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YILK 523.164 Kpaye Jk JL. Pagnoactponomua Iep. ¢ anranit- exoro, nox poem Keaeruskosa B. B.. M. Haano «Cop pagnor, 1973, 456 Kuura cay2kat poexeiem 9 sxcnepameHtambiyio n Teope- THuecky!o paqoacrpouomui, Tlocne Kparkoro ucTopaticexoro OuepKa NoxpOSHO WsMaraioTcA OCHOBUBIe MOAOKEHHA AcTpoHO- Milt, BKAUOWaH CBELCHAA 0 CHCTeMax HCINCTEHHA BpeMeH HO KOOpAHHaTax HeGecHEIx OOseKTOB. Jlanee B Tpex raaBax paccka- auBAeTCH 0 3aKoHaX HSTYYeHHA, NorAOMeHHs, nonapHaanaR MH pacnpoctpatenun smextpomarsiriiix aomt. OcoGeHio co- AepKaTeAbHLIMH ABAMOTCA Tocmenyioue raaBEL OG alTeHHax W paddoacrporoMMueckHx mpHeanKax. Coppemenime 2aHHHe © palvousnyyeHwH HeGecHHIX OOBEKTOB coOpanbl B 3aKM0UH- Teapot raape, Karasor paivoncTounMkos mpupenens 8 mpH- aoxennu. _Tpoctota 4 scHOcTh aaqoxeHua MatepHata nosBoasioT HenonbsoBatb KHUrY Kax yueOHoe Nocobue, a MHOrowNCMeHHBIE cBeMeHHA B TeXCTe (B BuZe TAGMNU, PHCYHKOB, cxeM, rpaduKos, opmya, a Taxxe o6umpHol Ou6anorpabun) —B KavecTBe HactonbHoro chpasowinKa. Kunra npemasiavena Za iupoxoro Kpyra cnenuanHcroB, padoraiomux B OOnactH palHoacTpoHoMuH H cMexHBX HanpaB- JeHMAX HAYKH H TCXHHKH, a Take NAA Npenogapatenei 4 ery- mento. Puc. 248, tan. 30, 6x61 582 nas. NPEQHCNOBME K PYCCKOMY H3AHHIO ’ Tipeqiaraemaa BHuMaHMtO YuTaTeIA KHHTa Tbk. Kpayca «Paquoactpo- HoMHs», H3faHHas B CILIA B 1967 r., Momer cayxKHTE XOpOMIHM BBE,eHHEM B SKCIepHMeHTaIbHYy!O HM TeopeTHyecKylo paHoacrponommio. [locate BEI Xoja B CBeT OMHOHMeHHOrO Tpyza Tos u Bpelicysaaa (Usa-80 unocrpan- Hoi aHTepatypst, MockBa, 1958 r.) sto neppaa MepeBoqHaA KHHTa M10 pa- | AHOACTPOHOMHH, HamlvcaHHaA Ha ypoBHe yyeOHoro MOCO6UA H Rare cnpa- BOUHHKA. (PazHoacTpoHOMMs», HECOMHeHHO, OKaKeTCA NOMeSHOM 1A BCEX, HHTepecyloulHXCA TaHHOH TeMaTHKOM WIM CMeXKHBIMH C Helo 061aCTAMH H 2KeaIOUX OSHAKOMHTECH C MpaKTHKOH paquoacTPpOHOMHYeCKHX HaGMO- Tennis. Haywnaa spy2Huva aptopa B O62aCTH aHTeHHBIX CHCTeEM H MeTOLOB PaqHoacTpOHOMHYeCKBX HaGMOZeHHH O6yCMOBHWa BbICOKHH YpOBeHb H3- JOKEHHA COOTBETCTBYIOUX Pasze0B KHHTH. MeHee yaauHol, a TaKWKe B 3HauHTembHOH Mepe H ycTapeslielt oKasaqacb riaBa 8, NOcBAMLeHHAR PaqMOCTOUNNKaM H MeXaHH3MaM MX Ha/yYeHHA. STO He YRMBUTEMbHO, ecaH yuecTb GicTpalii Mporpecc paqwOacTPOHOMHH MH acTpOpHusHKH 3a Mo-* cnequne rogpt. Caeratb ra. 8 coppeMeHHol MpakTHYeCKH ObI0 HeEBOSMOK- HO, ee CHeQoBaso Obi HaNHCaTb 3aHOBO HM CyUecTBeHHO pacumMpuTh. ITo- STOMY IPH peaKTHPOBAHHH KAHIM OTPaHHYH/HCb JIMLb NOACTPOUHLIMH 3aMeyaHHAMH, OfHaKO § 5.6 ra. 8 o MarHHTOrHApOLMHAMHYeCKHX BOHAX, B H370%K€HHH KOTOPOTO UMe/IHCb HETOYHOCTH, MPHUNIOC CYMeCTBeHHO Te- pepaGoratp. Tipuuioch Take NPHBECTH B COOTEETCTBHE C MIpHHATOH y Hac MpakTHKOH YacTb TeKcTa ra. 2, Kacaloulelica pacueTa TOPH3OHTA/bHBIX Koopaunat He6ecHbIxX O6neKToB. B stom pa3jese, 3aHOBO HailHCaHHbIM B. C, JlasapesckuM, uuTaTenb, Kak MpaBHJo, OTCbIaeTcA He K yueOHHKaM M exeroquukam CIA («Amepnxanckne atbemepHybl H MOpCKOM autbMa- Hax», «AMepuKaHcKHe semepyaby), a K AcTpoHOMMuecKomy exkerog- nuxy CCCP. Tipu penakTupopanHn nepeBoya OKasa0Cb TakxKe HEOOXOJHMBIM YTOY- HUTb H OOHOBHTb HeKOTOpbIe u3 NpHBO_UMEIX JK. Kpaycom cnpaBOuHBIx NawHBIX, a MMeHHO: aHHBe 0 THNaX COHEYHOTO pasHonsTyGeHHA (va6.1. 8.2) npuiinoc Nepepa6otaTb B COOTBETCTBHH C COBPeMeHHLIMH Tipel- CTaBIeHHAMH © MeXaHHSMaX TeHepallHH STOTO UaNyYeHHA; CBEAeHHA O pa- Auo- 4 HHpakpacnoH Temnepatype Jlynei 4 nuanet (Tab. 8.3) HW TaHHEIe ATOMHEIX H MO/IEKYAAPHBIX HHHH (rab, 8.6) JonomHeHBI pesyabTatamH HSMepeHHH, BEINOAHEHHEIX 70 1970 r. Kpome Toro, BKMOGeH PAX HOBHX Matepnasos, BHeceHHBIX JDK. Kpaycom Bo BTopoe HaqaHHe stoi KHUFH. Tax, B Texcr ra. 4 qo6aBuien a63ay o KosdebunMeHTe cBA3H C aHTeHHOH, Bra. 8 — a6saiyo HaGmogeHnax anAnit OH n KBasH3Be3qHEIX HCTOUHHKOB H HX MATepnperTannn. 3 B kone kako rmaset OxGnvorpabuA JononHeHa MepewHem mHTepa- ‘typi, cocrasnennbim B. T. Dexoponnim. B Hero BOUH, KAK NpaBHo, HH KHHTH O630pHOrO xXapakTepa, KOTOpHle AAOT NpelcLapaciie a OCTMKCHHAX PalMoacTPOHOMHH 3a MOCAeAHHE rol H MosBONsO! 10- SHaKOMHTECA ¢ HaHOouce 3HaqWHTebHIMH TPYAAMH COBETCKHX CHeinHaniic- ‘os, Kotoppie Jk Kpayc nourH coBceM He ynomuuaer, B nponecce pa6orit nay KHrOA NepesOAMHK H PedAKrop cromKiLy MH b & OTACTbHBIMH TePMHHOAOrHYECKHMH TPYAHOCHAIMH, BBEBANHOIMIE Lox, ‘dO B OTeveCTBeHHOH AMTepatype orcytersyeT PAA TePMHHOD, HcHOAL ye MBIX AaBTOPOM. Cyenaupt MOMBITKH BBECTH HEMOCTAIOILHE TEPMIIhI, XOrst @CTECTBCHHO, STO HE BCera MOET OKAZaTECA YAa4uHbiM, Yro Kae wie ,CCBMIOK Ha JIHTepaTypHble MCTOUHHKH, TO HHOCTpaHHble amu BieKcie nepeBolla JaHbl B pyccKo# PouerH4ecKol TpancKpuMHH, B 645M rpalp 1H Te «Ke cbaMiiuH mpHBeyenbt no auranticku. Jaa yyo6crBa monBa- MHA KHHTa JOMOTHeHAa HMCHHEIM yKasaTeviem, rye HHOCTpaHHbie ami 1HH B PYCCKOM HaMHCaHHH OTCbIMaloT UHTaTeMA K TeKCTY, a Ha anrwulicKom « Gu6anorpabun. Tlepesoguvk pezaKtop mpy3Hatenbunr B. A. Aprempesy, B. A. Pasuny, H. M. Ueiirauuy u1O. B. Xanuuy 3a nonesupie sameuanua, CeiaHHble HMH MIpH MpocMoTpe OTJeMbHBIX riaB nepesoga. Mot 6naro- Japuet Tawxe B,C. Jlasapesckomy, Hanucapiemy pager o pacuete Koop- “MHaT BOT. 2. 22 mapma 1971 2, B. B. )Keaesuakos TIPEAHCJIOBHE PagoacTpoHOMHA gaHMMaeTCA HCCHeqOBaHMeM WMpoKoro Kpyra Mpo6seM, HayHHaA Cc acTpopusHyecKHX ABTeHHI uM KoHYaK paspa6oTKOMt. H KOHCTPyHpoBaHHeM MpHeMHHKOB H aHTeHH.” Paccmorpennio HaHOomee B@KHEIX H3 9THX NpOOseM H MocBaLleHa HacTosilad KHura. Oxa HanHcana HECKOJIKO 3JEMEHTAPHO, YTOObI CYXAKUT BBEHHEM B palHoacTpoHOMHO MB TO 2Ke BPeMA JOCTATOUHO OGcTOATebHO, YTOODI ObITb NONesHO! B Ka- wecTBe yueOHHKa HIM CpaBowHHKa. . CBegeHua 0 TaKHX OCHOBHEIX pa3elax PalHOaCTPOHOMHH Kak SaKOHBI USAYYCHHA, NOMAPH3AMA H PacMpocTpaHeHue BOTH ConepmKaTcs BTA. 3, 4u5. Bra. 6H 7 peub Her 06 anTeHHax H npHemuHkax. [locueguas (H HaH- Gonee AnMHHag) ra. 8 MpexcraBasder co6oi 0630p coBpeMeHHBIX mpezcTaB- wieHnii 0 paqHOHCTOUHHKaX Ha OCHOBe JaHHEIX payHo- H ONTHYeCKHX Ha~ Gmonenuit. . . Bsarimocasb paquoactpoHomMHH ¢ APYTHMH CpesCTBaMH HCC/eTOBa- HH KOCMHYECKOLO NpocTpaHcTBa O6cy2kfaeTcs B rai. 1, B KOTOPOH AaHO TaK- 2Ke KpaTKoe ONMCaHHe MCTOPHH MepBEIX JleT pasBHTAA paxHOacTpOHOMHR. B ra. 2 co6pansi pasmuuHble CBeMeHHA H3 ACTPOHOMHH, KOTOpble MOryT 6bITh MONeSHBIMH JIA TeX, KTO He UMeeT COOTBeTCTBYIOM\eH MOATOTOBKH. TyOauxyempii Matepwan conposomaeTca MHOTOUMCeHHBIMH Ta6sMIaMH, BaokHefiuUx NapaMeTpos, dopmy # OGbextoB. B npuioxKkeHHH npHBeAeHHL HECKOABKO KaTaOTOB PalHOUCTOUHBKOB. 3a HcKmo4ueHHeM rl. 7 KHHra HallHcaHa Ha OCHOBe JeKWHit Mo paqHo- ACTPOHOMHH VM CM@XKHBIM JHCUMIMIHH@M, MPOWHTaHHEIX aBTOpOM B Teve- uve pala Jet B yHuBepcuTere wraTa Oraiio. Bonbiias ¥acTb comep2kallero- ca B KHHTe MaTepHasla NpemHasHaveHa ZA CTyZeHTOB cTapumxX KypPCoB H acnupaxTos nepgoro roga o6yyenna. JA NOHMMaHHA ConepmaHta 2eNa- TEIbHO, YTOObI CTYACHT MMe MpeACTaBeHHe O BEKTOPHOM aHasHse, S1eKT- POMarHHTHON TeopHH H TeOpHH ene. MHoroyvcaeHHble CChLIKH Ha J1MTe- patypy H oOuMpHaa Ou6nHorpapus MpuBerzeHEI c Lembo O6MeTHKTh Latb- eliuiee Hay4eHve paxvoacrpoHomau. B KHHTe HMeeTCA MHOTO NpaKkTHec- KUX IIPHMEPOB H GOubIoe KOMHYECTBO saad pasM4HOH cTeneHH TPyLHO- (TH, K MHOFHM H3 KOTOpbIxX ZaHbI oTBeTEI. Hexoropsie v3 3ayay CAyKaT HJIMOCTpaltnelt MpoGreM, He OCBeMLeHHEIX B TEKCTe. B GonbuiMHctTBe Cly4aeB B KHHFe HCHOJb3OBaHa PalHOHabHAA CHCTe- Ma enuHuy MKC, Ho B pse Mect, re 3TO HaHGoree yAOOHO, npHBOAATCA WM Apyrve cucTempl eqHHHU. OSosHayeHHA HM HX paSMepHOCT iloApOSHO OObACHAIOTCA MOce OCHOBHEIX COOTHOMIeHH Ha INpOTAKeHHH Bcelt KHMTH. Knura cozepxuT yecaTKH Tabu, Gonee 100 sanay, 300 pacyHKos w 500 cciimoK Ha HTepatypy. B npusoxenuu npHBog_atca KaTanoru Gonee 1000 paguouctounHKos. A Xouy BbIPAsHTh GvlarogapHOcTh MOWM KO/WIOPAM MM elyieiiTamM 3a Nomesuple 3aMeranuAa H mpentomenua. OcoGentlo # XATAM Obl Wosnaroja- pub mpoeccopa Oraiickoro yHusepcureta Poepra 1, Koflomunia, wo- ‘Topsiii oKa3am cymectBeHHy!o Nomoutb npn Hamicannit rat. 6. Mose mie TPeqMOKEHUA NO OTACABITDIM raRaM 1 PAgeaM KIEL GLI eesti oF Tpoeccopamn (aky.IbTe row ACTpoHOMIT H panuore xin Orafiekore yu ie vepcurera B. K. Boneskom, |’. B. Kosinniom, XC. Ko, Jk CG. Marnioc o- Hom HT. K. Menonom 11 corpyjumikamit PasnooScepuaropint Orageworo yansepentera I. H. Meitepcom nC. P. O'Jlonmesstom Tadeo Ko vi Menon mpegoctaBuau TaKxe maTepnad ju pa sau, Dororparpini HKOTOPbIX @CTPOHOMUYECKHX OObEKTOB, MOYYCHUbIC Ha Haylyropamerpo- BOM acTpoMerpHeckom pedrextope MopcxKoli uccaegoBatenbcKali oGecp- saropun CIUA (Masrcrapp, wtar ApH30Ha) GbLIH MpesocraBviciinl OK- topom K. A. Crpsuqom. Pororpapun JIe6ega A u Wentaspa A Gein upe- MocTaBsrexti yoKTopom Tomacom A. Merpio30m 43 Kaaudopxiiickoro un- CTHTYTa TeXHOJOrHH. TIpodeccop ®unaausckoro uncTutyta TexHosoruu Mapta E. Tuypu, HanucaBuiait Ti. 7 0 paqMoacrpoHOMHuecKHX IIpHeMHHKaXx, pa6oTa B Te- yenue 1961—1962 rr. B Paguoo6cepparopuu OralicKoro yuuBepcHteta. A orpexaxTupoBan paGory qoxropa TuypH, NpHBexA CHMBOVILI H TepMHHO- SOTMIO B COOTBETCTBHE C OCTAIbHEIM TeKCTOM KHHTH, UW JOOIe OLIHOKH B STO TvaBe J1eKaT Ha Moeli OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. Hekoropnie oumm6«u B TeKcTe, Ta6MHUAX, KaTalorax WAH pucyHKax ABIMOTCH HEHS6@KHbIMH, XOTA IIpHarasocb MHOTO yeu K HX ycTpa- HeHHtO. ToT, KTO HaiifeT OWIMOKH H COOOILUT O HUX JIA HCTpaBJeHHA B M0- cule YIOUHX W3AaHMAX, OKAKET MHe GosbIlyio yeuyry. Txou J. Kpayce TAABA TIEPBAS BBEJEHHE 11. PAQHOACTPOHOMHA H HCCIEQOBAHHE BCEJIEHHOR Tlannpie Ha6mogeHHii ontuueckoit acTpoHOMHH OBI e2MHCTBeHHEIM MCTOWHHKOM sHanHii o Bcenenxoit 3a npegenamu 3emMaM BIIOTS 20 Hallux axel, HcKO¥aH NocreqHHe HecKOAKO gecaTureTuh.(Bonbuioh nporpecc B paSBHTHH TeXHHYeCKAX CpeCTB ACTPOHOMHH, HCTOpHA KoTOpOit HaYHHa- Jacb C MpOCTEIX BUSYaAbHBIX HaOmOLeHUH MHOFO TEICAYeTeTHH Nasal, Obit ciefaH B Havase CeMHagMaTOro CTONETHA Mocse Hs06peTeHHA ONTHYECKOTO TenecKona H MpHMeHeHHA (ororpauyeckHx MeTOXOB B MIponIOM BeKe. 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C TOABeHHeM HCKYCCTBEHHBIX CIYTHHKOB 3emJH, OCHAIeHHEIX cHavana mpocroit, a 3a- TeM Bce Govlee cOxKHON annapaTypoH, a Takxxe KOCMHYeCKHX Kopa6ulelt © YeNOBeKOM Ha GOpTy CTasI0 BOSMOKHLIM MPOBOZUTb acTPoHOMH4eckHe MaGmoyeHHa 3a mpelleiama armocpepst [1, 2]. B wactosmiee Bpemsat BenyTCA paspaoorKH OOUIMpHEX HporpaMM Co3z1a- HMA OpOHTAMbHBIX COHEYHLIX OOcepBatopHit M4 OPOHTaAbILIX ACTPOUOMH- weckHXx o6ceppaTopuit. B HegameKom Gy/lyitem acTponomMHucckHe aG.10- JHUA CMOTYT ObIT OCYIICCTBICHLE BO BEM CHEK TPE SICK TPOMATIHTHBIX + Kone6annii — oT HaWGoviee KOpOTKHX raMMa-syyel jo HANGorEe VIMITIEIX panuoson. Jas ocBocnHt 9TOrO INMpoKOrO cHEKTPA HoMAOGNTEH cHe~ TIMabHEIe OPOHTANbHBIC TeTeCKONL, TipesHAaSHANCHHDIC JU HeCseOBAN AA TaMMa-, PeHTTeHOBCKOTO, yaIbTpaduoseroBoro, uHpakpacnoro 1 pajto- vamyieHHii (B OCOGeHHOCTH AIA AWIHHHOBOAHOBOTO Ppaduouuanasona, 06- Omupcumenonae = «yD aaa Buduman odracme pee Paduobonwer 2 OND na npospay- | Onmuvecny Ompamenue om MonexynADHoe ‘worms ZONOCDEDS! 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B wactosinee Bpems BCC HOBbIX H HOBBIX JIMHHIi CBASM BOSPaCTAIOULHM YHCJIOM MOLL HBIX MepealURKOB CepbcsHo yrpoxkaer OyMyWleMy 3eMHOM pamuoacTpoHO- Muu. XOTH HeKOTOpas YaCTb paqMoHa6mogeHHH c Sem MOXeT ycnelmHO OCYMECTBIATECA B YCOBHAX TAKHX TOMEX, JIA LOCTKEHHA NpeeIbHOA UYBCTBHTEMbHOCTH Bce %Ke HECOXOLHMO pacniodarath pawWOTeeCKONEl Ha KOCMHYCCKHX CTAHUMAX, OOpatlaronyyxcA BOKpyT Sem, HIM HCKaTs Gove CHOKOMHbIe MccTOnOAOKeHHA, Take, Kak OOpaTHaa cTopoHa JlyHel. Tipx BpiGope cBoGogHoro OT MOMeX MeCTOTOOKeHHA HEOOXOUMO yUH- THIBaTb MoLHoe pagquoustyyeHve CosHia. ia paldoacrpoHoMoB, He 3a- HHTepecoBaHHBIX B HcCTeMOBaHHH paHousyucnua Connya, nocaegHee MOXET CT@Tb OLHHM H3 HeMPHATHBIX HCTOYHHKOB MOMeX, YTO MPHBO AUT K HeOGXOZHMOCTH HIH derarembuocty noun waGuodeli Uro6bl yMeHb- WHT TAKOTO posla NOMERH, palHoretecKony B KOCMHYeCKOM NPOCTpaHcTBe HEOOXORWMAa CrelHaIbHad 9KpaHHpoBKa M ApyrHe NpesoxpanuTenbuble Mepbl; 1a2Ke IPH STOM MpesesbHasl YYBCTBHTEIBHOCTh MOXKET ObITb NOCTHT- HYTa TOIDKO B Culyyae, [Kora TeECKON HaXOAHTCA B TeH SemaM HAH JIyHbt. HanGomburee ocna61eHve Kak 3@MHbIX, TAK H COMHEYHDIX NOMEX MOXKET ObITb AOCTHTHYTO, ecH{ paquoTenecKON pacnosoxKeH Ha OOpaTHo!t cropoHe Jlynst Hw paGoraeT B TeveHve wyHHof HOU. Ha KHJOMeTpOBLIX 2HHaX BOH axe TaKOe PAaCNoMOxReHHe PaMoTeeCKOTa MOXKET OKASATbCA He- HOAXOAMMLHM, H BMecTo JIyHBI MOxKeT ObITh NpeWioxwKeH OHH H3 acTe- po jo To cux nop peub Wia 0 HaccHBHO!t acTpOHOMHH, B KOTOpolt HeGecHBIe OG6beKTHI H3y4alOTCA MO HX CCOCTBEHHOMY HavlyyeHHio. B nocaegnHe roget MoyaHa PasBATHe aKTHBHAA ACTPOHOMMS, HCTOMBSyIOWlaA DOCTHKeHHA PagHOoOKauHOHHOM TeEXHUKH, CHTHavibl MOIHBIX HaSeMHBIX MepenaTuHKOB orpaxatorcs JIyHoH, Comntem # MviaeTaMy H TIpHHHMalOTCA B Bue palHo- 9x0, JlasepHoe HHppaKkpacuoe Ts HaIYTeHHe, OTPasMBLIHCb OT San Takme Bosspamactcn K SeMie. [lpaxTuyeckoe npHMeHeHHe pasHou0Ka- UHOHHOTO MeTOZa OFpaHHueHO BPeMeHeM pacmpocTpakeHHA palMOBOH B 62, KOUG. Ten ETON, 370 SHCPIEN CIPEREHHOTO EHTHaa YORBIEY kak WeTBepTaA CTemeHb paccTosHua. Tem He MeHee, STOT MeTON ABAR ceH¥ae MOILHBIM CPEICTBOM, HCCEOBAHHA COMHEYHOM CHOTeMBI H eTo BO3- NO*KHOCTH H 3HaveHHe OysyT, HecomHeHHo, pactH [5,6], ae Tlomumo uciyckans coToHoB, Ha1y¥eHHe HeGecHEIX O6bEKTOB MOKeT uMETb Apyryio nprpoxy. Hanpumep, MaccuBHas ABOkHaa sBesqa HSyyaet TpaBHT@UHOHHble BOMHEI. IpegnonaraeTcn, yTo MO,OOHO S1eKTpOMarHHT- HOH SHEPIHH TpaBHTalMOHHaA SHepruA KBaHTOBala H €€ HOCHTe/H, HaSbl- Baeble [paBHTOHAMH, Pacnpoctpanslorcs Co cKopocrbw cBeTa. YerpolicrBa 0 Ota YORI -TpepHTOnOE celiac _paspa6aTpipaiotca [7, 8], H ecaH TPaBHTalHOHHBle BOTHI GyLyT OOHAapy2KeHbI, TO BOSHHKHET HOBas BETBb acrponomun') TlockoabKy rpaBHTOHbI H qoTOHEI ABAMOTCA 6o30HaMH, TpaBnTal Had H 9JEhTPOMarHuTHad (POTOHHAA) ACTPOHOMHH MOryT GbITb COBEMHHEHBI Kak BETBH ¢GO30HHOM» aCTPOHOMHH, Kak MOKa3aHO B Klac- cuukauun cpegcrs uccneqoBpanna Bcenennoli (puc. 1.2). 1 BeGep (Weber J., Phys. Rev. Letters, 1969, vol. 22, Ne 24, p, 1320—1324) CooSuiws 06 OCHapYXKEHHN HM TPABHTALMOHALIX BOM, NPHXONAMX K HaM U3 KOC uuseckoro npocrpaxicrsa. Ognako Bonpoc o gocTonepuocrH uccnexoBannl BeGepa noxa octaeres orKpEITEN. (ITpusm. ped.) MW B stoi KaccupukallHl CXeMaTHYNO UpeACTabeno Take Macromuee M OyayUlee APYFHX HanpaBreHHi HeeneAOBANII KOCMUMeEKOrO Hpoctpalt+ crea. Tak, Ha6sogenHe KoredalHii 1 BOSON AGIDKeHITT aKyeritecKol, MATHHTOPHAPOLMHAMHYeCKO! HTH APYPO! HPAPOA, BOIIKAOUNS BOINSH sloBepxHocTH Costa HW pacupoerpaisnonuixes: Hepes ero BUCHIMIOIO pas- PEKCHHYIO Tas0ByIo OGOsOUKY BOF jo WeMUOTL OPGUrEL H sa Ce Upesestbt, OTHOCAT K TAK HasbiBaemoii «HueHMaTHUEEKoliy acrponoMMH (pie. 1.2). Upyrue cpeyersa acrponomuncckux necacobaltiit WW AyNeHttst Koc MHYeCKOTO MPOCTPaHCTBa OCHOBaHbI Ha HaGMONCHNM KOPHYCK ysTIPILIX Hac ‘TAM, KOTOPEIC B OPOMHEIX KOMMYECTBAX MoMaAatoT Ha GEMMO ¢ Pa'SLMHBIX Hanpasneanii. CpenH Hux TakHe S/leMeHTapHBle YACTHUbI, Kak 9ICK POLL Paduoboons! am usryione somata tempouanun | Tnaecnoe ussyvenie esomer connvenas| rac ana cce| Ser Paorertee anyone Tanwa~ nyse Iprasumayuonsan | TpaBemiiaonvore Const ccmponaman wMlucdwamuvecsan" acrponpnan | Anyomuvecnite bonus! PONMS Y vivememcendpoduvanuieeriie Be7H8} Aeidmpeno, Aromas lnuggo-| @xpmuons) AnenrPore | noomurgonie | cwamavecsce rparoner ni woprycryanpnan”™| “edomaue! | Tamensie te ‘combonowitn saomaaer Maxpocxomuvee- nae tacrmtiage! —~ Hemenve!, nomenperinsly ae Momeopna® 7017 obsenrres Doane { Paxem - soni subsinpenun | Koomavecnue omanyun € venodexow me Fopmy Puc. 1.2. Kaaccupukauaa coppemenunix 4 OmHMaeMIX B GymyieM cpesera Hecste- ROBaHUs KOCMHYeCKOTO MRocTpaHcrBa, H MpoToust Hw Govlee TMKeTEIe, CHOKHBIE aTOMHBIe YacTuuEt. HanGoree QHEPrHYHble> H3 9TAX YACTHI, YACTO HaSbIBAIOT KOCMHYeCKHMH JTyuaMHt. ByayaH sapsKeHHbIMH, TaKHe YaCTHIBI OTKMOHAIOTCA KaK 3@MHBIM Mar- HUTHBIM MoueM, TAK H M@K3Be3{HBIMH NOIAMH, NOSTOMy HampaBaenHe HX HCTOUHHKA TpyAHO oMpeyeuTb. To-BHAMMOMY, MeCTOM BOSHMKHOBCHHs He- KOTOPLIX 13 HHX ABAKeTCA ComHile K ApyTHe OObEKTHI, HOLOGHBIE Kpa6o- BHAHOH TYMAaHHOCTH, KoTOpad MpecTaBlaeT coGoi CHtbHBI HcTOUHHK paquons.1yyenHa. Spek OTKMOHeHHA MarHUTHBIM TIOJIeM MOHKHO CBeCTH K MHWUMYMY, HCC/eyA KOCMHYeCKHE JIYYH TOAbKO OYCHb BBICOKHX SHeP- ruli (opsaKka 10'* a¢ [9]). Ilupoxne BosMoxkHocrn uccaeqoBanHa BeeteHHoi oTkppiBaloTca TPH na6mojennm HelitpHyo.[10]. Byays nesapsxenuoi, 9Ta sacTHlla ABH XKeTCH MPAMONHHeHHO OT MecTa_cBOero BOSHUKHOBCHIAL..HC OTKIOHRRES mara RR ae Ognako OOnapyxeHne HelrpaibHol, baxTwdece WMMIeHHOH MaccbI YaCTHbI MpexcraBiaer coGol saqaty orpoMHOl Tpys- HoctH. Tem He MeHee, B HacTOsifee BpeMA IIpeANPHHHMAIOTCA MepBbIe T10- TBITKH 3aperucTpApoBaTb HelitpHHAy!O pasHauHio H3 KOCMIT¥eCKOrO MpO- crpaucrsa [11]. 2 Heiitpnno, atextporiit 1 porous! (pepMHOHb!) H Gostee TAYKETBIC ATOM- HBIe YACTHULI MOryT paceMatpuBates KaK HCTOUNKH OUHOTO Ha HanpaB- ASHHE HecAeOBAtiis KOCMHYeCKOTO TMpocrpancrBa — «KopnycKynapHoiD actponommu. MakpockondeCKWe 4YacTHile! (MeTeopbl H mp.) MoryT 6sITb TaKKEe BKMOYeNbI Kak NOApasqed sToro HanpaBseHus (puc. 1.2). Hecmorpa Ha TO, TO pasvii4Hble HOCHTeTH YAO6HO CrpymmupoBanl Ha cxeme puc. 1.2, TeXHHYeCKHe CpeACTBA HX OOHaPy2KeHHA CHbHO OTAMYAIOTCA Apyr oT apyra. Mereop, aaa Ha MOBepXHocTb Sema, CTaHOBHTCA MeTeopuToM, Ko- Topbili MOxKeT ObITb NOAOGpak YeVIOBeKOM H TMOABeprHyT aGopaTopHLIM ava- 7W3aM H HCCeXOBaHHAM Tak xe, KaK H MeTCOpHAA MbLTb, NPHHOCHMaA Ha Bemmio ¢ JOx¥JeM H cHeroM. OcoGeHHocTh HecrexoBaHHit Takoro poya Co- CTOHT B TOM, YTO H3YYaTb MaKPOCKONMYECKHE YACTHLUbI HJM OOSEKTHI M CHOBA BOSBpalllaTbCA K aHaJIH34M MO2KHO B CHOKOMHOH O6cTaHOBKe, AOcTaTOUHO MeIJICHHO, COBCEM He TaK, Kak 9TO IIPOHCXOAUT MpH H3YGeHHH OTACAbHBIX orouos Hau cepMHoHOB. C nospnewmem uckyccTBeHHbIX cnyTHHKoB 3emau (HC3) u paxet- BOHJOB Obi OTKPbIT MYTH NPAMBIM BHESeMHLIM usMepeHHAM. Ha pakerax MOFYT ObITb YCTAHOB/EHbI UYBCTBUTEMbHBIC NPHOOPhI AWA HenMocpeCTBEHHEIX H3MepeHHii B yAaIeHHBIX TOUKAX C MOCERYIOUHM TeleMeTPHPOBaHHeM JaH- HBIX Ha 3eMs0, OJHaKO KOHEYHBIM STANIOM HCcefOBaHH ABHTCA HenO- cpeacTBeHHoe yuacrue yeoBeKa Giarogzapa ero cnoco6HocTAM B Ha6.l0- Hen W OGbACHeHHH HeOGObIMHLIX H HempeABHACHHEIX ABIeHHA. ZoHnqUpO- BaHHe H HeMocpescTBeHHOe HcCAeqOBaHHe KOCMHYecKorO mpocTpaHcTBa yedOBeKOM OGbeuHHeHBI Ha pHe. 1,2 B HallpaBseHHe NPAMLIX MeTOJOB B OT- AMUME OT KOCBEHHBIX MeTOZOB Go30HHOM HM KOpmycKyApHOH acTpoHOMHi, JA KOTOPEIX XapakTepHbI HaGMOLeHUA Ha paccTOARMH, Kaaccupukaitna cpegcts uccezopanua Bcenennoi, npeqctapnennaa na puc, 1,2, He ABUaeTCA BO BCeX OTHOWeHHAX MomHO. Tak, yNOMAHYTBI AMM HECKOBKO 9eMeHTAPHLIX YACTHIL H COBEPUICHHO He BKJIOYEHEI aHTH- uactuust. Takaa KaaccuuKaltua, moxo6Ho moGol apyroit cxeme, aBIAeTCA COBepLICHHO MPOKSBONbHOM M OHA MOKCT ObITh BEINOHeHa B paMKaX Apy- THX «acTpoHomuii», OcHoBHaa Web cxembl Ha puc. 1.2 — yka3aTb MecTO PalMoacTpoHoMHH cpeqH APyrHX COBpeMeHHEIX H OyLyuWHX HanpaBzeHHi HccleqoBaHHA KOCMHYeCKOTO MpocTpaHcTBa. TpyaAHocTH 1 BbICOKaM CTOMMOCTS pakeTHBIX UCCTe_OBAaHHi OrpaHHun- Baer Mpeqenbt pasBHTHA STAX MeTOM0B. B KOHeyHOM HToOre TaKAMH MCC QOBaHHAMH MOXET ObITb OXBAYeHA BCA COAHEYHAA CHCTeMa, OLHAKO Mpbl- 2KOK B HECKOJIbKO CBETOBLIX eT K OAMKAHIMHM SBe3aM OTOABUTaeT HC- TOMb3OBAHHE TIPAMBIX CpeCTB ANA HCcMeJOBaHHA KocMOca 3a MIpeqetaMA MWaHeT B OTJaeHHoe GyAyUNee, ECM BOOHUTe TaKHe MyTeWeCTBHA K 3Be3- 4am Korga-su60 cranyT BosMoxHBIMH [12]. Kax u B mipolliom, HenpaMple cpercTBa, JelicrByrouyie Ha paccTosHHH, GyyT ocTaBaTBCA eMHCTBCHHO NOCTYNHBIMH IIpH HSYYeHHH OTTaTeHHBIX yuacTkos Haleli Bcenenuoli. OrpaHwveHuble Mpesebl Mo1eTOB aBTOMaTH- GeCKMX H C YeNOBeKOM Ha GOPTY KOCMHYeCKHX CTaHIMH MO CpaBHeHHIO C a/IbHOCTHIO JelCTBHAY palHO- HU ONTHYeCKO! acTpOHOMHH MIpoHO- CTPHpoBansi Ha WecTH cxemax (puc. 2.8). B To Bpema Kak jelicrBHe paquo- H ONTHYeCKHX TeNeCKONOB Npocrupaerca BIOTh AO paccTomHult BS 18 MHJIJIHaPAOB CBETOBEIX JeT (puc. 2.8, e), YelOBeK elie He MOKPbWel paccTosHHit B mpegenax puc. 2 8, a (1 cBeropas cekyHja), a aBTOMaTMYeCKHe cTaHyMA ReficrBylor NoKa Jub B npeqesax BHYTpeHHel YacTH puc 2.8, 6 (1 cBe- ToBOH 4ac). Han6onee ynanenunre o6nextsi (5-10° _cBetospix ter) Gonee JOCTYHHbE HccseOBAHHAM C MOMOMbIO palHOCpeACTS, HCIKesIH MeTOLaMA “ONTHYECKOH acTpoHomun. Broane BepontHo, 4To MHOrHc Cabbie HCTOUHHKH paqHonsay- YeHHA pacnoMOAKeHBl elle JaJIbIe, BOSMOXHO, BOAHSH rpanH Beenennoh H 3a Ipegenamu Jelicraus onTHyeckux TetecKonos. Paauodoroust no cpaB- HEHHIO C ONTHYCCKHMH HMEIOT ropasyo MeHDIIYIO SHEprHio H, Cue OBaTeTb- HO, WX YHCIO COMbUIE MPH OLWHAKOBLIX YPOBHAX H3.1yyaemon sHeprAH STO OHO H3 OCHOBHEIX MpeHMyulecTB palWoacTpoHOMHH B OGHApyKeHHH y.1a~ JIOHHEIX HCTOUHHKOB Mepel ONTHYeCKOH HH sOGOl Apyro doroHHoli ac- TPOHOMHell, MOCKO/IbKY OHa B HavMeHbilleli crenenu OrpaHHuena MpHcyTcT- BHeM (OTOHOB jWIA NpoBexeHHA HeoOxosMMEIX usMepeHuit [13]. ra, Ha CerOHA PaqMOacTPOHOMHA ABAETCA HE TOKO MepcieKTHBHLIM CpeqCTBOM HicculeqOBaHHA HawOonee yaseHubix uacteit Bceneunoli, wmeiouemca B HallleM PacnOpsxeHHH, HO, BOSMOXKHO, H eAHHCTBeHHLIM. ITpeqnonarae~ Maa cepa Hcnol»30BaHHA HeliTpHHO H rpaBHTauHH — oka enje Bompoc 6yayuyero. Ha6moyeHua Ha MaKCHMabHO JateKHXx paccToAHMsx cylecTBeHHbI AA NOHHMaHHA BOSHHKHOBeHMA M XapakTepa Tol Bcemenxoii, B KoTOpoit MbI 2KHBEM, a 3HAHHE 9TOTO, B CBOIO OFepeslb, LaeT HAM Ks04 K NOHHMAHHIO ee KOHeYHOK cyAbOnI. 1.2. KPATKAA MCTOPHA NEPBbIX JIET PAJXHOACTPOHOMHH ! PayuoacrpoHomHA Kak Hayka GepeT cBoe Ha¥ayo C SKCTepHMeHTOB Kapaa Suckoro, nposeyenunix B 1931 r. B to Bpema AucKuii padoras pa- AMOHWKeHepoM Ha TosHroHe dupmer Bell Telephone Labs. Emy 6xino no- py4eno HccseqoBaHHe HalpaBseHHA MpHXoma Tposowbix nomex Ecau Opt ylaulocb HaiiTH npeoOsanaioliee HanpaBMeHHe, TO anTeHHM AAA Tpanc- aTAAHTHYECKO! PaqHOTeNeOHHOM AHHH MOXHO GEII0 Obl KOHCTPYHPOBaTb TaK, ¥TOObI MOAYYaTb MHHHMAJIbHBII OTKHK B YKa3aHHOM HampaBJleHHH, @ 9TO MOSBONHIO Obi YYWWHTb OTHOMEHHE CHTHAA/WYM 1A AHHH CBSSH. C sroit nemo AHCKHM G6blJla TOCTpoeHa BepTHKa/bHO No/JApHsOBaHHaR OHOHaNpaBseHHad aHTeHHa Tuna nonoTna Bpiwca, n306paxkennan Ha puc. 1.3, Pasmeppt KoncrpyKuun cocrapaswtn 30,5 B AHy H 3,7 + B BBICOTY. OcHOBaHHe aHTCHHBI ObWIO ycTaHOBsJeHO Ha YeTHIpex Koslecax, KOTOpBIe NepeMemaiHch No Kpyry, oGecneuHBan BpaieHHe To asHMYTY. Cuuxponnbili aneKTponpHBog 3a 20 MHHYT NOBOpayHBa BCIO KOHCTPyYKLHIO Ha OquH OGopor Pa6ora BesaCh Ha bomue 14,6 m (20,5 Mey), antenna 6pi1a coequHeHa C SYBCTBHTEMbHBIM MPpHEMHHKOM, Ha BbIXOJe KOTOPOTO CTOs caMONHcell c 6O1bUOH NOcTOAHHOM BpeMenH. 1 Boaee osuyio HeropHio paguoacrporoMun, wacwimenHy:o xMYHBIMH BoC- NOMMHaHUAMH, MoxHO Halita y Thalidepa [14], a raxaxKe y Cayrsopra [15] 4 B xexa6pe 1932 r. Auckuli yxxe coo6ulal o HepBLIX pesybTaTaX, Mo- “yWeHHIX Ha cBoei ycranosKe [16]. Ox BiisBHa TpH BHAA Nomex: 1) Mect- HbIe rposopple pa3spsaybl, (2) NOMeXH OT yaseHHbIX FpOSOBLIX pa3spsyoB, MPHXOAALIHe, B OCIOBHOM, C fO*KHEIX HanpaBsennit, 3) «... HOCTOMHHOe LH- TeHve HeHsBeCrHOro MpOHCXOAKAeHHAY. OSpasell BalHCH WMMAIHX MoMex * ‘Tperbeli rpynmpl, HaGmMozaBUNxca AucKuM 24 espana 1932 r., noKasan Ha puc. 14 OrnocwTenbHo nomex nocneyHero Bula Aucka yrBepxlat, ‘STO OHH BHISLIBAOT “UMNeHHe B HaYLUHHKAX, KOTOPOe TpyAHO OTAHYHTS OT UIMMeCHHA, BbIsbIBAaeMOTO IyMaMu caMoi annapatypst HanpaBsenne mpi> XOa WIMNAULHX MOMEX MeHAeTCA MOCTeIeHHO B TeveHHe AHA, Jeraq NOTHE Puc, 1,3, Bpamatomasca axtennan pelerka, na neperiem miane ee coagatenb AucKiit. Tlomsyacy stom pemerKoA SluckwA Boeppiie nponen HaGslOXeHHA BHeSeMHOTO panMoHsayueHHa oGopor sa 24 4aca». Tanee on micas: KeHHA B pasuociiekTpe MOHOXpomaTHyeckoro H3syyeHuA. Mccreyosanne Boupoca 0 BO3MOXKHOCTH Takoro H31y4eHHA OopT Mopy4sHt Ban ne Xiorcty, Mono- Romy acTpokomy B JleiigeHe, KoTOppIit paccMoTpedl pa3sJIMYHble BO3MOXxXHbIE MeXaHH3MbI, OODACHAIONIMe HaWuHe HHH H3yYeHHA B paqHocneKTpe. B 1944 r. Baw ze Xtoact coo6uyH1, YTO BePOATHLIM HCTOUHHKOM Takoro WBAYYEHUA MOKET OuITh MEKIBeI{UbI HeliTpalbHLI BOLOpoA: ON HMeeT co6crBenHyto Yactory 21,1 cs (1420 Mey), coorBercTByioilylo mepexony M@KLY ABYMA OIM3KHMH SHEpreTHYeCKUMH YPOBHAMH OCHOBHOrO CocTOs- HHA C pa3HYHOM OpHeHTauuei couHa (MarHWTHoOro AMMOAbHOTO MoMeHTa) snekTpona. Masta BeposTHOocTs nepexoga (cM. pasg. 8.9) H oTcyTerBHe aHHBIX © NMOTHOCT HefirpabHoro BoOpoka B KOCMHYeCKOM MpoctpaH- 18 cTBe CTaBHJM MO/| COMHeCHHe BONpoc O BOSMOXKHOCTH OGHapyxKeHHA ero cnekTpaibHol sumin. Oxnako Ban ge Xroncr [24] mpessowKna cyenaTe Takyl0 NonbITKy. 25 mapra 1951 r. Osx a Mepcesa [25] p Tappapazckom yansepcntere O6HapyKWIM B Paniors1yYeHHH JHHMIO BoXOpora. B reyenve HeCKOTbKHX MOCAETYIONIHX HC) C1b OHA Oba TaKKe OOHapyaxKeHa Mioasepom H Ooptom [26] B Jlefixcne 1 Kpuctuancenom 8 Cuguee (Ascrpasma). Brocaeqctaun (B 1954 r.) Xareu u Mak Kaelin [27] B Mopckoli nccaegoBarenbeKoli 1a6o- paropun CHUA o6napyxuau 9TY AMHMIO B CHeKTpe MorsouleHHa. HaG6snojeHHs! AHHH BOXOpoma MMeMH OFpoMHoe sHayenHe — uccvte- AOBAHA Ha STOM BOMHE CTaAH OAHUMH H3 HanGosee BarKHbIX H O3HAMeHO- Bal aKTHBHY! cba3y B paqnoacrponoMHA. Oa~nnm 13 HanGozee BbI,aIO- UAXCH PeSYuIbTATOB ABHJOCh COCTaBJeHUe CTPYKTypHOH KapTsl Hawielt Tanaxtuxu (cm. pas. 8.9, 4). Toamangckan rpynna yyeunix B Jleiqene BosrlaBssa 9Ty padory. OrasiqpiBasich Hasafl, HHTepeCHO OTMeTHTb, ¥TO cTaTbA PeGepa’, Ko- Topas Morvia 6bITb BOONE He ONYOMMKOBAHHON, OKAa3asaCb OHO! H3 Kac- cHueckHXx pa6or 110 paxvoacTpoHOMHH, a Tak2Ke BO MHOTOM clocoGcTBOBaa qopmupoBanmo HOBO ObslacTH HCCMefOBaHHii, CBASaHHOH Cc HHHeli Bo- nopona. A nosHaKomusica ¢ PeGepom B 1941 r. B Jla6oparopuu Mopckoii ap- Tasaepun CUA 8 Batinurtone (oxpyr Koaym6us). Mir pa6oraam tam naj, COBepLICHHO CeKPeTHBIM NpPOeKTOM, He HMeIOWIHM HuYero Obulero Cc pagHo. Bue crea aaGoparopuu pasropop KOCHYJICA COBepuleHHO HeHsBeqaHHOl TeMbI — paHoacTpoHomuH. PeGep paccka3an o cBoei annapatype ¥ Ha- OmoyeHHAX cTpykTypbl Mneunoro [lytH ¢ TakHM 3apa3HTeIbHbIM BLOXHO- BeHHEM, YTO BbI3BaT y Mensa uHTepec. Ho AHMUIb CycTa JecATb wieT A 110- ‘YW BOSMOXKHOCTh B YHHBepcuTere wrata Oralio Hayat nporpammy PagqHoacTponomuueckux HeceqoBaHKh. Kak ormeyaetca B pasa. 8.7, Mok Nepsbili pakvoacrpoHOMHyecKHii SKCHepHMeHT, MpoBeeHHbiit BMecTe c Ap- typom Anenem B 1934 r. 0 O6Hapy2eHMO CONHeYHOTO palHousaAyyeHHaA, okasaica GesycneliHEM. Tlosxe Pe6ep nponomxus o630p He6a Ha CBOeM JOMallIHeM paqHoTe- aeckone B o6.1acTH Gosee KOpOTKUX BOIH HB 1948 r, onyOmHKOBan KapTbI paquonsayyenusa He6a Ha BosHe 62,5 cm (480 Mey) [28]. On nonsa, ato PasBHTHe PaxHoacTpOHOMMH NoTpeOyer HaHYHA pasMoTenecKoTOB Ha- MHOTO 6oMbUIHX pasMepos HB 1948 r. npeATO*KH MpeBocxoAH yO KOHCTpyK- uHiO ypaB.lsemoro 67-m panuoreeckona. OqHakO B HeOOXOHMOCTH CTPOH- TeAbCTBA STOTO COOpy2KCHHA OH HUKOTO He CMOr 3aHuTepecoBaTD. Tlocae sropoii maponoit BoHHBI sHeprHaHbie MeponpHATHs To Nporpam- MaM B OG6/aCTH palHOacTpOHOMHA OpLIH HavaTbt B Anraun u Ascrpaunn. B 1946 r. Hayanocb crpouteabergo HenosBMKHoro 66,5-m mapa6osM4yecKoro paguoresieckona B ManuectepcKoM yHusepcutete B Anraun. Oxo 6bii0 3a- Konuexo B 1947 r.; B mocjenyioule TogbI B TOM xe YHUBepcuTere ObWIM pas- pa6oranbl MpoekTEt coopy2KeHHA NO_BHAKHOTO pasHoTenecKona \MaMeTpOM 1 BumenpHwerentax ueropHsa, Kacaiomanca craTbH PeGepa, Hanicana Ha QeHionasnn Gecen, Koropwe unten € Orto Crpyse, Bax ne Xroactow # Pporom Pe- jepom. ; 19 76 m. Ero crponteaperso Hayanock B 1953 r. n gakonNitocn B 1957 Fr, B reveHve MHOFHX JleT OH OCTaBasICH CaMbIM GoADITIN HOAMIAKIILIM pasHo- TeI€CKOMOM B Miipe (cM. OGIQHH BU Ha pic. 6.58). B Mamppepre (Arama) Xeit, Mapcone 1 @uaatune [291 nana o6sop paguonsyryueHns He6a Ka Bore 1,7 at (G1 Mex). Hat yatocn obuapyaciri, 4TO HaayyeHHe 13 cosBeastHs JTeGeyyr saMeTuO qviyKryupyer Ho WT reHCHB= HOCTH C NepHONOM OKOAO MNYTD Boron ow Gren 180) nao B 1948 Fr. sty oGuacrL JleGey C MOpeKUM UuErep*epoMeTpoM, arena KOTOPOrO G6bila ycTaHOBACHa Ha CKATe, BOSBLULALIETES TELL OKeAOM. B6an3u Cugues (Ascrpasua). Hcnoapsya Goabilyio paspenunontyio cuo- cOoOHOCTh HHTepdepoMeTpa, OHH HAalLIH, TO YFMOBLIC PAasMepPI HCTOUIKA paanousyyeHua B cospesquu Jle6ena Menee 8 Mun yr. to Guwio HON TBepxKeHHeM TOPO Pakta, ¥TO No Kpaitueli Mepe HeKOTOpas YaCrb KOCMH- YeCKOTO PaAHOUSIYIeHHA MOXKET MPHXOAUTb OT HCTOUHMKOB C OYeHb MauEt- MH YIvIOBbIMH pasMepamu, PesyAbTaTbl HaOsoleHuit UcTOUHHKa B JIeGene Obl TaKKe NOATBepA eH! Paiizom 1 Cynrom [31] B Kem6pyjpKcKom yiu- sepcutere (AHraHa), MCHOAL30BaBIIMMA AByXSAeMeNTHM IMTeeppepo- Metp. HM yaanoch o6Hapy>xKHTb cule Gosiee HuTeHCHBULI paxHoncroUHAK B Kaccvonee; ofHakO KOOpAUHATHI STOFO OGLCKTA He HOsBOATHII WaGstI0- HaTb ero B Anctpasuu. @aykryauuu HHTeHCHBHOCTH HcTOUHUKa B JleGege (Tenepb HasbtBae- moro JIeGeyem A), oGvapy>xenubie BrepBsie Xeem, [apcoucom u Ouaaun- COM, PaCCMaTpHBaIHCb B TeYeHHe PAA eT Kak AYKTYaWHH B CaMOM HeTOUNHKe, OAHako Ha OCHOBaHHH Oo.1ee M03qHHX UCCeAOBAHHi Obi10 J0- Ka3aHo, TO STH AYKTYAaLHM BbISBAHBL HEOAMOPOLHOCTAMH 3eMHOH HOHO- chepbl; OHH aHaOTHIHE BHAHMBIM MepllaHHaM 3Be3f BCseCTBHe HEOLHO- PposHocteit semHoii atMocdepnl. Tloaoxerne Jle6eqa A, coo6uenuoe Boztonom 1 Cranan, ne copnasa- 310 € KOOPAMHAaTaMH KaKHX-1H60 APKUX BUAHMBIX OObEKTOB, KOTOpple MOTI Obl ABHTbCH HCTOYHHKOM weHus. BOau3H HaXOqUAMCh AMLb caaGle 3Be3 bl. Onltako MleGexb A Guia HacTOxBKO CHJIbHBIM HCTOUHHKOM, uTO, KaSaTOCb, HMO CMBIC MpOBeCTH TIWATeTbHBIT MOHCK ONTHYeCKOTO o6beKTa, KoTOpLifi Mor ObI ObITh OTOXRAeCTBeH C HUM. Sto MorpeboBaso Gonee TOUNbIX cBeqeHHit OTHOCHTeIbHO MONOXKeHHA TaKorO OObeKTa. B 1951 r. [psxsm Car B Kem6pumxckom yuupepcntere (Anraua) nony- UHI OYEHb TOUHLIe KOOPAMHATHI AAA paquouctounnka JleGemp A [32], Ko- Topble OH coo6ul B aBrycte Toro xe Toya Banprepy Baaze, corpyanuky Tlasomapexoit o6cepparopuu. B rerexve cateqytomero Mecsla ¢ MOMOIbIO na TaMeTposoro Tasomapcxoro Teteckona Baaje cesta ¢ Gombutolt 9KCTIO- 3HWHeH (poTOCHUMKH paliona MecToHaxoxyeHHA JIe6ega A. B touke c Koop- Aunatamu Tpsxsma Cura aia Jle6eaa A Baaye 3ameTua caa6oe nario, HaMOMHHaIomee yAaTeUHy!O TaJlaKTHKY, KOTOPOe, OAHAKO, OTAMYATOCb OT OGbIHOrO Us0GparxKeHHA STUX OObeKTOB. DasaKTHKa OKa3asacb ABOMHO (cm. cpotorpadnio xa puc. 8.60) 1 Baage npentionoxkHu1, YT 9T0, BOSMOXKHO, Abe yMaNeHHbIe CTAIKHBAIONLMeCA alakKTHKH. XOTA WeA O CTOAKHOBeHHE B JaJbHeHeM He No.yyHAa BCeobulel MOAepxKKH, HHKAKOTO HOBOTO YOB- JITBOPHTEIDHOTO OGDSICHEHHA HEOODIIHOMY BHAY OObeKTA BLIIBHHYTO He 6piio. Tonyyennitit Bsnocaexcrauu MuxKosckum [33] cnexrp Jle6ena A TOSBOMHA OMeHMTb paccTOAHMe [0 HCTOUNHKA, KOTOPOe OKAa3AMOCh NOpAAKA 20 200 MHsHONOB cBeTOBDIX eT (Mocme peBH3HH. UIKasbI paccToaHuii ota oneHKa Tenepb yBesi¥eHa 10 600 MH/1IMOHOB CBeTOBEIX JET). Jle6eqb A umect MouHocTh pannonsayyenua 10° em. axe na pac- CTOMHHH B JecATb pa3 Go/bIeM, OH MO-mpexHemy GbIv Obl OTHOCHTeABHO CHABHBIM PaqHOHCTOYHHKOM, HO HAXOMAULAMCA Ha TpaHHle OOHapyxKeHHA GOMbIUMMH ONTHYeCKHMH TeseCKOMaMH. OTOT HarViAAHblii pesybTaT 10- SBONAT Ciel1aTh MpPeANONOKeHHE, YTO PalMOacTpOHOMHA MOXKeT HrpaTb BELYIOULyI0 PO B HCCHEAOBAHHH HaHGoslee yAaNeHHEIX yyacTKoB Bceyen- HOH HW cioco6cTBOBaTb CTPeMHTCIbHbMY pa3BHTHIO STOO HarlpaB/eHHA. 3a TpH rona 20 wAeHTHpuKauHH HcTOURHKa JIeGeqa A Baane, Boatou B Cuguee (Apctpasua) oToxKyecTBHA cHAbKbI pagnoucrounHK B Temple ¢ KpaGosuguolt tymaHrocrsio [34]. Sto nepperit (mocae Comniya) HeGecubiit paduoucrounMK, KoTopptit Gbi1 OTOAECTBHeH C BHAUMbIM OObEKTOM. B 1950 r. Bpayn u Xasapg [35], ucnoapsys 66,5-% napa6osmueckoe 3ep- KaJlO, 3aperHCTPHPOBaJIH paqHonsTyyeHHe GoubUIOH TyMaHHOCTH B CosBe3- awa Anppomenpt Ha Boxe 1,9 # (158 Mey). XoTa 9Ta TYMaHHOCTb ABIA- eTCA OHOM H3 ONWKAHWIMX BHEIHUX TalaKTHK, Ona npelcTaBAAeT CO6oH He OWeHb CHIbHBI panuoucTounHK. MoulHocTb ee paqHousydenHA nopaaKa 10° em (no cpasuenuio c 10° em JIe6eqa A). Taxan Gonbuad pasHuna MpuBea K paggeteHMio BHEMHHX raslaKTHK Ha Ba THNa — Tak HasbiBae- Mbie HOPMaJIbHble raaKTHKH, NoLoGuble TyMaHHocTH Axzpomesl, ¥ paHo- TaslaKTHKH, Moso6nete JIeGeyo A c ropasq0 Sonpurel (B 10° + 10% pas) MOLIHOCTHIO HBTy4eHHA. Taxozo Obi CocToAHHe pasdoactponomun 10—15 net nasaq, Mocae STOLO HOBLIC OTKPEITHA CTAIM TOABAATBCA C Tako BOsBpacTaloulelt OxicT- PoToli, 4TO OCH TPYZHO U3OKHTb UX MocuegoBatenbHO. O6cyxTeHHe OCHOBHEIX COBPeMeHHBIX MpescTaBenHit o BHeseMHOM paqHOHs/yYeHHH Aaerca B ra. 8. 1.38. COBPEMEHHbIA PAJHOTEJIECKON ARTeHHDI H IPHEMHHKH, HcMOAb3yeMble B paWoacTpOHOMMH, HacTOb- KO OTMYAlOTCH UpyT oT Lpyra, YTO OYeHb TPYAHO MoKasaTb HX HanOo.tee XapakTepHylo KoMOHHanlMIO. Tem He MeHee, Ha pc. 1.3 mpmBezena onHa H3 CX€M COBPeMeHHOTO pagMOTeecKONa C WeNbIO HaWOCTpalHM B3aHMO- (BASH €FO OCHOBHBIX 971eMeHTOB. Antenna c noMombIO O6sy4aTeIA coOupaeT SHepriio paxMOBOAH OT yaamennoro HeGecHoro HeTouHUKa. Tlocme mpesqBapuTetbHoro ycueHHA B MecTe, Te PachomoKeH OGyIaTeb, 9HEpruA curHata Hepesaercs 10 KaGeJi0 K OCHOBHOM YacTH NpHeMHHKA, PasMeLLEHHOTO B 31aHHM, NpHeraw- eM K noggep»KuBatonlell aNTeHHY Onope. Saecb CHrHad CHOBa YCHJIMBaeTCA, JevekTHpyeTcs H MHTerpupyercs H C BbIXOJa MpHeMHMKa MocTynaer Ha aHa- orosbiii camommucert ( ¢ 3aNHcbio Mepom No ABMKYuelica GyMaxKHOl JeHTe). T [ipm usnoxenun uctopun pagwoactpoxomHu apTop He YnoMMHaeT o poaH conercxux pauuoacrpovomos; ona oTpaxeHa, Hanpumep, B Kure C. A. Kanaana «Qnenenttapnan pauoacrponiomus» (cM. XOnomuuTeXDHK cHHCOK suTepatypH). (puss. ped.) : 2 BrixoqHol curnax TawKe MoxeT ObITb sacpuKCUpOBaH B 1upposoit opme Ha Oymare nau eppomarnurHolt Mente Wt Nocactyiouiwit OGpaG6ornn na BBICOKOCKOpoctHoll OBM, B Apyrom cayyac, Kak nsoBpaaKeno tia pic 1G BEIXOQHOH CHTHAT OGpaSaTwIBaeTeN NpesApH ICT! AANA JUNI HALIM Maenumnoe none . ROM Urexmpone: borconux mepoud -—Nonspusobanvoe paduousnyyenie YWanennend paduoucmouner Auaepanna vanpabrenvocme anmenner 7 Alunun nepedave XK Obryvamens anmenner Bercoxouacmomnan Aumenna 4a’ MPUCMHUKA Tapatbonuvecnud Auwepanne Pewnexmop wanpabnexnocme a inywaimenn Onopa cucmens: obnyvenus Kabenu a Anenozo Beri. COND - Canoniceg, § MORELMNEA Npedbapu- Cucmema [memenoe Bor- Bepmunaneyo-asunya neni ag (MERIC on inenenburenn dmb eawonacerg Onopa ead 7 Vo hadenc’ Nomeuenue — Nonewsenue Gn npuennuna — baw BH Puc. 1.6. Cospenentuit paxnoreneckon, ycrpolicrBom, a 3aTeM NoctymaeT Ha BXOj BHICOKOCKOpocTHoli SBM, Koro- past npeycraBneT KoHeUHBI pesybTaT B rpatpHyYecKOM BHJe C TOMOLLbIO KOOPAHHaTHOTO CaMomcta. CMMCOK IMTEPATYPBI ee ee physics», McGraw-Hill Book Company, Pee iedman H. Rocket Astronomy, Sci. Am., vol. 200, pp. 52-59, ee Myc Cla ahbal ee EEE in ay Be Cee earner mn Rev., vol. 117, pp. 306—313, Jan. 1, 1960. ee 22 8. BeGep Jb. OGmas Teopus orHocHTenbNocTH H rpapHTamHONMTe BosHE. Tlep. canna. H, Munxenuua nog pea. Jl. Mpanenxo. Hoy-n0 nuocrpannofi autepa- type, 1962. 9. Rossi B. Iligh Energy Cosmic Rays, Sci. Am., vol. 201, pp. 134146, November, 1959. 10. Ghiw H. Y. andStabler R.C, Emission of Photoneutrinos and Pair Annifiation Neutrinos from Stats, Phys, Rev., vol. 122, pp. 13171322, May 15, 1961. Il. Morrison P. Neutrino Astronomy, Sci. Am., vol. 207, pp. 90—98, August, 1962. 13. Purcell E.,In A. G. W, Cameron (ed.), «Interstellar Communica- tiom, W. A. Benjamin, Inc., New York, 1963. 13. von Hoer ner 8, Requirements for Cosmological Studies in Radio Astronomy, IEEE Trans. Military Electron., vol. MIL-8, pp. 282-288, July— ‘October, 1964. 14, Pfeiffer J. eThe Changing Universes, Random House, Inc., New York, 1956 15, Southworth G. C. Early History of Radio Astronomy, Sei. Mont- hly, vol. 82, pp. 55—66, February, 1956. 16. Jansky K. G. Directional Studies of Atmospherics at High Frequen- cies, Proc. IRE, vol. 20, pp, 1920—1932, December, 1932. 17, Jansky_K.. G. Electrical Disturbances Apparently of Extraterres- trial Origin, Proc. IRE, vol. 21, pp. 13871398, October, 1933. G. . Jansky K. G. A Note on the Source of Interstellar Interference, Proc. IRE, vol. 23, pp. 1158—1163, October, 1935. 19. Jansky K G. Personal letter dated Sept. 20, 1935. iia 20. Reber G, Cosmic Static, Astrophys. J., vol. 91, pp. 621—624, June, are Reber G. Cosmic Static, Proc. IRE, vol. 28, pp. 68—70, February, oo Reber G, Cosmic Static, Proc. IRE,-v6l. 30, pp. 367—378, August, 23, Reber G. Cosmic Static, Astrophys. J., vol. 100, pp. 279-287, No- vember, 1944. 24, van deH ulstH. C. Radio Waves from Space, Ned. Tijdschr. Natuurk., vol. IL, pp. 201-221, 1945. 28. Pwen H. 1, andE.M. Purcell. Radiation from Galactic Hyd- rogen at 1420 Me/s, Nature, vol, 168, pp. 386-357, Sept. 1, 1981. %. Muller. A. and Qart J. H. The Interstellar Hydrogen Line at 1,420 Me/sec and an Estimate of Galactic Rotation, Nature, vol. 168, pp. 357— 358, 1951. 27, Hagen J. P. andMcClain E. F. Galactic Absortion of Radio Waves, Astrophys. J , vol 120, pp. 368—370, September, 1954. b on eber G, Cosmic Static, Proc. IRE, vol. 36, pp. 1215-1218, Octo- yer, 1948, 299.Hey J. S., S. J. Parsons andJ. W. Phillips. Fluctua- tions in Cosmic Radiation at Radio Frequencies, Nature, vol. 158, p. 234, 1946. 30. BoltonJ. G andStanley G. J. Observations on the Variable Source Radio-frequency Radiation in the Constellation Cygnus, Australian J. Sci. Res Ser A, vol. 1, p. 58, 1948. 31. Ryle M and SmithF. G, A New Intense Source of Radio-frequen- cy Radiation in the Constellation of Cassiopeia, Nature, vol. 162, p 462, 1948. 32. Smith F. G. An Accurate Determination of the Position of Four Radio Stars, Nature, vol. 168, p. 555, 1951. 33. Baade W. and Minkowski R. Identification of the Radio Sources in Cassiopeia, Cygnus A, and Puppis A, Astrophys. J., vol. 119, pp. 206— 214, January, 19% Bolton J. G_ Discrete Sources of Galactic Radio-frequency Noise, Nature, vol. 162, p. 141, 1948. 35. BrownR. H.andC. Hazard. Radio Emission from the Andromeda Nebuia, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc., vol. 3, pp. 357—367, 1951. ‘ ey Lal Sener 36 Pangsee ae oy 6% . 31 Paneseat c § 4t Ro icwaye of Pose Spee t MONOTHHTEADHH A CNUCOK ANTEPATYP IT «Actpouomua Hepuaumoroy. Hep. ¢ aura. P,P. Basypmna nog pea. 1. Cae posarcxoro. Vi3n-no , Tapwxckni cuamosuym 1958 r, Tlep. ¢ ara. nox pes. B. B. Burkesnta. Hag-Bo unocrpannoii smtepatypu, 1961 Cur I’. Pagnoactpouomns. Tep. canta. M. B. Kowtoxosa nox pen. B. B. Burkesnua. Han-20 nnocrpannoit autepatypu, 1962. CrefiuGepr K. nw Jlexy K. Pagnoacrpoxowna. Pagnorexuuyeckue Meron Ha cayxxGe acrpopunu. ep. ¢ pan. n npeanen. M, B. Uleraona. Hap-20 unoenpanof autepatyppt, 1963. efitaux H. M, [Mpunenenue merozon pagnoactponomun B autenuoit Tex- nue. Han-so «Coserckoe paguor, 1966. Ixaosexn# H. C. Cepxuonuie anesnn. Han-n0 Hayxay, 1966. Brown R. H. andLoveli A. C. B. Exploration of Space by Radio. John Willey and Sons, Inc., New York, 1958. Christiansen W. N. HégbomJ. A. Radiotelescopes. Cambrid- ge University Press, Cambridge, 1969. «Infrared astronomy». Ed. by P. J. Brancacazio, A. G. W. Cameron. Gordon and Breack, New York, 1968. toga, SPECT As Richter G. Radiostrabtung aus dem All. Urania Verlag, Pacholczyk A. G. Radio astrophysics. Nonthermal processes in ga- lactic and extragalactic sources, Freeman, San Franvisco, 1970. 7 ae Astronomy». Ed. by J. V. Evans and T. Hagfors, McGraw-Hill Book 0., i IMABA BTOPAS OCHOBbI OBIE ACTPOHOMHH 21, BBEJ\EHHE B stoi rnape uamaraiorca Te OOULHe CBeLeHHA, SHAHHe KOTOpBIX Heo6- XOMMMO TIPH H3YYCHHEH padvoacrponomun. Cioxa BXOQHT KpaTKoe onHcaHHe coaHeunoit cucrempt, Hamel Panakruku u BcenenHoil. 3atem cnegyet pac- CMOTPeHHe KOOP/HHATHBIX CHCTeM, H3MepeHHA BpeMeHH, paccTosHHit, SBE3IHBIX BeIMYHH M cBeTHMOCTH. PX APyrHX ACTPOHOMHYECKHX BOMpoO- cop o6cyxkqaeTcA B MOCMeLYONIHX MlaBaX B CBASH C MHTepmperalMel pa- AMONAHHDIX. Ochosnaa werb sto raaBbl — JaTb CnpaBOUHbIi MaTepHas, noses- Hb MPH NTeHHH ApyrHx raaB KHUrH. Tpeqnonaraetca JMIb KpaTKoe HSJIOKEHHE NepeYCJEHHLIX BpIIe BorpocoB. Bosee noxpobuble cBeqenHA, a TaKxKe H APYTHE JaHHbIe, He BKMOVEHHBIe B STY MaBy, MOKHO HaltTH BO MHOTHX paciipoctpavenHbixX yYeOHHKax MO aCTPOHOMHM, MpHBeqeHHbIX B CIHCKe JIMTepaTypbl B KOHMe TaaBbI. 2.2, COJHEYHAA CHCTEMA Hlomom venoseKa B KOCMHYeCKOM MpocTpaHcTsBe ABAeTCH Semin — MlaHera, oOpamaomaaca BoKpyr Coanua (cumBon ©) Ha cpeqHem pac- cTosHHH oKoO 1,5-108 x. Cpeauee pacctoauue Mexy Comutem 1 Sem- Jeli IpHHHMaeTCA B KaYeCTBe aCTPOHOMH- WeckOi eNMHHIbI QnMHEI (a. e.) (cM. pasg. 2.14). Tlnockocrs 3emHOl opOHTEI BOKpyr Comkua HasbiBaeTeA MOcKOCTbIO aK.HT- tuxu. Kak noxasano Ha puc. 2.1, akaum- THKa MpescTaBrKneT CcoGoit OKPyXKHOCTb Ha HeGecHol chepe, obpasoBnannyio mepeceue- HHeM 9TOM ccbepbl MIOCKOCTBIO seMHOIt op6uTH. Ocb Bpaijenua Seman He nepnen- AUKYAApHa K MMOCKOCTH SKTHITHKH, a HakJIOHeHa K Heil Nog yrviom 66,5°. Boxpyr Coanua o6pamaiotcs 2eBath /rerecoms sknunmuxu Tjanet, BKovad Semmo. Bauxalimeit K f : Conauy naaneroh spaseren Mepxypuit PM,,2 1. 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Sra oOsexrot, Ha3bIBAeMBIE ACTCPOI/WINH, MOrYT PaCCMaTPMBaTbCA Kak MasHe MmaHeTEI. Twametp MHOrHX 113 HILX, TIO BCelt BeposTHOCTH, MeHbIIe 50 Kat. Paameppt sIMLUb HEKOTOPLIX acrepoHAOB mpeBpiualor 150 x. Camuri Gombuiolt 43 HHX, Uepepa, umecr xnametp 770 xm. OpOurst GonbulMAcTBa ACTEPOHJOB exKaT Mexay op6utamn Mapca u FOnwtepa; oHako YacTb ux pacnosoKena 3a NpeleaMu MOOCbI, OrpaHH4eHHO!t OpOuTAaMH STHX MtaHer. Crpyktypa, BKmoyaoman CoaHie, mlaneTst H acTepowsbl, HasbiBaeT- ¢a comHeunoH cacremoii. HavGonee BaxkHble XapaktepuctuKu naaHeT W YeTbIPeX CaMBIX 60/IbUIHX acTepougoB CyMMHpOBaHbI B Ta6a. 2.1. B stoi TAGAMIE NAAHeTbI H ACTEPOHALI PacNoNO*KeHLI B NOpsAKE BospacTaHus pac- cTosHMH UX Op6HT oT Coamuua. PaccTosHHe AaHoO B MMINMOHAX KAJIOMeT- POB, ACTPOHOMHYCCKHX CXHHHILAX H CBETOBOM BPeMeHY, T. e. BPeMeHH, KO- Topoe 3aTpaTHT cBeT, yTOGnI NpolitH ato paccroaHue. JIpyrue caegenua © Cosnue 1 comHeuHol cucteme npuBegenpi B ra. 8, Kpowe Counna, iianer 1 acTepougos, comHeaHan cHcTeMa cogepaKuT SoMUIOe KOANYECTBO 1a3a, NBII H HEOONbUINX Tex (B TOM YHC.Te MeTeopEl H KOMeTEI); BCe 3TO BMeCTe B3ATOe HaSbIBaeTCA MexKIaHeTHOH cpenoh. 2.3, HALA rAJIAKTHKA Coane Bcero Hn OHO H3 MHOPHX MHAAHOHOB cBeTH, KOTOpHIe o6pasyioT orpomHy!o cIMoUleHHy!o ckcTemy, BpalllaioulyiocA MoJO6HO TpoMaqHOMy AHCKy HAH Koslecy B KOCMHYeCKOM MpocrpaHcTse. Mjeasu- SHpOBaHHBI Ha6pocok sto cHcTeMLI, Ha3biBaemolt Haue TanaKTuKolt mala cuctemolt Maeunoro Tyra, npegcrapnex ua puc. 2.2, a. ¥Y Tanaxraka HMeeTCA NAOTHAA LeHTpatbHaM OOmacTh, HasbIBaeMaA ApoM. Bue apa Ha OrpOMHoe paccTomHHe MpocTHpawTca cnuparbHbe pyKaBa. Cnupaqbune PykaBa H npocTpaHcTBo MexKAy HUMH T10 opMe HanNOMHHAIOT MlocKH AMCK. Pykapa cranoBatea TOHbIIe BOTH3H Kpas AHcKa. H3-3a storo obcTOsTeTb- CTBa TPYAHO YCTaHOBUTb OMpeseNeHHblit THAMeTP AMCKa, HO OH TO MeHb- wei Mepe coctaBaser 10° cpeToBEIX 1eT. Tlockoubky 3eman pacnosoxkena BHYTPH Hawlei TanaKkTHKH, bl He MOKEM HaO/MONaTb ee H3BHe, KaK 9TO Mpesiosaraetca Ha pc. 2, 2, a. On- HaKO C MOMOMLbIO ONTHYECKHX TeNeCKONOB MOXKHO HaGuOAaTbh Apyrue ra- AKTHYCCKHE CHCTeMbI, YAaJleHHble OT Hallleli CoOcTBeHHOM Ha GovIbUIHe pacctonuua. Hekoroptie 13 HAX, 1O-BHAHMOMY, OWeHb HanOMBHaIOT Hally Panaxtuxy. TIpumepom takoli raiaktuKH sBanetca TymManHocth M 81 B cosesiuu Bospuioit Measequupr, cororpadua xKotopo jana na 1 O6oaxavenue M 81 onpegenser oOsexr 81 B Karamore Meccee, conepiKaluem 103 o6sexra. Stor Katasor Guim cocrapteH dpaHuyscKum actpouoMom Meccbe (17301817 rr.), Kotopsift usyuaa KoMerst. BueulNne rataKTHKH H Apyrie OOBERTHI, HMCIOMME BHA TYMaHHOCTeh NpH BaGMOEHAH B TeecKoN co cnaGuiM PaspemteHHeN, Guiak sanecenst Meccue B cHHCOK, YTOOH MPeOTAPaTHTL HOTepH BDEMEH MPH NOHC: kax Koner. StH oOeKTH MoraH GLITh OWLHOOUKO NPHUATH 3a KOMeTHI; TpeGoBaTOce MHOTO BPeMeHH, WTOGM B OTAUNHE OT KOMCT YCTAHOBHTb HENONBHAHOCTH STAX OOBEK- To Ha HeGecHol chepe. CnucoK oGsexton Meccse Ray B npHaoKennE 4. 27 puc. 2.2, 6. Xors nama PanakTuKxa Mover OTAMATECA OT M 81 oe JeTasax, sta hoTorpadusa jaet npelcTap.1eHue O TOM, Kak Sia tenes TaaktHka, ect cMOTpeTh Ha Hee C GoviLIlOro paccTOAHHs. 7 a eth ame How uactn TanaKtukn Ha @ororpadin puc. 2.2, 6 Oriaa oa eee SKCHOSHL; HosToMy H306paxKcnHe wpa TarakTHKH uMect 604 Pa3MepLi, YeM Ha CaMOM jlevIc. Hanpabrenun. WE TOME g Heber wa anmuuenma a i n (a), pororpapust coceaneit . 2.2. Haeaauaupopanuaa cxema named TasaxtaK ( bes rataxrnin M 81 cospesaum Bonbuio# Meswenunss (6). ComHeynaa cucTeMa pacriosoxeHa B OLHOM H3 CNHPa/IbHbIx eae amet TanaktuKn Ha paccTosuHH oKoso 3-10* cBeToBbIX aer oT oi pis pa. Comule H coceqiHe 3Be3fbI BpalllaioTCA MesWIEHHO BOKPY cel Bepllad OAUH OGOPOT MpH6ANsHTeIbHO 3a 300 MusanoHos ser. J eee pecevenHa WenTpatbHOl MocKocTH AHCKa C HeGecHolt cthepoit ee TamakTuyeckHii skBatop. O6iaa Macca Hamelt TanaKTuKu oueu! 3 _ 10! comHeyHbIxX Macc. : pacaausupenennioe nonepeunoe cevenHe Hamel TanakrHKu ee eno va pue, 2.3, a. Ha Hem us06paxena Takxe chepnueckat 28 (uam aso), oKpyruomast qucK. [orkocTs rao MeHbule, YeM y qucka HAM spa, HO Cro CocTaB, POpMa Hi TIPOTAXeHHOCTh TOUHO He H3BCTeHBI. B kavecre upumepa ia pac. 2.3, 6 ana cororpabus yzaenHolt ranaxru- kx (NGC 4565)', Buuimoit c pe6pa. Taocknit quck 4 APKOC ALPO ABAMIOTCR OMMINTEMDHBIMI OCOGeHHOCTAMH STOrO OGbeKTa. Buyua Takxe vepHan Mo10ca TEMHOTO BeulecTBa, PaCHOJOKeHHAA BAO WeHTPaAbHOH mO0cKOC- TH. Hukakux Caegos rao Ha potorpaun He gamerHo, XoTa OHO, BO3MOxK- Conewnar Puce. 2.3. Hxeanuanpo- [| cuarmena Banwoe nonepeyiioe ceue- nue nameit Panaxtaxe (@) w hororpadus ranax- taxa NGC 4565, augu- Moi c¢ pespa (6). V7 Coupe nore pyraba Axce (nenepewoe cevenue) HO, H CyulectByet. O6.1acTb paspexenHoro BeulectBa XOpOlUO MpocmaTpH- BaeTCA C MOMOLLbIO paguocpeacTs. CrpyKtypa Hamel TamaktuKxu o6cy2K- Aaetca Gostee JeTaabHO Brat. 8. Tipexxe vem Opa nonaTa npupona BHEMAHX TadlakTHK, OHH K1accH- (puitHpoBascb Kak TyMaHHOCTH B CHay HX AnysHoro, TyMaHHoro Bua. TlosxKe, Korya Obi10 OGHapyxeHO, 4TO OHH PacnovlowkeHbt Bre Hamel Ta- “WaKTHKH, HX CTA HasbIBaTb BHerasakTHYeCKHMH TYMAHHOCTAMH, B OT- amaHe oT HpysHLIX OGbeKTOB Hallelt coGcraenHot TaaaxtuKu. B na- * OSosuavenue NGC 4565 onpereanet o6vexr 4565 5 Karanore, ony 6anxo- BazHom JIpefiepow 8 1888 r, nox xaspannem New General Catalog (Hosstit o6uutit Katanor). Stor Karaor tyManHocrell H sbesKHbIX cKOreHI amernn OOuMH KaTa- Hor, onyOanxopanussti Pepurerem 1864 r. Tymannocts Angpomens, spaniomancn oGbextom 31 B Kataaore Meccse, nMeeT Honep 224 3 HoBom oOutem Karasiore. Takin 6pasom, ona OGosnauaercn Kax M 31 nan NGC 224. Hoss oOumit Katanor nMeet aba Coste NOsqMUX NpHAOKeHNA, NaBeCTHRX Kax Index Catalogs (Katanorn-y kage Tenn). Bee 97H Karaaory comeprxar naibe Gonee 13000 odsexton. 29 : CTOAMJeC BPeMA CYLLECTBYeT TEHACHMA HasbIBaTb BHErasak iMCCKHe TY- MAHHOCTH BHEUIHKMM TaslaKTHKaMH. Bawxatiuue Kk ComHiy 3Be3gbI oTcToAT oT Hero Ha pacctosiun 4 ene- TOBBIX eT, 2B paguyce 10 cBeTOBLIX JeT OT ComHUa PAacHOsOAeH JUTE O- CATOK SBCSIHbIX OOBEKTOB. Takat ape3ilad MAOTHOCIL COOTBeIC TBS eT TpHOasuTebHO 1 sBe3e Ha 350 KYGUUCCKIX CBETOBEIX steT, 10 si 1CTCA, BepOsTHO, THANE JI palionow cuMpastuamuAxX pykabon wamneit PasaKTH- KH Ha TAKHX PaCCTOsHAAX OF sUlpa. OJUIAKO MERAY PY KABAMH IW BIC HX MAOTHOCTS B TanaKTuke AOWLKMa ObILb MCUBMIC, B TO BPEMs Milk &b pyKaBaX BOIHSH ALpa WM B CaMOM Aspe IMOTHOCT) HAM TeIbHO BEATE B paguyce 16 cperosbix aer or Connma o6iapyaciio 55 spexyuubix o6textos. M3 nax 31 — soaupopannbie spesapt (nogobnbie Comniy), 18 — o6pasyioT 9 ABOfHEIX 3Be3,HBIX cucTeM (no_ObHBIX Cupuycy) 4 6 BXOAAT B COCTaB ,{BYX TPOfHbIX 3Be3{HbIX CHCTeM. B TaGa. 2.2 npHBerxeHb! 10 6an- okaituiux K CoaHUy M3BeCTHEIX 3Be32HBIX OOLEKTOB C UX BHHMbIMH 3Be3,1- HbIMH BeJIMYHHAMH H CBeTHMOCTDIO. TOmbKO ABa H3 HHX — Auta Llentas- pau Cupayc — Buqubr HeBoopy2Kennbim ria30m. CBeTHMOCTb 3Be3AbI MOKET ObITh BEIUHC/ICHa HCXOAA U3 ee BULUMO! 3Be3AOl BEHURHLI H paccToAHAA (cm. pasa. 2.15). Caerumocrs Counua 8 ra6u, 2.2 npunsta 3a elmAHty. Bee stu o6bekTb HMeIOT ropa3o MeHbIUyIo cBeTHMOCTD, YemM Cone, 3a ucKsMoueHHeM O6beKTos Arba Llextappa A u B, cBeTuMoctb KoTopsIx Toro 2ke TopsKa, ¥To w Conuua u Cupuyca A co cBerumocrbio, B 23 pasa 6oub- welt. TaGauua 2.2 Hecarb Gawmaiuux K Comnuy snesanbx o6vexton, ukaiouan Coamue [1] : Brawn Hassaune cbovanek rox] 3seattan | Ceeranoers Coane | 2.0 oe) Anvba Leuraspa A : : ; Anbpa ewraopa B \ apaliee “413 u7 | 0,98 Aavba Ienraspa C 43 ul 0,00008 Saeana Bapwapaa 6,0 9,5 | 0,004 Boawh 395 27 13,5 | 0,000 Jleittey 726-8 A ABolinat 7,9 12,5 0,00004 Heiren 7258.5} Gacrewa 79 13,0 | 0,003 Taaana 21185 8.2 7.8 | ,0,005 Cupnye A apoitnas 8,7 he | e3 ‘Cupuye B } cuerema 8.7 71 0,008 2.4, BHEPAJIAKTHYECKHE CHCTEMbI H BCEJIEHHAA Hawa Panakruka, wu cucrema Maeuxoro Ilytu, apasetca ogHoli cpe- 3M MHJWIMapJOB MOAOGHEIX CHCTeM, 3aNOAHAIOWHX KOCMHYeCKoe NpocrpaH- (TBO BO BCEX HANPaBIEHHAX Oo FPaHHLL, HPOHMKHOBEHHA CAMBIX GomBHNAX ‘teneckonos. XoTA BHeWHHe raaKTHKM H pasmMuaIOTcA No THI, MHOrHe H3 HUX UpescTaBAsoT CoOoH cruOMeHHEIe cHcTeMbI, NOLOSHBIe Hautelt Ta- 30 WaKTAKE, YTO MOSBOAACT MPEMIOAOKUTh, YTO OHH ABSIOTCH TAKKE Bpa- WaloulHMHCs! OGLeKTaMH. PaccrosHHe MexAY TaakTHKaMH B CpeqHeM co- cTaBadeT 3 MHJIIHOLA CBETOBEIX eT (TOUTH B 30 pas GombUIe AHaMeTpa Ha- mei Tanaxrukn). Bawxaiiuielt ranaxtuxoit, noqo6uoii Hauel, aBaserci TYMaHHOCTS Anapomexni (M 31), bororpahusa KoTopoli 7aHa Ha puc. 2.4: Ona Haxogutca Ha PAacCTOAHHH OKOMO ABYX MHJJHOHOB CBETOBLIX JIeT H HMeeT AHaMeTp 1,5-10° cserospix ser. M3 storo cnegyet, uTo TyMaHHOcTh Angpomenst MIpHG6NusHTeIbHO Toro xe PasMepa, YTO H Hala TamaKtuKa. TocKkoabKy ee Puc, 2.4. Cocenwas rasaiika M 31 2 cosnesan Angpowest, mbamomascn enu- pambuok raaaxtuxoh tuna Sb. MPOTAKEHHOCTS MO YPAY COCTABJAET HECKOMKO TpasycoB, HMeeTCA BO3- MoxHOCTD Gouiee JeTabHOro usy4eHHa M 31 no cpaBHeHHiO C ApyruMu yaa- SI@HHBIMM TalakTHKaMH [2, 3, 4]. C tymMannoctb¥o AxgpoMesbl CBASAHBI eule [Be MOACHCTeMLI (ee «cmyT- uuku») — M 32 w NGC 205. Ha dororpadux puc. 2.4 onH BEITAQAT He- ConbWHMH APKHMH MATHAMH BOAH3H WeATpa cHcTeMiI. M 32 pacnonoxKena HwxKe sapa, a NGC 205 phuue H BnpaBo or Hero. Ms06paxenue o6bexta C YeTbIPDMA BbIGpocaMH H Tato MpexcTaBaeT cool pesyibTaT mepesKcro- SHIMMH pH *ororpapupoBanun sBesabI Hamel TanaKTHKH, KoTopad pac- noroKeHa B HanpaBAenHH M 31, BuiGpoce! o6yciosazeHst Aucpakuvelt Ha BHYTPeHHHX Onlopax TpyObl Teseckora Bh a rajlo — He 4¥TO HHOe, KaK cBe- ToROH Kpyr, OOpasoBaBlluiica 3a cueT BHYTPeHHUX OTpaxeHHl B Tome @otorpapuseckoit ntactuaKkn. Togo6uaa a6eppauua B onrHyecKoM Tee- ckone MpHCyTCTByeT BO BCeX (pOTOHSOOpaxKeHHAX 3Be3Z, HO ORasblBaeTCA SaMeTHOH TOAbKO pH ororpaupoBaHu APKHX OGpeKToB. Ona anato- PHGHa, HO He O6A3aTeIbHO cxo_Ha C GOKOBEIMH JenecTKaMH AHarpaMMEt NaMpaBJl CHHOCTH aHTeHHbI paqHoTereckona (cM. ra. 6.). 3 Bawxaiimielt suemuelt ratakTHKon aBamorca Mareananoppt O6aaKa, TpexcTaBsOUyHe CoGO! OY W3 3AMCIMBIX OCOGeHHOCTe! W>KHOTO HeOa. Visnectupie Kak Boabutoe Mareastaiiono O6iaKo (BMO) 1 Manoe Marest- maHoBo O6.1ako (MMO), OHH HMCIOI jAMETPbl COOTBETCTBEHHO OKOMO 4 1041 1,5 10! cnetosnix acr i oliont of HeHTpa Hawlelt TaraKTHKH mourn na 2 10 %cperopny ner Xoist y boupimoro Maretaanopa O6aaKka H HaGMOAaclcs CTAGaN ICH CIMUDE bh CiuIpamDuol erpyktype, 06a 067aKa OMMCCCILE bk TaJAKTHKaM HerpaBasbHoit qopam Ia pic 25 nana @ororpapua Boapiutoro Mat¢.tiantopa ObsaKa Hawa Taaaninna 06a Mareaaa- HoBEIX O6jaka o6pasyior HeGostbuloe CKOMNJCHHE HA OTHOCHTeABHO KOMMAKT- uyio rpynmy ramaKtmK, paccrosHne MeK/y KOTOPIMH MeHbille paccToaHHit HO Apyrux OsmKaliwIHxX TalakTHK, Ta- KHX, Kak TyMaHHoctTb Axapomeaui. [lo- ckoabky Hauta PanakTaKa 3Ha4HTebHO Gonpme Mareaaanospix O6s1aKoB, m0c- JI@MHH@ MOAHO paccMaTpHBaTb Kak cHYTHHKH Hauren TanaKTuki aHavlo- THYHO Noszcucremam M 32 u NGC 205 TyManHocTH Anzpomextt (M31). Tlo ote KaaccnuKalu, OCHO- BaHHOl Ha Mopcosoruyeckux TpH3- HakaXx, TasaKTHKH jeqATcA Ha TPH OCHOBHBIX THNa: HenpaBHibuEe (I), cnupaspubie (S) 4 aastmnTuyeckue (E). Xa66n [2] nantee pasgenua cnupasp- HbIe raslakTUKH Ha TpH rpymmt Sa, Sb u Sc. Takoe qetenue orparkaer xa- pakTep cnupadbHoil crpykTypEt: Sa — cuyibHO saKpyveHHaA cnupaib,Sc — orkpbitas cnupastb H Sb — mpomexyTounas dopma. CnupasibHple raaKTH- xu M 81 (puc. 2 2, 6) uM 31 (puc. 2 4) ornocates K Tany Sb. Mpeanoma- raerca, 470 Halla TasaxTuKa Tak»Ke oTHOCHTCA K THY Sb. B HeKoTopblx cnupastbHbIx TamakTHKaXx, Kak Bnepsble 3amerHa Kyptuc [6], sapo He aB- AM€TCH KPYFOBBIM WI ciepHYeCKHM: OHO BEITAHYTO HW HMeeT BHA APKOl Nosocs. Takue raiakTuKH no KaaccuuKauuu Xa6Gaa HasEiBaloTcA ne- (peceueHHeLMu CnUpPAAbHoiMU TaakTHKaMH (THM SB), pasje1MIOLUMHCA B 3a-, BHCHMOCTH OT XapakTepa CHpadIbHOM CTpyKTYpbl Ha TPH MOArpynnbt (SBa, SBb u SBe). fanaxtuxa NGC 1300, nokasarnan na pic. 2.6, mpexcraBiier coGoii mpuMep nepeceyenuoii compas tuna SBb. ¥ mepecetenHolt cnu- Pad pyKaBa MpHCoeMHMOTCA K KOHIaM MepeMBIYKH WH MOMOCL, B TO BpeMA Kak y OOBINHOM cnHpalH pyKaBa HavHHaloTcA H3 MWeHTpasbHoro apa. OQuUIMIITHYeCKHe TatakTHKH HMeIOT CHMMeTPHYHEIe opMbl 6e3 BAAH- Moii BHYTpeHHeii CTpyKTypbI. OHM mompasqermotes Xa66.10M B cooTBeTcT- BHH c HX autunTHIHOCTbIO oT E 0 (KpyroBas dopa) Jo E 7 (custbuo criao- ujennas @opma) Kaactuuxanaa ocHopava Ha BHAKMO! dpopMe raiaKTHK, a He Ha HX JelicrsutenbHom dope. Tak, raakTuKa, O6osHayeHHad Kak 32 Puc. 2.5. Boamoe Maresnanoso O6iaxo, nenpapuasnan ranax- TAKA 1.0, 8 tcnersnienpnoc in Moxer oKazatbea E 7, BuquMoii ¢ UIMpoKoit cTo- pou Leriuitat ac Cpepaeckast rataKTHka JoupKHa 6uITh O6o3HateHa hak LO tue sanicumocra oT ee OpHeHTalHH M0 OTHOLIeEHMIO K HabuOLa- least |. neitpanit ibubim ralakTHKaM, O6o3HayeHHBIM uepes I, npunaqnexaT Hint OGCh IL, hOTOPbIe HeyIb3m OTHECTH HH K CIHPAIbHBIM, HH K 9/JIHT- IhucC iia, (\ J 10 Ha3BaHHIO, AX (POpMa aCHMMeTPHHA, WIM HeMpaBHaE- MA OU Latah THKA MOPYT HMeTb, a MOTYT H He HMeT ONpesesteHHyto, pas- ‘iuuimyio Cipyktypy. Marenaanope! O6aka oTHocaT K HenpaBiutbHEIM Hada stukaMm, Bombitoe OG1aKo (puc. 2.5) umeer cTpykTypy, HanomMuHaio- Puc, 2,6, Tanaxtuxa NGC 1300— nepecevennaa coupaab. ee cnupanb (SB), ogHako cnmpaabuaa crpyxtypa empa : TOMY 3JCb HET JOCTATOUHEIX OCHOBaHHI JT: * Tee WIA TaKOH K1ac: Xa660 o6pequnn KJaCCbI CIMPAbHbIX H S/MNTHYCCKHX TalakTHK on nea omer hopmy KaMeptoua, Kak noKa3aHo Ha puc. 2.7 BBe THI B KauecTBe mepexogHol opMb Mex, Wom eae op: Ay CIMpaJAMH Hi 9J1- 7 Ha ocnose qanbueitmux uccneyopanui Xa66n, a noaynee Consumx PasBAIH NepBoHayaIbHy KaccuHKalHto Gosee jetabHo. Ha ocHo- ze STHX H APYrHx uccnezoBanul Boxynép [8] mposer zanbueiiuy10 ’ ean oo. BBUICNUB YeTBIPe OCHOBHLIX KJIac- 5 g HYeCKHE » Yevepueobpasupie (SO), cnn (S) 4 Henpasuabupee (I). H oS Muorue rasaxtuku Berpeyatotca B Bye ABOlHLIX cHcTem. B HeKOTO- ne TadaKTHKaX 3aMeTHBI HapyWeHHA B CHUPaNbHLIX pyKaBax, MOCTBI Wilt Me@peMBIYKH MexKy HHMH. Takoro poga cn " . crt y tae ion pon MBI ObWIH H3YYeHBI LL 33 TanakruKu pacnipeseeHet B KOCMHYeCKOM MpocrpalicrBe Heo HOpOn- HO M, 110-BHJMMOMY, HMel0T TeHAeHIMIO K rpynmuposKe. [pynist pastayHEt lO YHCCHHOCTH OT ABOMHEIX CHCTEM H HeOOMbUINX Ppyiil, CoeprAalNX He- CKOJbKO FalakTHK, QO OFPOMHBIX CKOMACHHi, HaCHNTHBUIONLNX ‘ThICHUH TamaktuK. Hama co6crsenuaa Tanaxruxa ¢ Marevranopiimn O6saKamn oOpasyer cucTemy u3 Tpex rasaKTHkK. Tymatnocrh Anpomeaut M 31 co. cnyrauxamn M 32 1 NGC 205 rake o6pasyior rpoiinyio cuciesty. StH ABE TPOMHBIC CHCTEMLE H NCCKOSIDKO APYLUX OMDKATIIX MaAKTHK COCTaB- ASOT MECTHYIO FpyMNy raslakTHK € HONEpCMNtKOM Gostlee 2° MHJIHOHOB CBETOBEIX J1eT. Caupanenoie Sa Sb Se N. Ore SBa S8b s8c Nepecevernoie cnupanu Sanurinudeckue o--@ --ap fa ES EZ So. Puc, 2.7. Jnarpamma XaOGna ya pasmHunHx THNOB raaaKTHK, Bawxaiimee Gombuioe cKonsenve ratakTHK HaXoqHTCA B Co3Be3qHH Jess. To sce BeposTHocTH, OHO pacnomoxKeHO OT Hac MeHee 4eM B 20 MHJWIMOHAX CBETOBBIX JleT H CogepxKKT OKO 500 ranaxtuK. Hmewtcs oc- HoBanusa monaratb [10], yro Hala MecTHaa rpynma u cosBesque Jesu 06- PpasyloT yacTb MecTHOH CBepxXraaKTHKU Cc WeHTpoM B cosBesqun J[eBEr (cm. pas. 2.12). . Onno 13 HaMdombUHX CKONJeHHH raaKTHK HaXOAHTCA B CO3Be3qHH Bonocbt Beponuku. Oxo yAasieno MOUTH Ha CTO MHJIIHOHOB CBETOBBIX eT H COsepxKAT OKONO THICAYH TataKTHK. KocmH¥eckoe rpocrpaHcTsBo B Mpeze- NaX, HCCeLOBaHHLIX C MOMOL{bIO GOTbUHX TeIeCKONOB, 3anOHeHO Ta- WaKTHKAaMH, GOMbIHHCTBO H3 KOTOPHIX HaXoguTca B cKorMeRuAX. J\ua- MeTP STHX CKOMVJIeHHH, 10-BAMMOMY, Mops#yKa 130 MHaAHOHOB CBeTOBBIX ver [11]. : O6bem KOCMHYeCKOrO MpocTpaHcTBa, AOCTyNALIA ATA HCcCTeqOBaHHHt ¢ MOMOULbIO TemecKOTIOB, cocTaBseT HaGMOgacmyto0 yacTb Bcesennoit. Ka- kopa Halla BcesenHan 3a mpezenamu storo oGbeMa, ee MpoTs2KeHHOCTb H SBOMOLHA — BCe STO OTHOCHTCA K MpO6seMaM KOCMOAOTHH, 3alaqH KOTO- pol o6cyxaaoTes B pasg. 8.11. 2.5. COOTHOWEHHE PASMEPOB Takne e1MHMIBI paccTOAHHA, KaK ACTPOHOMHYCCKaH eAHHHMa H CBeTO- Boil TOA, HACTOJIbKO BEMKH B CpaBHeHHH c paccToAHHAMH Ha Semte, YTO OCH TPyHO BOCIPHHHMaTb HX BeNHUHHY. [lo sToli npwyHHe HHOrAa No- 34 YANTOMLNO COKPATIUL (\MCHDIUAT) ACTPOHOMHYeCKHe MacuITaGLt 40 Gore MPHBLIMAN. ‘Takin yicM Mbr MoxwKeM JOOHTbCA AyuWero MOHMMaHHA COOTHOUICHIM Piucen.iPubaeMbIx pasMepos. Ilycrb, HanpuMep, pH pac- CMOTPCHNT COsMeHON CHCTEMBI MBI COKpaTHIH pasMep .Hamerpa Comaya ¢1,1- 10" at wo 50 cst, EcuH Mbl COOTBETCTBEHHO YMCHBIIHM BCe OCTAJIbHbIC Paimepi w cosmcunol cacreme!, TO Quamerp Seman cocTaBHT 4 mm, a ee paceioaune or Comana — oxoso 54 #. Inamerp Mapca 6yger papen mpH- GaN siie.ibO MOAOBAHE SeMHOrO M ero paccTomHHe Jo Connta cocraBuT 82 a1. VnrantcKas naaneta IOnatep yMeuburmtca 10 sto uKame yo 5 cm B AWaMerpe H 6ydeT UyTb Goble MA4a AAA UPpEI B rob; pamuyc ee op- 6urbt Boxpyr Comma cocraBuT oKono 280 m. HanOovee yasenHad aHe- Ta comHeyHOH cuctembl, TnyTou, MpH6AH3HTeAbHO Toro 2%Ke pa3Mepa, YTO u 3emas, OyteT HaXOLMTbCA Ha paccToAHUH OKOTO 2100 m. Takum o6pa- 30M, YveHblenHad comeyHan cHctema c Comuuem gHamerpom 50 cm B WeHTpe 6yAeT UMeTb O6uLHi pasmep oKo70 4 Km. Boabive pacctosHHn Mexy O6bEKTAMH H OTHOCHTe/bHaA MyCTOTa COMHeYHOH CHCTeMbI HarsiAay- HO BHHEI H3 STOro NpuMepa. Ec.H Mbl pacnpoctpaHuM Ty xe IKaJIy YMeHbIeHHA 3a MperedbI Com- HeYHOlt CHCTeMBI, TO paccToAHHe 20 Gryxaliei 3Be3sbI (OKO 4 cBeTO- BbIX let) cocraBuT oKoN0 14500 xm. TIpumMenas sty >ke uIKamy, MBI nony- 4HM JIs| PACCTOAHHA OT CONHEYHOH CHCTeMb! AO UeHTpa HaweH TanaKTHKH (3-108 caeronsix ser) 100 nyittMouos KuuoMerpoB. 3to paccrosnue yrxe TPYAHO MpeACTaBHT, XOTA OHO jaHO yA YMeHbUeHHO! B 3-10° pas Ta- wakTiKH Apyroi nonesupiit nyT cpaBHeHuaA pagMepos Hallelt comHedHOl CH: crembi c pasMepamu TaqaxTuky saksowaeTcA B MepeBose Bcex paccronHnit BO BpeMA, HEOGXOLHMOE JIA MpOXOAKTCHHA STHX PaccTOAHHli cBeTOBLIMH, paiHO- HIM APYTHMH 31eKTPOMarHHTHBIMH BOHAaMH. Bce 3TH BOsHEI HMeiOT ONWHAKOBYIO CKOpOCTb pacnpocrpaHenua B BaKkyyme — 3-105 Km cex—, Zamna semHoit oKpy2KHOcTH, BbIpaxkeHHad Yepes BpeMaA pacnpocrpaHenua 9THX BOTH, cocTaBaseT 0,13 cBeTOBOH CeKYHbI, paccToAHHe oT 3emiM JO Coanua — oxo 500 cBeTosnix cekyHA, AHaMeTp ComHeYHOl CHcTeMEt — okouo 11 cBetosbix yacos. PacctoaHve or Comnita 70 GrvKaliueit 3ne3yet 6yyer papno 4 cBeToBbIM rogam, a paccToaHue ot Comnua Jo wextpa T'a- aakTakn — oxo 3-10* cBerosuix ser. [uamerp nawelt TanaKTHku 6onb- ule Toro paccTosHuA BTpoe u paBeH 10° cBeTOBBIX eT. Bee atu, a TAaKKE HW Apyrve pacctTosinusa, npexcTaBasmouHe HHTepec, NpHBEACHEI B Taba. 2.3. Tlpegcrasaenue o Bcenenxoii na prc. 2.8 qaHo B BHJe pagza Mocaego- BaTevIbHBIX CXeM C GOONbIWOM cTeneHbiO yMeHbuweHHA [12]. Ha nepBoli cxeme (puc. 2.8, a) npegcrapyena cucrema 3emin—JIyna c¢ Semueii B wentpe, Ha caenyrulel cxeme u30SpaxkeHa co/HeyHad cHCTeMa. Ha nei paccrosuva YMeHbUICHEI To cpaBHeHMio c mpesbizyulel cxemolt B 10* pas. Tperba cxema (puc. 2.8, e) mokasppaer B HyeaTH3MpoBaHHoli «popMe oKpectHocTb comHeuHof cuctempl. Tpeqnonaraetes, 470 3Be3gHI HaXOMATCA B y3lax KYOuYeCKOH pellleTKH Ha paccroaHHH B 5 CBeTOBBIX JIeT o4Ha OT Apyroli. EcrecTBeHHo, 4TO sBe3fbI pacnodarajoTcA He B TaKOM T0+ 1 Crenenb ymenimenus cocrasaser 3.10%. 2 35 Tabanna 2.3 Paccrosuus, mupamenuise yepes mpems Pacupocrpanenus cneta Hn HapceKax Pace vosius: 3 anaerpot Ceca ape an Hapa Hoto-Flopx —JTon ton 0,02 cn Oxpysxnocrs Semin OLS aw Bema —Jlyna 13 cen Bena —Comune (1 a. e.) 500 cen Beman—Benepa (umit.) 2,3 sur 3emaa—Benepa (MaKe) 14 mui Bewaa—Mape (wit.) 2,8 mun Seman —Mape (maxc.) 21 nua Comine—Mayrout 5,5 wae Tuamerp coaeroii cncremet 1i vac Coanue—Gnurxaiiuiat spesga 4 rora 1 Connue—neurp Tanaxrincit 30.000 ater 9000 Auaerp Fanaxraxn : 100 000 aer 30.000 Pacctosnme xo coceguell sHeuielt rasaxtuxu (M31) 2-108 ner 600 000 Paccrosune xo JleGeas A 600-10" jer 200-108 Pacctoaune 10 HeGecHoro ropison- Tat 10 000-108 ner 3000-108 + 1 napeex=3,26 cneronoro rosa ** Jan onnoposiio pacumpaouelien Beexcnwofl mp mocrosmuo © Xa66aa, pasxol 100 xa-cex~1-Mne~}. (em, pasa. 8,11). anke, a jelicrsuTerbHble pacctoanua or ConHia 20 3Be3q mpHBeseHbt Ta6a. 2.2. Macuira6 puc. 2.8, 6 yMeHbuieH no uIKaJle To CpaBHeHHto CO CxeMolt comHeunol cucremmt B 10* pas. Puc. 2.8, 2 maeT ynpouennoe npesctasie- nve Hamel Tanaxruku; Comnue pacnosloaxeHo Ha paccTOAHHH oKosO 3-10! caerosnix ser or denTpa amakruku: YMeubitiene mo wiKkate TakxKe papxo 10‘ no cpasHenHio co cxemoii oxpectHocteit Comnua. Ha puc. 2.8, 0 ava uleausupoBaniaa KapTaua oxpecruocteit Taaaxtukn u Merarasax- tuKu. [peqnonaraetca, 4To ralakTHKH pacnoroxeHEI OHOPOAHO B Ky6u- yeckoli pellleTKe C pacCTOAHHeM MexKAY HUMH B 2 MH.WIHOHA CBETOBBIX J1eT, PeabHoe paciojoxwKeHHe TrasakTHK, KOHeYHO, He mpexcTaBaxeT coGoit cTOAb OLHOpomHyIo Kaptuny. Hama Tanakruka HaxoguTca B UeHTpe puc. 2.8, 0. YMenbuleHve no llkane Ha 3TOM PHCyHKe MO cpaBHeHHIO C puc. 2.8, 2 pasno 40. Mocaequas cxema (puc. 2.8, e) npeqctapaseT Ha6m10- daemyio Beenennylo, orpanwuenny!o «HeGecHbIM TOpH3OHTOM> C paHycoM B 10" cperonnix tet H MeraraaKTHKOa B ueHTpe. 3yecb mpegnomaraetca MOJeIb OLNOpOLHO pacuimpmomeiicn Bcenennof co ckopocTbw paciln- peHua, paBHolt cKopocTH cBeTa, H GeCKOHe4HBIM KPaCHbIM CMeLeHHeM OKO- 410 ropusouta. [Tpocrpanctso BuyTpH HeGecHoro TOpHsOHTa CosepAHT, TO Beeii BepoatHocru, 100 muaanapjos (10") ratakTHK * co cpeqHHM MexK- 2 Tlockomsky tunwwHan raaaktuka conep%KuT 10" sBeax, HaOmogaeman sacTs Beenenuoli, wasepwoe, uacuuruinaer came 10% aaeag. - 36 TasakTHMCCKHM PaccrosHEM TOPAAKA HECKOMKHX MMAJHOHOB CBETOBLIX ger, Dia cama yMeubilleHa 10 cpaBHenmo ¢ puc. 2.8, B 5-10* pas. O5- nee YMCHLINCIE pa sMepoB Ha pH. 2.8, e MO OTHOMeHMIO K pasMepaM Ha puc. 2.8, a cocian pier 2.1027, Sgumaitueuy "3603061 ‘t ~~ Opduma, ~S_ 5 cbemaboe nem~~ ayes [380000 «m ane ae es oat jenna —~"Connewnan euomema . ce Auamemp 100000 ‘cdemasyx nem 70000 man cbemobeix 2em 5000 {sea Jphee 4 7. Mecmnord yea8 10000 xt nT oxaggmers Grumsite ee Tanoxmun Hebectuid i 50000 cbermdbex oT yenensie lag a © zepusonm 8 CosempancmBo aem pgnba yanoniend mennuapoamit a aneximite y me Puc, 2.8, [ects cxem oxpyxaiomero Hac _mupa, Hainan or cucrewst Senaa— Ilya w Kowvan ace Bcesensoi. Kaxeaan cxena yaewpuiena no cpasseniio © mpentayweR s Ykazannoe weno pas. O6mee yetbulemme maciuraca coctauaser 2-10", Ha nactenien exeme foxasaita, nonoateuin Hexotopux wenGonee yaaacHuisx mu NOUtbix. PaAHONeTOMIIKoD. 2.6. JMATPAMMA «MACCA— PA3MEP OBDbEKTA» Ecau Hapajy ¢ pasMepaMu O6beKTOB paccMoTpeTb HX MaCCEI, TO MOx- HO COCTaBMTb AHarpaMMy «Macca—pasmep OObeKTa», KoTOpad H306paxKeHa na puc. 2.9. na Kaxgoli TouKH Ha AMarpamMe a6cunccoit cayKUT aM- nefinetit pasmep (quaMeTp), a opgHHaToli — Macca omperereHHoro o6bek- ta. Ha XMarpamMe mpegxcTaBaenbl OObeKTEI OT ATOMHDIX YacTHIL 10 Ha6.tI0- Aaemoi Beesenuol. )KupHaa mpamaa JMHHA mpopesena jn OObeKTOR € OTHOMUIeHHeM «Macca—pa3Mep o6peKTa», PaBHbIM cpedHeli morHoc- TH Bowl, Bore cBeTable Naparienbabe JIMHHH COoTBeTeTBYIOT M10THOC- TAM OONbUIe HIM MeHbIe, YeM y BOLbI, NpHYeM War cocraBssKer 10 MHsTHap- gos (10"). B uentpambiof oGaacrh yuarpawMel Bce OGveKTHL GN3Kit 1 Xora annus B crporom cwsicne coorpercrayer siMmb o6teKTaM KY6nIECKOM opmul, ova AaeT nopagox BeAHUNUM Ana GoaDUUNCTBA OGREKTOB Apyroll hopML. Hanpunep, chepuuecknit o6bext c TaKolt xe maoTHOCTBIO, Kak Y BoM, UNeeT OTHO- ulenue Macca/pasMep O6veKa, paBlioe mooBuHe TOTO, TO MBI NoayuNM WS Puc. 2.9. Hax aorapudsuseckoh aan puc. 2.9 Koxpdpunnenr 2 naer ene pasmuunyio pasumuy. 37 K JIMHHH TOCTOAHHOM MOTHOCTH Bomb. OAHaKO CyulecTByeT onpesenenHan TeHJeHUMA K MeHbuleli IOTHOCTH 1A OUCH GoAbUIHX OObeKTOB H K Gomb- Uleit TMIOTHOCTH {UIs OVCHb MaMIBIX. Kak oueHb Maable, Tak 1 O4eHb GosbiHe pasMepbl OGbeKTOB cosep- XKaT BHaYHTeAbHYIO Heompexetennoctb. JIA H3MepeHHA OYeHb MaVIbIX Taomuacms Boies Bone nnomnee | Menee naomnoe - | pe leege ey Cryprnux bupayon (3bexda ragea | Paburmauuon- ik Cth @ Borconod nnomnocrisio} é Mnomuocins 8 88 8 BG 10%. Hebmobaeuaa e Beenewian : esse = cimbuR = or 9. cna dare Mauda Graeme HOpManoHEIX epabumayuonHon oun a? 79 Pasuep obvexma, M Mubore obbex/n67 Obnacme Api edembun Suu nocmosnwod nnomuocme dra CUnbHbIX ~~} 008 M=105L5, ede M-macca, xe, amounon Sf, L-Onuna, ae ABepnenx v1 Lo D 7 pe 10 / Puc, 2.9, JIvarpawma «tacca—pasmep oOsekrar Ana pagaHunex o6BeKToR. PaccTosHHit HeoOxoAuMa CpaBHHMas C STHMH paCCTOAHUAMH JWIMHa BOJHEL, KpaxT sHepra MOKHO MpeqCTaBHTb Kak iv=h—-, (2.1) rye h = 6,63-10~-** dow .cex —noctosunaa TaanKa; c = 3-108 #-cex~1— cKopoctb cBeta; v — 4actora (ey); A — AuIMHa BOAHBI (m1). 38 Zina ponust 10-4? st aneprua KBaHTa 6yzeT MopsgKa 10% doe, uro no- TlaqaeT B SHEPrerHucckne MpezesbI ATOMHOM GomGsI. Orciona scHa Henpak- THYUHOCTh H3MCPCHHi TAKHX MaJIbIX PaccTOMHHH H, CleLOBaTeIbHO, Helle- aecoo6pasuocth oGcyxsqenHA sTAxX Bompocos. Bonna nopagka 10” # S@KUT Ha rpauiic MpakTHyecKHxX BosMorxKHOcTelt [13]. HMerorca Take HeONpenesciocrH MpH H3MepeHHH OveH GombWHX paccTroanHh. Tak, PACCTOSHNS, NPEBBILAIOMHE HECKOMDKO MHJAHApOB CBETOBBIX JleT, yxKe CBAZAHbI ¢ ONpeseneHHO MoyeAbiIo BcewenHod H syecb cyulecTBeHeH BEI- 6op noctomnHol Xa66na (cm. pasg. 8.11). 2.7, CHCTEMbI KOOPMHAT Tlaa na6mogatens, pacnosorkenHoro Ha Semue, HMeeTCA HECKOAbKO KOOPAMHATHBIX CHCTEM, KOTOPBIe MO/le3HO 3HaTb PH paccMOTpeHHH Mos0- OKeHHA HeOecHbix oObekToB. OTH KOOpAHHAaTHbIe CHCTeMbI H OCHOBHBIC TJOCKOCTH, OTHOCHTEIbHO KOTOPBIX OHH MOCTPOeHb!, TaKOBBI: 1) 2opusonmaasnan cucmema KOOpAWHaT, OCHOBaHHaA Ha MIOCKOC- TH, MapagenbHol ropusonty; 2) akeamopuaabxele KOOpOUNaMbL, OCHOBAHHBIe Ha MIOCKOCTH, Mpo- Xogamel yepes semHol skBaTop; 3) skaunmudeckue KoopOuHnamol, OCHOBAHHBIe Ha MWIOCKOCTH, Mpoxo- qsaujeli yepes op6uty Seman; 4) eaaakmuueckue KoopOunamel, OCHOBAaHHbIe Ha MlocKocTH, napan- fejbHO mnockocTu TaaakTuku, 5) ceepxeanaxmuueckue (uau memazanaKmudeckue) KoopOuxamet, Oc- HOBAHHbIe Ha MOCKOCTH, NapadeAbHOH Tok, B KOTOpO! HaGmMogaeTCA 3a- Me€THaA M€CTHAA KOHUCHTPallHA BHELUHHX lalakTHK, Hmxe KpaTKo OnH- CbIBaeTCA Kak ad H3 ykKaSaHHbIX CHCTeEM. 2.8, TOPH3OHTAJIBHAA CHCTEMA KOOPJLHHAT B stoi cucTeMe maockocTh, MpoxogAllad Yepes TOUKy HaGO_eHHA TlapasebHO TOPH3OKTY, ABNAeTCA MOcKOcTHIO oTcueTa. Ha puc. 2.10 NOKASaHbl MoOCa: SeHHT (TOUKa Hal TonoBo HaGmoZaTena) H Hakup (aquaMetpabHO NporHBonosOKHaA TOUKa). Beprukaibunlit Kpyr, mpoxo- AsllHA yepes HeGecHBIli OObeKT, mpoekTHpytoutuiica Ha HeOecHyio cpzpy W SCHHT, HaSLIBAeTCA BePTHKAIbHBIM KpyTOM OObeKTa WIM BepTHKasOM. Koopjunatel oObekta onpelermotcsd a3HMYTOM, T. €. YrvioM B MMocKocTH TOPH3OHTa, OTCHHTEIBACMBIM OT MIPOH3BONbHO 3apHKCMpoBanHoro Hanpas- nexus (o6b4HO HalpaBsenus ua or’) no YacoBoi crpenKe Jo BeprHkana oObeKTa H BbICOTOM HIM YrOM BOSBLINeHHA, OTCUMTHIBAMbIM OT IIIOCKOC- TH TOpHsoHtTa Ao O6bekta. Borpuloi Kpyr, mpoxogamui yepes TOUKH ce- Bepa H 10Fa HM 3eHHT, HasbIBaeTca HeGecHEIM MepHAuanoM. Boaputoit Kpyr, MpOoXogsuuit Yepes TOUKH BOCTOKa H Sarlalla H 3eHHT, Ha3bIBaeTCA epBSIM BepTHKasiom. 1B reoxesuu — wanpasaenus Ha cesep. (Ipus. ped.) 39 Koopaunatit HeGecHoro o6beKTa B TOpH30HTaMBHOl CHcTeMe KoopjH- HaT HenpepBIBHO MeHAIOTCA H3-3a BpawienuA Seman. [lostomy, Xora u yqo6- HO HCHOAb3OBATb BHICOTY H a3HMYT Np ycTaHoBKe Teseckona, KoTOpEIit TOXBWKCH OTHOCHTEABHO BePpTHKANbUOl WH TOpH3OHTAabHOH ocei (a3zn- MYTa/IbHO-BEPTHKaIbHad MOHTHPOBKa), BCe Xe TOPH3OHTaIbHad cucTeMa kaye mepudiana Leben Pue, 2.10. Fopisoaraapian cuicrema koopauuar MeHee yOOHa NpH oOMpeseneHHH MomOxKeHUA HeGecHOro OGbeKTa To cpaB- HeHHIO C CHCTeMOMi, B KOTOPOH 9TO MOTOAKeHHe OTHOCHTEbHO UKCHPOBaHO, Kak, HallpHMep, B SKBaTOPHaJbHOlt cHCTeMe KOOPAKHAT, OMHCEIBaeMoiL B caegyroujem pasyene. 2.9. SKBATOPHAJIDHBIE KOOPHHATbI B stoi cucteme semuoit skBatop aBameTcA maocKocTbIO oTcyera. To- MOCaMH ABJIAIOTCA TOUKH MepeceveHA 3eMHO OcH c HeGecHoli chepolt — Boobpaxkaemoli NOBepxHOCTHIO, yia/leHHOli Ha Gosbiice paccToaHue c 3em- lei B uentpe. Tomoca Ha3biBaloTca: ceBepHEI momoc Maya (\) H toxKHBIii momoc Mupa (S). OxpyxHocTb, oGpazopanHan Mepecedenvem HeGecHoit cipepst mu10- CKOCTbIO 3EMHOTO SKBAaTOpA, .HasbIBaeTCA HeGeCHEIM SKBaTOpoM. Bospuioii KPYT, MpoxomAuHit yepes Momoca MHpa H OGbEKT, Ha3MBaeTCA YacoBbIM KpyroM o6bekTa, a Goublof Kpyr, MpoxogAuMit yepes Momoca mupa H 3e€HHT, — KpyroM HeGecHoro MepuHaka. Koopaunatsl He6ecHoro O6BeK- Ta OMPeeAAIOTCA CKOHCHHeM HII YTOM MexKy He6ecHbIM 9KBaTOPOM H OObEKTOM H MIpsIMbIM BOCXOXKCHHEM HH YIVIOM, OTCHTEIBACMBIM OT TIpo- H3BONbHO BbIGPaHHOH TOuKH (TOUKa BeCeHHero PaBHOCHCTBHA) Ha 3KBa- Tope Jo YacoBoro Kpyra o6bextTa. CxtoHenne (5) 3anucbiBaeTca B rpanycax; OHO MOJOKHTEMDHO, CCIM OObEKT HAXOHTCA CeBepHee 9KBaTOpa, UH OTPH- WarebHO, ecru woxKHee (—90° <6 < +90°). Ha puc. 2.11 o6vexr pac- nosioxKen Ha 30° cepepHee HeGecnoro skBatopa (6 = +30°), 1a Habmo- AaTen#, HaXogsuleroca B TONKe 30° cepepHOil IMHpOTEI, STOT OGbeKT Gy ZeT MPOXOgNTb Yepes SCHHT MPH NepeceyeHHH HM MepHaMaHa. TIpsamce socxoxyenne (x) OTCuHTbIBaeTcH K BOCTOKY OT TOUKH BeceH- HefO paBHOJeHCTBHA M BbIpaxkaeTcA H6O B rpagycax (0° < a < 360°) 40 HAH, YTO Gouice ynorpeGuTeNbHO, B Yacax, MHHYTAaX H CeKyHax BpeMeHH (08