 833; N plus
f l 0 f ~ F B ~ MI K a X A O r O 3 H a K a . O I ~ M C B H H ~CIlCTeMa
R c 44 ; wx 248 ;N comma
I I p O I I O p y M O H ~ b H b I XUIMPMH IIO-HpeXHeMY MCIIOAb3y- c 45;WX 331;Nhyphen
eTCH, M B LIMCPPOBOM IUMpNHbI 3HaKOB OIIpeAe-
c 46 ; WX 248 ; N period
C 4 7 ; WX 278; N slash
M l o T C R A O M M M ~ e r e A b H 0 2(PNC. 2.5). c 48 ; wx 495 ;N zero
Mcxoa~aaCHCTeMa, I I p E I H m a H B MOHOTMne, EI CO- c 49 ; WX 495 ; N one
C 5 0 ; WX 495; N two
BpeMeHHaR, KOTOpaR cefisac MCIIOAb3yeTCR B UEI+PO- c 51;wx 495;Nthree
C 52 ; WX 495, N four
BbIX IIIPEI+T~X, pa3AM9aHITCR rAaBHbIM o G p a 3 0 ~YMC-
c 53 ; WX 495 ;N five
AOM nonefi ~ e r e n b ~ o iPostscript-IU~M+T~I
i. ocaosaHbr c 54 ; wx 495 ; N six
H a CHCTeMe B 1000 eAHHElU. TO lI03BOAReT flM3aGHe- c 55 ; wX 495 ; N seven
c 5 6 ; wx 495; N eight
paM CO3AaBaTb + O P M ~ I 3HaKOB 6e3 H ~ O ~ X O A H M O C T H C 5 7 ; WX 495 ; N nine
c 5 8 ; wx 272 ; N colon
c 59 ; WX 272 ; N semicolon
PHC. 2.5. I < O A M ~ O B K~
LUUPHIIbI 3HaKOB B P o s t S ~ r i p t - + a h e C 60 ; WX 8 3 3 , N less
( + p a r ~ pacnesamu
e~~~ m p u + ~ o ~ o r+oa h a ) . B nep~oiiKO- C 6 I ; WX 833 ;N equal
noIIKe 6 y ~ C~-a c o K p a W e I I a e OT character ( s a a ~ )3,a 11e2 C 62 ; ViX 833 ; N greater
C A e A y e T KOA 311aKa (B 4PHHOM C A y Y a e B COOTBeTCTBUH C KO-
c 63 ; WX 365 ; N question
C 6 4 ; WX 986; N a t
~ o ~ o~iai6 ~ a u eAiSi C I I ) . C o ~ p a u e ~ u WX e o 3 ~ a ~ width a e ~ C 65;WX 752;NA
t7letrics ( M ~ T P M K I ILUMPIIH), a YUCAa - UIIIPAIILI 3lIaKOB B TbI- C 66 ; WX 595 ; N B
i a w w x A o n x x ~ e r e ~ ~ ~B onpa~oii i i . K o n o H K e , y K O T O P O ~N
~ C 6 7 ; WX 683; N C
a 3 1 1 a ~ a ename
~ ( ~ a s s a ~ n e npmonmca
), c n a c o K ~aasaxiaii C 6 8 ; WX 741,ND
C 6g;WX 562;NE
3IfaKOB H a IIPOCTOM ( U h U IIO'ITM ~ P O C T O M ) ~ I ~ ~ A U ~ C K
113LI-
O M
C 70;WX 527;NF
KC. MOXAO3 a M e T U T b , YTO UN+PLI UMeIOT OAHIlaKOBLIe 3Ha- C 71;WX 722;NG
YeIIUX IlIHpUHLI, IZOWOMY OAII MOrJ'T TOVIIO BbIPaBHUBaTLCX C 72;WX 771;NH
I 1 0 B e p T U K U P i . ~ ~ o I I U C H L~I Y
~ K BB
~ IH U X H ~ ? ~'4aCTM
~ PaCIIe- c 7 3 ; 3~2 1~ ; ~ 1
YaTKH NMelOT p a 3 H b l e UIIIpIIHbI
C 74;WX 321;NJ
BTHCKHBaTb HX B OrpaHHYeHHOe KOAHYeCTBO AOIIYCTH-
M ~ I XLUHPEIH. @ O ~ M ~TrueType
T n o B e n TO 3 ~ a ~ e ~ a
no 32 000 enwsw. (Eonee nonpo6~y10E I H + O ~ M ~ U E I H )
0~ P o ~ M ~ T ~ x C A . 8 2.A. 4 ) .
ILI~EI+ToB
M K a K C T ~ P OCHCTeMe,
~ ~ MOHOTHIX)', Hb1HeIIIHefi KOM-
n b I O ~ e p H 0 f in p 0 r p a M M e AOCTaTOsHO TOAbKO 3HaTb, Ka-
~ o iKi e r n b onpenenee, T. e. B AaHHoM cnyvae s ~ a ~ e ~ a
K e r e h b H ~ f i ,~ ~ 0 6 PaCCYEiTbIBaTb
b 1 LIIHPHHbI 3 H X O B YM-
H o m e H H e M HX i i ~ e r e s ~ oHia iee a6-
3 ~ a v e ~B ~AOMX
KePHMHr BblKJlIO'leH

To
KePHHHr BKJlIO'ieH
Anpoma T X X e n p H H I I T 0 H3MepXTh B OTHOCHTeAbHbIX
enaHEiqax - ~ o n s x
M e p y , K e r A b m p ~ l + ~YBeAHYeH
a
ecnu, K n p ~
~ e r e n b ~ o ini .o v r o ~ y
C 12 A 0 14, TO nm6b1e
nOAOrHaHHbIe aIIpOIUH T a K X e npOnOpXQiOHahbH0 yBe-

To
AE19ABaIOTCII; T. e. BCe ~Y
H~CTPO~~K U A Y TnpeoGpa30~a-
HbI KOPPeKTHO H B HOBOM K e r A e .
O A H H M H 3 CIIOCO~OB PelYAUpOBKH anpomeii IIB-
AaeTclr xepwunzg, T. e. H ~ M ~ H ~npo6enoa6
H H ~ Memay
KOHKpeTHbIMH n a p a M H ~ Y K B
AAII TOrO, w 0 6 b 1 P e L l H T b
KPXTo-148 npo6nem1,BbI3BilHHbIe O C O ~ ~ H H O ~ R +OPM
ME~ JIM( 3HaKOB.
KPXTr -130
KPXTs-130
KPXTU-148
KPXT W-167 PEIC. 2.6. CTPOKU B ~ e p x ~ eqfai m pucyma m ~ o c r p u p p ~
KPXT y -148 3C$C$eKT K e p H U H r a . A UMeHHO, AAX T o r 0 ' I T O ~ ~ uI 3 6 e x a ~ b
-
KPX T guillemotlelt 167
UAbIpKEI> nOA I I e p e K A ~ I i H o f i~ Y K B T, ~ I 6 y ~ 0~IIpUABHAYTa
a
-
KPX T guilsinglright 11 1
-
KPX T quotesinglbase 1 1 1 6nuxe. C~UCOK, i X e , nOKa3bIBaeT ~ P ~ Z M ~ H T
I I p U B e ~ e H ~ b lHf U
-
KPX T quotedblbase 1 11 T ~ ~ A U K Ue ~p HI U H r a B UU+POBOM C$afi~e. C O K P ~ L LKPX
I~HM~
KPX T guillemotright - 1 1 1
KPXTae -148 0 6 0 3 ~ a . r a e ~kerning pair metrics ( M ~ T P N K HK e p H u H r o B b I x nap),
KPX T oslash - 148 a 3a HUM C A e A y e T KOHKpeTHOe CO'IeTaHUe ~ H ~ A A M I ~ ~KYUKXB .
KPX T oe - 148
&Aee npUBOAUTCX qUCAOBOe 3 H a ' I e H U e K e p H U H r a B TbICX'I-
KPX T Aring -56
KPX U comma -60 HbIX AOAXX K e r e A b ~ o f i .n e p B b 1 M B 3TOM CnUCKe y K a 3 a H O CO-
KPX U hyphen -28 qeTaHue To, n o ~ a 3 a x ~ oB e~ e p x ~ esfaic T u p u c y n K a , a ~ a q e -
KPX U period -60
KPX U colon -32 -148 TbICXSHblM ~ e r e ~ b H 0 f i .
H U e K e p H U H r a &AX H e r 0 p a B H 0
KPX U semicolon -32 Korna HYXHO O T O A B U A ~ TG~ ~ K B L I~ p y OTr npyra, 3 ~ a s e ~ u e
KPX U A -37
K e p R U H r a M O X e T 6b1Tb IIOAOXUTeAbHbIM
Ha KerehbHoG (em) OCHOBbIBaloTCR li npyIUe OTHOCHTeAbHbIe npo6enb1.
3 l7o,tyxeze,tbna~u"npoh,t (en space) paseH nonosuHe npo6ena mupn~oiiB KerenbHym
mnaqum (u 3TO He06~3a~ehbH0 CBII3aHO C u u p u ~ o j~i Y K B N). ~ I
3 Tonxuu' n p o b e ~(thin space) sacTo onpenenxe'rcx K ~ KnonoBuHa nohyKerenbHoro
npo6ena ( m u K ~ reTsepTb K ~ e r e n b ~ o r oHO) , B 6 o n b r u m c ~ ~
H e~ ~ O P H ~nporpaMM
IX
em cmoruemie c ~ e m ~ o~ ioi m nepeonpen-. o
3 ~ufiposou'n p o h (figure ~ space) paeH mpuHe uu+p n a ~ ~ o xm- op n + ~ a(AM yn06ma
BepTUKWGHOrO Bb1paBHIiBaHI.W B ~ a 6 m g a x1LIJIPliHLI Y BCeX U U + ~ 06b19~0OAEIHa-
KOB~I). TaK0fi npo6en ucnoAL3yeTcx A&i CO3AmEIR IIYCTbIX 3HaKOMeCT, K a K UCOKa3aHO
Ha PHC.2.7. I ~ O C K Oqu+pb~ A ~ K ~B p a 3 ~ m rapmypax m e m pa3m1e ru~prmbr(xo~rr
MHorMe p a ~ x m b ~e m o 1en), TO u u u p m a w + p o ~ o r onpo6ena MemeTcn OT r a p a q -
p b K~ rapxmype. n o woii npn.rme JJM+POBO~~ npo6en nohmeH 6 ~ r sna m m K-oro
KOMl7AeKTa 3HaKOB L U P E I ~ T O B O ~+O a h a , XOTII 3T0 ~ p e 6 0 ~ a m HIIKOrAa
e He c o 6 ~ o ~ a -
nocb ( ~ a ~ onpo6eh ii sasac~y~ ~ B no'TyAIIpxbUr urpu+mx). B u. 75,
o o~ c ) . r m y ename
I I o B ~ X I B ) Z O I U0~CO3Aa.HMFi
~~ T ~ ~ A EpaCCKX3bIBaeTCR,
IY, K;1K C03AaTb U H + ~ O B O npo6en,
~~
H~O~XOAHM AAR ~ ~ ~a6opa.
~ I EIX
XOTXI U H P ~ Bcex I mnpo6enoa, K ~ KH cmoii Ker-~oii, O T H O C H TEM ~ ~H~e ~Me-
I,
Hee c HMMM M O ~ 0O5 p a m a m K ~ cK@ U K C U $ ~ U N HnBfLi oUbIiLu u (fixed spaces), no ~ p a h e i i
vepe, no Tex nop, noKa He u 3 ~ e ~ Kera m a qur+ra. O n m u3 M ~ T O ~ OBB e p m , KompbIe
rrporpatma ~cnona3ye~ &AH s m ~ ~ m e ~ c Br npene-I
a~ CTPOKH, mmeTcn pacrmeme klh~l
COKpaI4eHUe npo6enoa M e X A y ~ Y K B B M E IPi CAOBaMII.
@ U K C U ~ O B ~ H H Lnpo6en~1
I~ ( K ~ ~ ~ A L H nLoIn~y r~c ,e r e n b -
~ b ~ jai T, a K m e T O H K M ~a~ q ~ + p o ~ onpo6en~r)
ii RBARIOT-
CII KOHCTaHTaMU, II H a HHX H e OKa3LIBaeT BAHRHHR np0-
UeCC BePCTKM. OHMII3MeHXIOT CBOG p a 3 M e p , KOrAa
MeHXeTCII K e r A L XUpli+Ta. n p o 6 e n b 1 M e X A y CAOBaMU,
HanpOTIIB, B IIpOUeCCe BepCTKU MOrYT U3MeHRTbCR.

npo6en~1M e x A y c n o n a M x T a K x e o n p e A e n x l o T c R AO-
M M I I K e r e h b ~ ~ (em),
fi HO OHM OTAU9alOTCR OT +HKCII-
PHC. 2.7. 3 ~ A O aA A a p~ a B B e p -
POBaHHbIX npo6eno~,nepeYHCAeHHbIX BLIWe, AByMII
x ~ 1 e f iC T p O K e CABIlHYT B A e B 0
OCO~~HHOCTIIMM.
BBeAeHUeM AByX UII+POB~IX
n p o 6 e ~ oM~e X A y HIlM Il ZIIlC- Bo-nepn~~x, B K ~ A O M ~ P H + T O B O M + a h e mapn-
AOM, PaCIIOAOXeHHbIM B TOG Xe Ha npo6ena o n p e A e n x e T c R , KaK n o ~ a 3 a ~H ao pac. 2.8,
CTpOKe. TO IIOBBOAIZhO BbIPOB- ~ O ~ T O MpYa 3 ~ e pnp06ena MeHRe-rcx OT r a p H a T y p L I
IIXTL B ~ P X H I ~ 3GH a K A O A A a p a CO K r a p w e , OT H a y e p - r m K H a q e p a m I o . Korna T e K c r
3HaKOM A O A A a p a B CTpOKe
~ a 6 p onpe~enemoii
a~ rap-oii, TO c o o T s e T c T n e m o
*total>, (IITOTO). ~ O C K O A ~ K Y
+ O P M I I P ~ C R EI npo6enb1 M e X A y CAOBaMU. kI C ~ M L I ~ ~
IIH+PLI B m p n + ~ eOAHOG m ~ -
A e m G cnoco6 U3MeHHTL T a ~ 0 f npo6en i - ~113aiiKepy
pa11b1, TO UN+~OBOG npo6e~
MOXCeT C A Y X N T b B K a Y e C T B e IIIpH@a peWHTb, KaK0fi IUHpUHbI AOJdfCeH 6 b m npo6en,
nycToro ~ I I ~ K O M ~ C T ~ u s a ~ p e n mTO 3 ~ a y e m eB ~ ~ U + T O B O M+athe.
BDBTO~LJX,
K ~ 6Kb w 0 m e 9 e H o BLIxIIe, ~ ~ H M eLx - I
UOBH~IX rrpo6eho~MOT peamma-nczII co~paua?'bc48
c U~ALIOB ~ H K I ~I O II AKo m i x e m ynawoii s e p m .
0 6 b m o IIPOIICXOAHT B IlpOUeCCe, Ha3LIBaeMOM 8bll;l~.llcou"
OH p a c c M a T p m a e T c r r o u 70.
(justification),6 o ~ e nonp06~0
e

C y U l e C T B y l o ~ P i eM e X A y H a p O A H L I e CTaHAapTLI OTHOCII-
TeAbHO HOBbI. H e y , q a s ~ e n b ~ oYTO,
, HMeII TaKyIO AAII-
TeALHYH) Ei CAOXHyIO HCTOPIIH), H ~ ~ O P H L
IIpOUeCCLI
I ~
2CnOAWahEi U APyIXMM eAMHMUaMH M3MepeHW3, KOTO-
-. .-T=
- =.c m~u~ npomo B L I a ~3
M He m u B C ~ O ~ U J I I M
. . ~ 1 o ~ p e 6 ~CeFOEIBAeHMeM
ms HOBbIX T ~ X H O A O T U ~Te
~. U3
:XUX, KOTOPbIe nO-IIPeXHeM)' M O T EICnOAb30BaTbCII B p a 3 -
.W~IX nporpitMMax B e p m H , n e p e v U c A e n I mxe.

PMC. 2.8. B T p e x n p n M e p a x pas-


B B O C e M H ~ U a T O MBeKe + P ; ~ H U Y ~ ~~I 3 0 6 p e mCXeMy U 3 HLIX t r a q e p ~ a ~ t rr fa p H n T y p L I
lrepemiii rupa+ra, ~ o ~ o p aTrern e p b H m b I B a e T a c u m e M a Futura npo6en~1M e m y c n o s a -
judo (didot)- B v e m c e ~ e k o iBi a r n + P ~ H I ~ ~ ~ C K E I XM n BLIaeAeEILI CCPLIM UBeTOM.
~ ~ M ~ T H'4TO O , n p o 6 e ~MeXCAy
nesanmco~".C M c f e ~ oa c H o a a H a H a nyHKTe ~ x , g o(didot
c A o s a M n , K O T O P L I ~o n p e n e n x e T -
point), 12 VOB ~crropom06pa3ym yuyepoiO. II~HKT
CZ B CaMOM LUPH+TOBOM +a%-
;rtino ym 60~bmePostSclipt-ny~ic~a, TW uco 15 m e p o
Ae, M O X e T 3HaZIMTeALIIO p a 3 A n -
p m n n~p m e p H o 16 ntncm.B orrpenene~~of crenemi CH- s a T L c x B P ~ ~ R L II X Ia'4epTaHmx
c r e i v a nmo go c m nop u c n o ~ b 3 y e ~ cBr &pone.
r

Azam (agate), K a K U n H K a , - TepMUH, COXP~HHBIUH~~CII


C T e X B p e M e H , KOI'Aa K ~ X S A K
~WI ~A b
~ MMeA CBOe co6-
CrBeHHOe Ha3BaHUe (XOTEI B pa3HbIX CTpaHaX OHM MOrhEl
Ha3bIBaTbCEI n o - p a 3 ~ 0 M y ) . ha^ - 3 T 0 KeI'Ab B 5,5 IIyHK-
Ta, K O T O P L I ~KOrAa-TO LUUPOKO MCnOAb30BaACR B r a 3 e T -
HbIX O ~ % B B A ~ H E I X X
Y'IMTbIBaEI
; O%HL M ~ A K Up a~3 ~
Mep
~a6xpancrrTeKCT A 0
O'IKa I U p M c p ~ a , 3THM K e r A e M
14 c r p o H~ a m b ,mrna KaK ~ a 6 o cpo s p e i v e m b m rupa+
TOM T O ~ Ox e K e r M easa a o c m a e T 13 c r p o ~ Ha n m b .
B ~MIO X e T e BCTPeTUTb a r a T b I , KOTOPbIe MCIIOAb3y-
KITCX K a K eAMHUUbI H3MepeHkiX BbICOTbI KOAOHOK (HAM
KaK + ~ H K Y ~ I YCTaHOBOK
I~ ANHM~~
O ~ S ~ P K N B ~ H N3ZT )a ;
eAMHHUa M3MepeHMEI COOTBeTCTByeT CTapOMj' ~a6opy
B 14 CTPOK H a A D ~ M .T ~ P M M
U CH
a M a eAMHU4a CYHTB-
Bsrnnny~~a m 6 y m neqanxym crpa~wuy, B ~ I npex-
,
e ~ e (type). O O P Ma~nponop-
ne B c e r o , s a ~ e ~ azupu$m I
UMM ~ Y K B3 T O r 0 U I P U + T ~ 0Tpa.ZZiDT O C O ~ ~ H H O C TAM-
M
s a i i ~ a~ o ~ ~ p ezap~nu~myopa^^
i i (typeface). G a ~ ~ b r e
r u p ~ + ~xpa~mcrr
a B u@u$rnoeo,u $ache (font), a3 KO-
TOpOrO CMcTeMa TeKcTOBOrO ~ a 6 o p Ei3BAeKaeT
a MH+OP-
M a u M m , H ~ O ~ X O A U M ~AM
EO P ~ ~ M ~ U I ~ H
u xE pI ~
R i + ~Ha a
c-rpamue. LlIpaQm~b~e
+&bi rapea-
KOHKP~TH~IX
T y p RBNIDTCR MCXOAHbIM C b I p b e M A M ~ a 6 o p TeKCTa.
a
B TOG r n a e o n p e n e n r r e T c a paanasae M e x a y rupa+-
M rapau'rypoii, a s a ~ neo ~
T O B ~ I M+ a i h o ~ ~ p o 6 pac-
~0
c ~ a 3 b x s a e ~ c ror TOM, PTO T a K o e r a p H m y p a urpa+~a
(typeface). B z ~ 4. noiine~p e g b o LUPHC~~TOB~IX Qaii-
nax (fonts).

T a K PaCTO nyTahtr - KOMIIAeKT AElTeP HAM I~~PEI+TO-


BOG + a h (font)M r a p H I l T y p a (typeface).LUPH+T ~ 0 0 6 -
me - TO C O B O K ~ ~ H O C 3T n~ a ~ 0 6(characters): ~ Y K B ,
UM+P, CUMBOAOB, B H ~ K O Bnpenwams M T. A., KOTO-
P b I e CIIpOeKTHpOBaHbI &AX COBMeCTHOrO IIpEiMeHeHEiR
TaK me, KaK, C K W e M , lTpUAZVKeHb1 apyr K A p y r y sac-
TU K~KO~O-nx60 C H a p m c e H a a . rapnumypa (typeface) -
3TO ILIPII+T COBepUIeHHO O l l P e A e A e H H O r O PUCYHKB.
A Kckuruelcm ~ u m e pupu$rnosoii
, @ a c (font)
~ - wo +u-
~ H ' I ~ C K O
B o~ n n o q e H H e MAU O n n c a H E i e r a p H u T y p b I
rupaCp.a: B K O ~ ~ P H E LK oXn a x , H a +morpa+mec~oG
PBC. 3.1. Cnosa font u opeface
o 6 0 3 ~ a ~ apa3HOe.
m ~ BA ~ B O ~ rupa+~osoh+aln (font) rapnnrypa wpu@a (typeface)
KOAOHKe np' IrCTaBAeH ~ e 6 0 ~ ; -
New
l l ~ l n r v n tNe*enNry*hihk-Eoman
I P I - A ~ O ~ F O ~u ~~-cI* e n t u i y s c ~ ~ b ~ - ~ m 001
a n na m
I~IOL; -5r -' nporpahlh..rioro t w r a t r o n b l Man O r l 9 0: ,s<5 i 9 S i
IIVMusr$r 3475147045
unotyp no ana,oi
i-s- II NIW ~ D N I I~ n r n m u o t1s L V I J ~ D I B01
~X
KOAa -t
(font), B KOTOPOM OrMCaHbI
L-IAa
BCe
lh rvbudllrln
I l diilw,"
, ~ n t ! n f o10 atit amp %a
/v(r*on 1001 0 4 ) readonil del
Century
napaMeTpk.1 o ~ o 6 p a x e ~~YuK~B
TapHUTypbI New Century
n u ~ a r n em e w century ~ ~ u o ema
~ 8 m l l y N ~(NeWCcnturg

,,la,,ung,e eder
m~
/Welghl (Rman>rsrdnnly dri
k wan)~readonly ae!
SibrniWti r?sdurdy
Schoolbook
Schoolbook. B npasoi KOAOH-
Ke - C O ~ C T B ~ H H Or a p H U T y p a
,,*xdPiIm
Nndenln~wrbon lo3 dcl
mnderi~ne~birtnrr
end riadmly MI
,l*del
- 6s der abcdefghij
ABCDEFG
nonumm* ,N*eent"ryYnibx-Roinaa d i l
nnemmr rendaidsn<mmr del
New Century Schoolbook, ,hL"tTSP Bd*
IPontTYpl l dCl
I l o n V * ~ V I Y I O O O I 0 O O D O I 0 OlleadYnlyd*
IIpeACTaBAeHHaR KOMnAeKTOM
BHBKOB, o 6 ~ ~ a 1 o woa6xr u u ~ n
KlnlquelD25bbOdrl
~PrnmMxI-2I7 -2 15 IOU0 9bOlieailuniY dd
eUrrcnldlcLlnd
123456789
!a#$%&?*
cYr<en""e~iBc
~DBDBJ?~~'~EU~~~)~~~~AA~~FFS~~>IPEIEIDS'~~VIA~B~O.R~~F~~~A~
XapaKTepHbIMU npU3IIaKaMPi, P>3~53)CiAA4D4~3138b562E15CCACA6AOO1CE2CPA~PC95759B
5EC4917754PIC852F990291J
KOTOPbIe I1 OnpeAeARIoT ee AU-
3aiiH

nneme ~ l B Mn eT~ m e . Font - TO + O P M O Y K ~ AM T e c -


a typeface - yro yme c o 6 m e ~ sbrnewca
Ta, ~o ( p ~ c 3.1).
.
Korna B b I BHARTe C T P W H U Y C TeKCTOM, T O M O m e T e
cnpocmb: & a ~ o i i3 T 0 XIIpH+T (KBKU r a p ~ ~ n n ) a ) ? wW
<<%!M ( K a ~ o f ri a p H I I ~ y p 0 f i )~ a 6 p T~KCT?,,
a~ HOB a M H e
I I p m e T B I'OAOBY CnPOCHTb: & a ~ o f 3TO KOMILXeKT AH-
T e p ( K a K o i i XIIPN+TOBO~~ +ah)?,, n O T O M y T O BLI BII-
A m e p e 3 y n b ~ na ~ e s a ~ ~ai ~e , Y C T ~ O ~ ~ C TH
B OC O C T ~ B KOM-
m e m a nmep ( r u p ~ + ~ o ~+oar hoa ) .
n y ~ a ~ H MeXCAy
u a 3TIIMH T e p M H H a M I l I I p O I I 3 0 U I A a
6onbmeii YaCTbW 113-3aIIPOTHBOPe'lIIBOrO IICIIOAb30Ba-
HHII T e p M H H a font ( L U P H ~ T O B O+
~ ~a h ) B KOMIIbIoTep-
H ~ D n( p o r p a M M a x , B ~ O ~ U I M H C TKOTOPLD(
B~ n p ~ i c ~ c m y -
e T IIYHKT MeHH) Font ( ~ P I I + T ) . XOTR CIIMCOK,
npennarae~b~ii
Memo, ocHoBaH H a nepewe m p ~ + -
TOBbIX + a f i ~ 0 ~AOCTYIIHbIX
, AAX IICIIOAb30BaHIIII
B A ~ H H On p~o ~
rpaMMe, ero B e p H e e 6 ~ ~ 6b1
x 0~ a 3 ~ a ~
Typeface ( T a p ~ qrupa+~a),
a n o c K o s K y OH BUW-
gaeT B ce6x HMeHHO H a 3 B a H H R r a P H M T Y p IIIpII+Ta, AO-
CTyIlHbIX A M ~a6opa.kI 3m T e M B e p H e e l T O HeKOTOp1,lC
E;\~Y~B~IM
nOHHTHeM K a K n H 3 a G H a XLIpEicpTa, T a K H
xmorpa+um B U e n o M X B N I ~ XxezemmzR (em square).
-
,zar o a o p m o c b B n p e ~ b m p e i mi a B e , K e r e n L H a x cly-
7

X I I T O C H O B O ~A~ M UeAOI'O P X A a OTHOCHTeALHbIX eAH-


:Gill I13MepeHEE3, YbEl3HaYeHIIEI 3aBHCXT OT KOHKPeTHO-
ro Kernx acnonbsye~ororrrpu+~a.
~ H P H H 3HaKOB
~ I BbIPZlXaKTCIi B OTHOCHTeAbHbIX
?JI[MHHJJaX: K a K I I p a B I m O , B TbICXYHbIX AOAXX KeI'eAb-
:iok B +Gne B c e r n a n p u H u M a e T c a
XLI~~+TOBOM co-
:.rarueHue, H a CKOALKO enmuu (~oneii)p a 3 6 u n a e ~ c x
:;erenbHarr. 3a BTHM c n e n y e T ~ a 6 n u u a~ H ~ K OuBHX
X U P H H ( B L I P ~ ~ X ~ H H ~3THMH
IX ~ A I I H H U ~ M H )n
. p ~ e p
It is time to
~ a o irna6~uy.a~
i ~ e m p u x(melricstable) CM. H a puc. 2.5. pause in our
B ~ T O Mcnyqae K e r e n b H a x C T a H o s u T c x O C H O B O ~ ~
:emu, H a KOTOPOG pacnonaramcx B c e ~ H ~ Kmpu+- H career to
TOBOrO ClXlkAa. n p a B ~ a eCTb
Jm 3a p a M K I l
,
IIAOuaKEi,
3HaKH, KOTOpbIe BMXO-
o6pa3ye~ofiK ~ ~ ~ A ~ H o C ,
review our
HO
TaKUX 3HaKOB HeMHOI'O. principles.. * *
PEIC. 3.2. A u a k r a r u p ~ + ~ aB ,~ I -
A e A e H H a X H a PkICj'IIKe, 0 6 b 1 ~ 1 1 0
B CTpOKaX O ~ ~ I Y H OTeKCTa
~ O BCe ~ Y K B L Ip a C n O A a r a m T - IIeBMAklMa. no 3 ~ 0 f ANIIklki
i BLIC-

IR H a H~BIIAEIMO%AMHEIH, K O T O P U Ha3bIBaeTCX A U H U ~ ~ T p a k i B a l O T C X 6 y l i ~ b 1 ,kl O H a CAY-


)ICUTOCHOBO~~AA~O~~~A~A~HMR
z(~pu(bma' (base line), K a K n o ~ a 3 a ~
H aopuc. 3.2. nono-
u ~ - r r e p ~ ~ e ~ r~ l ox ~a o, p b tpia in e 1 3
XeHEIe AMHHX LUPH+TB H a ~ e r e h b ~ o ii
IIAOIIlaAKe MOXeT
He connanan y p a 3 ~ ~ UIPH+TOB,
1x OHO onpenenxrcx
pHCYHKaMEl3HaKOB,KZLK UCOKa3aHO H a PMC. 3.3. O ~ ~ I ' I H O
A M Hm
~ p ~ + r apacnonaraeTca npxMepHo H a paccros-
HEIM 0 ~ ~ 0'I'peTEi
f i OT HEIXHerO KpaSl Kere~bHOfiIIAOUa,4-
KM. ,&W Tor0 yT06b1 pa3HbIe IIIpM+TbX MOXHO 6 b ~ CO-
0
OAHOG cTpoKe, nonomeHHe AHHMH r u p ~ l + ~ a
B M e u a n Ha
B npenenax ~ e r e a ~ onnorya,4mi
fi onpeaenseTca M 3 KO-
AOB rupa@oaoro + a h a . Ees 06ecne~1e~us nocromo-
ro nonomemix ~ U H E I M m p ~ + ~ a~ ,a 6 o p6 y n e ~= c a n
BBePX-BHM3, KaK B pa360~TaHHofi
IIMIIIj'XIlefi MaUIHHKe.
JkiHM5I IKIpMC#)TaXBMeTCR B ~ ~ X H ~ ~3A
~eM
LeU
HTN
OMM
~xnorpa+ma.P a c c ~ o x Memay
~~e e. ,UPI-
c - ~ ~ o K ~T.M
rnep~uua~3tc"leading),BbIpaxcaeTca B nyHKTax u M3Me-
paeTcs OT AMHUM m p u + ~ aO A H O ~CTPOKM
~ AO AMHMM
m p a + ~ anpenmecmyrorrleii C'I'~OKM (PMC. 3.4). K p o ~ e
T O ~ O ,~ H M m
X p ~ + ~ a
nep~ofi CTPOKM CTpaHnubI SIBAX-
eTcx ~ i c x o n ~ oTiOi Z I K O ~ ~OT
, K O T O P O ~ HaYaHaeTcs
~ pa3-
Meryeme ocranbHoro TeKcTa n m ~ o KOAOHKM
i (nono-
C ~ ~I a 6 0 p a ) .

Kerns, BneZIaTneHMe 0 BeAMZIMHe mp~l+TaCO-


~OMMMO
o ~ CTPOZIH~IX ~ Y K B . TOT p a s ~ e p ,
s n a e ~ c ps a 3 ~ e p ero
o n p e n e n s e ~ ~K~~i iKpaccromxe OT AMHHM L U P H + T ~AO
3.4.
all the glyphs in a font are cre H ~ ~ e p ~ ~u3Me-
DrreTcrr OT AUHIIII
l = m
m n c b ~ OAHO:
a
A .

14 nYmOB are glyphs that ex tend outside ~ o K ~ A o - ~ ~ P ~ J T ~ ~ P ~ A -


u r e c r ~ y m w e i i Ha
. p n c y H K e norca-
14 nYHnoB square, but these are rare. 3 a ~ b 1c y ~ e m s e ~ 200%
u e ~ pa3-
M e p b I N H T e P A n H b R X a , BKAIOYaJI
O T ~ U B K UM e X A Y TeKCTOM 11 3 a -

16 nywros III normal lines of type all the


14 npKToF3 an invisible line called the bas
14 ~ ~ H K T o B as shown above. he position

urpuQra N c p e ~ ~ exjii~ u e i CO-


i
CTaBAReT pOCT CTpOSHbIX ~ Y K B
BeprUHHbI CTPOYHO~ b 1 Ha3bIBaeTCX PoG~~ZOM
6 y ~ ~ <<XB,
cmpozlnalx snalcoe (x-height).hm, nponeneaaaa H a
3~0fiBbICOTe U IIapXAAeAbHasI AIlHkIU LUPII+T~,Ha3bI-
B a e T c s cpedneu"~unuez7(mean line) (pac. 3.5).
B nposecce a c r o p a s e c K o r o pa3nmm POCT CTPOY-
HbIX ~ F B HeOAHOKPaTHO MeHtL1CR. CYIITB~TCX, YTO
ILIPU+T c K ~ ~ ~ H L I M 6 y Yw
OYKOM ~ r a e~T c s nerqe, a H a
s ~ p a M~oeH m o p a n o 6 a s ~ e ~ n aex e o n H o r o nmcena
HeCOMHeHHO C ~ O C O ~ C T B YIIX
K POCTY CTpO'IHLIX ~ Y K B ~T
6 o ~ b m e pa360p~mocmi.
f np~l
~KP~HHOp
Ma 3 p e m e ~ m
K a X ~ b ~l fl uiK C e A OKa3bIBaeT CJ'WeCTBeHHOe B A M H M e .
M ~ I K C H M X A ~ H O3Ha.IeHUX
~O pOCT CTPOYHLIX ~ Y K B
DOC-
mr B cepeame 1960-x ronos, Hanpmep y rapHmyp
Antique Olive n Americana, c Tex nop ~ a 6 ~ 1 o n a e ~ c
TeweHIJMR K er0 YMeHLUIeHHIo (PIIC. 3.6).

C n o ~ aKoTopbre
, ~ onacamx n 06-
M ~ nI c n o ~ b a y eAM
CyXAeHEW +OPM 6 y ~ ~R'B,ARHITCR CMeUIeHIleM TepMH-
HbIX ~ Y K BX npM OAHOM Pi TOM
x e 311ase~nnKerm. B ~epxriefi HOB K a K UCIIOTP~+MKM, TaK EI K ~ A A M T P ~ +IIM OR MBA, RB-
CTpOKe, IIaqMHaR C ~ Y K B A~ I UIHXCR B TeSeHHe C T O A ~ T WBE Pa3HLIX CTpaHaX.
( r a p ~ m y pTimes
a Roman), B ~ R - H e ~ o ~ o p b~r ea a 6 o n e eBWKHLIe TePMHHbI 06cyxfiam-
TO^ AAII CPaBHeHMR, IIpeACTaB- ca aanee, a caMLIe u s n e c ~ m ~ e
npenm-ranner-rbx H a pnc. 3.7.
AeHbI TPPHMTYPbI: Centaur
(Monotype), Bodoni (Linotype),
Janson (Monotype), Gillard 8epXHUR s u ~ o c ~ o A
3neMenr (ascender)
(1TC)x Americana (ATF).
LUpxct,~
- - 6e3 s a c e s e ~
BO ~ ~ o p o i i
CTpOKe, HaYNIiaH C G ~ K B MA
( r a p ~ r i ~ y pHelvetica),
a
CTaBAeH rapHMTypaMM Futura
npen- \
(Bauer), Gill Sans (Monotype), KOHLIeIOA

B/sFT
HMHUH BMHOCHOU u m p a (spur) 3neMeHT (termma[) XBonHK (tall)
3neMeHT (descender)
Univers 55 (Linotype), Avant

A
Garde Gothic (ITC) n Antique
Olive Medium nonyosan (bowl) nepennanu~a(crossbar)

paasunra (uotch) ' 1 '


OWOBHOR
urpnx (stem) mpU3O~lanbHMh
wrpux (bar)

PHC. 3.7.3~e~e1rrb1 ~ Y K BM NX CO~RMHUT~~~HM~~

Ha3BaHMII. H ~ K O T Pi3 O IIapa-


~~I~
MeTpOB, HanpMMep ~ 3 r a 6
(spine), XapaKTepHbI T O A b K O
AAR OTAeAbIILIX ~ Y K B(B ,Z(aHHOM
cnysae S), no G O A ~ ~ N H C T B ORB-
AXroTCR 0 6 4 M npHMeHMMb1
~ ~ ~ TwKa (dot)
KO MIIOI.&iM ~ F B ~ M
Q O P M ~ I ~ Y K B~ a 6 0 p ~ b xILIPEI+TOB,
x n o ~ o 6 ~ b xT ee M ,
K o T o p b I e BM c e h a c B u n H T e nepen m a s a ~ uxcnbrrana
,
CEihbHOe B N M H H e ~ Y K B BbInOAHeHHbIX
, K X pe340M, T X
H ~ a x a r p a + ~ r e cn~e pm
o M . n p r ? s e ~60nbruas sacrb
TOTO, ' I T 0 rOBOpHTCX 0 ~ Y K B ~ X ,
CBR3aHa HMeHHO C nOC-
AeAHHM cnoco6o~.
O6pasub1A M COBpeMeHHOrO LUpHcPTa 6bm~
nep-
BOHaYaAbHO H a n H C a H b I LUHPOKOKOHeYHbIM n e p O M , K a K PHC. 3.8. Q O P M ~ I 6 y ~ Facne- n
n o ~ a a a H~ aopac. 3.8. B ~ ~ B H C H M O C TOUT T O ~ O , K ; ~ Xnepo nosalxbr u 3 ~ a ~ n r p a C p nQop- u.
~ I Y K O T O P O ~IIBMeIIR-
M a ~ Y K B 0, ~
Y n e p X H B a I o T B P y K e H n O A KaKHM YrAOM O H 0 PaCnOAO-
eTCR TOAIuIlHa UlTpMXa, o~o6pa-
meHo K Gpare, n o n y Z I a m c x mrpma n e p e ~ e ~ ~TOA-
oji m a e T chea r u u p o i c o e o r x e s n o r o
UHHbI. ECAHT a K H M 0 6 p a 3 0 ~PHCOBaTb OKpYXHOCTb, nepa, K o T o p o e a B u x e T c x n p o -
TO AHHHX H3MeHXeTCR OT T O H ' I & L L I ~ ~ OI U T p H X a A 0 IIIH- THB S ~ C O B OCTpeAKki.
~~ H~XHM
p O K O r 0 H a I I A b l ~ a jEI H ~ O ~ O P O TT
. a~ax
M3MeHVHBOCTb cosnae~cx,K o r n a nepo s e p T u T
CaMJW LZIIIPOKY+OAAIIIIIO
TOAUHH~I mrpnxa 0npeAeme-r u a u o u ocu oaubualx
9 ~ e ~ e x r n o(stress).
s B e m r ~ H~a aK n o H a OCH s s n r r e T c a
X a p a K T e p H b I M I I P H 3 H a K O M O I I p e A e A e H H O r O CTHAX
m p a + ~ a ,o s e M pacc~a3b1~ae~crr A a e e B BTOG mase.
T ~ K H06pa30~,
M W H P H H ~ Iturnpuxos (strokes) 3 ~ a -
K a M3MeHXDTCR B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT TOrO, B KaKOM H a -
npEU3AeHHH A B H X e T C R nep0 - B B e p X HAH BHH3. ~ T H M
y T a K H X 3HaKOB C O ~ ~ I K H O B ~ H H O
O ~ ~ X C H X ~ T CIIOYeM)'
X,
anPIIMbIMH HOXKBMHD, K a K M,N H A, ~ O X B A R I o T C f f
m p a x pasaol
~ TOAUHH~I (PHC. 3.9).

PMC. 3.9. n e p b e ~ 0 CIIITPEiX


o s e m yam0 onpeaenzh OCHOB-
HYIO ~ $ O P M YMtIOrAX AaTMHCKBX
3acezlxuu (serifs) H ~ ~ ~ I B ~c nI eOr KT a p a c r u E i p r r I o q H e -
6)'~s.B naHI1OM C A y a e y 6 y ~ -
CX pOC'3epKH H a KOHUaX OCHOBHbIX T H X O B . CAOBO BLI M n s u x e H u e nepa a t r a a
s e r i f ~ e a c ~ o~ iTi E I M O A O ~HO,
, BO~MOXHO, OHO B O C X O A ~ ~ $ O P M A P Y ~ UIMPOKNe
T UITPHXII,
K A p e B H e H e M e U K O M Y CAOBY, 0 3 H a 9 a I O W e M Y <IIITpHX*. a n s n m e H u e nepa B n e p x - Y ~ K H ~
XOTRc a M n no ce6e sacesan nMeloT r o p a s ~ o6 o ~ e eA p e B H e e n p o u c x o X A e H a e : HX
H ab KaMeHHbIX HaAnACSIX G p e B ~ e f i~ P ~ L I I IOAHHM
MOXHO 0 6 H a p y ~ H ~ II. H 3 OCHOB-
HbXX IIpHHYIlIIOB K A ~ c c I ~ + u K ~ ~ L Fix H a I L I P U ~ T ~CI
HUHP E I ~ T O BRBASleTCII p a 3 A e A e H H e
s a c e s ~ (seriffed
a ~ ~ faces) u UIPM+TM 6 e 3 3 a c e s e ~IIocne~awe . B ~ H ~ A H ~ C KSOI M~ ~ I K ~
u e serif, 0 6 a e ~ ~ ~ a m Bu oe ~e s o i+pase
HOCIIT ~ a s s a ~ sans i + p a ~ r r y 3 c ~ o CAOBO
e sans
(~6e3w)Ei T ~ B T O H C K UK~ O~ p e H b serif ( < < U T ~ M X P ) .
-
~ ~ c ~ ' I K 3E
T 0I H e TOAbKO AeKOPaTkIBHbIe 3AeMeHTbI. O H H U r P a H l T BaXHJ'XJ P O A b
B BOCnPHRTUU UIPEIC$T~L, nOCKOAbKY nOMOralOT r A a 3 y OTAeAMTb OAMH 3HaK OT APYrOrO
H BbIRBHTb OTAeAbHbIe 6 y ~ ~ Bb aAAeRX
1 TOHKHX LUTPHXOB, KOTOpbIe 06pa3ym~c~1 CTpOKa-
MH o r o OHHT a K X e j ' I I O p ~ O Y H B Z - O T~OPE130HTCiAbH)'IO TeKCTYPY LUPII+-
~ a 6 p a ~ ~TeKCTa.
Ta, C03ABaR c ~ o e o 6 p a 3 ~ pp O X K y , KOTOpaR YBepeHHO B e A e T r A a 3 BflOAb CTPOKH.
AO
T ~ K 06pa30~,
~ M y U I ~ H + T O B C 3 a c e ~ 6onee ~ a ~ BLICOKaII
~ CTeIIeHb p a 3 6 b p ~ 1 ~ 8 0 ~ m U
(legibility), n nx nerse B o c n p n H n M a T b H p a c n o 3 ~ a ~ a I~I bo .s b r r u e ~ ~ pl ea 3 6 0 p s u ~ o m a ,
B CBOIO O Y e p e A b , nO3BOASIeT 6 b 1 c ~ p e eH A e r ' l e s M T a T b TeKCT, T. e. 3aMeTHO IIOBbICUTb
ydodbuuma~ocma(readability).
M~B~CTH O
MHOXeCTBO THnOB 3aCeBeK, KOTOpbIe CHAbHO OTAEI4aIOTCR A p Y r OT AP)Ta
no + o p ~ e p, a s ~ e p yH M a c c e . OHM C O B A ~ B ~ AB ~T Ce s~e m e C T O A ~ T H ~H~M
, Home ~ H + T ~ I
IIOAyWiAH CBOH Ha3BaHHII C p e T O M UMeHHO O C O ~ ~ H H O C3 aTC~e 4~e~K .

Ha~6onee113~ec-kb1 3ace~xuco c l c p y u e ~ u (bracketed


e~ serifs), n o c K o A b K y OHH ~cnohb3y-
IOTClI B ~ O A ~ L U N H C THB~~~ O P H ~IUPEI+TOB.
IX T ~ K3aCeYKH
H ~ C O e . 4 H H ~ T C XC OCHOBHbIM
IIITpUXOM 6yK~b1I I p U ( ~~H c . 3.10), K O T O p F MOXHO H a 3 B a T b
EIOMOIUH I I h a B H o f i K ~ U B O
cxpyuewea, m u c o n p ~ m e ~ u (fillet).
eu K ~ nKo ~ a 3 a ~ H aop ~ c 3.10,
. cTeneHL c K p y m e H H s ,
P H C ~ H O Ko s e m C H A ~ H Op a 3 m s a m c ~ y
p a s ~ e ps a c e s u~ 061~uii
~ 1 P ~ ~ H r~a p
I H
Xm y p .

3acevxu be3 cxljyz,ienu~ (unbracketed serifs) 06pa3ym~c OCHOBHLIM ILITPHXOM p e a ~ u i i


yron. C a ~ no u ce6e s a c e s ~ nMOT H M ~ T+ ~o p ~ y6onee HAM M e H e e TOHKHX ~ P Y C K O B
HAIl A a X e KAHHbeB. 0 6 u e e B n F I a T A e H U e OT 6 y ~ ~CbTaKHMH
1 3 a C e s K a M U - OTUeTAHBO
ymoBaTas +op~a.
Harnburgefons
a a w w co cKpyrnenueM: Riaito (DF)

TOB, c~xriam ~ BneYaTne-


06rrree
me OTmpn+~a,a a a c e ~ ~6e3
n

H
~ clcpyrnenmn: Trump Mediaeval (Linotype)
3 a w 603
CKp)TAeHnX, H ~ O ~ O ~ O T,
YCuhMsa-
wr qmocra. E i p y c ~ o ~ ab as c e w
6e3 crcpymeanx c o s n a m ~sne-

amburgef ons YaTAeHHe ~ e x m n r e c ~ o npo-


P
fOCr'U, a CO C K p y r A e H I l e M IlpMAa-
KIT O C O ~ ~ H I I Y KCMAy
) IIIpnC$)TaM,
KOTOpbIe Ha3bIBaIOT K A a p e H 4 0 -
~ P Y C K O B W3~ a w w 683 CKpyrneHuu: Memphis (Linotype)
7 HaMK, BKAloYaX IIOIIyAXpHylO
rapHKTypy Century. T O H K3a-
H~
CeYKM, O T A H ' i H T e A b H a R Y e p T a
HOBO^ BHTIIKBbI, C03Ba30T ( $ 0 ~ -
M a n b H o e B n e q a T n e H u e , B TO B p e -
MfI K a K KAMHOBIIAHbIe 3aCe'IKII
npmamT mpn+?y ~ + I + ~ K rpa-
T

H
6pyucosb1e3 a m w w cKpyrneHweM:Clarendon (Bitstream) BMpOBaHti5I

amburgefons

Hamburgefons
Bonocnue 3 a m ~Fenice
: (ITC)

H
Knmnosmnble 3 8 w ~ uMeridien
: (Linotype)

amburgefons
54 Yacma I. O c ~ o a a munozpa@ulcu
l

E p y c l c o s a ~ esacelllcu (slab serifs) A-


~ a s ~ a OTA~ALHOG
~ u e KaTeropMa r u p n + ~ a " . Y T a m x
UITpMXOB, OGLIYHO MCKAIOYeHLI KWAl3I'pa-
L U P I I ~ T O B ,MMeIOIQMX 0.ZJMHZlKOB)'IO TOAIIIMH)'
+ ~ r e c ~~ A~~ eM ~ H T LMMHIIM~AUCTCK&
I. au3aii~~ O ~ B O A Rc~oT3 a a ~ a -IIIPM+I
r~ 6e3
B L I ~ YAY4LLIaIOT y ~ o 6 o -
e T~W 3 a U M M EI ,4eKOPaTIIBHOCTEI, 3 a T O ~ ~ ~ C K O 3aCe9KM
~ ~ M C X HJ (O
sIITaeMOCTL, no3ToMy ~ P Y C K O BLIIPII+T T . ~ a 6 o p TeKCTOB.
L I ~ ~ 9 a C T o C A ~ X ~ TAASI a
NPII+T~I, O ~ A ~ L ( ~ I O I Q~PYCKOBLIMEI
M~ 3aCe'IKahlII CO CKp)TAeHUeM, Ha3LIBaIOTCR
l c ~ a p e n d o n u u ' (Clarendons).

O T A E ~ ~ ~gep~oji ~ ~ A TLa KH~ O


a s~~ ~~ s a enooou"
~ o ianmulcoal
i (modem), o n u c a ~ ~ o6onee ii
no,qpo6~oA a n e e B TOG m a e , IIBAXIOTCX o=ieHL T o H K N e o o ~ o c n a 3~ ea c e ~ ~(hairline
u serifs)
Ge3 C K p p e H H R .

K~K
CAeAyeT M3 Ha3BaHMR, ' K i l ~ F l 0 6 ~ d ~3aCeztlcU
ble (wedge serifs) IlMeIOT T P e Y r O h b H Y I o
+0pMy. T a ~ u x
~ U ~ H + T O BHeMHOrO, M OHM 0 6 ~ 1 9 Ha3bIBaIOTCR
~0 A U ~ ~ U H C X U(Latins).
A.~U~

K s e p x n u oalnocnaul. % t e & e n m u (ascenders) O T H O C ~ C RLIITPUXM CTPO~HLIX~ Y K B KOTO-


,
pLIe BLIcTynaIoT 3a cpensmm AMHMIO (mean line). H u x n u e oalnocnale 3 ~ e ~ e n m a ~
(descenders) - , m o p b I e o n y c K m c a m m e AHHMII IIIPM+T~. K ~ nK
TO gacm ~ Y K BK oKa-
3aHO H a PMC. 3.11, p a 3 M e p L I YlXX 3AeMeHTOB CMALHO Pa3AH9aHYTCSI Y Pa3HLIX UIPIIC#~TOB,
I I p M 9 e M BepXHEle BLMOCHLIe 3AeMeHTLI MOrYT ~ L I T LA a x e BLIUIe IIpOnMCHLIX ~ Y K BTOG
Xe raPHElTYpL1 M T o r 0 Xe KerAR.
B OThMYMe OT p O c T a c r p O 9 H L I X 6~ p a 3 ~ e pBLMOCHLIX 3AeMeHTOB O ~ L I Y H Ocnep-
xHsaeTcx npenenatm ~ e r e f i ~ o~ iAiO U ~ A K M
(em square), H a K O T O P O ~OHM
~ pas~ewm-
CX. BO B P e M e H a M e T V A M s e C K O r O IIIpM+Ta H e K a 3 U O C L CTPaHHLIM, eCAU IIIPM+T HMeA
A B a B a p M W a ~ Y K B :C KOPOTKllMM U AAMHHLIMM BLMOCHLIMM 3AeMeHTaMM, HO HM OAMH M3
T a m x III~M+TOB H e n e p e s e n e H B q ~ + p o ~ o+i io p ~ a ~ .
Bcrpesmca IIIPEI+T~IC 6 o ~ e AAMHHLIMM
e BLMOCHLIMM 3AeMeHTaMM, 9 e M 06~19~0,
B p e 3 y A L T a T e IIpM Y3KOM MHTePAMHLRXe B e p X H M e BLIHOCHLIe 3AeMeHTLI KaCaIOTCR
PHC. 3.11. H a x s ~ ue B e p x H a e
BblHOCIIbIe 3AeMeI1TbI B P a 3 I I b I X
I I I ~ u @ T ~ xp a 3 A U g a t o T C R He
CTOAb CImbHO, K a K POCT CTPOZI-
IILIX ~ Y K B I10
, U OlIU 3HitYUTeAb-

- -

r O r 0 COOTBeTCTBHR M e X A y pOC-
TOM ~ ~ O I M C I I O %
6 y K ~ bU
1 AAHIIO%
B e p X H e r O BbIHOCIlOrO 3 A e M e I I T a ,
POCTOM C T P O S H O ~ ~GYKBLI u AAU-
ROE H U X I l e T O BbIHOCEIOrO 3Ae-
M e m a . B s e p x ~ e i rc T p o K e II~U-
M e p C CaMbIM AAHHRLIM BbINOC-
HMM 3AeMeIITOM U M e e T C~MLI:

I'lc~e3aIOILJkle 9AeMeHTbI: M ~ A ~ H ~ K pM O CGT IlPOIIHCIIbIX


~ Y K B . B 06eax CTPOKaX C A e B a
3aIIAbIBbI KPaCICH t r a n p a B o n p e n c r r a s n e I l L I o(ipa3-
U ~ CAeAyIOUtUX
I LUPU@TOB: New
O $ ~ C ~ T UHO~C KXa c I n e S a T b C T a a HaCTOAbKO COBep-
Baskerville (ITC), Caslon 540
rueaaofi, TO, ecmi H e T n e p e p h a x H e m R 6 p m , 11306- (Linotype), Galliard (ITC),
? a m e H u e m p u + ~ aH a o m e s a ~ a ~ ~c T
opiaiH a u e TOSHO Goudy Old Style (Monotype)
0 a II~S~THO
:OOTBeTCTBYeT TOMY, S T 0 6 b ~ H +OEP M ~ . M Raleigh (Linotype)

HOT a K 6 b ~ H
0 e BCerAa. n p e X H ~ f 3I I e S a T H b I e TeXHOAO-
.?iM T ~ ~ ~ O B H
U ~UK O T O P OKOPpeKUHEl
~~ AAR TOTO, YTO-
5b1AOCTMSb H A e a h b H O r O I L I ~ ~ C # I T O B O~~H
O3 a f i H a .
OAHIIM
H3 CaMbIX OYeBHAHbIX BMAOB I I p e A B a p H -
sannaloos
; e x b ~ o i i K o p p e K u w a 6 b w h-annnencamopa~
~
~;pach-u(ink well, ink trap). 8 ~ oyc o 6 e ~ ~ o cM~o mb H o
~ bMHOrNX LLIPW+T;~X, KOTOpbIe
3 6 ~ a p y X C ~BO 661~~1
~UEI+~OB~C
H PaHHEiX
~I 0 6 p a 3 u o ~ .K O M ~ ~ H C ~ T O ~ ~ M H
> \ y X a T YBeAHSeHHbIe 3 a 3 0 p b I B PElCYHKe ~ Y K B ~KOTO-
I,
p b I e C O ~ ~ ~ I O T cC TRe M p a c S e T o M , STO npa ~ ~ ~ O A H ~ H H H
ru: K P ~ C K O ~0 ~6 ,p a 3 y e ~ c x c c ~ o p ~ a n b ~ a+c o
~ tpt ~ a6yic-
SaUIe
BbI. K O M I I ~ H C ~ T O ~ ~ I BCerO B m H b I B p a 3 B H A K a X
'XITPHXOB Y TaKHX ~ Y K B K, a K v,A, W H N. B n e Y a T H b I X
NEW ZEBRA
PEIC. 3.12. Y B ~ A U Y ~smo- HH~I~
PLI B p a a ~ u h ~ m
a xp n x o ~CAY-
,
X a H e KOMneHCaTOpaMU, KOTO-
pbIe cosna~mcaB p a c y m e Ha TO,
w o BTK 9aCTn ~ Y K B6 ~ 8 ) 3a- ~.
AUTI,I ~ p a c ~ oBi inpouecce ne- o6am~e~m
HXxMOXHO 3;tMeTHl7~, H e X e A U TOTO.
r a m . f i a ~ ~ a rrarp a u T y p a Bell I I e y a ~ bc T a a C T O A ~s e n ~ ~ o n e n ~ o i i , 3a3opb1 H e
YTO
Centential c n e u a a h b a o npoes-
3anOAHIIIOTCII K P ~ C K O ~KBK, O X H a a h O C b , A e A U 3aMeT-
TUpOBahaCb A M T ~ A ~ ~ O H H ~ I X
HbIMU 3TE1 A K J ~ O ~ ~ IHCKCiXeHW.
T H ~ I ~
CnpaBO9HUKOB
K O M I I ~ H C ~ T On o~ -~n Ip e X H e M y H C n O A b 3 y I o T C X
B IUPII+TBX, CIIeIJUahbHO npOeKTUpYeMbIX AAII T e A e -
+ O H H ~ I X CllpaBO'IHUKOB. XOTIIKaYeCTBO IIe'IaTPi BbICO-
KOe, 0.4HaXO OTrOrO, S T 0 LUPH+T OYeHb MeAOK, a6pa-
ra caMarr neruesax, K p a c K a , H a H o c a M a x H a O'IeHb
nu-
6 o n b r u o i i CKOPOCTH, p a c T e K a e T c x OT B ~ T ~ I B ~ HuW I
neHIix. Korna T a m e UIPM+T~In e Y a T a m H a BbIcoKoKa-
'IeCTBeHHbIX Y C T P O ~ ~ C T B ~TO
X , O ~ ~ I I ' I HnO
O A j Y a e T C X YTO-
a '1~06b1
TO B p o n e c K e A e T H o r o n p e A c T a B n e H H x ,
n o n j Y m n p e A n o n a r a e M y m Q o p ~ y ux
, cnenye-r neqa-
T a T b H a AeIUeBLIX J'CTPO~~CTB~X,KOTOPbIe 3anOAHXK)T
IIpeAyCMOTpeHHbIe 3 i l 3 0 p b I (PEIC. 3.12).

B~~norpaQ H e~ p e a~Ke
O TO, 'ITO K a m e T c x I I P ~ M ~ I M ,
u R e a e r n c R . XOTXp e M e c A o m o r p a Q u~ ~ ~
TaKosbIM
3 m e ~ c Hxa U ~ M ~ P ~ H Ko U
AH , a K o c m o no ce6e u c n o s -
sosame ~ m e i i KH e~B c e r A a IIPMBOAETT K xoporum pe-
3yAbTaTaM. ~ I M ~ HBU3yahbHOe
HO BbIpaBHHBaHHe ( K O ~ A ~
YKbM KCiXeTCX POBHbIM r A a 3 Y ) AOAXHO HM€!Tb IIPePlMy-
IUeCTBO H W YUCTO MeXaHklYeCKUM BbIPaBHUBaHHeM.
Hanpu~ep,p a H e e yme YIIOMHHahOCb, S T 0 ~ Y K B ~ I
6e3 H H X H U X BbIHOCHbIX 3AeMeHTOB P a C n O A a r a I o T C f l
-la A H H W LUPII+TB. TO CnPaBeAAMBO, HO TOAbKO uM
3HaKOB C POBHbIM HElXHEiM K p a e M .
B3rMA H a OKPFAbIe ~ F B M
uene o ~ chema
n
B H ~ M ~ T ~ A ~ H ~ I ~
0 6 ~ a p y x m' I,T 0 H a CaMOM
OnycKitIOTcx H n x e A n H n n m p n + ~ a .
CTPOYHbIe G ~ K B ~C IOKpyTAbIMM B e p m n H a M n T a K X e
mema ~ b r n y n a w r r3a cpenmm A ~ W W (pnc. 3.13). 3 ~ a
O C O ~ ~ H H O CHa3bIBiLeTCR
T~ CBUC(LHU8.U (overshoot).
nox
H e o 6 x o ~ n ~ o cCBIICaHHII
~b BbI3BaHa T e M , 'IT0 OK-
p y r A b I e OKOH'IaHElX ~ Y K B~ ~ ~ C + Y ~ C K oH c n a 6 n e ~ b 1 . HMH, OHM A O A X H b I BbIXOaHTb 3 1
To x e cnpasenmBo u O c T p o r o OKOH'I~HIIR, Ha- nx n p e n e n b I , KaK n o ~ a 3 a H
~ ao

n p n M e p y nponac~oti A. ECAH 6 ~ 1~ Y 3 K ~B UMeAU


~~I
pHcyme. T a ~ x eH a n o rroc~y-
naTb c~ ~ K B ~ M K y
MO,T O P ~ I XOC-
me BbICOTj', ' I T 0 I I UX COCeAEI, TO OHH K a 3 U H C b 6 b 1 He- T p b l e OKOH9aHHX, H a n p H M e p ,
CKOAbKO KOpOYe. A eCAH O K p j T A b I e 3H;UCH HOMeCTIlTb C ~YKBBMA A MAH v
TOYHO M e m y m n e t i m p ~ l + ~ a ac p e ~ ~ enmneii,
ii OHH
6 y n y Ka3aTbCR
~ MeHbIlIe II CAeI'Ka IIpUIIOAHUMaTbCR H a
mmieii mpn+~a,K a K n o ~ a 3 a ~H ao pnc. 3.14.

llonoxm B OCHOBY T E I I ~ O ~ P ~ + E I K Um o c u T e a m I e e m -
HIIqbI, H B I I I M IIpaBUAbHbIfi n y T b K TOMY, Y T O ~ IIpe.4-
~ I
CTaBASITb, K a K MeHReTCR B U a U I ~ H + Tn~p E i I13MeHeHUU
nox
PHC. 3.14. POCTCTPOYHOB6 y ~
B ~ oIT ~ K O B ,'ITO o H a p a c n o n o x e -
-

Kerns. O & H ~ K O
ABa MOMeHTa A e A a m T 3 9 TeXHElKY H e H a TOYHO H a AHHHM ~ U P N + T ~

O'IeHb H U ~ X H O ~ . H AOCTHraeT c p e ~ ~ eAMHHU.


g
Bp e 3 y ~ b ~ KZLXeTCR,
a ~ e T O 6y~-
Bo-nep~b~x, ILIPH+T, nponopqnu KOTOPOI-o ornu-
sa ~ y ~ b - q ny p~ mb o A H m a no OT-
M U b H b I A M YTeHUR npIl OG~IYHOM K e r A e ( n p F i ~ e p H 0 HOIIIeHMK) K CBOHM COCeARM H
B 11 VKTOB), CTaHOBmCR M U 0 P ~ ~ ~ O P Z I I I B ~eCAN IM, BbIrARAHT YYTb M e A b Y e , Y e M
ero C I I A ~ H Oy M e m m m b . HYXCHO

Bo-BTOP~DL, K o r a a K e r a m p a + ~ ap e n n r a a a e T c a ,
TO K a X e T C I , T O np06ea1 YBeANYIlBaKWCR 6 ~ 1 c ~ p e e
BH~KOB,a rro c o 3 ~ a Be n~e y a T n e m e oyem p a 3 p e x e n ~ e
ro ~ a 6 o p a( ~ H c .3.15). n 0 C A e f l H a R O C O ~ ~ H H- OAHa O ~ ~
u 3 npu'Im C A o x H o c r k l ~ a 6 o p mpn+~a.
a Eti y n e n f i e x x
Looser
Looser MHOrO BHMMaHMX B nOCAeAyIOIQMX W a B a X , oco6e~~o
Looser 6 ZJ. 70, p a c c ~ a a b ~ ~ a r n moe iBib I K n r n q K e M nepesoce,
Looser
M 6 Z j l . 7 7, KOTOPaX nOCBXI4eHa TpeKHHTY M K e p H E I H q .
Looser
&AX OTBeTa H a BOIIPOC 0 TOM, K a K BCe-TaKM + O P M ~
E::r 3 H m O B M3MeHXeTCX B SaBNCEIMOCTM OT KerAX, C A e A y e T

Looser 0 6 p a ~ m b K U I P M ~ T O B O M +aiiny.
c ~ ~

Looser
Looser
Looser K ~ yKK a 3 b I B a h O C b 6 2A. 7, K ~ X A K
~ e Ir A~b M e T U A M Y e C -
KOrO IUPEI+T~
H y X H O 6 b m o r p a B M p O B a T b CIIeUMahbHO.

Looser XYAOXHHK~M
UIPH+T~
M3AOBYMTbCX n p M
6 b 1 ~ 0IIPMBbIYHblM AeAOM T a K
p a 3 p a 6 o ~ ~PEICyHKa
e ILIpH+Ta, YTO-

Looser 6 b 1 AOCTMYb o I I T M M ~ A ~ H ~
r0 KWAX B OTAeAbHOCTEI.
o ~~~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ M A
B O
M KPXAO-
C T I I

6onee M e n m i x ~ e r n e iMi TO 0 3 ~ a ~yaenme-


Looser HMe pOCTa CTPOYHLIX ~ P B , T O A e n a e T CTpOYHbIe
BbI 6onee OTYeTAMBbIMM. K p o ~ TOrO, e M ~ A K M
ae~

IlIpMCPT
~
6y~-

n o n y s a e T 6onee m l i p o K M e ru~puxx,TO y B e n M s m a e T

Looser ero Hacalgennocma. TO n p M n a e T s ~ a M~e n Kao r o~


I.U~M+T~
H e TOAbKO ~ O A ~ U I Y I~O ~ ~ ~ o ~ Y M BHO
o TBK-
c T ~ ,
Xe 06ecnesusae~A y Y I I I e e <<UBeTOBOe*COOTBeTCTBMe CO
3HaKaMM 6onee KpyIIHOrO X I I ~ M + T ~ , K O T O P ~ I n~p~H M e -
HXeTCX COBMeCTHO C HMM. B p e 3 y A b T a T e 9 T a AOnOAHH-
T e n b s a x M a c c a M e n K o r o X L I ~ M ~HTe ~paapymae~r a p -
0 6 h a ~ aCTpaHMULI. H ~ K O H ~ I J ,
MOHEIm ~ p a + M Y e c K o r o
MeAKMe ~ Y K B L A
I e A a I o T YYTb-YYTb mzipe, M H e Q A a TOI'O,
Y ~ 0 6 b 1YBeAMYMTb TOAWMHY LUTPEIXOB, a Y T O ~ YBeAM- ~ I
YMTb MX B H Y T P ~ H H E npo6en,
I~~ K O T O P ~ I Ha3bIBaeTCX
~
~ n y m p u 6 j n ~ e ~ nnpoc~emw"
au (counter), T e M caMLIM
CAeAaTb PaCCTOXHHe M e X A y rUTpMXaMM 6 o ~ e e 3aMeT-
HbIM. C ~ P ~ K T M ~ ~ c TOYKM
K O ~ I 3PeHMX 3 T 0 o r p y 6 n e ~ ~ e
YepT c n o c o 6 c ~ ~ y e~
~ysIIlefi
IIe'IaTM, M OTHOCMTeAbHafl
OTKPbITOCTb 3HaKOB H e II03BOAXeT K p a C K e 3 a A M B a T b
TOHKMe n p o 6 e n b 1 (pic. 3.16).
PMC. 3.1G ( p e ~ ~ ~ u r e Mac-
Times New
l ~ ~ b ~ i i
I I I T ~ ~ P) H
. C ~ H O K IIIpPI~TaTpa-
AHIIUOI~HO s a s ~ c e nOT K C ~ R .

Roman B STOM x a p a ~ ~ e p 1 npuMcpc


rapauTypa

pa, KOHTPaCTUPYeT C raPHHv-


10~
Times New Roman,

Times New poii Times New Roman Small,


AM ra~enrbrx
npen11a311a.1e~~oii
YB~AH-
CTOgHbIX O ~ % I I B A ~ I I M ~ ~ .

Roman
Small Text
FOR SALE One sllghrly used Monormc FORSALE Oor slightly uwd M o n o m r m o g machine
casting machine In impeccable working in i w b t e working o r b , inoludmg m&r aod a
order, Including matrices and a liletlmc hfeb31y of paper rape Manuals mmi caodl:ian.
8uppIy 01 paper Iapc. Manuals in mint m y Fardeudsuldpncmg.cnlt1301-555-6178
condition. hardly used. For derails and
prlcing. call 1-201-555-6278.

C H 3 0 6 p e I " r ~ H e ~ + o ~ o ~ a 6 o pYHCAO
a ~cnon~sye-
MLIX M a ~ ~ e p - 0 6 p a 3 9(master
0~ designs) rupu+~apa-
AHKanLHo c o K p a m o c L . K cepenmze 1970-x r o n o B TO.=-
6onee
KO c a M L I e n o n y n x p H L I e r a p H m y p L I m e n 1 1 EIX
AByX: OAHH, O ~ L I S H O KerAH 12, HCIIOAL3OBilJKR AAH
~ a 6 o p TeKCTa,
a a T a K X e A nnrr 6onee M e m o r o IIIpEI+-
T a EI A n R 3arOAOBKOB, TIl'IyAOB H np. M ~pyroii,O ~ L I Y -
HO H a HHOG ~ a 6 0 p ~ oCHCTeMe, ii IIPEiMeHRACH AAR 06-
n o m e K , K P ~ H L I X~ ~ ~ ~ T H m aLn OI KX, a+um H T. n.
n e p B L 1 e U M ~ P O B L II~I I ~ N ~ T L ~ I 006meHCKAIOYa-
nu K p y n H L I e ~ P I I + T L I , u n o n a B n r r m m e e ~OALIIIHHCTBO
IIIPU+TOB, HCnOAL3YeMLIX CerOAHH B KOMnLMTepHLIX
H ~ ~ O P H ~CD
u cCr e M a x , r e I x e p q y m c x u 3 o A H o r o M a c r e p -
06pasua. 3a u c K n l o Y e m e M H e K o T o p L I x T a K ~ a 3 ~ 1 ~ a e -
MLIX murny,tmbix ulpu$moa (titling faces), cneuuanmo
CIIpOeKTHpOBaHHLIX A M KPYIIHLIX ~ e r ~ eBCe
f ,OCTanL-
HLIe OCHOBaHLI H a M~CT~P-06pa3qe
K e r h R 12.
@ o p ~Multiple
a~ Master
~oALIIIHHcTBo IIOnLITOK HCIIpaBIiTL 3TOT HeAOCTaTOK
rzu+po~orom p a + ~ an o T e p n e A o Heyna.ry. H ~ o ~ n a n m
Adobe Systems co c n o m + O P M ~ T O M Multiple Master
u Apple Computer c ~ e x ~ o ~ o r ~TrueTypelefi CX co-
3 A a h I l IUPII+I, KOTOpLIe C O A e p X a h U MHOrOYHCAeHHbIe
KOMIIAeKTLI KOHTypOB ~ a ~ ~ e p - 0 6 p a 3~4e0c~~.o n m 6 n -
G G G BOG (WEILUKOM ~ ~ C T O A I O ~ N BKaX O ~B ~ ,L I ~ C H ~ O C L )
4eAbH)
o6enx 6 ~ m CO3AaTL
o CHCTeMY, KOTOPaSI M O r A a 6 ~ CBO- 1
6 0 ~ (~c c0~ an e l y n ) c o s n a ~ a ~y Hb l 4 K U b H L I e 0 6 p a 3 ~ ~ 1
rupa+~a.
H a n p ~ ~ eOAHH p , T a ~ 0 fLUpli@ i MOXeT COUepXaTb

PHC. 3.17. C ~ M ~ ~ ~IIIpH+-CTBO


KOHT~PLI M a ~ T e p - 0 6 p a 3 4 0~~e r n e i6, i 12 u 48. OHH6y-
TOB Multiple Master + M P M ~ I ~ y C rO ~ A ~ B ~
n T
p eL, q e n L a b I e o Y e p T a H u f i , u ecm n o ~ b 3 0 -
Adobe B K n r o s a e T B ce6x He- s a T e n t aaxoye~ n0ny.I- n p o ~ e x y r o s ~K ~ e r n~Li, icn-
C K O A ~ K Oa o c e i i s nnsaii~a,AM CTeMa A O A X H a IlHTepIIOAIlpOBaTb HX, ~ T O ~ L I
C03AaTL
K~~LHH
TOx Y~K
KOTOPbIX CO3Aa- H O B L I ~ ~C
, O O T B ~ T C T BI~
IOIO
T ~U
~ ~E
HIO~C~
T IIIIPEI+T,
I no-
Hbl yHMKZlAbHbIe MacTep-06pa3-
A O ~ H ~ I 0M6 p a 3 0 ~
CHCTeMa C M O X e T UHTepIIOAIIpOBaTb
Q~I. Ha pucyHKe n p e n c T a s n e H a
rapHMTypa Myriad, K o T o p a a ILIPH+T AAR I I O A p e H U X M e H e e H a C b I U e H H O r O Pi 6onee
MMeeT ABe OCH: llIHPMHa M Ha- H a C L I ~ e H H O r O(PNC. 3.17), n p f f M O r 0 H HaKAOHHOrO Ha-
CbI4eHHOCTb. C IIOMO4bIO HH- 9epTa~tifi.
TepIIOAHpOBaHHSI YeTblpeX MC- Haerr 6~1na6nec~xqefi,HO o ~ a a a a c bC A H ~ I K O M
XOAHbIX M a ~ ~ e p - o 6 p a 3 4PaC-
0~,
noporoii, 'ITO~LI ee ~ ~ ~ A H ~ O Bu ~c nT kLi r, r r ~ cnomaoii,
o~
IIOAOXCeHHbIX B K p a f i ~ H xYI'AaX
Y T O ~ ~ I
IIOAL30BaTeAL MOT ki3BAe9b P e a h L H y IIOAL3Y.
CeTKH, MOXCHO nOAysflTb 6ec~0-
He9HOe YMCA0 BapHaHTOB Hs-sa B L I C O K O ~CTOEIMOCTR,
~ O r p a H x s e H H o r o m c A a AOC-
llIpH+Ta. APY~UMR
OCSIMM B V b I X IIIPII+TOB O ~ O H X+ O P M ~ T O B H OTHOCHTeALHO
+ o p ~ a ~Meu l t i p l e M a s t e r MO- n p O X A ~ H O r 0OTHOrUeHllR ~ Y ~ A I I K I06a
I n p o e K T a PYX-
I'YT CAYXCNTb IIOCTaHOBKa (IIpa- HyAM IIOA C O ~ C T B ~ H H L I M
BeCOM II I I e p e C T a h H IIOAnep-
~ o i HAM
i H a K A 0 ~ H b l f iUIPMC@T)
XllBaTbCX.
H xapaKTep s a c e s e ~(OTCYT-
cmue 3 a c e ~me ~u HX H U A ~ M ~ )
nocnen~eiinomrrxoii 06pa1ue~w1K w e e comeme-
HllR HeCKOALKEiX IIIPA+TOB B OAHOM I L I P H ~ T O B O M+aG-
ne m m c x IIIPM+TOBO~~ + O P M ~ T OpenType, passmae-
mrii C o B M e c T H b u I n YCILNII~MH up^ Adobe a Microsoft.
Q O ~ M ~ IIO3BOAfieT
T n l i 3 a f i ~ e p y IIIpEi+Ta BHeApHTL
HeCKOAbKO ~ a c ~ e p - 0 6 p a 3O ~S 0~ ~ ~ T ~ H H CHMBOAOB
G
B OAMH U I P H + T O B O ~ ~ H 3 m a T b K O H K P ~ T H ~ IAMa-
G
n a 3 0 ~3 ~ a q e ~K~e ri mi . I l o J m o a a ~ e ~a a a ~ MOTe ~
HCIIOAb30BaTb OAMH B a p H a H T A M ~ a 6 o p a CHOCOK, npy-
r0fi (C HeCKOAbKO ApYrMM PIICYHKOM) - n A R ~ a 6 o p a
OCHOBHOrO TeKCTa, a T P ~ T (HAM M ~ ~ ~ ~ T B ~ P T ~MAU I G n, R -
n ~-) ~ ~ O A O B K O BT M, T ~ A O BH T. A. 5 0 ~ e nonpo6- e
H)?O IIH+OPM~L@~IO 0 + O P M ~ T ~OpenType 6-44. 6 U. 4.

c > ~ e c T B y € T MHOrO IIPHHIWIIOB K A ~ C C N @ K ~ U U N LUpN+


TOB, H 06b19~0H X H e nPHMeHRIOT OAHOBpeMeHHO.
B AaHHOM p a 3 A e A e M b I PaCCMOTpHM 061uue + H ~ H V ~ C -
me xapaKTepMcTuKti m p a + ~ a ,a nocne
J e M K K A ~ C C E I + M K ~ ~ ~O
IN
~ T O ~nepeii-
O
C ,H O B ~ H H OH~a~HCTOpHYeCKOM
Seriffed
XOAXOfle. O c o 6 e ~ ~ oPHCYHKa
m IIIpH+Ta pa3BMBWCb

L U P U + T ~ Mc ~ u jHixapamep.
n e u ~ + ~ ~ e cBHA
PMC. 3.18. Cpastre~ueapxeTu-
noB r u p r ? + ~ oc~a a c e ~ ~ a ~6e3
uki
LU~H+Tbl 3aCe9KaMH 6e3 3aceqe~:Times Roman (sepx-
m e M H O B ~ I X+OPM n e ~ a ~ ~n poo fn yi r c u l r w , H a n p M M e p ,
utura KPYIIHO~OPM~THO
P e~K~ A a M b I ( p a ~ e pee K A a M a HanOMH-
H U a TO, 4 T O T e n e p L Ha3bIBaeTCSI r a 3 e T H L I M I I 0 6 ' b x B ~ e -
HEIRMII) .
Optima ILIPEI+TLI c ~ ~ C ~ P K ~n M
KIT AAX ~ a 6 o p TeKCTOB,
a
o -I nI p e x ~ e ~
n pye A n o w T a -
nOCKOAbKy B IIeAOM IIX A e r V e
4 I I T a T b . A I'pOTeCKH HCIIOAb3YHIT C K O p e e AAX BbIAeAH-

PHC. 3.19. r a p ~ n ~ y Futura


pa T e A b H b I X (display) Ile~efi, H a n p H M e p AAX 3arOAOBKOB 11
OTHOCKTCX K TeOMeTpHYeCKHM A p y r I I X KPYnHbIX H&iVl11~efi, XOTII ~ 0 ~ e f i I I l I LUPM+TLI
Ie
TOTeCKaM, 6onee PaHHMe Bep- 3 T O r 0 KAaCCa C T U I I nPMMeHIITbCX II AAIi ~ a 6 0 p aTeK-
CHH BTOG TapIIHTyPbI HCIIOAb- cTa. nono6~breILIPII+T~I- TO H e O ~ L I V H L I ~zy&aHuC- ,
30BaAH IIpaBHAbHyIO O K p y X -
muuec~ue(humanist) r p o T e c K a , PIICYHOK KOTOPLIX BAOX-
HOCTb B KaYeCTBe OCHOBbI AAR
o ~ p y r n b ~GYKB,
x n p H BTOM TOA- HOBAeH H e r e o ~ e ~ p ~ a e Zf liT,H 4 H b I M I I II PeHeCCaHCHbIMM
U H I I a LZITPHXI H e H3MeHXAaCb I I l p ~ + ~ a M 1 1 r. a p H I I ~ y p aOptima - OAHa 113 TaKIIX ry-
MaHIICTUVeCKHX I'pOTeCKOB, II O H a ZIaCTO XCnOAL3YeTCII
&AX ~ a 6 o p ,4AIIHHbIX
a TeKCTOB (PNC. 3.19).
~OALLJ.I~~HCTB
IIOnyAXpHbIX
O rpOTeCKOB IIpHIJIAM 113
HonaTopcrcEix p a 6 o ~nasaiiaepo~Eayxayc (Bauhaus),
H ~ M ~ U KIIlKOAbI
O ~ ~ ~ I I 3 a f i H a ,KOTOpaR C T U a IICTOVHII-
KOM c a M o r o c o B p e M e H H o r o ,zpisafiaa B nepxon MexAy
MUPOBLIMII B O ~ ~ H ~ MOAHHM
EI. 113 OCHOBH~IXH a n p a a n e -
~ ~L U Kf O Ai ~Bauhaus
I 6b1n O ~ ~ 6ecnone3~ofiopaa-
T K OT
MeHTaUMM N )TIpOLUeHMe O ~ % ~ K T OAB0 Pix + ) ' H K W O H ~ ~ ~ -
HOrO MHHUMYMa, B H a A e X A e H a TO, 4 T O VIICTaR
o C6Tn~a
+~HK~EIOH~A~HO ~ a Ce O~ ~ C T B ~ H HKO ~~ ~~ C O T O ~
II 3CTeTM'IeCKIIMII ,I(OCTOIIHCTBaMN. A 1 1 3 a f i H e p 0 ~ IIHTe-
PeCOBUa HOBm +0pMa 3HaKOB U ~ ~ B I I II
T M~ H
, OrIIe
n O I I y A X p H b I e IIIp11+'I'bI nORBIIAIICb K a K p e 3 y A L T a T 3TMX
IIOHCKOB.
OAHHM 113T a m x ~ I I + T O B c T a a r a p H m y p a Futura
naynx P e ~ ~ e (Paul p a Renner), o H a o c T a n a c b nonynxp-
HOG, n p o j i ~ xp a s n a s a ~ ~nee p e p a 6 0 ~H ~ynysmesax
~
(AOXHB A 0 BeAHKOrO BO3pOXCAeHMX B 1.980-x ~ o A ~ x ) .
flpyr11~rpOTeCKOM, 4 a C T O IICIIOAb3yeMbIM A M ~ a 6 o p a
Univers A n p ~ m @pyxrepa
TeKcTa, c T L i a r a p H l l T y p a a Futura Light
(Adrian Frutiger), K O T O P ~OH n p o e K T u p o B a n B 1950-x Futura Book
u 1960-x ronax. Futura Medium
Futura Heavy
Futura Bold
Futura Extra Black
4p)Tof O T A U Y U T ~ A L H OX
~ ~ ~ ~ K T ~ ~ E I C TIJ.IpUC#)Ta
I I K O ~
HBmeTcfi ero t t a c a l ~ e n n o c r n b 1 '(weight), O n p e A e m I e M a r r
ITC Garamond Light
TOALUUHO% OCHOBHLIX LIITPHXOB ~ Y K B . B 3aBHCUMOCTM
OT TOAIUUHbI 3TUX IUTpUXOB HaCblLUeHHOCTL IUPII+TP
ITC Garamond Book
O ~ L I Y H On p o m H p a e T c R OT c6emozo (light) AO ~ ~ C U ~ ~ H O Z O
ITC Garamond Bold
(bold). ITC Garamond Ultra
H ~ C ~ I I U ~ H H O IIIPM+TB
CT~ OIIUCbIBaIOT MHOrUMM
TepMHHaMU, U H e BCe U 3 HUX IIBMIOTCRo 6 w e n p ~ ~ ~PHC.
- 3.20. LUpu+n~n rapwry-
TbIMU. H ~ K O T OTAaIOT
O ~ ~ IAaHL
~ TPaAUUUU, a A p y r I l e pe O ~ ~ N HPa3AM'
O lalOTCII IIaCbI-
werulomm. IIpasaa, B npenehax
o.rpa.xam c r p e M n e H x e ~ I P E I C B O 6onee
~ I T ~ xapmTepHbIe
raPHMTYPb1 Ha3BaHIIII, aaHHble
U OnHCaTeALHbIe Ha3BaHUR HOBbIM H ~ Y ~ ~ T ~ H U RCy- M " m~HaqepTamm, uMem cr1~1(t
I Q e C T B F L U U X T a p H H l y p (PIIC. 3.20). CHTeAbHbIe 311a4ewux,a6con1o~-
H~C~ILU~HHOCTL IUpUCPTa 3aBUCBT OT MHOXeCTBa I I ~ I Xonpeaeneaaf He cywecmy-

n p a m H . K ~ cK ~ a 3 a ~ a pasd.
o q @ o p ~ a mMult@le
e'r. H a n p a ~ e p B, apyrux rupu+-
Tax xxpaoe IIa-zepTaHne Futura
Master,, ~uHHoZ? ZAa6b1, HaCbIIIIeHHOCTb M O X e T U3Me- Heavy noAy.rano 6b1 ~ i a s n a ~ u e
HIlTbCR OT OAHOrO ~ac~ep-06pa3ua K AP)TOMY A M TOrO, IIpOCTO nOAyXllplIOI'0 (bold),
Y T O ~ L IKOMneHClTpOBaTb BU3YahbHbIe I13MeHeHEIR B 6 ~ - a TO,KoTopoe B rapHmype Futura
BaX B 3aBUCUMOCTU OT KWAR. E o A MeAKIle ~ ~ G ~ K B ~ I Ha3bIBaeTCII Bold, - CBepXXMp-
HYXHO C O ~ A ~ B ~YT~LT L - ~ yH ~a cbm u e H H e e .
Horo (extrabold). r a p ~ a ~ y p a
Gararnond (ITC)Bo3AepXEiBaeT-
U ~ C THaCLIWeHHOCTb
O UIPEI+TB OnpeAeAXeTCX UC-
cx OT ~ a 3 s a ~ ucoepxmupxoe
f
TOPUYeCKUMU, 3CTeTEfYeCKUMU HAM n p a K T U r e c K U M U (extrabold) m a m u p ~ o e(black)
IIpUYHHaMU. H a n p a ~ e pM , ~ T ~ A A H Y ~ c ~K PU E~ I + CTa-
T HaYepTaHae, a cpasy nepexoam
P a h H C L BLIIIOAHHTb HaCbIWeHHee, Y e M B IIOCAeAYIOIUIle K yAbTpa (Ultra) KaK coepawe-
H U I o OT YAbTpWklPHOI'O
B p e M e H a , IIOTOMy YTO COBpeMeHHLIe IIeYaTHbIe TeXHO-
AOrHki ~ p e 6 y r o6onee
~ YeTKUX +OPM.
K o r ~ aB cepeame BoceMHanuaToro BeKa AXOH
E a c K e p ~ U A b(John Baskerville)'%306pen cnoco6 no-
AyYUTb 6 y ~ a r yC 6onee ~ A ~ A KnOBepXHOCTbI0
O ~ (T~K
H a 3 b I B a e M y I o BeAeHeByIO ~ Y M W Y ) ,CTahO BO3MOXHLIM IIPOeKTHpOBaTb IIIPuCPT C 6o~ee
TOHKHMH IUTPHXaMH EI HBRLUHbIMH +OPMBMII. He CyIueCTByeT OlTpeAeAeHHR, ' I T 0 3HaSMT
IIOAyXHpHOe H a S e p T a H U e (bold), 3 T 0 cyry6o O T H O C H T ~ A ~ H L ITGe p M H H , K O T O P ~ I $ HCIIOAb-
3yeTCR TOAbKO AAR TOrO, P T O ~ ~OTAHSaTL
I OAHO H a Y e p T a H H e OT A p y r O r O .

d o snoxu + o ~ o ~ a 6 o pnap o e K T u p o B a H H e u r p ~ + ~~ap e 6 o ~ rao~poa s ~ o~ O A ~ I I I H YCH-


X
ntrl, 9 e M cef Sac, IIOCKOAbKY er0 H y X H O 6b1h0 BbIIIOAHRTb A h t l K a X A O r 0 KerAX. B T e AHH
~ L I A OIIPIlsLIYHbIM H M e T b BCerO ABa Ha'IePTaHEIX, PaBAEIYamLUHXCX IIO HBCLIWeHHOCTH:
CBeTAOe (AAX T ~ K C T ~H) IIOAYXHPHOe (AM B L I A ~ A ~ H H I IHO
) . K O r A a B CepeAkiHe A B W U a T O -
ro B e K a H a y a n c x J.IIPH+TOBO~~ ~ Y M ,c T a p o e o n p e A e A e H E i e HacbrIueHHocTEI - c6enuoe
(light) - T O X e O K a 3 a h O C b IIOA BOIIPOCOM. no HCTOpH'IeCKHM IIpH'IHHaM y HeKOTOPLIX
IIIPH+TOB TO CAOBO BOIIIAO B EIX H ~ S B ~ H H a~n p , H M e p , Bookman Light, YTO O T H ~ A H e~
o s ~ a ~ a'ITOe ~OHH, CBeTAee A P ~ I ' H X UIPEI+TOB.
B H a C T O X U e e B p e M X r O p a 3 A O IIpElBLIsHee H a 3 b I B a T b H a q e p T a H U e ( H ~ C ~ I U ~ H H O C T ~ )
I I I ~ H + T ~ ,CIIpOeKTHpOBaHHOrO A M ~ a 6 o p aTeKCTa, Hop&UaHbL44 (regular), A r n e eCAEi
OH0 H e BXOAEIT B O ~ U ~ H ~ ~Ha3BaHHe
L H O ~IIIPEI+T~. ~ P Y ~ U M OIIpeAeAeHHPMH
II TeKCTO-
BLIX ~ a ~ e p ~x saA a~m T~c x~ cped~uii
f i (medium) HAM X H U X H ~ L(book)
~ ~ - TO s a p w a m b r
HaCbIILleHHOCTH TeKCTOBOrO UIPLI+T~,+ ~ K T H ' I ~ c K H6onee HAH M e H e e CBeTALIe.
Y rapemypbr Helvetica, H a n p H M e p , c y u e c T B y e T 6 o ~ e eU~HPOKHG~ ~ a n a YPOB-
3 0 ~
~ e jHi a c b I u e H H o c m , BKAmYaR csepxcsenuoe (Ultra Light), moHxoe (Thin), c s e m o e (Light),
, nuyXupHoe (Bold), XupHoe (Heavy),OueHa x u p ~ o e(Black) H
c c H o p M u b H o e , (<<regular)>)
csepxmup~oe(Black#) H a Y e p T a H m .

XOTRKAaCCHYeCKaX H U I I H C b H a T ~ ~ R H KOAOHHe
C K O ~B P H M (Rome)
~ BAOXHOBAXAa COT-
HH A H ~ ~ ~ ~ HBO P O B e K a , IIPXMOG LUPEI+T(roman'" CO C T ~ O ' ~I H
~ BCe T~) IH a 3 B W
Y KOB~
T a K IIPOCTO IIOTOMy, 'IT0 HMeHHO B PkiMe" B IIepEIOn IIepBbIX IIOABHXHLIX I I I ~ H + T o B
(K0HeI.I IIXTHaAUaTOrO ~ e ~T a~ )K IIIpH+T
O ~ BIIepBbIe IIOXBHACX. Ero + O P M ~ I ~ L I C T P Opas-
BHAHCb H nptio6penu TOT BHA, KOTOP~IG CerOAHX HCIIOAb3YeTCX AAX ~ a 6 o p aTeKCTOB.
y IIpXMbIX III~H+ToB OCHOBHLIe IJlTpHXH TaKHX ~ Y K B KaK , THI, IIepIIeHAHKYMPHbI AEiHHH
rrrp~i-+~a.
T~KCT, KOTOPLIG BLI c e k a c m a e T e , T a K x e ~ a 6 p nap ~m L I M IIIPEI+TOM.
HAK
~ P H M ~ P H BO 9TO Xe B p e M I I B B e ~ e u ~ nl eas a T -
h b ~ My a ~~ y u u y c( A~ ~~T H H E I ~ U P O B ~ H UMX H O ~ OT
Novarese
h b n 0Ma~yu~o A )C,K U cnoc06b1, K a K p a 3 M e C T U T b H a Novarese
T a H U U e no6o~bme T e K C T a U T e M CaMbIM CHU3UTb CTO-
E I M O C T ~~ 3 ~ l a ~K un ai cic u q e c K H x n p 0 1 1 3 ~ e n e ~ ~ i i ' ~ .
OH0 6 p a ~ m c xK P a C n P O C T P a H e H H O M Y B TO B p e M B
Garamond
mny nxbua, ~ a s b ~ ~ a ~ r u ecursiva r o c a humanistica, npe- Garamond
E I M y q e C T B a M U KOTOpOrO 6 b ~ TO, 0 S T 0 OH O K a 3 U C I I
IIPEIBbNHbIM Y H T a T e ~ e fU i 6 o ~ e KOMIIaKTHbIM,
e 'IeM PnC. 3.21. n e p B b 1 e KYPCHBHbIe
n p f f M 0 f i UIPII+T. 3TM X I I P U ~ T M , n A X KPaTKOCTEI EIMe- IIIPHCPT~I, H a KOTOPbIX OCHOBa-

HyeMbIe Aldinos, C T a h I i BCKOpe U3BeCTHbInon 6onee HbI TaKHe TapHHTYpbI, KaK ITC
Novarese, H C ~ O A ~ ~ O B UBUKaqe-
IXPUBbIYHbIM AAX H a C TePMUHOM XYPCUBI' (italics).n p U -
CTBe IIpOIIUCHbIX IIpXMble BHTU-
M e p H 0 25 Ai?T CIIJ'CTX, B 1525 I'OAy, Irr-XHeU Ayno- KBeHHbIe ~ Y K B M .n p a ~ ~Ka Ce-
,
BAKO Appxrn (Ludovico Arrighi) c o s ~ a h H O B ~ I G~ y p - penme m e c T H a n u a T o r o BeKa
C H B H ~ I(italic)
~~ IfIpUcp?., O C H O B H H ~ I ~H~a PYKOnllCHOM n p o n a c H b I e T a K x c e nohy-xunu
HaKAOH, KaK nOKa3aHO H a n p U -
IIIpEi+Te, ~ ~ U C I I O A b 3 0 B U , ~ Y A ~ nEl l CI u O M
K O T O P ~ IOH
Mepe rapHuTypbI Stempel
B B ~ T N K ~ H C KKOa~H~ u e M p m - cancellaresca, - EI TOT Garamond
Xa~ye~~pclcuu" ulpu$m (chancery) CTU o 6 p a 3 u o ~nna
~ O A ~ I L I A H C TI IBO~C A e J J Y I O ~ H XKYpCUBHbIX LUPEI+TOB.
h 6 o n b r r e 0 , q ~ o3m n e p B b I e KYpCUBHbIe ILIPEI+-
T b I A C I l O A b 3 0 B U U B K a 9 e C T B e IlPOIIIiCHbIX I I p X M b I e aH-
TUKBeHHbIe ~ Y K B U~ MHOI'Ue
I UXpU+'Tbl, OCHOBaHHbIe H a
3TEIX KYpCHBaX, A e A W TO X e CaMOe ( ~ H c . 3.2 1). T~KCT,
~ a 6 p a ~ ~ bTOAbKO
1fi n p O ~ U C H b I M U , B T a K U X CAYYaSIX
B b I r M A U T T a K , K a K ~ Y A T OOH ~ a 6 p IIOAHOCTbH)
a~ npx-
M ~ I M~ P I I + T O M .
COB P e M e H e M UCnOAb3OBaHHe KYPCUBHbIX ILXpU+
TOB B K a q e C T B e TeKCTOBbIX YMeHbZUUAOCb, HO EIX P O A b
AOnOAHeHUfl U K O H T p a n y H K T a K IIPIIMbIM U I P H ~ T ~ M
coxpaamacb. B K o H e q H o M c v e T e CTUO H O P M O ~ ~ ~ !TO
',
I I p I I M o f i ILXPH+T H M e e T AOIIOAHEiTeAbHbIM KYpCHBHOe
H a S e p T a H H e , C I I e 4 H ~ H OAAX 3TOI'O CIIpOeKTMpOBaH-
Hoe. T ~ K M0 M
6 p a 3 0 ~H a r e p T a H u s p a 3 n ~ s a m ~ cno
x
HaKAOHy ( ~ O C T ~ H O BOKY~ K ~ ) ~ ~ .
66 Yacma I. O G H O D
rnunozpat$u~u
~L

He BCe fapHMTYpbI EIMeIOT B CBOeM COCTaBe H C T H H H ~ I ~ ~


Icypcuo", a EIHOrAa TOAbKO BapEIEiHT HaKAOHeHHOrO IIpR-
MOrO. T a ~ ~ IlI I eP H + T ~ I H Ha3bIBafOT H I L ~ C A O N ~ Z ~ U . ~ U
(oblique). H a n p ~ ~ eHpa,s e p T E i H n e Helvetica Italic H a
Palatino c a M o M Aerie H e K ~ ~ C E I B a H ~~K
GA , O HIIIPH+T.
H~G He~o-
Palatino Italic T o p b x e IIIPH+T~I, T a m e K a K Bookman Italic, no cyme-
CTBY HaKAOHHbI B CBOHX OCHOBHbIX @ O P M ~ X . ~ P H M ~ P L I
Bookman HaKAOHHblX, IIOAYHaKAOHHbIX EI EICTUHHO KYPCEIBHbIX
IIOKa3aHbI H a PEIC. 3.22.
Bookman Italic LIIPM+TOB

B o 6 m e ~KYpCMBHbIM
, AOIIOAHeHHeM K rPOTeCKHO-
MY IUpEI+Ty RBAReTCR HaKAOHHOe H a 9 e p T a H U e . T ~ HM
e
Gill Sans M e H e e , CyIUeCTByeT TPaAHUEIR HeKOTOPbIM ~ Y K B ~HM
a-

Gill Sans Italic KAOHHOI'O HaYepTEiHkiR I I p W a B a T b @ O ~ M YH e T a K F , KaK


y EIX IIPXMbIX a H a h O r O B ( O ~ ~ I S H ~I IJpIa K T U K a AAR BHTEI-
Helvetica KBeHHbIX III~EI+ToB). B K a s e C T B e I I p H M e p a MOXHO y K a -
Gill Sans Italic.
Helvetica italic 3 a ~H
ba r a p H q p y
B ~ e c C~T ee M , name EICTHHHO HaKAOHHbIe HasepTa-
HEIR s a I I z e BCerO H e RBAXloTCR n p O c T O HaKAOHeHHbIMM
PHC. 3.22. O ~ r p e n e n e ~ uT xe p -
3AeKTpOHHbIM C I I O C O ~ O M B a p U a H T a M H EIX IIpRMbIX 3K-
MMHOB K Y ~ C U E H II ~
HI~CX A O M H I L C
H e B c e r n a OTreTAuBbI, Y r a p a u - BHBaAeHTOB ( e ~ HeCKOAbKO
~ b HcKAIOY~HEI~~ XOTR
). +OP-
T Y ~ L IPalatino e c T b K n a c c u r e c - MbI ~ Y K BMOrYT BMTARAeTb HAeHTEIYHO (EIcKAIOY~RH a -
Koe KypcuBHoe HaqepTaHHe, KAOH), HaKAOHHbIe 3HaKEI O ~ ~ I Z I HIIpOeKTMpYfOTCR
O TaK,
a HagepTaHue B o o k m a i l Italic
9 ~ 0 6 b 1 0 6 e ~ n e 9 ~npaBEIAbHbIe
1~b nponopumi ~YKB.
I I p a B E l A b H e e H a 3 B a T b HBKAOH-
HbIM, ero 6 ~ ~ B -
b 13TO n p O C T O COBCeM HeBepHO - C 0 3 A a B a T b HaKAOHHOe Hasep-
I I ~ K A O H H ~BIa~p I l a I I T I I p X M O r O T a H H e nPOCTbIM HaKAOHOM EPRMbIX ~ Y K BC IIOMOIUbIO
Ha9epTZlHUX. Cpen~lrpOTeCKOB KOMIIblOTePHMX n p O r p a M M , IIOCKOAbKy 3 T 0 ~ e ~ 3 6 e ~
IlaqepTaHue Gill Sans Italic m e -
HO EICKaXaeT EIX @ O P M ~ I , XOTR H a I I e p ~ b ~Bf 3
i r M A 3T0
e T HeKOTOpLIe Y e p T L I KYPCIIB-
H O a~m u K n b 1 , H a n p u M e p , a3~e- B
H e B c e r n a ~ ~ M ~ T H OK.a s e c - m e H a K n o H H o r o H a s e p T a -
H e m e + O P M ~ I B CTPOYIIO~ 6y~- HHX B C e r A a A y W I I e ZiCnOAb3OBaTb, eCAEI B 0 3 M O X H 0 , C n e -
Be a. H a s e p T a ~ u eHeivetica UHaAbHO C I I ~ O ~ K T M ~ O B IUPEI+T.
~ H H ~ I ~
Italic a s n x e T c x XCTHHHO H a -
KAOHHLIM
O m o c r n e a ~ b L~UeE ~ P H H~~HI ~ K O NX
B , ~ I A ~ O C T E XOTH
. ~ ~ ,
H onpenemxwrcs p a 3 ~ e p ~ o c~me r e s ~ o Ti ei M, H e Me-
Hee, y p a ~ ~ b ~
x xH Q T ogem O B CWHO p a 3 ~ 1 1 ~ m c s .
LUPII+T~IC O Y e H b ILIMPOKHMM 3HPKaMM BCTPeYa-
KlTCX HeYaCTO, B OCHOBHOM IIOTOMY, YTO V e M ILIMpe
6 y ~ B b 1 ,T e M OHH M e H e e y ~ 0 6 0 W 3 T a e ~ b I .
h K l Y K ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ Y H B3HaKOB
O C T H - B 3PHTeAbHOM
filling meals
BOCIIPHXMH +OPM, KCYTOpbIe COeAHHIMYT BePTEIKaAbHbIe
PHC. 3.23. Hame nolrHMaHHe
rrrrp~xa.A p y r m ~
CAoBaMx, M ~ pI a c n o s ~ a 6e ~
y ~ ~ no
b 1
TeKcTa B S I S ~ S I I T ~ A L I I O
CTeIIefrx
~~
TOMY, YTO Y HMX KBbIIlle IIORCa>>, IIOCKOAbKY H H X H M e OCHOBhIBaeTCX H a BepXHElX YaC-
co6oii AeC OAHHaKOBbIX c<HOHCeKn,
YaCTH I I p e A C T a B M m T TXX CTPOYIlbIX ~ Y K B ,H E X I I H e

KaK n o ~ a 3 a ~Hoa PMC. 3.23. Korna ~ Y K B ~CAHILIKOM


I nOAOBElHb1 COCTOilT 6 0 h b m e i i
YacTbxo 113 O A H I ~ ~ K O B ~sIIoxceKD.
IX
ILIHPOKH, I ' O p U 3 0 H T U b H b I e CB83YIOIIlHe IUTPMXM p a 3 A H -
T~KC
B T
B ~ ~ x H C CTPOKe
G HeB03-
YaloTCR H e CTOAb YeTKO, M + O P M ~ I ~ Y K B
B UeAOM BOC-
MOXHO p a 3 0 6 p a ~ b ,a n p u M e p B
IIpMHMMaloTCX X y X e . LUPEI+T C YBeAHYeHHbIMM ILIIIPM- U e H T p e B n O A H e IIOHXTeH. 0 6 a e -
HaMM ~ F B , H a 3 b I B a e ~ b I i06b19~0
i u ~ U p 0 l C l U 4(extended, n u t I X x + J O ~ M ~~I Y K BB e.4HIib1ii

expanded), IlCnOAb3yeTCX MCKAIOYMTeAbHO A M BbIAe- o 6 p a 3 , MbI BOCIIpHIIHMaebl Ue-


n b i e cnosa u + p a 3 6 1 c o n I I o r o
AHTeAbHbIX LIe~eg,a H e A M ~ a 6 0 p TeKCTa. a
amm ma. Pacrxwsawie G ~ K Bp a -
A I O ~ O ~ ~ YTO
ITH O , 3 + + e ~nPOIIBAEieTCR
3TOT ~ CAa-
6nnae~T a K u e o 6 p a a b 1 PI s a ~ e n -
6ee, K o r n a ILIPHQT
c y m a e T c s , H r a p H m y p a ( O ~ ~ I Y H O A R e T YTeHHe
F ~ o T ~ c KM~O) X e T B K A I O s a T b HeCKOAbKO Y3KMX H a Y e p -
T ~ H CHp a~3 H b I M H Ha3BaHHRMH, H a n p H M e p , narrow (y3-
K H ~ ) ,condensed
( c y m e ~ ~ b ~thin
f i ) ,( T O H K H ~ ) ,compressed
extra condensed (caepxys~~ifi)
(cma~b~ii), H name ultra
condensed ( y ~ ~ p a y s ~ a i i ) .

OCHOBHO~
~AEIHEIU ~~~
OPI'aHH3aUMH ILI~H+ToB RBAReT-
c s zap~umypa(family)". r a p ~ m y p a- TO rpynna
UIPEI+TOB, K O T O P b I e I I p O e K T H p O B a A H C b B A R TOI'O,
9~06b1B ~ a 6 o p eOHH r a p M O H H p O B W ApYI' C ApYrOM.
T n n ~ r ~rapemypa
aa
Text COCTOEIT 113Y e T b I p e x ~ a ~ e p ~ a ~ r
EI BCe OHM H M e l o T 0 6 ~ y e eHMX, KOTOPbIM 0 6 b 1 ' 3 ~ 0 I I B M -
eTCR H a 3 B a H H e <HOpMUbHOI'O)> ( n p a ~ o r C0B ~ T A O ~ OH)a -
Display sepTaHm, HanpaMep Times New Roman, Bodoni I ~ A H
Helvetica. ~ ~ O M E I MnOp a M o r o C B ~ T A O ~HOa Y e p T a H H a T a -
K a a r a p H m y p a erne B K n l o Y a e T n p a M o e nonyxwpeoe
(bold), KYpCHBHOe CBeTAOe (italic) H KypCEIBHOe IIOAy-
X I 1 p H O e (bold italic) H a Y e p T a H H X .
PHC. 3.24.T~KCTOB~I~
lupEI*~ H e K o T o p b r e r a p H H T Y P b I EIMeIOT M e H e e Y e T b I p e X
(~epxxmcrpo~a)crpom EI cnep- ~ a q e p ~ (y a r~a p~H Mf r y p b I Century Old Style, H a n p n -
X-IbI, OIIU KOHCePBaTHBHbI EI
M e p , OTCYTCTBYeT KYpCEIBHOe ~ O A ~ X M P H O ~a) HeKOTO-
,
IIpOeKTHpyh3TCX AAX I'AaBHOrO
neha, KWUM X B u e T c x weme. p b I e - 3HaYIlTeAbHO 6onbme, W O o c o 6 e ~ ~ X aop a K T e p -
A ~ m e m b r ~e U + T H (cpea- HO AAfi FPOTeCKOB, IIOCKOAbKY )' HHX A e r g e p ~ E l K U b H O
HIIR crpo~a)o ~ A ~ A ~ K rpa+~-
)?. I I e p e n p O e K T E l p O B a T b HaCbIIUeHHOCTb H IIIEIPEIHbI, 9 e M
O I ~~ ~~ O %OHM
Y ~ C KC , IIpHTXlTiBaX)T
y a H W K B e H H b I X IIIPII+TOB.
BHklMaHUe. Y AeKOpaTUBHbIX
~ ~ ~ E I + T o(IIEIXCHIIR
B crp0~a)pa3-
Hoe npoacxoweeue, o m c 0 3 ~ a -
m H a c r p o e H n e , orpmawr eno-
Xy, COCTORHEIe AyXa HAM BbI3bIBa-
m O m y w e H u e 6e33a60~~0cm.
kIx rAaBHaJr PO& COCTOKT B TOM,
w06b1Y A e p X m a T b B3I'hRP. OAHHEI3 ~ a 1 1 6 0 ~ enpOAYKTHBHbIX
e C ~ O C O ~ OKAaCCH-
B
+EIuEIPoB~T~ IIIPEI+T~I - OIIpeAeAMTb I1X POAM H a C T p a -
H H U e (LUPN+T~I B O n p e A e A e H H b I X aiVInAya). C B T O ~TOY-
KEI 3peHEIB IIIpPi+Tb1 O ~ ~ I Y HIIOApa3AehRIOTCS
O H a TPH
rpynnbr: m e x c m o s a l e , HAEI u a h p n a ~ e(text),axgudeumna~e,
HAM ~ a l a e ~ u m e i l a u a l(display),
e w Jexopamuana~e
(decorative) (PHC. 3.24).
T~KCTO B ~ I ~ npOeKTHpYiOTCR AAR ~ a 6 o p a
LLIPII+T~I
AAUHHbIX IIOAOC T e K C T a B K H I l r a X I1 X j ' p H a A a X . ha^-
H o e BHEIMaHHe B aEi3aG~eT a K I l X U I ~ H + T O B yAeAR€?I"I'R
(readablhty). B
ydo6o~umae~~ocmu'~ TOM cnysae ~pe6o-
BaHEIR r O p a 3 A O XDHpe, s e M IIpOCTafi p a 3 6 0 ~ 4 H ~ 0 ~ T b
(legibility), TO ecTb ~pe6ye~
0 6c e~c n e s ~ ~Hbe TOA~KO
AerKOCTb, C K O T O P O ~F~A a 3 p a 3 A I 1 9 a e T OTAWtbHbIe 6p~b1,
HO H AerKOCTb, C K O T O P O ~ BOCIIPHHHMaIOTCJi UeAbIe
CAOBa H I ' p p I I b I CAOB. XOPOIU[M~~T ~ K C T O B ~IIIPH+T
I~~
c n o c o 6 c ~ ~ yCIIeIIIHOMy
ye~ T e H H I - 0 6e3 YCTaAOCTH.
A x ~ ~ ~ e (display)m b ~ e~UPU@I IIpOeKTUpYfOTCII
nnrr K p y n H b I x ~ e r n e i i ,HMH H ~ ~ H ~ ~ I O sTa Cr nRa s ~ r l
(headmg), H 6onee M e m a r e s a r o n o ~ m (heache).
&
,3 TaKUX UIPU+TOB BZiXCHee IIPHBAeKaTb BHHMaHHe,
b ,6 o ~ e B
s e M 0 6 e c n e s ~ a a ~p ba 3 6 0 p s u ~ o c ~ a ecero nna
HHX BaSKHa M H O ~ O ~ ) ' H K Y H O H ~ A ~ H O C~T ~Y. U A ~ H T H ~ I ~
I I I p H + T b I AOAXHbI 6 b 1 ~ b0 9 e H b O ~ L Y H T ~ A ~ H ~ IHO
MUHX
,
HaIIOpMCTOCTb H e AOAXHB 6 b 1 ~ bs p e 3 ~ e p ~ 0 ~5 , 0 6 ~ 1
c B 0 e f i H ~ O ~ ~ I S H O C T OHH
~ H ) H e COIIepHUWiAEi C TeKCTO-
B ~ I M HIIIPH+T~UIII, p q q o c~ KOTOP~IMH B ~ I C V ~ . K ~ K
IIpaBHAO, rpOTeCKU C9HTaH3TCII aKYHAeHTHbIMH, XOTR
HX MOXHO HHOrAa BUAeTb B TeKCTOBOM ~a6ope.
A e ~ o p a - m a ~ bIIIPH+T~I
~e - TO O c T p o x a p a K T e p -

C T O B ~ IIIPH+T
I~~
AeKOpaTHBHbIX UIPU+TOB
-
~ b ~.
HO H C I I O A ~ ~ ~ K I T C IBI p e K n a M e .

?
~ c K o OHH
H b I e a K T e p b I H a T H I I o ~ ~ ~ ~ H Y CUeHe.

TO p e a r t a x

b I e
Fix p
~ 06b19-
o ~ COCTOHT
B a T e BHHMaHHR 9 e H 0 f i BCerO O C T U b H O r O , BKAIOYaR
sacT0 H y ~ o 6 o s ~ ~ a e ~ o ceecflu HOB~TOPCKU&TeK-
rrrxua, TO
OIIYCKaIOTCX H a
e X e r O A H 0 . ~ e K 0 p a T U ~ ~ LLIPU+T~I
IIpHBAeKaxlT BHU-
b B 3ax-

c T a x HOB~IX
ny6nu~y

M a H H e I I p e X A e BCerO H O B L I ~ H OH
~ ~TOALKO
, HeKOTOPbIe
I13 HHX - APYrHMH KaYeCTBaMH. OHM~ ~ I C T P BXOAIIT
O
B MOAY H T a K Xe BbIXOART H 3 MOAbI: ~ O A ~ I L I I I H C T BH
O3
HHX MrHOBeHHO CTaHOBXFCR CTapOMOAHbIMU.

PMC. 3.25. Pi-CpGbr MOT co-


n e p x a n Bce TO yronno. IIpen-
H a 6 o p ~ b 1 epa6on1 H e OrpaHHWiBaIOTCR TOAbKO TeK- 1 ,

~ 3 m u3
1 LUPH+TOB~IX +aiihou
CTOM, B ~ a 6 0 p eMCIIOAb3yKITCX p a 3 ~ 0 0 6 p a 3 H b I eBHAbI ITC Zapf Dingbats, Adobe Carta
CHMBOAOB, HAeOI'paMM, KOTOPbIe CYLYeCTBYIOT HapII.4)' u Symbol
C 6 y ~ s a AaTElHCKOrO
~u a A + a B k i ~ a . COBOK~IIHOCTM
TaKIlX 3HaKOB Ha3LIBaIOTCB pl-ICOAtn-
A ~ I C V l U U(pi fonts). T a ~ o 0e 6 0 3 ~ a s e ~ IIpOr?CXOAHT
u e OT CTapUHHOfO BLIpXKeHUB MaCTe-
POB py'1~0rO ~ a 6 o p aB, KOTOPOM CAOBO < n u * (to pi) s ~ a s u n o
ccbInaTb 6on~moe
Komse-
CTBO A N T e P B K y S y , H a n p B M e p , nOAHOCTbI0 BLIABBHYTL KaCCy A l l T e p Ii BbICLInaTL ee
COnepXHMOe. P ~ - K O M ~ ATaKEIM
~ K T 06pa30~,
, BBAReTCB BMeCTMhHWeM B C R K O ~BCIIZIUHbI
~
(odds and ends).
B COBPeMeHHLIe KOMIILIOTepHbIe CHCTeMbI 0 6 ~ 1 9 ~BKAIO'IeHLI
0 TaKEie ~ ~ - K o M I I A ~ K -
TLI - p i - + a f i n b ~ , KaK Symbol, ITC Zapf Dingbats u Monotype Sorts (puc. 3.25). Pi-Qafi-
ALI M O I ~ TB K n m s a T b CMMBOALI&AX u r p a n L H b I x u reorpa+urec~uxK a p T , T e n e n p o r p a M M ,
H H ~ ~ EI ~ B T O ~ Y C O Ba, T a K X e AAR MaTeMaTEiYeCKMX +OPMYA,
~ ~ c I I M c ~ nOe3AOB AeKOpaTHB-
HLIX p a M O K H KOMIILIOTepHbIX KAaBUaTYPHbIX KOMaHA.

B Te'IeHEle a e C 2 T l i C T O A ~ T HXUPH+T~I
~~ H a A ~ T M H C K OOCHOBe
~~ K A ~ C C E I ~ H L I I I P O B I~I H
0
YKa3aHHLIM BLIXUe n p H H U I m a M , T e M H e M e H e e T P ~ ~ ~ T6onee
C B TOsHLIe KaTerOpEizi AAB
onucaHuR napaMeTpoB rrrpu+~a u ero n p u r o n H o c T u AAII p e r u e H u R o n p e n e n e m b i x
3 a A a Y . ELIAo MHOrO nOIILITOK CO3AaTL TaKCOHOMEI'IeCKYIO CEiCTeMY K A ~ ~ C C M + H K ~ ~ U E I
KOTOpaR C O A e p X a A a 6 b 1 AOlX'IeCKYIO HElLIIY nAX K a X A O r O U I ~ H + T ~Bce
. OHEi Ha'IKHaAN
c u c T o p u r e c K u x ~ o p ~ e ia ia, a ~ a ~ r u s a-nnocne
~ p a c u s e T a peKnaMLr - c ~ a n ~ oKia iT e -
r0p6i JAR YHElKaAbHLIX W[PEI+TOB.
o npyrux npHHUHnOB, KOTOpLIe O ~ C Y X ~ ~ ~ ~paeee,
H e 3 a s u c u ~ OT A M C ~CyUJeCTByI0T 06-
menpuamle E t c T o p u s e c K u e K a T e r o p u I i , K o T o p b r e n o n e 3 ~ 03 ~ a ~ Kb HHM
. OTHOCRTCR cma-
p u ~ u a x(old style), nepexod~ax(transitional) u Hoaaa (modern) aHTnKBL1.

Onpenene~uecmapuu~ax'~(old style) O ~ L I S H O OTHOCHTCB K a H m K B a M , K o T o p L I e 6~1,114


C034aHbI B H T ~ A E ~
B EKOHUe
~ IIRTHaAqaTOrO U H a Y a A e LLIeCTHaAUaTOrO BeKOB. C TeX IIOp
T a K Ha3LIBaI0T XUpr?+Tb1 CO CXOXHMH XapaKTepPiCTliKaMM. B %iCTHOCTEI, IIIPM+T~I HHKO-
naca I;ie~coHa'"~icholas Jenson) u m p a ~ s e c ~rpn++o
o (Francesco Griffo) o ~ a s a n u
aasaiiaepon. OHHOC-
c u n b ~ e i i m e es n u m u e H a n o c n e A y I o w u e n o K o n e H u s UIPII+TOBLIX
TBIOTCR CaMLIMIi IIOIIYABPHbIMU LUPEI+T~MA AAX ~ a 6 o p TeKCTa.
a
Mobe
B a m ~ e f i r u u ~I lI ar p a M e T p a M I I CTapHHHofi aHTHKBbI
PBAPeTCP ~ e 6 o n b r u o i KOHTpaCT
i M e X A y OCHOBHLIMH H
BCIIOMOraTeAbHbIMII LUTpHXaMH U HaKAOH OCH OBaAb-
HbIX 3AeMeHTOB (St.~eSS), 3 a ~ e T ~ b 1 H
f ia YTOHbLUeHHRX
~ Y K B 0,
~ KOTOpbIe
I CMeI.UaK?TCP C B e p X H e r O H H H X H e r O
n o n o m e H m B HanpaBneHnu npoTHB
P a H H H e B a P I I W T b I TaKMX LUPH+TOB
qaco~ofiC T p e m H .
(KPK H EfX BOCCTa-
HOBAeHIIP B A e B S f T H ~ U a T O MH ABaAUaTOM B ~ K P X ) ,H3-
B e c r H b I e K ~ Kseneyuanch-ue a n m u h - s b l (Venetians), 06-
A a A a A U AOIIOAHHTeAbHbIMH I I p H 3 H a K a M H , B K A m Y a P
Mobe
PEIC. 3.26. r a p ~ ~ u ~ yItalian
pa
KPFO Hncna/JamuHe 3 a c e q H~ H~a m o H H y m n e p e M b 1 r - Old Style ( B ~ ~ X H RCXT ~ O K ~ )

B PHC.
K y B C T p o q H o f i ~ Y K 8. ~ 3.26 I I p e A C T a B M e T n p N - + N P M ~ I Monotype - KAaCCIl-
s e c ~ w IIpEIMep
i B ~ H ~ U H ~ H C K O ~
M e p b I C T ~ P H H H O ~aHTHKBb1.
~
aHTIlKBbI, KOTOPaX OCHOBaHa H a
XOTPMHOrOe 3iLBRCIIT OT TOrO, K a K 0 f i KABCCEI+II- 06pasuax K O H U ~n m s a , a u a T o r o
K a u m B ~ nI p H A e p x m a e T e c b , cne~ymuefi6 o n b r u o f i BeKa.Ee OTAHYHTeAbHbIMU n p H -
r p y n I I 0 f i CpeAH CTaPHHHbIX m H K B XBhlIH3TCR iXHTMKBbI 3 H a K a M N XBAXKYI'CX OYeHb CAa-

ruecrHwqaToro aerca, 0 6 b 1 w o ~ a 3 b m a e ~ rapahbaa-


~ 1 e 6b1H KOHTPaCT M e X A y OCHOBHbI-
MU U B C ~ O M O T a T e A b H b I M NIUTPII-
MH (Garaldes), - m a A o - + p a ~ u y 3 c m e amHKBL1.
X a M U , C M A ~ H ~ IHH a K A O H OCIl
3 ~ rpynna
a B K n l o s a e T p a 6 o ~ b 1Knona r a p a ~ o ~ a
O B a A b H b I X ~ Y K B ,B ~ M ~ T H ~ I ~
(Claude G a r a m ~ n d )K~ p. o ~ rea p m n p b I , ~ocxwefiero B 6yrcse o, p a c r u u p e H H b r e 3ace.i-
HMP, A 0 CHX I l O p q p e 3 ~ b 1 s a f i H oIIOIIyAXpHbI IlIpH+- KU Ha B e p r u t i H e n p o n a c ~ o M,
i
TbI, OCHOBaHHbIe H a er0 pHCyHKaX II MHOrOYHCAeHHbIX KPYTO H a K n o l I e n H a R 3 a c e ~ ~ ya
cxomux p H c y H K a x T o r o nepuona ( K ~ ~ A o~Ha, n p ~ ~ e p ) . 6ynsbr b, H a K A O H H M nepeMb1.i-
K a y G Y K B ~ I e. r a p ~ a ~ y p a
KO B p e M e H U r a p a M 0 H a r u p ~ i + ~ o ~ o~ IfIi3 a f i HAOCTUr Stempel Garamond (EIUXHXX
6 o n b r u e r o COBepIIIeHCTBa, N KOHTpaCT MeXL[Y IIITPII- c r p o ~ a )o T p a x a e T M~M~H~HUX,
XaMH CTaA 6 o ~ e BbIpEWKeHHLIM.
e n e p e ~ b ~ Br 6~yax ~ e K O T O p b I e BHeC 3 H a ~ e E I I l T b l i

e c T u a IIOAHOCT~H) ~ O P M ~ O H T ~ ~~ ~~ HC O
~ ~
Z ~
CT~AII
I K
, H +pa1iqy3: 6 o n b m n i KOHTP~CT,

TOHbUIe, M e H e e HaKAOHHbIMII II 6onee II3IIuHbIMH. ~ l , sep-


6onee y 3 ~ u se a c e ~ ~6onee
TBK~ALHM O C O ~ B~ALHLIX 3 ~ e -
MeHTOB U TOPM30IITaAbHaR nepe-
MbI'iKa Y ~ Y K B L eI

K ~ cKn e n y e T ~3 H ~ ~ B ~ H Hnepexoana~e'"
P , ((transitional)
aHTNKBbI IIpeACTaBAPKlT IIepeXOAHYH) + a 3 y OT 3CTWH-
KH C T ~ P U H H O aHTUKBbI
~~ K 6onee <<coB~~M~HHo~~>) -
HOBOG (modern). TOT nepexon H a s a c s B K o H u e ceM-

obe HaaqaToro B e K a .
On~0fiEI3 O C O ~ ~ H H O Cn eT p~ e~x~0 ~ ~ 0~fHi T E ~ K BCTa
~I
A 0 YCEIAeHEIe K O H T p a C T a M e X A y OCHOBHLIMN 11 BCIIOMO-
FaTeAbHbIMEI UITPNXaMEI.
cxlrecKNx m p ~ l g ~ a x
TO M O X H O 3aMeTEITb B KABC-
Y H A ~ K~e aMn o~~ a(William

Mobe Caslon)j2 H a g a a B o c e M H a n u a T o r o
TOPLIX T a K X e I I p O A O A X a I O T IIpHMeHXTb.
rEIM 3CTeTE1YeCKEIM IIpllYUHaM IIIPM+T~I
HO OTHOCXT K CTBPEIHHOG BHTHKBe.
B e K a , B a p K a u m KO-
XOTRIIO npy-
K e s n o ~ a06b14-

PHC. 3.27. IIepexonnarr rap- 0 IIepeXOAHbIX r a p H U T y p a X TpanllLlNOHHO r O B O p m ,


HffTypa Baskerville (sepxfrxx
H O B ~ I GP a 3 Y M -
' I T 0 OHIf nORBMAElCb N 3 X e A a H E I R C 0 3 n a T b
TOK~) O T p a 3 U a ABHXCeHUe OT
c ~ a p n ~ ~ iBoCTOPOHY
i i IIOBOG an- H ~ I GPEICYHOK UIpEI+Ta BAR KOpOAR @pa~uHli A).EIXIV.
B CpaBHeHHIl CO CTapHH-
TUKBbI. PEICYHOKT a K O r O Z L ( P N + T ~ H e BOCXOANT K K ~ A N ~ ~ ~ +
HOG rap~~mypoiiBembo (Ha=- YeCKkfM HAH HCTOpHYeCKHM 06pa3ua~,a OCHOBaH H a
HRX cTpOICa), O H a n e M O H C T p H p y - PaUUOHaAbHbIX IIpHHUJ4IIaX MaTeMaTHKU H, K a K C Y
eT 6 o ~ e eC H A ~ H KOIXTpaCT
~ I ~
XOTRCO3AaHHafi
T O r A a , H a npEIpOAHbIX I I p O I I O p ~ E I X X .
B H a C b I I U e H H O C T I l LUTPHXOB
aHmKna, T a K ~ a s b ~ n a e romain
~ a a du roi ( ~ o p o n e a c ~
(oco6e~noB 6 y ~ &f),
~ es a c e s ~ ~
CTaAH 6 n ~ m eK T O p k i 3 0 H T a A N ~ H T u K B ~C) ,T a a A H Y H O ~C O ~ C T B ~ H H O C T ~KOpOAeBCKllX
IO
( K ~ KB 6 y K ~ e b) U OCb HaKAOHa n e q a T H m o B , o H a T e n e p b HOCHT NMR T o r o , KTO B o c c T a -
OBaAOB C T a A a B ~ ~ T H K ~ A ~ HHOBllA
o ~ ~ ee &AH ~ E I p O K O r OKOMMepYeCKOrO EICIIOAb3OBa-
( ~ ~ M ~ TBH6Oy ~ s e
0)
HEIR - Q y p ~ b e(F~urnier)~'.
Apyr0G I I ~ o ~ ~ K T E I B LLIPEI+T
H ~ I ~ ~ T o r 0 BpeMeHEI,
Baskerville, T a K X e HOCkIT kIMR CBOerO CO3AaTeAZi, OH
A e M O H C T p M p y e T KAaCCUYeCKMe s e p T b 1 I I e p e X O n H O r O
L U p P i g ~ a ,K a K l l O K a 3 a H O H a PHC. 3.27. B CpaBHeHNN CO
CTaPNHHbIMH aHTNKBaMH KOHTpaCT M e X n y T O A U M H O ~ ~
LUTPHXOB 6onee B b I p a X e H , YTO O C O ~ ~ H H3Oa M e T H O H a
6
CT~OYH~IX y ~ ~ aK x .p o ~ eT o r o , ocb O B ~ ~ H ~ YI KXB
(stress) Tenepb BepTmabHa, TO n p a A a e T CTPOYH~IM
6yrcsa~OT4eTAMBO n p r l ~ o f Bi W .
XOTXYEICAO IlepeXOAHbIX aHTEIKB HeBeAkiKO, EIX, KaK
H CTaPEIHHLIe PHTNKBLI, O Y e H b 4 a C T O IICnOAb3YIOT AAR
wa6opa KHEIr, X Y P H U O B N eXeAHeBHbIX ra3eT.
- -
pa6o~acaenasa, a I I I ~ H + T O B O ~ ~ (font) - 3TO
n H c T p y M e m , c KOTOP~IMB ~ ~03mecbI B npoqecce pa-
6o~b1.O n e p a ~ t i Cou~c T~e M~a KoMnbIcYTepa a npo-
I'paMMHbIe n p H A 0 X e H H X 3 H a Y m e A b H O 0 6 ~ e r ~ aPa- m
6 o ~ yco L U ~ H ~ $ T O B ~ I M H+ a i i h a ~ a ,HO TO n p O u e C C
n o - n p e x ~ e ~cyry6o
y ~ e x ~ a r e c ~Tams n 2 . pa6o~aTpe-
6 y e 6~ o m e 3HaIiIfji 0 KOMIIbIOTepe, YeM, M O X e T 6 b 1 ~ b ,
XOYeTCX, HO BCe, W O BaM H ~ O ~ X O ~ H M y xO e, eCTb B 3 T 0 G
rAaBe.

UM+pOBble yc?.pOiiCTBa (MOHUTOPM, HaCTOAbHbIe npHH-


~306pa-
T e p b I M + O T O H ~ ~ O ~ ~HB~TI O~ M ~ T C03AaIOT
~I)
x e m a c n o M o r r r b l o ore^'. IIponeiimii cnoco6 npen-
CTaBAeHFiX I I I ~ M + T nNI ~ m60ro I13 3THX YCTPO%CTB -
COCTaBUTb PMCYHOK K ~ X A O~~Y~K B B
~ IBMAe MaCCHBa
TOYeK, c 0 6 p a ~ bM C O X P a H m 3TH PHCYHKM K W IIIpH+-
TOBOG + a h (font). A B ~ I B O A H O My~ c ~ ~ o i i AAX
c ~ ~OTO-
y
6pamemi1U I ~ H + T OCTaeTCff
~ TOAbKO KOIIMpOBaTb 3TH
TOYKM B COOTBeT'CTByIQIQee n O A O X e H H e H a 3 K p a H e IlAH
mpamise2. Korna 3 ~ Tae x H o A o r n x H a g a h a n p u M e n m -
Cff, K X K ~ TOYKe
O ~ ~ s o 6 p a m e ~COOTBeTCTBOBU
m OAKH
6m K O M ~ ~ J S I T ~ P EIH+OPM~LUIM,
HO~ KaK I I P o c T ~ ~ ~ I I I M ~ ~
Bb160p MeXCAy ccAa>>M *HeT>>: eCTb TOYKa HAEl H e T TOY-
~so6prwemaH 3 TaKHX I I p e n B a p M T e A b H O
KH. h 6 b 1 e
HapMCOBaHHbIX MaCCNBOB T O g e K 6 b 1 ~ MHa3BaHbI dumo-
oawu x a ~ m a u u(bitmaps), a LUPM+T~I,~ c n o ~ b 3 p U l l e
TOT cnoc06 0 ~ 0 6 p a m e ~ u- s , Gumosa~u,HAMpacmpo-
sbmu (bitmapped).
B OCHOBe 6mo~blxKapT AeXIlT ~ ~ O C T O Gpa3yM-
~b~ npu~yan"HO 9eM 6o~~.rue T O W K COnepHcHT 6 ~ ~ 0 -
BaX KapTa, TeM 6o~bmenxi Hee ~pe6ymcxKOMnbIOTep-
PMC. 4.1. B paCTpOBOM WPM+- H ~ I XPecypcoB. K0rp.a ysenurasaeTcs pa3peme~ue
TOBOM +she K a x n a a Tows
PMCYHKa ~ Y K B COOTBBTCTBYBT
~ I
y q o i i c m a m u p a 3 ~ e p6 y ~ ~ bq1u, a 0 ToreK ~ 0 3 p a c ~ a -
OnHOMY n H K C e A y BbIBOAHOrO m B r e o ~ e ~ p u g e c ~nporpeccuu.
oji Yn~oentrep a s ~ e p a
~ c T ~ o ~ ~ C nT pBH~ YBeAHW!HMH
. 3 ~ a yBem9uBaeT
~ a Komrecmo TogeK sremepo. Kpo-
pa3peme~nxy c ~ p o i i m TO- a Me 3~0r0,AM Kaxqoro KerM q u + ~ a~ p e 6 y e ~ cOT- x
pacTpoBoro m p ~ + ~ ~ Ta~ H O B X T -
neAbHaX ~ P ~ T O B KapTa
~ X (H 0TnenbHbiii I I ~ ~ u + T o B o ~
CII BCe M e A b Y e H M e A b P e , COOT-
BeTCTBeHHO C 3TMM y M e H b W a e T -
+$A). EIiToBble KaPTbI, CO3naHHbIe OAHOrO pa3pe-
CII H ~ Y K B Ha ~ . pncyHKe 6 y ~ s a m e m , O K " K ~ C~I~LLIKOM
T C I I Me,- Korna CT- OTO-
cnesa pac~epu30sa~a Ann sKpa- 6paxa~bcaHa ycrpoiime c 6onee BLICOKHM pa3peme-
H a . ECAH T a K a 6mosan K a p T a HueM, IIOCKOAbKy B B M CAyYae pe&%~bGpa3Mep T O W K
I l e g a T a e T C X H a HaCTOAbHOM
MeHbIIIe KC. 4.1). T ~ K 06pa30~, ~ M 0~06paxemx
n p a a T e p e , TO p a a ~ e p6 y ~ ~ b 1
y M e H h r u a e T c s (B u e ~ ~ p enpa ).
K ~ K O ~ O q
- Au H
+ ~~O Oa A H O ~ Ou Tor0 me auanasoaa Ker-

p a 3 p e L U e H K H ~ O T O H ~ ~ O ~ H O nefi ~ O Ha s ~ p a MoHmopa,
~e Ha n a 3 e p ~ npumepe
o~ H Ha
a B T O M a T a 6 y ~ y~ M eaH b l u a e T C I I ~OTOH~~OPHO aBTOMaTe
M MOXeT n q e 6 0 ~ a ~ b H cexOWa
ewe cmbeee (cnpa~a) COTHX PaCTPOBbIX U I ~ H + T O B ~ I X +&oB.
Peuremie 3~0finpo6ne~b1HarUAsi B HHOM npmume4: OnHcaHEiH I U ~ H + T O B ~ I X3 ~ a -
KOB K a K C O B O K ~ ~ H O C TK (outline fonts) XPWXT P E I C ~ H K H
H O H T ~ ~ O BK~nmyPIible
. uPuq5mal
3HaKOB B BHAe KOHTYPOB, MaTeMaTUSeCKH I I p e A C T a B M e M b I X COBOKJ'IIHOCTbIo OTPe3KOB
IIpXMbIX H ~ p H B 0 A k w e k b I XCelMeHTOB. O T P ~ ~IIpBMbIX
KH A H m i f i 3 a 9 a C T j W Ha3bIBaIOT
~ e x m o p a u u(vectors), n o v r o M y LUPH+T~I, nx W C I I O A ~ ~ Y I O W H n~ ,o A F m m H ~ S B ~ Hoex-
H ~
mopnalx ulpu@moe (vector fonts).
T a u e KOH'IypbI MOXHO M ~ C I I I T ~ ~ E I P O B6 e~3T HCKWKeHUtI
~ +OPM~I H n p 0 n 0 p ~ H f i
3HaKOB. % T ~ M KOHTYpbI 3anOAHXK)TCB UBeTOBbIMH T O S K ~ M U ~C03AaBaeMbIMH
, YCTPO~~-
CTBOM, c IIOMOW~KIK o T o p o r o II~OEICXOAHTo ~ o 6 p a x e m e
m p ~ + ~c paa 3 p e u r e ~ ~ OKO- e ~ :
no 100 dpi (dots per inch - T o v e K H a ~ m k H)a e K p m e M o H m o p a , OT 300 AO 600 dpi H a
HaLTOAbHbIX IIpEiHTepaX H 3Ha9UTeAbHO BbIILIe 1 000 dpi H a + O T O H ~ ~ O P H ~ I aBT0MaTa.X.
X
XOTBcefi9ac KOHTYPHbIe LUPII+T~I HCIIOAb3YfOTCB K U AAB 0 ~ 0 6 p a r n e ~TeKCTa 11~ H a
3 K p a H e MOHEITOpa, T a K H AAB IIeYaTH, BCe Xe PaCTpOBbIe J.IIpH+Tb1 I I p O A O A X a I o T IIpMMe-
HXTbCX, HO HCKN0YHTeAbHO A M BbIBOAa H a 3KPaH. TO CBB3WO C TeM, YTO I I p H MeAKHX
KerAXX, K O r A a K a X Q O M y 3 H W Y AOCTaeTCX BCerO HeCKOAbKO TO'IeK 3 K P W . 3 - nUICCell06
(pixels) - 6onee p a 3 y ~ ~ pacnpedeneme oe nurccenon6 (H 6onee y ~ 0 6 0 S I W a e M b I f iII.I~H+T)
wuue nonpae-rcx n p C~O B A ~ HBHUOB ~ B P ~ H Y I O ,a H e n p o r p a M M m I M npeo6pmo~ami-
e M BeKTOpHOm KO-a B ~ H T C I BK~ a W ( p a c r e p H 3 w e f i ) . EChU Y KOHTypHOI'O UIPII+T~
I i M e e T c a p a c r p o s b x i i s a p u r n , TO ~ n r sr ~ p a npemowmenbxee
~a ~ i c n o ~ b o om ~ ae ~mb o
er0, XIOCKOAbKy OH OKa3bIBaeTCB 6 o ~ e eY A O ~ O ~ ~ ~ M 9e~
M Ip aM~ ~, e p ~ i 3 0 B a H ~BbaIpfHi-
i W T KOHTYPHOrO ILIPEI+TB.

IIIPH+TOBO~~ +& (font)IC O A e p X H T IlOAHjTO HH+OPM~LINK), H ~ O ~ X O A H M Y AAX


I O nO3HUH-
OHIIPOBaHHB H o ~ 0 6 p a x e ~ n x 3HaKOB, KOTOPbIe OH n p e A C T S A X e T . 0 TOM, K a K O n e -
BCeX
P a U H O H H M CHCTeMa H n p O T a M M H O e n p k L l O X e H H e COBMeCTHO EICnOAb3YlOT 3TH AaSZHbIe,
nonpo6~opaCCKa3bIBaeTCB 6 2A. 7. A 3AeCb MbI PaCCMOTPMM C O A e p X H M O e I ~ I P H + T O B O ~ O
I I ero CBX3b C ~ a 6 o p TeKLTa.
o~
~ T b I o X U P H ~ T O B O ~+
C ~O C T ~ B H OS~a C
Cahlof BWKHO~ O a k a XBMloTCX C O ~ C T B ~ H HKOH-
O
TYPbI 3HaKOB. B YeAOM COBOKyIlHOCTb 3HaKOB B U I P H ~ T O B O M Ha3bIBaeTCX IcOAn-
Aelcrnau 3naxoe7 (character set). AX 6 0 ~ b u r a ~ c ~O ~ L3I aS H ~ I XIUPH+TOB~IX + a k o ~KOM-
IIAeKTbI 3HPKOB Y a J 4 e BCerO C T ~ a p T H 3 H p O B a H b I . B HHX B C e r A a HMeeTCX O C H O B H O ~ ~
a b c d c f g h i j k l m KOMIIAeKT BHBKOB, XOTS OHU M O T C O n e p X a T b U no-
n o p q t s t u v w x y z
A B C D E F G H I J K L M IIOAHUTeAbHbIe 3HaKH, KaK, H X I p N M e p , U I ~ H ~ T O B M ~
N OP Q R S T U V W X Y Z +&b~ B KoAnpoBKe Unicode. Ha pnc. 4.2 n o ~ a 3 a ~
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ? { @
! i # % o Y f € % % A & *
KOMIIAeKT C T a H A a P T H O r O TeKCTOBOrO ~ U P U + T O R O ~ O
+ * + = -- O I l- l f +&a.
. . ' " , . < > I .
\ I
-

.TMf
3 .

y . ' " @ t " " " K O H T ~3HaKOB


~ ~ I B BeKTOPHOM IUPH+TOBOM +a$-
I?@' -...< - / a ne 6 y ( ~~ e~ r ~B) K. ~ X A O M
f i B $ ' ,
*
.
a ( E z
. \ , . . " " - "
. > < .
d I 5
H e 3 a s n c m OT p a 3 M e p a
~ U + T O B O M +she conepmmcx ma6~uya uukuu (width
, '
& & I b h b t l 6 d Y Z Y table), ~ o ~ o p aonpenenrrm
rr r o p u 3 o ~ ~ a n b paccros-
~oe
o t i y 9 t : i b P f i i 6 $ 0
H u e , OTBOnUMOe A X 3 KilXflOrO 3 H a X a . OHOU3MepXeTCII
A E t O u A E f 6 6 A E r
OOY A E I O W A R A d D B aOAXX K ~ ~ ~ A (em). ~ H oK E~ ~ n b I o T e p ~nap ro ir p a M M a
a ~ spi ~ y z t ~ ~ 1 ~ ,c n~o nc ~ a
~ ~y T
e ~3M~ a q e ~firm
n p a c s e T a c T e n e H M sanon-
1 3 :
* * P
H e H m CTpOK, CYMMUPYII LUHpHHbI H a 6 U p a e ~ b I X~ F B
,zfo T e x nop, n o K a c r p o K a H e 6ynm 3anome~a
no~~ocrbm.
PWC. 4.2. C T ~ H A ~ PKOM-
TH~I~~
~PII+TOBO$ COnepXIIT T a K X e Ta6AUqb1
nAeKT L U ~ N C ~ J T O B O ~ O B
C l J o p ~ aAdobe
~e Type 1. X o ~ s L U U ~ U H~ p y r u x~ a ~ e p ~ a mr aipfHi m y p b I (member of
HOMHHahbHO OH MOXeT COAep- family). O ~ ~ I Y3 H T 0O
X a p a K T e P H O &AX " H O p M U b H O r O > >
XaTb A0 256 3HaK08, TPNAUaTb (ccregular,,) H a q e p T a m a (npmoro c ~ e ~ ~ o r3o ~ ) .~na 6 -
TPN < < R Y ~ ~ KBu Haqahe
> 3nRTbI
A H s b I IIO3BOAaIoT K O M I I ~ I ~ T ~ P H O
I I$p O T a M M e B e p C T a T b
KOMIIbIoTePHbIMH KOMaHAaMH,
HanpuMep, backspace ( y ~ a ~ m b
TeKCT C HCIIOAb30BaHUeM BCeX Y e T b I p e X H ~ ~ ~ P T
npenbrnywuii B H ~ K )N cieleie r a P H U T Y p b 1 ( ~ P I P I I M O ~KYpCflBHOrO,
O, IIOAYXIlPHOrO H
( ~ A ~ A u Ta~ TaKXe
) , ABYMX KypcmHoro n o ~ y m u p ~ o r o06pawaxcb
), T O A ~ K OK on-
N npo6e-
K O M ~ H A ~ Mno6asne~wr H O M ~LU~EI+TOBOMY +aiiny. Onepauno~narrc n c T e M a ,
na: M e m y chosami (word space) HCnOAb3yII3TH ~ a 6 n u u b 1 ,M O X e T r e H e p H p O B a T b IIMEITa-
H Hepa3pbIBHOTO npo6ena
LSkfK) KYPCEIBHbIX, IIOAYXNpHbIX U Kj'PCUBHbIX IIOAyXNp-
(nonbreaking space)
HbiX ~ a ~ e p ~ a 3 A
1 &
M BbIBOAa H a 3 K p a H . Ha6op~mnp0-
T a M M a , KOTOpaX OCHOBbIBaeTCII TOAbKO H a ~a6nuuax
IXIUPUH, T e M H e M e H e e , M O X e T IIPEiHUMaTb XIpaBEzhbHbIe
PeLUeHEIII 0 TOM, CKOAbKO 3HaKOB BXOAEiT B CTPOKY Ei
me p a 3 p b I B a T b CTPOKY. Korna Xe H a C T ' a e T BpeMEl
n e s a T u , BCe H ~ O ~ X O A U M
I I ~I pI k~ i + ~ ~ ~ b+laek A b 1 AOAX-
HbI 6 b m B Hanki'IEIX, nOCKOAbKy UX K O W b I ~ p e 6 y m -
crr n M pac~epu3wnnrupn+ra (puc. 4.3). A AAR YCKO-
peIiWi o ~ o 6 p a m e m
B e p c n c n H a 3 K p r u I e BMeCTO Pa3HbI.X
H ~ Y ~ P T ~ kiCnOAb3yeTCSl
H H ~ TOAbKO < < H o P M ~ A ~ H ~ I ~ ~ > >
True r o m a n
m p ~ + ~ o ~+oai hi . n o ~ p o 6 ~ oonex c a H I i e ~ s a a ~ o ~ e i i -
True izcdic
CTBllrr M e X A y IIpHAOXeHMeM EI o I I ~ ~ ~ u E I o H HCEICTe-
o~~ True bold
M O IIpHBeAeHO
~ 5 2-4. 7. True bold italic
B IIIPH+TOBOM +aiine T a K m e x p a H m c a ma6~uga True r o m a n
x e p ~ u w a(kerning table), ~ o ~ o p axrsrm e T c x c n x c K o M Synrhaized italic
OIIpeAeAeHHbIX nap 3HaKOB EI COOTBeTCTBYIOLUEIX 3Ha- Synthesized bold
s e ~ ~H af K, o T o p b I e n p o r p a M M a B npouecce B e p c T K N Synthesized bold italic
N3MeHXeT npo6en M e X A y HEIMM. ~ H ~ Y ~ K He p
EHIN~H r a
B b I P a X a e T C R B A O M X ~ W e h b ~ ~YTO
f i , II03BOAlleT NX True roman
NCnOAb3OBaTb AAH A I O ~ O ~KOe r m . Ijohee n o ~ p o 6 ~ a x True italic
True bold
EIH+oPM~IXNR 0 KepHNHre IlpeACTaBAeHa 5 ZA. 17.
True boId italic
True roman
Synthesized italic
Synthesized bold
C a ~ co6oii
o p a 3 y ~ e e ~ c YTO
x , C o A e p x a H N e UIPN+TO- Synthesized bold italic
BOfO + a f i A a 3aBNCEIT OT er0 + O P M ~ T ~ .B OTHOUreHEIN
K o M n b I o T e p H o r o m p a + ~ aCAOBO 4opclam (format) ~ c - PHC. 4.3. Bepxme sempe n p o -
IIOAb3yeTCX B ABYX CMbICAaX. KII 3KPPHIiOrO IIIpII@Ta 6 b ~ hno-
~i
B o - n e p ~ b ~ x+, O ~ M ~OTn p e A e h R e T c x u ~ T + o ~ M o ~ ~ ,A)nieHbI M 3 C O ~ C T B ~ H I ~ IIKpNClI-
~IX

A M ~ o ~ o p oL iUi~ H + T O B O ~ ~ C03AaH. H a n p ~ ~ eABa


p, T O B ~ I X+ a h o n . Cnenymur~e
YeTbIpe nonyezmr mrrepnohqo-
L U P I I ~ T O B ~ I+&Aa
X C OAEIHaKOBbIMEi ABHHbIMH AAR 0A-
B W e M NCXOAIIOrO c<HOpMUbHO-
mix EI T e x x e r a p H m y p MOT E I M p a~ s s b ~ +
e o p ~ a n . ~ ror. 3a~em0,TO cc~ypcm~bIji~
B 3aBEICHMOCTH OT TOrO, n p e A H a 3 H a Y e H b I OHN A M IIAaT- qu* - TO He 6 o ~ e es e M Ha-
+OPM Apple Macintosh HAM Windows PC. EOA~IXIEIH-K A O H H ~ IBapIIaIIT
~ NCXOAHOrO.
HWiCHHe CrpOKM IIOKa3bIsaIOT, TO
CTBO IIIPEI+TOB~IX + a j i h ~ B 6 b 1 m CO3AaHbI A M TOFO,
noAyqKmR, e m n o m r r a - r b a sep-
~ 0 COOTBeTCTBOBaTL
6 ~ CTpyKTj'paM AZtHHbUc O A H O ~ ~
EZhM
m e 3 ~ p a ~ ~ nbp1mee p b 1 BLIBec-
~ p ~ IIAaT+opMbI,
0 $ N IIIpr?+T, O P U ~ H T I I P O B ~ H H ~ aI ~ m Ha n e q a n . EChkI Bce IIIPNC)YXD
OAHy I L & ~ T + o ~ M Y ,H e CMOXeT p a 6 o ~ a H ~ ab apyroii. BbIe @aiihh1 aOCTyrIHbl, IIpOUeCC
Bo-BTOP~IX, + O P M ~ T U I P I I ~ T O B O ~ O+&+la O T p S K a - nesam n p o k e ~6 e 3 c6oes. E c n ~
e T cnoco6 IIpeACTaBAeHEIX Pi o p r a H ~ 3 a u u u CO~CTB~HHO
Xe AJLX TpeX H ~ W ~ ~ T WOTCYT- H

~ ~ i n o r p a + ~ r e c ~ B
E IoHi+iO P M ~ ~ L I I E I E H
I. a c T o x w e e B p e M x
+OPM~T~
CyIIIeCTByeT T p N OCHOBHbIX IIIPH+TOB~IX -
PostScript, TrueType EI OpenType.
~ p H + T b 1 B 3TOM ( P O P M ~ OCHOBaHbI
T~ H a R 3 b I K e OnHCaHHR C T P a H H U Postscript,
H GAR HX 0 6 p a 6 0 - r ~H ~0 ~ 0 6 p a m e m s~pe6ye~crr HHTepIIPeTaTOp 3 ~ 0 r o R3bIKa. (H~KOTO-
p y I o HH+OPM~UHIO 06 H H T e p n p e T a T O p e P ~ ~ f i c r iCpAt. 6 ZA. 7.) y IIpHHTepOB C BbICOKHM
pa3peLUeHHeM H + O T O H ~ ~ O P H ~ I X aBTOMaTOB T ~ K O GH H T e p n p e T a T O P 0 6 b 1 9 ~ 0 BCTpOeH
B YCTPO~~CTBO;OH I I p e A C T a B N I e T co6oii 0 T f i e A b ~ b I f iIIpOUeCCOp, n p e n H a 3 H a 9 e ~ ~ b IAAX
ii
n p e o 6 p a 3 0 ~ a ~ uPostScript-KOAOB
s B y n p a a M I o . u r a e K O A ~ Iyclpoiicrr~a.P;ARYCTPO~~CTB
C HH3KHM p a 3 p e I I I e H H e M , KaKIlMH RBMIOTCR 3 K p a H MOHHTOPa H HaCTOAbHbIe O + H C H ~ I ~
~ T O ~ ~ ~ X W T CP
npumepbI, P o s t S c r i p t - m p ~ + mO X o s t s c r i p t - ~ ~ ~ e p n p e ~ aBCTPOeH-
~opo~,
HbIM B OIIepaUHOHHJJlO CHCTeMy, Elnu C IIOMOUXbIO AOIXOAHHTeAbHOrO IIpUAOXeHHR, KOTO-
poe ~ a s b r s a e ~ Adobe
cx Type Manager (ATM). Postscript-rnpw+~b~
O ~ ~ I Y HCOH ~ ~ X ~ I O T -
CR ewe H KOMIIAeKTOM PaCTPOBbIX IIIPU+TOB AAR 3KpaHHOrO 0 ~ 0 6 p a x e ~ B u ~
CHCTeMaX
6e3 PostScript-~mepnpe~a~opa.
C ~ I U ~ C T B
HeCKOAbKO
~ ~ T THIIOB P o s ~ S C ~ ~ ~ ~ - K I ~ H + Ha3BaHHR
TOB, KOTOPbIX OTAH'IaIOT-
CR fipyl" OT Apyl"a TOAbKO HOMepOM. H3 HHX BbI, BepOXTHO, C T W H B a h E I C b TOAbKO C +OP-
MaTOM w e 7, H 3 n e C b 06 3TOM )'IIOMHHaeTCR TOAbKO nOTOMy, 'IT0 B A I l T e p a T y p e M O X e T
BCTpeTUTbCR H T a K O e H a n H C a H H e dP0stScript Type 1., B HaCTOAbHbIX H H3AaTeAbCKHX
c u c T e M a x , K o r n a B ~ ro~opm-e
I o PostScript-rupa+~ax,n p H H m o C'IEIT~TL, TO pesb u A e T
HMeHHO 0 + O P M ~ T Type ~ 1.
P o s ~ S C ~ ~ ~ ~ - I I I ~CTaAlr
H + T ~CTaHAapTOM
I B H ~ A ~ T ~ A ~OTpaCAH,
c K o ~ ~ IIOCKOAbKy OHH
o 6 ~ a n a 1 oPSIAOM
~ I I p e H M y W e C T B IIO CPPBHeHHIO C APYrHMH + O ~ M ~ T ~ M OAHO
H. H 3 HHX
COCTOHT B TOM, ' I T 0 ~ O A ~ L U E I H C T B+OO T O H ~ ~ O P H ~ IaBTOMaTOB
X H I I p a K T U s e C K H BCe YCT-
p o i i c ~ ~c Ba ~ I C O K H Mp a a p e r n e ~ a e( ~ a n p x ~ eypc, ~ p o i i c ~Computer-to-Plate'')
~a c~a6-
meHbr P o s t s c r i p t - ~ ~ ~ e p n p e ~ a- ~ opacmpoeawu
pa~s npogeccopuu (raster image
processor - MP). E c r e c m e ~ ~Toa,m e n p o U e c c o p b 1 hysme B c e r o pa6o~a10~ c PostScript-
III~H+T~MH.

d > o p ~ TrueType
a~
B TegeHHe HeCKOAbKHX A e T B KOHUe 1980-x rOJfOB B o6nac~uKOMIIbIOTepHOrO IIXpH+Ta
H H ~ ~ O P H ~IIPOUeCCOB
I X P~~tS~ript-LUPH+T RBARACR IIepBbIM H eAHHcTBeHHbIM CTaHAap-
TOM UH+POB~IX U ~ U $ ~ O B B L q5opAnamoe
X (font format). T ~ HK e M o r n 0 A o n r o npononrna-rb-
CR. no KOMMep9eCKHM H TeXHOAOrHgeCKHM IIPU'IHHaM +HPMM Apple Computer U
Microsoft coo6.ura c o s ~ a n nH O B ~ IUPH+TOBO~~
I ~ ~ + O P M ~ T - TrueType. H o ~ b ~+i Oi ~ M ~ T
A 0 B03MOXHOCTb O ~ ~ H M
KOMnaHHRM BCTpOHTb O T O ~ ~ ~ X ~ UH IHP RH ~ T
B~CBOH OnepaUFi-
OHHbIe CHCTeMbI, H e ~YAYSEIHIlZIeM O ~ I I ~ ~ H H ~KOMnaHHH
IMH Adobe.
XOTRn p e n n o n a r a n o c b , ZITO IUPM+TM Ti-ueType CoBMecTkiMbI c Postscript-HHT~P-
IIpeTaTOpaMH, H a C & O T O H ~ ~ O P H ~ I X aBTOMaTaX B03HHKaAH n p 0 6 n e ~ b 1C BbIBOAOM IIIpH+
TOB 3 T O r 0 ( P o P M ~ T ~ . 3~0s
n p H W i H e P ~ ~ t S ~ r i p t - L l I p H d pOT C
b ~T W C b +OPM~TOM, KOTO-
p b ~ f ni p e f i n o s m a w r n p o + e c c a o ~ m ~ bn~se~ a ~ e n3m
a. npo6ne~bH
1 e yTpaTum c~oefi
O C ~ O T ~ XOTII
I , n o r r y n ~ p ~ o c IIIPH+TOB
rb TrueType B OC Windows ki H o B b I e K o M M e p -
secKHe B ~ ~ H M O O T H O ~ ~ K
HH Adobe
O BM ~ ~ H H ~ H Microsoft npmenu K 6onee y c r o i i ~ ~ ~ ~ o i i
p a 6 o ~ ePosficript-yc~pofim.
B 4 o p ~ a TrueType
~e H a m caoe B o n n o u e H H e H e c K o A b K o y n y ~ m e ~ ~ nol fcpaaae-
i
+ ~ a ~B~c eir.o o T M e g a l o T T e x H o n o m xunmunza" (hinting) -
HHH) c P o s t S c r i p t - ~ ~ ~ p ~T-Iaxue
H a n E i s H e B ~ P H + T O B O M +afine n o A n p o r p a i v M , K o T o p b I e O ~ ~ C ~ ~ Z I H B6onee
~ I O TAOCTO-
B e p H O e IIpeACTaBAeHEie I I I ~ H + T o B ~ I x KOHTYPOB IIpM CpeAHeM H HH3KOM pa3peIIIeHHIIX.
(Eonee nonpo6~axEIH+OPM~UIIR o xHHTHHre npencraanena 3
r z ~ . 7.) Ms-sa BbIcoKoro
KaZIeCTBa XHHTMHra + O P M ~ T TrueType 0 6 b 1 9 ~ 0PaCnpOCTpaHReTCR 6e3 C03AaBaeMbIX
BPY'HYIO 3KPaHHbIX (PBCTPOB~IX) BPPHaHTOB. ~ K P ~ H HIIpeACTaBAeHHe
O ~ IIIpH+Ta R H e -
pHpy€!TCR HeIIOCpeACTBeHHO H 3 KOHTYPa 3 H a K a , El B UeAOM OH0 BnOAHe n p H e M A e M O Aiurce
I I p H O s e H b MeAKHX K e r M X .
@ O ~ M ~TrueType
T AOIIyCKaeT p a 3 ~ e u e 6onee ~ ~ e IIIHpOKOI'O KOMIIAeKTa 3HaKOB.
B H e M H G A ~ T C I MeCTO
I AncI aAbTepHaTHBHbIX +OPM 3HaKOB H B03MOXHOCTb 1COHTneKCm-
no; 3 u e n b ~31.lUh.06'(contextual character switching). %o ~ H ~ Z I E I ZITO T , npu onpenenes-
HbIX YCAOBHRX OAHH 3 H a K aBTOMaTH'IeCKH 3 a M e H l e T C I I AP)'IXM. B CaMOM A e A e , + O ~ M ~ T
TrueType n p e A n a r a e T A o c T a T o w o m ~ i p o ~~~~f ia n a ~3r 0n o~r p a + n r e c ~BOBMOXHOC-
~x
Tefi, ~ O A ~ ~ H H C T H
B 3OKOTOpbIX H e peaAM3yeTCR BBHAY CAOXHOCTki (ZIEITGTe: AOpOrOBH3-
HM) III3OrPaMMHpOBaHHR KBK CaMOrO Z U P E I ~ T O B O ~+afi~a,
O T a K H + Y H K U H ~ ~n p O r p a M M -
HbIX ~ H A o X ~ H H ~~O~~ ,X O A H M ~AL M
X TOrO, ~ 0 6BOCIIOAb30BaTbCII
~ 1 BCeMH BO3MOXHbIMH
npeHMywecTBaMu.
K o M n a ~ H r rApple cnenana ISOnbITKy B C T p O m b HeKOTOpbIe BO3MOXHOCTH TrueType
B 0nePaUHOHH)'H) CHCTeMY IIOCpeACTBOM + O P M ~ T QuickDraw
~ GX (B~PEIHTR3bIKa OnH-
C H H R CTpaHHU, K O T O P ~ IMac
~~ 0s HCnOAb3yeT AAII BbIBOAa ~ 3 0 6 p a ~ e ~H ~a ~i Kf iP ~ H HO
),
no ~ p a i i ~ eMf ei p e , 3 T 0 3HaZIEIT, ZIT0 AOKYMeHT,
HX H e n O A A e p X a A I I p a K T I l r e C K H HHKTO.
i i a n n a T + o p M e Mac, H e 6y,qe~p a 6 0 T a T b H a n h a ~ + o p ~Windows
c o 3 n a ~ ~ b 1H e PC,
y K O T O ~ OOTCYTCTBYeT
~~ IIOAAePXCKa TeXHOAOrXH GX.
Q o p ~ OpenType
a~
@ O ~ M ~OpenType
T XBAXeTCX ~ H ~ P H A H ~ IOH
M ,CO3AaH KOMIIaHHXMH Adobe H Microsoft
E1 C r A a X I l B a e T p a 3 A E n H R ABYX +OPM~TOB, II03BOAXII IIM COCYI4eCTBOBaTb B OAHOM I I I p H 4 -
TOBOM +a;ine. OHT a K m e A a e T B O ~ M O X H O C T ~OAHH H TOT me IIIPH+TOBO~~ + a h Eicnonb-
3 o ~ a B~ 06eux
b Macintosh H Windows.
O n e p a u H o H H b I x CHcTeMax
nporrre roaops, IIIPH+T + o p ~ a ~OpenTypea - wo rnpx+~TrueType c mapMaLLI-
KOM, AAII P o s ~ S C ~ ~ ~ ~ -LUPH+T
A ~ H HOpenType
~IX. M O X e T C O A e p X a T b AaHHbIe + 0 p M a T a
TrueType, n a H a b r e + o p ~ a ~PostScript
a HAH ( ~ e o p e m s e c ~060ux
u) +OPM~TOB. T ~ K N M
06pa30~,CyLIXeCTByeT n O T e H U H a h b H a 2 B03MOXHOCTb O I I T H M W H b I M 0 6 p a 3 0 ~0 6 . ~ e , 4 ~ -
H H T ~A y Y m u e CTOPOH~I06011~ +OPM~TOB. O n e p a u ~ o ~ c~Hac rxe M a c a M a c o p T n p y e T AaH-
HbIe IIIpE1+Ta OpenType H sb16apae~ TOAbKO T e E13 HHX, KOTOpbIe ee yCTpaE1BaIoT.
n p o 6 n e ~ aI I I ~ H + T o B ~ I x +afiAoB +OPM~TOB OpenType E1 TrueType COCTOIlT B TOM,
S T 0 ~ Y A Y ~ IIpOCTO
EI n O A b 3 0 B a T e A e M r u p ~ l + ~TpyAHO
a Y3HaTb, YTO Y HHX BHYTPU. @OP-
MaT P o s ~ S C ~ ~ ~ ~ - U I ~ HO
+~T ~OI B
'IHC
O O A e p X H T TOAbKO ~ T i t H A a p T H b I f KOMIIAeKT
i 3HaKOB CO
cTaWapTHbIMH napaMeTpaMH. A + o p ~ aTrueType,
~ H B erne 6 o n b u r e i i cTeneHx +op-
MaT OpenType, n p e A h a r a e T IIIHPOKH~~
~ a60p
A o n o A H m e s H b r x napaMeTpoB, KoTopbIe
MOIYT BKAIOYaTbCX, a MOIYT H H e BKAIOYaTbCX B ~ m ~ f Hi K P ~ T H ~I III~~ ~H + T o B o ~+GA.
bK O ~
, O ~ M ~ OpenType
Hanpki~ep+ T M O X e T C O A e p X a T b OT 256 A 0 65 536 3HaKOB. He CyUe-
cnoc06a Y3HaTb 06 3TOM, eCAH TOAbKO n a p a M e T p b 1 I I I ~ H C & T ~H e
CTBYeT O T p m e H b I B Ka-
KOM--60 COnPOBOAHTeAbHOM AOKyMeHTe.

Anrr nonaanrrmuero sucha rapea?n, + o p ~ aOpenType ~ H e H C ~ O A ~ ~ ~ ~ TO


T C X3 .~ a -
YHT, YTO T a m e ILIPH+T~I n p H M e H f l I o T c x ~ ~ B o6n e 0p a q ~ l o ~ ~cpeae
ofi Macintosh, m60
B OII~P~~IJEIOHH COp e~A~e Windows, HO HHKOrAa B o 6 e ~ xOAHOBpeMeHHO. Memay T e M ,
IIOYTH BCe I I p O A a B a e M b I e raPHE1TYPbI IIpeACTaBAeHbI B + O ~ M ~ T AAX ~ X o6e~x ~ A ~ T + o ~ M
a BepCllH OAHOrO H T o r 0 HCe I I I P E ~ + T ~OT OAHOrO H T o r 0 Xe p a 3 p a 6 0 w ~ ~A aaI o T npaKTE1-
s e C K H OAEIHaKOBbIe Pe3YAbTaTbI. E ~ ~ E I H C T BPa3AHYZle ~ H H O ~ M e X A y BepCHXMH IIIpH+To-
I BbIX C t ) a f i A ~ BMac H PC COCTOHT B cnoc06e 3aIIHCH AaHHbIX, KOHKpeTHbIe AaHHbIe MOXHO
n p O Y e c T b B O A H O ~CEiCTeMe
~ HAM B f l p y ~ f i ,HO HIIKOrAa B 0 6 e ~ x .
O n e p a u u o ~ ~ b Cr nec T e M b I Apple Macintosh H Microsoft Windows pacnonarawr 6a-
3OBbIMN KOMnAeKTaMIl LUPII+TOB. ~ ~ ~ B o H ~ ' I Z ~
S TA0 ~6 bH1 nOa COBCeM p a 3 H b l e IIIpH+Tb1:
y KOMnaHHIl Apple - IIIPH+T~I OT + H P M ~ I Linotype, a y KOMnaHElH Microsoft -
OT + H P M ~ I Monotype. kI XOTR TO 6b1.m pasabre IIIPH+T~I, K o M n a H H R Microsoft (01103-
AaBlIIU C 0 6 e c n e ~ e I~I I ~~ He+~T o B o ~ I~I O A A e p X K H B o I I e p a I X H 0 ~ ~ 0Cf iH C T ~ M ~H)+ H P M ~
Monotype I I p O e K T H p O B U H ~ a X ~ b 1xupa+~
f i H 3 6a30~0ro~ a 6 o p a o n e p a u t l o ~ ~ oCHCTe-
ii
MbI Windows T a K , ' I T O ~ ~OHH I HMeAH OAHHaKOBbIe LUIIPHHBI C CO0TBeTCTByK)IUEIMH JI.IpH+-
Mac.
T a M H o n e p a u ~ l o ~ ~CoHfCi T ~ M ~ I T ~ KLUPH+T , Arial (Windows) H M e e T T e me m r ? p ~ -
HbI BHPKOB, T O H I I I ~ H + T Helvetica (Mac). e c A H AOKyMeHT, ~ a 6 p a ~ ~ bI IlI ~f Hi + T o M
Helvetica, IIC-PeAaeTCR C KOMIIbJOTepa Mac H a K O M n b I o T e p PC, Windows MOXHO IIOACTa-
BHTb IIIPEI+T A-%al,H B e P C m a OCTaHeTCR ~ a ~ 0Xe, f i ~ a ~ 06 bf m i a H a MaIUHHe Mac. m p r ? + T
Arial sb1rArrnH-r c n e r K a m a s e , Y e M IIIPH+T Helvetica, HO n o c K o n b K y U ~ H P H H ~BIc e x 3 ~ a -
KOB COBIIaAaWI', TO B e p C T K a H e HapyLUHTCfl H P a 3 p b I B b I CTPOK OCTaHYTCFI HeH3MeHHbIMH.
K o M I I ~ H H RApple ElCllOAb3OBUa T y Xe MeTO WKY, K O r A a H a Y U a IIOCTaBAZTb BePCElH
lupEi+~a B + O P M ~ T ~TrueType El3 OCHOBHOrO 1 I M n A e K T a P o s ~ S C ~ ~ ~ ~ - I I I ~ H + KOTO-
TOB,
p b I e BCTpOeHbI B ~ W ~ b 1Pf O
i S ~ S C ~ ~ ~ ~ - E I H~TO ~C ~O I+ IE~I ~XTTa Xe:
~ T KOBPA. ~ I ~IIOAb30-
~
B a T e A b AOX'KeH BAaAeTb XOTR 6 b 1 6 a 3 0 ~ b 1
KOMnAeKTOM
~ UIPEI+TOB, ~ 0 ~ 0 p b 1 nO3BOARA
fi
6b1 nepeaasan m n o r p a + m e c ~ xo ~ Tb c~ Oi Ai H O ~n~~
~ + o p ~ a ~ ~ p o A~o aK p~ e H a~+op-
MbI H a ,L(pYIYIO, IIj'CTb H C AOBOAbHO H ~ ~ O A ~ U I EYHCAOM
IM LUPH$3TOB.

H a 6 o p ~ b r empnCJ?n~
B + o p ~ a ~Postscript
e H p a H H H e XLIPH+T~I n + o p ~ a ~TrueType
e
BKNOYU ~AHHCTB~HH ~ I ~ ~ 3HaKOB
COCTaB - TaK ~ a 3 b I ~ a e M b lxOhl%fexm
fi Latin 1, XOTFI
OIIepaUHOHHbIe CHCTeMbI Mac U Windows HCnOAb3OBaAH p a 3 H b I e ero IIOAMHOXeCTBa.
Hanpwep, B KOMIIAeKTe Windows HeAOCTyIIHbI nuzamyplsl (ligatures), T. e. ~ Y K B ~ W I ,H -
T b I e B OAHH 3HaK, H a I I P R M e P fl MAHfl. A B KOMnAeKTe Mac HeAOCTynHbI 3HaKN ~po6eii
(XOTR B OThElIYHe OT Windows 3AeCb A O C V e H 3HaK A P O ~ H OY~e p~T b I , 9~06b1 IIOAb30Ba-
T e A b CMOr IIOCTpOHTb ~ p 0 6 bC ~ M O C T O R T ~ A ~ H O ) .
y n e p B b I X IIIPHC$TOB~IX + ~ G A O B HMeAHCb F I Y e f i ~ k iTOAbKO AAR 256 BHaKOB, H AaH-
H ~ I GKOMIIAeKT 3HaKOB OCTaeTCIf CTaHAapTOM EAR ~ O A ~ U I U H C TUIPEI+TOB~IX B~ +afi~o~.
Ha CaMOM A e A e , B TaKElX Ct)afihaxH e TaK YX MHOrO BHaKOB, KOTOPbIe P e U b H O C O A e p X a T
IIeYaTHbIe CHMBOAM, IIOCKOAbKy 33 R Y ~ ~ ~3aHRTbI K H KOMaHAaMH, H a I I p H M e p , backspace
( y n m n p e ~ b I , q u & 3 ~ a ~delete ) , ( y ~ a h ~ H~ return
b ) (nepeno~ ~ a p e ~ xi f~m)e. m p H + ~ b r
+ O P M ~ T ~ KOTOP~IB
, M O X e T C O A e p X a T b 6onee 65 000 3HaKOB, YaCTO BKAK)YaK)T TOAbKO
256 CTaHAapTHbIX. ~ O A ~ U I H H C T BJJM+POB~IX
O UIPH+TOB, KOHBePTIIPOBaHHbIX I13 + O P M ~ T ~
Postscript B + O ~ M ~OpenType,
T H e n0AyYaK)T 3HaYKTeAbHOrO YHCAa AOnOAHHTeAbHbIX
3HaKOB ( ~ C A I I~oo611xe
EIX I I o A ~ W ~ I O T ) .s a 3 0 B b l f i KOMII-
AeKT IIeYaTHbIX 3HaKOB CM. H a PMC. 4.2.

Ta6nnyb1ASCII n Unicode
32 (spare) €4 O
33
3
1
4
65
66
A
8
a
b
He B c e B e p c H u o6eux o n e p a u a o H H b I x c H c T e M n o 3 ~ o A x -
35 67 C C HIT 06ecne4m A0CT)'II KO BCeM 3HaKaM, COAePXaLIIHM-
36 1 68 D d
37 % 69 E e CX B LUPH+TOB~IX + a f i A a ~ . %O BO3MOXHO TOAbKO B
38 8 70 F f
39 71 G 9 C H C T e M a X , I I O A A e p X H B a i o U E I X KOAOBYIo T ~ ~ A H U Y
40 ( 72 H h
41 ) 73 1 , Unicode. K HE~MO T H O C ~ C XMacintosh OS X H Windows
U * 74 1 i NT 4, Windows 2000 EI Windows XP. C P U P M ~ I
43 + 75 K k
44
45
.- 76
77
L
M
I
m
Microsoft H Apple O ~ ~ X B H A ETO
I , Unicode c T a H e T IIOA-
4 6 . 78 N n AepXEIBaTbCX BO BCeX ~ Y A ~ O
H~ X
H O B A ~ H H RHX
X One-
47 I 79 0 0
4 8 0 80 P P PaUEiOHHblX CHCTeM.
49 1 81 Q 9
50 2 82 R r K o ~ o s a*ra6naua
s Unicode - TO ~ e x c & y ~ a p o ~ ~ b $
51 3 83 5 s
5 1 4 84 T t CTaHAapT, K O T O P ~ I ~K~a,K H A p F H e E U ~ H + T O B ~ ICTaH-
~
53 5 85 U U
5 6 6 8 6 V Y AapTbI, 0 6 e c n e s ~ s a eCOOTBeTCTBEIe
~ OIIpeAeAeHHbIX
55 7 87 W W
5 6 8 M X X 3HaKOB OIIpeAeAeHHbIM 4MCAOBbIM KOAaM. A KOAbI HC-
n s 89 Y
5 8 : $ 0 2
Y
z IIOAb3yIOTCX KOMIIbIOTepHbIMH CHCTeMaMEI AAX 06pame-
59
M
;
)
91
91
f
\
(
I
HHX K KOHKpeTHbIM 3 H a K a M B ~ ~ U ~ T O B O M +she.
61
62
r
>
93
94
I
A
I A0 Unicode eAHHCTBeHHbIM M ~ X M ~ T + O ~ M ~ H H ~ I M
63 7 95 - (delete) C T a H A a p T O M K O A H p O B a H H X 6 b 1 ~C T a H A a p T ASCII
(American Standard Code for Information Interchange -
PHC. 4.4. K O ~ n b l O T e Up A e H T U - ~ M ~ P H K ~ H Cc K 1 f i o 6 ~ e H~H a
~ aH~~~~a p T H bKOA +O~M~UU-
+%uupyeT ~ Y K B L Ino K O A a M , eG), KOTOP~IGHCIIOAbSOBaA TOAbKO KOAbI OT 0 A 0 127,
a~ KOAOB
H ~ S ~ H H I I OT 0 no 127
K a K IIOKa3aHO H a PHC. 4.4. ECAH TeKCT C O X p W e H B
y BCeX O n e p W U O H H b I X CHCTeM
CoBnaAam, 3T0 TaK ~asbrsae- ne 3 ~ 0 r o+ o p ~ a ~ ero
a , MOXHO n e p e A a B a T b H Y m a T b ,
Mas ~ a 6 ~ n ASCII.
ua Konbx OT He3aBEICHMO OT TOrO, ~ a ~ 0LLIPHC~)T
fi H K a K a R OIIepaUH-
0 40 31, H e n O K a 3 H H b I e 3 A e C b , O H H m CEICTeMa HCIIOAb30BUHCb A M 3aIIHCH, IIOCKOAb-
IIPUCBOeHbI H e n e S a T H b I M KO- KY K O A ~ I ,nepenamume T e K c r , MMemT c T a H , q a p m b l e 3~a-
MaHAaM, H a n p u M e p , return UAU
backspace. Ha6op B H ~ K O BASCII
Yearn.H a n p ~ ~ eASCII-KOA
p, 72 o 3 ~ a ~ 3aa reh ~a ~ H y r o
HaHeCeH H a 60nbmu~crseK O M - AaTuHCKyHI ~ ~ ' K BH.
Y
IIblOTepHbIX K A a B U a T y p , XC- C T ~ H AUnicode
~ ~ T p a c r u H p x e T KOaOByIO CXeMy,
nOAb3)TOWUX a H r A U f i c ~ U fR
i 3blK BKAIOYaX 3HaKOBbIe KOMIIAeKTbI AAX HeAaTHHCKHX
~A+~BUTOB. EOAX,IUEIHCTBO U I P E I ~ T O B ~ I+GAOB
X CTBH-
AapTa Unicode, H a n p a M e p , A n n ~ ~ H ~ T C K meorpa-
HX
+ a r e c ~ a xR B ~ I K O B ,d~yxbaUYm06ale(double-byte) H MO-
I ~ cTo A e p x a T b 6onee 65 000'' ~ H ~ K O B .

TOnbKO Win ANSI


~ ~ O U IlpHCBOeHHR
~ C C 3 H a K a M YHCAOBbIX 3 ~ a ' l e ~ H f i D ~ P ~ S
Ha3bIBaeTCfl ?C0dUp06altUe& (encoding). GO T o r 0 K a K ; i ) Z i 1 / 4 % x 1
Macintosh a Windows CTW n o n n e p r n n B a T b CTaHAapT
Unicode, OHH HCIlOAb3OBanH p a 3 H b I e KOAOBbIe CXeMbI
( ~ a 6 m ~ b 1 )T .a 6 m u b 1 C O B n w a h a B OCHOBHOG 'lacm ~ o n b ~MacRoman
o
KOMIMeKTa ASCII, HO p a 3 A U Y a h H C b B 3HaKaX, HMeIO-
IUHX KOAbI IIOCAe 128, T a K H a 3 b I B a e M b I e 3HaKEI cmap-
w u x p a 3 p ~ d o(high-bit).
~ ~ o ~ TO, r ~ no-
P e s y n b ~ a crano o TM~KO MacRoman, a a l n Symbol
KYMeHTbI, KOAUPOBaBuIIIeCZ H a O A H O ~K~O M ~ ~ I O T ~ P H O ~
M ~ T + o ~ MH~a , ~p)TofiO s e H b YaCTO o ~ o 6 p a r n a n a c b
HeKOppeKTHO.
kI A e n o H e TOSKO B TOM, YTO O n e p a u a o H H b I e CHC-
Unicode a c n o n b s o ~ a np ~a s a b ~ e
T e M b r AO c T a w a p T a
T ~ ~ A U KOAHPOBaHHR,
U ~ I a B TOM, 'IT0 OHH IIPHMeHtLZH PHC. 4.5.M3 6a3o~omKOMIIAeKTa
p a 3 H b I e IIOAMHOXeCTBa KOMIIAeKTa Latin 1 B KaZIeCTBe 3HaKOB, nOKa3iLHHOm H a PUC. 4.2,
CBOUX CTWAaPTHbIX KOMIIAeKTOB 3HaKOB. K rpynne ~ H ~ K OWin
B ANSI u ~ e -

K O M I I A ~ K TCHCTeMbI Macintosh (H KOAOBaX ~a6na- IOT ~ ~ X M O


AOECTYII TOAbKO npO-

~ aHa3bIBaeTCS
) MacRoman; a KOMIIAeKT CHCTeMbI AAX rpaMMbr Windows. K rpynne
CUMBOAOB MacRoman ahfem-r
Windows (a KOAOBaJi ~ a 6 m u aHa3bIBaeTCR
) Win ANSI. AOCTyII TOAbKO IIOAb3OB;tTCAIl
XOTZPaCIIPOCTpaHUTeAH IKIPH+T~ MOrJT
' IlpOAaBaTb Macintosh. Haxann rpynrra
OAHOHMeHHbIe U I P U ~ T O B ~+I a~h b 1 BAR o6enx IIAaT- MacRoman, + a h Symbol B K ~
+OPM, IIOAb30BaTeAEI CUCTeMbI Mac IIOAyYaT B E I p P i 4 - YaeT 3HaKU B O C H O B I I O ~T ~ ~ A E I I I C

TOBOM ClM.he O n H y I'pynIIy 3HaKOB, a IIOAb30BaTeAU KOnHpOBOK MacRoman, KOTO-


PbIe eCTb B KBXAOM IIIPII+TO-
CUCTeMbI Windows - A p y T y l o . Ha pHC. 4.5 IIOKa3aHbI BOM C@ahe Mac, XOTX H a CaMOM
3HaKH, KOTOpbIe A 0 n0XBAeHUX Unicode 6 b m yHHKahb- Gene OHR 3aNMCTBOBaHbI 113
HbIMU AAZ K ~ X A O GI I A ~ T + o ~ M ~ I . + ~aO
III~U+TOBO ha Symbol
~ O C K O A ~ KBCe
Y BTH 3 H a K H A ~ ~ ~ C T B H T ~ A
IIPHCyTCTBYloT
~HO B ILIPII+TOBOM
HeKOTOpbIe 6onee o~o6pame-
IIpOABHHyTbIe I I p H A O X e H H I i M O r F HCnOAb3OBaTb HX A X 4
HHX H a e K p a H e MAH AAR B b I B o A a H a nesam, name ecnti onepauaoaaa c H c T e M a H e npeno-
c T a m x e T n p r l i v o r o Aoc-ryna K HMM.
H a n p ~ ~ e AOKyMeHT,
p, ~ a 6 p a ~ ~ bH la fKiO M I I b I o T e p e PC, U M e l o I U e M ~ n e J l H a A b ~ b 1 f i
3 H a K A P O ~ E I'I4,
M O X e T 6b1-r~ OTKPbIT H a M a U I H H e Macintosh C n p a B H A b H b I M O T O ~ ~ ~ X ~ H H -
e M B T O ~A P O ~ HTOAbKO B TOM C A y Y a e , eCAH n p o r p a M M a , B ~ o ~ o p oAOKYMeHT fi OTKPbIBa-
eTCR, AOCTaTOYHO K C O O ~ ~ ~ ~ E I Y T T
~ OA ~~ ~ nono6pa~b
HI ~ ~ , C O O T B ~ T C T B Y ~ ~ ~3 H
U aHK~H OTO-
6pa311~bero. He B c e n p o r p a M M b 1 H a 3 ~ C0I I O C O ~ H ~ I .
a YX eCAH OAHH H 3 T a K H X Y y X e p O A H b I X 3HaKOB nOnaJJaeT B fiOKYMeHT, er0 M O X H O
IIePeHOCHTb B ,LipyrHe AOKyMeHTbI, A r n e eCAH H a A ~ H H O ~ ~~ T + O P M
~ A er0
~ HeAb3X Ha-
6 p a ~ bH a K A a B H a l Y p e . TO, KOHeYHO, +OKYC, HO H H O r A a OH M O X e T nPHrO&lWbCR.

~ ~ M M C T B O B ~ H H3 H
~ iIt K~ M Mac
O n p e ~ e A e ~ 3~H ab K~H eB K O M n h e K T e MacRoman 3aHMCTBOBaHbI H 3 LIIPEI+TOBO~'O + a f i A a
Symbol (CM. p ~ c .4.5). Korna BM p a 6 o ~ a e ~H ea K o M n b m T e p e Macintosh, TO K a m e T c s ,
9 T O 3 T I 1 3 H a K M RBAXIoTCR q a C T b l o K a X A O T O LLIpH+Ta.
H a n p ~ ~ ecpo s,e T a H H e K n a B M r u <Option>+<D>B c e r A a ab13b1~ae.r c ~ p o s ~ yrpeyec-
ro
KYH) ~ Y K B Yc(AeAbTa>) - 8. HO KOAbI, IIpHCBOeHHbIe BTHM ~ Y K B B MB K O A O B O ~~~ a 6 n ~ u e
K O M n A e K T a MacRoman, y K a 3 b I B a l o T H a n y c T b I e X Y e i i ~ l B
i ILIPII+TOBOM +aiine Mac. n p I I
BBeAeHHH BTHX KOAOB O n e P a U M O H H a X CMCTeMa 06pawae~cxK ~ P H + T O B O M Y + a f i A y
Symbol. TO, KCTaTH, O ~ ' ~ R C H X ~IIOYeMy T, 3aHMCTBOBaHHbIe 3HilKH H H K O r A a H e COOTBeT-
CTBYIoT CTMAK) LUPM+T~, KOTOPbIM BbI ~ a 6 a p a e TeKCT ~ e ( ~ C A HTOAbKO 3 T 0 H e rapHlWJ'Pa
Times Roman, H a OCHOBe K O T O P O ~IIpOeKTHpOBaACIi
~ K O M n A e K T Symbol).
3 ~ AaH ) ~ O I I ~ I T H CHTyaUHR
~X x a p a K T e p H a T o A b K O A X 4 Mac II TOAbKO 3 T O r O no-
Ae3HOTO K O M n A e K T a 3HaKOB.

O n e p a n ~ o ~ CHcTeMbI
~ b ~ e Windows (c n o M o r u b m ~ T H A I I ~Character
I Map) H Mac 0s
(C IIOMOlUbIo yTHAHTb1 Key Caps) lIO3BOAJiloT YBMAeTb KOMIIAeKT 3HaKOB U H + ~ O B O ~ O
+aha. k ' 3 3THX IIOAe3HblX I I p O r p a M M ( ~ M T )H e A b 3 R Y3HitTb TOYHO, KaKkIe 3HaKX1 CO-
AepXHT K O H K ~ @fiii.
~ I ~H e~K o ~ o p b n~ peE M o X e H w r CaMkl H a Y a h u n p e & k a r a T b n o f i o 6 ~ y l o
PHC. 4.6. l l p o r p a ~ ~Adobe
a
InDesign H M e e T BCTPO~HHLIH
0603pesa~enbU I ~ H + T O B ~ I X
+aHnos, a pacKpbIsamqeecx
MeHKl AAX YCKOpeHIlR IIOEiCKa
3HaKOB B PaCUIkiPeHHOM KOMn-
A e K T e n 0 3 B O A X e T ~ b 1 6 ~ i p aOT-
m
A e A b H b I e KAaCCbl 3HaKOB. ~ T U
K A a c c b I O n p e A e n e H b I BHYTPU
UIpH+~OBOrO +aha, B AaHHOM
wyqae n p e g m a s A e H a raptmypa
Palatino B + o p ~ a ~TrueType
e

ychyry, nasm n o n b 3 o ~ a ~ enocTyn


m K pacmHpeHHo-
MY KOMMeKTJ' 3HaKOB CTaKAapTa Unicode, name eCAH
OnepaUFiOHHaS CkiCTeMa He HMeeT T ~ K O
BO~BMOXHOC-
m (puc. 4.6).

Y T ~ HCharacter
T ~ Map
(Windows)
Y ~ m m Character
a Map (ee MOXHO BbI3BaTb, ~ b 1 6 p a ~
nocAenoBaTeAbao: Programs I Accessories I
System Tools) o ~ o 6 p a m aBce
e~ 3 ~ a m
mp~+ro~oro
+aha C
B B w e T ~ ~ A H U L I . n o M o u L r o YTHAEIT~IMOXHO BLIGP~TL H nepeHecTH 3 ~ UHa ~
rppny 3HaKOB B OTKPLITLI~~
A O K p e H T . H p P i BLIAeAeHIul 3 H a K a o ~ o 6 p a m a e ~ cKOA,
R no
KOTOPOMY MOXHO 0 6 p a ~ a T b c HK H e M y . &R ~ a 6 o p nm6oro
a 3HaKa 6e3 IIOMOIUEI YTNhPI-
TbI, H a n P H M e P H 3 TeKCTOBOrO IIpOIleCCOpa, MOXHO H a X a T b KAaBPiUIY H BBeCTH KOA
3HaKa; IIOCAe OTnyCKaHHR KAaBHLUEi COOTB~TCTBYK)IUII~~
3HaK IIORBHTCH B TeKCTe.
B aepcwrx Windows, KoTopLIe n o m e p m a n x Unicode, T a K m T e m o n o n i x p a 6 0 T a e ~
K m CO I l I p H B~KOAHpOBKe Win ANSI, TaK H CO lIIpH@aMH B KOAMpOBKe Unicode.
Ho B Unicode-q~+raxc noMoILZbIO K m B m m i 1
0
- M ~ K O 3 mK O ~ O B K M ANSI.
& J J T H e 3HaKII U A ~ H ' I X @ H U I I P ~ ~ O T CyXe R C IIOMOULK, I I l e C T H ~ 4 a T e p P i s H L I X( C M C T ~ -
M a cseTa, B KOTOPO~~ P ~ C ~ O A L ~ ~ KK Y p~oCMXe ux+p 0-9 H G ~ K B L I A-F) KOAOB Unicode.
B ~ O A ~ I L I E I H C TaBH~~ A O R 3 L I S H b I XB e p c & Windows Pi n p o r p a M M H L I x I I p U o X e ~ P i i ~i e o 6 -
XOAHMO B b I p e 3 a T b (Cut)H BKAeHI% (Paste)B A O K y h l e m H y X H b I e 3H;1KLI HeIIOCpeACTBeHHO
~3 ~ ~ ~ e p + e i~i cHa A ~ Character L I Map. B ~oaeiiruaxn p m o m e m x , K o T o p L I e H c n o n b -
~ ~ I n
Op eTw M y x u e c T s a n o n n e p x K H Unicode, M o m H o ~ ~ 6 P i p a Tr uL e c ~ ~ a n u a ~ e p x ~KOA
~ b r i i
s ~ a (~~ aa n p a ~ e02A5),
p, 3a KOTOPLIM c n e A y e T K o M a H n a <Alt>+<X>,n p e o 6 p a 3 p 1 ~ a x
KO& B C O O T B ~ T C T B Y K ) ~3HaK.
H~~ AOK~AP~~OB~H C IIu~l Windows H I I ~ H A o X ~ I M MO-
B eHp L %
r)py 0 6 p a w a ~ ~ cKHHeAaTPiHCKUM 3 H a K a M HeIIOCpeAcTBeHHO ( n p H YCAOBMM HCIIOAb30Ba-
IMX C O O T B ~ T C T B ~ ~ O
K IAU~~B~H~~ T Y P ~ I ) .
H o c r t o n b ~ yB IIIPP~@TOBOM +aiine c T m , q a p T a Unicode ~ o c ~ a ~ MoHso r~o BoH ~ K O B ,
TO y T I l A m a Character Map B ~ I B O A H TH a ~ K P ~n oHo s e p e A H o O n p e A e n e H H b I e r p y n n b l : Ha-
I I p H M e p , T e , KOTOpbIe PiCnOAb3YIOTCX AAR KOHKpeTHbIX R3LIKOB, HAH 9PiCAOBbIe SHBKII,
B K A I o r a R IIpOCTLIe ~ p 0 6 P fH 3HaKH AAX HX nOCTpOeHW3.

Y T H AKey
~ ~Caps (Mac)
YTHAHT~ Key Caps o ~ o 6 p a m a He ~a 3 K p a H e K A a B H a T y p y &AX TOrO, m-06~1
iIOKa3aTL, Ka-
KHe 3HaKH COOTBeTCTByDT OnpeAeAeHHLIM KhaBHILIaM. Haxame KhaBMIUPi <Shift>MeHR-
B a~m~ e T~ , H ~ K
~ ~~ Oe K ~ ~ L I K
eT~ 3 0 6 p a m eH A OHC T ~ ~ H LnIp P i ~ a m a ~ oKinia n H r u e . To me
npoacxonm n p H H a m a mrnaeami <Option>HAEI 06em KnaBPiru o,qHospeMeHHo.
M M ~ sRe T b I p e B a p P i m T a (6e3 H a X a T b I x K A a B u m , T O A ~ K O<Shift>, TOALKO <Option>
HAH o6e O A I I O B ~ ~ M ~ H H OO)n, e p a U M O H H a R CHCTeMa Mac 0s PiCIlOAL3yeT K a X A y I o
~ A ~ ~ B ~ H O - U H ~KAaBHLLIy
~ O B ~ I&AX
O AOCTjTIa K Y e T L I p e M KOMIlAeKTaM 3HaKOB. K ~ HK
B y ~ H m Character
e Map B c H c T e M e Windows, nce ~ H ~ K B
HL, I~P~HHL
B Io~K H e ~ H A H T L I
Key Caps, MOrYT ~ L I T Ln e p e H e c e H b 1 B AOKyMeIIT.
O ~ ~ ~ ~ UCHCTeMa
H O H H 0s
Mac ~ IIpHMeHReT T a K X e H 6onee CAOXHbIe K O M ~ I I H ~ -
ICnaBHIII A M B b I 3 0 B a C n e I l H U b H b I X AHaKPHT?iYeCKHX 3HaKOB. ,@R 3 T O r 0 BaM H y X H O
Y A e p X H B a T b H ~ X ~KAaBHXUy
T O ~ <Option>,K O r A a H a X H M a e T C R KAaBHILIa AHaKpHTHYeC-
K o r o a ~ a ( a~K a T y n o r o ynapeam (grave), y M n R y T a
u e m a l ' ) : o c T p o r o y n a p e H m (acuteL2),
(dieresis), ~ ~ n b ~ b ~ ' " t i I d e~)n r ?u x p ~ p + n e ~ c(circumflex).
a 3 a ~ oeT a e~n b H b I M ~ e f i -
CTBHeM BbI H a X M M a e T e K A a B I ? T G ~ K B ~ HI ,W K O T O P O ~P~a C n O A a r a e T C R A H ~ K ~ E ~ T M Y ~ C K H ~ ~
~ H ~ K . T O A ~ K O T ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ H ~ ~ K ~ ~ H ~ ~ O R B A X ~ T C R ~ K U ~ H T H ~ O B ~ H H L
AM T o r 0 ~ ~ 0 6 Y3HaTb,
b 1 rae paCIZOAOXeHL1 3TkI aKUeHTHPOBaHHble 3HaKE1, HBHCMZITe
KAaBlvuy <Option> n p H OTKpbITOM OKHe yT&iAHTbl Key Caps. B ~ J'BI HAHTe, YTO n R T b
KhaBIlrU B OKHe O K p Y p e H b I CePbIMH p a M K a M H . TO H eCTb nHaKpFiTHYeCKHe 3HaKH. ECAM
B ~ Wenmuwe
I H a OAHOM u 3 HHX H o T n y c T m e K n a s I i m y <Option>, BLI pmme ~ ~ K B L I ,
HaA KOTOpblMH p a 3 M e W e H b I AHaKpIITHYeCKHe 3HaKH.

Mac OS ~ .Unicode
i

B O n e p a ~ H 0 ~ ~ CIICTeMe
0 f i 0s X - ~ ~ Z H C T B ~ H HK OOT~O, p U n0AHOCTbIo n O A n e p X H B 2 r -
c T a m a p T Unicode - TOT cnoc06 ewe Gonee y c n o m H I i n c a . B ~ no-npemae~y
I MoxrTe
~ c n o ~ b s o sya~Tbm q Key Caps, ~ ~ 0 6 YbB1W e T L BCe 3HaKH B IIIPH+TOBOM +ak\e. E:
B ~LHTAH%CKO%BepCIlkl O I ~ ~ P ~ L I I I O H HCHCTeMbI
O~~ B o ~ o 6 p a x e KAaBHaTYPbI
~~a OCTafCTCE
TOAbKO CHMBOhbI K O A O B O ~T~ ~ ~ A M MacRoman:
U ~ I AaTHHCKHe 6 y K ~ b 1H 3HaKH I13 LUF:I*-
TOBOrO + a h a Symbol.
B 3 ~ 0 f iOII~P~UIIOHHO%CHCTeMe BCe n p H A O X e H W 4 , KOTOpbIe nOAAePXHBaH)T C3;IL-
A a p T Unicode, B e A y T c e 6 H
~ e T a K , KaK T e , KOTOpbIe eTO H e IIOAAePXHBaIOT. H a n p t r \ i e p .
n p O r p a M M b 1 . KOTOpbIe H e npHeMAH)T U n i c o d e , H e M O r y T HenOCpeACTBeHHO HCIIO.\Ki.c-
B a T b IIIPH+T~I, OCHOBElHHbIe H e H a K O A O B O ~~~a b ' n ~ MacRoman.
ue Ha~6oneeH3Be-x-
MH 113 ~ T I I XXUPU+TOB R B ~ C Symbol
R EI Zapf Dingbats (HX ~ H ~ K memH KOALI U n i c ~ d e .
HO BHe , m a n a 3 o H a MacRoman). To me G Y A ~ Tc n p a s e n m o am ~10601-o Unicode-rnprf@-;.
H a n p u M e p , AM nro601-oa 3 t r a ~ c ~ o~r o 3 b 1 ~ a .
y I I ~ H A o x ~ H E ~KOTOPbIe
, H e IIOflAePHCHBaKlT Unicode, H ~ O ~ X O A N M06pa~zf1-=z~
O
K n o m International B A H a o r o B o M o K n e System Preferences AAR B b i 6 ~ i ; 3
~ p e 6 y e ~ oPfaiC K A W K H KAaBHaTj'pbI (o,L(HH YCTaHOBKM KaCilIOTCR CIICUH+EIKH R 3 5 Z c l
a A p y I X e - ~ n e I U i + r ? ~ F iUIPHQTOB~IX + ~ ~ A o B ) 3. a n a ~ H b 1 eYCTaHOBKH IlORBAXETL<
B p a c K p b I s a r o w e M c 9 M e m o n p o r p a ~ Key
~ b ~Caps. Hanpmep, ~ r 0 6 b 1Y C T ~ H O B E T TIIIPIIQT
~
Zapf Dingbat, H ~ O ~ X O A H MsOb 1 6 p a ~ bC o o T s e T c T B y I o w p K n a B H a q p y , H a KOTOPO~! z x
nonyqaeTe ~ o c ~ Ky nCHMBOA~M 3~01-o+ a h a c noivowbw Tex me KnasHru, K O T O ~ E
i
I 92 Y a c m a I. Ocnoea~m u n o z p a ~ u x u

AAR~ ~ H A O X ~ HKOTOpLIe
H ~ ~ , IIOAnepXHBaIOT Unicode, H e T H ~ O ~ X O A M M O C T nepe-
H
KAIOsaTb p a C K A a n K y KAaBHaTypbI, nOTOMy S T 0 T a K H e n p O r p a M M b 1 aBTOMaTIlYeCKR Ha-
CTPORTCR B COOTBeTCTBHH C B ~ I ~ P ~ H H LU
IMnicode-mp~~+~o~.
U n i c o d e - I U ~ H + T O B C paCILIHpeHHbIM KOMnAeKTOM 3HaKOB YTIMEITa Key Caps,
Kart H n o ~ 0 6 ~ aeiix B o n e p a u ~ o ~ ~coH ic Ti e M e Windows, 0 ~ 0 6 p a X a e To n p e a e n e ~ ~ b ~ i i
KAaCC 3HaKOB, IIOBTOMY H e T H y X A L I BCRKHG p a 3 IIpOCMaTpHBaTb BeCb KOMnAeKT.
K ~ HKWindows, onepauaoaaax c a c T e h . I a Mac OS X ~ O ~ B O A I Inepeaocan, ~T ~ H ~ K E I
sepes 6y+ep o 6 ~ e ~ ecnx a , TOALKO y sac ~ e a ~ r n o ~ s b o~n se p~a au nxo H H a x c u c T e M a
) oco6ax n o f i n e p x K a U n i c o d e - m p ~ + ~ o ~
(H H e n a T x H c K a r r p a c K n a n K a H a ~ n a s x a y p eHAM
B I I p U O X e H H H , nOTOMy T O 0 6 b 1 9 ~ 0KAaBEIaTYpa I I O n A e p X U B a e T 3HaKH TOALKO K O A O B O ~ ~
T ~ ~ A E I I I LMacRoman.
I OAH~K OB c e r n a
BLI M O X e T e H a 6 p a ~ bKOA C T a H A a p T a Unicode,
y A e p X H B i M H ~ X ~ TKAaBHllIJ'
O ~ <Option>.Korna Bb1 O T n y c K a e T e KAaBHIUy, 3HaK IIORBAII-
eTCR B AOKYMeHTe.

c I I e I J H a A b ~ b 1 eHAH U b T e p H a T H B H b I e
~ U P H ~ T O B+afiAb1
~ I ~
ao npmona c T a m a p T a Unicode H + o p ~ a ~OpenType
a ~oA~IUHHCTBO J.LI~M+TOB~IX
+ ~ G A O B OrpaHHsEiBaAOCb 256 3HaKaMII, a L U P I I ~ T O B ~+I&~ A b l H a A ~ T E I H C K OOCHOBe
~~
COAepXaAH C T ~ H A ~ ~ T H ~ I ~ ?
KOMnAeKT 3HaKOB. ( @ o ~ M ~TrueType
T ewe p a H b I U e n03BO-
M A H M e T b PaCIUHPeHHbIe K O M M e K T b I BHaKOB, HO ~OALLUNHCTBO~ 0 3 n a ~ e A UIPH+TB
eE -
&AX COBMeCTHMOCTH - IIPHPaBHHBahEl KOMnAeKT 3HaKOB + O P M ~ T TrueType
~ K +OPM~-
TY PostScript). n o n o 6 ~ b r 0rpaHHYeHEt.i
e He ~ ~ I A
ElCTOpHYeCKH
H O~OCHOB~HH~IM
HMMHO-
,
r H e raPHPiTYpL1 HMeAH 6 0 n b m e 3HaKOB, Y e M nO3BOARAa CTZLHnapTHU K O M n b l O T e p H U
pacmanea.
P ~ L U ~ H H n~pM
o 6 n e ~ b xC T U O CO3AaHHe AA5I HeKOTOpbIX IUPEI+TOB BCIIOMOraTeAb-
+ ~ G A o B , KOTOPbIe C O A e p X a T nOIIOAHHTeAbHLIe H U L T e p H a T H B H L I e
HbIX U I P H ~ T O B ~ I X
3HaKH. T a ~ a KOMIIAeKTbI
e LLIPH~PTOB Ha3LiBaIOTCR cne~ulpU@T?lUU
(expert sets) ElAH U b -
m e p ~ a m u 6 ~ mpu@ma-.uu
a~u (alternate fonts).
B YaCTHOCTH, OHH BKnIOYaHYT T a K H e 3HaKH, KaK U I I + P ~ I c T a p O r O CTImX (old-style
numerals). Y TaKHX UH+P p a 3 H a R BbICOTa H HeKOTOpLIe H 3 HHX ElMeIOT H H X H H e BbIHOC-
HbIe BAeMeHTbI. B COCTaB U b T e p H a T I l B H O r O LXlpkicP~aMOl'Aa BXOAHTb K ~ I I H T ~ A ~ np0-
' ~ -
IIHCHbIe 6 y ~ ~ b y1M, e H L u l e H H b I e A 0 P a 3 M e p a CTpOYHbIX. 4p)'rHe ~ n e ~ l I I p H + T b BKAIOYa-
1
lOT A H r a y p L I , T. e. K O M ~ H H ~ U E I~UF B , KOTOpbIe ClELhHCb B OAlIO uenoe. AH ~YKBLI
c poc9eprcahm, a K u e m u p y m q M e orcoaraxim 6y1-c~.
~ P U -
M e p b I TaKUX CIIeU3HaKOB IIpeACTaBAeHbI H a PHC. 4.7.
Pacxcnan~aB BTMX LLIPII+TOB~IX + a h a x H ~ O ~ ~ I Y -
Ha, IIO3TOMY OHU, KPK IIpaBHAO, paCnpOCTpaHXmTCff KaflMTmb

C T ~ ~ A U ~ ~OTpaXaIOIUI1MH
M U , COOTBeTCTBkIe 3 H Z O B I1 A B C D E F G

KAaBEiIII. K COXaAeHUlo, TYT H e M O T IIOMOYb IIIpU+- H I J K L M N


TOBbIe T I B IIOHCKe BHBKOB, IlOCKOAbKY ~OSLUIIH-
O P Q R S T U
CTBO U 3 3TIlX L U P H ~ O B ~ I+afiA0B
X C03AaHbl A 0 IIOXB-
V W X Y Z
AeHUX C T W a p T a Unicode, U MHOrtIe 3HaKH H e IIMeIOT
6yubl c pOW9pKaMM
CTaHnaPTHbIX KOAOB.
n p U ~ e ~ e ~ +aiih0~
I 1 e CO CIIeUIIaAbHbIMH 3HaKaMEI c A ' B C ' Z , E C F
(expert-set fonts) B ~ I S ~ I Bo n~ p~e Tn e n e m b I e TPYAHOCTH,
Ka K B npouecce + o p ~ a m p o a a H m ,sasacryro pan11
T ~ K
OAHOrO-eAIiHCTBeHHOr0 CXMBOAa, ~ p e 6 y e n~e pce~X O A
Ha +&.
apyrofi I . I I ~ H + T o B o ~ ~ B ~ a ~ 0Ctl.ryaUHEi,
fi KOr-
A a ~ p e 6 y e ~CMeHa
cs LLI~H+TOBOI'O + a h a , M O T IIPH-
r O n U T b C s M a K p O I l p O r p a M M b I HAU )TUANTbI, IIO3BOAXH)-
IUXe IIpHCBaUBaTb KAaBUIIIe UAH ~ K P ~ H HKHOnKe
O ~ ~
BbIIIOAHeHHe HeCKOAbKHX K O M a W , 06ecnesa~mum
,~(BO&XYIO
CMeHy I I I ~ u + TAAX
~ BbIBOna H y X H O r O 3 H a K a .
PHC. 4.7. Cneurup~+~~~
(expert sets) conepxaT ~ H ~ K A ,

~ H ~ K A CTaHaaPTa
BHe Unicode K O T O P b I e BXOAXT B TPaANLIEIOH-
HYIO r a p I I m y p y , HO nna KOTO-
n p o 6 n e ~ KOAHpOBaHIuI
a BCKpbIBaeT HenOCTaTOK CTaH- P b I X H e OKa3;thOCb M e C T a B OC-

A a p T a Unicode, a UMeHHo: e c A u B Unicode n p H c s a m a - HOBHOM LUPN+TOBOM +aiine.


~ H ~ K nNO ,K a 3 a H H b I e H a PNCYHKe,
IOTC~OnpeAeAeHHbIe K O A ~ o
I n p e n e n e H n b I M ~ H Z ~ MTO
,
cneuwpki+~a Adobe
BBI~TLI 113
KaK 6 b 1 n ~113ahepyLUPU+T~, e c A I i OH n p w y M a e T 11
Garamond. n o c ~ o n t ~
+ oy p ~ a -
CO3AaCT 3 H Z I 1 , OTCj'TCTBYIOIUEle B CIIEICKe KOAOB 3 T O r 0 T ~ TrueType
I AAH OpenType
CTaWapTa. A K TaKHM 3 H a K a M Befib MOXHO OTHeCTH MOrYT C O A e p X a T b HeCKOAbKO

MHOrOe I13 TOTO, 9 T O eCTb B CIIeUElaAbHbIX UAU a A b T e p - 6 0 ~ b ~ A K


i lO M n A e K T 3 H a K O B ,
;thbTepIIaTkiBIIbIe J..PU+TOB~I~
HaTUBHbIX ILIPU+TOB~IX ( P ~ G A ~ x .
+ a i l h b ~ M o r p n o c T e n e I i H o NC-
P ~ L L I ~ H I XBAXeTCs
~~M HCnOAb30BaHPie B K O ~ O B O ~ ~ ' I e 3 H p b , A T a K A e 3 H a K A 6 y ~ p
~ a 6 m u Unicode
e ~11anaso~a KOAOB, I I P ~ ~ H ~ ~ H ~ Y
~ H 0H6 ~a eI ~Xu ~ e ~ COr bCr TaHAapTHbIMM
~ A U S H ~ I ue~eii,,
X K y A a ,q113&ep rupa+~ac M o m e T B e n a ~ b r i rl u p ~ + ~ o ~(oPi al k
94 Yacma I. Ocxoaa~munozpa@uxu

~ 0 6 a s m bCBOH 3HaKH. ~ H ~ ~ Y ~ 3THX H H RKOAOB, T a K H M


0 6 p a 3 0 ~ p, a 3 n ~ ~ a r o ~y cPa~ ~ H L I LUPH+TOBLIX
X +af-
AOB. Aria T o r 0 Y T O ~ ~YnpOCTflTb
I ynpitBAeHHe, I.LIpH+-
TbI OpenType T a K X e MOrj'T C O A e p X a T b CBX3H M e X A y
3 H a K a M H AAX T O r O , 9~06b1A a T b IIOHXTb I I p O r p a M M H O -
MY ~ P M A O X e H H K HAH
l O ~ ~ P ~ ~ E I OCHCTeMe,
H H O ~ YTO
~ KOH-
K P ~ T H ~3 HI a~K ~ R B A X e T C X ~ A ~ T ~ ~ H ~ T +0p-
H B H O ~
~ A H O r O H 3 3 H a K O B B C T ~ H ~ ~ P T ~HaO6 ~n ~~
M O O ue.
Ha 4.8 BHAHO, K a K n p u n o m e H z i e n p e A n a r a e T
PHC.
~b160pU b T e p H a T E l B H b I X 3 H X O B . a o 6 a ~ -
no~b30sa~eruo
A e H H e HeCKOAbKHX B a p H H T O B K K a X A O M Y 3HaKOMeCTY
coKpawaeT p a s ~ e po6weii ~ a 6 m u b~1 H ~ K O40B y n p a B -
nrreMbrx nponopu~fi,a p a c n o n o m e H H e ~ H ~ K Onpao6-
B
p e T a e T AOrHYeCKyH, ynOpXAOYeHHOCTb.
~ ~ ~ A c T ~ ce6e
B H MTOT A e H b , K O f A a K A a B H a T y p b I
CTaHYT BbICBeSHBaTL 3 H a K H H a KAaBHI.LIaX. n p H C M e H e

PHC. 4.8. O A X H K O n C T a H A a p -
TaUnicode M O X e T y K a 3 b I B a T b
H a HeCKOAbKO a h b T e p H a T X B H b I X
B a P X a H T O B OAHOrO M T o r 0 Xe
3HaKa. B A a H H O M C A y 9 a e YeTbI-
pe a A b T e p H a T M B H b I X C$OPM~I
EY
~ Y K B ~ IbpI' H
P
T
j&
air SilentiLIm
Pro ( + o p ~ aOpenType,
~ pas-
p a 6 0 ~ s MAdobe)
~ o~o6pa~a-
IOTCX B PaCKPbIBaIOLIJeMCX
MeHK) Y CTaHAapTHOrO 3HaKa B
AHahOrOBOM OKHe n p O r p a M M b 1
Adobe InDesign
mpa+meoro +&a pacmanKa masnaTypbr TaKme 6ynm u 3 ~ e ~ n ~ bHcnpyrue n, 3~a.m
nOnBnTcn Ha maBSiula.X. C npMXoJ(0M mpH@oBbl~ +&oB, COnepXaUlHX 60hbIUYlO
Konoeym ~ a 6 h n q ycraHnapTa Unicode, HUKOMY 6 o ~ b m eHe ynacTcn neqaTaTb necmbm
nahbUaMIl Bclenylo.

Ecnw B ~ suTaeTe
I wy r ~ a c~C ~yM O M nasaha, TO yme ycnenu 3 a ~ e mSTO , Bce urpu+-
TOBble ci3aihE.I BenyT ce6n n o - p a 3 ~ 0 ~ ympn+Tbl
. +op~aToBPOstScript, TrueType
A OpenType noMuMo npmruunnaxebrx + ~ H K U U O H ~ ~ ~ H p a~ uI m
X n i i memT H CBOH
M e m e oco6emlocru.
Pacc~aTpmranHarlsannn urpzi+~oebrx+&OB B name, B ~ o m p o fnx i x p m o~n e
pawomran cucreMa, ~ o m nemo o 3a~- p a m m e Memy Tpem + o p ~ a ~ a 3~ au~. o
3aYarryM HeB03MOXHO OIIpeAeAJiTb (POPM~T mpH@a, OTXphlB MeHm Font (LLI~H+T)
npumanHbIx nporpahm. Boo61ue, nysme 3 ~ a +n o p ~ a n r~ N + T O B no TOI-O,KaK kin-
CTaAAMpOBaTh NX B CHCTeMY, H TOYHO llpWCTaBASTb ce6e, YTO eCTb YTO.
mpSi+TbI Pa3HblX (POPM~TOB MOTyT HMeTh OJlHHaKOBbIe Ha3BaHHR, H IlOIIBAeWX
Tamx coceneti B MymTe Mem Font ( ~ P H + Tn)F m e ~ 3 6 e r a ~sonee h. TOTO, BnoAHe
Beporno, TO OnepamoHnan CucreMa He CMOX~T n o n m , YTO y mpu+rm~c O A H H~
TeM me H ~ ~ B W Ha ~Mc m
, o n~a e , paseble (P0p~an.1,u BbIBeneT B cnncKe Memo m a -
KO orno Hasaaxae. Pi ~ b H l e 6 y n e ~ e3 ~ a nen TO-KO TOTO,YTO y sac nsa m p n + ~ a
C OAHMM Ha3BaHNeM, HO H K ~ K HMeml0
O ~ (POPM~T IIIpHI$Ta UCnOhb3YeTUI.

Oc06e~~oc-m
+OPM~TOB B CncTeMe Macintosh
B cncreMe Mac T O ~ K O+ O P M ~ T OpenType, conepmamufi PostScript-nannbre ( T ~ ~a3b1- K
sae~bliiP o s t S c r i p t - o p z i e m p o ~ a uOpenType),
~ MOXHO onpenenmb no H ~ ~ B ~ H H I O
+ a h a , 060 OH meeT pacumpenne otf.
O 6 ~ m b 1PostScript-mpu+~hr
e MOT 0603nasamcn m 6 b l ~ 1 1 3 k i a ' ~ a(K ~~na x n b r i i
pa3pa60nm CI'peMEFIW npsinyMaTb C O ~ C T B ~ HnoHc~noMombl0 I~), ~ o ~ a ~Get n b Info
l
(&+op~aunn) MOXHO y 3 ~ a n nBnneTcn , AU OH ~ 0 0 6 m eP o s t S c n p t - u ~ p ~ + ~ o ~ .
B PostScript-Qop~a~e K w o e HasepTame rapenqpbl - STO mnefinb~ii+ a h ,
a IlOCKOAbKY Ha3BaXns M O T 6- OYeHb +lANHHbIMH, HX CTaAM COKpaYlal+ na TaK,YTO
nmoM B mrx ~ p y u n opa306pa~bcn.H a n p a ~ e p OfficSerkboIta
, o 3 ~ a ~ Officina
a e ~ Serif
96 Yacma I. Oc~oaalmunozpa@uh-u

TrueType Postscript Book Italic. 3 a ~ b 1 c n o s a ~ o~


c ~abs ~ a ~sasac~yro
xii :*lo-

0
Palatino

--
9-*
QL?L
Palatino PalatRorn

FEIC. 4.9. SH~YKMpiui U[PM+~OB


ECAI.: OIL: r----HB ~JI~LIC$TI)BF.?~
l?(?C?lC)T""~~ @ ~ e ~ Eb IIEFice
!
B cMcreMe Macintosh MOT npe-
U C T C M ~ IW~ndows B ~ 3I a ~ e ~ mSTO
o n e p a r ~ u o s ~ oCg e .
flOCTaBAXTb IIpOTUBOpeYMBbIe
caeAems. 3 e a B~BepxiieM
~ ~ K ~ X C A ~I II~~~ ~E I + T
0 6 0 3 ~ a ~ a eC
~O~
OTIB
IeTCTBYIOIUFiM
pR4y 0 6 0 3 ~ a ~ C
aO~
Be~pIlreHHO 3HaYKOM, K O T O P ~ I II0380ABeT
~~ OTAHqaTb Il.Xph+T
P83HbIe TnilbL I U ~ M + T O B ,X O T f i T o s 6 c n p ~o r TrueType or CpenType (pxc. 4.10). Kzic
B ~ T M L I I T o.qrrFtaKoBo. ECAAB ~ I a E cxc?e:de Mac, P a s t S c n p t - ~ p ~ +p ~a ~
s ai ~ ~npsxs-
x
3WrWHt3Te BH)TPb IIaIIOK, TO BbI
s o ~ a ~ e r . cIXMeST
E pa3hHYEEIe 3HBYKB.
F I I ~B E~I L L ~ x306pmew~1e
~B,
B CpeAHeM pmy, OHEI 03HaYa.IOT
H M FI L~I P ~ + I T O E ~ I X + ~ ~ A O BB OC Windows TaK-
3KpZHHbIe i i i i k i Q ~ b 1 TapHVbi X e yKa3bIBaIOT H a C @ O ~ M ~ T+af ~ a@. O ~ M ~TrueType
T
PdatiIl0, HO COBepIIIeHHO Pa3HbIX aMeeT pacmHpeHxe trf HAM ttc, pacmHpeHiis
XOTX ~ T U
EI HE B3aTZn03ahleIiiieMhD:WiOB. MOIYT ~ ~ I T y III~M+TOB
M L + o p ~ a ~OpenType
a [Tax
EI T O A ~ K O ~ F ~ ~ YKK OM ~ H ~ I X sas~;~ae;v;bix T r u e T y p e - o p ~ e a ~ ~ p o ~ a aYs ~Ti xKaca-
~) .
IIIPu+ToB II03BOhffl.B a M pa3hE'r-
eTcx C I ~ C T ~ M Tl~:ndows,
LI TO 3 m aBa + o p ~ a ~ a
npaKm-
s a l a ~ m mpxrpToa:
s ~ +op~a~a
YeCKEl YgeHTEIYHbI, pa3AHVaRCb TOAbKO KOMnAeKTaMEl
TmeType (B HIlXHeM pmy u e -
s a ) M + o p ~ a ~Postscript
a 3HaKOB. T~KI?M
0 6 p a 3 0 ~H
, e BCe L L I P E I ~ T OpenType
~I
(B HMXHeM pI1LI)T CIIpaBa) a M e m pacmkipeme 06.
u a LOW- pfb 3 ~ o i r c t - ~ e g u ~ a r ~otfx p c ~
1111 -1
Abadi MT
Condens...
U
Abadl MT
Condens...
Agency FB
Y
Asencv FB
-~ras
1
11
MinfonCyr-Regular otf
~MOBC- pfb
Nohet RequlurSC o t f
anxrg- pfb
~MOBCI- pfb goaalt- ptb
@ M O C ~ f b Oit<cinaSans Bold utf
Aldine 4 0 1 Aldlne 4 0 1 Aldine 401 BT Aldlnc 4 0 1 #MOCI- pfb 9 OfftcinaSails Bolditalic otf
Bold BT Bold ltalhc BT ltallc BT #MOOR- pfb d OficinaSans Book otf
a N C ~ f b ~ flotficinasans BookItai~cotf
u aNcbi- ~ f b a o q ~ f b

I I
U -d
Aldine 7 2 1 Aldinb 721 Aldine 7 2 1 BT Aidine 7 2 1 ~ N C pfb I Q o t i pfb
Bold B I Bold Italic B I I tI
a l ~ cBT ri # N c r pfb e ~ o pfb b

LJ.I~H+TLI Postscript HMeIOT HeCKOALKO


+OpMaTa PMC. 3.10. Orrepauno~~im CHC-
pacrrrape~nii:pfb (AAX + a h a , conepmamero naHHbie TeMa Windows serge o603riaqa-
e r + O P M ~ T L I I I I ~ H C ~ T O B L I X+aii-
o KoHTYpax, 6 y ~ b~o 3a ~ a . q a binary
e~ - A B O H Y H L I ~ ~x)
A ~ BB .AeBoat orcrre npencranne-
pfm (ana + a h a , conepxaruero pacTponbIe ~ K P ~ H H I ~ 3Ha9KH C ~ Y K B ~ Mn,
~ HbI H YTO
LUPH+TLI Ii MeTPElKkl(m) - JlIIiPEIHbI ~H;LKOB).~ O C K O A L - o s a a ~ a TrueType.
e~ B npasoM
KY ~OA~LIIEIHCTBO Bepc& Windows OCHOBaHO H a CxlCTe- oKHe rupn+~br + o p M a ~ a
M e DOS ( n u c ~ o s monepayuoxmm c x c ~ e ~ aTO ) ,AAH- OpenType omeqeab1 G ~ K B o0, ~~
a PostScript-rup~@r~~ - norom-
H a ~ a s s a ~ nrupw+~oaoro
rr + a h a orpawxsaaaeTcx noM KoMnaHarr Adobe
BOCeMbK) 3HaKaMH IL&IOC (IIocA~
TOYKEI) TpeMX 3HaKa-
MEI PacmnpeHux. TO AenaeT n a s a a ~ x xPostScript-
IIIPEI+ToB BeCLMa HeBPa3J'MHTeAbHbIMU. Hanp~~ep,
TPYAHO npep(cTasm, . q ~ H VARG----.pfb
o~ ~ B ~ . H EI~ Ha
C ~ M O MAene 0 3 ~ a r a Viva
e~ Regular. Hanpo~m,wa3sa-
HHX UIPEI+TOB + O P M ~ T O B TrueType H OpenType
O ~ L I Y H OIIWKIYTCX HOPMUbHLIM ~ H ~ A H ~ ~ CXK
3bIIK
~OM
M.
K p o ~ Toro,
e rrpmomemii Windows O~LIZIHLIM
RBAReTCR o ~ o 6 p a m e m eB IIyHKTe MeHK) L U P H ~ T O B HX
+OPM~TOB. Benb HMeHHO 3AeCL H XOYeTCR riOAy%iTL
3TY HH+OPM~UEIX), n03TOMj' 6 ~ 6b1
~HeIIAOXO,
0 eCAH
6 ~ Bce
1 nporpaMMbx pacnonaranx ~ ~ ononea~oji
i i ~03-
MOXHOCTbIO (PHC. 4.11).
PXC. 4.1 1. fiuahoro~oeOKHO
F o n t miorax nporpaMM
Windows sacTo o ~ o 6 p a x a e ~

PXLWYHLIX 3HasKOB. B OKHe TO-


rpaMm.1 Core1 Wordperfect
B cmcKe rapI1q-p pa3husm-
cx rrrpu*~ + o p ~ a ~
TmeType
a
(TT) u PostScript (Tl)

b A b L U W KOJdFIecrsO npO'paMM-J'IlLUW, K M D
~ e C l B y € T
pbIe ~ a 3 b 1 ~ a ~
w rw p a i u uu 1 . e (fontmanager),B YW
06xzzm~ocmB X O opxxrmamm
~ u ynpameme O I ~ O M H ~ L M
W U O M LU~N*B, KOTOpbIe NHaCt?&ZCTD> Baur KOM3IWXYp.
H w e cxm.1~0~ 60~1,111oroK o n m e c m a y c x m o B n e H -
HbIX ~ H + B MOXeT CIIpOBOl@ipOBaTb me 1 1 p o 6 ~ e ~ b 1Bo-
.
IIepBbJX, Jro 3 a ~ e & w e p
~ a 6 q KOMHMDEpa, K O T O AOA- ~ ~ ~
X e H HerIpepblBHO O T C A e X l l s a T b COCTOXHUe III~H+ToB.
BCFBTOP~IX, co3~am CMKIIKOM AAHHHLG CIMCOK
M e m o Font (LLlp~+r),
TI-O ~ a ~ p y mrrpomurp
xe~ H~bdop
q ~ + r a OCHOBHO~
. ~ama~em wcnenepa
e ~ H + B -
nenco CBO- ~ H + B Kv .
WCAO ~ICIUBH~IX
C p woro COCTOHT B 0 6 e c n e ~ e ~BO~MO~KHOCTII
m
B MOMeHT A U a T b aKTMBHbIILIII KUi H ~ ~ H b I I L I I I
KaK OTAeAbHbIe LUPEI+T~I,
TBK U rPJ'IInbI IIIPH+TOB.
B ~MOXI?Te
I c 0 3 ~ a ~ ~a an6 b p aupu#rno~
~ (font sets),m 6 b 1
BLIM o m e r e c+opmipo~anOAIM ~ a 6 0 ~pP K @ O B AM onpeae-
~ b r n o m n nTO m o B e m o .
nemoii p a 6 o ~ b 1 ,rn~pyroii- AM onpenene~~oii n p o r p a M m . 1 . LUpa+n~M O I ~ TB X O A ~
B HeCKOAbKO TaKHX ~ a 6 0 p oH~e. ~ 0 ~ 0 p b AMCIIeT.lepb1
l e rupr?+TOB M O T aBTOMaTLIqeCKH
m c x u m p o B a n rupu+~ AM A o K y M e m a , ~ o ~ o p b lBi ~
i mI p b m a e - r e .
K ~ o TOrO,
M ~ IIPO~aMMbI-AMCrIeT.Iepb1nOMO~iLIOTOpraHH3OBaTL B a r u I l I I I P M ~ T L 60-
I
nee n o m a o . O ~ ~ Nonepamomre
HO ClicreMLI c 6 p a c b 1 ~ mEM B O A H ~~yq)l
(IIIZH ewe
X y X e , B HeCKOAbKO p a 3 P 0 3 H e H H b I X KP), IIpOIpitMMa-AHCneT.l€!p M O X e T yIIOpXAO%iTL HX
B COOTBeTCTBHH C IIPIPIMLUZIIaMII, KOTOPLIe BaM IIOAXOAXT: no + O ~ M ~ T LEpH+Ta,
~ M HaYep-
T ~ I Z I I M-itM
, III~II+TB(HaIIpHMep, ~ a 6 0 p ~ b 1 IIIpHCJ?T,
ii a ~ ~ m e mLU~II+T
~ f i Ii T. A.).
I I ~HM a n m m Ancnexsepa m p a + ~ o B ~~ M H e HYXHO x p a H m LUPH+TLI B TOG name,
r A e 0 6 b r r a o O n e p a y w o H H a r r c M n e M a PIX W e T CAM BbI 3 T 0 CAeAaAH, T o B c e OHH 6 y ~ y ~
~ K T U B H ~ I M HB
). ~ e c r o
~TO~O
B ,~ M
I omeTe xpaam IIIPH+T~I T ~ Mr,qe
, Y A O ~ H OB ~ M H
, no
BaIIIefi K O M a H a e AMCneTYep I I e p e A a C T HX O I I ~ P ~ U N O H HCHCTeMe.
O~ 3 T a B03MOXHOCTb
s ~ a ~ m e n 0 b 6~n e pa60-i-y c o6mpaoii 6 ~ 6 n ~ o ~ eIIIPH+TOB,
o rrae~ ~oii IIpeAHa3HaYeH-
HOG, H a n p a M e p , ~ n pxa 6 o ~ rpynn.
~x

P e n a m o p b ~urpa+~ax ~ n x m ~ c
mxc T p y M e m a M ~~ ~ 3 a i i ~ e~poa~,o p b rMi iC ~ O A L ~PIX~ ~ T
AAR CO3AaHIiX IIIPM+ToB OHHBKAW4itH)T BCe BOSMOXHOCTM PHCO-
OT H a Y U a M A 0 KOHUa.
K O ~ O BBH ~ K O B ,a T a m
B;LHU~I e HX nocneqmwero p e A m p o a m . P e ~ a r c ~ WPM+-op~~
T a M O T OKa3aTbCEI IIOAe3HLIMH &AX ~ M 3 a G H e p o BH e TOAbKO IIOTOMy, S T 0 nO3BOABK)T
A O ~ ~ B E I3TH~U H B I I I P M ~ T o B o ~+~ a h , H a n p H M e p , AOrOTEm KOMnaHHH, HO MX MOXHO
~ c n o n b s o s a nnx
~ b HcnpaBneHm KepHmra no ~ p e 6 o s a ~~morpa+on.
~m
y ~ e m ce 0 3 a a ~ a ~cbo 6 m e ~ ~ b 1~ eI I + T ~M Io m e x m a n B ~ X H ~ I Mrxpe-emoM
~ ~ s a i k e pHO ~ I ~ M ~ H ~~ H
a ,B =OM A e n e K p o e T u i M H o r o c e p b e 3 m x x onac~oc~eii. M +HT L
L II ~
~ $ A e n c o nepe-
cra~osrrrcrr~ H I I X ~ ~ ~ H L JMMnHo K, a OHM H e n o n p a T ~ H H K ~ A L ~H L~ SXB ~ , H HED(
IIJTaTb C C y l I J e C l B p U H M H . ~ P H + I % I , B KOTOpbDC 6 b ~ H3MeHeH,
\ HWpkWlep, K e p m ,
G y p OKa3bIBaTb B h w w l e H a Bep-, npIlYeM n p k I w a m r o B m - MMeHHO rupH@,
a H e c a M n o K y M e m . ECAEf A o K y M e m nepenae-rcxB ccIlcreMy, me TOT ~ l c n p a s n e ~ ~ m
b rp
i ia + ~
I x e A o c q m e H , TO sepcnca H ~ M ~ H K X XTaK
, K TOM u y a e ~ 3 ~ e 1 u r r cnmmr
K ~ B x CTPOK.
~ O C K O A ~ KI Y
I I P M + T O B ~ I ~ C$ahb1 AerKO IIepeAaBaTb, T ~ K R UIPII+T,
O ~~ M ~ H ~ H H L I ~
, O X e T BbI3BaTb K p a X AOKyMeHTa, eCAM IUPEI+T
I I o K E ~ I ~ ~ & CBOMX M O A U ~ U K ~ T O P O BM
I l e p e I I y T a I o T (MM IIpMMeHXT) C HeHCIIpaBAeHHbIM IIpOTOTHIIOM. ~ O ~ T O MC Y
M3MeHeHHLIM
LUPII~TOB~IM
+&AOM CAeAyeT 0 6 p a m a ~ b c xC O C O ~ ~ IBHkWlaHHeM
M H OCTOPOXHOCTLIQ.
Bb160P r a p H m y p b 1 m p ~ + ~-a370 H e T O A ~ K Os c ~ e -
mvecKoe pememe. K o H K ~ ~ T H ~ Gm p ~ + ~M 0ax e - r
YKpaCkiTb TeKCT, K O T O P ~ IOH
~ I I p e L J C T a B M e T , HO IIOILIEI-
MO 3 ~ 0 r oIIIPH+T TaKxe MomeT H e c m M nonea~y~~
HH~OPM~~XH
H )q, H M e p , BbIAeAXI% W O - ~ 6 0B.e p ~ b ~ j i
~b160pLUPH+TB Ii IIpaBElhbHOe er0 HCIIOAb3OBaHMe BAEI-
XH)T H a AerKOCTb 'XTeHEIR TeKCTa, H a 9 I I H a R C er0 3he-
M ~ H T ~ P HPO
~ ~~~~O P Z ~ I I B O C T H .
. ~ P H + T CYUleCTBYeT TOAbKO T O r A a , K O r A a BOCIIPN-
HPiMaeTCR B H 3 Y a h b H 0 , BIi3YahH3aUMR M O X e T BbInOA-
HRTbCR p a 3 ~ 0 0 6 p a 3 ~ b 1 M CpeACTBaMM:
M OT 3 K p a H a MO-
H m o p a AO neqam H n p o e K u m Han n o c K o m . B~ a ~ ~ o i i
mane p a c c M a T p H s a m T c x n p a K T H r e c K H e acneK?ar ac-
IIOAb3OBaHHR T o r 0 EiAH IiHOrO LIIPH+TB.

kI3 O n b I T a H a M M3BeCTH0, T O HeKOTOpbIe J . I I ~ M C # ~ TYH-


~I
T ~ C heme, X v e M Apyrae. C o ~ e p m e ~
H~ ~ ~o~ B H C M M O
OT TOrO, KZlK TeKCT CBepCTaH, OAHEI IIIpH+Tb1 C TOYKH
B P ~ H E I Rm o r p a + m e c ~ o r oK a v e c m a B o c n p m H M a m c R
nerve, a A p y r u e T p y A H e e . TOT ax^ B c e r n a H m e p e c o -
B a h ~ ~ ~ H ~ I x - T E ~IIPOBOAHBIUMX
~ o ~ ~ + o BAeCffIlcH
, AeT
B MCCAeAOBaHHRX, H a n p a B A e H H b I X H a M3)TeHNe y~o6o-
YmaeMocTH (readability). 4e-10 emx ~ c c n e , q o ~ a ~ ~ i i i
6b1no BbIRCHUTb, T O B T E ~ O T P ~ + E I Y ~ ? C K nOp~a ~K T H K e
pem.ulsaeT l r r e n e H b y n o 6 o v m a e ~ o mH,
onpenenrrra,
KaKHe raPHM'I'Ypb1 W P E I + T ~heme BOCnpHHHMaTb.
~ I C C A ~ A O B ~ HyH~R o 6 o s m a e ~ IIOAb3YKJTCR
oc~~ He-
no6pofi C A ~ B O nOCKOAbKy
~ ~ , IIPHXOART K TYMaHHbIM H
IIpOTHBOpeYHBbIM BbIBOAaM. Aame 0 6 m e n p ~ ~ ~ ~ b r e
%be legibilitp of tppee', it MHeHMR BbI3bIBaHIT HeAOBepEIe. Hanpu~ep,AAMTehbHOe
YTO LLIPEI+TLIc 3aceq~a-
e'eeme', i$ largelp a matter B p e M a c ~ m a h o c HCTEIHHLIM,
b
MII w T a T b heme, Y e M 6e3 3aceqe~.P ~ ~ Y M ~wccne- ~TcR,
of $abit. El recent e'tubp AOBaHEIR HHICaK 3 T 0 H e II0ATBePXAaH)T. TOYHO T a K Xe
inbitate$ tbat blackletter I I p R M b I e LLIPM+TLI AOATO C Y m a h H C b 6onee yno609ma-
tppefatee'eucb a$ Cloie'ter eMLIMH, Y e M KYpCEIBHbIe. B OAHOM HCCAeAOBaHHEI A a X e
@la& are jue't a$ legible yTBepXAaAOCL, q 0 EIX y n o 6 0 s m a e ~ o c ~AyYUIeb H a 5%.
anb eae'ilp reabable as Ho nocnenymxuee ~ a y s e paspyrumo ~ ~ e 3TEI c T e -

roman tppee' to epee' @at peOTUIIb1. B YPCTHOCTH, CpaBHMBaAEICb CKOPOCTEI YTe-


~ a 6 p a ~ ~IIpRMLIMEI
b1x I U ~ E I + T ~ M E IH $pah--
are accue'tomeb to @em. HEIR TeKCTOB,
mypou' (Fraktur),mii zomuzlecxu ulpuq5ma.u (black-letter),
H E I H A 0 B T O P O ~M W P O B O ~ ~
IIOIIyAXpHLIM B ~ ~ ~ M ~ BnAOTL
PMC. 5.1. XOTXpacnpoc~par-~e-
HO MHeHEle, T O ( P p a ~ T y ~ HAM
y,
(puc.
~ o i i ~ b 1 5.1). Bce c w T a m T , YTO n p x r H H a 6onee
TOTEIY~CKHEUI UIPH+IT, T x x e n e e MeAAeHHOrO YTeHEIII (Ppa~TJ'pblCOCTOHT B TOM, YTO
qElTaTb, Y e M ~ H T H K B ~ H H ~ I LLITPHXEI
~ ~ BO C~)P~KTJ'PHLIX
LLIpkf+~ax 0 Y e H b IIOXOXEI H
U I ~ U ( P T ,COBpeMeHICbIe fICCheA0- T a K 6 ~ ~ 1 p3a c~n O0A O X e H L 1 Ap)T K Ap)Ty, YTO YliTaTe-
B a H m o n p o s e p r a I o T TO. YAO- A I o ~ p e 6 y e ~ cAOBOAbHO
R MHOFO B p e M e H H AAX paCIIO3-
6 0 ~ I I T a e ~ oB
c 3~ ~ba V I I T e h b H o f i
HaBaHElR ~ Y K B ~3I a. 6 n y m ~ e ~ u~eI. C C A ~ A O B ~HUX
BLIRBEI-
CTeUeHfI 3PBEICUT OT IIPUBbIVKU
YMTaTeAR AM, 9 T O CKOPOCTL WeHIIEI A I O A ~ IIPHBLIKLLIMX
~, K YTeHEIM
+ p a ~ ~ y pH e, OTAHYahaCb OT CKOPOCTEi 9TeHEIR Y TeX,
KOMY Gonee nPEIBbIYH0 YllTaTL TeKCT, H ~ G P ~ H HIIpR- ~I~
~ o i ~iH T E I K B O ~ ~ .
ECAM HCKA~~EIT nnoxoii
L ~ u s a iIIi nnoxym
~ BepcT-
KY, TO HeCOMHeHHO, 9 T O ~ a ~ l 6 0 h eYe ~ O ~ O Y E ~ T ~ ~ M ~
LLIPM+TZ~MEI IIBAIIIOTCR T e , KOTOpLIe I I p E I ~ b 1 9 ~ e e ' .
( K o ~ e s ~ oTO, 3 a ~ n m q e ~ K~aicea e T c x TOALKO H a -
GOPH~IX, a H e a K W A e H T H L I X HAM AeKOpaTliBHbIX IJIpEI+-
TOB. ~ICHO, a LHIc K a x e H -
YTO n p e y B e n H r e H H L I e ~ A ~ M ~ H T
H b I e IIpOIIOpUMH AByX IIOCAeAHHX KAaCCOB LLI~H+ToB
3aTpYAHRKlT 'ZTeHHe, He3aBEICMMO OT TOFO, HaCKOAbKO
BLI K HUM IIPHBLIKAEI.)
P e 3 y h b ~ a ~ bH1C C A ~ A O B ~ HHE eI ~0~3 H a Y a W T , T e M H e
M e H e e , YTO c T e p e o m n H L I e n p e n c T a a n e H m o nhoxoii
~ A O ~ ~ Y H T ~ ~ M OFPOTeCKHbIX
CTEI H KYPCHBHbIX LLIPH+TOB
HesepHLr. M a c c o s ~ ~~iui s a i i au ~ ~ i n o r p a + ~ l r e cn ~p a Ka m K a A e n a m T TOT BLIBOA MCTMH-
HLIM, MCnOAb3YX U A M KHUr, M AAX X y P H a h O B , M AAX r a 3 e T U C K ~ S k I T e A L H On p R M L I e
~ M Q TCL3 aIC e P K a M U . kI nPMBbIKaSI, 4 U T a T e A U A P U I e BOCIlpMHMMaKlT MX.
AM CnAOIIIHOrO TeKCTa O ~ ~ I ' I H OIIPUMeHXH)T CTapMHHYH) M nepeXOAHYKl aHTliKBLI:
IIIPBQT~IC 3aCeYKaMU EI C Y M ~ H L I I I ~ H HKOHTpaCTHOCTbKl
O~~ M e X A y TOHKMMH Pi TOACTbIMM
IIITpUXaMM. Ho~oii ~ H T U K B OO~~ U I U P H L IM~ a~T e p M a , I I ~ ~ A H ~ ~ H ~ YBAR
~ HYTeHUX,
H L I ~ K
~ aK
npasano, H e ~ a 6 u p a m ~ .

K ~ yme
K OTMeYaAOCL, O ~ L I ~ H L IBUaOM
M UIPMCPT~, KOTOPLIM ~ a 6 ~ p a~ee n~p ce p~~ I ~ H b 1 i i
TeKCT, XBAIIeTCX n p X M a R aHTMKBa. TO H e 3aKOH, HO 0 6 1 u e n p ~ i ~ m a s fIIpaKTHKa. XOTX
CTOPOHHMKOB ~ a 6 o p TeKCTa
a rpOTeCKOM MHOI'O M AOCTaTOYHO BhEIRTeALHLIX, M O X e T 6 b f l b ,
n OMA a p K O M A M rpOTeCKHLIX LLIPHQTOB C T a h O IIOXBAeHMe HaCTOAbHLIX
CaMbIM ~ O A ~ ~ I I M
M3AaTeALCKMX CUCTeM. Ha KaKOe-TO B p e M X ~ a n 6 o ~ 4ea Ce T O UCnOAb3yeMbIMU lupMc]?~a-
MM CTUU BapHaHTbI r a p H m y p Times Roman' ( r a s e ~ ~ a ~r Hi T E I K B ~M) Helveticit ( ~ e a ~ e c y -
I u M f TOT~CK). K a m n ~ ~npOM3BOAUTeAb
ii IIpUHTepOB M U H ~ ] ? ~ O B ~ILIPEI+TOB
IX PaCIIOAa-
ran c ~ o e i is e p c ~ e i iTUX ~ M + T O B , s a s a c ~ pBTMM M O r p a H M Y u B a h M c L . kI 133 a B y x
III~H+TOB Helvetica n o h y m a ~ a ~ 6 o ~ b rou~eoe6 p e a ~ i e .
~ ~ O T ~ C K JH. LLl ~I E~ f ( t ) ~ b I ~ a I u MCnOAL3JWT
e AAX OCPOPMA~HUR, H a n p M M e p , 3arOAOB-
KOB U TUTYAOB, a T a K X e B P e K A a M e , B CaMOM A e A e , I I e p B b I M M3BeCTHbIM IipOMbILUAeH-
HLIM IIIPN+TOM 6e3 s a c e ~ e C~O, ~ A ~ H H L I YUALXMOM
M K ~ ~ A O H (William
OM Caslon)
B H a Y a n e AeBXTHaAUaTOrO B e K a , ~ L I A P ~ K A ~ M IIIPH+TH ~ I ~ ~K W A X 14, K O T O P L I ~H ~a3BUM
Egyptian ( E r a n e ~ c ~ ~(He i i ~n)o.T o M y , YTO OH B L I r A n n e A n o - e n m e ~ c a~ n~p,o c T o B T e
B p e M e H a e r a n e T c K a x T e M a 6~1na oYeHL n o n y n R p H a , H Bce, H M e m u e e KacaTenLcTBo
K A p e B H o c T N MAN ee a p x a T e K - r y p e , nonysano I ~ M X ,C B X ~ ~ H HcOX~U ~ H L K I H a 6eperax
A p e B H e r O %ha.) C IIOXBAeHMeM CMeHHbIX AOCOK 0 6 ' b X ~ ~ e H l i B i i XIX B e K e AAII lupUc]?-
TOB 6e3 3 a c e ~ H e a~c T y n u A a nopa p a c u a e T a . a p y r u ~H ~ ~ B ~ HILIPM+TOB U ~ M 6e3 3ace-
YeK, K o T o p o e npmecna T a enoxa, c ~ a n o n p e ~ € ! 6 p e X U ~ e ~ b ~ 0~zfiomech-."grotesque).
e
H a s ~ a ~ nxpeU X U A O C L , U MM CTaAM YBCTO nOAL30BaTbCX. ~ ~ O T ~KOHUa C K AeBXTHaAUa-
T o r 0 B e K a , K O T O ~ ~ BUAUMO,
I ~ ~ , C T a h O C H O B O ~AAX
~ FaPHEiTYpLI Helvetica, Ha3LIBaACR
Akzidenz Grotesque.
G ~ K B ~&M I I TORI, m 6 b 1 6 b ~ yao6~ee
0 sepcran WKCT
By 3 m ra3e-mb1~ KmoxiKax. A m,qaTehEi npumam J ~ rYap
q y , nmMy w o oHa n o s ~ o m Ba K O H O 6y~a1-y. ~
A n + a ~ m~ H T ~ C K HCXT P O ~ H ~ I X6 y B rapmmype
~ ~
am~apmoii> r u>k ~ p m 3a~mae-r
x npmepHo 13Kerea-
~ I X h. o c m e s ~ b mnpms~~e a n + a ~ m ous~c ~ p o m ~ ~
~ H ~ I C O B HeKmopbxx E I ~ B ~ r ~a pIx X m p no~a3a~bx
Ha puc. 5.2. Osearw~o,w o crpoKa y rapEMTypb1Times
Kopoqe, qeM y OCTWH~IX raprarryp, p e m e m i e m p u -
m~B H ~ K O BKOTOP~IX He T O ~ K OynFmaeT y ~ o 6 o w a e -
M O HO ~ ,n c03aam-r BneqaTnemie 6oamero npomopa
(open)Ha crpmme. %o BnevaTnemie ~ o s ~ ~ u6naro- cae~
Aapx cornomemno B ~ I C O T ~xupuea I u 6 o ~ e &e ~ ~ H H E , I X
TOK, xapamepHbnr w miur EI X ~ H ~ O CTPOKEI,
B . Ha-
6 p w ~ rap~xrypoii
e Times (pnc. 5.3),K ~ ~ T 6onee W I
C I U ~ I M UqeM , y O ~ ~ F M ~mnxibxx
I X rapmryp. A pac-
nonararr aocTaTombul r r p o c ~ p a ~ c m B crpoKe,
o~ saseM
CXMMaTb T ~ K C T ?
At many stages in the advance of humanity, conflict between
the men who possess more than they have earned and the
men who have earned more than they possess is the central
condition of progress. In our day it appears as the struggle
of free men to gain and hold the right of self-government as
against the special interests, who twist the methods of free
government into machinery for defeating the popular will. PHC. 5.3. B e p x ~ a Ia63a4 TeK-
m a ~ a 6 p raa ~p ~ m y p o i Times
j
Roman, Y 3 K H M Ta3eTHbIM
At many stages in the advance of humanity, conflict be- I U ~ H ~ ~ T OH
O MKajKeTCX
, IlpH Ta-
tween the men who possess more than they have earned K O AANHe
~ CTPOKH HeCKOAbKO
and the men who have earned more than they possess CXaTbIM. B HEIXHeM a63aue TOT
is the central condition of progress. In our day it appears Xe TeKCT ~ a 6 p raa~p ~ n ~ y p o f i
as the struggle of free men to gain and hold the right of Sabon, ero pa3~eureaueKmeT-
self-government as against the special interests, who twist CX 6 o ~ e eeCTeCTBeHITbIM, no-
CKOAbKY YBeAIlYeHHbIe WHPHHbl
the methods of free government into machinery for de-
~ H ~ K O60hbWe
B nonxonxT nAx
feating the popular will.
T ~ K O %AAHHbI CTPOKM
I
706 Yacma I. O c ~ o a amunozpa$u~u
~
I

Monotype Bembo B HacTosuee BpeMx r a p H m y p y Times y a q e , s e M


ATF Goudy Old Sryle A p y r H e I L I P L I ~ T L IIpHMeHRKIT
I, HeIIpaBMALHO. Hpo~~x
Linotype Sabon C O C T O ~B TOM, -TO B ra3e~axee O~LI,IYHOH e HC~OAL~Y-
KIT paxe B *Times)>.
ITC New Baskerville
CIIUCOK CaMLIX n0IIyAXpHLIX r a p H I l T y p IIpeACTaB-
ATF Century Expanded A e H H a PMC. 5.4. k3x ITOXOXeCTb H e BLI3LIBaeT COMHe-
Linotype Caslon 540 y
~ H f i , BCeX MMeKITCR 3aCe4KM, Y BCeX CXOXHe IlpOIIOp-
Adobe Gararnond UUH M O A U H ~ K O B L KOHTPaCT
I~~ M e X A Y OCHOBHbIMM El
ITC Galliard BCnOMOraTeALHbIMM IYTpHXaMH OTAeALHLIX 3HaKOB.
T a ~ o fyi ~ e p e ~ ~ b IKOHTpaCT
?I C03AaeT B M ~ ~ U L L H PUTM
LI~~
B CTPOKe, KOTOPLIG MeHReTCII, HO H e pa3Apit;ICWIIJe
p e 3 K O . C ~ ~ B H MCTPOKH,
T ~ H ~ ~ ~ Z ~ H HKL ~I P~ H H T Y P O ~
Baskerville, CO CTPOKBMM, H ~ ~ P ~ H H ~ IrBpHHTj'p0fi
MLI
T ~ onpeneneHHoro
I ~ a s ~ a s e - Bodoni ( p ~ c .5.5),u BLI pwwre, TO n o c n e n H x x 3a c s e T
HEX - ~ a 6 o p aTeKCTa. Y HHX Y e p e A o s a m i x s e p H o r o M 6enoro c o 3 n a e . r H a n p s m e H -
OTCYTCTBYeT ~HAblIb~fi KOH-
I HOCTL, O T C ~ T C T B ~ I O ~B~ nKeIp B o M n p a M e p e . T a ~ o fnpa-
i
TpaCT, POCT CTpOYHbIX ~ Y K B
AOCTaTO9eH, HO He CAHIUKOM MaTM3M A U e K O H e B C e r A a H ~ O ~ X O A E IBMAAEiHHLIX TeK-

BbICOK, II OHH He 11PHBAeKaH)TK c T a x , a r u p n + ~n y s l r r e B b I n o m x e T c ~ o m sanasy, e c m


I ce6e BHHMaHHX O C O ~ ~ I MIIapa-
H H a 6 p a H ~ L I f TeKCT
i <<3BysUT>> IIpHmyLUeHHO.
! MeTpaMH HAH H3bICKaMH an3aH-
Ha. ~ T IUpH9I'bl
M KOHCepBaTHB- There is an opinion that parties in free countries are use-
HbI H 3AeTaHTHbI ful checks upon the administration of the Government
and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty This within
certain limits is probably true, and in governments of a
monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence,
if not with favor, upon the spirit of party But in those of
PHC. 5.5.E m cxepmamoe B I I ~ the popular character, in governments purely elective, it
Yamerne n p o u m o m TeKcr, Ha- is a spirit not to be encouraged.
6pa1m.G EIPHIWYPOH B a s k e d e
(~epxHHiia63a4, no CpaBIIeHHlo There is a n opinion that parties in free countries are use-
c rapm-rypofi Bodoni ( H H X H H ~ ~ ful checks upon the administration of the Government
i a63a.4). r a p ~ u ~ y pBaskerville,
a
and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This within
3 ~ e r m a HnO T T ~ Y ~ I I N ~ UnoKa-
I,
certain limits is probably true, and in governments of a
3bIBaeT COAePXaHMe TeKCTa
I n p e w e Bcero, B TO BpeMx KaK
monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence,
if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. But in those
cmbao ~ H ~ O B ~ Hrapamy- H W
of the popular character, in governments purely elective,
pa Bodoni rrpmAeKaeT 6onbrue it is a spirit not to be encouraged.
~amarlm K ce6e
Y H ~ ~ O P H ~LUPH+TOB
I X BepTPiKW&HbIe IIPOIIOpUPiPi T a K X e AOCTaTOSHO CAePXCaHHbI,
y HPiX C P ~ A H HPOCT
~ ~ CTpOSHbIX ~ Y K BPi BbIHOCHbIe 3AeMeHTbI H e 0 S e H b AAPiHHbIe Pi H e
a arpynne ( o ~ a
o g e H b K o p o m P i e . H c m m ~ e ~ Px iB eM ~e T c x r a p H m y p a Palatino, ~ o ~ e f i r u B
c o s ~ a B~ 1950a r.), y H e e p o c ~
CT~OSHLIX ~ Y K BB b I m e cpensero.

T p ~ a u u o ~ ~ cnoco6
b ~ f i CO3AaHUR T U I I O ~ ~ ~ + U S ~ C KBbIAeAeHPiR
O~O - PiCnOAb30BaHPie
nOAyXPipHbIX PiAH KypCUBHbIX I I I ~ P ~ + T o B . (AM CPaBHeHUR: p a 3 H b I e KerAPi O ~ ~ I Y HBOb I p a -
X a K W PiepapXHIO COAepXaHPifl, HaIIpPiMep, V A b I Kpj'IIHee 3iWOAOBKOB, KOTOPbIe B CBOIO
O S e p e A b KpylTHee OCHOBHOrO T ~ K C T ~ . ) flM BbIAeAeHHII BCe-TaKPi SaIIle PiCnOAb3yeTCII
Kj'pCPiB. n p P i ~ e ~ e ~ B~ IIOCAeAyIOIIlIiX
b 1 e p a 3 A e A a X peKOMeHAaUHPi H e CAeAyeT BOCIIpPi-
HIlMaTb KBK c?pOrPie npZiBUAa, ~ p e 6 y m w ~Hi ee~ O C H U T e A b H O r OBbIIIOAHeHPiII ( T ~ M6onee,
TO Tame npaama - p e A K o c m B m o r p a + m e ) , a c K o p e e p a c u e H P i s a T b rn KaK de rigueur
(MOAH~I~).

T~KC nTo m B c e r A a ~ a 6 u p a e ~IIIPP~+TOM


cs < ~ H O P M ~ A ~HaCbIIJJeHHOCTU,
H O ~ ~ ~ XOTII C)'IUe-
CTBYHYT TpaJ(PiUPiPi PiCIIOAb30B2lHMII 6 o ~ e HaCbIIIleHHbIX
e LUPHC~)TOB. B ~ O A ~ L U E I H C TCAY-
B~
SaeB 6o~eX e U p H b I e U 6onee CBeTAbIe HaSepT2lHPiII n p P i M e H X ~ C I IA M BbIAeAeHWI UhPi
AAa ~ a 6 o p a
+ p a r M e E m o ~ BHe OCHOBHOrO TeKCTa.
3 ~ 0 f KHPire,
~ W O A O B K HPi IIOA3aI'OAOBKPi, KBK B i O ~ ~ I Y H~Oa 6 ~ i p a IIOA?')KPipHbIM
r o ~
LUPII+TOM. T a ~ o BbIAeAeHEle
e (emphasis) M O X e T 6 b m b AOCTHI'HYTO TOAbKO 38 CYeT Pi3Me-
H e H m KerAR, HO ~e60hb111a.zAOM n o A y x P i p H o r o m p P i + ~ a n p P i A a e T c T p a H a u e r p a + P i r e c -
KOe p a 3 ~ 0 0 6 p a 3 ~ ePi, I I o c h e ~ ~ P iBbIIIOAHXeT
fi +YHKUMIO BH3YaAbHOrO 3 H a K a npenPiHafIPiX
C r O p a 3 A O ~ O A ~ L Z I AYCneXOM,
M s e M IIpOCTOe Pi3MeHeHUe K W M . OAH~K
I I pO
U BbIAeAeHPiPi
B I I p e A e A a X OCHOBHOrO TeKCTa n 0 ~ y X U p H b 1 f UIPN+T
i K m e T C I I CAUILIKOM BbI3bIBilIOIIlEIM,
EI no n p a B u n a M m n o r p a + P i ~ P i 6 o ~ e yeM e c T e H K Y P C E ~ B H IIIPH+T
~I~~ ( ~ O A ~ O ~ H YMH+OP-
K)
Maurn o K y p c u a e c.u. spas>. aKypcuaa;s~u" upu$rn,,) O ~ J X ~ ~ ~ I I xH c K~
n mTq e~m Ix ?M
w PP
i ~
CSPiTaIoTCR IIpeAJ'npeXAeHPiX 06 OnaCHOCTEi B pyKOBOACTBaX I I o A b 3 0 ~ a ~ e ~Pie ApyrPiX
fi
n o ~ o 6 ~ b 1
A ox K y M e H T a x , B HPiX T U I I O T P ~ ~ P ~ S3CTeTPiKa
~ C K ~ ~ IIpPiHOCPiTCR
~ B XePTBY 6e30-
IIaCHOCTU Pi 3AOPOBbH).
B o T n I i s u e OT n o n y m u p H o r o r u p ~ + ~y a~ y p c u s aB~c o o m e T c m n u c ~ u n o r p a + ~ i r e c ~ u
npaBanma MHoxecmo po~eji,B ~ X H ~ ~ ~ L U E Icpem
MII KOTOPLIX XBMIIOTCR BLxneneHMe
+ p a r ~ e n ~T ear c c T a u npunasue e M y o n p e A e n e H H o r o OTAU~EIR.n o , q 0 6 ~ y ~POAL
f nrpano
n o n s e p r c u s a H u e B M a m u H o n u c H L x x ~ ~ K O I I H C X XK. y p c u ~sawe B c e r o H C ~ O A ~ ~ Y ~AAR
TCR
nbxaeneeaa:
0 3arOAOBKOB KHMr;
H a 3 B ~ H i liT p o E i 3 ~ e n e H E i i iHCKyCcTBa, MY3LIKaAbHLIX K O M ~ ~ O ~ N ~ M ~ ;
0 ~ a s s a ~ u+ iHiA ~ M O B , n b e c u T ~ A ~ B H ~ ~ O H Hnepenas;
LIX
ii M xyp~ano~;
~ a s s a ~ urase^
0 TePMNHOB, B TOM VHCAe TeXHH'ieCKliX, IYpu n e p B O M MX YIIOMMHX-XHH B TeKCTe (*Ed)'
cursives were called Aldinos~- r i e p s b r e K y p c u B H b I e JJIPH+I H H ~ ~ L I B M CWHH~MM);
~
0 onpene~esal,XBARIOLIJHXCX s a c T b x o npennoxexim (<<His name in Hebrew means
peace* - no-espeiic~uero HMX BH~IIIIT c c ~ ~ p , ) ;
0 C O ~ C T B ~ H H L IHMeH
X napOXOAOB n a s p o n n a ~ o ~
(ccU.S.S. Enterpriser);
0 oT,qeALHbIx ~ Y K B ,0 6 0 3 ~ a s a 1 0 ~ a x c a M n x ce6a (*Cross every t and dot every i>>-
r i e p e s e p ~ u a aK ~a x~n y x o t, c T a B m b T O ~ K YH a & ~ a x ~ oi, iT.i e. *AOBOAIIT~ A e n o ~o
KOHU~>>);
0 3AeMeHTOB K A ~ C C E I + E I K ~ I ~ U U ;
0 UHOCT~~H~ IX M
CAOB +pa3, K o T o p b I e ewe H e CTW m e p a ~ y p ~ oHiOiP M O ~ ~llopy~oii .
TOMY - cAoBapL: +pasa m u CAOBO OTC~TCTBYIOT B cnosape, u c n o n b 3 y i i ~ e
ecAu
KYPCEIB. B H a c T o x w e e B p e M X M H o r u e n a T u H c K a e cnosa M c o K p a m e H u a (e. g., i. e., ad
h06, etc., ibid., Ca. M T . A.) O + O ~ M A X ~ C IIpRMbIM
X ILIPH+TOM;
I
0 3HZLKOB n p e n u H a H H P nocne CAOB HAH ~ Y K B H, a 6 p a H H b l x KYPCHBOM, BKAIO'IBX T 0 4 K H ,
3 a n X T b I e , ABOeTOSUR li TOgKH C 3aIIXT0ii (HO H e K ~ B ~ I ' I K H ) .
i O 6 p a m ~ eBHMMaHUe H a TO, S T 0 n O K a 3 a T e A b IIpEITXXaTeAbHOrO n&XeXaS, K O r n a OH
1 IlpHMbIKaeT K CAOBY, H ~ ~ P ~ H H O KYPCMBOM,
MY ~ a 6 k i p a e ~ cn pxX M b I M LUPU+TOM, KaK M
1
anocTpo+, ~ o ~ o p be ~M iy inpenmecmye-r. (ding Lear's depressing endingw - n e y a n b -
H ~ I Z+MHU <<KOPOAX Axpa,,.)
ECAHCXCaTbIe EfAU Y3KHe H a ' Z e p T a H I i R , T . e. TaKIle
LUp~+?.bl, J.IIupIlHa 3HaKOB KOTOPbIX MeHbLUe, 9 e M
y UHOPMahbHbIX), H ~ ' - ~ ~ P T ~ HUHOrAa
E I ~ , UCnOAb3YIOTCII
AM ~ a 6 o p Tae K c r a (wnonnaceii non P n c y x m a M u , CHO-
COK M T , n.), TO paCTRH)'TbIe HAS4 UIHpOKHe H a 9 e p T a H H I I ,
T. e. T a K l i e LUPHC$T~I, LUlipIiHa 3HaKOB KOTOPbIX 6 0 ~ b -
me, s e M y ~ ~ H O P M U ~ H ~ I X~ )a) s e p ~ a ~ puejniK, o n p a M e -
HRIoTCR AAR APYI'ElX LleheG, K p O M e B ~ I A ~ A ~ H y HPaC-
~ ~ ,
T R H ~ T L I X LUPH+TOB (no ~ p a i i ~ eM i ie p e , ucxons us
H ~ B B ~ H E I Xe C) T b OAHO UCKAH)'ieHUe - 3 T 0 m p u + ~
Century Expanded - Ha60pHb1G mpuC$~,K O T O P ~ I ~ ~
HeCKOAbKO LUMpe CBOerO npeALUeCTBeHHHKa - I'apHH-
v p b Century.
~ r a p ~ m y p aCentury, K a K u r a 3 e ~ ~ a s
Times Roman c 6 y ~ ~ ~ ae 0~6 ub w ~Y 0~ K U M H,&&RKHHX-
H o r o ~ a 6 o p a 6, b 1 ~ aC n p o e K m p o B a H a B 1890-x ronax
n ~ r Xr y p H a n a (a m e m o , *Century Magazine))).
C~enye-rO T M e m T b , wo H a wpn+~axc s a c e s ~ a -
MIi AaAeKO H e AYWJIIlM 0 6 p a 3 0 ~ CKa3bIBaeTCR npeo6-
pasoaa~aeEIX B c x a T o e H a s e p T a H M e . Korna a3 m u - ITC Gararnond Book Condensed
KBeHHOrO I I I P I I BbIXHMaeTCff
~ ~ llj'CTOe n p O ~ L W c T B 0 ,
TO ~ O ~ ~ T C T ero
BO + o p ~( s a c e s ~ up, a s ~ u s s b TOWU-
~ e
ITC Garamond Book Narrow
HLI IIXT~HXOB,~ a h h ~ ~ r p a + u s e c n~ eune u u ~~BLITKEI) ITC Garamond Book
co3nae~B n e s a T A e H u e o s e H b s a ~ b r c n o ~ a ~mpu+~a.
o r o
r a p ~ m y p aR C Garamond RBAReTCR O A H O ~a 3 HeMHO-
r U X U3BeCTHbIX r a P H I I T Y p , Y KOTOPbIX e C T b CXCaTOe Ha-
sepTaHue (pac. 5.6), HO OHO, T e M H e M e H e e , H e CAHLU- HO 60~bll1C~X P e i ~ ~ a~r a~p HbM -,
KOM y3KOe. EOA~LUHHCTBO
C X a T b I X LUPII+TOB (I4 nOYTM Typa ITC Garamond XsnReTcR
M C K A ~ Y ~ H M ~CMm
. a ~ o eH a v e p -
BCe ~ ~ c T R H ~ TRBAXIOTCR
~ I ~ ) rpOTeCKaMX. O H P ~
06b19~0
T W M e 3T0fi rapHUT)Qbl (B~~XHXX
U C I I O A b 3 ~ T C I IA M KOHTpaCTa C ApyI'IiMH HaYepTaHHX-
m p o ~ anyqrne
) Bcero n o n x o n a T
MIi ~ 0 iXe
i I'aPHUTj'PbI HAIi A M 3KOHOMEiEi IIPOCTPaH- KOPOTKMX ( ~ ) ~ ~ T M ~ H THa-
oB,
ITC Avant Gatde
Over-Condensed K O H T ~ P~ Y~ IK B IJH+POB~IX IIIPII+T~X A e r K O MaCIIITa-
6 w p o ~ a ~ II
bH, e ncerna c c o 6 m ~ e A~C X~ O AeH ~~I Xnpo-

PMC. 5.7. O v e s ~ l n ~ bu c~Kea - IIopIJHii. E;OA~UI.HHCTBOTeKCTOBbIX IIpOUeCCOpOB I I np0-


X e H H R IIPU KOMIIbIOTePHOM r p a M M BePCTKH IIO3BOMHIT H3MeHXTb IIIHPIIHY 3 H a K a
C X a T H U IlIpU+Ta, KOTOPbIe OCO- 6e3 H3MeHeHHX er0 pOCTa. TO M O X e T OKa3aTbCX yno6-
6 e ~ 3~a Moe T H b I H a OKpyrAbIX
HbIM AJW BrOHKH AAIIHHOrO 3 a f O A O B K a B CTPOKY, HO T a -
6 y ~ s a x .n p ~ w i ~COCTOUT
a
KOe M3MeHeHHe AOAXHO 6 ~ 1 %MHHliMahbHbIM, O ~ ~ I Y H O
B TOM, YTO B e P T H K a A b H b I e
IllTpUXU ~ Y K BCY3UAMCb, a TOPH- MeHee 10%OT H O ~ M ~ A ~~ H
HOP H ~ 3
~ H ~ I~ a ~Orpa~x-ie-
a.
3 0 H T a A b H b I e OCTaAUCb I I p e X H U - H H e CBX3aHO C T e M , ' I T 0 n o ~ o 6 ~ U3MeHeHHe
oe CKa3bIBa-
MU. H a n p ~ ~ e UCKyCCTBeHHOe
p , eTCX TOAbKO H a TOAUIHHe BepTIlKaAbHbIX IIITpHXOB M
C X a T P i e 3aMeTHO y ~YKBLI 0, Ei H e 3 a T p X U B a e T TOpII30HTahbHbIX. B pe3yAbTaTe ~ Y K B ~ I
XBHO H e C O p a 3 M e p H a TOhLUAHa
BePTAKaAbHOrO I U T P U X a Y~YK- T e p X l o T HCXOAHbIe IIpOIIOpUHH ( ~ H c . 5.7). H ~ M ~ H ~ H
B ~ IT. EYKBLIn o T e p m u CBOK) ulupulc xo,unnexma snaxoa ulpu#ma (set width) c o s n a e ~
UCXOnHjW C @ O ~ M ~ OTHIOAb H e H O B ~ LUPH+T,
I ~ ~ a TOAbKO A ~ + O P M U P O B ~ H -
B a p H m T cyr.uecTBymr.uero. Ee3 T p e n e T H o r o OTHO-
IIIeHHX K H3MeHeHHIO LUHPHHbI P e n K O IIOAyYaeTCX Yna'I-
i a p H a H T IEpEicp~a.
~ b 1 iB
Ha PHC. 5.8 AAX CPaBHeHHX ITpeACTaBAeHbI HeKO-
T O p b I e IIIPH+T~I, C X a T b I e li PaCTXHYTbIe KOMIIbKvrep-
H ~ I MCIIOCO~OM, a T a K m e p a c w H p e H H b I e li c x a T b I e H a -
'IepTaHHX TeX r a p H I i T y p , y KOTOpbIX T a K U e Ha'IepTaHHX
6 b 1 ~ CITeUHahbHO
~ i CIIpOeKTHpOBaHbI. P ~ ~ A H ' I HBH IIpO-
IIOpUHXX H Y OAHHX
(POPM~X ~ Y K B ,O C O ~ ~ H HOOK p F -
AbIX, COBepIIIeHHO O'IeBHAHbI, Y APFEiX - 3T0 H e TaK
3aMeTHO. Korna ~ p e 6 y e ~~ Xc a~T b ~ HAH ii P ~ C T R H ~ I ~
IIIPH+T, A y g m e B c e r o ~ a i i ~r la pi H u T y p y , B K O T O P O ~ ~
~ p e 6 y e ~ b 1Hea Y e p T a H H X C y W e C T B F T . O A H ~ KT aOK H e
raPHHTyPbI - PeAKOCTb, 3TO H I I O p O X A a e T HCKyIIIeHHe
CO3AaTb C O ~ C T B ~ H Ha'IePTZLHHX
H~I~ KOMIIbIOTePHbIM CIIO-
C O ~ O M .B C ~ MCliAaMU
H COII~OTHBA~
R ~e c TaKOMY
b EICKY-
LUeHHIO.
PEIC. 5.8. ILIPUC~JTLI,
CmaTbIe
Franklin Gothic Univers 55 KOMnbKlTePHLlM C ~ O C O ~ O (OHU
M
Franklin Gothic Condensed Univers 57 (Condensed) IIOMeYeHLI ~ B ~ ~ A o Y K ~ MHU-
U ) ,
Franklin Gothic Condensed* Univers 57 (Condensed)* K O r A a H e BbImWXT AyIIIIe, YeM

News Gothic Bold CneqUaAhtIO CIIpOeKTHpOBatI-


Times New Roman
Times New Roman Condensed News Gothic Bold Condensed HLIe. Hanpu~ep,UCTUHHO Cxa-
Times New Roman Condensed* News Gothic Bold Condensed* TbIe 3arAaBHble 6 y ~ ~HeMHOrO
b 1
yme AAX TOTO, Y T O ~ ~CO
I OTBeT-
CTBOBaTb CTPOYHLIM ~ Y K B B M .
K o M ~ ~ ~ O TCmaTIle
~ ~ E IH O ~
e MO-
meT p e c m Tame TORKOCTU

P M ~ type)
(display
~ O C K O A ~ K~Y K ~ U ~ ~ ~ H T H ~ I ~ % T ~ I ITC Avant Gatde
same C A y X a T nAX ~ a 6 o p aKOpOTKHX TeKCTOB, 4 e M Olive Antique Olive
AAHHHbIX, OHH C B O ~ O A H OT
~ I ~ O A ~ J B U H C TI IBp ~
a B N n AH- Cheltenham
3 a E ~ a ,XIpHMeHXeMbIX K H ~ ~ O P H ~LIUM
P U + T ~ M , AAX Linotype Clarendon
KOTOpbIX OCHOBHbIM IIPHHLIHIIOM XBAIIeTCX Y A O ~ O Y I Z - ITC Korinna
TaeMOCTb. aKLSEWeHTHbIX IUPH+TOB AOCTaTOYHO ATF Cooper Black
npoc~oiip a 3 6 0 p s u ~ o c ~ uTame
'~. LUpH+Tb1 O~~IYHO ATF Porn Casual
H a c b m e m e e H c m b H e e npuaneKaIoT B H m m u e , s e M ATF Franklin Gothic
~ a 6 0 p H b I eIIIPH+T~I, XOTX n o c n e A m e T a K m e Y a c T o ITC Friz Quadrata
HCIIOAb3yiyroTCX B Ka9eCTI3e aXYHAeHTHbIX. He~o~opbre ADOBE LITHOS
n p m e p b IKnaccmecwlx axuxaemmlx r u p ~ + m ~
npen- ITC Souvenir
CTaBAeHbI H a PHC. 5.9.
C~aqahaaKIJEwemHbxe IIIPU+TE.I H ~ ~ ~ I BTaK- ~ A H
PUC. 5.9. nplIMep~1U3BecrIibJX
me m u m p a n a u u uku@rna~.lu(titling faces), H M H o m e WwerrrrrhIx q u C p . 0 ~Bce
. OHU
U 3 HHX npOAOAXiUOT HCnOAb3OBaTbCX, XOTX H e n p e p b I B - m e m O T r n m L x m e oc06e1me
HO CO3AaIOTCX BCe HOBbIe H HOBbIe ( ~ H c5.10). T v~b- CM PI ~ ~ H P I M ~ O0c06oe
T nonome-
m e txa crpamue. n e p ~ o ~ l a s a h b ~ o
H b I e XIIPH+T~I YaCTO COCTOST H 3 OLWtiX IXpOIIHCHbIX
rapmypa Cheltenham sacro HC-
6 y , IIOCKOAbKY AOArOe BPeMX CyIUeCTBOBaha TUIIOr- nOAh30BaAaCb &Ui KHPUKIJOrO Ha-
pa+urec~ax~ p a ~ u ~ ~Hue rHr C. ~ O A ~ ~ O BB~~T ~L ~ O A O B K ~ 6opa,
X HO B Hacrowlee BpeMx ne
C T ~ O Y H O GLIIPH+T. &0rp(a I ~ I ~ H + T CnPOeKTUPOBaH-
, porn.
pese,qeHa H a m q u a c m I e

H b G KaK T l I T y ~ b ~ b I fEiMeeT
i, KOMIL4eKT CI'pOYHbIX ~ Y K B ,
(Boo611~eC~eCTByCTM H O m BapEi-
a m o ~m m U I ~ E I npuseneH-
+ ~ ~
HanpaMep, rapamypa Centaur, ~ o ~ o p aT exn e p b HC-
IWIG 06pa3eq q ~ C p . nap m w e -
IIOAb3yeTCX H &AX KHHXHOrO ~a6opa. m K O M I I ~ Bitstream)
I
Caslon Titling H a 6 o p ~ b 1 eILIPH+TM,
HIT B K a g e c m e aKqHAeHTHbIx.
KaK npasmo, nnoxo pa6o~a-
MX nponopuuu n p e ~ ~ a 3 -

Caslon Text HaYeHbI BAR MeAKHX ~ e r ~ e fKiO, r A a KJGOYeByKl P O A b


B 0 6 e c n e ~ e ~~ ~~~a~ O ~ Y U B O~ Y C K
T IBEIi r p a e T n p o 6 e ~ b -

PIE. 5.10. T q w i e urpnCp..x H o e npOCTpaHCTB0, a TOHKUe 3AeMeHTbI MOIYT BOBCe H e


06bmo 6onee I W ~ H C ~ ~ O B ~ Ln H ~ I n p o n e s a T a T b c R . n p ynemrema
~ H ~ ~ O P H ~IIIPH+TOB
I X
nmmi~.~,YeM nx ~a6opmre&pa-
TM. B ~epxieii crpoxe n p e ~ c r a ~ -
neHa rapmypa Big Caslon (+np
mi Carter & Cone) cpmHemm uenefi n p e n n o v n r r e n b H e e ~ c n o ~ b s o s naO~Aby X H p H b I e
c rapmnypoii Caslon 540 (+npmr HAM X H p H b I e HaYepTaHHR H 3 TO^ Xe TaPHIITYPbI. %c-
Linotype) (B =ei crpoxe) TO HMeHHO 3 T a r a p H H T y p a n p u M e H R e T C R aKUWeHT-
H o r o ~ a 6 o p aT O A ~ K On o T o M y , TO y H e e cyurecmym
~pe6ye~bX
1Ue p H b I e HaYepTaHHX.
Clearface C p e n H aKUHAeHTHbIX ~ZIPII+TOB YilPRT rPOTeCKH.
Clearface Bold ~ ~ O T ~ C K
I I XHp U
~ ~I T~b 1 6 0 ~ b r Z nI ep H B A e K W T BHUMaHUe,

Clearface Heavy ~oo6ryeOHU 6onee MyCKyAUCTbI, 6 o ~ e eHanOpHCTbI,


TO G e A a e T HX EI r p a + u q e c ~6onee
~ ~++~KTH~IMH.
Clearface Black H e ~ ~ or arp ~H mey p b 1 a u r o s a m H a s e p T a H w x c saces-
Clearface Gothic K a M H H 6e3 HHX, T e M CaMbIM I I p e A A a r a R p a 3 H b I e B03-
Demibold MOXHOCTH GAR AOCTllXeHHR BCeX T U ~ I O ~ P ~ C ~ ~ H ~ ~ C

Clearface Gothic u e ~ e f i ,B K O T O p b I X M O X e T H y X n a T b C R A O K y M e H T
Bold (pnc. 5.11).
Ha6op KPYnHbIM K e r A e M B C e r A a BbIrAIIAHT pa3pe-
WeHHee, YeM ~ a 6 0 p KHNXHbIM K e r A e M , IIOBTOMY mpe-
PEIC. 5.11.Hexmpbxe raprmy-
pbI 06nanaro~HaYepTiIHHXMS3 K U H ~ " (tracking), UAU o6ruee U3MeHeHHe H H T e p B a h O B
ax c s a c e ~ ~ a Tm~, MK 6e3 m x . M e X n y ~FBBMLI, lTPHHuMaeT OTPHJlaTelZbHbIe 3HaYeHEIR
B A~HHOMchpae rapmrrpa ITC ( U H O ~ A~ ~H ~ ~ Y E X T ~ A YTO
~ H ~ C,4BUraeT
I ~ ) , ~ Y K B A
~ PI Y r
Clearface o ~ o 6 p a m e ~BMecre
a
K .'A
JrP'J ~ ~ O B O A ~YaCTO
H O V A L 1 B KHHraX, 3arOAOBKU
c rapmnypoii Clearface Gothic
( + K P M ~ I Linotype). 0 6 e oceoaa- rase^ U X Y P H a h O B ~ a 6 ~ p Ta am
K, Y T O ~ 6~ yI ~ B b 1KaCa-
H ~ HaI o p n r n ~ a ~ pa3pa6m-
b:~~~ AHCb A p y r A p F a UAU HaKAaJlLIBahHCb &p)T H a A p y r a .
Ke E ~ H T O(M. H ~ F. Benton)
1907 r., mopa an npen~a3~aqa-
nacb nna KoMniIHnn American
Type Founders (A'I'F)
f i e ~ 0 p a ~ H ~ H b IIIPH+T~I
1e O~~ISHO
HCIIOAb3YH)TCX
B PeKAaMe. ~ I 3xa A a Y a - I I p H B A e q b BHMMaHMe 9EITa-
T e r n , n o K a OH H eycnen n e p e B e p a p b C-rpaHAqy. l70
TOG n p M W i H e AeKOpaTElBHbIe I.UpH+TbI OYeHb ~ ~ I C T O
sxonm B MOAY M T ~ Kxce 6 b 1 c ~ p 0 y c T a p e B a m . K ~ K
TOAbKO ~ ~ K O P ~ T H BIIIPEI+T
H ~ I ~ CTaHOBHTCR
~ FIOIIyAXp-
H ~ I Mu IIPHB~IYH~IM,OH n e p e c T a e T B b I n o n H x r b caom
3aaa.Iy - BbIfleARTbCR B COHMe APYrEIX LUPH+TOB.
ZI T a K xce, K a K cymemyxar nepeceyem ~a60p~b1x
M
m e m m ~ H + T O B , MW -emximi MBeKe
paTHBHbrmk! ~ u ~ H @ ~ M
, IE
&HeT
I. . V
l HH
TaKp O
' I~ ~ JrO B C ~
pa3 sonpoc c T e n e H H O P ~ H ~ A ~ H O C T El Il . p OnncaHMIi
~
AeKOPaTElBHbIX IIIPH+ToB II09TEI B C e r A a 3BYYHT CPaB-
ATF Ad Lib
m e A b H a c I CTeneHb: 6onee B b I p a 3 U T e ~ b H b I f i 6onee
, npH- IT< Bauheus
Y ~ A A H B ~ 6onee
I ~ ~ , H ~ K A O H ~6onee
I ~ ~ ,~ a M m p a + ~ s e c -
%ernhard F a s h i o n
K&, 6onee I I a p ~ f l H i i H b ~ i i0
. HHX HeAb3R I'OBOpHTb
~ e ~ a A b H b 1 CAOBaMM.
~ 1 l
ATF PaPisian
P[p)Tofi 3 a ~ a ~ efieKOpaTMBHbIX
ii ILIPH+TOB XBAX- ATF P.T. Barnum
eTCR O T p G K e H H e C T H A ~
HCTOpUyeCKHX
~ 3nOX, H a n p a B -
n e ~ ~nmaiiaa,
ii KYALTYPH~IX ~ p a ~ ~ uHAM, u i inpx He-
&B
O ~ X O A M M O C p~o, m n e H H e accouuau~liic c o n e p x c a H H e M A'I'F STEMCII,
c o o 6 u e ~ ~~ P~ H.
H ~ HI a PHC.5.12.
M ~ TaKHX
P ~ I LUPII+TOB IIPeACTaBAe- wa vtaeea
~ P EHCIIOAb30BaHEIII
I AeKOPaTEIBHbIX LUPEI+TOB He-
PHC. 5.12. ~ ~ K O ~ ~ T I I B H ~ I X
O ~ X O A H M Oc o 6 m n a ~ bO n p e A e n e H H y I o OCTOpOXHOCTb, LUPIIC$TOB yXe HeCKOAbKO TbI-
IIOCKOAbKy 3TPi II.IpHcPTb1 s a C T 0 H e O W H b TIUaTeAbHO Cay, IIOBTOMY BeheTKO OTbICKaTb
p a w e y e n b ~Ha xeze~axou"uogadh-e (character fitted). CpeAH HIlX AOCTaTO'IAO YHUBeP-
CahbHbIe BapHaHTbI. H0 'IT0 6b1
EI~eeTcaB B M A npouecc
~ o n p e n e n e n H z nonyanporueii,
BbI H e p e K A a M I l p O B a A I l (OT
pacCT0XHMii OT ~ Y K B A~ 0I ~ O K O B ~ II'paHMU
X ~erehbH0fi
C $ ~ ~ H U ~ ~ C K O6 Ia' ~
O O H aA0 UIlp-
IIAOIUaAKM TaKMM 0 6 p a s o ~ r,1 ~ 0 6 b 1 B UeAOM TeKCT KOBOTO I I ~ ~ A c T ~ B A ~ ~o6xsa-
HI~B),
BbIrARAeA H a 6 p a H H b I M PaBHOMepHO. B H ~ ~ O P H ~ I XTeAbHO H B ~ ~ A ~ T ICIXo A x o ~ ~ R L U I ~ ~
r u p ~ + ~ amx o ~ yyA e r n e T c x n e p B o c T e n e H H o e s ~ a s e ~ ~ i e LUPM+T
, AAII ~ a x ~ o 1c-x0 yqas
Bce COBpeMeHHLIe ~ a 6 o p ~ b IIIPH@LI
1 e CIIpOeKTUpOBX3LI &W 0 ~ 0 6 p m e Y~~~P HxO GKpaC-
KOG H a 6enoG 6 y ~ a r e@. 0 p M a , IIpOIIOpUSiIl M TOAWMHa IIXTPHXOB 3HaKOB IX0AYYaH)T IlpM
3TOM M ~ K C U M ~ A L H L
KOHTpaCT.
I~ K o r ~ BLI
a MCIIOAL3yeTe LUPHC~~TA M IIeYaTM UBeTOM UAM
H a OKpaIIIeHHOM OH^, BbI BLIXOAUTe 3 8 P a M K I l IIpeAyCMOTpeHHOrO.
H a n p u ~ e pK, ~ ~ C H IIIPII+T
L I ~ H a ~ ~ A OOH^
M y T p a Y H B a e T KOHTPaCT YepHOrO IIIPLI+-
T a , nO3TOMJ' 6 e ~ ~ n1peo 6 e ~ BOKpYr
~1 ~ Y K HaYMHaHIT
B T e P R T b CBOH) RCHOCTL M CTaHOBXTCII
HeYeTKIIMM. kI eCAEI H e IIOAAepXMBaTb BLICOKMU KOHTpaCT, H a I I p H M e p , T ~ M H O - ~ ~ A ~ H L
IIIPM+T H a ~A~,!JHO-X~ATOM
+OH€!, TO IIIPM(~)T IIpMAeTCR CAeAaTL 6on~rueHAM HaCbIIIIeH-
H e e (MAH TO U ~ p y r o e )~, 0 6 KOMIIeHCHpOBaTL
~ 1 H E I ~ K EKOHTPBCT.
I~ ~ P O T ~ C K H LILIPEI+-
I~
TLI B UBeTe C M O T P ~ C I IA y w u e , Y e M IIIPII+T~I c ~ ~ C ~ Y K ~n oMc KMo A, L K y ax KOHCT~YKUEISI
y
B UeAOM Y C T O G Y M B ~ ~ , HMX 0TC)'TCTBYH)T BOAOCHLIe AMHNM, MeAKUe AeTaAH, TOHKIle
m p ~ x ax,a p a K T e p H L I e AM IIIPM+TOB c3 a c e ~ ~ a ~ a .
KOHTPaCTa, U B ~ T H OIIIPu+T
~OMHMO ~~ A M I I o A M ~ ~ ~ C # ~ W YIIeYaTU,
~CKO~O ~ C O ~ ~ H HHOa
JJBf3'"l"OM OH^, A O A X e H GLITL O q e H L TOYHO PaCCYUTaH. U B ~IIpM
T IIeYaTPi O ~ ~ I CMHTe-
~ H O
3MpyeTCII C O Y ~ T a H I l e MT p e X HAM Y e T b I p e X KpaCOK, KOTOPLIe AOAXHLI ~LITI, n p ~ 6 e d e l i b l
(registered) - H U O X e H b I OTHOCMTeAbHO A p Y r A p y r a C O C O ~ O HTOYHOCTLH), 9 ~ 0 6 b 1 ~ 1 3 6 e -
X a T L ~ ~ X P O M L(halo)
I y 0 ~ ~ 0 2 HeCKOAhKUX KpaCOK. K p o ~ eTOrO, PEiCYHOK ~ Y K B
salpe3aernc~(knocked out) a 3 U B e T H o r o +oaa, T. e. +OH n e 4 a T a e T c x c uAbIpKaMx>>BMec-
TO m p a + ~ a ,a UB~THOGIIIPM+T B n e Y a T L I B a e T c x B ~ T Mn y c T b I e M e c T a . TO ~ p e 6 y BLICO-
e~
KOTOYHOG n e Y a T a . ~ O A L I I In~p o 6 ~ e C ~MeAKIlM
a W P N ~ T O M - KHHXHOrO K e r A R
H MeALYe - C B R ~ c~ TH e M~, YTO same ~aneiiuree ~ e c o ~ ~ e u z e(misregistration)
~xe'~ npa-
BOAMT K TOMY, YTO UIPII+T CTaHOBPiTCX Hepe3KUM, CMa3aHHLIM U A a X e MHOrOUBeTHLIM
(~~cT~LIM).
BooGwe MeAKMfi IIIpM+T AyYIIIe B c e r o IIeYaTaTL CIIAOIIIHLIM ( H ~ P ~ C T P M P O B ~ H H ~ I M
I4AH H ~ C M ~ I I I ~ H H L I M
UBeTOM.
) K o r ~ aUBeT n e Y a T a e T C f l Y e p ~ 0 GK ~ ~ C K O GO n, p e A e A M T e
B A U U O r O B O M OKHe Print ( n e s a ~ b +YHKIJEIW
) HUO-
meHm (overprint), urpa+-
TO U C K ~ S U Ts b r p e 3 a ~ ~ e
T a B +OHOBOM u B e T e . I I e y a ~ urpu+~a
b B useTe cnasa-
H a C MHOXeCTBOM n p o 6 n e ~ ,O C O ~ ~ H H&AX
O MeAKIlX
~ e r ~ e HO
f i ,Pi IIe'faTb aKUUAeHTHOT0 L U P H + T ~ T O X e H e
PIIC. 5.13. Ha6op T e K c r a B ~ I B O -
BIIOAHe C B O ~ O A HOT
~ HHX. P O T K O ~O Y e I i b KOBaPCH. B n p H -
M e p e csepxy r u p a + ~B~IBOPOT-
K O KaXeTCII
~ 6 o ~ e AeIXIIM,
e 9eM
H a O p H r U H L \ e QYePHbIM I t 0 6e-
AOMyz, IIOTOMY ZlTO Y e p ~ b rpa-
~ k
(PN'I~CK~I
CHAbHee 6eh01-0.n p 0 -
nesan, r u p ~ l + ~Ba~ I B O ~ O T I C O(in
G ~ reverse),
~ T. e. 6e-
6 n e ~ aB O 3 p a C T a e T B M e A K R X
AbIM IIO S e p H O M y , C 0 3 A a e T T e XCe n p o 6 n e ~ b 1 , S T 0 H KerAXX ( n p u ~ e p BHH3Y C A ~ B ~ ) ,
~oo6rue.0 6 b 1 s ~ a r rCXeMa K O H T a C T a
I I e s a T b UBeTOM K o r n a K p a c K a 3aTeKae-r B n p e n e -

6 e n o ~OH^" 3AeCb H e IIOAXO-


s e p H o r o I I I ~ H + TH~a A b I BbIBOPOTKH TBK, YTO UIPHC~JT
K m e T C R CTHCIIyTbIM, ~ O A Y X I I P -
AUT. Kame~ca,TO 3 n e i v e H T b I ~ s o 6 p a m e ~ m
H a,n e s a -
H b l k IIIPR+T ( I I P H M ~ P BHN3Y
TaHHbIe YepHbIM, B U 3 Y U b H O IIOCBrafOT H a COCeAHHe
cnpasa) ysenxrmae-r Y A O ~ O Y E I -
C HHMH 6 e n b 1 e o6nacm. PHCYHOK
5.13 HAAIoCTpHpYeT TaeMocTb m p a + ~ a ,~ a n e ~ a ~ a r x -
3TOT o I I T U ~ ~ C K3++eKT.
U~ HOrO B ~ I B O P O T K O ~

At text sires, the apparent encroachment of the black At t c n sizes, the apparent encroachment of thc black
background into the whites of the characters is background into the whites of the charactus is
more apparent. A slight bit of ink spreading chat would more apparent. A slight bit of ink spreading that would
not be obvious in display sizes will make a relatively not be obvious in display s k will make a relatively
much greater difference at smaller point sizes. much greater diBexnce at smaller point s k a .
LUPH+T~IB C e r n a nPOeKTEIPjWTCII C Y4eTOM 3 T O r 0 s + + ~ K T ~ ( H e I'OBOPX yXe 0 pe-
U b H O M PaCILlHpeHHH r e p H o r 0 a 3 0 6 p a x e ~ ~BbI3BaHHOM
~x, P a C T e K a f i H e M ~ e p ~ 0KpaCKH
fi
B nposecce nesam). Korna B ~ ~I c n o n b s y e ~ u er p a + ~BLIBOPOTKO~~,s e p ~ b x i +OH i 6yne~
BH3YahbHO I I p e T e W O B a T b H a 6 e m e ~ Y K B L M I A e A a T b EIX TOHbUle, O C O ~ ~ H HYOTeKCTOBbIX
K e r ~ e Gm p M + T a . BO B p e M X n e s a T H O r 0 lTpOUeCCa TOHKHe 3AeMeHTbI ~ Y K B3anOAHIIH)TCEI
K P ~ C K O ~M~ylrreMAeHHbIe
, 3AeMeHTbI H a r H H a I o T pa3pbIBaTbCX. EEjYKBb1, P a C n O A O X e H H b I e
OWHb 6 ~ ~ &PYX' 3 ~ K APY
0r),' M O T CAHBaTbCZI. f l e ~ a B~~ bI B O P O T K OH~ a~ p b I X A ~ f i ~ , y60ii
ma w r p o c ~ o n e ~ ~6y~a1-e o G ( ~ a n p a ~ eHpa ,r a 3 e ~ ~ o jysennsrisae-r
i) pacTeKaHae Kpac-
KH H Y C ~ ~ A np06he~y. R ~ T
&AX ee n p e o n o n e H u a C y l r r e c T B y n n H e K o T o p b x e T e x H H s e c K t i e p e m e H H x , H a n p n M e p
p e A H s e H H e 3KClT03HUIIEI + O T O H ~ ~ O ~ H OCiBTOMaTa, ~O 9 T O 06ecne9ki~ae~ 6onee TOYHOe
0 ~ 0 6 p a X C e H l l e TO'IeK H BbI3bIBaeT M e H b I I I e e 3 a ~ e ~ a Y~e u p Heo r 0 B o6nacm 6enoro ( n p a K -
m r e c K w rro H e n o A e p m K a rup~+ra).Ho ~ c e - ~ rnanxibxM a ~ u B nesam m p u + ~ aB~IBOPOT-
K O ZIBAXeTCII
~ IIpaBHAbHbIfi ~ b 1 6 0 p r a P H H T Y p b I H KWAR UIPU+TB. npenII0sTHTe~bHee
I I I p H ~ T b CO
1 c n a 6 b 1 KOHTPaCTOM
~ ( T O A C T ~ IEITpHXK
~ llPeTUITCTBjWT P ~ ~ P L ~ B ~HMg a)C, T O
Ay'iUIe HCnOAb3OBaTb ITOAYXHPHbIe ~ a 6 o p ~ b UIpH+Tb1,
l e a H e HX HOPMahbHbIX ((PO&-
CTBeHHHKOB*. K)"PCWB
IIpeF[CTaBMeT oco6ym ~ P O ~ A ~ MT aYK, K a K 6 p ~ b eI4e
1 6onee CKhOH-
HbI K p a 3 p b I B a M , S e M 3HaKH IIpRMOrO II.IpH+Ta C 3acesKaMH. K p o ~ TOrO,
e w 0 6 b 1 BOClTpe-
IXRTCTBOBaTb CAHnaHHH) ~ E ~ Y K B ,A O A X H b I 6b1Tb YBeAH'IeHbI R H T e p B a h b I MeXCny HHMH
( y s e n a s e~ p e ~ m ) .
B TOM, w o npn neram B ~ I B O P O T K OIIITPNXII
~~ m p n + ~ ap a s p b x a a r o ~ c r r s, a c T o y n p e K a -
KIT H nOne%?THyIo n0,LJrOTOBKy (06b19~0 YKa3bIBalCrT H a XIepeSKCIIOHHpOBaHHJ'IO IXAeHKy)
a s p e 3 ~ e p ~ ynm
H nnoxym n e r a T b ( y ~ a . . b l ~H w o n a y ~ p a c ~ nu)morna , nhcI T o r o n
npyroro e c T b O C H O B a M . X O T O~~ ~ I S H ~O P O + ~ C C I I O H ~n0IIe9aTH0fi
~~I IIOA~OTOBKMH
XXesaTHOrO r1pOJJeCCa C K O p e e KOHJJeHTPHPYIoT CBOe BHUMiiHHe H a T e X 9aCTRX CTpaHIlUbI,
KOTOpbIe n O A ~ a l C r T C I I~au6onee
IXAOXO, H a n p H M e p , o6nacm CBflOB B +0~0rpa+IM.ECAM
m~ e n o s ~ c n o ~ n p KAH
o ~ aH e~ nbp o n e s a T a m , TO B nso6pamemxx noxanrrmcx n y c m I e
m H a . Korna x e K p a c K n n o c T a T o s H o AM xopomeji neram +o~orpa+& m u TOHKHX
nw~afi, TO ~ P H + TB ~ I B O P O T K Op~ a~ 3 p b x ~ a e ~ T
cOx A ~ K OB TOM c n p a e , ecnu OH H e n p a s u b -
a~ a 6 p a ~ .
HO ~ b 1 6 p LH
K ~ IXpaBlmO,
K rp0TeCKHbIe I L I P E I ~ T ~ I P e 3~Y A
A ~ I U U ~ b T a T I I p U IXesaTEi BbIBO-
pomoii, .ieM IIIPU+T~I c ~ ~ C ~ Y K ~BMK Hp x. T n r e c m x cmyaumx H ~ X H OB c e r A a n o c M o T -
peTb H a n p o 6 ~ OTlXCKe,
o~ K a K nOAy.IHACX T ~ K O GUIPN+T, IIepen T e M , K a K OTIIpZlBASfTb
pa6ory B n e s a T b .
M a m u H o n s c b l IIpeACTaBAXeT ~ 0 6 0 8M ~ S e 3 a H ) r r l E i 8
cnoco6 nesam, n yme B ~ I P O C ~ qenoe
O n o K o n e H u e , KO-
ChoBa. T ~ H
T o p o e H e chb~mano3 ~ 0 r o M e MeHee, n p a l r -
na, n p m x r b I e AM rnmyum M ~ L U E I H O Kn~p, o f i o n x a m
Cj'UlecTBOBaTb. ~ @ K T W I ~ C KHEa ~KZ'KAOM KOMIIbWTepe
YCTaHOBAeHbI TeKCTOBbIe PeAaKTOpbI, KOTOPbIe, OAHa-
a H e nonwrpa-
KO, c n e A y m T n p a s I l n a M M a m m o n E i c E i ,
+xsecxoro ~ a 6 o p a SOT . nepexon osem cnomea H e
T O A ~ K O133-3a TOI-0, TO H e n p e o n o n E i M a cxna n p a a b x s -
KM, a npocro n o T o h l y , YTO K n a s M a T y p a K o M n b m T e p a
IIOBTOpXeT KJGlBEiaT)'py nMYlIyUJefi MaUrHHKEi M ripen-
A a r a e T ~ e n 0 h H b 1 f iKOMnAeKT 3HaKOB, T e M CaMbIM KaK
6b1ymepmnm, T O TaKEiM ~ a 6 o p6 b m BCerAa. & m n b
H e BcerAa.

OAHHM
Ei3 IIPEiHLIMnEiahbHbIX o ~ ~ H M I L ~ ~ MBLUMHO-
HMG
IIHCM IIBABeTCX @0p&CZm @ M U Z U (page size). O C H O B H ~ I ~
+ O P M ~ T ~MaLUMHOnFiCM
I COCTaBMHIT 8',12X 11 AIOGMOB
( + o ~ M ~aU.S.
T letter,) M 21,0 X 29,7 CM ( + o p M a T aA4,,).
C M 3 , i I a ~ e ~ b c ~ oTOYKM
ii 3PeHMR 3 T 0 OYeHb K P Y n H a R
CTpaHMqa, OHa IIpeBbILUaeT + O ~ M ~6T o u m ~ c Xyp-
~ ~ a
H U O B U KHEif 38 EiCKAHIYeHEieM GOMO MOB no EiCKYCCT-
B y MAX IIOAapOYHbIX E i 3 A a ~ M f i(coffee-tablebook). T ~ M
H e M e H e e , H a n E i m y r y e j i M a u r m K e MOXHO nenaTaTb
TeKCT TOAbKO B OAHY KOAOHKY.
T~KCT,
~ a n e s a ~ a ~ H
~ ab MamEiwKe
r i i UIUPOKMM MO-
H O ~ ~ P H H H ~U.IPH+TOM
IM pone r a p H m y p b I Courier),
y K eHr A~b I ~ 12,
KOTOpOrO C T ~ H ~ ~ P T -
~ H e B b I m m k i T OYeHb YpOflAHBO, H 6 o n b r u e f i sac-
TbKl OlTOrO, 9 T O MbI H e IIpeo'bfiBAfieM 3aBbILUeHHbIX ~ p e 6 o s a ~ nKf iTOMY, KPK A O A X H a
BbIrAaAeTb c T p a H H u a , a oTYacTa u orroro, TO nonx (margins) H m r e p A n H b R x (line
spacing) 3aHHMaKlT 6 0 ~ b m yee~ YaCTb. C ' i k i T a ~ o c b HOpMaAbHbIM ,UAX neYaTM llHCeM
YCTaHaBAHBaTb ,I(Bo~~Ho~ H H T e p ~ a h % e X f l y CTpOKaMM n A R TOrO, T O ~ L I BH3YaAbHO YPaB-
HXTb n p o 6 e n b 1 M e X A y CAOBaMH M CTpOKaMH.
CeIhac AeAOBbIe fiOKYMeHTb1 YXe H e n e Y a T a K l T H a MaWHHKe, a HCllOAb3j'IOT FIAR
~ a 6 o p aTeKCTOBbIe PefiaKTOpbI. M XOTX IIpOIIOpUHOHaAbHbIMH U I ~ H + T ~ M HT e n e p b ( ~ a
~ 0 ~ n b I O ~ e MOXHO
p e ) Pa3MeCTkiTb 3HaYtlTeAbHO 6 0 ~ b r u eTeKCTa H a CTPaHHUe, + O P M ~ T
,!(~AoBo$ 6 y ~ a Hre ~H3MeHHACX. C [ ~ A O BAOKyMeHTO~~ (B HaCTOSIWee B p e M X c a ~ b ~MaCCO-
fi
B ~ I GAOKyMeHT BO BCeM ~ M p e n) o - I I p e X H e M y MapLLIHpyeT IIOa P ~ ~ T M U S ~ C K NCTYK $ KAaBH-
a T y p b I , ki n O K a 3TO T a K , X e A a H H e CO3AaBaTb ~ E f n o r p a C $ l c ~ H ~
~ a6op
no M e p K a M MaIIIHHO-
nHCH COXpaHHTCII, a MbILUAeHHe ~ H n o r p a + i 6 y n e ~O l l e p H p O B a T b o,L~Ho$ OI'~OMHOG
K O A O H K O ~TeKCTa.
~
OTHOIU~HMII MeXCAy K e r A e M , r u ~ p ~ ~nOAOCbI
oii H HHTePAMHLXXeM n o a p o 6 ~ 006-
CyXAaH3TCX 6 M. 3.

npo6enb1 y n~ruyweHMaLUEiHKH n p a K m r e c K H B c e r n a OnMHaKOBbI,


IIOBTOMY 6b1h0 e C T C
CTBeHHbIM MCnOAb30BaTb HX AAR COBAaHMFI a63a~noro
OTCTYIIa HAM K ~ K M X np0n)'
- ~C~- 6 0
KOB B CTpOKe ( H ~ x M M U HeCKOAbKO npo6eno~I I o A p f i ~ ) . MOXHOT a K X e BbIpaBHMBaTb
CTPOKM, ~ ~ O ~ ; L BIA
I e ~p e~AI HHMM
I OAHHaKOBOe KOAEiYeCTBO npo6eno~.
n p o 6 e n b 1 B TeKCTOBbIX P e A a K T O p a X H n p O r p a M M a X BePCTKH H e MMeH3T ~ M K C E I P O -
B~HHOGBeAMYMHbI, n03TOMY MX HeAb3R MCnOAb30BaTb A h R TOG UeAr?. H e TOAbKO IIOTO-
MY, YTO Y P a 3 H b I X r a p H E i T y P OHM P a s H b I e , HO M IIOTOMY, 'XTO OHM IIOCTORHHO H3MeHIIKlTCR
(TO YBeAMYMBUCb, TO ~ M ~ H ~ L u u Kc O~r )A,a CTpOKa TeKCTa BrOHReTCR (fit) B CyI4eCTB)'Io-
(measure). kI, K a K IIpaBMAO, CIIe~EiahM3MpOBaHHbIeCHCTeMbI ~ a 6 0 -
U y H 3 2 l L ~ p U H ynOAOCbl
pa IIpOCTO ElrHOpHpyIOT MHOXeCI'BeHHbIe n p o G e ~ b 1 , 3 a ~ eHX
m e8MHCTBeHHbIM. H e c ~ o a -
KO npo6eno~IIOApRA H e M r p a I o T H H K ~ K OPOAM
~ ~ B H ~ ~ O P H ~npoueccax,
I X H 6 o ~ e TOrO,
e
PaCUeHMBaIoTCR K a K o I U M ~ K ~ .
T ~ HM
e MeHee, IIpIlBbIYKa BbIPaBHMBaTb CTpOKEi TeKCTa C IIOMOLUbH3 COBOKpHOCTU
npo6enoa np0,403GKaeT CyIUeCTBOBaTb ewe H IIOTOMy, YTO T ~ K O Gcnoco6 ,UOnyCTHM
B HeKOTOPbIX TeKCTOBbM llPOl&eCCOpaX (A B OCHOBaHHbIX
H a HMX IIPOrpaMMaX HaCTOAbHblX A3&aTehbCKHX CNCT~M).
&CTYfIb1 c h e n y e T CO3na9aTb C nOMOmbXJ CneUHahbHbDc
K O M ~ Hm,
~ c ~OMOWXJ ~ a 6 y -
w o MeHee x e n a T e A b H o ,
m o p a (uasnma <Tab>).Ulupome npo6e~brB crpoxce
~ O A X H b I+ O P M H P O B ~ T ~ W C IIOMOLIlbXJ lTOCAeAOBaTeAb-
H O C +~E I K ~ O B ~ H H ~npo6e.m~
XX (fixedspaces) B Kerehb-
~ y xm m n o A y K e r e h b H y r o , m p m a KOTOP~IX OcTaeTcR
nocrom~oii,n o K a H e A ~ M ~ H U T CKer* FI urpa+~a.
M a m u ~ o n u c ~ a~Ap a n ~ up m a 3 n e ~ e ~npennoxe-
m
HII~ ~ B~Y M I In p o 6 e ~ a ~noche u TO=IKM H e C o x p a H I l h a c b
B n ~ h u r p a + A Y e ~ K ~na6ope.
M 3 ~ lTpMBb1YKa
a B03HIlUa
A3-3a TOrO, T O ~ Y K B MOHOUIIlpUHHOrO
~I LLIpEi+Ta y nA-
xI,IyIqefi MaLLIAHKA 6 b l h A CTOAb UMpOKEI A OTKpblTbI, W O
o n H o r o npoge~a,
paBHoro m p u e e 3 ~ a ~~ a~ h, 1 0 ~ aTOS-
.n
KY, 6 b n o HeaOCTaTOYHO, Y T O ~ ~C03AaTb
I OU)THM~I~~
MHTepBah M e q y I I p e A A O X e H m M A . Memay TeM, B np0-
npo6en CllpOeKTApOBaH
IIOpUHOHaAbHbIX I X ~ X C @ T ~ X
c yreToM paccroaHm M e q y npennoxeemm. ~ I M ~ H -
HO ~ O B T O Mn~~ o i i ~ onpo6en
ii B KoHse npeAnoxeHAa
CO3AaeT B T O K e ~ X V E T H ~ IIPOPeXEi
I~ (PUC. 6.1).

Regarding the disposition of the Hetherington contract, we


believe that our position must be clear. His attitude is
unacceptable. He acts naive, but he is wily. In no way must
we cave in to his definition of excess labor. Staff levels must
be maintained. Senior management must review the final
papers.

Regarding the disposition of the Hetherington contract, we


believe that our position must be clear. His attitude is
unacceptable. H e acts naive, but he is wily. In no way must
we cave in to his definition of excess labor, Stafflevels must be
maintained. Senior management must review the final papers.
122 Yacma I. Ocnooa~munozpa@u~u

Y nMLLIyWeG MarUMHKM eAMHCTBeHHbIM C ~ O C O ~ O 3Ma B e P I l I M T b CTPOKY II H a Y a T b HO-


BYH) R B m e T c x nepenon KapeTKa. TO BbIpaxeHHe n o - n p e x ~ e ~~yc n o n b s y e ~XOTR
c~,
HMKaKMe K a p e T K M yXe H e IIepeMeWaIoTCX, a B K 0 M n b K ) T e P H O M X a p r O H e OCTaAOCb
noHmMe return.
K o M I I ~ I O T ~ ~K
H O~ M
Xa H n a return H a CaMOM A e A e COCTOMT $53 ABYX KOMBHA: C O ~ C T B ~ H -
HO return ( ~ o a n p ~a ~a p e ~ N~line
~ ifeed
) (nepe~onCTPOKH). T e p ~ <u< ~ n e p e B o A CTPOKMN
n eHp )B b I X IIpMHTepOB, KOTOPLIe a y 6 n u p o ~ a n l ~r Y H K U E I EIIMIHyIUefi
OTHOCIITCR K A ~ ~ ~ C T B M I
MallIMHKH. 3 ~ K aO M a H A a 3 a C T a B A X A a MeXaHM3M I I P M H T e p a I I e p e M e W a T b G p a r y H a O n H y
CTPOKY B B e p X , IIpeAOCTaBARR MeCTO fiAX n e r a T M HOBOG CTPOKM. OH^ 110-IIpeXIZeMy Cy-
W e c m y e T B H ~ ~ O P H ~n Ip X
o r p a M i v a x (XOTR il CKPLITHO - TO OAHH ~3 H e n e s a T a e M b r x
CMMBOAOB K O A O B O ~T~ ~ ~ A H ASCII).
~ L I Haxa~~ e
KAaBHllIM <Return> (<Enter> H a PC)
B b I 3 b I B a e T I l e p e X O A H a HOBYH) CTPOK)', KOTOPBZ P a C n O A a r a e T C X H a POCCTORHMM, BKBMBa-
AeHTHoM y c T a H o B n e H H o M y unmefi+tunmq(!ine spacing, leading).
B C n e U U M 3 M p O B a H H b I X H ~ ~ O P H ~CMCTeMaX
I X CyuleCTBYeT HeCKOALKO KOMaHA OKOH-
YaHMR CTPOKII, N TOALKO A B e M3 HMX NCnOAb3YIOTCR B TeKCTOBbIX P e A a K T O p a X Ei n p 0 r p a M -
M a x BepCTKM.
nepsax, n p e A c T a B A f i e M a x u a s ~ l r u e i <Return>,
i RBnaeTca K O M ~ H A O K~oH~ u a a6saua.
A 0 6 4 ~ n1P M~3 H a K O M a6saqa RBAXeTCX O T C V H a n e p B 0 f i CTpOKe, 1103TOMY KOMPH-
na lconeg a63aga (end-paragraph) H e T O A ~ K Oa a ~ e p m a Tee~K y u y I o CTPOKY M (noche nepe-
B o n a CTPOKH) H a Y m a e T HOBYIO, HO T a K x e c o 3 n a e ~a 6 3 a u ~ ~ 1oiTic T y n o n p e n e n e H H o r o
pas~epa.
B ~ o p xas n~x e T c s n p o c T o K O M ~ H A OKoMya ~~ cnqolcu (end line), o H a s a ~ e p u a cyme- e~
CTB~IOW~IO c~po~ M yH a Y u H a e T H O B ~ I O ,HO 6e3 C O ~ A ~ H MI R I o B o r o a6aaua. ECAM nepeax
C T p O K a a6saua M M e e T O T C T p , TO K O M a H A a KOHUa CTpOKH CO3AaeT HOBYIO CTpOKY 6e3
oTcTyna, KaK n o ~ a 3 a ~ H ao purc. 6.2.
B HaCTOAbHLIX M3,L(aTeALCKMX CMCTeMaX, K O M a H A a KOHUa CTPOKEI Ha3MBaeTCH MR2-
K U nepecrodo~Kafiemlcu4 (soft return) M BLInOAHReTCR O ~ H O B P e M ~ H H L IH Ma X a T I i e M KAa-
BMLLIH <Return> H M O ~ ~ E I ~ M ~ KAaBHKIM, U ~ ~ I O0 6Lb 1~ ~ ~1 ~~(Shift).
0
PBC. 6.2. C ~ B O A0 6~ 0I3, ~ a ~ a -
The network of hiking paths is extensive and very well IOIYHe KOM;tlIAbI KOHIla CTPOKH:
maintained, and it stretches from the Mediterranean to all 3aIIOAHeHHaX CTpeAKa - 003-
corners of "the Hexagon." 4 3 spam xapernm (retun),a q c r a x -
The birds of the Midi, in particular, may seem exotic to K o l r e u cmpo~u(soft return).

visitors from North America. The more commonly sighted KOM~H A ~ a63aya cosxae~
lcouga
O T C T ~B HaZiahe cneny~oweji
ones include: *.
npotcll, a KohxaH+aa?congacmpolcu
Magpie < 1
HawiHaeT cneny~o~uy~o C T ~ O K ~
Roller
6e3 06pa30na1m~IIoBoro a6saua
Blue-Cheeked Bee Eater",<-
Golden Oriole
Kestrel 4
Apart from the Magpie and Kestrel, these birds are
migratory, and only spend the summer months in the south.

M~zxuu'nepe~odh-apemxu (soft return) c o o T B e T c m y e T


K o M W e salx..iwzlamb cmpoxy do xonya o~eoo
(quad-left),
K o T o p p M o m 0 H* B Cn~IJEl~3MpOBaHHb~
I Xa 6 o p -
H ~ I XC n c r e M a x .
K B w p a ~ b I " (quad) B p F H O M ~ a 6 o p e- 3 T 0 np0-
6 e n b ~ b l e6 ~ 0 ~ x KOTOpbIe
3 , HCIIOAb3J'IOTCR AAH 3anOA-
H e H m Y C T b I X LlpOCTpFIHCTB B T e X CTpOKax, KOTOPbIe
T ~ K I06pa30~,
H e noxonm no K p a x nonocbr ~ a 6 o p a . ~M
K o M m a oa~x~wzlama
cmpoxy do xonya ~ ~ e (quad-left)
ao
IIpIlBOAUT K B ~ I K A W ~ KCTPOKII
~' I I 3anOAHeHIIH) OCTaB-
ruerocx n p o c T p a c T n a c n o M o w b m BHPTY~ALH~IXKBW-
PaTOB. TO II03BOhReT XeCTKO I I p H X a T h CTPOKY TeK-
cTa K rpamqe n e B o r o nom.
nono6abar 06pa30~K o M q a obluwllama cmpolcy
do h-Onya Enpa60 (quad-right)BbIKNOgafZT T e K p p 9 0 -
KY II XeCTKO I I P W X H M a e T T O K Y TeKCTa K r p a H I i l l e
npanoro nonx.
124 Yacma I. Ocuoaa~munozpa$u~u

PHC. 6.3. Bce KOMaHAbI, CBR-


3aHHbIe C n p 0 6 e ~ b H b l ~KBaA-
U
The traditional quadding commands give you a
p a T a M u , H a T m a m T H O B ~ I OCTPO-
number of line-ending options to choose from
KY 6 e 3 0 6 p a 3 o s a ~ ~EIOBOrO
x
a6aana. T ~ I-le
MMeHee, OHU CO-
without starting a new paragraph. The quad-left
3AaIoT P a 3 A U S H b I e BapUaHTbI command ends the current line and sets it flush-
BbIpaBHUBaHUrl CTpOKU, KOTO- left, like this line.
p p o m 3 a s e p u r m . EOA~UIAH-
CTBO I I P O r P a M M HaCTOAbIIbIX The quad-right command ends the line and sends
U3AaTeAbCKUX CUCTeM H e U M e - it flush-right, as shown here.
e T 3TAX KOMBHA, 3 T 0 3 H a S U T ,
T O AAX nOAy.IeHUR BapHaIiTOB Using the quad-center command breaks the line
I O~ K, ~ ~ ~ I I I H
B ~ I P ~ B H U B ~~ H E aJ X and centers it, which often creates a nice effect in
pliCyHKe, rpe6yel.c~IIOTpaTUTb justified text like this.
MHOrO B p e M e H U I? ~ C U U ~

The quad-middle command isn't very useful for


running text, but it's most useful in settings such
as menus:
Filet Mignon 825.95

K O M ~ Hyenmpupooama
A~ cmpolcy n p o ~ (quad-
~ ~ u
center) BLIKnIosaeT TeKyrrryIo CTPOKY H p a 3 ~ e m a ee e~
no seHTpy nonocLI ~ a 6 o p a( ~ e x n nonrrw
y CT~~HHWI).
H,HaKOHe4, KOMaHAa 6aLlcAlo'lamb C?7lpO?CyU3 tJeHm-
pa (quad middle) c o s ~ a npo6en
e~ B cepeAkiHe C T ~ O K H
(B TOM MecTe CTPOKH, K KOTOPOMY npHMeHeHa K O M ~ H -
&a)H pa3ABHraeT TeKCT A 0 rpaHHU IIOAOCLI ~ a 6 o p a( A 0
rpamu nonef) (PHC.6.3).
A 'IT0 KaCaeTCII ~ a 6 o p aB TeKCTOBbIX PeAaKTOPaX
H nporpaMMax BepcTKH (makeup programs), TO KoMaH-
AbI, CBR3aHHLIe C n p o 6 e ~ ~ ~ bKBaApaTaMH,
ulu B Hllx nOKa
He HCIIOAL3)WTCX. Y HeKOTOpLIX IIpOrpaMM HMeeTCR
BapHam KoMambI 6allcAm'lama cmpolcy u3 yenmpa (quad
middle), HO B UeAOM, ecAH BaM HyXHO UeHTpHpOBaTL
oTAenLHym CTPOKY HAH npkixaTL ee K OpyroMy ~ p m ,
H e X e A H O C T U ~ H O ~TeKCT, B a M IIpHAeTCR HCIIOAb30BaTb KOMafWy B O 3 B p a T a K a p e T K H ,
Y T O ~ OTAeAliTb
~ I HYXHYIO CTPOKY OT OKPYXalOLIleI'O TeKCTa, a 3 a T e M K BTHM CTpOKaM
I I p M e H I I T I . p a 3 H b I e KOMaHAbI BbIPaBHHBaHEIR (alignment).

~ H I U j W H eMaLLIHHKH OrPaHHYHBZlAH IIOAb3OBaTeAH ~ A M H C T B ~ H Hr O


a p~H~U T y p 0 % H eAHH-
cmeamm K e r n e M . Ha ~ a 6 o p ~ o - n ~ m mMe afr iu m w e IBM Selectric (c ~ ~ M ~ M ~ M ma-
L I M
POM IUPM~$T~) H ~ ~ O P L I I HyXe
K M O r MeHRTb fapHIITYpb1, HO BCe OHH ~ L I A M
TOALKO MOHO-
IIIHpHHHbIMU H TOAbKO C I Z a p 0 f i ~ e r ~ e-f ir a p H M T Y P b I Pica (10 3HaKOB KOTOPOG
I I O M e I U U H C b B OAHOM ~ l O f i ~ e - 10-pitch, YTO n P H M e P H O p a B H O K e r A I o 12) H Elite
(12 3HaKOB K O T O P O ~IIOMeLIIUHCb
~ B OAHOM ~ K l f i ~Te ,O n p I l M e p H O COCTaBNIeT K e r A L 10).
E e 3 BOBMOXHOCTII ~ b 1 6 0 p ar a p m r y p b I H K e r m H e K o T o p b I e m n o r p a + 1 1 Y e c ~ ~ enpa-
B m a c K a m H c b K M a m H H o n x c m I M . M~orkiea 3 HHX T a K x c e n e p e K o Y e B a n H B n e p B b I e
TeKCTOBbIe P e A a K T O p b I , KOTOpbIe 6 a 3 u p o ~ a n ~ H
c ab MOHOUIIlPHHHbIX ILIPH+TZX H 3 =TO-
MaTmecKm nocrnpo~~o-ne~amal~guxycrnpou'crno (line printers). H e ~ a ~ l p Ha sa p a 3 s ~ ~ ~ e
~ e X H 0 ~ 0 r HHf TeKCTOBbIX
i PeAaKTOpOB, 3m C T a p b I e MaIIIHHOnHCHbIe IIpHBbIYKH 6 e p e x ~ o
nepe~ecemrB CoBpeMeHHbIe ~ a 6 0 p ~ b 1n pe o r p a M M b 1 H m n o r p a + u ~ e c ~npaama.
~e

~ O C K O A ~ KHYa n H m M X MaLUHHKaX HeAb3R MeHIiTb IUPIICPT~I, TO n p H neYaTEi npa6era-


AH K UMEITaUHM T H I I O ~ P ~ + N Y ~ C K ACX~ O C O ~ OBLWeAeHHIi
B H IIOACBeTKH. B IIpaBUJiaX
~a6opoanponucMbliuu
b ~ i i o~o6pamae~crr
M a r r r H H o n u c H n o ~ y x ~ l p ~LIIPEI+T (all caps) ma
(underscore).HHTO,
noJ~eph-usanue~ e H C ~ O A ~ ~ ~B ~n o
HH A p y r o e O ~ ~ I Y HHO T~C ~Rr p a + x -
YeCKOM ~ a 6 o p e ,MCKAIOYU n p H M e H e H H e IIpOnMCHbIX ~ Y K BAAR ~ a 6 o p a3arOAOBKOB
(puc. 6.4).
L7oJuepxuoaxue H a I I H I U ~ e f MaLLlHHKe
i BbIIIOAHHe?.CR BO3BPaTOM K a p e T K H H a 3 a A PI
I I ~ O ~ H B ~ H 3HH~a KMa IIoAYepKIisaHEIR (-) nOA T e M Xe + p a m e H T ' 0 ~ TeKCTa. S H ~IIOA- K
YepKHBaHEIR c ~ G Y ~RBNIeTCXc YaCTbKI 6 a 3 o ~ o fTi P ~ A E I U ASCIIi
~I H H a K A a B H a T y p e KOM-
n b l O T e p a HMeeTCR K A a B H m a , KOTOpaR n e Y a T a e T 3HaK IIOAYepKHBaHHR I I p H H ~ X ~ T O KAa-
%
BHlUe <ShifD. K o ~ w ? aZ O & ~ ? P K U ~ ~ H U A B TeKCTOBLIX PeAaKTOpaX H I I p O r p a M M a X BepCTKH
HCnOAb3YeT TOT Xe 3HaK, Y KOTOPOrO H e T HCKOHHO T H ~ o I ' P ~ ~ ~ H Y ~ c K
3 KoB~HoB U e H T a .
THE ISSUE
Investors are seeing our situation as a
problem rather than as an o~wortunitv.
As The Wall Street Journal pointed ouc
just last week, our industry is doing
well even if we aren't. Our job is to
transfer the gloss of the industrv, with
its good reputation, to pur own comuanv.

The Issue
Investors are seeing our situation as a problem rather than as
an opportuniq As The Wa//StreetJour~fpointed out just last
week, our industry is doing well even if we aren't. Our job is
to transfer the gloss of the indwny, with irs good reputation,
to our own company.

Ero II03HUHR OTHOCIlTeALHO AHHHA LUPU+TB onpenenx-


e T c s B K y T p a u r p ~ + ~ o ~ o+aGna,
ro u TO nonomeaue
M O X e T OTAH'laTLCR OT T 0 f i IIO3HUIIH, B KOTOPOG 3HaK
IIOA9epKHBaHHR IIeYaTaeTCR OTAeALHO.
H a n p o ~ P i B ,H ~ ~ O ~ H L I ~
CHCTeMbI nonsepKuBa-
HHR HCIIOAL3YIOT 9TO-TO B P O A e KOMaHfiLI do6acmma
~uxeu'xy(rule-fill), K o T o p a R p H c y e T AHHHK) o n p e n e n e H -
HOG TOAUIIiHLI H H a O I I p e n e A e H H O M PaCCTORHHH OT AH-
HHA I I l p F i + ~ a . 3 ~ IIOASePKHBaHHR
a ~ ~ a 6 . 4 ASCII
~ ~ ~ 1
O ~ ~ I ' I HT
OR X e A O B a T ~ ~ H H Ou eGA A A ChIlmKOM 6 ~ ~ 3 -
nepe9epKIiBatI mm-
KO p a c n o A o m e H K AHHHH LUPEI+T~,
H A e BLIHOCHbIe 3 A e M e H T L I ~ Y K B .T ~ i n o r p a + I i q e c ~ ~
6onee I I p O n B H H F L I e n p O r p a M M L 1 OIIyCKaIoT 3HaK IIOA-
YePKEiBaHHR H H X e BLIHOCHLIX 3AeMeHTOB, HO Ii 3TO He-
j ' T e I I l A T e A b ~ b 1 f i B a p H a H T , nO3TOMY T ~ K O G3 H a K AYILIC:
H e HCIIOAL30BaTL BOBCe.
B MaIIINHOnNCH nodueplcuoa~ueB C e r A a IIpMMeHRAOCb A M yKa3aHMX + ~ ~ ~ M ~ H TeK-
T O B
CTa, KOTOpbIe C A e A y e T ~ a 6 M p a K
~ pbC U B O M ( c A J TIXepe'INCAeHbI
~H 6 ?A. 5).
Ewe OAMH I I e p e X M T O K MaIlIUHOIIHCHOrO sac-
C T U X COXpaHMACX N CTU IIOCTOXHHO~~
T~IO
06b1'1~0ii e c ~ o j i BHBKM n a d v e p ~ u o a u u(overstrike),
~ ~ l n o r p a + ~ ~ ~npaKTMKN: ~ nepevep-
lcusanu~(strike-through) HAM aa~zleplcusa~u~ (strike-out). B n o c n e n H e M cnyqae O ~ ~ I ' I H O
HaHOCMTCR AUHMX (B MCXOAHOM B a p M a K T e C e p H X A ~ + H C O B ) IIO +paI'MeHTj' TeKCTa, 'IT06b1
n O K a 3 a T b , ' I T 0 3TOT M a T e p N U A O A X e H 6bwb Y A a h e H B 6 y ~ p M3AaHHM
e ~ pyK0nUCEi
T a ~ o iBi a p H a H T 'IaCTO BCTpe'IaeTCX B IOpNAM'IeCKHX TeKCTaX, H a n p H M e p , B KOHTPaKTaX.

y n N I L I p e G MaIlIMHKN KAaBMUIa M O X e T 0 6 e c n e ~ ~TOAbKO


~ b A B a 3 H a K a : OAMH 6e3 l c A U 6 U -
ulu oepx~ezopezucmpa(Unshift), ~ p y r o Gc x,raauueu' oepxnezopezucmpa (Shift).Y nomrpa-
+HY~CKO~~
Oa6opa
3Ha'INTeAbHO 6 o n b m e e KOAM'IeCTBO SHBKOB, M n O A b 3 0 B a T e A U MaILIM-
HOK A O A X H b I MMMTIlPOBaTb ( ~ ~ ~ O A A ~ A ~ I BM
~ HTOLr U
De) U 3 HUX N 3 - 3 a O r P a H U Y e H H b I X
B O ~ M O X H O C3THX
T ~ GYCTPOGCTB.
~ M ~ o w M3
e TaKMX no&qeAoK (fakeries) CHOBa IIOXBAR-
IOTCII B TeKCTaX, C03AaHHbIX C nOMOIUbIO K O M n b I O T e p a , XOTX yXe H e T HMKaKOrO CMbICAa
CAeAOBaTb BTOG I I p N B b I S K e .

Ha n x r u p e i i M a r u m m e - T O A ~ K Oo n H a Y e p T o Y K a (dash):.qer@ic!' (hyphen). A c T a m a p -
T H 0 G ~ ~ l r r o r p a + M V e c ~ oY
f i ~ ~ T OX'BIMK
e TO
CX~
AAHHHOe ~ U p e " (em dash), KOTOpOe no
ILINPMHe COOTBeTCTBYeT 1 K ~ ~ ~ A ~(em)
H oMGHeCKOAbKO TOHbILIe, Y e M ,L(e+Mc. M a r u ~ ~ o -
n U C b MMMTEipyeT A M H H O e T M p e C IIOMOUbIO YnBOeHHOrO ~ e + U c a .
Kopomoe TNpe (en dash), IIOAOBMHa OT A A l w H O r O T H p e , KOTOpOe MCIIOAb3yeTCX
B KaYeCTBe C O ~ ~ H H H T ~ A ~ H
' I eOp T
? b~I B TaKMX BbIpa)fCeHHXX, K a K a 1 9 7 9 - 8 3 > > , 3 a M e H e H O
6 b ~ IIpOCTO
0 A ~ + U C O M . ,&+Mc T a K X e 'IaCTO IIpUMeHSeTCR BMeCTO 3 H a K a MUHYC (-),
K O T O P ~ I n~o~- n p e X H e M y H e BXOAMT B C T ~ H A ~ ~ T H ~ I X ? K O M n A e K T I I I ~ U ~ T O B O +~aOf A a
EI H a x o a m c B o e M e m o TOALKO B cnewiahbwx ILIPU+TOB~IX +Gnax (pi fonts),H a n p m e p ,
Symbol. B m o r p a + m e c ~ o~~a 6 o p ee i J m m e H H b I M n o B o n o M n p m e a a b ne+xc RBAX-
e T c x n e p e H o c CAOB (PHC. 6.5) M c n o m H b I e cnosa, H a n p m e p , <<strike-oub(aaseprursa~~).
3 ~ ne+aca a ~ M o m e T a B T o M a m r e c m i ~ 0 6 a s n m b c+~y ~ ~ u ~ rn ee pGe H o c o B B n p o r p a M M a x
PMC. 6.5. Hapan-anne s e p T o -
qeK. B nOpRAKe UX nORBAeHUR: This hard-hitting action film--the first by
ne+nc o6aenu~sie~cnosa n p a -
AeAReT YaCTU CAOB JAR n e p e H 0 - director Carlos Young--looks at the eastern
Ca B KOHqe CTPOKU; AAUHHOe
front during the war of 1914- 18, with winter
TUpe pa3AeAReT nono6ao ~ ~ 0 6 -
KaM UAU TOYKaM C ~ E U I X T O ~ ; action scenes filmed at temperatures of -10".
KOpOTKOe T U p e COeAUHRfX AUa-
n a 3 0 H AaT. &AX n0AHOTbl Itap-
THH~n I p e U c T a m e n H ~ C T O X W U ~ ~ BePCTKR, T a K 0 f i A ~ + H C nOAy'IHA H a 3 B a H U e i u ~ 2 K 0 2 0 "
3HaK MUIiyCa
deijuca (soft hyphen), OH H e 0 ~ 0 6 p a X a e T ~BXcnoee, ecnw
OHO H e nonaffae-r B KoHeu c ~ p o ~Au .ne+wc, ~ o ~ o p b ~ i i
BbI BBOARTe C KAaBUaTYPbI, Ha3bIBaeTCX COOTBeTCTBeH-
HO 3 1 ~ e c r n ~ ude&c
C (hard hyphen), ~ a ~ o~ (i ei+ u c ZBAX-
eTCZ H ~ M ~ M ~ H XYaCTbIO
~ M O TeKCTOBOrO
~ ~ IIOTOKB.

&.uToro w06b1 c o K p a m YXCAO m a B u u H a nwuyueii


MZiKlHHKe, TpaffUlJUOHHbIe lTOMfrpaC&'Ie~K~le O'lXpbDa-
m u n e n s a ~ p b ~ s a r o ~K~~pBi eL I Y K U("~ ~" w ' ') 3 a ~ e m n r i
H a APXMbIe B e p T H K a h b H b I e (N Ei "), TOG Xe IIpHYHHe
HeXBaTKU M e C T a (H MIlMIlKpkM n o & KAaBRaTj'py IIUIIIy-
meii M KC~H)O B H ~ .~~ ~ & K O F ( O B~~ a
~ ~ E I HO R6 n ~ ASCII
ua
C O A e p X I l T KklBbIYKEI, K a K Y ~ I L ~ L L I Y I MBLLIUHKU,
U~~ a He
I I o A U ~ P ~ ~ ~ R YK
~ ~C BK~I I~Y~K u - < < A ~ ~ KOTOPbIe
K E ~ ~ ) ~ ~R ,H O P
A a H a 3 b J B m T U3OZHymbLUU K U B b l U K W UCUT^)' quotes).
Twnorpa+c~we K ~ L B ~ I Y KEIMeIOTCX R~~ B AIO~OM
III~H+TOBOM +aihe (B pacruwpe~~ofi Y a c T n ~a6nwqb1
ASCII), HO ~ a 6 p RaX ~C IIOMOIIlblo
~ KAaBULII AOBOAbHO
3aTpyAHHTeAbHO. (Hanpmep,H a K O M B I O T e p e Mac OHR
CnpXTaHbX non C K O ~ K ~ M I Ia, B CHCTeMe Windows npw-
c nbe s H a n b H L r e KOAM.) I'Iox~ne~we
AeTca ~ a 6 u p a ~ Ha-
CTOAbHbIX H3AaTeAbCKHX CRCTeM n p U F H A 0 ~ I O n e f H
i r-
H O p U p O E a T b T R ~ O T P ~ + C K HKaBLIgKR
~ ( ~ C A H KOHe'IHO,
,
o ~HHX C A L I U I ~ H ) .
OHR B O O ~ L U
Ha K A a B U a T y p e n~LIIywe2M a W U H K U T a K X e O T C Y T C T B F T 3 H a K U U ~ P U X O(primes)
B
(" U (<), n 0 3 T O M Y BMeCTO HUX UCnOAb3yIOTCX MaLUKHOnUCHbIe KaBLIZfKU. ~ H B K HLUTPHXOB
U C n O A b 3 p T C R F[AR 0 6 0 3 ~ a ~ e H M 1+YTOB
1 (") U AEOGMOB ((0, MUHYT ('0 U CeKYH.4 (<()H
T H I X O ~ ~ ~ ~ U ~ ~ C K U (12'
lTyHKTOB X type - ( < I I I ~ u + T K e r A R 1%).
~ H ~ KJIITpUXOB
H 0 6 b 1 9 ~ 0 IIpeACTaBAeHLI B C n e U U a A b H b I X III~UQTOB~IX
*aiiAax
(pi fonts), BKAloXiJl + a i i A S y m b o l , ~ C ~ B A O W T ~ UMX O
U r P IIOAYYaTLCR U 3 IIPRMLIX KaBbI-
ZfeK, HO A)nIIIIe UCllOAb30BaTb HaCTOBIIlUe 3HaKU.

Ha I I u I I I MaIIIUHKe
~ ~ ~ ~ T a K X e HeAb3R KBK CAeAyeT H a n e s a T a T L IIpOCTbIe A P O ~ H ' ~no-
,
CKOA~K
H ~a ~ e iOi T C ~ ~ C T B ~ I M
O Te m u e UU+PLI s a c n ~ ~ e n eHiai ~ a ~ e ~ a Y
Aria ~ HeKo-
e ~ e i .
TOPbIX I I U w I i X MBIIIUHOK eCTb HeCKOAbKO BCTPOeHHLIX ~po6eii,U C T ~ H A ~ ~ J.UpH+-T H ~ I ~
TOBOG + a h , co~epxawuii256 B H ~ K O B T, a K m e p a c n o A a r a e T ~ H ~ K ~~ M p oU6 e i i%, 'I2,3/4.
Apyrue npo6u n o n y Y a r o T c s a3 yu+p O~~I'IHOI-o K e r n s , P ~ ~ ~ ~ A ~ H~ocou"
H L Ivepmou"
X
(virgule, solidus, slash).XOTRK o M m m e p H L x e n p o r p a M m I MOT n p m e w r r L m 6 o i i K e r u
uu+p AM s u c m e ~ e i ui s ~ a ~ e ~ a ~ e Sn He ~i iKdpo&oUY
, vepmbl (fraction bar) s a c T o H e
3aMeYaKYT U 3 X e A a H U R CAeAOBaTb I I p a B H A a M IIHIIIyWHX MaIlIHHOK ( ~ H c . 6.6).
4po6aarr s e p T a (fraction bar) X B M e T C R YaCTbH) 6a30~0roK O M n A e K T a 3HaKOB ~1060-
r0 TeKCTOBOrO ILIPEI+TOBO~O + a i i A a , OHa H M e e T HaCbIWeHHOCTb, JTOA HaKAOHa H B b I p a B -
HUBaHHe XI0 AHHUH IIIPH+TB H C I I p O e K T H p O B a H a CneUHEiALHO n A R n p o 6 ~ b r xs H C e A .
K COXaAeHUI0, O H a H e BKAIO'IeHa B KOAOBYIO ~ q y ANSI, nO3TOMY HeAOCTYlIHa
a 6 h ~ Win
B ~ O A ~ L U U H C T nBp~o r p a M M H b I x npmomeHkiii Windows. &IT o r o Y T O ~ L I~ a 6 p a AnP O ~ H Y H )
Y e p r y , ~ O A L ~ O B ~ TWindows
~AM A O A X H ~ IMMeTb BepcMIo,
IIOAAepXHBaIOILIyIO Unicode, UAU H ~ ~ O P H Y Hn p) O r p a M -
MY, KOTOpaR M O X e T U3BAeKaTb BCe 3HaKM U 3 UIPHC~)TO-
B o r o +afiAa, He3aBWCMMO OT K O A O B O ~T~~ ~ A H UE~ Io . A ~ ~
n o ~ p o 6 ~ y rUH+OPM~LIMIO
o 0 A P O ~ H L I X 'IUCAaX L A .
a z ~ .13.

k I c n o n ~ 3 0 ~ T I-1a60pe
a ~~ ~~YeA X T O ~ OOBC, O ~ ~ H H nOp r ?
TeKCTa B ~ a 6 n x ~ a-
x , AOCTaTOYHO CAOXHOe A ~ A o ' " .
r A a 6 a 75 IJeAMKOM nOCBXrUeHa ~ a 6 o p T y ~ ~ A M I BKAIo-
J,
'IU 0 6 c y x ~ e 0~~~~ el ' I MTf~i~ Y A R T O P O TeKCTOBbIX
B pe-
PHC. 6.6. B ~ e p x ~ eCTpOKe fi
~ 3 0 6 p a x e ~ n~ep o 6 n ,H a n e s a -
AaKTOpOB OT T ~ ~ ~ ~ O P O B MBUINHOK,
nMUIJWMX a TU-

T ~ H H O
H a~ n~U I I t ~ ~ l eMaIUUHKe.
fi n 0 r p a C t ) c ~ H xT ~ ~ Y M T O P O BOT T ~ ~ Y A R T O P OTeKCTOBbIX
B
H IIOCKOAbKy MahO npOrpaMM, PeAaKTOpOB.
KOTOPbIe M O r P CO3AaBaTb UC- y IIMIllyIIlec MaUIHHKU CYIIleCTBYeT Y C T P O ~ ~ C T B O
THHHbIe A P O ~ H ,T a K A 0 Cf.IX I I O p
m a 6 y i l a m o p n a l x ocmaploeoh-" (tab stop). C HX n o M o m b I o
M H ~ ~ H P ~ HA )P T
O ~ H ,A a X e eCAH
MCnOAb3yroTCX I I p O n O p U U O H U b -
OnpeAenxeTcR n o n o m e H u e H a c l p a H w e , no K o T o p o r o
H b I e I U P U C ~ ~ T(~~I p 0 6 b BO BTO- K a p e T K a noxonar 3 a o n ~ Ho a m a m e K n a B m u u <Tab>IH.
p0fi CT~OK~Y
) .M e H b I I I e H U e h l O C T ~ H O B K ~ MC
MA y X a T M U e H L K U e I J J T H ~ T ~ IKOTOPLIe
,
4 x 4 AAX
Kernx ~ s ~ c n n ~ e ~H e i i IIpenRTCTByIOT IlepeMeUeHHIO KapeTKH. B TeKCTOBLIX
3~a~e~a~ HBe O~~ eB f~ Ii L U ~ H U ~ M
p e A a K T O p a X IIOAOXeHUR ~ a 6 y n ~ ~Toa pK Xa e H a 3 L I B m T
YMCAIITeNl MOXHO C03AaTb nOA-
xonamue npo6a ( a p o 6 b B Tpe-
o c m a ~ o e l c a u u(stops).
~ b e fC
i T ~ O K C ) ,RO BCC-TBKH me- T a 6 y m p ~mmyuefi
r M~~UIWKB E IHeKOTOpOM CMLIC-
A y e T UCnOAb3OBaTb HaCTORWyIO ne nporrre, r e M ~ a 6 y m r o p b XKCTOB~IX
1 P e a a K T o p o B . KOP
ap06~y10q e p y , K a K ~ I O K ~ ~ ~ H O
A a H a rrr?IIIyIIIec MaIUUHKe YCTaHOBAeHbI T ~ ~ ~ A R T O P L I ,
B C ~ M O HG I I X H ~C~l p O K e . B Tpe-
~ b e Ci B e p X y CTpOKe HCnOAL30-
TO KAaBMlUa <Tab> nO3BOAXeT K a p e T K e BLInOAHMTb

sanacb Kocaa sepTa (virgule ~IIPLIHCOK~


BbI
: H W M M a e T e KAaBUIlIy, U K a p e T K a G~ICT-
RAM slash), KOTOpaX H e U M e e T po nepecKaKmaeT K cnenymmeii ~ O ~ M ~ J UBMT .e K c T o -
AOCTaTOYHOrO H a K A O H a U 40~- B ~ I Xp e n a K T o p a x H a m a m e K n a a m u l i <Tab>H e n p o c ~ o
MbI OH^ OIIYCKaeTCR H H X e AU-
I I e p e M e u i a e T KypCOp, a TOAKaeT BMeCTe C HMM TeKCT,
HUH ~ I I + T H
~ H) e o l i e H L roam-
K O T O P ~ IPaCIIOAOXeH
~~ M e X A y KYPCOPOM M C A e A p W U M
ca A n a 3 ~ 0 2
U~AH
T ~ ~ ~ A R T O ~~ OO M
~ .T O Mn eYp e M e L y e H M e TeKCTOB, KOTOpLIe yXe paCIIOAOXeHL1 B T ~ ~ A M -
ue, - 3 T 0 p a 6 o ~ aH e KAaBMUM <Tab>,a K A a B H U , y n p a B A x m w x ? x KYpCOpOM, Mc~oA~~o-
BaHMe K A a B M U YnpaBAeHMX KYPCOPOM M AOnOAHMTeALHbIX KAaBHIII: <C0lltl-01), <Alt),
<Option> H <Command> (B ~~BMCMMOCTM
OT T M n a K o M n L m T e p a M ero 06ecne~e~~?x),
+~'HKIJI.~~o, ~ O A O ~ H YA~~ O
IIO3BOiweT I I p O r p a M M e E I M ~ p O B a T b ~CTBHH
nH) I I I p e f i MalLMHKM.
B nHLuyLyMX M a U H H K a X ~ a 6 y n x u T~axK H t e YaCTO npHMeHXeTCR A M + O ~ M H ~ O B ~ H H X
OTCTYTIOB. A KOMnLH3TePHbIe I l P O r P a M M L I M O T aBTOMaT11YeCKH A O ~ ~ B A I I TaL6 3 a u ~ b 1 e
OTCTj'nbI B CTPOKBX, CAeAYH)WMX 3a KOMBHAOG <Return>.kI 3 T 0 60,iee X I ~ ~ B H A L H L I CnO- G
co6 CO3AaHMR a 6 3 a u ~ b 1 xOTCT).'nOB, V e M MCnOAb30BaHMe T ~ ~ ~ A R U E I H .
~ P H M ~ H X~Ra 6 h a u y
C T M A ~ G(style sheet), BLInOAHCITL + O P M ~ T H P O B ~ H HTeKCTa
~ He-
CpaBHeHHO A e r 9 e : IlpOCTOe M3MeHeHNe I l a p a M e T p a B ~ a 6 n ~ Cu Te M A ~aBTOMaTHYeCKM
~
H3MeHReT, H a n p H M e p , a 6 3 a u ~ b l eOTCTYnbI BO BCeM AOKyMeHTe ( 6 o ~ e e nonpo6sym HH-
($~OPM~UHK)0 C T M X C&. 6 2.4. 7 7). TO A a e T EBM BO3MOXHOCTb C 6 0 ~ b ~ u e nf 0i A b 3 0 6
n p a M e H m T ~ ~ Y A X ~ OHPa n~p~a M
, ep, npH ~ a 6 0 p eT ~ ~ A H U
n p, a Y e M napaMeTpLI ~ a 6 y n X -
TOG me ~ a 6 n u u ec m e G .
UMH C o x p a H x m T c x B
P a c n p o c ~ p a ~ e ~~ ~~anxo r p a + ~ r e cO~U aMa~ K ~~, o ~ o p yELI
m MomeTe ~ ~ M ~ T E I T L
CnAOIUb M PRAOM, eCAH CTaHeTe 06pawa~sBHMMaHMe, - p a 3 H a R BeAHYHHa a 6 s a u ~ ~ 1 x
OTCTYIIOB. TO C K O p e e BCWO BLI3BaHO T e M , 9 T O YaCTL OTCTj'XIOB CO3AaEIa K a K 3 A e M e H T
CTEIM, a YaCTb - C n O M O w b I 0 KAaBMUU <Tab>.
6b1h RCHbIM U OnHO3HasHLIM AeAOM. He ~ L I A O~ e o 6 x o -
T annapamme,
n u M o c T H B L I ~ H ~ ~HH L HH n p o r p a M M H L I e
cpenma, HU name pa3pa60wu~ampu+~oa.Bce 6 ~ m 0
mecTKo P ~ ~ A ~ M ~ H T U P O B ~ H O ' .
Ha6op TeKCTa H a nepCOHaALHOM KOMnLKtTepe H e
M O r H e 6~1%A p p U M . K a ~ o i 6 i ~ KOMnLKtTep
1 (TOYH~~
c ~ a s a nK, a K y I o ~ L OI n e p a w o H H y m c u c r e ~ yBLI
) HU UC-
no~~aoam B ~ , a ~ o661 j i n p o r p a M M e HH pa6o~&ui,
K ~ K O G6b1 T H n LUPHC~?TOBHU ILpUMeHIIhU, BCe H3MeHU-
AOCL: a cnoco6 pa6o~b1, u p e a y n ~ ~KOTOPLIB
a~, BLI XO-
TElTe IIOAYYHTL.
B BTOG r A a B e npuoTKpLIBae-rcx a a ~ a ~HW
e c TeM, wo
n p o r ? c x o m , K o r n a BM H a m m a m e u a B u m i H a mama-
Type, H K ~ K ~ IPOAL
O q a x r r p a 3 ~ ~ s1 ne e M e m I a n n a p a T -
HOrO U IlpOrpaMMHOrO 0 6 e c n e q e ~ uB~ o ~ o 6 p a m e ~ m
mpr?+-ra H a crpamue. Pi 3m yme H e ~ e o p e n i ~ e c ~ I l i i
MaTepHaA; 3TO T a UH+OPM;~WR, K O T O P U IIOMOXeT BaM
y n p a B N l T b IIpOUeCCOM ~ a 6 o p aH +OPM~TUPOB~HHR
TeKCTa, O C O ~ ~ H H O
K ,o r A a .geAo H e KAeuTcrr.

C T O s K H 3 p e H U X 0 6 p a 6 0 ~ ~TeKCTa
u PaHHUe n p O r p a M -
MLI B e p c m u (neps~~ n peo r p a M M L 1 H a c T o s H b I x u 3 a a -
T€!ALCKUX CHCTeM, AeMOHCTpUpOBaBJ.IIUe HeKOTOpLIe TU-
I I O F P ~ + U Y ~ C KIEI~~~ ~ T ~ H6~1x4
~ u unpOCTO
) TeKCTOBbIMH
p e n a K T o p a M n , K o T o p L I e T O A ~ K Ou M o r m p a 3 ~ e n ~ a ~ b
TeKCT B HeCKOALKUX KOAOHKBX. HO B BTUX I l p O r p a M -
M a x BnepnLIe cram n p m r e a m c s n p o n o p s n o s m a b r e
mpu+Tb1.
PklC. 7.1. C IIOXBAeHUeM nep-
BLXX CHCTeM WYSIWYG C C a O <AG><AF><RR><AH><CS5,5,5>cTl><CPlO.5>
H e m r e p e c H o p a 6 0 ~ a ~B bnomo-
<CL13><CC12.9><CFSA><IFO.ll>The
CTblO TeKCTOBbIX PeXBMiLX, no- s i m p l i c i t y o f u s i n g the program b e l i e s
A O ~ H ~ I3TOMY,
X XOTX OEIU ~ ~ I A U
CTaHAapTHbIMU &AX C I I e U B U E -
t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e c r a f t of
KOA~I,
3 U P O B a H H b I X CUCTeM. t y p e s e t t i n g . Like most t y p e s e t t i n g
cTom.qne B y~-AOB~IX
CKO~K~X, programs, <CFSAI>DynoType9<CFSA>s t e x t
0 3 H a Y W : Pa3PeLUUTb A U r a T y - processing i s based on a mnemonic
PM; p a p e m aBTOMamecKoe c o d i n g scheme.<QL>
cosna~ue~ J O C T ~ Inpo6ei;
X sbnc-
mwa BAeBo; pa3perum nepe-
HOC CAOB; MIIIIEIM~AMEJ~ npoGeh
M e m y C A O B ~ M H5 enmuxi, on- C TOYKH 3pemx ~ m o r p a + aT e~K ~
c T o n b r e penarc-

-
~ u ~ a b ~ b 5 t e ni U H U 4 , MaK- T O p b I 6 b m YyTL
~ Gonee, Y e M X3TOMaTH3HpOBaHHbIMR
b ~5 i eAEIHIIIJ; IIpU-
C H ~ a h b ~- I I H ~ E i M R
MaIIIPKHKaMH, U e A b KOTOPbIX - O+OPMA~-
MeHEiTL Y p O B e H b TpeKUHlYl 1; me IIpOCTbIX O+HCH~IX aOKYMeHTOB. T a ~ o f inOAX0.4
y c r a ~ o ~ ~Kf el br a 10,5 IDJHKTOB; y IIpt?~III€!(XBeHHHKOB COBpeMeHHbIX H3AaTeAbCKHX CH-
y c r r l ~ o ~ ~ramp-
lra 13qn-
CTeM O K a 3 U C R XBHO HeyAaYHbIM.
ETOB; YCTaHOBUTL UIHPUHY KO-
AOHKH 12 naeK n 9 ~YHKTOB; Memay T e M c n e ~ a a h ~ 1 3 a p o ~ a ~~~ab6r oe p ~ b cac- 1e
B b 1 6 p a ~ br a p H u T y p y Sabon; YC- TeMbI, no M e p e nepexona H a n e p c o H a h b n b r e K o M n b I o T e -
TaHOBUTb a 6 3 a 4 ~ ~ 1 O2
TCTyn PbI, T m X e y r a c U M . OHH6 b l h ~CAHLUKOM AOpOI'I1, HX
I I e p B 0 2 CTPOKH, p a B ~ b G11 nyH- HHTep+eiic, 0pkieHTEipo~a~HbG
H a YpOBeHb MaIIIHHHbIX
KT=. K a w b ~ i pas,
i KOrAa Me-
K O ~ O B ,~ a s a n c xc n n r u K o M CAOXH~IM ( p ~ c7.1), AAX
HXACX L U ~ H + T , a e o 6 x o n u ~ o
~ L I A OBBOAUTb B TeKCT COOTBeT-
p a 6 0 ~ b 1C HHMH ~ p e 6 0 ~ a n c~ x~ o C $ ~ C C H O H Z U ~ H ~OI n~e -
C'lBylOUlBe KOnbI
P a T O p (TOT x e C I I ~ U H ~ ~ H C T - H ~ ~ OOHR ~~% H~e MOrAR
K).
n0.4
BbIIIOAHXTb BCe C a M O C T O ~ e A b H OH L [ ~ ~ C T B O B ~ T AO-
~
~ Y H ~ Or M
AemeBAe H ewe a e r u e B n e n , K a K TO 6 b m 0 xa-
p a K T e p H 0 AAR n e p B b I X nepCOHaAbHbIX KOMnblOTepOB.

ECAH H e CYNTaTb OTCTJ'IIOB, B CIIeIlMahH3RPOBaHHbIX


H ~ ~ O P H ~C IwXx e M a x ~ O Y T HB c e ~ ~ l n o r p a + t i ~ ena-
c ~ ~ e
p a M e T p b I MOXHO 6 b m o YCTHaBhUBaTb naxe AAII OT-
AeAbHbIX 3HBKOB. K e r n b , r a p H H T y p a , IIOAOXeHRe 3 H a K a
IIOn npenbmynleii C T P O K O ~ ~npo6en
, M e X A y COCeAHRMll
6 y ~ s a H~ T.
u A. M O r h U I13MeHffTbCII B MOMeHT. TO AOCTNTahOCb
~106oji BnEICbIBaHIleM
KOAOB K O M m n p I I M O B IIOTOK TeKCTP, H ~ O A ~ L U U H C T B3TUX
O KOAOB IIBAIIAUCb nepe~W'ia-
meAlulU (toggles),KOTOpbIe K;LK T Y M ~ A ~ MOXHO P~I BKAIOYEiTb I1 B b M N 0 9 M T b .
T e ~ c r o s b i epeaarnopbx AAII n p o c r o T b I pa36u.m ~ r n o r p a + ~ Y e cxapamepum-
~ ~ e
KU, KOTOpbIMH CMOrAI1 J'IIpiLBAXTb, H a KaTerOpHEi, ~ p O S i 3 B O A b H OO~%RBIIB, 'IT0 HeKOTO-
p b I e I13 HUX n p m e H I I m C I I TOAbKO K a63auy, I1 A r n e AOKyMeHTJ' B UeAOM, a HeKOTO-
PbIe - TOAbKO K OTAeAbHbIM 3HaKaM.
B O ~ H U K H O Bm ~ HxU~~ a ~ e r o pcosnaho
~ j i c n o a s A e H I i e M zpa@u'iecxux unmep@eiicoa
n a t b 3 o s a m e ~(graphical
~ user interfaces),n o ~ o 6 ~ TeM,
~ 1 xK o T o p H e n p I l M e m m c s i B one-
p a u u o x H b x x c H n e M a x Macintosh ma Microsoft Windows. B vrux ~mep+eiicaxniw
O n p e A e A e H I u r I I a p a M e T p O B TeKCTa HCIIOAb3yIOTCII AIiahOrOBbIe OKHa ( K ~ Kcnoco6 BBOAa
H H + o p ~ a ~ ~ u rB) 3TOM . U Y a e yXe H e HYXHO 3aIIOMMHaTb MHOXeCTBO KOAOB, IIOCKOAb-
KY T e n e p b K O M W b I 0 ~ 0 6 p a ~ a h HHenOCpeACTBeHHO
~ b B A H a h O r O B b K OKHaX.
n o A b 3 0 ~ a T e A UM O r h U - I1 IIPOAOAXaWT 3 T 0 A e A a T b B 60hbmmcr~en P O r P a M M -
o ~ ~ p b Arn an h o r o B o e OKHO Paragraph (A63au),~ro6b1 o n p e n e m onmi mrxorpa+n-
Y e c K a e n a p a M e T p b x , A u a h o r o B o e OKHO Character (CUMBOA) - 9 ~ 0 6 b 1 3 a ~ aA~p yb r u e ,
I1, M O X e T 6 b m , A H U O r O B O e OKHO Page Setup P a p a M e T p b 1 CTP~~HIIU~I) - YCTaHOB-
KU IIaPaMeTPOB BCWO A O K F e K f a B UeAOM. M c K N ~ ' ~HeKOTOpbIe
~U B m b I 0-OB (HZUXPH-
Mep, a63au~~ o~ x c f y n om~u 0a- cneaa 11 oTcryna cnpasa), ~ a 6 o p n b r ec x c r e m 1 mi-
K o r A a ne p a c c M a T p u B a m a 6 3 ~ ax ~ A ~ M ~ H~ pT e, 6 y m r u oco6oro
; ~ ynpasnemrr.
Ha6op~oGn p o r p a M M e , pa6o~aro1ueiico c~apoiic ~ l m e ~ oyfnip a B n e H u H K O A ~ M H ,H e
X B a T a h O TOAbKO P e a h I l m Y e C K O r O o ~ o 6 p a x e ~A m~ ~ ~ " B H I I HO H e A H a h O r O B b K
KOAOB,
OKOH, ~ 6 noh3amie
0 no f i I l a h 0 r O B b I M OKHaM 0 4 e H b CEUbHO 3aMeAAXeT p a 6 0 ~ B. e ~ b
K B ~ ~ I ~ ~ E ~ W ~ H~~ ~OOBP U~ I H KH U ~ I ~ ~ a 6 u p a T KOAbI
MOrAU b CO CKOpOCTbH3 ~ a 6 o p TeKCTa,
a
I1, ~ ~ ' ~ ~ A I I H HeCKOAbKO
IIII KOAOB B MaKpOKOMaHALI, KOTOPbIe BbIIIOAHXAHCb H m a T H e M
BCerO O A H O ~KAaBHIUU,
~ Omi ~a611pamH + o ~ M ~ T H ~ o B ~ TAeHK n C n 0 T p I I ~ a ~ ) I I l e CKOpO-
fi
o m c M o r A u 6b1Y e T b r p e pasa c M e m T b r a p H m y p y , n o K a ~ O A ~ ~ O B ~ T
C T ~ I O . Hanpmep, ~ A U
Macintosh u.m Windows o T K p b I s a m ~ ~ H KM eTH m Font (mpa+~) 11 ~ b 1 6 1 1 p m~pe6y-
e M y m rapamypy, n e p e M e x u i U ~ y p c o p
B A O A ~A n m H o r o c n u c K a c ~ O M O U ~ HM) ~ I ~ U .
I

136 Yacma I. Ocnosat munozpa$uxu

C H Z U K ~ T OK~ H O ~ K O
MbIIIIEI
~~ H a IIOCAenOBaTeAbHOCTbH) ~ F B ELhH CAOB (&AX IIPHCBOeHUIf
n a p a M e T p o B CHMBOA~M) nm n p o c T o n o M e c m a~ y p c o pB npefienax a6aaua (am n p n c B o -
e m n a p a M e - r p o B a6sauy).
IIpouecc sbuenenm + p a m e ~ ~M ae x u a e T 06b19~0ii T e x m e , c p K O T O P O ~npoc-ra:
~
H~~ IIOAOXeHEie B TeKCTe E i BKAIOYElTb KOMaHAY, K a K 6 b 1 rOBOPX: d ~ e BblIIOAHEiTb ~ b
(nm H a q a T b B~IIIOAHXT~)onpenenemoe neiicm~e*.
K o M ~ H A ~sa~uloltuma
I cmpolcy 80 xonya snpaao (quad-right) a saluwuumb cmpolcy u s
yellmpa (quad middle), K o T o p b I e y r ~ o ~ n H m pca Hb e e , r ~ r v y wBrCoBpeMeHHbIX T e K m
BbIX peC[iUCMpaX EI IIPOfpaMMaX BePCl'KH IIOroMy, TIXI BbIPaBHIIBZWHe T O K OTHOCKEAbHO
none$ m m e T c a n a p a M e T p o M a 6 3 w a (a H e erpom). B ~ M
H e yaacrcx 3ama~kf1'b UeHTpEIpO-
BaTb- c r p o K y a6saua, BbIKAIOqeHHOM no +OPM~TY, 6e3 C03A;1HIIII HOBOrO a63aua.

n e p ~ o icacre~oii,
i ~ 0 ~ o p an.ps m e m a T e x n o n o r n m WYSIWYG, 6 b 1 ~ 0a n e p a s a o H H a . s
c a c T e M a Macintosh. Co~pauexue WYSIWYG o 3 ~ a s a uew~h a t you see is what you geb
(WO BEiAWTe, TO U I I o A ) ~ I W T ~ ) .C 0 3 ~ i l H H eWOETeXHOAOrUIl OTTiCTU 6bm0 IIpOAEiKTOBaIiO
X e A a I i Z i e M ~ 1 3 6 a ~ fOT
l ~
B Hbe a~p X
~ e M b I X KOAOB +OPM~TEIPOB~HUEI,KOTOPbIe UCIIOAb30Ba-
a H ~ ~ O P H ~ LCHCTeMaMU.
ABCb T O r A a H TeKCTOBbIMH P e A a K T O p a M K , MM BM~CTO 3 T O r 0 npeF[-
naruocb npucsamam T e K c r y ~ m o r p a + ~ r e c ~
n aap aeM e T p b r c IIOMOLY~H)M e H w u ma-
AOrOBbIX OKOH. TO OBHitPahO, T O BbI B C e r A a BUAIITe H e KOMaHAbI +OPM~TIIPOB~HUII,
b G 3 + + e K ~ . Ta~ofi
a TOAbKO I I p 0 f i 3 ~ e a e ~ ~HMU cnoc06 CTaA OYeHb IlOnYARpHbIM, OCO-
6 e ~ C~p eon U HOBUYKOB, I I BCKOPe 6 b BCeMEl ~ IIpU3HaH K a K B e A e H u e BpeMeHU, a CIlCTe-
MbI, OCHOBaHHbIe H a KOAax, E i C s e 3 h l l 6 y K ~ a b ~3 a0 O A T HOYb. 80C e r O AHX 0 9 e H b He-
MHOlXe U 3 HliX COXpaHEiAUCb, A a U T O kiC~OAb3)'IOTCXIICKAIOYkiTeAbHO B K~YI'IH~$UIEIX
U3AaTeAbCKEuc C T p y K T y p a X .
C$TY, P e B o m u a a , HpO~ ~o i~Apple
~ P O U ~ B ~ A ~ (Hp a i Macintosh, c o c T o a n a B TOM, YTO
0 n e p a u x o H n a . s c H c r e M a c T u a 0 6 e c n e ~ a ~ a~~ubq o m f~i~ i a n a cse op s~a c H b I x + y ~ ~ u u f i
W IIpUKAaAHbIX n p O r p a M M , KOTOPbIe p a 6 0 ~ a mnOA ~ ee j'IIpaBAeHHeM ( T ~ K C T O B ~pe- I~
I peO v a M M b I Ei T. n.). B 3 a ~ 3eT O
AaKTOpbI, 3 ~ e K T p o H H b I eT ~ ~ A H U r~p Ia, + ~ ~ Y e c KI ~ ~r 0 n p H -
KAaAHbIe I I p O v a M M b I AOAXHbI H M e T b C T ~ H A ~ P T HU~H IT~e p~+ e f c I I O A b 3 O B a T e M .
&u c p a B n e m s r : B onepaum~noiic n c r e M e T e x n e T - DOS - K m n a r r n p o r p a M M a
B b I I I O m % & aBCe + ~ H K W CaMOCTORTeAbHO. (DOS 06ecnesmaha TOAbKO 3iUMCb +&OB
f ~ a s a7. Iiab$~meltcma xa ltaunblornelje 737

H a AHCK H weme +-OB c nacKa, a T a K m e nepecbInrcy urr+op~aumiH a BHeIIIHHe


n o p T b r , TO eCTb H a npxmep klhEi MOAeM, H H e 6 o ~ e eT O ~ O . ) Kamnax D O S - n p 0 r p a M ~ a
6 b m a ~ e s a s 1 1 c I l M aEi M o r A a H M e T b C B O ~C O ~ C T B ~ HH H HT c . n e A a A O DOS-
~ ~~ P + ~ ~ ~ TO
H p O r p a M M b I n O p O m M H H k I 3 6 b I T 0 9 ~ b 1 ~ HHe
. BCTpe%iAOCb Z
,B
lX
J' IIOXOXIlX IXpOrpahlM,
a ~ 3 y q e ~ ~n ea X ~ 0C Ti O
i U O ~ O A O B H O6~ ~0 ~ ~ .
C T O s K I i 3 p e m TeKCTOBOrO na6opa 0 n H O f i Ii3 ~ a u 6 o n e Be a m H b I X CepBHCHbIX Y C A y ,
IIpenOCTaBAXeMbIX O n e p a ~ I i 0 ~C ~
XC0 T~ ~ M OMac
~ ~ (Ii CaMO ~060ii,ee PC-COXI~~HUJCOM,
Windows), CTUO y n p a s A e H n e IUPII+T~MH H IIIPH+TOBO~~ ~ ~ + o p ~ a u I i eBi Hi .a c T o x x u e e
B p e M x , K o r n a B ~ oIn p e n e A a e T e B n p o r p a M M e , ~ a ~ o~ i Ri + ET I C ~ O A ~ ~ O B ~o H
TLa s, e p n a e T
~ e o 6 x o , q ~ ~ bCBeAeHEiX
1e I13 O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ HCIlCTeMbI O ~ ~E o A TOrO,
O H H (OC). ~ ~ K O r A a BbI H m I i -
M a e T e U W H I I I H , 3TII C H r H a h b I BOCnpEIHKMiUOTCII OC, KOTOpiLR 06pmae~c1K ~ a 6 m u e
IIIAPUH ~ P H + T O B O ~ O+&na a n e p e c b u a e - r B n p o r p a M M y AaHHbIe 060 B C e x ~ a 6 p a m b m
BaMH Gymax. n p 0 r p a M M a HClTOAb3yeT I I H ~ $ O P M ~ ~ E W0 ) IIIHpHHaX ( I M TOl'O, w 0 6 b 1 pas-
MeCTUTb 6)%~b1 H a CTPaHUUe, a 3 a T e M OC B C T a B M e T ~ 3 0 6 p a x e ~~mY K BB HYXCHbIe
II03HUHH H a 3 K p a H e .
BM~HHO
OC co3nam H a 3 K p m e BCe 11306pame~~x ~ Y K B ,a 3 a ~ a 9 IaI p U O X e H U I -
TOAbKO 0 6 p m a ~ b c 1 K CHCTeMe H a ee POUHOM I 3 b I K e . n p 0 I ' p a M M b I 06~anawr Ype3BbI-
9 a k 0 MUeHbKMM B W H U e M H a B H n IIIpH+Ta H a 3 K p a H e , UX 3UaJa9a - TOAbKO KOMnO-
HOBaTb TeKCT, T. e. p a C n O A 0 X U T b ~ a . X n b 1 6 3 H a B O ~ ~ ~ A ~ AII03HUHH,
~ H H O ~
H IlPHHIITb
p e I U e H H e 0 TOM, B KaXOM MeCTe CTpOKEi n O A X H b I 3aKOHYHTbCX, OCHOBbIBaXCb H a UH+OP-
Maurn, npenoc~asnsie~oii o n e p a u n o ~ ~ oci~i c ~ e ~ o i i .
Kaxnax onepawomax c H c T e M a n M e e T c o 6 m e ~ ~ b y1I Ue l K a h b H b I e c m r e M b I o~o6pa-
me- rrrpw+~a H a s K p a H e , T,e. F I B ~ I KOIIHC~HWI C T p a m i u b I c H H ~ K U Mp a 3 p e u e m e ~ .
Y O n e p a r ~ u O H H O fCHCTeMbI
i Mac, Ha'XHHW C 0s X, UX UeAbIX me. O ~ ~ ~ W O H H ; U I CHCTeMP
0s X HCnOAb3yeT B a p H W P O S ~ C I ~ ~ ~ - I I I ~ HB+TOT ~B, p e M S KaK 6 o ~ e eP a H H I i e BepCHH
m e A u CBOm OpIirUHahbHYIO CHCTeMY 0 ~ 0 6 p a m e ~ l u fK, O T O p U Ha3bIBaAaCb QuickDraw.
OC Windows HCIlOAb3yeT C O ~ C T B ~ H H ~CEICTeMY, IO KOTOpaJI H a 3 b I B a e T C I GDI, T O
o 3 ~ a s a Graphical
e~ Deuice late face ( r p a + ~ s e c ~urr~ep+eiic
~f YCTPO~~CTB).
B o6om cny.laxx ~306pame~tie q m n u b c~ 0 3 ~ a e ~cnasana
w Ha BKpwe, a a a ~ e ~
B O ~ M O X ~ ero H nepeaon H a npyroii a 3 b m ( O ~ ~ I Y HHOa Postscript), K o r n a THO ne9aTan
AOKyMeHT. ~ O C K O A ~ K~OA~IIIIIHCTBO
Y BbICOKOKaZIeCIBeHHbLX fiOKyMeHTOB BbIBOnEITCX H a
+ O T O H ~ ~ O ~ H ~aBTOMaTaX
IX a ~~ OMA,~ I U U H C T B O+ O T O H ~ ~ O P H ~ D (
C BbICOKIlM P ~ ~ P ~ I I I ~ H H
aBTOMaTOB c ~ a 6 x e ~PaCTpOBbLMH
b1 IIpOUeCCOpaMU P0~6cript,TO IlJTb OT 3 K p a H a no OKOH-
r a T e s H o r o o m c K a q a m m I npoxonm 6o~bmeii
sacram nofi y n p a B n e m i e M Postscript.
M e ~ o n b KOTOPbIe
~ , EICnOAb3J'IOTCX AAlf 0 ~ 0 6 p a m e ~Im I I P H + T ~ H a 3 K p a H e , T a K X e np0-
UIAU CBOG ~ B O N O U E I O H H ~ IHO
npb. ~ ~H a CaMOM A e A e NCTOPEW EiX Pa3BEITIIX 3aHlfha BCWO
HeCKOAbKO AeT, nOCKOAbKY C T W a p T b I o~o6pamema I I I ~ H + T6 ~ b 1 q 0 MeHIIKYTCX. Hp2I.B-
na, n c r a p b I e T e r n o n o m n p o a o n r n w T c p e c m o n a m M 6yny-r E I C ~ O A ~ S O B ~ T ~ewe CX
MHOrtre I'OAbI, HeCMOl'pX H a C ~ O C O ~ H O CK
TO~ MII~H~T~
~POMbIUIAeHHOCTU
PHO~ K 3-a-
HUPOBaHHOMJ' YCTapeBaHHIO.
n e p ~ o ~ a . I a h bI ~ P I I + ~ Io n e p a m o ~ ~ oCncTeMbI
I Io ii Macintosh 6 b m P X q O B b I M I I ,
EI H a 3 K p a H OHU B b I B O A W C b TOYKa B TOYKy. B TO BpeMX + H P M ~ Apple BbIIIJ'CKaha TOAbKO
M a T p u s m I e n p u m e p b r , K o T o p b r e m e x i TO me pasperrreme, TO u B K P ~ HMOHUTOP~ -
72 T O ~ H a am&, ~ O Z J T O MO~~ U Hm c e n e ~ p a c~ oa o ~ ~ e ~ m To o~wae hn p m e p a .
I4nevam 0 3 ~ a ~ anpocro ha a a l ' p n m b I j in p m e p .
n e p e H o c M a c c m a m c e n o a c e ~ p a H~a ~

LUPEI+T~I
~ K P E ~ H H ~ I ~ Postscript II ATM
Korna n o m m c b n e p s b I e K o m y p x b I e PostScript-mpn+m~n n e p s b I e n a s e p m 6 1 e PostScript-
npm-repbr,nponsomen pa3pm M e m y T e M LUPH+TOM, ~ 0 ~ 0 p b IMj i ~ BIIAHM I Ha s ~ p a ~ e ,
n ~ N + T O M K, O T O ~ M~ I~ BWHM ~I ~ H a O T I I ~ . I ~ T ~ H Hcrpamiue
O~~ 300 dpi).
(C p a 3 p e m e m e ~
A T e x x o n o r m QuickDraw n o - n p e m ~ e ~ncno~bso~aha
y AM B b I B o n a H a 3 ~ p pac-
a ~
TpOBbIe IIIPH+T~~,II03TOMY K ~ X AP~ o sG
~ S C T ~ P ~ - I U ~ W +CTH ~ ~ X U C XKOMILheKTOM P a C -
9,10,12,14,18 n 24). B ~HIe M o r m n e Y a T a T b PostScript-
~ p o s b u ~r H + T O B ( O ~ ~ I Y H~erneii
O
ILIPN+T~I, eCAH B CUCTeMe H e 6 b 1 n n YCTaHOBAeHbI PaCTpOBbIe IIIPEI+T~I.kl K O r n a OHM
6 b m ~oc-ryrmb~,
T o r A a onepaunomax C n c T e M a M o r n a C O C T ~ B
c n ~n c~o K ~ a s s w n irap-
i
HEITYp (11, COOTBeTCTBeHHO, EIX npMHTepHbIX B ~ ~ U ~ H T OBBM)e H m Font ( ~ P u + T KaX,L(O-
)
ro I I p I l h O X e H U X . TO 6b1h0 CnpaBeAAUBO BIIAOTb a0 BepCtfEi 9.x.
ECAUno~pe6ye~ca o~cy-rcmyror~~K l i ei r n b , onepauaoaeax c u c T e M a nonmxia nmep-
IlOAHpOBaTb ~ p e 6 y e ~ b 6r ne ~ o s b 1 eK a P T b I 3H;LKOB I f 3 C p e m J ' I O w k i x K ~ I - A ~ GP .e 3 y ~ b T a -
m~~ O A ~ ~ Tmoxne C X m n oyem rmoxue, K a K n o ~ a 3 a ~ Hoa pnc. 7.2. H e c ~ o ~ p H aa
YPOACTBO 3KPaHHbIX ~ U ~ E I @ T O BWU@T
, 6 y n e KOMnOHOBaTbCR
~ OYeHb TOYHO I I IIeYaTaTb-
CX npX3EiAbH0, HOTOM)' W O UHTepIlOAUpOBaHHbIe 6mo~b:eK a p T b I OCHOBaHbI H a TOYHbIX
3HaYeHIisrX UIHpUH, B3SlTbIX U 3 LUPII+TOBO~O +&a.
P ~ L U ~ H I ~npo6ne~b1
~M n p e A A O X e H H b I M + n p ~ o i iAdobe, CTa-
P a C T p O B b I x IIIPII+TOB,
no c 0 3 n m e &M onepaunomoii C n e r e M b I c n e u n a n b ~ o i Yi T I L A ~ I ,non)~irnmeii~ a 3 ~ a -
m e Adobe Type Manager (ATM).
Korna nocTynaeT sanpoc Ha B K P ~ H H ~Bapaam I~~ I*U 1n.rpmd
Inephkd Inrapmd
InbxpW l n t n p d
Postscript-rupa+~a,ATM nepexsaTmaeT sanpoc a Intepoleted rntcrprcred
I~epohtad Interpmcd
cosnae~pacrpoab~iiB K P ~ H HIUPH+T, ~G O C H O B ~ H H ~ I ~ ~ Intapkted Interpreted
Ha KoHTypax npnmepHoro mpw+~a.B caMoM nehe, lntepolated Intcrprctcd
Intsrpbd Interpreted
ATM - STO RIP (pac~po~blii npoueccop), opxempo- Intspbt6d Interpreted
B ~ H HHa ~G CO3AaHHe 3KPaHHbIX UIPN+TOB. B pe3yAb- lntapolated Interpreted
TaTe nonpaeTca B K P ~ H H ~IUPU+T I~~ m 6 0 r o KerAx, Interplated Interpreted
Interpahted Interpreted
KOTOP~I; B ~ ~ R L ~ He
E I xyme,
T seM 6mo~a.xKapTa, co- Interplated Interpreted
3 A a H H U BPYqHyIO (MOXW 6bITb, IICKAIOSW TOAbKO Interplated Interpreted
caMbxe Menme ~ e r m ) . Intarplated Interpreted
K TOMY BpeMeHII, KOrAa Ha KOMllbIOTepaX PC CTa- Interpolated Interpreted
Aa nonympsoii OC Windows, ATM yxe npeapaTm-
ca B crawap-r, ~ O ~ T O MOH Y N crah B o n e p a m o ~ ~ o i i
cacreMe Windows e,qaHcTBembm cnoco6o~HcnoAb- ~nt.e&lated Interpreted
30BaHlUl Pos~~cI~P~-LU~LI@OB. K ~ IxKHa KOMIIbKJTepaX Intert>4lated Interpreted
Macintosh, B Windows ~ ~ c n o ~ b s o a a3~pa~Hb1e
~ ~ i c b (pa-
cfpoBb1e)EI IIpEiKRpHbIe (KoH'IJ'$IH~I~) I I I ~ I I ~( Ib.m -
CTBeHHbIM Pa3Mi¶EleM MeXAy HHMH 6b1h0 TO, YTO
B CaCTeMe Windows BCe ~ H T O B ~KapTbI I ~ c06pa~b1
B eamcTBemoM +aiine.) 3 ~ cmyaum a coxpa~s~~acb
no w x nop, noKa Windows 2000 a XP He ~OA-
~ p o ~ q (TO w> e m acrpoenqm) nomepHucy Postscript-
mpu@oa. Tenepb omaha ~ e o 6 x o n m o c ~ Bbnporpm-
Me A m AM o ~ o 6 p a x e ~ ~Postscript-UI~H+TOB
lrl Ha
s ~ p a ~0nepauuoma.x
e. cacTeMa OS X Taxme onma-
KOBO TpaKTYeT + O P M ~ T ~ ITrueType, Postscript E i
OpenType, TO acKnIosaeT H ~ O ~ X O ~ H M OBCATM. T~

~ O C K O A ~ KPaCX'
Y pOBbIe IUPH+T~I
COAepXaT IIOAHbIe
MeTpum, Te me, TO a y comeTmyrorrrm KM npm-
TepHbrx IIIPN@B, Ha K O M ~ Macintosh~ ~ X ox-
HO ~ a 6 n p a ~
TeKCT
b 6e3 YCTaHOBAeHHbIX ~PHHTePHbDL
III~M+ToB. K p o ~ eTOrO, HOpMUbHOe IIpIiMOe Haqep-
G~I-amnndLight T a m e pampoaoro m p u + ~ ac o n e p x n T MeTpnsecKne
Garamond Rook AaHHbIe li 4.M ApyrEiX ~ a Y e p ~ r u ~ P( iOf ~i ~ I Y HKYPCMBHO-
O
Gararnond Bold ro, nonyxnpsoro H K y p c u B H o r o n o n y x H p H o r o H a Y e p -
Garamond Ultra ~axinfi).TWM 06pa30~,pacnoharm T O A ~ K OHOPM~&-
HbIM HaYepTaHEieM, MOXHO ~ a 6 ~ p nOAyXFipHbIM,
a ~ b
Garamonti Light KYPCXBHbIM N KYPCMBHbIM nOAYXElPHbIM IIJPH+TOM,
Garamond Book? 0 6 p a u ~ m c bK COOTBeTCTB)'lOl4eMy nYHKT)' MeHI-0 style
( H a ~ e p T a ~ ~ e )H' ,TeKCT6 y ~ CBepCTaH
e ~ npaBXAbH0.
Garamond Book
P a ~ y ~ e e ~AAX
c a ,n e Y a T u ~ c e - T ~ ~KeUo 6 x o n s ~H ao-
Garamond Bold?
A H ' I U e COOTBeTCTBYIOUSiX KOHTYPHbIX U P E ~ + T O B ~ I X

Garamond Bold +asnos.


Garamond Ultra? y HeKOTOpbIX O ~ I ~ I I I P H ~ Ino
X COcTaBy r a p H W l y p Ha-
3BWZM ~ a W p T a H E i fM
i O T 6 b m H e CTOAb OYeBHAHbIMM.
H a n p n ~ e p H, a pnc. 7.3 n o ~ a s a ~ YTO
o, B rapHnType
. .
B eepxmx smIpex crpo~axco- Garamond (ITC) npa s b 1 6 0 p e n o n y m n p H o r o H a Y e p T a -
WaHbI C IIOMOLYbH)~b16opa COOT- ma ,+w lrrp114Ta Garamond Book H a CMOM Aerie T e K m
~ e r m y l o u u x~aasswniiB Memo B b x B o A a T c a U ~ H + T O M Garamond Bold. A n p a M e -
Font (QII+T). B n o c h e a p
wix Tpex napax C ~ O nepBaSIK
H M K O M a H a y Bold ( ~ o A ~ ~ E I ~F53 o ~ ) Style
H MeHlO
cTporta - n o nrpu+~,~b16psw- ( H a Y e p ~ a H n e )K rupaCf3~yGaramond Light, c u c T e M a H e
Hb16 XI0 IIMeHU, a B T O P O ~ - ~ y B e m a e T HaCbILUeHHOCTb A 0 H a Y e p T a H W Gararnond
C lTOMOWbI0 KOM-I Bold (no-
AyxupHoe ~avep~iurae) MeHm Book, n w H a q e p T a m x Garamond Bold -AO Gaamond
Style. % p ~ aBH~KOBII O C O ~ ~ H - Ultra. B o6oux CAyXWfX K O M W a CO3AaHHX ~ O A y X H p H O -
KO np06e.m Mewy 6 p a m no- r0 XIIpli@a 5iBMeTCX V K O M , BeAylIlUM K HaqepTaHEi-
Ka3bIBZiWT, 'iTU TOAbKO OUHO a3 m ne p e w a n b x i v , a m r r e p n o m p o a a n H b m 133 pe-Ho
HI~Xc o m m y e T aeiimmehb;
HO cywemyrorrre~y q u + ~ y- cyruemymwero rupn+~a.H n OAHO 113 T a K n x H a y e p T a -
Garamond Bold. B noii raDm- H& H e c M o x e T 6bm H a n e g a T a H o n p a B m m o .
Type ~ K ~ U O+ ~ O B +Oa ~ h H c ~ o AMeHH) ~ ~ ~ Style
x ( H a ~ e p ~ a ~ nA rMr )nOAy-
Gasamond Book c o a e p m F a -
YeHF5X pa3AUYHbIX ~ a Y e p T a H ~yf Ti ~ K 0O6 ~m ~ 5 p ~ o rap- fi
3 w e Ha cBoe noAymIIpHoe Ha-
sepTilHae. B aByx npynix spa- H H T y p b I ( ~ 0e 6 p q ~ HenOCpeACTBeHHO
~ b K ILXpPi+TY
xx onepamomax cumMa mm- no ero ~ a s s a ~ mA y) g, r u e B c e r o H a n e s a T a T b T e c T o s y m
m x B ~ ~ O A H I~~pTe ~6 o s a ~a~ i e c ~ p m a u yc 0 6 p a 3 ~ a ~ ~Y 5T , O ~ Y~ ~I ~ A E I T ~ CBI TOM,
I TO
c03aan noAyxupHoe HavepTa-
HHe, HO pe3yAbTaT MOXHO npU- B ~ nI o n y s a e T e na c a M o M A e n e , a YTO B a M T O A ~ K O
3HaTb TOAbKO KaK UMRTCt3IaIO KaxeTCX.
~ K P ~ J ~ HkIMHTilqkIX
M OTCyTCTBYIO~eI'O
rupa+~a
T o r 0 w 0 6 b 1 ~ O ~ E I T ~SlKKYPaTHOI'O
CX O T O ~ P ~ ~ ~ ~ H H I I
U X p k i + ~ a H a 3 K p a I i e , O q e H b BBXHO P a C I I O A a r a T b BCeMEi
paCTpOBbIMII EX IIPHHTepHbIMII IlIPEI@aMli, YCTaIiOBAeH-
HbIMII B 0RePaUHOHH)'IO CMCTeMY (name B TOM C A y s a e ,
K o r a a eCTb B03MOXHOCTb B e p C T a T b 683 HIIX). Onepa-
q u o H H a C n c T e M a 0 6 ~ 3 w IaI p e A o c T a B m B a M BCe, Ka-
CaloWeeCX ILIPH+TOB, I I P e 3 Y h b T a T M O X e T 6 b 1 ~ bBIIOA- PxC. 7.4.A B~CTPOKU CBePXY
IIOKa3bIBaIOT pe3YAbTaT A d -
H e IIpHeMAeMbIM.
CTBUm KOMaHAbI Bold ( ~ O A Y -
K ~ yKx e y r t a s b r ~ a n o c bpmee, ecnu B ~ npmeaae-
I XBPHOB). IIOCKOAbKY TaXOrO
Te K O M ~ A Y Bold ( I l o n y x ~ p ~ o~ ea q e p ~ m ~wo- e), Ha=iep-raHua, KaK Big Caslon
6b1 YCIiAkITb HaCbILIJeHHOCTb IIIPU+TO, OIIePaUIIOHHiUI Bold, He CyUleCl'ByeT, TO IIpU BbI-
C u c T e M a M O X e T 0 ~ 0 6 p a 3 m bIIOAYXMpHOe H a q e p T a I i I I e B o n e Ha ne=iaTb B e p x H s e CTPO-
KK 6 ~ NHTepIIpeTWPOBaHbI
4 ~
L U P U ~ T B He3aBUCkIMO
, OT TOrO, AOCTYllHO AH er0 nOAy-
TaK, KaK IIOKa3aHO B ABYX HKX-
X I I p H O e H a s e p T a H H e HhkI HeT, Pi CyUXeCTBYeT AM OH0
HUX CTpOKaX. n p U H T e p UCnOAb-
~ o o 6 ~~eO .C A ~ A H XB03MOXHOCTb
X UMHJCTPUPYeTCII 3 0 B a h eAUHCTBeHH0e CyUleCTBy-
H a PMC. 7.4: ~ ~ ~ O A O B O ' IUIPHC@T
H ~ I ~ ~ CAeAaH 6onee Ha- mwee HaqepTiLHse
CbILIJeHHbIM C IIOMOLIJbIO K O M W b I Bold ( ~ O A Y X H P -
H O ~ ) .Ha 3 K p a H e TeKCT BbII'hlIAIIT IIOAyXfEElpHbIM, HO
nOCKOAbKy B CIICTeMe 0TC)"TCTBYeT IIOAYXEIPHOe H a s e p -
T a m e , TO H a nesam (HXXHIIII c T p o K a p a c p ~ aB)~ I B O -
AEITCSl IllpEiCt)~
HOPMahbHOrO HasepTaHEIX, H nOAb3OBa-
Tehb 6 y n e ~HenpHXTHO YnHBAeH BTHM GBKTOM.
o n e p a I l E I 0 ~ ~ L l . BCIICTeMa OKa3bIBaeT TaKyIO Xe YC-
A y r y , K O r A a TeKCT HYXHO BbIBeCTEi KYPCIIBOM. ECAEI
KypcmHoe HasepTaHue urpaCt)~aH e n o c r y n H o , onepa-
UEiOHHaX CHCTeMa I I P O r P a M M H b I M o 6 p a 3 0 ~C 0 3 n a C T
HaKAOHHJ'IO BePCUIO ILIPM+TB ( I I ~ O C THaKAOHHB
O npX-
MOe H ~ Y ~ P T ~ H HTOT
~ ) . B a p H a I i T ElMEiTaUHH 3aMeTLITb
nerse, Y e M ucKyccmeHHoe nonyxupaoe HaqepTame,
IIOTOMY, 9 T O ~ Y K B M ,O C O ~ ~ H HYO J.IIpH+Ta C 3acewa-
M a , COBepIUeHHO H e E O X O X H H a H ~ C T O X ~KypCUB
H ~
(pac. 7.5).
% C p a H H b ~LUPH+T~I
e +OPM~VT~LTrueType
Bodoni Roman
Q o p ~ TrueType
a~ noxBmcs B p e 3 y s ~ a CoTpyamYe-
~e
Bodoni "1tali c7' m a up^ Apple n Microsoft, u 06e ~ c r p o m BHyrpeH- u
HDD noA,qepmKy + o p ~ a ~ BaCBOH onepauaoHHbxe cnc-
Boclorti Italic Tern. LLIPH+T + o p ~ a ~TrueType a He ~ p e 6 y ~ e ~a ~ o f i
cneuaahb~oiinporpaMMbx, K ~ KATM; onepasuoHHaJI
PuC. 7.5. Y rapHnTyp, NMeKI- CaCTeMa caMa co3nae~3KpWHOe 0 ~ 0 6 p a s ~ 3HaXa e ~ ~ eH 3
rqnx KypcnaHoe HayepTaHne, Tor0 me KOHTYPa, K O T O P ~ IHCIIOAb3YeTCII
~~ AAR IIeYaTH.
AerKO OTAII'fEiTb H B C T O B W U ~ H e ~ m o p b ~TrueType-lup~+~bx
e conepmaT pacrposym
KYpCllB (HNXHXX C T ~ O K ~OT) s e p c m Am m o 6 p a x e ~ mHa 3Kpme, HO w o conceM
Kypcnsa, ~ o ~ o p breHepnpyeT-
~ii
cx n3 npxMoro HayepTaHnx ~ e o 6 f f s a ~ e ~ banh0~,r r r bHHorAa H ~ O ~ X O A H Mam
O ~OA-
( C ~ ~ A H XC
X T~OK B ~na)H.HOM ~ 0 fC i OBMeCTElMOCTU C 3KBEIBUeHTHbIMH Postscript-
CAj'Yae ( P u ~ I ~ MKY BPC~AIB~HbIe lupuCp.a~~l. ( H q m e p , nepxbxe sepcmi l u p ~ l + ~Times a
6yrcsb1noAy.leHbI npocrbm Ha- Roman + o p ~ a ~ TrueType
a npli HeKoTopbxx Y C A O B H ~
KAOHOM npxMoro HaqepTaHux.
rpmec~nb~e I I I P U ~creeepu-
I, ~ o m o ~ o s a h u cmaye,
b --xeMPostscript-sap~am.A o ~ y -
pOBaHHbIe TaKllM 0 6 p a 3 0 ~ , MeHT, o + o P M A ~ H H ~ IIIIPH+ToM
~~ OAHOrO ( P o P M ~ T ne-
~,
On03HaTb M O X H O AaAeKO He pesepmmahca, KorAa m p b m a h c ~B cnneMe co r u p ~ + -
Bcerna TOM ApyrOrO + o P M ~ T ~H . )~ K O T O p a~3~p aI 6~ 0 ~ s ~ ~ u
TrueType-~H+TOB n p e n n o w m m B K A K J Y ~ Tpacrpo-
~
BbXe 3KPaHHbIe IUpEi+Tb1 A M MeAKHX KerAefi, nOCKOAb-
KY Ha 3KPaHe UX AerYe BOCIIPHHHMaTb, YeM Te, KOTO-
pbxe reHepHpyroTca onepauuoHHbxMIi cucTeMaMH.

Tor0 ~ 0 onepamomaa
6 ~ CtimeMa MorAa nocraB-
quCp.ax u mo6pa-
mn p m o x e m m + o p ~ a w ~o o
XaTb Ilx Ha sKpaHe, I U ~ U + I a0AXHLI 6 b m YCKIHOBAe-
H ~ (install)
I B cHcreMe. A p y m CAOBW, o m AOAHCH~I
6 b m coxpaxexbx B onpe,qenemofi name, m 6 b 1 onepa-
momax cnneMa Bceraa Morha K H E ~ M0 6 p a m c x .
r ~ a s a7. Had@ mexcma na ~ m n b m m e p e 143

B o n e p a u a o ~ ~ ociuic T e M e Windows - TO n a n K a Windows/Fonts, a ycraHoBKu


u ynaneaIirr (uninstall) III~H+TOB ucno~.3ye~c11 nuanoronoe OKHO Fonts (WPII+T~I)
IIa~em ynpameana.
B ~ O B A H E ~sepcmx
X oneparluomoi c u c r e M b 1 Macintosh BIIAOTL no sepcua System 9.x
YCTaHOBAeHHbIe I I I ~ H + T ~ XPaHHhEiCb
I B IIaIIKe S y ~ t e m / F o n t S .
O n e p a u u o m b ~ eCIiCTeMbI Windows 2000 I1 Macintosh 0s X kIMeIOT HeCKOAbKO na-
nOK, B KOTOpbIX XpWLHIITCR l 3 H C T ~ p O B a H H b I eIIIPB+T~I, B 3aBEiCHMOCTH OT TOrO, I I B M -
eTCR gaHHb1fi KOMl'IbIOTep ~ep6ePdGe ( 0 6 e c n e ~ m a e
A~p y l T i e KOMIIbIOTePbI P ~ c ~ P ~ H ,
B TOM Y u c A e EI IIIPEI+T~MII)HAM uuenmdGe ( I I C ~ O A ~ ~ pecypcb1
Y~T cep~epa).
Emu Y c r i l H o B A e H a n p o r p a ~ ~ a - ~ e ~ e nIIIPH+TOB
mep (w.2 ~ .4), TO LIIPLI+T~I M O ~ ~ T
nanaax.
R P ~ ~ H ~
X~~HKTLCB I X 3Ta n p o r p a M M a B conpyxerne c o n e p a u u o ~ ~ ociaic T e -
~ o i 0i 6 e c n e u ~ ~ nocryn
a e ~ K m 6 b 1 ~~I I + T ; I M 83 m6b1x npu~omesaii,3 T 0 3 H a Y u ~ ,
YTO Ha3BaHUR 3TMX ~ ~ Q T0 6O 1 1B
3 a ~ e ~ IIORBXTCR
b~o B MeHIO Font ( ~ P I I + T )IIpHKAa.4-
HOG I I p O v a M M b I .
Ees M e H e n m e p o B IIIPU+TOB npocroro x p a H e H u s IIIPH+TOB B ~a~oji-h1160 name H a
XeCTKOM &IiCKe ewe HeAOCTaTOYHO a A X TOrO, w06b1O m CTahll,LIOCT)'IIHbIMH CHCTeMe.
kI TOAbKO eCAEi I I I P I ~ + T ~ I XIpaBEiAbHO YCTWOBAeHbI, OHH CTillIOBXTCR ~ O ~ b I A
M MH
Bcex nporpaMM.
B OnepaUHOHHbIX CHCTeMax BepcIifi, 6onee PilHHHX, YeM 0s X, LUPH+T, YCTaHOB-
A e H H b ~ f BO
i BpeMR pa6o~b1IIpIiKAaflHofi n p o r p a h m b 1 , H e 6b1h C p a 3 Y efi AOCTy"eH. ECM
B ~ UI H C T ~ A A I ~ ~IIIPEI+T,
O B ~ K o r n a n p u K n a H a x n p o r p a M M a yme s a r p y x e ~ aTO
, onepa-
U H O H H ~c u~c r e M a B b I B e a e T npenynpemneme. &a nonpemix A o c T y n a K TO MY IIIPI?+-
TY HeKOTOPbIe IIPOrPilMMbI H ~ O ~ X O ~ E I3M a KOp b l T b M CHOBa 3iWpY3IiTb; YaCTbIO IIX 3arPY-
3 0 4 ~ 0 f iIIPOUeAyPbI K a K pa3 R B M e T C I I IIpOCMOTp CIIIiCKa LIIPEIC~)TOB, YCTaHOBAeHHLIX
B CuCTeMe.
B ~ e c r eC T e M HeKOTOpbIe I I p O r p a M M b I , BKM0YZ-I B e a y I U H e I I p O r p a M M b I BepCTxEi,
06harn~ MeXaHIi3MOM flIiHaMEl%!CKOrO O ~ H O B A ~ H NLRU P H ~ T O B OM~H~+ O ~ M ~ U H H .TO
3HaWiT, W O OHU IIOCTOIIHHO HaXO-R B TeCHOM KOHTaKTe C 0 I I e p ~ o H H o f iC M C T ~ M OI4~ ~
MrHOBeHHO ha Ii3MeHe=, ~ ~ ~ 1IJIPN+I
o ~ o 6 p a HOBbIe B M e w Font (uIp~@)
6e3 nepe3arpy3~1i.Bepcmi o n e p a y ~ ~ o m ocncrerar, ii 6 o ~ e pe m e , YeM 0s X, H e ~ I O ~ B O M -
m T m e yna.um qu*, n o K a T a K a x n p o r p w a pa6mer, 113 onacem, TO wo M O X ~ T
BbI3BaTb n p o 6 n e ~ b 1B n p m O m e H E M IIpn 0 6 p ~ e K ~ Imi~+op~llUPiH 0 IIIpli@ax.
~ p n ~ o m epa60~a101que
~u~, B o n e p w a o ~ ~ oc Ii iic r e M e Windows, O n p a m u s a I o T one-
P a U I l O H H p CliCTeMy K a n b 1 f i pas, K O r n a BbI 0 6 p a r r ~ a e T e c bK MeHIO Font ( ~ P E I + T IlAEi
)
O T K p b I B a e T e OAHOHMeHHOe ,L(HUOrOBOe OKHO, II03TOMY LUPEICI)T~I MOXHO ~ 0 6 a ~ h S i T b
B nm6oe B p e M S : OHH HeMeAAeHHO CTaHOBEITCII AOCTYIIHbIMH.

IIPHSBH. He CaMbIM IIepBbIM IIYHKTOM, HO H H e IIOCAeAHHM.


~ ~ o c T ~ ~ ~ c
UnIoHc o
M6 o ~
I I p O B e p H T b I I I P B + T ~ I XBMeTCII HCIIOAb30BaHEIe I I p O r p a M M -
M e H e A X e p O B I I J P E I ~ T O B ,T. K. OHH P a C I I O A a r a m T + y I i ~ L l B e i i TeCTkIPOBaHEVr ILIPEIQTOB~IX
+~&oB.
ECAB y BaC ~ a ~ 0I Ifp O i r p a M M b I HeT, a T a K X e H e T X e A a H B X ee I I p B 0 6 p e ~ a ~ bTO, M O X -
HO npa6er~ymK cAe&yIOIUefi MeTOAHKe. C H ~ Y J'~naAIWb A ~ nOAOBBHY CBOBX IIIPH+ToB.
ECAH npo6ne~aH C s e 3 A a , TO ee C O 3 n a B a h H KaKBe-TO ~ U P H + T ~ H I 3 YElCAa Y A a e H H b I X .
A eCAH n p o 6 n e ~ aOCTahaCb, TO 0 6 ~ e ~ a faCOXpaHBBIIIBeCmi~e H a ccyF(UeHHbIe)>. ECAE~
A ~T ,e n e p b HBB~CTHO,r,qe H c K a m B m o B H u K a . ECAH
O I I I H ~ KB~ C Y ~ ~ TO H e H C Y ~ ~ TO A ~A ,e n o
He B m p ~ + ~ e .
Korna BbI I T o ~ ~ M ~WT ~O , n p H Y H H a c 6 o e ~BCe-TaKB B I I I ~ B + T ~ x ,TO CHOBa I I o n e A u T e
B a V KOMeKLIHIO B IIOBTOPIlTe TOT Xe TeCT. B L I ~ O A H R I I p~O~UTe &
~y p y A 0 T e X IIOp, IIOKa
H e 06~apymmcs K O H K P ~ T H ~+&in. I~~ k I ~ e f i B~ BBAy,
e YTO LIIPEI(~)TOBO~~ +a& YBTaeTCa
0 n e p a y H 0 ~ ~ 0Cf H
i CT~MO
H ~I I~p H K A ~ H b I M B
I l p O r p a M M a M H , A a X e eCAB OH H e I I p B M e H a e T -
CR B AOKYMeHTaX.
K ~ yKK a 3 b I B U O C b p a H e e , BO B P e M R 3 a T Y 3 K I 1 KOMnbIOTepa OnepaIIEiOHHaII CHCTeMa CO-
3AaeT peecrp YCTaHOBAeHHbIX I U P U ~ T O BC . '3T0fi TO'IKU 3PeHEIII XOPOUIO IlMeTb KilK MOXHO
MeHbIlIe EiHCTahnIlpOBaHHbIX UI~H+TOB. A EiMeHHO, TOAbKO T e , KOTOPbIe OnePaIIEiOHHa5I
CHCTeMa EICIIOAb3YeT A M CO3fiaHEiR F i ~ T e p + e f i ~ a 3arOAOBKOB
, MeHIO, ~ E l a A O r O B b I XOKOH
u T. n. O n e p a ~ u o ~cEicTeMa
~ a ~ l Macintosh ~ O ~ B O A I Iy~ Ta w n T a m e L U P H + T O B ~ I ~+aii-
AH, HO B ~ X B O A X T
Ha 3 ~ p nap e~A y n p e m A e a u e . O n e p a y u o c~u ~
c T~
e M a Windows T a K x e
n03BOAEIT Y
bA
aT
'I B a M ~106bxe I U P I ~ + T O B ~ I +
~ akl, HO eCAM BbI Y A U E i T e T e , KOTOpbIe
M ~ IC O B A ~ Hee~ mep+eiica, H a n p u M e p IIIPH+T
H ~ O ~ X O A E ~AM Marlett, TO H a c q n m
xaoc.
n p o 6 ~ e IIOTepXHHbIX
~a I I I ~ H + T O B B03KEIKaeT 6 0 ~ b r u e i i'IaCTbKJ TOrAQ, K O r A a
AbI KOHKpeTHbIX I l p O r p a M M ( T ~ K C T O B ~
AOKj'MeHTbI,
I~ r p a + ~ l ' I e c ~ E i e+afiAbl Ei np.) CO3Aa-
HbI H a &P)'l'OM KOMnbIOTePe C (IP)'l'IIM KOMnAeKTOM YCTaHOBAeHHbIX IIIPM+TOB. kl. eCAH
BbX IIbITaeTeCb OTKpbITb T a ~ 0 f AOKYMeHT,
i O T ~ O P M ~ T H ~ O B ~ CO
H HLUPII+T~MEI,
~ I ~ ~ OTCYT-
CTBFLUEiMli H a BaLUeM KOMnbIOTePe, TO A I O ~ WI l p O r p a M M a , K a K IlpaBllAO, BbIBefleT ripe-
nynpemAeHEie 06 O T C ~ T C T B~ ~H + T O B . H ~ K O T11O
3 n~p ~
mIo ~m e ~ ~n pi ei A n o m a T 3 a ~ e -
HY TeMM IIIPII+T~MEI,KOTOPbIe YCTaHOBAeHbI Y BBC B CEiCTeMe. ~ O C 3Aa M~e H b I AOKYMeHT
B b I r w m H H a q e , n o c K o A b K y B e p c m c a ( ~ A H H CTPOK
~I II n e p e x o , q b r H a HOBF c-rpa~uuy)
M O X e T Ei3MeHETTbCII, HO 3aTO er0 MOXHO IIp0qecTb3.
hK ~ K O ~ ~ - A IMU~ pO ~ l OTCYTCTBYeT,
e HO B CxmxeMe YcTaHOBAeHa n p o r p a M M a ATM,
I TM e c r o y T p a ' I e m o r o OAIIH ~3 ABYX ~ H + T O B (Adobe
TO o H a ~ ~ E I C I I O C O ~ I B Serif ma
Adobe Sans) B COOTBeTCTsElEi C MeTpIlKaMEi ITOTepIIHHOrO ILIPH+TB Ei a 0 6 a ~ m er0 B CBOIO
6a3y IIIPEI+TOB. TO IIO3BOAUT ~ ~ H K A ~ An pHo rOp a~M~M e o ~ o 6 p i u r c a ~AOKyMeHT b H a 3K-
P a H e , B TO'IHOCTU COXPaHIlB er0 BepCTKY.
T a ~ o fn p k i e M M O X e T H e c p a 6 o ~ a ~ KOrAa
b, p a ~ ~ ~ i l ~ ~ AOKYMeHT
~ ~ a e ~ CO3AaH
b l f i
C HCHOAb3OBaHHeM CEiCTeMHOrO ~ a 6 o p a I L I ~ H I ~ ~ T(Windows
OB ma PostScript). K ~ yKK a -
3 b I B U O C b 8 2A. 4,3W ~ a 6 o p b H 1 e C o B n M a m (IICK~K)'I~SI U I ~ H + T O B O ~+atin
~ Symbol), HO
~ a A O r H ' I H b I eLUPMC$T~I H a K W A O ~ I~ I A ~ T + o ~ MHMeIOT
~ 0,4HHaKOBbIe MeTPUKEI, n03TOMY
BepCTIca AOKyMeHTa (CTPOKU Ei C T P ~ H H UH~eI E13MeHkITCII.
)
~ T~C $, O P M ~ T F ~ P O B X ~ H ~P&O S ~ C ~ ~ P ~ - L U
~ o K Y M O P U ~ Roman,
Times T O M B TO'IHOCTH
c a x p m sepcmy, e m u c n o ~ b s o ~ aLm. N + T Times New Roman onepawio~~ofi cucTe-
\%I Windows (puc. 7.6). 3 a ~ e ~TMX b 1 rupa+roa npoucxonm 6e3 n p e A y r x p e m f l e H n r r , HO
sarua n p o r p a M M a a m onepau,rioHHaa c u c r e M a nonHuMy-r K P ~ C H+ ~~G a npu
r o~cy~cr~uu
q u + ~ a ~eo6xonmoro
, AM o ~ o 6 p a x e ~ u , aa c u c r e M a 0s 9x
o K y M e m a . Oneparuro~~arr
06nervnna CaTyaUEiIO, A O ~ ~ B HCaCTeMHbIe
B U.IPI.I+-
TLI Windows B c ~ o i cnacoK,
i TO cnenano ewe 6onee
IIpOCTbIM C03AaHEie AOKYMeHTOB, KOTOPble M O T 6ec-
IlpenXTCTBeHHO IIepeXOAkITb C 0 ~ ~ I0I A
2~ T + o ~ M ~

H a APYryfO.
npIi ~ p e 6 y r o ~ cEiMeHHO
IleraTEi JOKyMeHTa s Te
~ a 6 n p a n cKorna
mpu+~b1, KOTOPbIMIi TeKCT ~. BbI EiC-
npamep, TO Jpaiisep npultmepa
nonbsye~enac~onbrib~ii
(IIporpaM~a,KOTOPaX T P ~ H C + O P M I I P Y ~ T AOKYMeHT
,m
B KOMW~I, H ~ O ~ X O A I . [ I M I ~ynpasnem
~a npamepo~)
06b1v~0npeAynpemAaeT, ecnn He Bce x u p a + ~ b~
c- ~o
TYnHbI. B 3aBUCklMOCTU OT YCTaHOBOK IlaPaMeTPOB PaC-
TpOBOrO npOrJeCCOpa (RIP), OH MOXeT He BbIBOAliTb
FIliKaKIiX ~ ~ ~ A Y I ' I ~ ~HEx! B
AbIn
~OA
HHE
XT~
b I~
IO,ACTaHOB-
KY EMEi ~00611ie n p e K p a m b pa60-y. A BOT AM Tor0
~ 0 6 b npOki3BeAeHHaX
1 IIOACTaHOBKa 6pocanacb B rAa-
OCIlOAb3yeTCX III~u+TCourier.
3a, O ~ ~ I S H N

Arial Helvetica
Arial Narrow Helvetica Narrow
Times New Roman Times Roman
Bookman Old Style ITC Bookman
PHC. 7.6. Ha6op CHCTeMHLIX New C o u r i e r Courier
mpu+~oa:nesb~iic~on6eq - Century Gothic ITC Avant Garde Gothic
Windows, anpmbrii -PostScript
Macintosh. OHH~ O X O X H npyr Century Schoolbook New Century Schoolbook
H a npyra, ti uipalibr s ~ a ~ yo a Book Antiqua Palatino
HNX N&eHTNVHLI, 1103TOMy Monotype Corsiva IIC Zapf Chancey Mdium Italic
IIIPU+T O A H O ~~~ A ~ T + O P M ~ ~
HMeeT 3KBHBUeHT H a npyI'oG, Symbol (aflm0) Symbol (afi-0)
wo ~ O B B O A X ~COX~SWHTL
T sep- Monotype Sorts (OW%@) ITC Zapf Dingbats (ClV*fc.)
CTKY 6e3 H ~M~H~HHG
r ~ a s a7. Habop mexcma na xannnbmrnepe 747

M ~ o w enOIIyAXpHbIe I L I P I I C ~ ~ T ~ IC p e C T B Y I O T H e B enUHCTBeHHOM + O P M ~ T ~ ,IIO3TOMY


B 0 3 M O X H b I np06ne~b1,K O r A a BepCHU O.4HOrO UIPUC#JT~ ElHCTUAUPOBaHbI H a OnHOM
u TOM x e K o M m m e p e . Hanpu~ep,nemo n p e A c T a B m , TO y sac IIMeloTCII 06e sepcm
(TrueType u Postscript) T a K H x r a p H u T y p , K a K Times, Helvetica, Palatino, Symbol
U Courier. A BbI M O X e T e A a X e 06 3TOM H e , 4 O r a b I B a T b C X , IIOCKOAbKy H a 3 B a H U e I L I ~ U + T ~
c x pa3 B M e H l o I U P E I ~ T O BI I P I I K A ~ A H OI~I ~p O r p a M M b I .
0 ~ 0 6 p a x a e ~ OAEm
Korna BbI ~ b 1 6 U p a e T eT ~ K OIIIPIICPT,
~ TO H e 3 H a e T e , ~aIC0fiEIMeHHO UCIIOAb3yeTCSI,
HO, e C X i I I y X H O O T I I p a B m AOKyMeHT H a flpj'l'06 KOMnbloTep U N l H a + O T O H ~ ~ O P H ~ I ~ ~
aBTOMaT, TO 3 T 0 3HaHUe CTaHOBXTCII BaXHbIM. ~ p ~ r p a ~ ~ b I - ~ e ~ LUPN*OB
e ~ X e p MO-
b I
IYT npenynpemnam sac O T a K u x . ~ Y ~ A H K ~ THO~ XH ,U e m H e e Bcero - c o 6 c r s e ~ ~ a6.411-
11
TeAbHOCTb. Ey.4bTe H a 9 e K y , IIOTOM)' T O O ~ H O B A ~ H U InI p U ~ 0 x e ~ E i U
f i OIIepaUHOHHbIX
CHCTeM 'IaCTO YCTaKaBhUBaIOT CBOEl I U P E I + T O B ~ I ~(PafiAb16e3 BCIIKOrO IIpe.4)'IIpeXAeHHII.

Bce m p u + ~ o ~ b r+aiihb~
e m e m H ~ ~ B ~ H UHO I o r o ~ 0 6 b 1 0 6 e c n e 9 m bce6e 6onee
I I ,~ A I T
AelXYIO X U B H b , OnepaIXUOHHbIe CUCTeMbI I I IIpNAOXeHIIR 06b19~0I I ~ ~ H T I I ~ I I I I E ~ P Y I O T
IXIpEi@I IIO H O M e p a M . y IIepBbIX KOMnbIOTePOB H e 6 b 1 ~ 0C T a K . 4 a p ~ ~ 0 fCIlCTeMbI
i perIIC-
TparJUH TaKkIX HOMePOB, IIOBTOMY MHOrIIe ILIPEI+T~I
TeX BpeMeH U M e N l N , ~ ~ H T N ~ N K ~ ~ -
OHHbIe H O M e p a OAUHaKOBbIe C 6onee nO3AHUMEI. (B T e B p e M e H a 6b- AOCTj'nHbI TOAbKO
HoMepa c 1 no 512.) B H a c r o s w e e BpeMrr, emu ~ P I I + TC O ~ ~ ~ ~I ITH AC HRB H A ~ U ~ H ~ I M
n113aG~epo~, nporpa~~a-peaarc~op m p u + ~ an p a c a a u B a m L U ~ I I + TH ~
oM' ep, He 3 a 6 0 ~ ~ c b
0 TOM, 9~06b1 3TOT H O M e p 6 b 1 YHUKiUbHbIM.
~ ( K o M M ~ ~ ~~ ~H Pc MK~ HI - ~I I P O M ~ B O ~ X T ~ X ~
c T a p a I O T c n ~36eram 3~06npo6ne~b1.)
B p e 3 y A b T a T e J' BaC M O T IIOBBEiTbCII XIIpU+TbI C 0.4EmaKOBbIMU HOMePaMU. T a ~ a a
c q a m m nony.flma~azi~amie xon#~uxmauJenmu#uxayuo7lnam nutepos (fontI. D. conflict).
OH^ M O X e T BbI3bIBaTb c60n B n p O r p a M M a x , H e C ~ O C O ~ H MpXa 3 0 6 p a ~ b c 1 1 , r.4e K ~ K O ~
IIIpII+T, Ei npUBO.4- K OILIII~KPM I I e S a T H EIAU 3aBUCaHMIO n p O r p a M M .
H e ~ O T o p b IIpOI'paMMbI
~e IIpUCBaFiBZUOT C O ~ C T B ~ H H LBpeMeHHbIe
I~ H O M e p a BCeM rrrp~Cf3-
TaM, KOTOPbIe OHB UCnOAb3YIOT, T O ~ ~ I H ~ ~ ~ B E I OT
T ~YC K H O ~ HOenkin-
I I ~ ~ ~ Hnpo6ne~b1.
CTBeHHO BePHbIM C ~ O C O ~ O~M3 6 e x a m
KOH+AEIKTB IIBAReTCII n p U M e H e H E i e I I p O r p a M M b I -
M e H e n x e p a IU~H+TOB. M e ~ e n x e pB b I s e A e T n p e n y n p e x n e H u e , K o r n a B ~ nIo n b I - r a e T e c b
PI?C. 7.7. n p o r p a ~ ~ a - ~ e ~ e n -
mep rrrpa+m~B ~ I B O A U T npe-
nynpemneaue, e c m B c a n e M y
UHCTahhHPYIOTCll A B a LUPUC$TB
C OAUHaKOBbIMU U A ~ H T U C $ H K ~ -
UUOHHbIMU HOMepaMU. Ho~ep,
n p e ~ n a r a e ~ b r ni ip o r p a ~ ~ o i i ,
HBASieTCll B P e M e H H b I M (CBM
+ a h , KOHeYHO, H e M ~ H X ~ T C X ) .
3 a ~ oBbI M O X e T e IIpO.4OAXaTb
pa6o~yEi 6 b m YBepeHbI, T O
sepcma u n e s a - r b npokyr yc-
neumo

Korna AOKyMeHT ny?.~I.UeCTBye?. OT KOMIIbMTePa K KOM-


mmepy, TO HW m m a ~ o ipepemocni
i B TOM, STO nony-
'~amwniiK o M m m e p p a c n o A a r a e T I ~ H + T ~ M H H, ~ O ~ X O -
AHMbIMU AAX TOrO, 4~06b1B e p C T K a A O K y M e H T a H e
Hapymmacb.
no 3 T 0 c IJj3IPEISWHe HeKOTOpbIe I I P O T a M M H b I e n p H -
A O X e H I l R IIPet[AaraK)T B03MOXHOCTb 6 H e a p e H ~ AUAU
~crnpausanu~ ulpu@mos 13 J o x y ~ e ~ r(font
n embedding).
B~e~pem e
I.UPH+T~B p e m m a e To6xe+ ~ a h a . Ecm
F e r n , TO cpenmii o 6 a e vrpa+~o~oro
~ +aha p m e H
50-90 KG*, TO snpausame mioncema rupu@oa MO-
meT s ~ a ~ n ~pe ea m ~ mo ero o 6 s e ~HO, . c npyroii
CTOPOH~I, TO a a e T rapammo Toro, TO n o K y M e m H a
~ 1 0 6KOMIIbIOTepe
0~ 6 y n e ~B b m R A e T b OAEMaKOBO ( K ~ K
H a CBOeM POAHOM). CIIOCO~
BnpmaWiX XII~H+TOB~IX
flaHHbD(. B AOKyMeHT H e 3iU3HCEiT OT I I A a T c p o p ~ b ~3 ,T 0
SHaYUT, YTO TeKCT ~ Y A ~
B bTm w e T b H a KOMIIbMTePe
Macintosh TW me, K H Ha
~ K PC, EI ~ao6opo-r.
r ~ a s a7. Ha6op melccma na lcwnammepe 749

H e ~ o T o p b r en u s a i i n e p b x m p a + ~ aM pacnpocrpamexi sbxpamawr onaceme, r T o


X a K e p b I CyMeIoT Xi3BAe'fb BHeApeHHbIe IIIpM@b1 TO HeTPYAHO C A ~ A ~ MT MCnOAb30-
~ )
6 e c m a ~ M~Moi ZIT0 A r n e HeBMHHOe KOrulpOBaHHe
B a T b EIX CO3AaCT HeAHUeH3HOH-
nym ~ o m m HX IIIPMCPTOB. &M ~ a x w i LUPH+TOB
~ b ~ +OPM~TOB TrueType M OpenType
B KEM B C I ' p Z t M B m LIM+PM, KOTOPbIe IIpeIWTCTByFX BHeAPeHEM3 IIIPH@OB B aOKYMeHTbI.
(%M+T~I Postscript Type 1 H e m e m T nono6~ofi+ ~ H K U M M ~ A O K ~ ~ O B K MApyrne
.) pa3-
P ~ ~ O T Y I I K MIIIPMC$TOB B AUUeH3ELRX XIPOCTO OrOBaPMBaIOT 3ZlIIpeT H a B C T p a I l s a M e HX
LUPM+TOB B A o K y e m x K ~ K
H e n p e M e m o e y c A o B n e M C ~ O A ~ ~ OIIIPH+TOB.
B ~ H ~
He ax M H o r o IU~M+TOB n0nUae-r B %I-yKaTeropUH), HO B ~ ~I O A X H ~G I~ I A My 6 e n m -
cx nepen H a r a n o M pa6o~b1,m, LUPU+T~I, K m o p b I e B ~ nI p m e m a e , M O ~ BOH e n p m
B AOKyMeHTbI.

UPM+T~I MOT B c T p a I l s a T b c x B A o K y M e m u e n m o M ~lh~t qacmm - B mine n o d ~ n o ~ e -


cmea (subset). ECAHB ~ yamme,I TO paspeme~o B H e n p e H u e TO-KO n o A M H o x e c m a , TO
B AOKYMeHT 6 y n B~K A m 9 e W I KOffIYPbI H C K A ~ S M T e A b H OT e X BHaKOB, KOTOPbIe P e U b H O
NCIIOAb3yIOTCII. ECAHAOKYMeHT IIpMMeHIIeT ~ X I p e ~ e h e H H bUIpII@
~fi A M KOpOTKOrO 3a-
rOAOBKa, TO eCTb CMbICA BHeAPXTb W e H H O llOAMHOXeCTBO, C O A e P X a L I l e e TOAbKO MC-
n O A b 3 y e M b I e 3HaKM, M T e M CaMbIM Y M e H b I U W b p a 3 M e p AOKyMeHTa.
y ~ a K 0 f TBKTHKM
i eCTb N3'bXH: eChEI 3CiI'OAOBOK ~ O T ~ ~ ~ YH3MeHXTb,
~ T C R TO HeKOTO-
p b I e ~ Y K B C~ IT W H e f i O v H b I M M . EM, H a I I p I I M e p , B 3CiI'OAOBKe "Settig Type* K O p p e K -
T O P 3aMeTMT OTCYTCTBMe 6 y ~ b all,,
1 TO CAeAaTb yXe H I l r e r O H e h b 3 X .
B n o n a s M r o u e M ~ O A ~ I I I ~ H C cT hBp~a e B co3na~neon& ~ u p n + ~n ap a c n p o c . r p a H e -
m e ux (naxe B npenehax pa6oseii r p y m ~ c~T )p o r o sanpeue~o,wo ~ H ~ V E I TO T, 6 0 ~ ~ -
IIIHHCTBO no-ao~a~eneii xupn+~aBHHOBHO B H a p y l u e H n n y c ~ o ~ n~i n i qe~~nn.
B H I ~ M ~ T ~ A~Lm H aOi k e~11ue~3nn H a q n + ~ KOTOPLI~~
, B ~ ~ymm.
I Konm I I I ~ H + -
TOB, K o T o p b I e B ~ nepenruo-r
M cAoKpemaMn, B ~ M H e n p m i a A n e x a T , n BLI H a p y r u a e T e
npasa T e x , KTO ux C O ~ A ~ A .
C ~ ~ C THeCKOAbKO B ~ ~ TIICTOYHIIKOB C B O ~ O A H OPaCIIPOCTpaHIIeMbIX IIIPU+TOB,
B K A I o r a X MHOXeCTBO I I H T ~ P H ~ T - C ~ ~ ( HOe B3a6b1safme n O r O B O p K y <<BLIEiMeeTe TOAbKO
TO, 38 VTO ILAaTEiTe>>). HO~ O A ~ I L I I I H C T B O
U I P U ~ T O B , KOTOpLIe OHN I I p e A A a r a l O T , VbR-TO
N H T e A A e K T ~ a A b H a RC O ~ C T B ~ H H O C TI~I ,ee B A a f i e A b u b I X e A a A E l 6 b 1 IIOAYYkiTb 3a HIiX Ma-
TY. OMH HI IT^, W O 38 K m A b U I I L I P U ~ T O MCTOHT ~ E i 3 a E H e p y, b e X a A O B a H b e 3aBEiCliT OT
o~sncneauii3a n p o n a m b l e K o n n n rupn+~a.n o s ~ uB c e 6e3 ncmmsema nasaii~epb~
I I I p I I G T a H e OVeHb 60ra~b1 (a T e , K T 0 60ra~b1,POAEiAEfCb TBKNMW). n o n y ~ a h 0e 6naro-
COCTORHHH nnsaiiaepoa, Arne ecnn B ~ HI e x e A a e T e 6 ~ a r o n e ~ c ~+s u n sp ~ a K~o T, o p b I e
n p 0 A W T EIX T p y a b I .
a nnoxoii -

O s e H b HenerKo, p a c c M a r p m a a crpailauy, cocpeno-


B A~HHoG
T 0 9 H T b CBOe BHkIMaHHe TOAbKO H a LUPEI+T~.
r A a B e T a K U IIOIIbITKa AeAaeTCX, BeAb, B 0 3 B p a I J l W C b
Kn p o 6 n e ~ rpa+mec~oro
a~ m3&a, ~ e o 6 x o n m Bo ~ I -
XCHIITb, K ~ K O GBKAa.4 BHOCHT KaYeCTBO ~ a 6 o p aM B e p -
CTKM B 06wee B n e s a T n e H H e OT ~ ~ H H U ~ I .
Xoporuo o + o p m e ~ ~ a crpmwa rr o 6 b 1 s ~ oH e n p x -
B A e K a e T 0c06oro BHEIMaHEiX K ce6e, ki OYeHb TPYAHO
onpenenm, s e M m e m o o H a X o p o L u a . A BOT e c m
nnoxa, TO 3 T 0 yme A p y r M HCTOpHX. ECAHO T ~ P O C H T ~
H e ~ e p H b I f i~b160pI ' a p H H T p b I , TO TeKCT, ~ a 6 p a m b 1 i i
K o G 3PeHUR (OH
CKBepHO, T e p R e T ki C ~ c T ~ T ~ ~ Y ~ cTOsKM
BbIrMAMT HenpHBAeKaTeAbHO M ~ e 6 p e m ~ o
Pi)C, I I p a K -
m s e c ~ o i i(T~KOGT e K a TPYAHO nposecn), H MOXHO
6bm YBePeHHbIM, YTO 3TO B C e r A a CO3AaCT HeBbIrOA-
H o e BIIeYaTAeHMe.
UeAblO A ~ H H O ~ ~
TAaBbI XBAXIOTCX H e 3KCIIepTHbIe
OqeHKM ( T ~ M6 o ~ e e T, O TeX, K T 0 IIPOXBAXeT BCXqeC-
KYH) 3a60-1-Y0 I I I P H ~ T Ha3bIB;1H)T
~, C H O ~ ~ M M )a,
, CKO-
pee, 06cywease npasah p e M e c n a : K a K A O ~ ~ C TO- X ,
6b1k i ~ n 0 A b 3 y e ~ bIGI I P MCA>mHA
~ T e K q M YHTaTeAIO,
B e A b OHH 3 T O r 0 A O C T O ~ ~ H ~ I .

EOA~LUHHCTBO sma~eneiiH e 3 a ~ e s a mHM~ rupx+~a,


0m X T CAOBB. kI H e HaCAaXAaKYTCX K p a -
HM ~ Y K B .3 a ~ B
C O T O ~KOMITO3MIJEIM, a n p O C T 0 = I m a m . I/I H H s e r O 60-
~ , myrorrr~iiX B a Y K y
nee. M c c n e ~ o ~ a mn ao ~ a s a hTO
X c~opom
Y m a e T M e A n e H H e e O C T ~ A L H ~ Inmohly, wo Z I T ~ H M Xo r r p e n e n x e T c a CKOPOCT~H)
mesaHnrr. ILIPH+TC A Y X ~ T C B O ~ O ~ P ~ ~M~TPOHOMOM
H ~ I M AAEI ~ m a ~ e n e(feic ~ aK, o H e q -
HO, OHM B TO B p e M x y x e nepecTana mesa=), y c ~ o p m m n TOPMOBX npouecc w e H a x
yXe T e M , K a K OH IIpeACTaBAeH H a CTPaHnue. H e y n a - 4 B~ e~p C T K a IIpelTZTCTByeT YTeHEIH)
TaK Xe, K a K H ~ ~ B e p H b IIfI O
i sepK.
Pasbopvuaocma (legibility) a y i i o b o u u r n a e ~ o c m b ' (readability) - T e p M n H b I , K o T o p b I e
B CMSxI p e urpa+~a.PasGopvueocms o n p e A e n r r e T B O ~ M O X H OAAR
O ~ ~ I Y HI IOC ~ O A ~ ~ ~ K ~ T ~
-4IlTaTencI A e r K O paCIIO3HaBaTb OTAeAbHbIe 6 y ~ b H 1 CAOBP, 113 HElX CAOXeHHbIe. (MLI
HElKOrAa H e W i T a e M , p a c n o 3 H a B X ~ Y K B Y3 8 G ~ K B o ~HO ~ , BOCnpMHMMaeM C p a 3 Y BCe CAOBO
H N ~+pa3y U~AHKOM.) Ydoborumae,uocma o n p e A e n r r e T nerxocra II KOM+OPT, c KOTOPLI-
MII TeKCT BOCIIPHHElMaeTCR H n o H m a e T c R . T e ~ c rO~A~.AZUOW& , XOpOIIIefi yno6osmae-
MOCTbK), A O A X e H 6 b m U pa360p~mb~1, HO OAHa p a 3 6 o p s r n o c ~ bH e A e n a e T TeKCT 6onee
y ~ 0 6 0 Y M T a e ~ bK 1 ~o. r ~ ~UPH*
a A e l X O BOCIIpkiHHMaeTCR, TO KHMr'J' OXOTHO II A O A r 0 AHC-
TaIoT, a IIAOXO H a 6 p a H H b l f i TeKCT E13HypIIeT I I O T B P a r Y a e T OT c e 6 ~ ZIIITaTeAfl.
AAXP ~ ~ ~ O P Y H B O C TtiHy ~ o 6 0 ~ m a e ~ HoMneal o T 6onbruoe 3 ~ a ~ e H 3AeMeHTbI a e
~ ~ 3 a f i H(+ a o ~ M ~I T I ~ Y ~ T HCTPaHHUbI,
o ~ ~ K e r A b HIPII+TB W JlIIlpIIHa ~ O A O C ~ I )M . H O ~ A ~
M b I OTKPbIBaeM K H H V I I 0 6 ~ a p y X n B a OrPOMHbIe
e ~ C e p b I e ~ A O K HkI3 MaAeHbKHX, nAOT-
-H AyMaeM:
HO C ~ E I T ~ I ~XY K B & e ~ ,3 T 0 M H e H e IIpOYeCTba. TPYAHO
CKa3aTb, BMHOBH~I
B 3TOM IlAOXaSI p a 3 6 0 p ~ n ~ o HAIl
c ~ b H e A O C T a T O Y H X Y A O ~ O Y H T ~ ~ M O CATA~R. H 3 ~ a ~ H f i
B 6 p a X ~ bO1~ ~
A O X K ~ XA, ~ ~ A H ~ ~ H ) W
KHHrH
H X B TBepAbIX n e p e n A e T a x , TaKMe npo6ne-
MbI H e PeAKOCTb, IIOCKOAbKy C K p b I e ki3AaTeAH IIpOCTO ~ O ~ O r p a C f l E i Y e YMeHbIXIaIQT
~~ki
c o n e p m a M o e C T P ~ H H U 60hburero p a 3 ~ e p aa n e p e H o c m ero H a C T p a H H u b I M e H b u r e r o
+op~a~a.
B KOHeYHOM CYeTe, C ~ M ~I II AE0 ~ 0 f ~ i a 6 0 p ~ b lLIlp~Cfl?
fi H e MOXCeT 6 b 1 ~ bTpYAHbIM
~006weHeIIpHI'OAHbIM D E I WeHEIEI; BCe AeAO B H ~ ~ ~ ~ X C~ aH6~o Ip Xkie B e p m e .

LUPH+T H a CTPaHaqe o6pa3ye~BH3YaAbHYIo TeKC'lYPy - P U T M ~ P B B CTPOKaX, P U T M


CTPOK B KOAOHKaX H PkITM npo6eno~M e X A y BCeMEl 3TIlMH KOMIIOHeHTaMH. Korna TeK-
rrypa I L I ~ H + T ~H e n p e p b I B H X H OAHOpOAHX, TO rOBOpXT, YTO y IUpn*a IIpaBkiAbHbIfi
(color). n n O T H b 1 i i ~ a 6 o pCO3AaeT 6onee ~ e M ~ b 1UBeT,
<'~&aern.~ ii HO ~ a a 6 0 ~ b m 3HaYe-
ee
HEie A M a U B e T a n ElMeeT ElMeHHO PaBHOMePHOCTb H O A H O P O A H O C T ~ ~ .
a Ymo awaem xopowuu' 1ta6op deUYcmsurne~bItoX O ~ O U L U A , a uoxoUY - u o x z ~ u 155
r ~ a s 8.

H a n ~ w i eI M O T H b X H pa3peXeHHbIX T O K c03aa-
By a Faction, I understand a num-
eT n p o 6 n e ~ y<<weTa*Ha ~e6onbmnxy=racrKax TeK- ber if citizens, whether amounting to
cra, HO nono6~b1enpo6ne~b1o c o 6 e ~ ~3 oa ~ e m b 1Ha a majority or minority of the whole,
who arc unitcd and actuated by some
crpamrue, Korna o n m a63a4 XameTcx TeMHee a3-3a common impulse of passion, or of
MeHbIIIHX npo6eno~,seM OKpyXaIoWHe a6aaub1, HAM interest, adversc to the rights of other
citizens, or to the permanent and ag-
~ a o 6 o p o( p~~ c 8.1).
. gregate interests of the community.
There are two methods of curing
T a o e p a s n m ~ eccuBe?.aBHe 0 6 ~ 3 a ~ e h BAHXeT
b~0 the mischiefs of faction: the one, by
Ha y , ~ ( 0 6 0 s m a e ~ o cXOTII,
~ b , KOHesHO, He MOXeT He removing its causes; the other, by con-
trolling ics effects.
mAeKam. Korna Ha cTpaHHue BcTperaeTcx ~ a ~ o i Thm ~ I C again two methods of re-
moving the cauw of Faction: the one, by
a6sau, OH B O A ~ ~ ~ - H nPHTIIrHBaeT
~ B O A ~ BHIIMaHne.
~ d m y i n g the liberty which is essential
A ~TOI-o 6 b m He A O ~ POa ~. h ~ l ' I<<meram
~le mpn+~a m its adstenae;the other, by giving to ev-
ery ddzen the same opinions, the same
co34ae~BnesaTAeHMe HenocraTosHoro KoHTponx Ka- passions, and the same interem.
secma, Twamx AH onbma. T e ~ m ~b1r-n~ ~ e 6 p e x - It could never be more truly said
than of the first remedy, that it was
HO n Hepxmumo. worse than the disease. Liberty is to
faction what air is to fire, an aliment
P H C ~ H OUIpki+~a
K TaKXe BHOCHT CBOEBKAaA wirhout which it instantly expires. But
B <<wrn, crp-~, n o m q m&epy H ~ a 6 o p q it could nor be lcss folly to abolish lib-
erty, which is essential to political life,
(sepcxurmm$) cneaye-r m -man. H e ~ o ~ o p b ~ e because it nourishes faction, than it
rupn(PTb1, K ~ Kn o ~ a 3 a ~Hao pHc. 8.2, 6onee cBeTnbxe would be to wish the annihilation of
air, which is essenrial to animal life,
H MOT ~a6npa~bcri m m e e . B TO x e s p e w npymie because it imparts to fire its destruc-
tive agcncy.
rupn*~ 6 0 ~ e Tmex.Ie
e n TeMHbIe, m mix ~e06xom-
MO a60fime BOW~V,',d b 1 OHM He BbIThqqeAPi m C H y -
~ b mH,IIX <<wrn> He O K ~ ~ ~ AqCeXp e q p ~ H C ~ B H ~ IPMC. M . 8.1. T p e ~ ~a63au ii s a ~ e ~ -
HO T e M H e e , Y e M O C T a b H b I e a6-
3 a u b I . Y M ~ H ~ I I I ~ H nI p~ oL 6I e~~ b r
Plainly the central idea of seces- Plainly the central idea of seces-
sion is the essence of anarchy. A sion is the essence of anarchy. A A ~ ~ ~ C T B H T ~ A LAHe A
Oa l o T er0 Ha-
majority held in restraint by majority held in restraint by consti- c L x q e r l e e e , IIOBTOMY y H e r o He-
constitutional checks and limi- tutional checks and limitations,
tations, and always changing and always changing easily with CKOALKO OTAHYHLIG <U.XBeT*
easily with deliberate changes of deliberate changes of popular opin-
popular opinions and senti- ions and sentiments, is the only
ments, is the on1 true sover- true sovereign of a free people. PMC. 8.2. E O A L ~BO
K A~
a A~ B
eign of a free peopL. nl.l.Bm> lupli+~aBHOCUT PNCYHOK
Plainly the central idea of seces- Plainly the central idea of secession lupa+ra. LIIPN+T~Ic BLICOKNM
sion is the essence of anarchy. A is the essence of anarchy. A majori- p m c r p~o w b a 6 y UAU
~ m~rc-
majority held in restraint by ty held in restraint by constitution-
constitutional checks and limita- al checks and limitations, and al- CWIYAISiO MaCCUBHbIMII LurpUXaMEl
tiom, and always changing easi- ways changing easily with deliberate 6ynyr BLITW~TL 6o~eeTemmm.
ly with deliberate changes of changa of popular opinions and
popular o inions and senti- sentiments, is the only m e sover- Bce 4 npwepa I r a pacyme ~ a 6 p a -
ments, is g e onl true sover- eign of a &ee pcoplc. HbI OAUHaXOBLA4 K e r A e M N C OdR-
eign of a free peopL.
HaKOBLlM N I f R P A U H ~ e M
756 Yacma I. Oc~osalrnunozpagSuxu

H e n o ~ x o ~ a r r rIIIPH+T
~G M O X e T CHAbHO YCAOXHEiTb AeAO. Hanpa~ep,I ' a p H H T y p a
Times New Roman ( x ~ e m m a aB H e u r K e e CXO,~CTBOc Times Roman) c o s n a ~ a n a c bK ~ K
~ F 0B6 ~~e rI~ a~ m
r a 3 e ~ H a s 1 , ee y a u ~ e a 6 o pB Y3KHX KOAOHKaX Ei IIO3BOMX)T p a 3 M e C -
TUTb 6 o ~ b m TeKCTa
e H a CTPaHHUe. T ~ HM
e MeHee, r a p H I l T y p a C T a a OCHOBHbIM KHHX-
HbIM LLIPH+TOM ( 6 0 ~ b u e f iYaCTbH) IIOTOMy, YTO 6 o ~ e eK ~ ~a 6I ~0 ~p3KOHOMHT
O M ~ ~ K T H
Il3naTeMM 6 y ~ a r y )HO
, 3 T 0 CO3AaeT n p o 6 ~ e ~ abu rB e T a n Ei ~ A O ~ O Y U T ~ ~ M O H
C aT CTpaHH-
H
rJaX KHHXHOrO + O P M ~ T ~ AAII
, KOTOPOI'O 6 o ~ e eIIpHBbISHbI LLIpH+Tb1 C HOPMaAbHbIMEi
nponopuEisIMa.
H e p o ~ ~ b <<UBeTn
~ f i IIIPII+T~H e B c e r A a p e 3 y A b T a T pa6o~b1H ~ ~ O ~ W H
OHK M~O, X e T
IIOAyYEiTbCfi Ei H a IIOCAeAYIOLIJMX 3 T a I I a X nPOH3BOACTBeHHOrO UEiKAa. T e x ~ k i ~ e c ~Hu f i
X ~ A O X ~ C T B ~ H peAaKTOpb1,
H~I~~ KOppeKTOPbI M O r p B I I o c A ~ A H E MOMeHT
~~~ BHeCTH CBOEi
IIOnpaBKH, a 3HaSUT, li3MeHUTb KOAUYeCTBO CAOB B a63aue. & A X TOI'O Y T O ~H
~ eI M e H m
a 6~3 aI u~, ~a 3 T 0 BeAeT
BCH) BePCTKY, AOIIOAHHTeAbHbIe CAOBa BTEiCKEIBaK)T B O T A ~ A ~ H
K 3HaYEiTeAbHOMY YMeHbIIIeHHH) n p o 6 e ~ oY~ .H T ~ TXe,
~ A3 ~a M e S a X , T O a6sau HAIl pas-
A e A BbIaeMeTCfX CpeAH OCTahbHbIX, KaK n p a B H A 0 , BEiHUT B 3TOM H ~ ~ O P I U H K ~ .
H e ~ y X ~ b 1 <f <i U B ~ T O B O ~KOHTpaCT
~* M O X e T B 0 3 H H K H F b M e X A y HeCOpa3MepHbIMEi
TeKCTOBbIMH 3AeMeHTaMM H a CTpaHEiJJe, H a n p M M e p y pa3peXCe~~ofi
UUTaTbI B O K p y X e -
HUH IIAOTHOI'O TeKCTa, HAH M e X A y nAOTH0 H ~ ~ P ~ H H3arOAOBKOM
~ I M Ei 6 o ~ e pea 3 p e X e H -
HbIM OCHOBHbIM TeKCTOM. T ~ KI I H
e p e I~
IaAbI B BrJBeTeB L L I p l i + ~ a T a K X e B b I m m X T HeAO-
fHYHO Ei H ~ P I I I I I A H B O ~ .

~ A O T H ~BepCTKa
R (C O s e H b YBKHMH ~ I I P O I I I ~ M NM~e)I I I a e T YeAOBeKy paClIO3HaBaTb CAO-
Ba. ~ E ~ T ~ TAOAXHbI
~ A H YABaEiBaTb YCIiAUfi, 9 ~ 0 6 b y1 r a A a T b CAOBO HAH + p a 3 ~ , W O 3aMe.4-
AReT IIpOUeCC YTeHHR H BbI3bIBaeT p a 3 A p a X e H B e .
C O Y ~ T ~~ YHKHBm~ CAUBaeTCfi Ii B b I r M a E i T KaK m, COYeTaHHe ~1B b I r M g U T K a K d,
COYeTaHHe VV BbII'ARAUT K a K W , W O YaCTO C ~ H B C~ TOAKY
~ T Boo6rrre, B IlAOT-
WiTa~e~efi.
H O MIIpWBbIYHbIe I I O C A e A O B a T A b H O C T ~ Y K B KOTOPbIe
HO H ~ ~ ~ ~ HTeKCTe , O ~ L I S H O AWKO
BOCllPHHHMaK)TCfi, CTaHOBRTCH H e y 3 H W a e M b I M H , H SEiTaTeAb B b I H y X A e H BO3BpaWaTbCR
~FB
H a 3 a A Ei p a 3 6 a p a ~ b 38 ~Y
Y K B O KBK
~ ~ , H a HHOCTpaHHOM fi3bIKe (PUC. 8.3).
O ~ ,HYXHO ~ O M H ~ nonyanpom~!'
~ A ~ B H STO , -
(side bearings), TO ecTb npo6enb1
no ~ O K ~OTM ~ Y K B ~ TI a, K X e 5iBMH)TCH ee saCTbK), K a K OCHOBHbIe II COeAHHHTeAbHbIe
UITPUXH. ~ O ~ T O M ~ BbI A a X e He3Ha'IIITeAbHO H3MeHReTe M ~ X ~ Y K B ~ H nHpMo 6~ e ~ b 1
KOrAa
HO B TO
TO IIPH 3TOM H3MeHReTCX PHCj'HOK LUPII+TB.
(~UI~OLLW),
kI XOTR TO n p H B b I w m s
Xe
npouenypa npn ~ a 6 o p Tee K m a ,
BpeMfl U 0 9 e H b pHCKOBaHHa.X, ~pe6ymuax
carnal cloth
MaKCElMithbHOrO BHIUI2UiHR U OCMOTPUTeAbHOCTII.
Y r p o T e c x o B (sans serif faces) CAHIIIKOM I I A O T H ~ I ~ ~
~ a 6 o pCOCTaBAReT O C O ~ Y H ,n p o 6 n e ~ yS. a c e s ~CKOAb
~,
PuC. 8.3. n A 0 ~ 1 l b I f i~ a6op
6 b 1 OHPi HN 6 b 1 ~ P iM U b I , n O M O r a m T YIIOPRAOYEITb M a c - C 0 9 e I I b He3HaSNTeAbHbIMII np0-
CUB BHBKOB, KOTOpbIe +OPMUPYIOT c ] ? p a r ~ e H T TeKCTa. 6 e h a ~3 a C~T a B A R e T H3BeCTHbIe
OHHIIOBBOAXIOT B3OpY O T M e q a T b 6 o ~ e eYeTKO, rfie ~ Y K B B~ bII r A X A e T b AByCMbICAeH-

3aKaH9UBaIOTCR IUTpUX U A H ~ Y K Ei
B~ HaYHHafOTCR APY- HO. AASI0 6 b 1 9 H h 1 ~K e r h e f i H IIpH
0 6 b 1 Y H 0 f i CKOPOCTU YTeHHR CO-
r0fX IUTpHX UAH 6 y ~ ~] a\ I.? u I ~ B I u3THX
~c~ MaAeHbKHX
Y e T a H U a ~ Y K B , K a K B LtaHHOM
C H r H U O B , TeKCT, H a 6 p a H ~ b 1 f iT O T e C K O M , M O X e T Ka-
cAy.Iae, r p y n ~ o
pa306pa~b,YTO
3aTbCR YaCTOKOAOM OAUHaKOBbIX BePTElKahbHbIX T H - ~ p e 6 y eOT~ Y H T a T e A R YABOeH-
XOB, O C O ~ ~ H H 3OT 0 3 a M e T H O I I p H nAOTHOM ~a6ope HbIX y c H ~ P I f i
(PUC. 8.4). ECAUT O T e C K O M ~ a 6 ~ p AAHHHbIe
a ~ b TeK-
CTbI, TO U M e e T CMbICA C 0 3 A a B a T b 6 o ~ e epa3peme~~b1ji
~ a 6 o p9, e M o 6 b 1 9 ~ 0 ,T. K. TO n a e Trnaay 6 o ~ b r u m
e aH-
COB n p e 0 6 p a 3 0 ~ a ~3TH
b MaCCUBbI 'IaCTbIX ILITPHXOB
B o 6 p a a b 1 , KOTOpbIe M b l BOCnPHHHMaeM K a K CAOBB.
B UeAOM, ~ a 6 o prP0TeCKHbIMH LUPU+T~MH A O A X e H
6b1-1-b 6 o ~ e pea 3 p e X e H H b I M , 9 e M aHTHKBeHHbIMU.

I
The company's focus is on concurrentdesign engineering, and our
hand-pickeddesign team works with our clients to design
automatedassembly machinesand integratedsystems for
. fully
.

manufacturingdevices in three key markets: sensors, conductors, and


actuators; mobile and cellular telephone components; and pressure
sensors and relays.

The company's focus is on c o n m n t design engineering, and our


hand-pickeddesign team works with our clients to design fully
automatedassemblymachines and integrated systems for
rr~anufacturingdevices in three key markets:sensors, conductors, and
actuators;mobile and cellular telephonecomponents;and pressure
sensors and relays.
I
&IBHO BOIIIAO B MOAY aKLZAAeHTHbIe UIpAf$~bl
(display type) ~ a 6 A p a ~OYeHb
b IIAOTHO, o c o 6 e ~ ~ o
3T0
xapamepHo AM peuam.1. IIOCKOA~KY Tame pam me^-
T ~ OI ~ ~ I Y H0YeHb
O KOPOTKA, TO 3a6o~a 06 y ~ o 6 o ~ m a e -
MOCTA orpaHusmaeTcsi TOALKO ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ Y A B O C T ~
P u C . 8.5. ~ A O T H ~~ aI 6~ o~ p
IJ.IpU+Ta XBAHeTCH HOPMOG B kI XOTR IIpA TaKOM CXaTElH TeKCT M O X H O KBK-TO pa306-
peume, HO d a x e T ~ M HeT OCO- PaTb, 3T0 OTHIOAb He 03HaYaeT, YTO OH He YPOAAAB
60G HyXCAbI Ha6EipaTb TaK CXa- (PAC. 8.5). K ~ MbI K YBEfAMM B pa3AeAe, IIOCBXIUeHHOM
TO, KaK B BaHHOM CAFae. Ha- TpeKEiHIY A KepHHHrY (CA. 2.4. 7 I), AAR aKUMAeHTHOr0
60p Y3KHM LUPII+TOM C Y p b - u p ~ l f $ Y~ a~ K ~
M a~6 0 pnPH
, KOTOPOM COCeAHHe 6j'~Bbl
' ~ y ~~ ObA ~ L U N M npo6eha~n
U
coeamxmca, He TaK ym nnox. Ho Korna cmame ~ p e 3 -
coa~an6b1 6onee 6naronpum-
Hoe BIIe'IaTAeHUe
MepHO, T O TaKOe CTOAnOTBOpeHAe KaXeTCR O I I I A ~ K O ~ ~ .

P a s p e m e ~ ~ asepcma
x (c oYeHb ~ ~ I U P O K E ~ MaMn p o r n a ~ ~ )
mroraa BcqeraeTcx B mypaanax. 3To He osem ynaq-
~ b ~npaehl,
j i HO u s ~ a ~ e m n a6 m ero, nocKoAbKy OH Tpe-
6 y e MeHbIJle
~ P P H O ~ pa60~k.1 A N i YCTpaHeHWR n p o 6 ~ e ~ ,
BbI3BaHHbIX Y3KAMA KOAOHKaMU ~ a 6 o p a(PAC. 8.6).
CTpa~erm3 ~ 0 r onpueiva ocHosbIsaeTcrr Ha TOM,
YTO r ~ a 3 AerYe p a s n ~ r a epa3~y10
~ CTeneHb cmams
B nnoTHoM ~ a 6 o p e A ropa3~0 xyme - B p a 3 p e m e ~ ~ o ~ .

From the organic gardener's perspective,


the world is awash with artificial fertiliz-
PBC. 8.6. B AaHHOM TeKffeHe- ers that have become to farming what an-
C K O A ~ K OoYeHb pa3pexe~~b1x tibiotics have become to medicine: a virtual
CTPOK, HO OHU H e CAHIUKOM 3a- sine qua non. In truth, they argue, agricul-
MeTHbI, IIOTOMY 'IT0 H BeCb Ha- t u r a l yields w h e n using totally organic
60p B uenoM p a 3 p e ~ e ~TO . methods are indistinguishable from those
~ + ~ ~ K T M BnpUeMH ~ I ~MBCKH-
~ t h a t rely o n "chemical farming" techni-
POBKH, HO B IIPo+~ccuoH&~~- ques. In some cases, the organic approach
HOG BepCTKe He npUHm0 npff- comes o u t well ahead i n terms of yield
TaTb 6 o ~ e eYPOAAUBOe CpeAU per acre.
IIPOCTO flOAAHBOI'0
r ~ a s 8.
a Ymo a e ~ a e mxopoluuu' na6op deu'cmsumuano xopoluu, a u o x o l - u o x u 759

J p y r u ~ aC n o B a M u , npu p a 3 p e r n e ~ ~na6ope o~ herue n o c T n u b o n H o p o n n o r o CaweTa,,


X I p a + ~ a , B e n b H a p a 3 p e X e H H O M OH^ 6onee pa3peXCeHHbIii H e CAULUKOM BbIneAXeTCR.
T~KCT, ~ a 6 p i U X ~ b 1TaK,
ii BbIrAXnEiT H e CaMbIM AYYILIUM 06pa30~, HO 0 6 n a ~ a AOCTa-
e~
T O Y H O nAJ3
~ npaKTElYeCKUX Lle~eGOnHOpOnHOcTbIo, TaKUM 06paso~, n p o 6 n e ~ b 1BepCT-
XEf CKPbIBWTCII ~OlIOAHUTeAbHbIMUnpo6ena~u. HOB M e c T e C T e M p a 3 p e X C e ~ ~ b l~i ia 6 o p
- TpeIIXTCTByeT p a 3 M e U e H U I O 6 o n b r u o r o TeKCTa, nOTOMy YTO ~ p e 6 y H e e~TOAbKO 6 0 ~ b m e

t
g
ZpOcTpaHCTBa, TO T a K X e H YBeAIlYeHHOrO UHTepAUHbIIXa, a 3TO YnAHHSeT rpe6ye~y1o
;IOAOCY ~ a 6 o p a .

g c I I e ~ U a h ~ 3 ~ p 0 ~ a . H~ ~a b6 I oe p ~ b 1I Iep O r p a M M b I MOIYT Y n p a B A X T b n p 0 6 e n a ~M~e X A y


F CnOBaMFi EI ~ ~ K B ~IIOCTpOYHO.
M H B 24. 70 nonpo6~o0 6 c y m ~ a e ~npouecc
cs ~OCT~OYHO&
BePCTICU, a 3AeCb fiOCTaTOYH0 CKa3aTb, VTO 3TUMU ABYMII I I a p a M e T P a M E i MOXCHO r U 6 ~ o
ynpaanm.
EcAU a n p O I U a M A a T b BOSMOXHOCTb nPOM3BOAbHO YBeAUYUBaTbCS HAEI y M e H b l l l a T b -
CS, TO CJ'UIeCTBYeT PUCK YMeHbIIIeHUX pa360p=za~ocm, T a K K a K y X y A u l a e T C R BOCIIpMXTUe
CAOB a y-rpawBaeTcs nerKocTb w e H a s . B ~ p a j i cnyqae,
~ e ~ mupuaa anpoma M o m e T

CAOBaMU U T a K H e CAUIIIKOM UIBPOKU.


k3 H ~ O ~ O ~ Oecna
T , B ~ xecmo
I orpaaasme H ~ M ~ H ~anpomeii,
H U ~ TO ~ a 6 o p ~ nap so -
r p a M M a CTaHeT 3aIIOAHSfl'b CTPOKII, U3MeHXX npo6enb1MeXCAy CAOBaMU, KOTOpbIe M O r p
CTaHOBEITbCII YPe3MePHbIMU H CO3AaBaTb aAbIpbI>>B CTPOKaX. B O ~ H N KBIIeYaTAeHHe,
~~T
YTO ~ Y K B B~ CAOBaX
I H a 6 p a ~ b 1V e p e c q y p m O T H O ( p a c 8.7). TO B e s H a X n p o 6 n e ~ Ba c e x
Y3KEIX r a 3 e T H b I X KOAOHOK.
E O P U ~38I qUCTOTY X a H p a M O r p B 0 3 p a 3 U T b , YTO B P p H O M ~ a 6 0 p eMOXHO AOCTUqb
I l p e K p a C H O r O p e 3 y J ~ b T a T a ,H e EI3MeHBX a I I p 0 I I I e f . 3 a ~ oMOAepHMCTbI y T B e p X A a I o T , YTO
eCAU 6b1 npMBepXCeHUb1 CTapbIX npkfeMOB IIOAyYHAIi BO3MOXHOCTb U3MeHXTb n p o 6 e n b 1
M e m n y ~ ~ K B ~ MOHM
U , 6b1 cpa3y em BOCnOAb30BaAaCb. k I ~ e a A 0~ ~a 6 o p aB c e r A a 6 b 1 ~
xoporuuji a u a e T > > ,a ynpameaae 6 a ~ a ~ npo6eno~
c o ~ M e x n y c n o B a M a a ~ ~ K B ~snna- M U
eTCR W S O M K er0 aOCTIIXeHIlIo.
PnC. 8.7. B AeBOM C T O A ~ U ~
TeKCT CBepCTaH c ~ R K C E I ~ O B ~ H - he results of the first round of The results of the first round of
HbIMa anporrraMu.g pe3ynbTaTe the elections shook the public the elections shook the public
rigid, as it seemed impossible rigid, as it seemed impossible
BO MHOrRX CTpOKaX C U h b H o y B e - that a candidate from the far that a candidate from the far
AHPnAHCb MemCAOBHbIe npo6e- right wing-who indeed had right wing-who indeed had been
been a Nazi Party member dur- a Nazi Party member during his
AbI. B npaaoii KOAOHKe npo6e- ing his youth-usted the cen- youth-ousted the center-left
, , a 1 ~ e m ~ y 6tc~-1eficandidate.Theoutcry
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ candidate.
~ ~ The ~ outcry
~ from ~ the
ffom the general public was general public was considerable
YMeHbLIIaTbCR UAR YBeAkI'IEIBaTb- considerable but also considera- but also considerably too late.
cs 1Ia 5')/0, Pe3YAbTaTe npo6e- bly too late. The ~ n - to ~ the
p The run-up to the election had
election had been se- been sedate-almost somno-
6 ob ~ e ep o B ~ b ~ e ,
AbI ~ O A ~ R A R C date-almost somnolent-and lent--and people learned too late
EI ne 0 6 p a 3 0 ~ a h O ~Pepec'Iyp
b people learned too late that the that the ununaginable only seems
unimaginable only seems that that way when pcople fail to use
p a 3 p e X e H H b l X CTPOK way when people fail to use their imaginations.
their imaginations.

K ~ MLI
K ~ B U A H MB M. 9, K e r & ~ u p a + ~ aru.upr?aa
, no-
AOCLI 11 EIHTePAIIHLRX B3a11M03aBHCHMLI. k I 3 ~ e H e ~ H e
OAHOrO 113 HHX ~ p e 6 y H3MeHeHHII
e~ H OCTUbHbIX.
O6brwoG 0 m 6 ~ 0 i~iI i 3 $ H e p a EIBMeTCSI YCTaHOB-
K a r r o n o c b r ~ a 6 o p yepecyp
a m p o ~ o iAM i A a H H o r o Ker-
h~ H mrep-mmmica (MAXmaqe, K e r a H mephuHbxx -
CUlrUKOM MehKEle A ~ H H O ~nOAOCbI
? ~a60pa).B pe-
3 Y M T a T e CTpaKklUa BbITAXAKT K a K T y ~ ~ h bcepbl% & npX-
PkIC. 8.8. ,@a KOM+OPTHO~O MOJTOAbHHK, H KiUfCeTCII, 'IT0 CTPOKH T e K C T a TIIHYT-
3TeHMII L U P U + T ~ CTPOKN CARIII- H O 8.8).
CII ~ ~ C K O H ~ Y(PEIC.
KOM AANHHbI, ~ O M N M OB E I 3 y U b -
HOrO ~ e y n o 6 c r ~npu
a, ~ A U H H ~ D ~
CTpOKaX EI nAOTHOM NHTePAEIHb- No vicu are so hard to eradicate as those which are popularly regarded as vir-
xxce 3 u T a T e n l o T ~ ~ A Hnepeao-
O tues. Among these the rice ofreading is foremost. That reading trash is a vice is
generally conceded; but reading per re-the habit of r e a d i n p n e w as ~t is, a1-
CUTh B3rAR,4 OT IIpaBOI'O K p a R ready ranks with such seasoned h c s as duift, sobriery, early rising and regular
O A H O ~CTPOKU K AeBOMy K p a l o exercise. There is, indeed, something peculiarly aggesnve m the virmousness of
the seme-of-duty reader. By those who have kept to the humble paths of pre-
~ y x c ~ oCTPOKU.
ii Peuen~o~ cept he is revered as follomng a counsel ofperfection. "I wish I had kept up my
B ABHHOM CAy.lae RBARIoTCR 60- reading as you have," the unlettered novice declares to this adept in the super-
erogatoty; and the reader, accustomed to the incense of uncritical applause, not
nee ~ p y n ~ IIIPN+T
b ~ i N yBenn- unnaturally looks on his occupation as a noteworthy intellectual achievement.
' I e H ~ bN
l ~H T e P A I I H b l X
r ~ a s a8. Yrno de~aernxopouui n a h p deicrnsurne~anoxopourn, a moxoG - nilOXU4 767

PEfC. 8.9. Kernb r t r p U @ ~ aB naH-


What is reading, in the last analysis, but an interchange between
writer and reader? If the book enters the reader's mind just as it HOM I l P H M e P e COOTBeTCTBYeT
left the writer's-without any of the additions and modifications LLIUpliHe KOhOHKII, HO BHTePhW-
inevitably produced by contact with a new body of thought-it
has been read to no purpose. In such cases, of course, the read- HbRX CAHrtrKOM Y30K. T ~ K C )T-T
er is not always to blame. There are books that are always the PBTZiA fOPH30HTaALHYH) TeKCTy-
same-incapable of modifying or of being modified-but these py, KOTOpaR 06blYH0 C03AaeTCII
do not count as factors in literature. The value of books is pro-
portionate to what may be called their plasticity-their quality of . i e p e a o n a r r m M C T ~ O K TeKcTa li
being all things to all men, of being diversely moulded by the im- npo6en1,soro npocrpasc-rsa.
pact of k s h fonns of thought. Where, from one cause or anoth-
er, this reciprocal adaptability 1s lacking, there can be no real YT~HH ~
TaKOrO CXaTOrO TCK-
intercourse between book and reader. CT5 - YTOMATeALtlOe 3BFIRTAC
A a X e GAR TeX OTBaXBbIX YUTB-
~ e ~ e fKOTOPLIX
i, H e CMYTHT
CTPOKH
60hb~~0fi
AAUHbI C Y 3 K W H H T e p M i H b B X e M CTOAb ~ e n p 0 r A ~ ~ H b~ laf 6i 0 p
H e a W T Y W a T e A H ) BO3MOXHOCTH YBePeHHO n e p e B O -
a H T L B 3 f A X a CO CTPOKH H a CTPOKY. Mexay CTPOKaMSi
HeAOCTaTOYHO nPOCTpi3HCTBa AAX TOfO, ' I T O ~ L I OHH H e
32UIOA3ahH aP)T H a APJTa, a B e a b I'IYCTOG rOPSi3OHTahL-
~ b l f npOMeX).rOK
i I I O a C T O K O ~ ~IIBAIIeTCX T P O ~ U H K O ~ ~ ,
no ~ o ~ o p oaanxe-rca
ii ~srnaa,nepexoax co CTPOKH Ha
CTPOKY. ELAH 3 T a TPOIIIMKB CAHIUKOM Y3Katl, TO B3mW
YHTaTeAX M O X e T A e r K O C ~ H T ~ C ICI IIyTU (PHC. 8.9).
Mah0 TOrO, T O IIAOTH~IGEIHTepAUHbRX C a M n0 ce6e
y c A o x m e T B o c n p m S i e U P E I + T ~T,a K OH erne npespa-
uaeT w e m e B TPYAH~IO pa60~y.

n p o 6 ~ e ~Y3KHX
b 1 KOAOHOK
r
rase?. n p o 6 n e ~ a06pa~narr,o n H c a H H a r r K ~ pa3
K B npe-
By a fiction, I understand a num-
ber if citizens, whether amounting to AbJ,4ymeM p a 3 A e A e : K W A b I.UpH@a ChElIIIKOM Be- A M
a majority or minority of the whole, KOAOHKH, T O B e C b M a 3aTPYnHIIeT n O A y Y e H H e XOpOIIIO
who are united and actuated by some
common impulse of passion. or of CB~P~T~,HHO
CTPPHHLI,bI.
$
interest, adverse to the rights of other
citizens, or to the permanent and ag-
c!)Tbn p o 6 ~ e ~ COCTOHT
b 1 B TOM, W O ~a6op~oG
CHCTe-
gregate interests of the community. Me, 3a,II0AHZIO~efi CrpOKIl TeKCTOM, I I P H X O ~ H ' I UT O - T O

By a fiction, I understand a num- neha-rr, c n p o c r p m m o M , o c r a ~ m c r Br c T p o K e noche


ber if citizels, whether amounting to ea6opa B ~ e iAi o n y C T u M o r o K o n u s e m a UOB. om
a majority or minority of the whole,
who arc united and actuatcd by some ~~06b106ecne9n mp a B E t h b e o e pameweme nocnease-
common impulse of passion, or of m chosa B c-rpoKe, ero pa36ma~r-r ,qm nepeeoca, HO naxe
interest, adverse to the rights of other
ciriuns, or to the pctmancnt and ag- H IIOCAe 3TOrO B T O K e OCTaeTCII HeKOTOpOe npOCTpZlH-
gregate interests of rhe community.m o . K y ~ em a n p ~ p o m B? n e p B y m o Y e p e A b M e w
cho~aim,HO moraa, e m o c r m ~ c l np06en f CAUIXIKOM
sehu~, TO H M e m y ~ ~ K B ~@HC. M N 8.10).T ~ 6M o ~ e YTO
e
PRC. 8.10. T e ~ c r o ~ b~~ai r6 o p
C PBaHbIM IIpaBbIM KpaeM ( ~ e p - H a K O p o n u l x c r p O K a X MeXCAOBHbEi n p o 6 e ~ o
M~a O , ncF
XHHG a 6 s a u ) n o ~ a 3 b l ~ a e ~ , TOM^ pacnpeneheme npocrpmma M e m n y HUM^^ n p ~ -
nycroro
CKOA~KO npocrpaHcrBa BOAHT K NX 9 p e 3 M e p H O M Y YBeAHYeHNIO. Cj'lLleCTBye~
ayxao pacnpenehmb Mexny HeCKOAbKO C I I O C ~ O B60pb6b1 C AHIUHUM "yC?btM IIpOCTpXl-
I a~am~oii
A ~ Y K B B M EH
C A O B ~ H
-OM, I M + ~ ~ M ~ I W 06
O ~ 8 u. 10 H 7 7, HO c p e
r n u.
cTpOKe AAR TOTO, ' 1 ~ 0 6 ~o6ec-
1
nesnTb B ~ I K A K I 'no
IKY+op~a-
KEI CAaYEI K33eTbl (N 3KOHOMH9eCKHe + ~ K T O P ~ I )A e A m
TY ( H H X H N ~ ~a6sau). B na~aoir HeBbrroAHbIM n p m n e Y e m e cnemamcra AAX N c n p a m e -
CHTyauHM MOXeT nOM04b pX3- X s
KWI T ~ K I ~norpem~ocreii epm.
peureme npH nepeHoce ocraa- Y T ~ H YH3 ~K m KOAOHOK TeKCTa N3HYPReT, nOTOMy
AXTb Ha CTpOKe MNHNMYM A B e wo ~ 3 r ~ s -6 ie~c r r p e p b r ~ ~r rop b r r a e T OT ~ p a no
~ l pa^
G ~ K B ~ IB,eAb TOrna C T p O K a CTa-
9epe3 K a X A b I e HeCKOAbKO CAOB. TO - BCe PaBHO, 9 T O
HeT BMeUaTb 6ohbure TeKCTa, a
~ H ~ Y I I TpacnpenenxTb
, npnneT-
CAenHTb 3a 111p05B nNHr-IlOHT. C O ~ A N H H TY3KYIO ~ no-
CR MeHbmee nycroe npocTpaH- AOCy C Y e p e n y I o W H M a c R CTpOKaMN TO IIAOTHOrO ~a60-
CTBO pa ( c u c ~ e sanonerre~
~a q o K a non ~ ~ B I I ~ K TO
Y ) o, g e H b
p a 3 p e m e ~ ~ o r-o no npmsae, o ~ o ~ o p ToOfA ~ K O9 T O
rOBOpNAOCb -H Bb1 n o A y q u T e TO, W O O ~ ~ I ~H IHl p eOA -
craBhcIeT co6oii rase~a:o ~ ~ o p a 3 0 s sepcnca.
as A xo
H e TOT 06paseq KOTOPOMY CTONT CAeAOBaTb.
B BepCTKe ~oo61uenpeo6naaam~AOCTaTOYHO Y3-
KHe nOAOCb1 ~ a 6 o p a .O A H H M H 3 n e p B b I X n p H e M O B ,
K O T O IIOIfBIZhCR
~ ~ ~ B HaCTOAbHbLX H3AaTeAbCKHX CMC-
r ~ a s a8. Ymo ae~aemxopouuUY ~ a 6 o pdeUYcmoume~axoxopowt~cr,a r~toxoi- UOXILIM 763

T e M a X , C T U O o ~ T ~ K ~ rH
p aM
+ E~i ~ M TeKCTOM, kI306pa-
X e H M e , HZUIpHMep + 0 ~ 0 r p a @ M I I , BHeApIIeTCX B KOAOH-
KY T e K c T a , erne 6onee cyxarr ee LUNPEIHY. 0 6 T e K a H M e
TeKCTa (XU0 Y p e 3 ~ b 1 s a f i ~n00 n y h J I p H b I M M MCnOAb3Y-
eTCII A 0 CMX IIOp, a p e 3 y A b T a T MOXHO YBMAeTb B MHO-
rOYUCAeHHbIX I I p M M e p a X CKBepHO CBepCTaHHbIX C v a -
HULI. n pa o 6 e ~ o-~ 3 T 0
npo6~e~ HenOCpeACTBeHHOe
CAeACTBHe Y3KMX nOAOC ( K ~ KI3 n p o 6 n e ~ a<<UBeTa*
I l I p E i + ~ a - CAeACTBMe CMeHbI LUMpMHbI KOAOHKM),
M eAUHCTBeHHblM C ~ O C O ~ O 6M0 p b 6 b 1 C 3TMM 3AOM IIB-
AIIeTCII ~ a c ~ p 0 f i Knpo6enoa
a Ha K ~ X A O GC T p O K e .
K s e M y n p ~ 6 e r a m~ ~p a i i p~e Ae K o .

K ~ yKK a 3 b I B M O C b 6 24. 1, KOMnbH3TePHbIe I I p O r p a M M b I n, but in a smdcr d-.


and Ipparznse have leu
CYHTmT, 9TO ~ m ~ b~ ~ f Bi ~ H 3HaK
Y K H ~ I PaCIIOAOXeH
~ ~ ng on Imvir pwchw; or
s whilc chc dctirc for rrylc
B IIPIIMOJTOAbHMKe ~ e r e h b ~IIAOUBAKH,
~ f i BbICOTa KO-
~ o p o i iC o o m e T c m y e T K e r n m ILIPEI+T~, a ruxpmia -
m p m e 3 ~ a (c~ no~yanpornami).
a K o r ~ Ba ~ ~I a 6 ~ p a e - md rirnpliciiy a p p d ro men more rhrn mere
T e TeKCT, TO K m e T C I I , T l W BbI p a 3 M e U a e T e 3HaKM B CTPC-
Ke, a H a CaMOM A e A e I I p O r p a M M a n p O C T 0 J'KAWbIBaeT
A P p 3a Ap)TOM EiX K e r e A b H b I e lTAOUaAKM. Ta~arrnoc-
AeAOBaTeAbHOCTb IIAOUZiAOK C03AaeT MHOXeCTBO BM3Y-
a h b H b I X ~HoMwG, M 3HaKII, KOTOPbIe BbI BMnFiTe H a PHC. 8.11. E y K s t l q a M A O A X H ~
c-rpmaue,6b1~a.10~ P a c n p e n e n e H b I H e T ~ KKaK
, cneAoBa- 6 b l ~ bB ~ I P O B H ~ H H O
noE A e B O M y
A 0 6b1. KOH~YHO,
MX K e r e h b H b I e IIAOUaAKM BbIpOBHeHbI ~ p m Ha . c a M o h 2 ache, Gyrcs~ua
npeBocxoAHo, nporpaMMa chenm 3a ~ W M ,HO r p a m q b I CABHHyTa B E p a B O H a IlIHpHHy
3TMX IIAOIUWOK H e 0~06paxmc11, M BCe, 'IT0 BbI BWM- cBoero noAyanpoma. T e ~ n o s b ~ e

T e H a crpamue, - TO ~306paxce~m
P e n a K T O p b I X XIpOrpaMMbl B e p -
~H~KOB.
CTKH ewe T O A b K O HLLYHHPlOT
Ha p ~ c .8.11 n p e A c r a m e H n p w M e p ~ u 3 y a h b ~ om
fie
BbIPaBHHBaTb T a K H e 6 y K ~ H 4 b no
1
MW. Kpyn~arrH a s a h b H a R 6 y ~ - ~ bylcauyaii
a (drop CBOHM K o H T y p a M , a Iie no rpa-
cap) - A O A X H a 6b1Tb TOYHO BbIPOBHeHa n0 r p a H M 4 e H M q a M ~ e r e n b ~ non oi l r r a n x c a
164 Yacma I. O c ~ o a a munozpa@u~u
l

neBoro nonx, H n p o r p a M M a y m e p m A a e T , YTO TO T a K ,


HO BbI-TO OTYeTANBO BHANTe, 9 T O 3TO H e COBCeM T a K :
6 y ~ s u u aC A B H H y T a B n p a B O H a HeCKOAbKO nYHKTOB.
~ ~ e B TOM, wo ee K e r e u H a ITAOIU~A-
0 6 a x c ~ e COCTONT
K a A ~ ~ ~ C T B M T ~ BbIPOBHeHa
A~HO no AeBOMy K p a I o , a CaMO
~ 3 0 6 p a x e ~~Y~Ke B CMeIUeHO
~ I OTHOCNTeAbHO r p a H N U b I
~ e r e A b H 0 ; nAOIUaAKN. A P Y ~ N M H CAOBBMH, 3 H a K CABM-
HYT H a UIHPHHY IIOAyaIIpOLUa, H n p E I KpYIIHbIX KWAXX
3 T 0 CTaHOBHTCII B e C b M a 3 a M e T H b I M . T I U a ~ e A b ~ b 1H2a -
~ O P W I I K( B ~ P C T ~ A L ~ I I KHAH
) , TOT, y KOrO e C T b B p e M I I
IIpOSBAIITb C T a p a H N e , KOHeYHO, ~ a i i AAII
~ e ~~Y K B I I I J ~ I
TaKOe IIOAOXeHNe, 9~06b1O H a C T a h a A ~ ~ ~ c T B N T ~ A ~ H
B L I P O B H ~ H H O ~(. K ~ ~K0 6 1 n - ~3C
TORr 0 , CA.6 2A. 72.)
ApyrZl5f n p o 6 ~ e ~CBII3aHHaX
a, C BH3YahbHLIM BbI-
P a B H H B a H H e M , n p e A C T a B A e H a H a PHC. 8.12. B ABHHOM
c A y Y a e ~ ~ ~ O A O B pOaKc n o ~ o m eno
~ u e H T p y KOAOHKH.
HOT ~ K C T O B ~ I ; ~ A O KH e BbIKAIoYeH no I I p a B O M y K p a I O ,
nO3TOMY 3arOAOBOK K a X e T C X HeCKOAbKO CABHHYTbIM
B n p a B O . ~ ~ ~ O A O B6bm
O K JJeHTpHpOBaH H e OTHOCEITeAb-
HO TeKCTa, a OTHOCUTeAbHO P~CCTOIMP& A 0 K p a e B IIOAOCbI
~ a 6 o p akI
. ROAyYaeTCSi, YTO BNANMOe 6 b 1 ~ UeHTPHPO-
0
BaHO no TOMY, YTO BHAHO TOAbKO YBCTHYHO, B P e 3 Y A b -
TaTe -H ~ C ~ U ~ H C H ~ O B ~ H H O C T ~ .

PHC. 8.12. y e q n p o ~ m a 38-


e Advertising to Men
rOAOBKa OTHOCHTeAbHOTeKCTB C
Those articles that should be considered with
PBaHbIM IIpaBbIM KpaeM BCerna
special reference to men are limited to such
'ipeBaT0 HeCtIMMeTPMYHOCTbIo.
things as are for his personal use or are con-
B naHHOM CAy.lae YaCTIIYHO 38-
nected with his business. But even in the former
IIOAHeHHbIe CTPOKH TeCTOBOTO
class, women's influence is always more or less
6 ~ o c~o san a m ~BneYaTAeHtIe in evidence. Clothing, £or example, is often
IIeKOTOPOrO CnBtITa 3arOAOBKa
bought at the suggestion of or with the advice
BIIpaBO OT I l e q a . B 3aTOAOBKaX
of some woman, or to make an impression on
KOAOHOK B ~ a 6 ~ ~YaCTO
4 . 3B03-
~ women.
HUKaeT T a Xe n p o 6 ~ e ~ a
E A U H C T B ~ H H O ~T, O OTAIlYaeT XOpOJJ.IyKJ B e p C T K y OT ~ A O X O ~-, ~ O A H L OTKa3
I ~ ~ OT Ha-
A e W b I H a TO, W O T ~ K C T O B P
~ eIA~a~K T O P aBTOMaTMgeCKH BCe CAeAaeT KaK CAeAyeT. O n b r r -
H b I e H ~ ~ O P U (H
B ~K
PCMT~A~UIHKH
AOBePRIOT
) CBOMM r A a 3 a M , a H e CBOElM ElHCTPYMeHTaM.
C ~ M ~ I YCneIIIHLIMH
MM B e P C T a A b U E l K a M I I CTaHOBXTCIi T e , Y KOrO X O P O I I I H ~ r~A a 3 O M e p
I1 g)'BCTBO M e p b I .
B e p c ~ a A b I I l I 1 KA O A X e H I I p l i H H M a T b ~ ~ C S E I C A ~ H MHOXeCTBO
HO~ peLI.Ie~Pifi A A S TOTO,
Y T O ~ ~CKOMnOHOBaTb
I rlpeBOCXOAHYIO C T p a H U U Y B A ~ H H Or A~a B
~ e TOALKO H a M e S e H L I
HeKOTOpLIe I13 HHX. BO MHOIXX CAYYaIiX ~ ~ ~ B M A B
L LH
I~O
~ PIB 0~ 3 M O X e H 6~aronapx
~ e 6 b r ~ a n o TOSHOCTH
fi II03MIJIIOHEIPOBaHUII, A O C T ~ ~KOMIIbKJTePHLIM
HO~ IIpOrpaMMaM.
H0 CaMbIM BCiXHbIM UHCTPYMeHTOM AAIi B e p C T a A b U I l K a XBAXeTCS K P I ~ T E ~ Y ~ c KI'Aa3.
H~~
B KOHUe KOHUOB, M a C T e p a P P H O r O ~ a 6 o p aC03AaBaAPi IIpeBOCXOAHbIe npOH3BeAeHHIi
6e3 n p o 6 e ~ Bo TbICIi9HYKJ
~ AOAH) K e I ' e h b ~ O f i , ElHTepAElHbXXa B AeCSTyH, AOAIO IIyHKTa El
r ~ rupx+~a.
A P O ~ H ~ I~X e ef
Em11 Bbl o 6 p a m ~ eIIpUCTaAbHOe BHEIMaHIte H a BePCTKY, KOTOPYK) BHAIiTe K a X n L ~ f i
AeHb, TO 6 y ~ e Pi3YMAeHb1,
~e K a K 6b1 BbIPa3HTbCX A I m A O M a T H s H e e , YHCAOM B03MOXHLIX
TM~O~~~QH Y AS~~ Z IC
~UK~H EX
HKOTOPLIe
I~~, H e CAeAaHbl. TO IIPOEICXOAUT E13-3a CIIeLUKEI,
H e B e X e C T B a , CKYnOCTEl ( M ~ H ~ A X ~ P OKOTOPbIe
B, H e XOTXT IIAaTHTb 3a 3 K C n e p T H y I o OUeH-
KY, 06pe~11e
11K O ~ O ~Aa ~q e c ~11~, wo
a) neYanbHee Bcero, as-sa OTC~TCTBXS n p o c T o r o
XeAitHEIII C A e A a T b BCe K a K M O X H O AySLLIe.
~ eC fT B ~ ICOBMeCTHO,
~T EI IIpaKTHYeCKH BCe T p H CBR3a-
HbI C ~ ~ P H K T J ' P O ~Eonee
~. ~ p y n H b 1 f iUIPIICPT ~pe6ye~
6onee r n ~ ~ p o ~noO A i io c b I ~ a 6 0 p a a, nNI r n ~ p o ~ ono-
ii
AOCbI ~ a 6 0 p aH y X e H 6 o n b r u a f H H T e p A H H b R X , YTO,
B CBOIO o Y e p e n b , ~ p e 6 y e ~
6onee K p y n H o r o rnpu+~a.
H ~ M ~ H3HaYeHIIe
IIB EIHTepAEIHbliXa, HYXHO KOPPeKTH-
P O B a T b H BCe O C T U b H b I e I l a p a M e T p b I .
H~CMOTPR
H a 3 T 0 , B m60G n p o r p a M M e CYUJeCTBY-
IOT YCTaHOBKEI IIO yM0A.IaHIIIo ( B ~ IB e n L H e C M O X e T e
Ha.IaTb ~ a 6 o pTeKCTa 6 e 3 KOHKpeTHbIX ~ H ~ Y ~ H EOT-
I ~ ) ,
HOIIIeHHR M e X n y HAMH H e B C e r n a IIpaBHAbHO OUeHHBa-
IoTCf?. ECAHB b I P a 3 m b C R MRrKO, TO OH&! YaLLIe BCerO
HeIIpaBHAbHO U C I I O A b 3 F T C R , H H e TOAbKO HOBHYKaMH.

A A M H ~CTPOKH
HAM + O P M ~ T KOAOHKH
0 6 b 1 9 ~ 0 J.IIPHCI)T ~ a 6 ~ p a e KOAOHKBMEI,
~ca LLIEIpHHa
KOAOHKH Ha3blBaeTCR @0p&amoA4 IcOAO%lcU. XOTR CY-
WeCTBYeT NCKYIIIeHHe EICIIOAb30BaTb T e p M H H SUHU
cmpolcu (line length) B S ~ M ~@opaama H XOAO;IIXU~
(measure), HO OHH H e B c e r n a 0 6 0 3 ~ a ~ a 1 0o n~ H o II TO
x e . H a n p ~ ~ eKpo ,r n a B b I n o n H a e T c x 4 n a r o ~ b 1 f ~i a 6 o p
c p s a n a l ~n p a a a u x p a e ~(ragged right margin),
T. e. CTPOKH H e IIOAHOCTbIo 3aIIOAHRIOT LUHPHHY KO-
AOHKH, 8 A H H a K ~ ; K A OO~ T ~ ~ A ~CTPOKH
H O ~ H e PaBHReT-
Cli IIIkIPEIHe KOAOHKEI, 9 a C T b I O K O T O P O ~ XBAX€!TCX'
(PHC. 9.1). E m B T ~ K O MTeKcTe o ~ c y r m y mn e p e H o c b I
7 70 Y a c m a II. KUKsepcmarna rneltcrn

PHC. 9.1. B ~ ~ T U K ~ A L F I ~AH-


IMU
HHXMH OTMeWIiLI TPaHULIbI TeK-
CT080r0 ~ A O K OHU
~ , @HKCU~~-
About twenty years ago, there lived a
IOT + O P M ; ~ T KOAOHKU. TO
!
singular gentleman in the Old Hall
UMeHHO TOT CA~%&, KOrAa AAU-
Ha CTpOKH U C # ) O ~ M ~ TKOAOHKH
$amongthe elm-trees. He was about
He COBIIaAaIoT bee-score years of age, very rich, and
I
$ornewhat odd in many of his habits,
but for generosity and benevolence he
had no equal.

(YTO ~ L I B H
~ ~~ ~T ~ A KTO
o )~OALUIHHCTBO
, CTPOK OKXKeT-

PMC. 9.2A ( c ~ p .171). AAR Cli KOpOYe I I O A H O


UM~P
~H H b I KOAOHKII, T a K KZLK UCpOOrpaM-
HeKOTOpbIX IIIPUQTOH CIIAOLU- M a H e M o m e T ~ A A I I H I I T CTPOKY
~ 3a cgeT q a c ~ e f CAOB,
i
HOG 11a6op B y s ~ a xK O A O H K ~ X p a 3 A e A e H H b I X IIepeHOCOM.
(11 '/, n u ~ u o) s e m ynasea, HO K O M I I L ~ T ~ ~ HII3AaTeAbCKUe
LI~ I I p O T a M M b I no-IIpe-
KpynHbIe npOIIOpLlUU rapHH?-y-
X H e M y H e I I M e l o T PaBYMHOrO XIOAXOAa K H A e e + O P M ~ -
pb1 Sabon, H C I I O A ~ ~ O B ~ RH aH O ~ ~
T a KOAOHKII. B H e K o T o p b I x n p o r p a M M a x C H a q a - h a onpe-
pacyme, npu ~a6opeKerneM 10
no cxeMe 10/10 B b I r n w n m cner- A e n x e T c s + o p M a ~ C T p a H m l L I , 3 a ~ pea ~3 ~ e pnoneti,
K a CXaTbIMU. B n e s a ~ n e ~ u e KOAEiqeCTBO TeKCTOBLIX KOAOHOK H a CTpaHEiUe Ei, HaKO-
YA~IIUUTCR, eCAH YBeAUrUTb H e q , PaCCTORHIIe M e X A y 3TIiMEI KOAOHKBMII'. BbI BbI-
UHTepAUHbXX H a OAM1 IIYHKT H y X A e H b I O n p e A e A l i T L IIIIIpIIHy KOAOHOK MeTOAOM BLI-
(10/11),a cxeMa 10/12 y x e H a w - umaHm. B TaKEix n p o r p a M M a x ELI H e M o m e T e C K ~ ~ ~ T L
uaeT p m 6 m a ~ b~ a 6 o prxa noho-
<dixosy TPII KOAOHKII U I W P I I H O ~ ~14 n u K c npo6eno~
CbI. TO M e CIIPaBeAAHBO AAX
H a 6 0 p a I I I ~ u + T o M KerAR 11.
M e X A Y IIIIMII B 1 nIIKYw, XOTR. B T a K O M X e A a H I i E i e C T b

OARA ~ H I I O $ KOAOHKU LUPH@T o n p e n e n e H H a R norma. LLIH~HH~ KOAOHKII H e A o n m H a


KeLU 11 KaXeTCR BeAUKOBaT, 6 b 1 ~ bI I P O I I ~ B O A H O ~B ~ A H S H H O ~ee
, HyXHO 3aAaBaTL
c o 3 n a n a s CTPOKU n c e r o B IIe- R B H ~ I M06pa30~.TO K a c a e T c s i p a 3 ~ e p nonefir
0~ TO IIX,
CKOALKO CAOB U O'leHL p ~ a k I b l i f eCAH H ~ O ~ X O A I I M OM, O X H O PaCCqEiTaTb CaMOCTOXTeAb-
xpa$. LLIparp~,H ~ ~ P ~ W HKW-
~ I $
HO, A 0 TOrO, K a K BBOAIITb 9 I I C A a C K A a B I I a T y p h I , CKAa-
AeM 12, 3aMeTkIO BeAHK, XOTX
A b I B U I UIIIPWHLI KOAOHOK II npo6eno~M e X A y HUMIl II
echu e q npaasubao ua3~avm-b
HHTepAUHLXX, TO OH MOXCeT
B L I ~ ~ C~ YRM.M 1 (Onpe~ene~~
~13XLIIIPIIH~IC T p a m i q b I .
OTAU'IHO CLIrPaTb B KaveCTBe C R nOCTpOeHUR ~ 0 a y ~ b -
3THX n a P a M e T p O B T P ~ ~ Y ~ TAAR.
a K u w e I I n l o r o TexcTa nou" cemlcu cmpnnuybl, K o T o p a l i 0 6 c y m ~ a e ~ cDl iM. 72.)
172 Yacma II. K a x aepcmamb mexcm

It has been urged as an argument in favor of re- It has been urged as an argument in favor of re-
chartering the present bank that the calling in its chartering the present bank that the calling in its
loans will produce great embarassment and dis- loans will produce great embarassment and dis-
tress. The time allowed to close its concerns is tress. The time allowed to close its concerns is
ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will
be light, and heavy only in case its management be light, and heavy only in case its management
has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce dis-
tress, the fault will be its own, and it would fur- has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce dis-
nish a reason against renewing a power which tress, the fault will be its own, and it would fur-
has been so obviously abused. But will there ever nish a reason against renewing a power which
be a time when this reason will be less powerful? has been so obviously abused. But will there ever
To acknowledge its force is to admit that the be a time when this reason will be less powerful?
bank ought to be perpetual, and as a consequence To acknowledge its force is to admit that the
the present stockholders and those inheriting bank ought to be perpetual, and as a consequence
10112 X 18 nUK

It has been urged as an argument in favor of It has been urged as an argument in favor of
rechartering the present bank that the calling rechartering the present bank that the calling
in its loans will produce great embarassment in its loans will produce great embarassment
and distress. The time allowed to close its and distress. The time allowed to close its
concerns is ample, and if it has well managed concerns is ample, and if it has well managed
its pressure will be light, and heavy only in its pressure will be light, and heavy only in
case its management has been bad. If, there-
fore, it shall produce distress, the fault will case its management has been bad. If, there-
be its own, and it would furnish a reason fore, it shall produce distress, the fault will
against renewing a power which has been so be its own, and it would furnish a reason
obviously abused. But will there ever be a against renewing a power which has been so
time when this reason will be less powerful? obviously abused. But will there ever be a
To acknowledge its force is to admit that the time when this reason will be less powerful?
bank ought to be perpetual, and as a conse- To acknowledge its force is to admit that the

It has been urged as a n argument in favor It has been urged as a n argument in favor
of rechartering the present bank that the of rechartering the present bank that the
calling in its loans will produce great calling in its loans will produce great
embarassment and distress. The time al- embarassment and distress. The time al-
lowed t o close its concerns is ample, and lowed to close its concerns is ample, and
if it has well managed its pressure will be if it has well managed its pressure will be
light, and heavy only in case its manage-
light, and heavy only in case its manage-
ment has been bad. If, therefore, it shall
ment has been bad. If, therefore, it shall
produce distress, the fault will be its own,
and it would furnish a reason against re- produce distress, the fault will be its own,
newing a power which has been so obvi- and it would furnish a reason against re-
ously abused. But will there ever be a newing a power which has been so obvi-
time when this reason will be less power- ously abused. But will there ever be a
ful? To acknowledge its force is t o admit time when this reason will be less power-
PMC. 9.25 (crp. 172). Korna +mp
It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the MaT KohOlIKH IlpcBhIILIaeT 1 8 m , IIa-
present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embar- 60p n o a e M e lO/1 1 m o u , u~r,013
rassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is
TUZbKO BbMIpaeT Or O ~ I O l Y AOnOA-
l
ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and
heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it Imam ny~mram m p ~ w m a ,
shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would fur- urn u ne.voHnpnpyeT rrpmep w cxe-
nish a reason against renewing a power which has been so obvi- ~ o i 10/12.
r C H ~ ~ O A ~ U Mme- M
m o UOB~ n crpoKe 11a6op no c x e
Me 11/12 He E i L l m J 4 W T O~HOpOLWO
It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the cepbm, a , x o n m m w u i I I ~ H K TK
present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great ernbar- m e p m m m c y ( c x e ~ 11/13)
a y m -
rassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is Barn BIIe9PrAeIiMe B03AYIlIIIOCTlf.
ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and C KerAeM 12 U OAHKM A O ~ O ~
heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it wm WOM m e p m m m a (cxe
shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would fur- ~a 1 F 3 ) ~ d o frarmiacr
p B~I~M-
nish a reason against renewing a power which has been so obvi- A m TSK€AOtcaW R KaK 6yATa 3a-
10112 X 24 nUKU
x a m m B 3 a n * ~ l y l onpocrpanme.
~
H e c ~ c x p aHa TO, w o @pvar ~o
It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering AOHKU UIHOCXEJ&liO Y30K, KpYIIHb6
the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce Ker* ~ p e 6 y en o~n o n s m e s s o r o
great embarrassment and distress. The time allowed to close EpOCIpWCrea<WAXBZiAOW,, K U I D p
its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure o6ecnewae~ aeMa ttabopa ly14
will be light, and heavy only in case its management has
been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault
will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against renew- PMC. 9.2B. F.CAH @ P M ~ T KOAOHKU
ing a power which has been so obviously abused. But will )'Be?K.Msm TO mpAlEWD£CTax-
x e He A w e H a m a m . ropu30~-
T W H m T e K q a y TeK- ~a6pa~-
It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering ~ o r noo cxeMe 10111, He y ~ m y 6 ~ 1
the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce npu o ? n o c m t i o MUIHOOM m p
great embarrassment and distress. The time allowed to close mm.xxe A o n o m m ~ b Gqmx
its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure y p m m . x x a B ~ a 6 o p eno cxeMe
will be light, and heavy only in case its management has 10/1L p m ~ Memm o ~ e ~ co ra ,
been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault m o ~ ropawo m npUBneKaw
will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against renew- Hee. Ei ~ e ~ csa6prumbG
r, no a e M e
ing a power which has been so obviously abused. But will 11/12, m e ~ a m ~m H ~ E H O
TeMHLIM, B TO BpeMA K a TuMep K
cxeMe 11/13 0 6 n m a e ~6ahbmeii OT-
K ~ ~ I T O C I ~liK60nee
) dana~cupona~.
It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering H&p no aeMe 11/14 F e m i o ~ m -
the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce 0 3 Ye- pa3peXeHHbIM, HO
great embarrassment and distress. The time allowed to close M O J & K ~ r a p m q p a Sabon m ~ o c x -
its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure -
0 MaCCIIBHa, TO UT~IIBKP He Be-
will be light, and heavy only in case its management has A ~ TK WeAelmm CIPOK npyr OT
been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault ~ p y mY 6 o ~ e eC B ~ J & I X rap-
H,Ui l r r p u w C MeHbrUUM POCTOM
will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against renew-
rrp0-X ~ Y K B3TO MO)I(eT npnnec-
11/14 X 24 nUKU TM K Y F I ~ ~ M ~pa3peXeHHOCIU
~ H o ~
7 74 Yacrna II. Kalc aepcrnarna rnelccrn

B n p y r ~ xn p o r p a M M a x B ~M
I omeTe oYepTmb meXcmome PCU~KU(text frame), KOTO-
p b l e C A y X a T r p X H U a M H IIOAOCbI ~a6opa".C 0 3 a a B T a K H e paMKPi, BbI T e M CaMbIM O l I p e A e -
AReTe HX HCTIIHHbIe JJIHpHHbI, TO eCTb + O P M ~ T KOAOHKH, HO I I p H 3TOM IIpHXOAllTCR B p p -
HYH) CO3AaBaTb npo6enbr M e W y KOAOHKaMH C nOMOJ.4bH) TOYHOrO n03HLSIIOHHPOBaHHR
paMOK H a C T P m H U e . TO T O X e AOCTaTOYHO IIPHMHTIIBHO.
B n p o r p a M M a x B e p c m H onpeneneme n a p a M e q o B c ~ p m ~ ci 0u 3 ~ a HeKOTOpOe e~ no-
no6ae ~ o n y n b ~ ocieim H (page grid). H a n p ~ ~ eBp ~, k y MOXHO r o n p e n e n m o@esltou'
qSop~amC T ~ ~ E I (trim U ~ I size): p a s ~ e p q m ~ B ~ ~O T Ob B OK~H~m e HAM mypaane. Orxu
T a K x e o n p e A e n x m T + o p ~ KOAOHKH a~ HAH KOAOHOK H p a 3 ~ e p noheti, K o T o p b I e B c A y q a e
npocroii KHHXHOG c r p a H u U b r K a K pa3 H o n p e n e n s m T nonocy ~ a 6 o p a(text area).
Kopose TOBOPR, MCXOAR H 3 ( P j ' w a M e ~ ~ a A b H b Tl ~I I ~ O ~ ~ ~ ( P H ~I ~I ~C~KA HC XT ~ B A ~ H &
+ o p ~ aKOAOHKH~ c n e , q y e T o n p e A e A m npemne B c e r o .

K e r ~ bH + O P M ~ T KOAOHKH
Kez~a(point size) H + O P M ~ T KOAOHKH (measure) - TO ~ e p a 3 n y q napa.
~ a ~ Hanp~~ep,
OIITHMaAbHaR AAHHa T O K H YaCTO BbIpZLXCaeTCB KOAMYeCTBOM 3 H X O B HAH U O B , KOTO-
p b I e MOXHO p a 3 ~ e m Bb npenenax ~ E I P H H KOAOHKH,
~I a TO H a n p m q m ~ ~ B H C HOT
T
Ker.u.
MOXHOP a C C Y m a T b n o ~ x o ~ x qK~WiAib AAR AaHHOrO + 0 p M a T a KOAOHKH HeCKOAb-
KHMH C ~ O C O ~ ~ MBOT o611i~eIIpHHUHITbI:
H . ~aa6onee
0 o m a h b ~ aA~ mr a crpoiul ( h e length) p a B H a 1,5-2 crpo~aiu,c o A e p m a x m m B c e crp0.1-
H b I e 3HaKH a n + a ~ H T a (CM. PHC. 5.2);
CTpOKa 0 l T I X M a h b H 0 f i &lEiHbI BKAIOYaeT n p H M e p H 0 9-10 CAOB ( ~ c A HCAOBa B Cpe.4-
H e M COCTOm H 3 5 ~YKB);
M H H H M a b H a t I AAHHa CTPOKEI COCTaBAIIeT 27 3HaKOB, OIlTHMaAbHaR - 40 H MaKCH-
r r70.
~ a n b ~ a-
)5 npennosmam npHnepmmaTbcR chenymryero npanma: cpaBHmaTb ~ H ~ Y ~ H H
&WfHbI CTPOKH B IIIZKaX CO 3HaYeHHeM KeTAR B Y K T a X . P ~ C YOYeHb
~ T IIpOCT, EI H e T
H~O~XOAHMOCTE I
CYllTaTb OTAeAbHbIe CAOBa H 6 ~ ~ b B1 T . ~ K CXeMe
O ~ ( P o ~ M KOAOHKH
~T
(B MKW) B TPH pasa 6 o n b m e Ker,xx (B ~ ~ I Y H K T ~ X
TO-
) a6co~mmb1GB ~ P X H Hnpenen
~~
BAR AN3HbI CTPOKEI, H B ~ O A ~ L U I M C T B ~
CAyYaeB T a K a B CTpOKa U H I I I K O M AAHHHa.
T ~ KJ.IIpH+T
, KWAR 10 HeAb3R ~ a 6 ~ p Ba C~Tbp O K W , KOTOPbIe AAHHHee 30 n H K .
& e a n b ~ o e coomomeHHe p a ~ nop m e p H o 2: 1 ~ l 2,5: e ~AO 25 MK
a 20
n 1,~TO 0 3 ~ a ~OT
,qmr u p ~ @ K e r n r r 10. Korna c m o m e m e n p ~ 6 m a -
eTcFI K 1:l ( ~ a n p m e pLUPM+I-
, Kernrr 10 H a T o K e , pa^-
~ o i10 i mm),XOPOLU~HBepcTKa C T ~ H O B ~ ~ TrCrI ~p m e c -
KII H ~ B O ~ M O X H O Omomerne
~~. M e H b m e 1,5:1 - m yme
o n a c H o e c K o A m e r n e no TOHKOM~AW @MC. 9.2A-B).
Bce 3m c x e M L I npmonsrr K O A H O M ~H TOMY me
6 a 3 0 ~ 0 ~BLIBOAYy 06 OTHOUleHPiM M e X A y K e r A e h l
IJ.Ipr?+Ta M +OPM~TOM KOAOHKH, K O T O P L I ~rAaCEIT: YeM
AAMHHee CTpOKa, T e M K p j T l H e e A O A X e H ~ L I T LLUPII+T.
C ~ a ~ ~ a p ~ IHi ~b ~l O
f P H LK Ie r~A ~L AAR ~ O A ~ L I I E I H C T B ~
KHH~X II r a 3 e ~- T TO
, ~PH~AOB 10-12 ~HKTOB".

k i n r n e p ~ u ~ a ~ 3 f(leading)
c' - %TO p a c c r o m M e B nyHKTax
OT AHHHII r u p P i + ~ a m60ii TOKH AO AHHHII m p ~ e a
PHC. 9.3. B H ~ ~ ~ ~ F X CTpO- H L I X
npemyrrleii q o m @MC. 9.3).Amn&c~oeHa3BaHMe K a X T e K C T a AMHMM I I I P H ~ P T CAe-
~
IIPOHCXOAEIT OT CAOBa lead, T O 3 ~ a ~ < ~m
C B M H I X O B ~ IA~a H L I BHAMMLIMH n A R TOrO, YTO-
I L ~ O H >B~ n~e.p H o A pyworo ~a6opac B m e I X McnoAb3oBan- 6 b 1 I I O K a 3 a T b B e A l l Y M H y MHTep-

cx r n x ~ Y K B ,a nmi ~ o r o~, 0 6 y ~ n 1 e m pac- AUHLRXia XAH PaCCTORHMC


M e X A y C M e X H b I M M CTPOKaMM
w m e , M e V crpo~arm~ O A K A ~ . Q n~o In oBc ~K y C B ~ M -
T e K C T a . 3 ~ P 3FIaYeHkiR
i M0r)'T
U a (lead). I;OALIIIMHCTBO KOMIIbWTepHbIX IipOI'paMM
3Wa.RaTbCII KOHKPeTHLIM YHCAOhl
H C ~ O ~ ~ IT Ue Tp w line spacing ( M ~ ~ ~ ~ onpo6en).Y H L G T K T O B MAN C K A ~ L I B a T L C I I8 3
T~KCT,
H a 6 p a ~ H b 1 G&3 wno~w"solid), 0 3 ~ a ~ a e ABYX
~ B€!AMYHII: CTaRAapTHOrO HIT-

cmownou' ~ a @ y, K o T o p o r o mrrepmm.xx p a B e H K e r n l o TepAmILnma H ~ H ~ ~ ~ O


I A
I HHO R
~O
113 n a p a h x e ~ p orn6uBxa
o~ doa63a-
ya M ~ Motndi~axanocile a63aya. 3a-
r o n o B o K a T h e Grandfather, H a -
LESSON VI 6 ~ ; H 1 a~PaCCl'ORfMH 30 IIYHKTOB
30' GT npen~inyuiciic r p o K a . P a c m -
THE GRANDFATHER
milie nocne s a r o n o B K a c u a a b r B a -
Pronounce the following words in this lesson correctly. 23' e T c x 113 O T ~ U B K Wnocne a6saua,
Do not say . m k - i n for smok-ing; clear-in for clear-ing; 13' p a ~ H 0 f 13
i n j T l K T a M , I4 CTaIXnapT-
ktxh-in for catch-ing; turn-b for turn-ing; sp;n-n?nfor 13' HOrO M H T e p A H H L R X a CAe,5yf0~efi
spin-nin 3'
CTPOKM, P a B H O r O 10 n y H K T a M
176 Yacma II. Kale aepcmama mexcm

, a I I p I I M e p K e r A b I L I ~ I I + T ~12 EI HHTepAHHbXX, p a B ~ b 1 f12 IIyHKTaM. %O


L U ~ H + T ~H BbIpa-
XeHIIe (solid) I I p H w o I I 3 P y H O r O ~ a 6 0 p aT, O r A a I I p H CIIAOLUHOM ~ a 6 o p eo n a H pR.4 AM-
T e p yCTaHaBAIIBaACX HeIIOCpenCTBeHHO IIOA ApYI'EIM 6 e 3 nOIIOAHHTeAbHbIX LUIIOH"'.
B U U + ~ O B O M ~ a 6 0 p eC ~ A O ~ H~OaB6 o pCTbIKYeT K e r e A b H b I e IIAOrrIaAKM I I O ~ O G H ~ I MXe
06pa30~.g p y w ~ c n o c o 6 o ~onkicasIHrr ~ a 6 o p a6 e 3 LLIIIOH RBAReTCR 3aIIIlCb 72 On 72
( 72 na 12) E I 72/72.~
O T ~ N BCTPOK
K B I I O - I I p e X H e M y Ha3bIBaeTCR B ~ H ~ A X ~ C KR3bIKe OM adding lead (no6a-
B m b UKIOH, ~ Y K B ~ A ~~ H~ O0 6 a C b U ~ ~ECAH
~ BmH H ). Y TeKCTa YBeAIIYeH IIHTePAHHbRX IIO
CpaBHeHEiEO CO CIIAOLUHbIM ~ a 6 o p (solid), o ~ TO 0 H e M rOBOpXT KBK 0 H ~ ~ P ~ H H CO O M LUIIO-
HaMU (extra lead - < < ~ o I I o A H I I T ~ ~C~BH T )a ,K 0 ~ a 6 o p e
I I~HI~~I ~ > IIO CXeMe 12/13 MOXHO
CKa3aTb, YTO HCIIOAb3YeTCR A O I I O A H I I T ~ A ~ HLUIIOH ~ I ~ ~ B 1 IIYHKT. H ~ K O T OBP e T~
e pIa~
HbI
MeTahhmecKoro ~a6opa u T e , KTO y HIIX YYIIACR, n p e A n o Y u - r a m T ~ O B O P H T ~"1: CBEIHUO-
~ b 1 IIYHKT*
f k1 point of lead,), O n p e n e A R R H a G o p KOAIIYeCTBOM LLIIIOHOB, A O ~ ~ B A R ~ M ~ I
M e X n y CTpOKaMII ~ 0 0 6 p a X a e M b 1AHTepHbIX
~ ~ A O K O B . TO 0 6 e c ~ y p a ~ a ~Taa K e ~K a,K
BCe COBpeMeHHbIe H a 6 0 p ~ b I eI I p O r p a M M b I UHTePAEIHbRX TPaKTYIOT K a K PaCCTORHHe OT
0 n ~ 0 f AHHIIH
i LUPII+T~ A 0 ~pyrofi.Y T B ~ ~ X , ~ ~ YTO H I I ~~ a, 6 o p
BbIIIOAHeH CO LUIIOHOM
B 1 IIYHKT, 0 3 H a Y a e T , YTO PaCCTORHUe M e X n y AHHHRMH L U P E I + TYBeAHSeHO
~ H a 1 IIYHKT
IIO CpaBHeHElIo CO CTaH,L(apTHbIM EIHTepAEIHbXXeM, p a B H b I M KerAEO L I I ~ H C P T B .
3 ~ e c bXe C A e n y e T 3aMeTHTb, T O B KOMIIbIOTepHbIX CEICTeMaX MOXHO ~ a 6 H p a ~ b
IXI~II+T m 6 0 r o K e r n s C IIHTepAHHbRXeM, C K a X e M , B 1 IIYHKT. I ; o A ~TOrO,
~ IIHTePAHHb-
X X M O X e T 6 b 1 ~ b& a X e HyAeBbIM, K O r D a CTPOKH IIePeKpbIBaEOT apYr A p y r a II PaCIIOAaI'a-
WTCR H a o6wef AIIHHII urpa+~a.
M HeynHBEiTeAbHO, T O O C O ~ ~ H HAAR O aKUHneHTHbIX ~ e r ~ eBO3MOXeH
fi A a X e 0Vlpu-
yarne~malu"unrnep~unamc(negative leading), K o r n a ~ H ~ Y ~ HHHIT eI p~A x H b x m a M e H b m e
3 H a Y e H I I s KerAX, H a I I p H M e p 66/60 IIAU 54/50 (pEIc. 9.4). T~KCT,
H a G p a H H b ~ f IIpOIIHCHbIMH
i
~ Y K B ~ M HC,OTPEIUaTeAbHbIM IlHTepAMHbRXeM O ~ ~ I Y HBbIrARnHT
O AyYIIIe ( ~ e AAR
~ bIIpO-
n x c H o r o rupa+~aH e H ~ X H Oy m b I B a T b B H ~ K I Ic HIIXHHMH B ~ I H O C H ~ I M I~I A ~ M ~ H T ~ M E I )
B 0 6 m e ~ IlMeHHO
, T a K YaCTO O+OPMAIIH)T 3al?OAOBKII, IIOCKOAbKY, KaK YKa3bIBahOCb
6 2A. 3, IIpM YBeAIIYeHEIH K e r M npo6es1, BKAEOYaR IIHTepAHHbRX, OEIXYeCKH CTBHOBRT-
CR 6 o ~ e eaKTIIBHbIMII, Y e M LUPH+T. A K ~ H , ~ ~ H T~ H a 6~ oI p~( K~ O T O P ~ I OrpaHHYEIBaeTCR
~
HeCKOAbKIIMIl c T P o K ~ M H ) C O ~ ~ I Y H ~MHTepAIlHbRXeM
I M BbIrARaHT Y e p e C Y y p p a 3 p e X e H -
HbIM, IIOBTOMY 11 n p u 6 e r m ~
K OTPIIUaTeAbHOMY 3HaYeHHIo.
K ~ PiK AAH p a C s e T a K e r A X I I p H Pa3AEIYHbIX + O ~ M ~ T KOAOHKII,
~ X CYIUeCTBYeT
HecKo-Ko C ~ O C O ~ OpBa c Y e T a n o n x o n a l r J e r o mrrepnaHbxxa. H c H o s a s npennosmam
~ H c ~ o B nOAXOA,
Liy
o ~ ~
KerAeM H
O C H O B ~ U I HH~ aI ~COOTHOrZIeHEIII
(POPM~TOM
KOAOHKH.
~ MeX-
AAIIT o r 0 YTO~LI
Fall Suit Sale!
O n p e A e A W T b , HaCKOAbKO C A e A y e T YBeAHYkITb HHTepAH- Prices Reduced
H ~ X X , npocro p a 3 ~ e ~ 1ai ~ ~ ea s e I~U ~~ IeI H ~~ IO A O C ~ I
~ a 6 o p a(B nmax) H a K e r n L r Z I p ~ l + ~ (B a n y ~ ~ ~ aOK- x).
by 50%
P y r A H T e p e 3 y A L T a T C TOqHOCTLK) A 0 0,5 IIyHKTa. 5 Days Only!
Eclll T e K c r ~ a 6 q a e ~KcUa~ H + T O MK e r m 11 H a crpo-
K e nmaoii 24 m ~ TO ,c h e n y e T n o 6 a ~ m K s ~ a ~ e m m PHC. 9.4. T H ~ M Y H B~ aIp H ~ a~H T
M H T e p M H b X X a 2 Il)'HKTa (24 : 11 = 2,18, OKPyI'hReM ~ a 6 o p aT e K C T a C O T p H l I a T e A b -
A 0 2), CheAOBaTeAbHO, CXeMa ~ a 6 o p a- 11/13. k m LUEI- HbIM M H T e P A H I l b R X e M : IIIPHQT

pma crpom H e npeBb1mae-r 30 nm, TO p e 3 y ~ B~~ ~I - a ~K W A R 22 1ia6paa C HHTepAHHbB-


XCeM 19 IIYITKTOB. y a K 4 H n e H T -
sHCAeHHX paBHXeTCX 2,5, a C X e M a ~ a 6 o p aCOCTaBkIT
HOrO UIPII+TB 6 e 3 HHXCHHX BbI-
11/13,5. a o p ~ y n aKOHeYHO, , Hfl K Y e M y BaC H e 06a3~1sa- HOCHbIX 3 A e M e H T O B 3 H a Y e H H e
HHTepAHHbRXa M O X e T 6 b 1 ~ b
ewe MeHbUIe

No detail in a person's "make-up" affects him


so much as the shape of his head. If he owns
a good shape, he will have sterling qualities
of character; if he has a poor shape, he will
lack the essentials of a man; and if he has, what
is most likely, a head of mid-way classifica-
tion, he will be someone of ordinary average
ability.

No detail in a person's "make-up" affects him


so much as the shape of his head. If he owns
a good shape, he will have sterling qualities
of character; if he has a poor shape, he will
lack the essentials of a man; and if he has, what
is most likely, a head of mid-way classifica-
tion, he will be someone of ordinary average
ability.
B ~ O A ~ I ~ I H H C CAyVaeB
TB~ OIlpeAeAeHHX H H T e p h I l H b R X a AOCTaTOVHO TOVHOCTH
A0 0,5 Y K T a . &KAH)S~HMX MOIYT BOBHHKHYTb, K O r A a OT 6onee TOVHLIX HaCTpOeK 3aBH-
CHT 3HaVHTeAbHOe yAy.lUIeHHe BepCTKH TeKCTa. XOTRIIOnbITKa H3MeHXTb 3 H a Y e H I l e HH-
TepAHHbXXa MeHee VeM H a 0,5 I I y H K T a M O X e T IIpMBeCTH K A~
H~oII~~BA~HH oO
~%~HOCTU
(puc. 9.5).

B KOMnbIOTepHOM ~ a 6 o p eCVHTaeTCR KCH HOMO^^, VTO HHTepAEXHbRX O ~ ~ I S H BO 1,2 pa3a


npeBbILuaeT 3 ~ a s e K ~ e ~r me. TO H e o s e H b nones~oenpasano, n o c K o n b K y XCHO, s ~ o
E l H T e P M H b X X A O A X e H H3MeHXTbCR C y.leTOM Q o p ~ a KOAOHKH.
~a n p a ~ ~3 aT 0, BOBAeVeT
BaC B T Y M a H H p O ~ A ~ A
C PTO ~~ H ~ I3X~ a s e H E i G KOTOpbIe
, B A H ) ~ O MC A y s a e C A e A y e T O K p y r -
AXTb. Y ~ a 3 a H H b 1 f iBbIIlIe ~ ~ I ' E ~ & o s H ~ 3I A
G e M e H T HYMepOAOrHH (1,2 pa3a) 6 e p e m ~ oC o x p a -
HReTCX B YCTaHOBKaX IIO YMOAWiHHIO ~ O A ~ U I H H C TTeKCTOBbIX
B~ PeAaKTOPOB H I I P O r P a M M
BepcmH, a HMeHHo B Q~HKUHH,
KOTOPW H ~ ~ ~ I B ~a0m(~~amu~lec1~uUY
~ T C X unmepmnwwc
(auto leading).
T ~ HM
e MeHee, aBTOMaTElseCKOr0 H H T e p A H H b R X a C A e A y e T u 3 6 e r a ~ b nOCKOAbKY
, OH
c n o c o 6 e ~BBeCTH B ~ ~ ~ A Y X AXOTR
~ H 6
Mb 1~IIOTOMY, VTO HeBO3MOXHO Y3HaTb, K ~ K O GHH-
T e P A H H b R X HCIlOAb3YeTCX H a CaMOM & e A e . Y KWAR 10 BCe IIpeKpaCHO: H H T e p h u H b X X
p a B e H ~ O B H O12 q n ~ ~ a iVvK. e r m 11 OH CTaHoBHTcx ~ ~ B H ~13,2
I Mr r y m T a , a y K e r m 12 -
14,4 IIyHKTa. P a 6 o ~ aC n p H p a r t J e H H R M H A a X e B nOArIJ'HKTa AOBOAbHO YTOMHTeAbHa, HO
IIOYTPi B C e r A a A a e T A O C T a T O S H ~
TOVHOCTb, IIO3TOMY H e CTOHT YVHTbIBaTb AeCRTbIe AOhIl
THKTa. K p o ~ TOrO,
e ewe H T e M , S T 0 eTO HeAO-
~ B T O M ~ T H Y ~ CHKHHT e~P~A H H b R X K O B a p e H
c T a m u A e m o H e 3 a ~ e m H~a be K p a H e , OHH n p o H H K H y r B pa60~y,H T O A ~ K Onocne nesam
OIIIH~KH YCTaHOBOK CTaHYT COBepIlIeHHO OVeBHAHbIMM.
no BTHM lTpK%iHaM CAeAyeT OTKa3aTbCR B n p O f p a M M a X BePCTKH OT aBTOMaTEISeCKOT0
HmepnuHbxma. B6 m o r p a Q ~ s e c m nea p m e T p b 1 , KOTO-
0 n b m ~ c m ne p o r p a M M n m 6 b 1 e
no ~ M O A S ~ H H H )
p b I e B ~ oIn p e A e m e T e AO o m p b m A~o K y M e m a , c T a H o s x r c x n a p a M e T p a M H
A M BCeX HOBbIX AOKYMeHTOB. C A ~ ~ ~ O B ~ KOTr A~a A
BbI~3XIYCTUAH
H O , IIpOrpaMMy, C 0 3 A W
HOB~ G
AOKyMeHT H H a V a A H ~ a 6 o TeKCTa,
p K T e K T IIpHMeHRlOTCR HBCTPO~KMII0 YMOAVa-
HUH). a0 O T K P b m X AOKyMeHTa MOXHO YCTaHOBIlTb r a p H T p Y , K e r A b , H H T e p A H H b R X H
Maccy ~ p y rm ~ ox r p a Q u ~ e c ~ xn axp a M e T p o B . K p o ~ Teo r o , npyme n o n e s a b ~ eJrcTaHoBKM
M O T 6 b 1 n C&eAaHbI B AHaAOrOBbIX OKHaX IIyHKTa MeHIo Preferences (YCT~HOBKHI I 0
yMoA%WtiH)) A 0 TOrO, K a K OTKPblT K ~ K O ~ ~ - AAOKyMeHT.
H~O
B ~ TMa K x e c n e A y e T AO~EITLCR,S T O ~ L I HM OAMII CTMAL B same% n p o r p a M M e He xtc-
A BeAL B CTMAe, ITPMHXTOM IIO YMOhZIaHMK)
I I O A b 3 0 B U ~ B T O M ~ T I I Y ~ C K UM%H T e P N I H L R X .
B ~ O A ~ L U M H C TI IBp~O r p a M M , IIpMMeHReTCR K a K pa3 ~ B T o M ~ T M Z I ~ C KMHT€!PAMHLRX,
M~ no-
3TOMY H ~ p O M 3 B O A H L I eCTMAH yHaCAeAyIOT AaHHOe CBOGCTBO. C 3TEIM H ~ O ~ X O A M M60- O
P O T ~ C R .0 p a 6 0 ~ eco C T M ~ M Hn o ~ p 0 6 ~nOBecTByeTcR
0 D 2.t. 17.

T e x c m o a ~ Pe W K U (text frames) RBAXIOTCX M 3 0 6 p e T e ~ M eHaCTOALHLIX


~ M3AaTehLCKMX
~ M H X~
CMCTeM, OHEI C A y X a T < < K o H T ~ ~ H ~ ~TeKCTa. I Txa K X e MOXHO CZIIITaTL HaPYZIHMKaMM
AAR ~ a 6 o p u (typesetter),
~~a K a K 3TO AOKa3LIBaeTCR D ZA. 72. HO OHIl Xe 06nersam~
X M 3 H b BepCTi3AbIIXMKY (page layout artist), IIOCKOAbKJ' MOXHO QCBR3aTb* CepII[K) TeKCTO-
BLIX P a M O K AMXIa3OHa CTPaHMU, a 3 a T e M <<3aAHTLsMX TeKCTOM, OIIpeAeARR nOTOK TeK-
CTa OT OAHOG A ~ ~ T OnoG BCeMy A O K y M e H T y K COXaAeHMIO, TeKCT, K O T O P ~ I ~
PaMKEI K
IIPOCTO "BLIAHBaH)T", 'IBCTO B e A e T ce6x H e T a K , KaK OXMAaAOCL.
C TOYKM spe~nrra m e p n m b a x a nepnas c T p o K a B p a M K e B c e r A a co3,qae~n p o 6 ~ e ~ ~ 1 .
C p e a H M3AaTeAbCKHX n p O I ' p a M M M I I p O r p a M M BePCTKH H e T COrAaCIIZ B TOM, K a K Y4ETTLI-
BaTb (a y m m I s a m AM) m r r e p n m i b s m n e p ~ o iCTPOKM
i npn onpeAeneHmi ee n o A o x e H m
OTHOCElTeALHO B ~ P X H
I'paHHIJbI
~ ~ PaMKM.
I?3 T P e X OCHOBHbIX n P O I ' P a M M BePCTKH OAHa OIIJ'CKaeT C a M y I o BepXHIOK) CTPOKY,
IIOCKOAbKy HHTePAEIHbRX AAX H e e YBehIlZIeH, a ABe ApyI'IIe - HeT. k I 3 AByX nOCAeAHMX
OAHa n p 0 r p a M M a BbIpaBHMBaeT IIepByK) CTPOKY T Z , ZIT0 BePllIIlHLI KeI'eALHLIX IIAOIUa-
AOK COBnaAaloT C B ~ ~ X rpZSIMIJeG
H ~ E PaMKM, a A P Y r a R OIIyCKaeT BepILlHHLI IceI'eAbHbIX
nAOWaAOK H a + M K C M P O B ~ H H O ~XOTR
, EI IIPOM3BOALHO B L I ~ P ~ H HPaCCTOXHMe
O~ OT B e p X -
H ~ rGp a H M s L 1 p a M K H ( ~ M c . 9.6).
M o ~ y ~ b ~cema a r r CTpaHUUbI O ~ ~ I S HpOa 3 ~ e s a e ~ cAIiHxaMEi
rl m p ~ + ~(baseline),
a no
KOTOpbIM BbIPaBHMBaIQTCR CTPOKM TeKCTa, Pi, BOBMOXHO, nF?,pBaX CTpOKa PaMKM A O A X H a
BbIpaBHHBaTbCR IIO oco6oG MHLIU. HOIIOCKOALKY B p a M K e IIOAOXeHUe I I e p ~ o dAMHMM
III~M+T~
H e +EIKCIIPY~TCR, 3TO 3aTpyAH"eT TOZIHYK) KOMIIOHOBKY OCTaAbHOI'O TeKCTa.
K p o ~ TOrO,
e OVeHb B m H O BbIPaBHHBaTb TeKCTOBbIe paMKM H e no CBOMM I'paHMUaM, a I I 0
AHHEIRM IIIpM+Ta, KOTOPbIe OHM BKAIOYaIOT. no ~ p a G ~ eMf ei p e , BLI AOAXHLI RCHO IIpeA-
CTaBAXTb O C O ~ ~ H H O C TIIOBeAeHMR
H IIpOI'paMMLI B A ~ H H O GCHTyaIJHM.
K cracmm, B n o c A e A H e e B p e M R n p 0 r p a M m . I H a P a h H n p e A n a r a T b + ~ H K U I I H ~BbIpaB-
HEIBaHHR TeKCTa no AMHHRM I I I P E I ~ T ~a, H e TOAbKO I I 0 r P a H M U a M TeKCTOBLIX PaMOK.
PHC. 9.6. ~ T ~UY K B M
~ In p e A -
CTaBAeHbI T a K , K a K OHH 0~06pa-
X a K T C X H a 3 K p W e OTHOCHTeAb-
HO B e p x H e r o A e B o r o yrha TeK-
C T O B O ~ ~P a M K H B Pa3HbIX
nporpaMMax. EI XOTX IIIPH+T
~ a 6 p Ca OAHHaKOBbIM
~ HHTep-
AUHbXXeM, nOAOXeHUe ~ a u 6 0 -
nee 3 ~ a ~ u ~nep~oii
o i i C~IOKH
OCTaeTCX H e O n p e A e A e H H b I M H
HeIIpeACKa3yeMbIM. E o A TOrO,
~~
B n p O V a M M a X , KOTOPbIe H e OTO-
6pamam U H T e p A H H b X X AHHUH
rupu+~anepeoii C ~ I O K H , nono-
m e H u e c a ~ o i AUHUH
i rupa+~a
6 y ~ p ea 3 H~b I M Y pa3Hb1X IIXpH+
TOB. %O IIPOUCXOAHT IlOTOMy, O q e ~ pbe n K O AOKyMeHTbI 06xo~mc11
OT H a Y U a A 0 KOH-
ZIT0 B P a 3 H b I X I I I P H + T ~ x n O A 0 -
U a eAUHCTBeHHbIM ILIPH+TOM, 3 8 UCKAIOYeHUeM, M O X W
x e H u e AHHHH rupu+~aB npe-
6 b m , TOAbKO AAUHHbIX POMaHOB. 0 6 b 1 9 ~ 0me 3ZWOAOB-
A e A a X K W ~ A ~ H OIIAOII&aAKH
G He
coBnaaaeT KU EMIl I I e P e P b I B b I A P Y O r O B W a p a 3 6 U ~ a IIOTOK
~ 3 ~ TeK-
cTa Ha pas~esr. e c m ~ a ~ os ia ir o n o ~ oW~e e T
TOT me K e r A b , YTO U O C H O B H O ~TeKCT (XOTII O ~ ~ I Y HOH O
HeCKOAbKO ~ p y I I H e e ) ,IIOYTU B c e r A a ~pe6ye~c11 OT~HB-
~ a "(extra leadi2)HaA HHM. B ~ T O Mcnyqae y sac e m b
~ b 1 6 0 p OIIpeAeAkiTb ee B 3aBUCUMOCTU OT UHTepAIlHbR-
ma, IIpHCBOeHHOrO 3arOAOBKy, UAR KaK a ~ p ~ a63a- 6 y ~
ua A a H H o r o 3aronoa~a.
B n o m e m e M m y a e cnenyer ~ c n o n b s o s a ~napa- b
~ e ombuaxa ~ p do a63aya (space before), A O ~ ~ B U ero B
K y e CyIIleCTByIOUeMy EZHTePAEIHbRXY 3arOAOBKa, .&Uf
T O ~ O ,m 0 6 b 1 y s e m m M ~ X C T ~ Onpo6en YH~G ~ a , HW.
q
TOT n a p a M e T p B samef n p o r p a M M e M o m e T H ~ ~ ~ I B ~ T L
CII maye, HO C M ~ I I X TOT me.) K p o ~ T eo r o , e c m sarono-
BOK K p y n n e e , S e M T ~ K C B cneaym T a K m e y s e n m m b
~ ,~ M
m e p x i m . x m nome H e r o , m 0 6 b 1 0 6 e c n e ~ mP(OAXH~&
npo6en a0 OCHOBHOrO TeKCTa. &II = O r 0 y a6aaqa C w e -
c m y e T n a p a M e T p ombusxa noue a63aya (space after).
-
for one hundred words of such copy may bring for (~"c~ u ~ x h "words
i C ~ IIXI)' h n g
tjf S ~ I it)[')'
up pictures and start thoughts that could not U p pictures anti stdrt thoughts thdt c(?uld not
be described fully with one thousand words. be Jcscnbed fully w ~ t hc)nc rhourancl lvords.

Truthfulness Truthfulness
Aside from the moral aspect of the ques- As~de&om thc nloral dspccr of tilo yucs-
tion, advertising should be truthful merely t ~ o n atlvertlstng
, b h o ~ l j ( f hc tr~ltllfulmcrcIy
because truthfulness pays. When a firm gets hccauw t r ~ t I ~ f ~ 1 1pdys.
1 c ~ slK11len a hrln gets

8 ~ CUTyasr?m
y ElhnIoCTpEiPYeT PMC. 9.7. y TeKCTa, PHC. 9.7. K ~ 3UaH
K HIITepAH-

~ a 6 p m o r no o cxeMe 12/14, sarono~oxmeeT Ker& 14 HbZX 3aTOAOBKa, MOXCHO 0 6 ~ a -


PYXUTb TOAbKO B BKPPHHOM
Ei EIHTePAXHbRX 24 IIyHKTa, Ha Yry BeAkiVFiHY OIIyUreHa
npencTasneHuu TeKcTa (npa~ax
ero x m w rupu+ra O T H O C ~ - ~ S H O AEIHMHmpEi+~anpe- K O A O H K ~ ) . B AaHHOM C A y Y a e
~ b ~ y r r r eCTPOKII.
ii Pi ~ A pR a 3 ~ e u e ~s ma r o ~ o He ~~a BbIAeAeHHe 3arOAOBKa nOKa3bI-
EiMeeT a ~ a ~ e u~c m n o,~ ~ , s y e ~mi
c xcxeMa l4f24 m u BaeT, YTO O T ~ U B K BnpHcBOeHa
14/14 r? < ~ o T ~ ~ B n oKa oe ~a63aqa~,
~ p a ~ ~ o10f i VK- HenocpennseaHo eMy, a IIe a6-
TaM, eCAH OH HBXOAHTCR B C P ~ A HYa~CTEM CTPBHHUbI. 3WaM, KOTOPbIe er0 OKPYXPIOT.

Ho cosceM npyroe ne.10, echu B rrporpme e m +p- O ~ H ~IIOKPUCYHKY


O HeAb3R CY-
A m , 3 U W a AH O T ~ X B K BH U 3a-
KIJ,HX 6epmun(~8nozo el~@aenuean2~1 (verticaljustification),
rOAOBKOM YBeAUYeHHbIM 3HaYe-
KOI'OpiUl Ei3MeHXeT M H R p ~m,6 b 1 EiCIIpaBHTb H e HMeM HHTePAHHbZXa HAH UC-
KoTopbIe n0Temoc-m BePam, Hanpmep pa3~eweme no~bsoaahcrr
napaMeTp ombua~a
s a r o n o ~H ~aanoaemeii crpoKe c r p a . ~ ~ ~ ~ . do a63aya. M o m ~ onpennono-
O~MWIO Taxvie npOrpaMMb1 O C H O B ~ I B ~ CHa R no- =UTE., YTO O T ~ U B K Bnocne sai-o-
nocax AononHmesHoro EuITepmbxma, ~ a s b l s a e m ~ x noma 6b1na 3 a n a ~ anapaMeT-

nuocazeu om6uo~u(vertical space bands), xoTopbIe AM POM ombua~anoue a63aya


Ei3MeHeHHX AAHHbI TeKCTa M O T PaCTRmBaTbCR UAH
cyxaTbcx. T a ~ m nonoca npo6enbsoro npocrpaHcTBa
Bceraa c o z i ~ a e ~ ecnr?
c ~ , a6aasy npucBoeH a ~ p n 6 y ~
ombuena do a63aya. (Eonee n o ~ p o 6 ~ m p+ o p ~ a u n m
0 Bep.rrutahbHOMBbIPaBHEIBtLHHH C A . 8 ZA. 70.)
C y ~ bAena COCTOHT B TOM,YTO cnoc06, KOTOPLG
B ~ ~I b l 6 e p e ~ e ycrmoBKa mepnuHbRma B n a ~ ~ o f i
cmyaqr?u, 0npeneme-r n p a T e r m u He BmxeT Ha OTO-
6 p a x e ~ n TeKCTa.
e
I82 Yucmb IZ. K u x eepcmuma mexcm

JAR T o r 0 ' 1 ~ 0 6 b 1 0 6 e c n e ~ u ~IIOAXOARLLlee


b PaCCTORHHe A 0 T e K C T a , 3arOAOBKY
H a pMC. 9.7 ~ p e 6 y e ~ Hc eaK O T O p m O T ~ E I B K BCHM3Y (B AaHHOM CAy.lae 4 VKTB). 06b19~0
PaCCTOXHMe M e X A y TeKCTOM H 3arOAOBKOM OnpeAeAXeTCR 3 H a Y e H A e M MHTepAMHbRXa,
IlpHCBOeHHbIM OCHOBHOMY TeKCTY, IIOTOMy T O H H T e p A H H b X X IIO OIIpeAeAeHHIO - PaC-
CTORHHe M e m a y ~ M ~ P i e IfLi I ~ M + T ~0 ~ ~ 0CTPOKM
f i H ~ M ~ l l eL
fUi P E I + TCTPOKM,
~ PaCnOAO-
X ~ H H OBbILUe.
~ ~
T ~ CHOBa
T MOXHO 0 6 p a m c x K A B p p a 3 H b I M C ~ O C O ~ ~AAX M : TOTO, ~ 0 6 b YBeAMWiTb
1
n p o 6 e ~n o A ~ ~ ~ O A O B K OHMC ,I I O A ~ ~ O B ~ T Jn,a p a M e T p ombusxa noc,te ab3aya, MAX ~ ~ H ~ ~ B M T
a ~ a ~ n aep a~M e~T p ae ombusxa do ab3aya K a6sauy, ~ o ~ o p b rUi ei A y e T 3a ~ ~ ~ O A O B K O M .
M TOT H ~pJT0ficnoc06 C03AaA)TT O A I I H ~ K O B ~BI ~ M~ ~ Y ~ HKT ~ I ~ H ~a I l e Y a T H ~ f i
crpamiue. Ho 6onee p a 3 p ~ Ho C ~ O M ~ O B n~a Tp a~M e T p ombusxa n o u e ab3aya, n o T o M y w o
BCe yHHKaAbHbIe AAX A ~ H H o
CUTyaUUM
~ ~ IXapaMfTpbI RBAXIOTCX YaCTbH) C?UnR 3arOAOBKa.
UH+OPMWIOo c T p a T e m H E I C ~ O A ~ ~ O B ~nHaUp Ra M e q o B a63aua B ~ A X u.
X t7 u. 17.

~ I H T ~ P A H HH~ ORTX~ H B K E I
C ~ ~ C TMCKyUIeHMe
B ~ ~ TYCTaHZiBAHBaTb OT~IIBKII (space bands) M e m a y a 6 3 a q a ~noc- ~,
A e 3arOAOBKOB, BOKpYr HliX H T. A. , ~ B O ~ ~ HH~a IXM <Return> (<Enter>).
a T H e M KAaBMLUN
TO HcKAK)'Ime&Ho noposaax n p a K T x K a . k a s x m a <Return>A O ~ ~ B A Xnpo6en
~ T B pa3-
M e p CTPOKM, a BOBCe H e IIpOM3BOAbH)'IO O T ~ H B K ~H; XOTR TO M A P Y r O e M O X e T H a H e s a T I l
BbIrARAeTb OAMHaKOBO, B IIpOUeCCe BepCTKPi ITyCTaR CTpOKa Pi O T ~ U B K&~e f i c T B y H ) ~no-
pa3HOMY.
~ Y C T ~CTpOKa,
X CO3AaHHaX H a X a T I l e M KAaBHILIM <Return>, RBAReTCR ~OCTORHHO~~
M H ~ I I ~ M ~ H9aCTbH)
H O ~ ~ AOKyMeHTa. Ha CaMOM A e A e 3 T 0 O ~ ~ I Y H CTpOKa,
M 3ZUIOAHeHHaX
n p o 6 e ~ a A~ O~T.~ I I B K BOnpe,4eAReTCX I I p o r p a ~ ~ o Kf ai K 3 A e M e H T C N3MeHXeMbIM P a C -
CTORHHeM hleXCAy AByMR OTAeAbHbIMH CTpOKaMH TeKCTa, K O r A a OHM HaXOAXTCR BHYTPM
KOAOHKH. ECAH 3TM CTPOKM H e CAeAyll3T O a H a 3a ,l(p)Tofi, H a I I p M M e p , K O r A a 3arOAOBOK
OKa3bIBaeTCR H a CaMOM B e p X y CTpaHEiubI, TO O T ~ E I B KB~ 3TOM C A p a e HrHOPMPYeTCR.
A IIyCTaR CTpOKa HeT.
Ha pMC. 9.8 o ~ o 6 p m e c~u a- r y a U a s , B ~ o ~ o p oOf Ti ~ H B KH ~a A 3arOAOBKOM co3aa~a
C IIOMOILlbm KAaBHIlIM <Return>. B C e p e A A H e KOAOHKH O H a BbITAXAHT T a K Xe, K a K eCAH
a paa M e T p o M ombuaxa do ab3aya. K o r ~ me
6b1 o H a 6 b 1 ~ as a ~ a n~ a TeKcT n e p e B e p c T a n TaK,
YTO 3arOAOBOK OYYTMACX B B e p X y KOAOHKH, I I P O r p a M M a YAaAXeT O T ~ H B K Y ,60~b111e HeT
C M b I W a ee UCIIOAb3OBaTb, HO O ~ R ~ ~ T ~COXpaHXeT A ~ H O IIyC.r)w CTPOKY. A 3 T 0 yXe 0 1 ~ 1 4 6 -
K a BepCTKM, M ~ A E I H C T B ~ H H C I~I O
I~ ~ ~MCnpitSHTb ee - B P p H y l l 3 YnaAPiTb r1yCTyIO CTPOKY.
CO
moisture that it could in itself when
it was hotter, and that moisture is Bumps in the Night
apt to affect the state of whatever Perhaps we cannot be quite certain
object it is deposited on. that furniture cracks so much more
at night than in the daytime. For
Bumps in the Night one thing, there are another noises
Perhaps we cannot be quite certain that go on in the daytime that we
that furniture cracks so much more are more likely to be attending to.
at night than in the daytime. For Still, it is no doubt that furniture
one thing, there are another noises does make strange noiscs at night,
that go on in the daytime that we and that it is not difficult to under-
are more likely to be attending to. stand is we remember that the air

XOTX,B CBOIO O Y e p e A b , 3 T 0 M O X e T C 0 3 A a T b A P F ) ? O PnC. 9.8. & ~ U B K H~ W 3arOAOB-

n p o 6 ~ e ~ ecnn
y : npousoii~mc M e m e H H e n o T o K a TeK- KOM cosnaaa c n o M o I q b I o He-
CKOAbKMX H ~ x ~ T M GKAaBHlllM
CTa H nOA3arOAOBOK CHOBa IIOIIiyIeT B C e p e A U H y KOAOH-
<Return>. OH^ BblTARnMT XOPO-
KU, TO ~ p e 6 y e ~ oOiTi~ M B K UT e n e p b H e nonyqmcrr. ruo B cepenuae KOAOHKU ( ~ e ~ a x
C n e w a m s ~ p o s a m b ~ ea 6 o p ~ b 1c He c r e M b I o6b1.r- K O A O H K ~ )M n A O X O B H a Y a A e
HO PaCIIOAaK'awT KOM~HAOG,K O T O p U nO3BOASieT n o 6 a ~ - ( n p a ~ Z U 3K O A O H K ~ ) ,T a K K a K n p 0 -
AXTb OT~EIBKU~10601-0 p a 3 ~ e p aH B npOH3BOAbHOM MeC- r p a M M a BOCnpMHUMaeT ee He

T e T e K C T a . T a ~ u eO T ~ H B K U NMeIOT H e 3 a B H C N M O e K a K UCrMIIHYIo O T ~ H B K Y , a K a K

Cyr4eCI'BOBaHUe, OHU H e llPHBII3XibI K KaKOMY 6b1TO HH


CTPOKY T e K C T a . B pe3yAbTaTe
npasm K o n o H K a p a c n o n a r a e T c r r
6b1~oa63auy. l l p o r p m ~ onpenmm a ee K ~ Knpo6es- H a onay CTPOKY H n x e n e ~ o f .
H ~ I3neMeHT,
S U KOrAa OH H e T ~ ~ ~ Y ~ TKCa K X B, OIIHCaH- I I o n o 6 ~ mC H T y W U X BOBHIIKHeT,
HOM npmepe, o H a ero npoc-ro H m o p H p y e T . K comane- eCAU I I y C T m C T p O K a O K a X e T C X
H U ~ 31-a
, + ~ H K U I L I ~ewe A o n m H a n p o 6 m CBOIO ~ o p o r y B KOIIUe KOAOHKM L I B CTPaHMllbI

B n o n y M p H b I e H a c r o s H b I e 113,qa~esc~ue cxcreMb1.

B CneUUW3HpOBaHHbIX ~ a 6 0 p ~ b 1CUCTeMaX
x HHTep-
AUHbXXC 6bIA, eCAki HCIIOAb30BaTb C O B P ~ M ~ H H
X a~pIr~O~H
U ~ A ~ T ~ A ~n pCo rEp a~MXM , amjmbjmau c w o u a (character
attribute).%-o ~ H ~ Y U m T, ~ax,qb~C f i ~ O BAc r p o K e M o r
m e n C B O ~c 0 6 r n e ~ ~ b r umepnrmbm.
ji Ijosmi~c-mo
n p o r p a M M n e p m , cnenyx n o m e TeKcrosbuc. p e n m e
POB, COW umephMHbm a~pu6yro ~
a63aqa, nonarm,
TO echu 1 1 3 ~ e m cu x m e p m m XOTSI 6b1 y O A H O ~ O3 ~ a -
Ka, TO n o m c e H E I ~ M ~ H mepnrmbm
~ U I B c e r o a63wa.
H ~ K O TIIpOfpaMMbI
O ~ ~ I ~ O ~ % I ~ B A X H )EIHTepAEIHbRX
T
CUMBOAB, HO H a CaMOM A e A e H e
~TPU~YTOM 06ecnesu-
B W T ~ O A X H O0~6 p a 6 0 ~ ~
3TuO r 0 n a p a M e T p a . B TaKEIX
PEC. 9.9. K o ~ a ~ nc nan U r a n p O r p a M M a X EI3MeHeHMe ElHTepAHHbXXa y OTAeAbHOrO
AUHUU LUPII+TB HCIIOAb3YeTCX 3 H a K a B CTpOKe MeHHeT U H T e p A U H b R X s e A 0 f i CTPOKEI.
n e p e M e q e a n x yMeHbrueH- C ~ e n o s a ~ e a~~ao~, on ai pia M e T p 6ecnone3e~.
HOrO 3 H a K a A O M a p a U 3 CBOerO
A TO, T O B HeKOTOPbIX HaCTOAbHbIX I13AaTeAbCKUX
0 6 b I S ~ 0 r 0 II0AO)KeHHR H a AU-
c u c r e M a x ~ a a b ~ s a e ~cdsuzm
csi AUNUU upu$mai3 (baseline
HUU mpn+~aB no3uuum, B ~ I -
POBHeHHYIO no B e p l u M H e COCeA- shift), 3aMeHElAO UHTepAUHbXX n M 3HaKa. COCTO-
Hero c H n M =iucAa UT B TOM, T O BMeCTO EIHTepAUHbXXa ,4WHOrO CMMBOAa
(UAU COBOKYIIHOCTU CEIMBOAOB) BBepX EIAU BHM3 C M e U a -
eTCX AUHUX rupaQ~aCUMBOAa (UAU B C ~ GC O B O K ~ O C W )
(pEIc. 9.9).
Roche onpenehem cnama ~UHI~E~ ~ E I + B ~ MO-
I
xme M e m u m e p m m x m BO BceM pa3nae, w m
COXPX-ETGI HerIpUKOCHOBeHHbIM, rfle 6b1Hki HaXOAHACII, no-
T O M ~w o OH OTHOCUTCX K mmm r.upu+rra 3 ~ a ~ aaH,e crpe
mi. ,D,pymm c n o B a m , OH H e B~BEICHT m m p m m m a .
C n ~ mhIIHEM UIPEI@a V C T B H T e h e H K EI3MeHeHUH)
K e r m qacp?.a, T ~ K K ~ XOH o n p e n e h R e T a ~GCONOTHO~~

PEC. 9.10. ~ O C K O A ~ KCABUr


Y
(PEIC.
B€AWD~HO~ 9.10). k U i MeKIIeTUI KerAb, TO
m
B(L,C AH-
AUHUH L U P X + T ~ galye onpene- HIM r.upu+ra y x e M o m m H e c o m m m o s a n eMy. Ile
AXeTCR B ~ ~ C O A I O T H ~ a
I XH, e OT- CKOAbKY C P m AliHPiH IllpEI+ 0 6 b m 0 MCnOAb3yeTUI &w
HOCUTeAbHbIX BeAHSKHaX, TO OH nepeMemem 3 ~ a H~a HOB^
a no- ~ ~ ~ o c m npy-
wao
YYBCTBATeAeH K H3MeHeHHIO
mx Z ~ ~ K O 6Bb, n 0 6b1none3~0,e m 6 b 1 w m M O ~ 6bn0
O
KerAX. B ~ I ~ ~ B H U Bn A
~ RHKUe r~-
onpe~emim.CIIOCO~OM, H ~ ~ ~ B E I C E ~ M erm, - T~K,
m~ KI M
AX 48 ( ~ e p x ~ xcrpoaa)
x Tepn-
eTcX, K o r n a K e r n b yMeHbuxaeT- w o 6 b 1 , H a n p H M e p , COXpXiliAOCb B b I P a B H E I B M e XI0 BepX-
cx no 36 (HUXHRX crpoea) HeMy ~POBHH),name echu a 3 ~ e ~ m sc ~x a s e ~ Kx eer m .
C A B hElHUH
I ~ ~ XlIpFi@a, K m M 6b1 HeCOBePLUeHHbIM OH Hli 6 b m , IIO-IlpeXHeM)' RBNIeTCR
IIOAe3HbIM EIHCTpj'MeHTOM A M TOYHOfO BePTEIKaAbHOTO BbIPaBHEIBWIHR CHMBOAOB. Hanpa-
xep, ero MOXHO n p m e H m AM ~ a 6 o p a~ p o 6 e fanti M a T e M a m Y e c K u x +OPMYA. &ome
c n o c o 6 b 1 BbIpaBHPiBaHHX, OIJMCaHHbIe B 2A 72, OCHOBaHbI H a CABllre JZIlHEIIl X l I p I i 4 ~ a .

U~M@ T
B BbIBOpOTKe (reverse), TO eCTb n e Y a T b 6 e n b 1 no
~ YePHOMY, CAeAyeT ~ a 6 P i p a ~ b
C ~OSUIEIMII n p o 6 e n a ~ a M e X A y 6 y ~ ~U aCAOBaMH,
~ a o ~ae ne o ~ p o 6 -
Y e M O ~ ~ I Y H( O~ e 6 ~
HO 0 6 c y x & a e ~ c6 ~ZJ.5).JAR 6 a n a ~ c a o6wero N u s e T a , rupa+~anpa ~ a ~ op ai 3i p e m e ~ -
HOG T e K C T y p e n o ~ p e 6 y e ~ c
PixH3MeHeHEie HHTepAMHbRXa.
H ~ Y H ~C TOrO,
M YTO B ~ I B O P O T H ~TeKCT
I~ BCerAa YEiTaTb TPYAHee, n03TOMY HeB03MOX-
HO 3 a p a H e e CKa3aTb, KOrAa OH CTaHeT BOCnpHHliMaTbCR fiOCTOBePH0. ,@3 TOfO Y T O ~ 3~ TI 0
YXCHEITb, CAeAyeT CAeAaTb BbIBOPOTKY BLIBOPOTKM (EI IIOCMOTPeTb, K a K 3 T 0 6 y ~ BLIrNI-
e ~
33%B H O p M U b H O M npe.LJcTaBAeHaa - YepHbIM H a ~ ~ A o M I)I .p o 6 e ~ b 1M e m a y CAOBaMElH
~ ~ K B ~MOIYT
M M Ka3aTbCX CAULUKOM IlIkipOKMMII, 3TOM)' AOAXeH COOTBeTCTBOBaTb W HHTep-
Xlepemm~axmo6paxe~ae~
.\MH~IIHC. ~ a , H ~ % XBOAOT~IOcepenmy. K ~ MK
y ~ a - c mMOXHO
srHoroe Apyroe B m o r p a + m e , W e a n b H o e c o o m o r u e H a e H ~ B O ~ M O X H OH&TH H a s K p a H e ,
r o s K o 11p06~a5-1 nevam npa BJJCOKOM pa3pemewa n o K a m e T , K o r A a B ~ yI r a ~ a n ~ .

0 6 ~ BeCb ~ 0 B OTfieAbHOM ~ A O KH M~e e T OAMH Ii TOT Xe HHTepAMHbXX. B aKUH-


~ TeKCT
AeHTHOM ~ a 6 o p e(display type) 3 T 0 H e BCerAa TaK. PHC.9.11 EtlJdOCTpIIpYeT AaHHOe YTBep-
XAeHue. ~ O C K O A ~ KmY a 6enoro 3HaYliTeAbHO 6 o ~ b m npa e EICIIOAb30BaHMII KpyIlHbIX
KerAefi, PaCCTOXHEle M e X A y CTPOKaMa aKUEiAeHTHOr0 L U ~ M M
~ OTX e~T Ka3aTbCR HepaBHO-
MePHbIM. CTp0~a6e3 HUXHEIX BbIHOCHbIX 3AeMeHTOB, KaK H a PEICYHKe, C03,LlaeT BIIeYaTAe-
HMe ~ a 6 p a 1 i ~ oC fO T ~ I I B K O ~ CTPOKM
~. 6 e 3 IIpOnMCHbIX 6yK~M 6e3 B e p X H W BLIHOCHbIX
3AeMeHTOB I I p O U 3 B O A ~TOT me B++~KT.
CTOAKH~BIIMC~ c no~o6aoGcmyamef, C T a p a ~ e A b ~ b~I fa 6 o p w Ha a~w H a e T <<HrpaTb*
o ~ ycnoaaa, TO ~ o n y h b ~ a 5 - 1cema n o 3 ~ o n r r ae K~ U E i n e m o M y m p a + ~ y~ O K I I -
c ~ a 6 o p (npa
J a nm a p mmmo qac$-m). 3 q m e c m K p m e p a e M 3 ~ e c ab y m , a o m e H a e
TaKOlW EIHTepAMHbBXa, KOTO~LG K a 3 U C R 6b1 PaBHOMepHbIM He3aBEICHMO OT er0 WCAOBOrO
Nobody gets golf like s ~ a ~ e n~ om~ . o 6 ~~aac T p o i i ~MaO X ~ T n o ~ p e 6 o ~ a ~
MHOrO BpeMeHH, HOTOM)' T O eCAM HeAOCTaTOK OYeBM-
Garden Gate Links. If AeH, TO ~ 0 6 b ero
1 Hcnpasm, n o ~ p e 6 y m ~ ~c aH ~ Y H T ~ A
your game goes soul; H b I e YCMAkiR. ~ Y H K TTYAP HAM FIYHKT C D A a 3aYaCTyH)

talk to the GGL pros. npo6ne~bH


x e peIIIMT.

Nobody gets golf like


Garden Gate Links. If
your game goes sour, B A ~ H H O M K o m e K c r e nemel~crnosa~ii( n o n - t e x t ) o s ~ a ~ a e
talk to the GGL pros. ~ a 6 o Hp e CIIAOXLIHO~OT e K c r a (running-text),a ~ a 6 mcmc- ,
KOB, nepewefi u T. n., TO e m K p a m m nopwji HH+OP-
M m , KOTOPbEi n p 0 6 ~ e ~yb~ 1 o 6 o m a e ~ o TmE ,M -
PMC. 9.11. Bce c r p o r t a B B e p x - ykmHaAbHbIe B W H b E i TeKCTaX, H e O C O ~ ~ H HBXKHbI.
O
H e M a 6 3 a u e U M e l o T OAEKHaKO-
B ~ ~ C ~ ~ ~ ~ B KyI ~WaL 3I Xa ~ e KaK
m , H a PHC. 9.12, ~ a 6 o p
He-
BLIC N H T e P A U H b X X , XOTX BM3Y-
M L H O 3 T 0 H e TBK. OTCYTCTBN~
pemo 6bmae~HCKjUOYJiTeAbHO IIAOTHblM. B H e M 0 6 b m 0
BLIHOCHLIX 3 A e M e H T O B M e X A y 6 o ~ e eK O p o l X H e CTpOKLI, COOTBeTCTBeHHO MOHCeT 6 b m
BTOPOC U T p e T b e G CTPOKaMU yMeHbureH M m r r e p m m . K ~ npasmo,
K B T ~ K M Xw F a -
3PUTeALHO YBeAHZiUBaeT U H T e p - SIX ~ c n o ~ b 3 y ~e a~6co ~pa 6 e 3 ILIIIOH* (solid setting).
AHHLRX. B H U X H e M a 6 3 a u e UH-
T e P A U H b R X M e m y 3THMU CTPO-
K a M U YMeHLIlIeH AAR TOTO, W O -
6 ~ 01 6 e c n e ~ i n ~ BbH 3 Y a A L H O e
PaBeHCTBO ~ ~ C C T O R H UM
G e m y B H e C K O A b K O KOAOHOK
BCeMH CTpOKaMH
n p o 6 ~ e p~a aB H 0 ~ e p H 0 f TeKCIYpbI
i H <<IIBeTPDIIIpM+Ta
erne 6 o ~ e yec n o x m e T c x npa ~ a 6 o p Be H e c K o