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я .

л к с е р с ж с \

Д.С. Савченко
Г.М. Травина
Ф ЕДЕРА Л ЬН О Е АГЕНСТВО ПО О БРА ЗО ВА Н И Ю И Н А У КЕ
П СКОВСКИЙ ГО СУ ДА РС ТВ ЕН Н Ы Й П ЕДА ГО ГИ ЧЕСК И Й У НИ ВЕРСИ ТЕТ
им. С.М. КИ РО В А

Д .С . С а в ч е н к о
Г .М . Т р а в и н а

Newspaper Article Rendering


(Учебное пособие для студентов 4-го и 5-го курсов
факультета иностранных языков)

ПСКОВ
2005
Б Б К 8 1 .2 Англ.- 923
С 1 3>*

Печатается по реш ению кафедры английского язы ка П ГП У им. С.М. Кирова.

Рецензенты:
Т.С. Рыжова - кандидат филологических наук, доцент, заведую щ ая кафедрой английского
язы ка ПГПУ им. С.М . Кирова;
Н.К. Никонова - кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры английского язы ка ПГПУ им.
С.М. Кирова.

Д.С. Савченко, Г.М. Травина


N ew spaper Article Rendering (Реферирование газетны х материалов на английском языке):
Учебное пособие для студентов 4-го и 5-го курсов факультета иностранны х языков. - П сков,
2 0 0 5 ,- 135 с.
ISBN 5 -8 7 8 5 4 -3 7 2 -9

Цель настоящ его учебного пособия формирование и соверш енствование навыков и умений
работы с материалами англоязычной и русскоязычной прессы. П редлагаемая м етодика
способствует расш ирению активного вокабуляра студентов по наиболее актуальным проблемам
современности, а также страноведческих знаний; развитие навыков поискового и
информативного чтения, перевода, реф ерирования газетных: статей и соверш енствование
навыков устной и письменной дискуссии.
Пособие предназначено как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов 4
и 5 курсов факультета иностранных языков, английское отделение.

Б Б К 81.2 А н гл . - 923
С 12

ISBN 5 - 87854- 3 7 2 - 9
CONTENTS

P re fa c e ................................................................................................................................................................4

N ew spaper Article R endering (o u tlin e)....................................................................................................... 6


4 курс .................................................................................................................................................................... 9
U nit 1: Reading N e w sp a p e rs...................................................................................................................... 10
U nit 2: Politics.................................................................................................................................................. 18
Unit 3: Econom y.............................................................................................................................................. 36
Unit 4: W elfare................................................................................................................................................49

Unit 5: E ducation.............................................................................................................................................56
U nit 6 : Art and C ulture...................................................................................................................... ............66
5 курс ...... .............. ............. ......................................................... . ........... ................ ....................................74
U nit 1: Revising N ew spaper V ocabulary................................................ ................................................. 75
U nit 2: Foreign and H om e Policy............................................................................................................... 77
U nit 3: Econom y...... ......................................................................................................................................92
U nit 4: High -T e c h ........................................................................................................................................ 97
U nit 5: Space.............................................................. ....................................................................................101
Unit 6 : Education............................... ........................................................................................................... 105
Glossary 4 курс.............................................................. .............................................................................. 108
Glossary 5 курс............................................................................................................................................. 121
Appendix 1...................................................................................................................................................... 130

Appendix II..................................................................................................................................................... 133


Bibliography...................................................................................................................................................134

J
PREFA CE

Основой д л я разработки курса реферирования газетны х статей англоязычной и


русскоязычной прессы является тот факт, что серьезное изучение иностранного языка
обязательно предполагает изучение разны х его подсистем. Одной из важнейш их
является язык средств массовой информации' и, в частности, периодики, обучение
которому составляет неотъемлемую часть подготовки специалистов лингвистического
профиля.
Помимо этого, работа с газетой позволяет также осущ ествлять
профессионально-педагогическую ориентацию процесса обучения, раскрывая
преимущества и разнообразные методические технологии работы с газетными
материалами, которы е могут быть успеш но использованы студентами в их
дальнейшей проф ессиональной деятельности.
Более того, данны й аспект программы такж е помогает в реализации
общ еобразовательной и воспитательной целей. В частности, ознакомление студентов с
особенностями газетного стиля английской периодики и соверш енствование навыков
и умений работы с ней, что, в свою очередь, вы рабаты вает привычку регулярного
чтения газет не только на родном языке, что делает больш инство образованных
людей, но и англоязы чной прессы.
Таким образом, главной целью данного курса является совершенствование
навыков и ум ений работы с материалами англоязы чной и русскоязычной прессы
публицистического, научного и общ ественно-политического характера.
Для реализации указанной цели перед данным курсом ставятся следующ ие задачи :
1 . ознакомление со спецификой язы ка средств м ассовой информации и их
базовым лексическим составом, а такж е особенностями передачи
грамматических явлений;
2 . расш ирение активного вокабуляра студентов по наиболее актуальным
проблемам современности, а такж е страноведческих знаний;
3. развитие навы ков поискового и информативного чтения, перевода;
4. соверш енствование навьпсов, как устной дискуссии, так и письменной
аргументации на английском языке;
5. развитие навыков регулярного самостоятельного изучения материалов
периодических изданий, а такж е телевизионны х новостных программ (ВВС
News, CN N ) для постоянного пополнения своих язы ковы х и фоновых знаний.
Н астоящ ее пособие является результатом трехлетнего эксперимента,
осуществленного авторами на базе ф акультета иностранны х языков ПГПУ им. С.М.
Кирова.
Пособие предназначено для студентов 4 и 5 курсов факультета иностранных
языков, английского отделения, уровень A dvanced и Proficiency.
При составлении пособия в основу был положен принцип преемственности
преподавания данного аспекта на 4 и 5 курсе. На 4 курсе основное внимание уделяется
структуре статьи и умению находить и правильно использовать информацию; идет
отработка реф ерирования статьи по предложенной схеме, расш ирение кругозора и
изучение необходимого для понимания статей страноведческого материала, отработка
основных грамматических конструкций и лексических единиц, характерных для газетного
стиля. На 5 курсе соверш енствую тся навы ки реферирования, развиваю тся переводческие
навыки при овладении новыми лексическими единицам и и грамматическими
конструкциями на м атериале русскоязычной прессы.
Первая часть пособия рассчитана на 50 часов и является начальным этапом
программы для 4-5 курсов. О на состоит из 6 модулей (Units), представленных следующей
тематикой:
4
1. Газеты В еликобритании. О собенности газетного стиля.
2 . Выборы. Работа в парламенте. П олитические организации.
3. Ситуация на мировом рынке. Всемирная торговая организация. ВТО и Россия.
У правление личны м и финансами.
4. Социальная политика.
5. Базовые принципы Болонского процесса. О бразование в Великобритании.
Университеты.
6 . Искусство. Культура.
Каждый раздел состоит из базовой информации необходим ой для понимания
газетных статей (например, особенности газетного стиля, характеристика основных
международных организаций, основные принципы Болонского процесса);
неадаптированных текстов статей англоязычной прессы, упраж нений на отработку
лексики, вопросов для реферирования статьи и дискуссии по теме, дополнительных
упражнений по теме.
Вторая часть пособия (рассчитанная на 56 часов) ориентирована на работу с
газетными материалами русскоязычной прессы и является заверш аю щ им этапом
«сквозной» программы для 4-5 курсов. О сновными принципами, положенными в основу
разработки учебны х модулей, является принцип преемственности данного этапа обучения
с предыдущ им годом, а такж е принцип интеграции его с другим и аспектами ПУПР и ряда
других дисциплин. М атериал подразделен на 6 модулей (Units), посвящ енны х следующей
тематике:
1. Язы к средств массовой информации.
2. Внеш няя и внутренняя политика России.
3. Экономика Российской Федерации.
Высокие технологии.
Космос.
Система образования в России.
В пособии использованы статьи авторитетных изданий британской и
американской периодики: “N ew sw eek”, “The Econom ist”, “The T im es”, “The Guardian”,
“The Financial Tim es” , “The O bserver”, “The M oscow Tim es”, а такж е ряд статей
русскоязычных газет и журналов. П омимо этого, широко представлены материалы
Интернета.
Несмотря на то, что подбор материалов осущ ествлялся с учетом быстрой смены
многих явлений политической, экономической и ряда других сфер общ ественной жизни, и
рассматриваемые в статьях проблемы затрагиваю т наиболее актуальны е и остающ иеся
дискуссионными на протяж ении долгого времени вопросы, оно не мож ет использоваться
как единственный источник информации. В связи с этим, как преподавателям, так и
студентам реком ендуется создавать собственный банк газетны х статей, распределяя их по
аналогичным категориям, которые будут отображать текущ ие изм енения, а также
наиболее актуальные на данны й момент проблемы. В качестве основны х методов работы
с данными м атериалами мож но использовать разнообразны е технологии, широко
представленные в пособии.
Пособие такж е снабжено глоссарием, вклю чаю щ им наиболее частотные слова и
выражения, используемы е в англоязы чны х средствах массовой информации, по
представленным тематикам. Кроме того, имею тся два прилож ения, в которых
рассматриваю тся ком позиционны е и языковые особенности газетны х материалов, а также
список основных связую щ их слов и выражений.
В начале пособия представлена схем а газетного реферирования, являющаяся
единой для 4 и 5 курсов. Д анная схема бы ла разработана доцентом кафедры англ.яз.
ПГПУ к.ф.н. Н.А. Ф роловой. Первая часть схемы представляет собой краткий план,
наиболее полно рассм отренны й во второй части с представлением тех выражений,
которые могут использоваться студентами в ходе реф ерирования газетны х статей.

5
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE RENDERING.

I. Introduction:
a newspaper, date, column, heading, author;
■ the background;
B what it is aimed at;
и qualification o f the author.
II. Summary:
B focus o f the article;
■ supporting ideas;
B facts, experts’ opinions; suggestions;
a the tone o f the article;
19 the author’s attitude.
III. Conclusion. Y our own opinion on the problem discussed in the article.

I. HOW TO INTRODUCE TH E CONTEXT.


a). Active voice constructions:
Mr. Malyon in his article “А-Level Standard” which appeared in the home news column of The
Times on Jan. 16th, 2005 expounds his views on the problems o f secondary education in Great
Britain.
b). Passive voice constructions:
Some urgent problems of secondary education in Great Britain are discussed in Mr. Malyon’s
article “A~Level Standard”, which comes from The Times’ home news column of Jan. 16th, 2005.
The author centers on (around) the problems o f...
The reporter clarifies the events in ...
The journalist comments upon
The correspondent commentates upon
The commentator draws the readers’ attention to
The columnist concentrates on
Mr. Malyon conveys some information about
covers
describes
discusses 4;V' ’
dwells on
explains
expounds his views on
focuses on
gives an account of
gives comments on
highlights
informs the readers about
lets the reader know about
reports on
presents some information on

Classification of the Subject:


a). B ackground:
The article appeared in the consequence of the discussion on ...
as the conclusion to ...
as the development of ...
due to ...
The article results from ...

The article comes as a result o f


as the outcome o f
as the effect of

6
as the reaction to
The article follows ... OR The author doesn’t state the background
springs fro m ... information outright. Instead we are allowed to
discover it.
The author answers to ...
gives answers to ...
replies to ...
responds to ...
reacts to ...
b). Purpose:
The purpose of the article is to ...
The aim of the author is to ...
The intention of the correspondent is to ...
The author aims to discuss ...
intends to solve the problem of...
determines to consider...
The article is intended to solve the problem of
is aimed at ...
is meant to ...
c). The au th o r’s qualifications:
The author seems to be an expert in the field of
The journalist proves to be a specialist in the sphere of
The correspondent appears to be a master of in the area of
The reporter snows
shows mat
that he is an authority
The columnist
d). Timeliness and im portance of the article:
Though the subject has been thoroughly discussed in mass media lately, it still remains the
matter of current importance.
The problem gets even more important if we remember that
The issue turns all the more timely if we know th a t...
The item gets much importance in the view of ...

II. SUMMARY. '


B the main idea o f the article is
the central point
the controlling issue
the key problem
the core
the essence
the burden
the gist
the kernel o f the article is the idea that
the message
the essential point
the fundamental part
the primary part

The correspondent focuses the readers’ attention on the idea th a t...


lays special emphasis on
lays stress on
underlines
emphasizes
stresses
accentuates
* Supporting and developing the main idea the author goes on saying th a t...
In developing this idea the correspondent adds th a t...
The journalist reports two experts’ opinions to support the idea ...

7
The research has shown that ...
The scientists offer evidence that...
The specialists claim that ...
Thfe author’s investigation indicates that ...
The writer goes on to describe different views o n ...
The commentator proceeds to back up his case with the facts ...
In order to illustrate this point the author presents the result o f...
The journalist highlights the remarks of ... who said t h a t...
After presenting this idea the article centers around illustrations and details.
The article gains a great deal from careful selection o f illustrations.
The author avoids sounding too opinionated and bases his strongly held views on presenting
a lot o f detailed facts and statistics.
■ The author’s attitude
agree with disagree with advise
affirm challenge recommend
support dispute set forth
believe in mistrust put forward
applaud question suggest
praise doubt offer
maintain dismiss urge
justify wonder at encourage
suspect

The journalist presents a number o f interesting facts to challenge the idea of...
In contrast to this popular view, the author presents evidence th a t...
The correspondent is suggesting alternatives to currently accepted ideas.
The arguments for are very persuasive, but so are the arguments against.
3 The tone:
Neutral: The article is a straightforward account o f the events in ...
The information is conveyed clearly.
The journalist’s common sense approach and plain language match the. events described.
The author is above all direct and clear in description.
The article is not sophisticated, nor does the author intends - it to be; he simply wants to
present the facts.
The article appeals not only to specialists, but also to an inexperienced reader.
The correspondent makes his accounts sound convincing.
The author avoids generalities.
Emotional: The article is a forceful, well-supported argument that is closely reasoned.
The correspondent shows that he h a s. strong views on the subject by making
deliberately argumentative statements.
The author has managed to convince his readers that he has a right to hold extreme
views and opinions.
The author gives a very vivid personal impression of the events.
The article is not easy reading but it is worth the effort o f reading it carefully.
The friendly, quietly persuasive tone o f the journalist suits the subject o f the article.
Although the subject is quite a serious one, the author has decided that he can best get
his message across by adopting a light-hearted tone instead of being pompous about it.
Here and there the plain, straightforward narrative moves into a more complex
language.
Writing acquires richness and life from the author’s ability to choose the right words.
Creating an air o f mystery in the opening statement the author sets the tone for the
whole article.
The author’s remarks give an ironic tinge to the article.
II! CO N C LU SIO N .
Present your own point o f view on the problem discussed in the article.
4 КУРС
UNIT 1: READING NEWSPAPERS

I The news: gathering and delivering

Read the following texts and give definitions of the words in bold type.

G athering the news D elivering the news

Journalists gather news in a number A rag is an informal word for a newspaper and it suggests
of different ways. They may get that it is not of very high quality. The gutter press is a
stories from pressure groups which disapproving term used about the kind of newspapers and
want to air their views in public. magazines that are more interested in crime and sex than
They seek publicity for their serious news. A glossy is an expensive magazine printed
opinions and may hold press on good quality paper.
conferences or may issue a Journalists produce copy, which has to be ready for a
statement/ press release. A person deadline. When everything is ready the newspaper goes to
who especially wishes to attract news press. A very important story that comes in after going to
attention will try to include a sound press may find its way into a stop press column. A very
bite in what they say. It is new newspaper or story can be said to be hot off the
particularly hard for journalists to get press.
material in the silly season. A story that is only to be found in one newspaper is an
Journalists also get stories by exclusive. A scoop is a story discovered and published by
tapping useful sources and by one newspaper before all the others. A major story can be
monitoring international news said to hit the headlines on the day it is published. At that
agencies like Reuters. The more time the story breaks or becomes public knowledge. If it
important a story is, the more is an important story it will receive a lot of coverage or
column inches it will be given in the space in the press. A newspaper may be taken to court for
newspaper. Journalists of different libel or defamation of character if it publishes an untrue
political persuasions often put their story that harms a person’s reputation. If you are doing
own gloss/ spin on a story and some research into a news event, you may want to get hold of
journalists gather stories by muck­ some previous issues of newspapers, or back copies, and
raking. you may wish to make a folder of cuttings from the papers
about the event.

1. Fill in the gaps with words of the collocations used in the text Gathering the news.
1) silly ________
2) sound______
3) a statement
4) raking
5) a ir______
6) press______
7 ) groups
8) ta p ________

2. Fill the gaps with words from the text Delivering the news.
I started my career as a journalist working as a reporter on the local____(1) in my home town. The first thing I
had to do was to take over the role of agony aunt. This was quite difficult for an eighteen-year-old boy straight
out of school! Still, I managed to produce enough______ (2) and in time for my first_____ (3). When that first
column of m ine_____ (4) to press, I felt extremely relieved and was so proud that I stayed up all night so that I
could get half a dozen copies______ (5) off the press for all the members of my family! I still have a copy of
that first article of mine in a folder where I keep _ _ _ (6) of all the work that I am especially proud of.

3. Rewrite these sentences so that they mean the same thing, using the word in brackets.
1. Every newspaper inevitably gives its own particular view of events. (SPIN)
2. I have to find some articles from some previous editions of The Times. (BACK)
3. Read all about the royal divorce! Only just published. (HOT)
10
4. The floods took up more space in the papers than any other story this week. (COLUMN)
5. Politicians are always ready and willing to give their opinions to the press. (AIR)
6. The story about the scandal surrounding her uncle broke on her wedding day. (HIT)
7. Any newspaper does all it can to prevent being sued for libel. (CHARACTER)
8. Muck-raking is a characteristic activity of an inferior kind of newspaper. (PRESS)

II W h a t hits th e head lin es?

There is a set of factors th a t commonly determines w hat stories new spaper editors choose to put in their
newspapers. Below are the most im portant factors which help editors decide which stories to publish.
Read through the list carefully and do the task after it.

• Immediacy
Events that are happening today or that happened yesterday are more interesting to readers than events of the days
before. News loses its freshness very quickly.
® Proximity
Readers are generally more interested in something that has happened close to home rather than far away, unless there
is a local connection to that faraway place.
• Impact
Readers are interested in things that affect them.
® Conflict
Readers are interested in stories dealing with conflict, such as stories about protests, elections, war, sports, family
disputes, or crime.
• Prominence
Readers are naturally interested in the activities of famous people or events involving powerful countries or
organizations.
• Intensity
In general, big events receive more coverage than small events. For example, an accident which kills 50 people is more
likely to be covered than one which kills only two -■unless, of course, the two are famous.
• Strangeness
Very unusual or funny stories also make news - events that are much different from the expected and everyday
experiences of life.
• Suspense
News events or situations that are not yet finished - like a murder trial or the choosing of a new prime minister - can
cause great reader interest.
® Emotion -
Events that cause readers to feel sympathy, anger, sadness or happiness are often considered to be newsworthy.
® Progress
Stories of great achievements - like a powerful new medicine, a successful mission to the planet Mars or a new method
of controlling flooding - are very likely to receive coverage in newspapers.
• Gender *
Stories about the changing roles of males and females - single parents, women fighting in wars, fathers caring for
children while their wives work - also receive newspaper coverage.

1. Take any English newspaper; describe the layout of the newspaper. Say w hat factors helped editors
decide w hat story is newsworthy. S upport your point with the argum ents.
2. M ake an account of newsworthy events of yesterday /today. Then act as editor-in-chief of a national
newspaper and speak about the content and possible layout of today’s issue. (Use Vocabulary to
Describe an Issue. See Glossary).

III Headlines
> A matter o f space
Read the text, complete the assignment after it.

Headlines pack a great deal of information into a limited space, so it is riot surprising that headline writers use several
methods to conserve space. One obvious example is to use abbreviations (PM for Prime Minister, etc.). But they also use a
special grammar, omitting articles and the verb “to be” where possible.

• Cooperation agreement signed (A cooperation agreement is signed)


• Australian ex-judge sworn in to represent UK queen (An Australian ex-judge is sworn in to represent the United
Kingdom queen)
11
Be sure to notice that the omission of the verb “to be” can make the headline appear to be in the past tense when it is
actually present tense, passive voice.
Another way to save space is to use short words instead of long words. For example, if there is not enough space for the
word criticise, writers use words like rap or lash instead. Another advantage of using such words is that they often sound a
bit stronger and livelier.
Here are a few of the most commonly used short headline words: graft (corruption); row (disagreement); to back (to
support); to air (to make known); to curb (to limit); poll (election); ties (relations); scam (clever but dishonest plan); to
opt (to choose); to loom (to be expected in the near future); to vow (to promise).

1. Below are headlines. Your task is to turn them into complete sentences (that is to add any elements that may have
been dropped). v
1. COLLAPSE OF BUILDING IN SCHOOL FEARED
2. KICKING BABIES CONSIDERED TO BE HEALTHY
3. PLANE TOO CLOSE TO GROUND, CRASH PROBE TOLD
4. STOLEN PAINTING FOUND BY TREE
5. OFFICIAL ACCUSED OF CHEATING STUDENTS

> Shock H orror H eadlines


Some papers, especially tabloids, are famous for their headlines.
1. M atch these headline words and their meanings and then use them to complete the headlines below.
2. Say w hat peculiarities newspaper headlines have.
3. Take a newspaper and on the example of one article speak on how the headline represents the whole
article, and how the headline is connected with the article.

1 BID a. unpleasant experience, usually lasting some time


2 BOOST b. argument
3 DASH c. attempt
4 ORDEAL d. inquiry
5 PLEA e. questioning by police or at an enquiry
6 PLEDGE f. fast journey, often with an uncertain outcome -
7 PROBE g. emotional request
8 QUIZ h. a period of waiting, perhaps by an ill person’s bedside or in protest ;, .
9 ROW i. promise
10 VIGIL j. increase in numbers or in confidence, morale or prospects

1) GLENDA K E E P S _______________AT INJURED SON’S BEDSIDE


Actress Glenda Jackson left hospital last night after spending the day at her son’s bedside, and spoke of her relief that he
was still alive.

2) LIVERPO O L'S EURO ________________________ _


Liverpool last night received a European lift when UEFA confirmed that Welsh international Ian Rush will no longer be
classified as a foreign player.

3) MAN FACES_________________O N W IFE DEATH


Detectives were waiting by the hospital bedside of a man to question him about the death of his wife.

4) NIGEL’S _________________
World champion Nigei Mansell took a lingering look across the Portuguese Grand Prix track which has caused him both
heartache and joy yesterday before declaring: ”1 will never come back here again - Pm finished forever with Formula
One.”

5) OLYM PIC BOSS I N B R IB E ___________


The head of the Olympics is threatening legal action over a TV documentary alleging his officials are corrupt.

6) PILOT IN BRITISH P L A N E ______________


A British airliner has made an emergency landing in southern England after a cockpit window shattered and the pilot was
almost sucked out.

7) - ___T O ‘D IV O R C E’ BID GIRL


The mother of a teenager who has taken court action to ‘divorce’ her parents pleaded last night for her to come home.

8) PRIVATE HEALTH P R IC E F IX E R S FACING


Fees charged for private medical treatment are to be investigated by monopoly watchdogs.
12
9) SRI LANKA PEACE_____________
A Sri Lankan government negotiator is expected to try to reopen talks with the Tamil Tigers today in an attempt to end the
outbreak of fighting between Tigers and the Army.

10) TEENAGE PAIR KILLED IN______________ ACROSS M-WAY


A teenage judo champion and a girl pal were killed in front of friends as they took a short cut across a motorway.

IV Newspaper Layout.
V
FIVE Ws and H
There is a five-ws-and-h rule (who-what-why-how-where-when) applied to the introductory paragraph of a news item:
lead. This paragraph is a long complex sentence with the content of the whole article or a news item packed in it. The
grammatical structure of this paragraph is Subject - Predicate - Adverbial modifier of reason (manner) - Adverbial
modifier of place - Adverbial modifier of time.
For example, “A neighbour’s peep through a letter box led to the finding of a woman dead from gas and two others
semiconscious in a block of council flats in Eccles New Road, Salford, Lanes., yesterday.” (The Guardian) Nowadays,
journalists don’t follow this strict rule.

1. Read various forms of one and the same basic idea expressed in a lead. Describe in w hat way the
structure is getting more complex.

1) A mysterious flying vehicle landed in a village near Washington yesterday.


2) A mysterious flying vehicle, said to be carrying people from the planet M ars, landed in a village near
Washington yesterday.
3) A mysterious flying vehicle, said to be carrying people from the planet Mars, landed in a village near
Washington yesterday, causing widespread panic.
4) Creating fears the end of the w orld was near, a mysterious flying vehicle, said to be carrying people from
the planet Mars, landed in a village near Washington yesterday, causing; widespread panic.
5) Creating fears the end o f the world was near, a mysterious flying vehicle, said to be carrying people from
the planet Mars, landed in a village near Washington yesterday^ causing widespread panic, according to a
famous fortuneteller who had visited the area. »• • ‘ . * >' ■ •
6 ) President Bush confirmed yesterday that a mysterious flying vehicle, said to be carrying people from the
planet Mars, landed in a village near Washington yesterday, caufeiiig widespread panic.

2. Give definitions of the term s below. Take any newspaper in English and find them.

• banner ® leading article


® by-line ® feature
» dateline ® profile
» filler • obituary »
• central spread ® classified ads
« caption ® agony column

V N E W S P A P E R S IN B R IT A IN

Read the text and complete the assignment after it.

All newspapers in Britain, daily or Sunday ones, can broadly be divided into the (1) quality press and the popular press.
The quality newspapers are also known as “heavies” and they usually deal with home and overseas news, with detailed and
extensive (2) coverage of sports and cultural events. Besides they also (3) carry financial reports, travel news and book and
film review.
The popular press or the “populars” are also known as (4) tabloids as they are smaller in size being halfsheet in format.
Some people also call them the “gutter press” as they offer news for the people less interested in daily detailed news
reports. They are characterised by large headlines, carry a great number of big pictures, concentrate on the personal aspects
of news, with reports of the recent sensational and juicy bits of events, not excluding the Royal family. The language, of a
tabloid is much more colloquial, if not specific, than that of quality newspapers.
Here is a possibly witty though true classification of English newspapers:
“The Times” is read by the people who run the country;
“The Mirror” is read by the people who think they run the country;
13
“The Guardian” is read by the people who think about running the country;
“The Mail” is read by wives of the people who run the country;
“The Daily Telegraph” is read by the people who think the country ought to be run as it used to be;
“The Express” is read by the people who think it is still run as it used to be;
“The Sun” is read by the people who don’t care who runs the country as long as the naked girl at page three is
attractive.
“The Times” has a rather small (5) circulation, but its influence is greater than its circulation. It is an establishment
newspaper, read by lawyers, politicians, and businessmen, by all those who work in the government at large. It is not an (6)
organ of the Conservative Party, but still is rather conservative in views it expresses, though it is (7) reliable and (8)
unbiased and claims to be politically independent. ч
However, “The Times”, as many Englishmen stress themselves, always supports the government in power, the
bureaucracy, because the bureaucracy in Britain, they say, does not change when the general elections take place. It is thus
the newspaper for the upper echelon of the (9) civil service.
“The Daily Telegraph” is a very conservative paper. However, it has a circulation twice as big as that of “The Times”,
“The Guardian” or “The Independent”. It has a nickname - “The Torygraph” after the nickname “Tory” of the
Conservative Party. This newspaper has rather a (10) comprehensive news and sports coverage. Some say it has a more
objective reporting of what is going on in the world than any other quality newspaper. It is right of centre and has always
supported the Conservative Party.
It is notable that although newspapers are normally associated with a particular political viewpoint, either left or right,
most of them have no formal or legal links with political parties.
“The Guardian” has a slightly bigger circulation than “The Times”. It is a liberal newspaper, noted for its lively
reporting and campaigning support for “worthy causes” such as education, medical reforms, the problems of aging people
and retirees, protection of the environment, etc. It also claims to be politically independent, but it is left of centre and
formally supports the Liberal party of Britain. Some British people say that the reporting of “The Guardian” is biased and
trendy, concentrating mostly on things like fashion, homosexuals, etc., but still it is enjoyed by its readers.
“The Independent” was founded in 1986 and has rapidly acquired a reputation for its excellent news coverage,
intelligent reports, informal commentaries, and a good balanced sense of humour.
Among the tabloids “The Mail” is the most sophisticated of the others. The populars as a rule, however, express, though
they are mass circulation papers, no news. There you will find (11) leading articles about murders, games, bingo and
lotteries. Because they are in constant competition with each other, and want to sell more (12) copies than their competitors
in an effort to increase the (13) readership and circulation, they actually all have nude girls in unconventional poses on page
three or seven, devote much room to advertising holidays, vacation tours, etc.
At the weekend, some newspapers produce- colour (14) supplements and separate sections with (15) features on
anything and everything from leisure activities, travel, books, food and wine to in-depth news analysis and financial
matters.
In general, English people themselves, though slightly (16) sniffy and (17) condescending about their “populars”,
underline that the quality of newspapers in Great Britain of late is much better than 20 years ago. They argue that it is much
lower if they take the example of “The Times” newspaper, which was taken over by Rupert Murdoch in the early eighties.
He is the owner of News International and is among the people who have control over the press. Rupert Murdoch also
owns “The Sun”, which is a very low quality newspaper. To increase readership into “The Times” he gradually increases a
lot of techniques in it similar tq .those he introduced in “The Sun” paper.
Most towns and pities throughout Britain have their own regional or local newspaper. These range from morning and
evening (18) dailies to Sunday papers. They mainly include stories of regional or local attraction, but the dailies also cover
national and international news, often looked at from a local viewpoint.. ^
London has one paid-for evening paper, the Evening Standard, which has a circulation of about 434,00. It provides
Londoners with news and features covering events in the capital and of national and international interest. There are local
(19) weeklies for every district in Greater London1; these are often different local editions of one centrally published paper.
At one time London’s Fleet Street was the centre of the newspaper industry, but now all the national newspapers have
moved their editorial offices and printing plants to other parts of the capital - many to Docklands, a regenerated area to the
east of the city.
The top international agencies operating in Britain are Reuters, Associated Press and United Press International. The
main agency which gathers news inside Britain is the Press Association (PA), which is owned by the regional newspaper
publishers. A number of other British and foreign agencies and news services have offices in London (for example, UK
News and Agence France Presse), and there are smaller agencies based in other British cities.
Most people in Great Britain perceive the press in Great Britain as being objective since they claim that there is no overt
censorship, no overt bias in reporting the news, and that there is a wide choice of newspapers apart from the national
dailies.

1. Match the numbered words from the text and the definitions below:

a) the number of copies sold of a newspaper or magazine;

1 Greater London - a metropolitan area comprising central London and the surrounding regions. It is divided administratively into the
City of London, thirteen inner London boroughs, and twenty outer London boroughs.
14
b) a newspaper having pages half the size of those of the average broadsheet, typically popular in style and dominated by
sensational stories;
c) the treatment of an issue by the media;
d) the permanent professional branches of a state's administration, excluding military and judicial branches and elected
politicians;
e) showing no prejudice for or against something; impartial;
f) consistently good in quality or performance; able to be trusted;
g) having or showing an attitude of patronizing superiority;
h) a newspaper or periodical which promotes the views of a political party or movement;
Г i) scornful; contemptuous;
1 j) a single specimen of a particular book, record, or other publication or issue;
k) the readers of a newspaper, magazine, or book regarded collectively;
1) a separate section, especially a colour magazine, added to a newspaper or periodical;
m) a newspaper or magazine article or a broadcast programme devoted to the treatment of a particular topic, typically at
length;
n) a newspaper article giving the editorial opinion;
0) including or dealing with all or nearly'all elements or aspects of something;
p) a newspaper published every day except Sunday;
q) a newspaper or periodical issued every week;
- r) a newspaper, typically a broadsheet, that is considered to deal seriously with issues and to have high editorial standards;
6 s) to publish or broadcast.

2. Complete the following statem ents using inform ation from the text.
1) Tabloids are sometimes dubbed the “gutter press” because......................... ..........................................
2) The quality newspapers usually provide............................. ............and carry... ..............................
3) Though “The Times” has a rather small circulation,................................. ..........................................
.............................. — ........ Therefore it’s the newspaper for the upper echelon of the civil service.
4) “The Torygraph” is a nickname for........................ b eca u se .;...................... .................. .................
5) “The Guardian” can b o ast................... .. than “The Times”. It is noted for................................. but at the
same time some British people believe that.......
6) All tabloids are in constant competition with each other that’s why....................................... .
7) “The Times” newspaper conjures up thoughts of “The Sun” paper because....
8) The press in Great Britain is perceived as being objective since... . .. .................................................

3. Answer the following questions:


1) What are the two types of newspapers in Great Britain? What are the most important differences between
them?
2) Give the weird classification o f English newspapers. Give your opinion on how that witty classification can
be true at the same time?
3) What newspaper boasts the biggest circulation? Do you see any reasons for that?
4) What newspaper formally supports the Liberal Party? Can you say that from its coverage?
5) What makes people sniffy and condescending about the tabloids?
6) What are the other types of newspapers besides dailies?
7) Why is Fleet Street used as a name for the British newspaper industry?

4. Be ready to speak about newspapers in Britain.


5. Be ready to speak about newspapers in Russia and in the Pskov Region.

Translation
Translate using vocabulary from the tasks above:
1. Теперь наряду с ежедневными номерами газета планирует выпускать воскресное приложение с
разделами о культуре, спорте и политике. Таким образом, владельцы планируют расширить
читательскую аудиторию и увеличить тираж.
2. Тираж газеты превышает 2 миллиона; больше половины экземпляров распродается в первый же
день.
3. В пустой сезон самые банальные истории оказываются на первых полосах газет.
4. После того как эта история попала в газеты, сам известный политик подал на журналиста в суд за
клевету и потребовал опубликовать опровержение.
5. Если газета печатает эксклюзивный материал или пишет о событие раньше конкурентов, то она
продается нарасхват во всех газетных киосках.

15
6 . В период предвыборной кампании журналистам даже не надо пробивать свои источники для
получения информации, так как политики и различные движения стремятся заявить о своих
взглядах. ^ ,, у ШЭ!Л.
7. В серьезных газетах и глянцевых журналах информацию могут исказить:, или подать под
необходимым углом, а в желтых газетенках всегда найдутся сенсационные новости и пикантные
подробности событий.
8 . Читатели хотя и выражают презрительное и снисходительное отношение к желтой прессе и к их
нечистоплотным методам сбора информации, но тираж таких газет растет как на дрожжах.
9. Проблема стандартов в образовании была широко освещена в передовице “Российской газеты” от 20
мая.

VI Political correctness

Journalists and others such as university teachers are increasingly asked not to use certain words and expressions because
they are politically incorrect and might cause offence, and to use other, politically correct or PC, words. Where
organizations such as universities have rules about words to be avoided in conversation and elsewhere, these rules
constitute a speech code.
Politically correct language is part of a wider phenomenon: politically correct thinking, or political correctness.

Lexicographically correct or verbally challenged?


Read the article about politically correct language from The Economist and answer the questions.

AN A LL-A M ER IC A N IND U STRY 1. How do you understand the


headline?
Something odd is happening to political correctness. On the one hand, it 2. Both PC and its opponents are
is thriving, right up to the highest levels of government (witness the thriving. What is meant by that?
equally-sized Christmas tree and Chanukah memorial outside the White 3. to hype - What is the meaning of
House). On the other hand its opponents are thriving too (look at the best this verb?
seller lists, headed by Rush Limbaugh and Howard Stern). 4. If something is a danger to the
very fabric of something else, is
Seemingly irreconcilable arguments surround it.: Some dismiss political ■ it
correctness (PC) as an irrelevance hyped up by the right; others see it as a) very dangerous, or b) not
a leftist danger to the very fabric of American life. Is America in the dangerous?
throes of neo-PC, anti-PC or post-PC? It is hard to tell. 5. to be in the throes of something
—Explain the meaning of the
So much the better for the PC industry. For that is what political phrase.
correctness has become. It is no longer a matter of who wins or loses the 6. . The arguments themselves are
arguments. The arguments themselves are what sustain the industry'. what sustain the industry.
Competition in the PC industry is not only healthy, it is essential. Paraphrase this sentence and
explain the meaning of the verb.
Few industries can boast such rapid growth as this one. A computer 7. If something boasts a
search by the New York Times found 103 newspaper references to characteristic, it possesses it. Is it
‘political correctness’ in 1998. In 1993 the number was roughly id,000. possible for something to boast
Such extraordinary growth would quickly slacken if the driving force an unimpressive characteristic?
behind it - the language of political correctness - were to go out of 8. If the rate of something slackens,
fashion. But there seems little prospect of that happening. The current does it
controversy over style at the Los Angeles Times shows that there is still a) speed up, or b) slow down?
plenty of fuel for the PC industry.

The Los Angeles Times’ 19-page ‘Guide on Ethnic and Racial


Identification,’ drafted by a committee, was sent to the paper’s staff on
November 10th. Journalists are told never to use the word ‘Jewess,’ but
to remember to call a Latino woman a ‘Latina.’
9. ‘Dutch treat’ and ‘Dutch
They are urged to avoid referring to African ‘tribes’, because this courage.’
uons mea
offends many blacks (who are more often ‘African American’).
‘Eskimos’ disappear (they are ‘not a homogenous group and may view Do you know any other expressions
the term Eskimo negatively’). ‘Dutch treat’ and ‘Dutch courage’ are with the word ‘Dutch’?
offensive (to the Dutch?), as are French letter (to condom-makers?) If you were Dutch, would you be
offended by these expressions?
There is more. The term ‘deaf and dumb’, is, apparently, pejorative,
much as ‘birth defects’ are best replaced by ‘congenital disabilities.’ 10. Pejorative expressions are not
Because many women do the job, ‘letter carrier’ is preferable to approved of, or frowned upon,
‘mailman’. ‘Mankind’ is frowned upon. ‘Gringo’, ‘savages’ and because they are critical or
‘redskin’ are among the words to be used only in quotes with the insulting.
approval of the editor, associate editor and senior editor._______________ Why is ‘mankind’ frowned upon?

16
11. ‘Gringo’, ‘savages’ and
Not surprisingly, the guidelines provoked a reaction, and the controversy ‘redskin’. Why are these words
has become public. A memo signed by journalists at the Los Angeles to be used only in quotes?
Times’ Washington bureau gives warning that it is a short step from N1'2. ‘shunning offensive words to
‘shunning offensive words to shying away from painful facts and shying away from painful facts
subjects’. All this is splendid for the PC industry (language fuss, for and subjects’. How do you
example, does wonders for the dictionary business). understand that phrase?
13., In what way can language fuss
be profitable for the dictionary
business?

Questions for discussion.


1. Do you agree with the headline of the article? Is it well chosen? Why?
2. W hat is the background inform ation of the article? Did it appear as the development of any
discussion? Find additional inform ation for th at PC issue.
4. Make a sum m ary of the article in a few sentences.
5. Give an outline of the article.
6 . W hat is the tone of the article?
7. W hat is the message of the article? Choose a variant from the list below and explain your choice,
or give your own variant.
• PC is an irrelevant issue hyped up by those who thrive on that controversy;
• PC is not a fad; it is here to stay because its aim is to create a new society that will be completely
inoffensive to all parties;
• In the beginning, PC was geared to eliminate bias bit it devolved into an elaborate language code that
became danger to the very fabric of American democracy.

□ Foilow -up

Activate Your Language


Gagging the press
Think of one word only which can be used appropriately in all the sentences in a set. In this exercise, words are
connected with the cover-up.

1. The government has once again used concerns about "National Security’ as an excuse to ____ the press.
The price of these tickets is enough to make anyone____.
He tried to swallow but_____ .

2. Reformists allege that the killings were part of a campaign by state-sponsored death squads to _____ dissent.
Angry residents are suing the church to _____ the bell at night.
Then he became angry, and threatened that he would______ me for ever, if I would not agree.

3. The whole affair was______up by the government. t


She gave up trying to _____the baby and took him outside.

4. Finally Glen could________ his anger no longer and he lashed out at his mother.
The players listen, some trying to _______smiles.
The CIA has often tried t o _______ _ reports that are embarrassing to the agency.

5. The affair was______up and never reached the papers.


Embarrassed, she reached for a towel to _____ her body. ^

Translation.
Translate the following sentences using Newspaper Vocabulary (See Glossary).

1. Как противники, так и сторонники процветают на сильно раздутой проблеме языка политической
корректности. Напряжение вокруг этого вопросы спадет, как только люди поймут, что лишь
искусственно создаваемая суматоха вокруг этого противоречия и поддерживает всю эту
индустрию.
2. Очередной срыв переговоров широко обсуждается в сегодняшних номерах газет. Так, газета
“Гардиан” на первой полосе размещает интервью с лидером одной из сторон, а заявление лидера
оппозиции занимают большую часть первой страницы газеты “Дэйли Телеграф”. Согласно
последней причиной срыва переговоров якобы послужили резкие заявления одного из
представителей оппозиции.
3. В сегодняшнем номере еженедельника '“Аргументы и Факты” помещена статья о развитии
отношений между нашими странами.
4. Автор впервые останавливается на причинах и последствиях катастрофы, используя факты,
которые министерство ранее замалчивало.
5. Важнейшей международной новостью являются переговоры по вопросу об Арктике.
6 . Статья о свадьбе принцессы занимает большую часть первой страницы.
7. Газета публикует заявление премьер-министра о ситуации в стране.
8 . Полицию обвинили в попытке скрыть от суда важные улики.
9. Газета широко освещает события на юге страны.
10. Статья освещает широкий круг вопросов внутренней политики.
11. После того как все раскрылось, они попытались замять дело.

UNIT 2: PO LITICS
I Election
THE BASICS
.v .1 - A body that passes laws is a legislature. Candidates win or gain seats in legislatures
s e a t" under different systems in different countries. Existing members of a legislature who are
.■:ф; V not re-elected lose their seats.
win a seat The two main methods of electing candidates are:
lose a seat Proportional representation, or PR, where winning candidates are elected from a list in
electoral system proportion to the number of votes cast for each candidate, and first-past-the-post, pr the
first-past-the-post simple majority system, where the candidate with the most votes in the constituency
sim ple m ajority system wins, even if he or she has fewer votes than the other candidates combined..
proportional represm tatioi, Some countries use a combination of both electoral systems.
constituency

I Read about the system of popular voting in the UK.


1. Fill the gaps with the words from the box.

simple majority system seats House of Commons


constituency (4) cast sitting members

The________________of voting is used in the General Election in the UK. This means that the candidate with the largest
number of votes in each___________is duly elected, although he or she may not necessarily have received more than half
the votes .
It is thought that this system favours two-party competition, particularly when the parties’ support is concentrated
geographically. It does not favour parties whose support is spread thinly and evenly across constituencies, as they tend to
accumulate relatively small numbers of votes in each __________ and consequently do not win many ____ .
The system of parliamentary democracy depends on the existence of at least two parties in the House of Commons, each of
which is capable of forming a government.
Since the Second World War the great majority of MPs have belonged to either the Conservative or the Labour Party.
The leader of the party that wins most seats at a general election is by convention invited by the Monarch to form a
government. He or she becomes Prime Minister and chooses the ministers who will together form the Government.
Each parliamentary___________is a geographical area and the voters who live in the __ ________vote for one member to
represent the constituency in the_______________. Candidates who are elected become known a s_____________and it
is their job to represent all the people living in their constituencies and not merely those who voted for them.
The major parties in Great Britain are defined as Conservative, Labour and Liberal Democrat, and in Scotland and Wales
respectively the Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru. The major parties in Northern Ireland are Democratic Unionist,
Sinn Fein, SDLP and Ulster Unionist.

Energetic campaigning

burden bum up to glad-hand photo opportunity campaign trail sound bites


electioneering to walk about news bulletins

18
Paradoxically the ease of modem broadcasting communication imposes an added_______on a few top politicians. They
must make themselves available for interview from early in the morning until late at night. They must be prepared to react
swiftly to developments; they must also be prepared to provide_______________and _____________ for inclusion in
throughout the day.
Thus the political leaders are required to _____- the miles on the__________________by bus, helicopter, plane and
train. During______ candidates commiserate with worried fishermen and farmers,_________in a crowd and
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ people, reassure hospital patients and lend a Sympathetic ear to communities and interesting groups. The
physical and mental strain is considerable. Politics, which used to be called an old man’s game, now requires youth, vigour
and stamina.

TARGETING THE VOTER____________________________________________________________________


marginal seat seat canvassing swing to target floating voters

M arginal seats
A _____________is one where a sitting member had a small majority over one or more opponents in the previous election.
As changes in political mood are fairly uniform throughout the country, an adverse_______at a general election against
the party to which the sitting member belongs could deprive that member of a ■
It follows that all the main parties_______particular marginal constituencies and focus their campaigns on winning such
seats. Such constituencies are more likely to receive visits by senior politicians and well known personalities.
The floating voter
A more scientific approach to ___________ has also meant targeting certain groups of voters within the marginal
constituencies. These people, thought to be open to political persuasion, are known a s _____________. Naturally such
people exist in all constituencies but they assume much more significance in marginal ones.
Tactical voting
A conservative supporter whose candidate normally comes third in elections in his or her constituency might decide to vote
for a Liberal Democrat candidate who appeared to have a better chance of winning, in the hope of preventing the Labour
candidate from winning. This is known as ‘tactical voting’.

2. Answer the following questions.


1. Why is the system of voting in the UK known as the simple majority system?
2. Why do you think the system favours two-party competition?
3. Who forms the government in the UK? .. >
4. What is constituency?
5. What is the usual routine of a politician during an election campaign?
6. What is a marginal seat?
7. What is the main target group of voters within the marginal constituency? Why?
8. How do you understand the term ‘tactical voting’?

3. Be ready to speak about the system of voting in the UK.

II H ow the E le c to ra l C ollege W o rk s in th e US
1. Read the text and complete the assignment after it.
® Each State is allocated a number of Electors equal to the number of its U.S. Senators (always 2) plus the number
of its U.S. Representatives (which may change each decade according to the size of each State's population as
determined in the Census).
» The political parties (or independent candidates) in each State submit to the State's chief election official a list of
individuals pledged to their candidate for president and equal in number to the State’s electoral vote. Usually, the
major political parties select these individuals either in their State party conventions or through appointment by
their State party leaders while third parties and independent candidates merely designate theirs.
* Members of Congress and employees of the federal government are prohibited from serving as an Elector in order
to maintain the balance between the legislative and executive branches of the federal government.
® After their caucuses and primaries, the major parties nominate their candidates for president and vice president in
their national conventions traditionally held in the summer preceding the election. The names of the duly
nominated candidates are then officially submitted to each State's chief election official so that they might appear
on the general election ballot.
® On the Tuesday following the first Monday of November in years divisible by four, the people in each State cast
their ballots for the party slate of Electors representing their choice for president and vice president (although as a
matter of practice, general election ballots normally say "Electors for" each set of candidates rather than list the
individual Electors on each slate).

19
• Whichever party slate wins the most popular votes in the State becomes that State's Electors - so that, in effect,
whichever presidential ticket gets the most popular votes in a State wins all the Electors of that State.
• On the Monday following the second Wednesday of December (as established in federal law) each State's Elector:
meet in their respective State capitals and cast their electoral votes - one for president and one for vice president.
• The electoral votes are then sealed and transmitted from each State to the President of the Senate who, on the
following January 6, opens and reads them before both houses of Congress.
• The candidate for president with the most electoral votes, provided that it is an absolute majority (one over half of
the total), is declared president. Similarly, the vice presidential candidate with the absolute majority of electoral
votes is declared vice president. .
• In the event no one obtains an absolute majority of electoral votes for president, the U.S. House of Representatives
(as the chamber closest to the people) selects the president from among the top three contenders with each State
casting only one vote and an absolute majority of the States being required to elect.
• At noon on January 20, the duly elected president and vice president are sworn into office.

1. Find English equivalents for the following words and use them in the sentences of your own:
Коллегия выборщиков, перепись, назначать/выдвигать (на пост), голос выборщика, съезд,
закрытое собрание членов политической партии или фракции (стер.); предварительные выборы/
голосование для выставления кандидатов от своей партии на выборы; выставлять/ предлагать кандидата
(на выборах); представлять на рассмотрение; избирательный бюллетень; всеобщие выборы; отдавать
голос (при голосовании)/бросать бюллетень; список кандидатов (на выборах); голос избирателя;
абсолютное большинство; присягать/ приводить к присяге.
2. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the number of electors based on?
2. Who is eligible to become an Elector? What is the procedure of forming the Electoral College?
3. What happens the first Monday of November in years divisible by four?
4. Under what conditions does a candidate become president?
3. According to the text and using your background inform ation say w hether the following
statements are true or false.
1. The number of electors depends on the population of each state. That’s why, for example, Wyoming,
the state with the least population, has only 3 electoral votes.
2. A list of Electors is submitted to a State’s chief election official after caucuses and primaries are held.
3. Nominally president and vice-president are elected not by American people but by electors.
4. The candidate for president with the absolute majority of popular votes is declared president.
5. A candidate can win with less popular votes than his/her opponent.
4. Be ready to speak about the Electoral College.
5. Describe the electoral system in Russia. Compare it with the systems in other countries.

E lection я R/ 0

d ic tio n In American English, candidates run for election and in British English they stand
for election.
znLoa The campaign is the series of advertisements, television appearances, meetings and
campaign speeches designed to get support for a candidate. The expression campaign t^ai!
campaign trail emphasises the number of places candidates have to go to and things they have to go
through while campaigning.
plat Гоги: A party’s platform js, the policies that it says it will put into effect if elected. Individual
plank in the platform policies are planks m the platform.
manifesto Proposed policies may be outlined in a document known as a manifesto.

1. Match the terms and the definitions given below.


I. E lectioneering
1. gaffe a) an ideal combination of candidates for the posts of the president and the
vice-president.
2 . spin doctor/controller b) a consultant who tries to minimise the effects o f gaffes, and otherwise
improve the way candidates are presented in the media generally.
3. whistle-stop tour c) elections held in some states in the USA to find out which candidate has
most support.
4. rally d) an attempt to become president
5. bid for the presidency/ e) slips o f the tongue or offensive remarks that damage one’s image.
presidential bid
20
6 . walkabout f) the candidate walks about in a crowd and shakes hands or glad-hands
people.
7. prim ary g) large, often open-air, political events with speeches and entertainment.
elections/primaries
8 . running mate h) a very fast campaigning trip with a candidate making a lot of speeches and
appearances in a lot of places in a short time.
9. dream ticket i) a fixed or limited period for w'hich office lasts or is intended to last
10 . term j) the candidate running for the vice presidency.

II Dirty tricks

1 . digging for d irt or a) a woman involved in alleged extra-marital affairs which lead to
muckraking candidates’ failure in elections.
2. Teflon coating b) e.g. ballot boxes are filled with fictitious ballot papers or when votes are
not counted properly.
3. bimbo c) unfair or criminal methods, such as paying people to make false
accusations, stealing documents, bugging phone conversations, and so on.
4. vilification d)speaking or writing about someone in an abusively disparaging manner:
5. gerrym andering e) the practice of drawing boundaries of an electoral constituency so as to
favour one party or class
6 . dirty tricks of f) candidates or the media searching for damaging information about a
politician’s personal life, business or secret political activities to use it in
mudslinging
7. smear campaign g) a plan to discredit a public figure by making false accusations.
8 . vote-rigging ,4 - h) the person is said to have it if allegations or charges against someone
cannot be proved, or made to stick.

Ш Casting your ballot

1. turnout a) all the people in a country or area who are entitled to vote in an election.
2 . abstentions d b) the proportion of people actually voting.
3. ballot c) a compartment with one open side in which one voter at a time stands to
* 3T ' 1
mark their ballot paper.
4. electorate d) people who abstain from voting.
5. to go to the polls £ e) to vote/ to go to the places where votes are cast in an election
6 . polling booth f) the piece of paper used to record a person's vote

IV Election results
1. run-up I a) stages of election in each of which more candidates are eliminated
2 . landslide b) commentators may talk about it, if a party or a candidate wins an election
by a large amount or margin.
3. front runner С c) the candidate that is leading in an election race.
4. rounds of voting Q d) the second round of voting with top two candidates
5. run-off e) (Am.) a political alliance of several different groups, representing social,
ethnic, and other minorities. Also sometimes used to indicate disapproval of
the fact that the groups have so little in common that they should not get
together.
6 . political horse-trading f) interchange the positions of members o f cabinet/government ministers
7. lame duck g) government or politicians that have lost all credibility and authority.
8 . reshuffle h) hard and shrewd bargaining in politics.
9. rainbow coalitions i) the period preceding a notable event, e.g. elections

Fill the gaps psing the words from the list above.
_______ of the campaign: ”1 don’t want to run the risk of ruining what is a lovely recession.” He meant to
say reception. (George Bush).
A recent question to Mr Clinton and A1 Gore on a CBS television phone-in programme was prefaced with:
“Good morning Governor Clinton, Senator Gore, our future president and vice-president,” the sort of sound­
bite that is a ’s dream comes true.
21
3. If Hillary is the perfect partner, then in A1 Gore he had the perfect_________________. It really was th
_____________ for women. Where Clinton is rugged and earthy, Gore is clean and preppy.
4. In preparation for potentially the nastiest campaign yet, the Democrats have been _____________ __ w
which to undermine Mr Bush’s image.
5. A parliamentary commission was set up to investigate charges that Garcia personally embezzled $50
million. He has denied any wrongdoing. He puts all accusations down to a ______________ _ by his
political opponents, who he claims are worried he may choose to stand again for president in the next
elections in 1995.
6 . Mr Marcovic said he and his government were being subjected to an intense media campaign of lies am

7. A growing proportion o f Europeans are not bothering to vote. In Portugal___________leapt from 22 pe


cent in the 1987 general election to 32 per cent in 1991.
8. In 1986, the Supreme Court conceded th a t_______ ________ - the practice o f drawing boundaries to he
one political party - can be subject to judicial review.
9. Whoever wins faces the prospect o f leading a _____________ administration. Too many hostile things hi
been said on both sides to give either man any real hope of turning the Tories’ nominal 21 -seat majority
a viable long-term government.

3. Translate the following sentences into English using the words from the previous exercises.
1. Сейчас выдвигая свою кандидатуру, большинство политиков понимают, что время, когда выборь
можно было выиграть, поливая противника грязью и, подтасовывая факты, прошло.
2. Во втором туре кандидаты пытались любыми способами войти в доверие к воздержавшимся
избирателям и тем, кто еще колеблется в своем выборе, и повысить явку.
3. Предвыборная кампания это результат работы опытных политтехнологов. которые планируют
агитацию избирателей, контролируют, чтобы информация о кандидате в выпусках новостей
подавалась под нужным углом, придумывают яркие и запоминающиеся фразы для речей кандида
4. В системе коллегии выборщиков в США тот кандидат, чей список выборщиков получил в штате
больше голосов избирателей, получает голоса выборщиков этого штата.
5. В этот раз более 40 % избирателей пришли на выборы и отдали свой голос за одного из кандидате
6. Полная победа действующего мэра и переизбрание на второй срок объясняется умело
составленными пунктами в программе кандидата, которые привлекли избирателей.
7. После прихода новой партии к власти неизменно начинается перестановка в кабинете министров
нечестные сделки по раздаче постов. >'Лту ,
1 8. Сторонники голосования по спискам отмечают, что настоящая мажоритарная система
несправедлива, так как один член парламента предотавЛЯ'ет один разнообразный округ, где
большинство, возможно, проголосовало за остальных кандидатов. 1

Read the article and complete the assignment, after it.


N ot S lackers A fter All?
Despite early press reports suggesting America’s youth had once again stayed at home, new data shows young vo
turned out in force last week

Nov. 12 - Ever since 18- to 20-year-olds were granted the right to vote in 1972, many of them haven’t exercised 1
privilege. And throughout modem history, those aged 21 to 29 have typically been less likely to vote than older America
After a brief spike in 1992, turnout among 18- to 29-year-olds in the 2000 presidential election dropped more than
percentage points below the national average—46 percent to the other age groups’ 72 percent.
So when exit polls suggested many of America’s youth had stayed home once again this year, the media wasn’t surpris
The Associated Press wrote them off by early evening on Election Day, saying the turnout wasn’t the groundswell that 1
been expected. Final exit polls showed that 18-29-year-olds made up only 17 percent of all voters—similar to 200
turnout. "Yeah, we rocked the vote all right,” gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson griped to the Aspen (Colo.) Da
News on election night. “Those little bastards betrayed us again." And as a final insult, the Drudge Report posted t
snarky headline: VOTE OR DIE OR WHATEVER.
Dumbfounded youth-vote organizers had spent months hitting bars, coffee shops and libraries with voter-registration for
and get-out-the-vote fliers, knocking on dormitory doors and text-messaging cell phones. From their work, they knew tl
teiTorism, the war in Iraq and job worries had sparked excitement among young people. Even the pollsters agreed:
percent of college students in a recent survey said they believe politics is relevant to their life, up from 71 percent a y<
ago, according to a study by the Harvard University Institute of Politics. And on Election Day, organizers’ cell phones w«
buzzing with breathless reports from battleground states about four-hour lines at campus polling stations. How could yoi
not have voted this year? Some organizers were bewildered, others defiant. “We’ll be discouraged for a day or two—un
we find out that the numbers they were talking about at three in the morning weren’t true,” said Jesse Ferguson, executive
director of Virginia21, a nonpartisan statewide advocacy group for young voters, on Nov. 3.
He may have been right: the exit polls didn’t tell the whole story. According to a new analysis of voter data, turnout among
the under-30 set shot up 9 percent from 2000. The study, conducted by the University of Maryland’s Center for Information
& Research on Civil Learning & Engagement (CIRCLE), found that at least 20.9 million in the 18-29-year-old bracket
voted, compared with only about 16 million in 2000. The exit polls didn’t register the increase because they show the
percentage of young voters out of all voters. Since every age bracket voted in higher numbers than in 2000, the exit polls
showed about equal youth shares of total voters for 2004 and 2000—not an accurate picture of the youth vote, experts say.
"The main information available to any of us at this point is the set of exit polls," says Scott Keeter, director of survey
research at the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. "CIRCLE'S analysis is the best careful look at this ... It's
like the Bible to me now."
Why did some news outlets miss the difference? It could be that nobody wanted to do the math, says CIRCLE youth
director Carrie Donovan. Or, they relied on old stereotypes about young voters. “For some reason, people are very quick to
fall back into assuming that young people are lazy and apathetic,” Donovan says. “So when there’s evidence to the
contrary, I don’t think people are too quick to recognize it.” Also, since most of the efforts to woo young voters came
primarily from left-leaning 527 committees or progressive groups, some observers expected a heavy youth turnout to hand
John Kerry a win. “When that didn’t happen, [pundits] were very quick to point fingers,” says Jehmu Greene, president of
the nonpartisan Rock the Vote. In fact, exit polls said young people were the only age bracket to break for Kerry.
Buoyed by the new numbers, organizers are getting back to the business of politics. For several young voter coordinators,
the election was only a catalyst for what they hope will become a lasting movement. They don’t just want young people
voting in the next presidential elections—they want them excited about local politics, too. The League of Independent
Voters, for example, has published an online state-by-state guide so progressive young people can form voting blocs—even
for local school-board candidates. "Now that we've gotten this generation to cast their first ballot, odds are that they're
going to stay engaged in the process," Greene says. "Unfortunately, the one thing that may take that away is if they're told
by the media that they didn't turn out."

1. Find these phrases in the text, paraphrase them and comment on the situations they are used in.
Snarky headline, rock the vote, groundswell, dumbfounded youth-vote organizers, to spark excitement,
battleground state, to be defiant, exit polls, to shoot up, news outlet, to fall back, to woo, bracket, to buoy, odds.
2. How do you understand the headline? Do you think it is well chosen?
3. 'Summarize the article using the-active-vocabulary;' -'
4. W hat is the message of this article?
5. Compare the situation with youth-voters in the US and Russia.
6. Render the article using the article rendering scheme.

P a rlia m e n ta ry V o cab u la ry

1. M atch the collocations and translate them.

1) to add a) a bill 1) to be a) strong dissent


2 ) to draft b ). an agreem ent 2 ) to take b) office
3) to second c) an am endm ent 3) to p u t smth. c) approval
4) to pass d) to a dead-Iock 4) to give smb d) public interest
5) to bring a report e) to power 5) to express e) a meeting/ session
6) to achieve f) a motion 6) to call 1) a powerful boost
7) to hold g) a breakthrough 7) to sp ark g) one’s commission/
competence
8) to defy h) up to date 8 ) to rescind h) a decision
9) to come i) public opinion 9) to receive i) under m ounting pressure
10) to come j) negotiations 10) to go beyond j) in force

2. Fill in the gaps using the words from the previous exercise. Each gap needs one word.

1. Congress passed a n ___________ _ ensuring that the law was fairer to everyone.
2. She said she w ould________ the party leader and vote against him
3. Alderman Keane nominated him and eighteen other committeemen made lengthy speeches an d ______ _ the
nomination.
4. Negotiators have made a ____________ on the most difficult issue of employment security.
5. Syria and Israel broke a six-month_______ in their talks when they sent peace envoys to Maryland.

23
6 . Efforts to improve matters.by raising prices and reducing subsidies led to open resistance and had to be

7. During the Prime Minister's speech there were several murmurs of open_______ from the crowd.
8 . The shootings have______ a national debate over gun control.
9. The White House did n o t_____ its own amendment, and Clinton said he would work with Congress to
____one.
10. Crude oil prices rising became the major ______for Russian economy.

3. Translate the following sentences using the phrases from the table above.
1. Законопроект, разработанный специально созданным комитетом, был принят во втором чтении.
2. После того как вопрос вызвал общественный интерес, правительство находилось под все
возрастающим давлением со стороны оппозиции.
3. Новое правительство, пришедшее к власти, созвало срочное заседание и аннулировало все решения,
принятые за последний месяц.
4. Теперь в газеты попала информация, что он якобы превышал полномочия и не раз проталкивал
сомнительные личности в законодательное собрание.
5. Несмотря на то, что некоторые члены парламенты выразили категорическое несогласие с новым
законом, закон, принятый со всеми поправками будет введен в действие после марта этого года.

II P olitical o rg an izatio n s

UN
General information
In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International
Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. The Organization officially came into existence on 24 October 1945,
when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and a
majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October. The forerunner of the United Nations was
the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar circumstances during the First World War. The League of
Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War.
The United Nations was established in the aftermath of a devastating war to help stabilize international relations and
give peace a more secure foundation.
Amid the threat of nuclear war and seemingly endless regional conflicts, peace-keeping has become an overriding
concern of the United Nations. In the process, the activities of blue-helmeted peace-keepers have emerged as the most
visible role associated with the world organization.
The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are to maintain international peace and security; to develop
friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian
problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; and to be a centre for harmonizing the
actions of nations in attaining these ends.
The six principal organs of the United Nations are the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social
Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat. The United Nations family, however, is
much larger, encompassing 15 agencies and several programmes and bodies.

1. Scan through the text and find English equivalents for the following w ords. Use them in the sentences
of your own.
Составлять (документ), хартия, ратифицировать, подписавшееся государство, предшественник,
задумывать, вследствие, разрушительная война, главная забота, деятельность миротворцев, излагать,
сохранять мир и безопасность, орган/ организация.

2. Read the following inform ation about main functions of the UN posted on its official wefo-site.

Maintaining peace and security - By having deployed a total of 54 peace-keeping forces and observer missions as of
September 2001, the United Nations has been able to restore calm to allow the negotiating process to go forward while
saving millions of people from becoming casualties of conflicts. There are presently 15 active peace-keeping forces in
operation.

Promoting development -The UN Development Programme (UNDP), in close cooperation with over 170 Member
States and other UN agencies, designs and implements projects for agriculture, industry, education, and the

24
environment. The World Bank, at the forefront in mobilizing support for developing countries worldwide, has alone
loaned $333 billion for development projects since 1946.

Promoting human rights - Since adopting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, the United Nations
has helped enact dozens of comprehensive agreements on political, civil, economic, social and cultural rights. By
investigating individual complaints of human rights abuses, the UN Human Rights Commission has focused world
attention on cases of torture, disappearance, and arbitrary detention.

Ending apartheid in South Africa - By imposing measures ranging from an arms embargo to a convention against
segregated sporting events, the United Nations was a major factor in bringing about the downfall of the apartheid
system, which the General Assembly called "a crime against humanity."

Providing humanitarian aid to victims of conflict - M ore than 30 m illion refugees fleeing war, fam ine or
persecution have received aid from the U N High Commissioner for Refugees since 1950.

Eradicating smallpox - A 13-year effort by the World Health Organization (WHO) resulted in the complete
eradication of smallpox from the planet in 1980. The eradication has saved an estimated $1 billion a year in
vaccination and monitoring, almost three times the cost of eliminating the scourge itself. WHO also helped wipe out
polio from the Western hemisphere, with global eradication expected by the year 2000.

Promoting investment in developing countries - The United Nations, through the efforts of the UN Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO), has served as a "match-maker" for North-South, South-South and East-West
investment, promoting entrepreneurship and self-reliance, industrial cooperation and technology transfer and cost-
effective. ecologicallv-sensitive industry.

Fighting drug abuse - The UN International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) has worked to reduce demand
for illicit drugs, suppress drug trafficking, and has helped farmers to reduce their economic reliance on growing
narcotic crops by shifting farm production toward other dependable sources of income.

Promoting the free flow of information - To allow all people to obtain information that is free of censorship and
culturally unbiased. UNESCO has provided aid to develop and strengthen communication systems, established news
agencies and supported an independent press.

Facilitating academic and cultural exchanges - The United Nations, through UNESCO and the United Nations
University (UNU), has encouraged scholarly and scientific cooperation, networking of institutions and promotion of
cultural expressions, including those of minorities and indigenous people.

3. Explain the m eaning of the underlined words in the text.


4. Translate the following sentences using the words from the previous texts.
1) Предшественником ООН была Лига Наций, задуманная при похожих обстоятельствах во время
первой мировой войны.
2) Цели ООН изложены в хартии, но наиглавнейшей заботой является сохранение мира и
безопасности.
3) В 1980 г. благодаря ООН был уничтожен бич 20 века - оспа.
4) Миллионы беженцев, бегущие от войны, голода и преследований, получили гуманитарную помощь
от ООН.
5) Одним из главных факторов краха системы апартеида были различные принятые ООН меры, от
запрета на торговлю оружием до принятия договора против сегрегированных спортивных
мероприятий.
6) Комиссия по правам человека ООН, расследуя случаи нарушения прав человека, привлекла
внимание общественности к случаям исчезновения людей, применения пыток, необоснованного
содержания под арестом.
7) Развертывание миротворческих войск и миссий наблюдателей позволило избежать миллионы
возможных жертв конфликтов.
8) ООН способствует расширению научного и культурного обмена, развитию культурной
выразительности между народами, включая меньшинства и коренное население.

5. Be ready to speak about the UN and its role in the politics worldwide.

Reading about the UN


Put paragraphs in the right order to fit the following outline of the main ideas of the article:
1) Introduction
2) The plan to overthrow the Saddam regime
3) Spy scare ' <
4) The resolution on Iraq as a result of confidential horse-trading at the UN
5) Working on the plan of the UN reform
6 ) The essence o f the plan
7) Kofi Annan facing the difficult choice
8) The UN experiencing failures
9) Kofi Annan is dubbed a tragic Secretary General
Boris Yunanov
The Moscow News
March 31-April 6 , 2004

FRG CHANCELLOR GERHARD SCHROEDER DEMANDED A PERMANENT SEAT ON TH1


UN SECURITY COUNCIL FOR GERMANS WHAT IMPLICATIONS COULD THIS HAVE FOR THI
ORGANIZATION’S FUTURE?

1) German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder made a statement that was overshadowed by other, more dramatic
developments in Europe. He demanded permanent UN Security Council membership for Germany.
The surprise move by the FRG chancellor means that the long awaited UN reform is about to get off the ground
And it is to begin with the enlargement of the UN key body — the Security Council. This has long been urged by a large
number of countries claiming that their voting rights in making crucial decisions are seriously infringed, one latest case ir
point being the vote on Iraq.

2) Last year, the UN found itself at the center of a scandal. Britain’s former International Development Secretary
Ciare Short claimed that British agents had been bugging all offices in the UN headquarters. The bugs were apparently on
throughout the Iraq debate. While some officials (such as, e.g., ex-Foreign Secretary Robin Cook) questioned Short’s
revelations, others treated them as. an open secret.
- Judging by the reactionvfrom TGnyrBlair, who, although asked about the issue bluntly,.refused to eommen
puff of smoke had not risen without fire: (True, there is yet another theory for-the spy scare: It was created by British
intelligence services themselves through a well-timed inspired leak. But more about this later.) So, during the Iraq debate,
Washington and London were desperate for the votes of non-permanent SC members. They certainly could not have done
without collecting information about the mood in the UN lobbies.

3) The UN's third secretary general, Dag Hammarskjold, a Swede, died in an air accident in Africa falling hostage
to fate. Even so, Kofi Annan is arguably the most tragic UN secretary general in history. As soon as he assumed office, he
became hostage to Time. The world had entered a new era, and the organization headed by Annan lost its former base. Left
and right, hawks and doves, and globalists and anti-globalists alike brought up a raft of complaints against the UN. Perhaps
quite a few of them are well founded. But has this brought about a general consensus as to what the UN should be like
tomorrow? Unfortunately, it has not. So despite the ambitious, far-reaching plans for UN reform, the organization’s future
is shrouded in mist.

4) The gist of the British plan is this: A future Security Council will have not 15 members, like now, but 24. The
number of permanent members will increase to 10, with Germany, Japan, India, Brazil and the South African Republic
being added. The new permanent members will not have veto power (Incidentally Kofi Annan himself does not subscribe
to such a radical approach.)
Today, Japan and Germany, the world’s second and third largest economies, account for 20% and 10% of the UN
budget respectively. Only the United States, the main UN donor, contributes more (Russia’s share is about 1.5%). Thus,
proponents of the British plan say the new SC composition will more adequately reflect the alignment of forces in the
world. No one seems allergic to the candidacies of Japan or Germany, although Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi is
said to have been envious of Schroeder at one time. Other candidates are not such shoo-ins: Mexico envies Brazil and
Nigeria envies the SAR; as for India, all the signs are that George Bush will have his job cut out for him working on his
friend Hervez Musharraf. Should there be insurmountable divisions, informed sources say, London will propose that only
Germany and Japan be admitted as permanent members while other candidacies be put on hold.

5) According to well informed diplomatic sources British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw, will make public Britain’s
Security Council reform plan at the upcoming UN General Assembly session.
Apparently London started working on the plan as soon as the "battle for Iraq" was over, at Washington’s request.
The Americans did not want to get involved with it for considerations of political expediency — above all, the reluctance to
expose Kofi Annan who is seen in some quarters as a "U.S. placeman," as his critics never tire of reminding him. In other
26
words, everyone should be able to see that the U.S. and the UN are not the same. It could be argued: Does it really make
any difference if a particular matter is handled not by the United States'but by its close ally? Yes, it does, very much so. Is
it not clear why London needed to bug Kofi Annan's office? He is a victim of a spy flap in which the British had a hand,
but his reputation in this respect is spotless. On the other hand, London officialdom gets an excellent chance to do the
international community a good turn, minimizing the damage from a flagrant breach of international law, such as spying at
the UN headquarters.
Moreover, the Americans acted on the assumption that London has more experience with reform ideas: The
British first floated a plan to enlarge the Security Council four years ago.
Finally, it is rumored, the two states decided between them that the British would propose reform while the
Americans, using their clout, would work on opponents and fence sitters.

6) In September 2002, Tony Blair and then Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien met in private in Johannesburg
where an important international forum was being held. Blair told his vis-a-vis that the days of the Saddam regime were
numbered. A decision about a military operation had already been made. According to eyewitness accounts at this Chretien
turned pale and asked if Kofi Annan was aware of that. Blair shook his head: No, but his opinion would be taken into
account.
Chretien was stunned. Several days later, during a meeting with George Bush, he tried to warn the United States:
It would be very difficult to get this decision past the UN. Bush promised to find a "way o u t".

7) Kofi Annan as the Swiss Le Temps observes, quite justly, has ’very limited room for maneuver" between the
UN Charter, the basic principles of international law, and the "unilateral diplomacy" of his main donor. So today Annan is
faced with a difficult choice. On the one hand, there is the long awaited Security Council reform plan. On the other, there
are warnings that the Council could as a result turn it into an unwieldy discussion club. And then the UN will irretrievably
lose its principal function as an international security instrument. Yet, no new effective instruments are being proposed.
Surely no one can take seriously the idea of moving the UN headquarters to Geneva and replacing the SC with some
supranational structure, such as a ’club of democratic states”, empowered to override any veto.
Nonetheless, Kofi Annan must have decided for himself: No matter how the reform turns out in the end, the UN
should try to restore its authority. Ever since the beginning of this year, the secretary general has been so hyperactive that at
times it looked like he was running a. PR campaign. A negotiating process on Cyprus was set in motion with Annans direct
participation. He made a speech in the Japanese parliament — something none of his predecessors had done. Lifting a
years-old taboo, he allowed Hollywood to shoot a film in the UN headquarter.

8) Just as a good soldier always dreams of becoming a general, so does any large country dream of a permanent
seat on the Security Council. This was what the United States and Great Britain played on in talking "UN reform". As a
result, they got the resolution on Iraq they needed. Saddams fate became a subject of confidential horse-trading at the UN:
That was the "way out" that Bush had promised the Canadian prime minister.

9) Be that as it may, the UN is soil being plagued by setbacks and debacles. In Iraq, where, as a result of a terrorist
attack, Annan lost a close friend — UN special envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello — the local Shi'ites were up in arms against
Lakhdar Brahimi, an Algerian Sunni whom he had sent there. The crisis in Haiti despite the Security Council resolution to
deploy an international force there, was resolved single-handedly by the Americans who practically forced President Jean
Bertrand Aristide to step down. In the wake of the bomb attacks in Madrid the UN Security Council made a serious blunder
by hastily pinning the blame on ETA. Finally, the March events in Ktfsovo effectively put paid to the peacekeeping effort.
Some of the secretary general’s moves verge on the bizarre. Thus, while pushing for the destruction of one wall —
in Cyprus, Annan in effect connives at the building of another, promising Israel not to interfere in the Palestine-initiated
suit over the Security Wall.

Fact Box Quote-Unquote


The UN Security Council is
comprised of permanent members ’Reform of the UN is only possible with the mutual understanding by all
(Great Britain, the Untied States, participants in the international process of the purposes and objectives of this
Russia, France, and China) with the move. Only then will reform of the UN as a whole and of the Security Council
veto power that can block any in particular strengthen, not weaken, the organization’s role in international
resolution, and non-permanent affairs. Reform for the sake of reform is a futile exercise.’
members without the veto power Igor Ivanov, secretary of the RF Security Council, former RF foreign
elected to a two-year term. During minister
the first two post-war decades
(1945-1965), the UN Security 'International relations should be made more manageable so as to
Council had five permanent and six preclude wars and crises. It is necessary to abandon antiquated, ineffectual
rotating members. In 1965 the forms o f interaction on the international level and to work out new forms, better
number of non-permanent responding to contemporary needs with the ongoing globalization process.
members was enlarged to 10. None o f this is possible without reforming the UN '
_________ Mikhail Gorbarchev, former president of the USSR______

27
1. Match the collocatipns and make up sentences of your own using these phrases from the text.
• to make on the assumption
• to get off the ground
• key past
• to infringe a reform
• to get sth ... expediency
® to talk body
• for consideration o f a statement
• to have an international force
• to preclude in motion
® to respond to contemporary needs
• to act a plan
® to float the right
• to run a PR campaign
® to set crises and wars
• to deploy a hand in sth

2. Contextualize the following w ords and phrases and give their definition:
To be overshadowed by sth, open secret, bluntly, a well-timed inspired! leak, horse-trading/ to be subject о
confidential horse-trading, to expose sb as sth, spy flap, flagrant, breach, clout, gist, alignment of forces, shoo
in, insurmountable, to put on hold, irretrievable/ irretrievably, to restore sb’s authority, predecessor, taboo, to b(
plagued by sth, blunder, to pin the blame on sb, to verge on sth, to connive at sth, to bring up a raft о
complaints against, to be shrouded in sth, mutual, futile, to abandon sth.

3. Answer the following questions:


1. Why is it so important to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council?
2. What kind of horse-trading at the UN is described in the article?
3. What was the gist of the British plan?
4. How did the Secretary Generai try to restore UN authority? ...
5. What blunders were made by the UN Security Council?
6 . Why is Kofi Annan called the most tragic UN Secretary General in history?

4. Form ulate the message of the article.


5. Think about a possible headline for the article. Choose the best v ariant from th e list below and give
your own variant.
• Veto Power Sacred
© UN Reform Shrouded in Mist
* Historic Choice: Either UN Reform or the UN Itself
6 . Give an outline of the article. Be ready to render it.

□ Follow -up

Translate the following sentences using the words from the text.
1. Чтобы предотвратить войны и конфликты, мы должны исходить из принципа, что существует
взаимопонимание между членами организации.
2. Участники заявили, что если это решение будет принято, их права будут нарушены.
3. После того как в прессе появились сообщения о вопиющих нарушениях международного права,
глава организации, всю вину возложил на своего предшественника.
4. После того как скандал получил широкую огласку, ей будет трудно восстановить свой авторитет.
5. Состав Совета Безопасности отражает реальную расстановку сил в мире, и показывает каково
политическое влияние всех стран.
6. Ее попустительство граничит с преступными действиями.
Activate Y our Language

Think of one w ord only th a t can be used appropriately in all the sentences of a set. Use words from the
text.

1) She wanted to help heal th e ______ between them.


Selling the product to another distributor is a clear______ o f the agreement.
The U.N. says there have been grave _ _ _ _ _ o f human rights.

2) Usually the origin o f th e _____ and the motives behind them were easy enough to trace.
People whose roofs have been sound for decades are now looking at m ajor_____ .

3) Flowers will develop only if the plants a re ________ to sunlight daily.


Some children are never_______ to classical music.
Adam С harrow w a s _______ as an East German spy.

4) Ice is less dense than water, which is why i t ____


Gadaffi first _______ the idea in 1999, arguing that it offered the best chance o f escaping poverty and
powerlessness.
Speck was a drifter who h a d _____ _ in and out o f trouble for most o f his life.

5) The two joyriders _________ __the stolen car and ran off.
The party has __________ policies which made it unelectable in the 1980s.
She had ' all hope o f getting her contract down in black and white!

6) The area i s _________ by soil erosion and flooding.


They've got to learn that this business i s _________ with fantasists and people with grudges.
The kids have been __ ________ me with questions.

N A TO

Read the following inform ation posted on the official website of NATO on FAQ page.
Pay special attention to the underlined words. Complete the assignment after the text.

Q: W hat does NATO do?


A: The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is an alliance of 26 countries from North America and Europe
committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on 4 April 1949. In accordance with the Treaty, the
fundamental role of NATO is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military
means. NATO is playing an increasingly important role in crisis management and peacekeeping.

Q: Does NATO have its own arm ed forces?


A: All member countries that participate in the military aspect of the Alliance contribute forces and equipment, which
together constitute the integrated military structure of the Alliance. These forces and assets remain under national
command and control until a time when they are required by NATO a specific purpose (i.e. conflict or crisis,
peacekeeping). NATO, however, does possess some common capabilities owned and operated by the Alliance, such as
the AWACS early warning radar aircraft.

Q: W hat are the conditions for joining NATO? Which countries are eligible?
A: NATO has an open door policy with regard to enlargement. Any European country in a position to further the
principles of the Washington Treaty and contribute to security in the Euro-Atlantic area can become a member of the
Alliance at the invitation of the North Atlantic Council. Countries aspiring to NATO membership are also expected to
meet certain political, economic and military goals in order to ensure that they will become contributors to Alliance
security as well as beneficiaries of it.

O: W hat is NATO’s position on Iraq ?


A: The campaign against Iraq in 2003 was conducted by a coalition of forces from different countries, some of
which were NATO member countries and some were not. NATO as an organisation had no role in the campaign
but undertook a number of measures in accordance with Article 4 of the North Atlantic Treaty, to ensure the

29
security of one of its members, Turkey, in the event of a threat to it resulting from the war in Iraq.

Q: W hat is NATO’s role in the fight against terrorism ?


A: On 12 September 2001, less than 24 hours after the terrorist attacks against the United States, NATO declared the
attacks to be an attack against all the 19 NATO member countries within the terms of Article 5 of the North Atlantic
Treaty. This landmark decision was followed by practical measures aimed at assisting the United States in different
fields, in relation to its campaign against terrorism.

Q: Is NATO involved in Afghanistan?


A: Yes. Through its leadership of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), NATO is helping establish
the conditions in which Afghanistan can enjoy a representative government and self-sustaining peace and security.

Q: W hat is Russia’s status - is it a p artner country?


A: Yes. NATO and Russia made a reciprocal commitment to work together to build a stable, secure and undivided
continent on the basis of partnership and common interest in 1997.
This commitment was strengthened in May 2002, with the establishment of the NATO-Russia Council, which brings
together the 19 NATO Allies and Russia to identify and pursue opportunities for joint action as equal partners.

Q: How much does NATO cost and who pays for it?
A: NATO is an intergovernmental organisation to which member nations allocate the resources needed to enable it to
iinction on a day-to-day basis. There are three budgets': one civil and two military. Each NATO member country pays
2n amount into the budgets based on an agreed cost-sharing formula. Taken together, these budgets represent less than
half of one percent of the total defence budget expenditures of NATO countries.

1 P a rap h ra se the following sentences using the w ords from the previous text,

M O is a union formed for mutual benefit between 26 countries from North America and Europe
dedicated to fulfilling the goals o f the North Atlantic Treaty signed on 4 April 1949.
I t NATO is playing an increasingly important role in the active maintenance of a truce between nations and in
dealing and controlling crises.
5 Due to the conditions stipulated by Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, NATO declared the attacks to be
m attack against all the 19 NATO countries. This decision marking a turning point in its policy was
::Ilow ed by practical measures with the intention to assist the USA. .
-« NATO set up conditions for some countries to develop peace and security' being able to continue in a
~ea:mv state without outside assistance.
: A - лигу satisfies the conditions o f entering NATO if it’s in a position to promote the principles of the
Washington Treaty. Countries directing its ambitions towards NATO membership are also expected not
: c : : o derive advantage out o f Alliance security but also to donate to it.
: The obligation binding each o f two states equally was strengthened with the establishment of the NATO-
Russia Council, which brings together the NATO allies and Russia to distinguish and seek to accomplish
: : т : ".unities for joint action as equal partners.
2. W hat is the c u rre n t state o f NATO? How m any m em ber states does it include?
} B-e ready to speak ab o u t NATO. L ook for recent news about N A TO in the m edia. Be ready to sh are
the inform ation w ith y o u r group mates.

R eading about N A TO

Ь г е а р I . Read Text I and com plete the assignm ent a fte r it.
Be read? to retell it to y o u r p a rtn e r from the o th er g roup basing on the questions a fter the text.
• и p 2 Read Text П and com plete the assignm ent a fte r it.
B e i-c-Амл to retell it to your p a rtn e r from the o th er group basing on the questions a fter the text.

Dii.ese which headline suits b est each of tw o'articles.

30
NATO ADVANCES TO RUSSIAN BORDERS
NATO TRIES TO SOOTHE RUSSIAN FEARS

Text I. The M oscow News


A pril 7-13, 2004

On April, 2, the flags of seven newly admitted member countries were raised outside the NATO headquarters in
Brussels. Russia is hurt, irked, and ready to retaliate.
What is the reason to admit new countries into the alliance and, moreover, open a "collective security umbrella"
over them, if there is nothing, and no one, threatening them? Look at Finland: It is in the same position as the Baltic states,
but somehow it is not at all interested in joining NATO.
Russian society is in principle opposed to NATO expansion — not only because Russia and the West have for
decades been adversaries, and this "internal distrust syndrome" is still very much alive. Some politicians believe that
NATO enlargement pushes the dividing line in Europe further east, closer to Russian borders, cutting us off from the rest of
die civilized world.
Furthermore, Moscow is not inclined to believe that numerical increase in NATO membership will make the
■vorld any more secure or predictable. Thus, following the first wave of the alliance's expansion, when Poland, Hungary,
and the Czech Republic were taken in, a most acute crisis flared up in Yugoslavia, which was accompanied by bomb and
cruise missile strikes against Belgrade and other Serb cities. NATO and allied troops (which at one time included a Russian
contingent) occupied the Kosovo province, establishing a joint UN, OSCE, and KFOR protectorate over it. But that solved
none of the local population's problems.
In addition, Russian generals see the United States' desire to move its military bases in Europe from Germany to
Poland as a credible threat to the country's security. Washington attributes this step to "considerations of economy" and the
need to "put in place infrastructure for an effective struggle against international terrorism." Moscow begs to differ: It is
cheaper to deploy military bases in Albania, as terrorists are based in the south and southeast, not in the east of Europe. The
Pentagon rejects this line of argument.
The Prussian side also finds annoying the fact that the Baltic countries refused — at Brussels and Washington's
bidding — to accede to the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE). At the time when the CFE Treaty was
signed, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia were part of the Soviet Union, and heavy weapons quotas do not apply to them. Now
mere is a gray zone in the region where NATO countries can deploy any number of tanks, armored vehicles, and heavy
artillery; The Russian military is not in a position to check on the presence of such weapons or, say, of tactical nuclear
weapons. ..... .
Poles, Germans, or Americans may announce intentions to inspect our troops in the Kaliningrad region, and
Russia is obliged within 48 hours to give them this opportunity. At the same time, everything that happens to the northeast
of the Kaliningrad region is "terra incognita" for Moscow. True, Brussels argues that the Baltic countries will join the CFE
Treaty once Russia has fulfilled its obligations under the Istanbul Agreement and pulled its troops out of Georgia and
Moldova. But the Istanbul Agreement does not contain a single provision linking the two processes.
Speaking recently at a security conference in Munich, Russian Defense Minister Sergey Ivanov said: "We have a
sufficient arsenal of means and methods of ensuring both our interests and our security." How should the minister's state­
ment be read? Presumably, new Russian garrisons will be deployed near the borders of newly admitted NATO countries
■vhile the armed formations stationed in the Kaliningrad and Pskov'regions will be reinforced with ground attack aviation
and operational/tactical missiles. It is not ruled out that Russian strategic missiles will be targeted on new NATO bases.
Prospective military measures will be supplemented with perfectly real diplomatic moves. Several Lithuanian and
Estonian diplomats have already been declared personae non-gratae. It seems that a new round of confrontation is
beginning.

1. Scan through the article, contextualize the following words and phrases.
Find Russian equivalents and explain their meaning in English.
Headquarters, to be irked, to retaliate, collective security umbrella, to be opposed to smth, adversary, acute
crisis, to flare up, cruise missile strikes, allied troops, credible threat, to beg to do smth, to deploy military bases,
to accede to, a gray zone, to be obliged to do smth, terra incognita, to contain a provision, to ensure smn’s
interests, to rule smth out, personae non-gratae.

2. Answer the following questions about Text I.


. Why is Moscow not inclined to believe that NATO numerical increase will make the world any more secure
or predictable? What are their real intentions?
2 Why is Russian society opposed to NATO expansion? Name the reasons (there are 4 of them).
3. How is Russia going to retaliate?

31
Text И.

The Moscow News


April 14-20, 2004

THE NEW NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL VISITED Moscow LAST THURSDAY IN A BID TO EASE RUSSIA
WORRIES. BUT WITH TENSIONS OVER CURRENT AND FUTURE ALLIANCE EXPANSION, THE MOSCOW NEWS ASb
WHETHER THE TWO CAN EVER REALLY GET ALONG?

“Russia needs NATO, and NATO needs Russia," trumpeted the alliance's recently appointed Secretary Gener
Jaap de Hoop Scheffer repeatedly, as he came striding out of a series of top-level meetings in Moscow last Thursday.
"The problems facing us — terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, Afghanistan, the Balkan
Iraq — are simply too big to think that we can go it alone," the Dutchman explained to President Putin, whom he hopes 1
persuade to attend the NATO summit in Istanbul this June.
Russian eyebrows were raised and foreheads furrowed, however, at this suggestion.
Why then when, by its own admission, the biggest threat is no longer Russia, does NATO appear intent on alier
ating Moscow by absorbing all its former allies and neighbors, having just admitted seven former Warsaw Pact countrie
on April 2?
"This expansion could not prevent the terrorist acts in Madrid, for example, or help develop the situation i:
Afghanistan," President Putin pointed out.
Surely, the Russian suspicions run, increased border patrols in the Baltic States or troop buildups along that borde
are not a cornerstone of the international war on terror?
There are serious fears, magnified by the fact that proposed amendments to the Treaty on Conventional Arme<
Forces in Europe are yet to be ratified, that NATO expansion along Russia's border is far more likely to hamper rather that
help more pressing security concerns, as valuable resources are diverted to areas that would otherwise not be hotspots.
Neither the Baltic States nor Slovenia, both of which have recently become NATO, members, are signatories to the
treaty, therefore creating a strategic "gray zone." ..
RF Defense Minister Sergey Ivanov intimated as much when he suggested on television that Russia would have tc
shift troop positions in order to parry NATO advances, thereby deploying a "powerful war infrastructure" in Europe.
In an article entitled "As NATO Grows, So Do Russia's Worries," published in The New York Times ahead of Mr.
de Hoop Scheffer’s visit, Ivanov elaborated upon these concerns whilst pointing to unrest in the Balkans, Afghanistan and
Iraq as proof of NATO failure, despite recent expansion.
"Russia's position is not that of a malicious onlooker, gloating over America's and NATO's failures," the defense
minister stressed, however. "On the contrary, despite the differences that still exist between Russia and NATO, we want to
cooperate with the Alliance to ensure global security." .
Russian fears have been further inflamed by the coquettish glances that NATO has been directing towards the
strategically important countries of,Georgia and Ukraine.
With Mikhail Saakashvili visiting Brussels to discuss a prospective partnership between Georgia and NATO, and
the Turkish Premier Recep Erdogan announcing that he is willing to help Ukraine become a fully fledged alliance member,
Russia is quite understandably getting increasingly concerned.
Both parties, however, attempted to stress the positives of the meeting.
President Putin stated that he hoped the conversations would lead to "the strengthening of trust in Europe and the
entire world," whilst Mr. de Hoop Scheffer insisted that it was his "personal mission to make the Russia-NATO
relationship stronger during my term in office."
With over two thirds of the Russian population, apparently, viewing the latest moves by NATO as aggressive, Mr.
de Hoop Scheffer certainly seems to have his work cut out.

1. Scam through the article, contextualize the following words and phrases.
Find Russian equivalents and explain their meaning in English.
To soothe, alliance expansion, to trumpet, proliferation of weapons, to raise one’s eyebrows, to furrow one’s
foreheads, to be a cornerstone of the international war on terror, to be magnified by smth, to propose
amendments, to be ratified, to hamper, signatory, gray zone, to intimate smth, to parry smth, to deploy, to
elaborate upon smth, unrest, malicious, onlooker, to gloat over smth, to ensure global security, to be inflamed
by, fully fledged alliance member, to have one’s work cut out.

2. Answer the following questions about Text II.


1. What arguments were presented by NATO Secretary General to soothe Russian fears about its expansion?
2. Why is it thought that this present day situation hampers rather than helps security concerns?
3 What did RF Defense Minister Sergey Ivanov intimate about the reasons of Russian fears, the measures
taken and real wish to cooperate in his speech made on TV?

32
Translation
Translate the follow ing sentences using vocabulary from the previous tw o texts.
1. Подробно останавливаясь на этом вопросе, министр указал, “не желая злорадствовать над
неудачами альянса, тем не менее, стоит заметить, что НАТО не удалось предотвратить
разгоревшийся острый кризис на Балканах”.
2. Не исключено, что Россия ответит на недавнее расширение альянса тем, что развернет свою
военную инфраструктуру по границе со странами альянса.
3. Несмотря на различия, которые до сих пор существуют между Россией и НАТО, мы хотим
сотрудничать с альянсом, чтобы обеспечить безопасность во всем мире, бороться с терроризмом, и
препятствовать распространению оружия массового поражения.
4. Часть российского общества выступает против расширения НАТО и до сих пор считает Россию и
Запад противниками.
5. Предлагаемые поправки необходимо еще ратифицировать, при этом Балтийские страны
отказываются присоединиться к договору.
6 . Некоторые страны бывшего Советского Союза хотят как можно быстрее провозгласить себя
полноправными членами альянса.

EU

Read the following inform ation about the EU and its basic bodies.
Complete the assignment a fte r the text.

2004
The EU needs a streamlined and efficient decision-making system as it enlarges from 15 to 25 and eventually more
members. But.the arrangements must be fair to all member states, old and new, large and small.

The European Parliam ent: Voice of the people


The European Parliament (EP) is the democratic voice of the peoples of Europe. Directly elected every five years, the
members of the European Parliament (MEPs) sit not in national blocs but in seven political groups. Each group reflects the
political ideology of the national parties to which its members belong. Some MEPs are not attached to any political group.
In the European election of June 1999, nearly 30 % of the MEPs elected were women.
Parliament's principal roles are as follows.
• To examine and adopt European legislation. Under the co-decision procedure, the Parliament shares this power
equally with the Council of Ministers.
® To approve the EU budget.
® To exercise democratic control over the other EU institutions, possibly by setting up committees of inquiry.
® To assent to important international agreements such as the accession of new EU Member States and trade or
association agreements between the EU and other countries.
The EP has created the Sakharov Prize which is awarded annually to an individual or group that has defended the cause of
human rights anywhere in the world.
As with national parliaments, the EP has parliamentary committees to deal with particular issues (foreign affairs,
budget, environment and so on). Via one of these, the Committee on Petitions, European citizens can also submit petitions
directly to the European Parliament. The Parliament elects the European Ombudsman, who investigates complaints from
citizens about maladministration in the EU.
Josep Borrel Fontelles is the President of the European Parliament.

The Council of the European Union: Voice of the M em ber States


The Council of the European Union - formerly known as the Council of Ministers - is the main legislative and decision­
making body in the EU. It brings together the representatives of all the Member State governments, which people elect at
national level. It is the forum in which the representatives of your governments can assert their interests and reach
compromises. They meet regularly at the level of working groups, ambassadors, ministers or - when they decide the major
policy guidelines - at the level of presidents and prime ministers, i.e. as the European Council.
The Council - together with the European Parliament - sets the rules for all the activities of the European Community
(EC), which forms the first "pillar" of the EU. It covers the single market and most of the EU's common policies, and
guarantees freedom of movement for goods, persons, services and capital.
In addition, the Council is the main responsible for the second and third "pillars", i.e. intergovernmental cooperation on
common foreign and security policy and on justice and home affairs. That means, for example, that governments are
working together within the EU to combat terrorism and drug trafficking. They are joining their forces to speak with one
voice in external affairs, assisted by the High Representative for common foreign and security policy.
Javier Solana gives EU diplomacy a face as High Representative for common foreign and security policy.

33
The European Commission: The driving force for union
The European Commission does a lot of the day-to- day work in the European Union.
It drafts proposals for new European laws, which it presents to the European Parliament and tile Council. The Commission
makes sure that EU decisions are properly implemented and supervises the way EU funds are spent. It also keeps an eye
out to see that everyone abides by the European treaties and European law.
The European Commission consists of 20 women and men (more in 2004), assisted by about 24 000 civil servants. The
President is chosen by the governments of the EU Member States and must be approved by the European Parliament. The
other members are nominated by the member governments in consultation with the incoming president and must also be
accepted by Parliament.
The Commission acts independently of the governments of the Member States. Many, but not all, of its staff work in
Brussels, Belgium.
Romano Prodi heads the EU executive as President of the European Commission.

1. Scan through the text and contextualize the following words and phrases. Explain their meaning and
translate them into Russian:
A streamlined system, to enlarge, to exercise democratic control, set up committees of inquiry, to assent to
smth, accession, a cause of human rights, via, to submit petitions, an ombudsman, maladministration, to assert
one’s interests, to reach compromise, major policy guidelines, pillar, to cover, to guarantee freedom of
movement, to combat terrorism and drug trafficking, a driving force, day-to-day work, to draft a proposal, to
implement, to supervise, to abide by smth, civil servants, to dismiss.
2. Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Члены Еврокомиссии на срок пять лет, но могут быть распущены парламентом.
2. Комиссия составляет проекты новых законов, следит за тем, как решения приводятся в исполнение,
и наблюдает за тем, как расходуются средства Евросоюза.
3. На заседаниях Совета Европы, кроме того, что представители стран-участниц могут заявить об
интересах своей страны, все члены ЕС вырабатывают общий курс, разрабатывают меры по борьбе с
терроризмом и наркоторговлей.
4. Европарламент осуществляет контроль остальных ведомств Евросоюза, на- пример, создавая
/ следственный комитет, -
5. В функции Европарламента также входит санкционировать важные решения, такие как вступление
новых стран в Евросоюз. ■
6 . Еврокомиссия следит за тем, чтобы страны-участницы действовали в соответствии с Европейскими
соглашениями. • 1 ■ -s . : •
3. Be ready to speak about the EU. Give an up-to-date account of the EU (num ber of m em ber states,
main functions, cu rren t activities, etc.)

R ead in g ab o u t th e E U

Read the following text from The Guardian.


Complete the assignment after it.

Britons deceived
We can vote out Tony Blair when we get fed up with him but not the president of the European Bank
Wednesday, January 6,1999

In the cultural sense, as an heir to the Renaissance in literature, art and music, I too am Glad To Be European. But, as
your columnist Hugo Young correctly asserts, appreciation of European culture is not what differentiates Europhile and
Eurosceptic; the divide is indeed about the European Union, including the recently launched single currency, the euro.
What then really does separate us? To answer that it is necessary first to address the key question: what is the purpose,
direction and destination of the European Union? It really does matter whether it is a Europe of nation states or a European
state. The failure to put, let alone realistically face, this question is what both distorts and demeans the whole British debate
about its place in Europe. The political leaders of the Conservative and Labour Parties - although not the Liberals - have
been guilty of a continued gross deception (and sometimes self-deception) of the British people ever since the question of
'joining Europe' first arose nearly fifty years ago.
And they are still at it: pretending that the question of the single currency is just about economic policy and the balance
of economic advantage - and not about self government and other matters of profound political and constitutional
importance.
The nearest Hugo Young gets to this central question is a reference to 'closer political integration' and the assertion that
'to modify the nation states throughout Europe is an extraordinary ambition, full of risks and difficulties'.
34
To 'modify'! But if it is not about 'modifying' but about transferring the major powers of decision from the nation states
to the EU, doesn't that at least demand the most serious and open debate? Some of our Continental neighbours do indeed
want full political union and if that be their wish, we in Britain should certainly not stand in their way. But to deny that that
is a serious political objective across the Channel is now simple dishonesty.
Is Felipe Gonzalez talking nonsense' when he says: 'The single currency is the greatest abandonment of sovereignty
since the foundation of the European Community. . . it is a decision of an essentially political nature'? Or is Oskar
Lafontaine, the German Finance Minister talking through his hat when he says: 'The United States of Europe has been the
aim of the social democratic party all along' or when Joschka Fischer, the German Foreign Minister says: 'Transforming the
European Union into a single state with one army, one constitution and one foreign policy is a critical challenge of the age'?
We can't begin a sensible and honest debate about our economic interests and our national destiny unless these and
many other facts are at least made known.
Nor unless we resist the temptation to caricature our opponents' concerns and fail to face the real and difficult
arguments.
The centra! concerns of the Eurosceptics - and I believe the majority of the British people - is not an irrational fear of
losing our national identity: it is about the loss of self-government and the erosion of British democracy that membership of
the European Union unhappily entails. The greatest prize any nation can have, beyond self government itself, is the power
to appoint and dismiss governments through the ballot box. We can get rid of Mr Blair, just as we did Mr Major, if we
judge that his government has failed. We can get rid of Chancellor Gordon Brown and the Governor of the Bank of
England if their policies continue to damage the British economy. But we cannot get rid of President Santer and his
commissioners. And we cannot vote out of office President Duisenberg of the European Central Bank. It isn't enough for
Hugo Young to say of the European Union: 'Its bureaucracy is strong, its democracy is weak; its accountability is seriously
underdeveloped'. For all these characteristics are set in. Yes: democracy does matter. Britain alone, unlike any of the eleven
member states who launched the Euro on 1 January, will seek the consent of its people before plunging into the single
currency.
But we in Britain will also be wary of the clear danger of the Eurocentrism of so many of our European partners who
insufficiently recognise that ours is only one of five continents and that we live in a world, not just of 400 million
Europeans but of more than 5,000 million people to whom we also have to relate.

Lord Shore was environment secretary in the 1976-1979 Labour government


Peter Shore

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases. Explain their meaning and translate them into
Russian.
To distort, to demean, a continued gross deception, political integration, assertion, to modify/ modifying, to talk
through your hat, abandonment o f sovereignty, a critical challenge o f the age, national identity, erosion of sth, to
entail sth, to appoint and dismiss the governments through the ballot box, commissionery, to vote smn out,
accountability, to launch sth, to seek the consent o f smn, to plunge into sth, to be wary o f sth, to relate to smn.

2. Answer the questions:


1. What differentiates Europhile and Eurosceptic?
2. What is a continued gross deception that the author is talking about?
3. What is common attitude towards the EU and the euro on the Continent?
4. What are the British people afraid o f losing?
5. What is the issue that the British people must be wary of?

3. Is the headline well chosen? Can you give your variant of the headline?
4. Formulate the message of the article.
5. Give an outline of the article. Be ready to render the article.

35
U N IT 3: ECONOM Y

I D iscussing the m arket

Read this article about the world computer market.


Complete the assignment after the text.

C O M PU TER TR EN D S

When analysing the computer market worldwide it is useful to distinguish between sales of desktop computers and
portable laptop models. The major manufacturers perform very differently in different areas of the market; for example,
А.В.1., the worldwide brand leader in desktop computers, ranks only fourth in laptop computer sales and has captured only
nineteen per cent of the European market and now has twenty-one per cent market share; in worldwide sales, however,
Crown ranks second in laptop models and fourth in desktops.

Beginner’s luck
A recent arrival on the scene, Unitec, has won a twenty-eight per sent slice of the European market and already stands at
number five in the world market in both categories. The computer division of Marcus Industries ranks just below A.B.I. in
the desktop best five and currently leads the world market in portable models; in spite of this, Marcus have captured only
six per cent of the European sector.

Europe fights back


The remainder of the European market is shared by a number of local manufacturers who are competing well in home
markets but who do not figure largely on the international scene. The only one of these:European companies to challenge
the U.S. and Japanese makers abroad successfully is Contact Electronics who entered the top five in the laptop field this
year and managed to outsell both A.B.I. and Unitec. Unitec’s main rivals, Perry-Hamilton, still occupy third place in the
desktop category, but are struggling to maintain their market share.

1. M ake a list of useful phrases to describe a table and a pie chart.


2. Using the inform ation in the article, complete the table and fill in the company names on the pie chart
and comment on it.

1)_____ World market ranking


D esktop L ap to p
1
2 /V ;im . СW l
3 \
4 Cr&uTh Ш > „ ;
5 U ii ; 1 U -iui -

European market
Market movements
1. Translate the words in the boxes and explain on what basis they are grouped.

1) 2) 3) 4)
edge ahead advance c o lla p s e
e d g e h ig h e r c'iV::'' crash tea
e d g e up wiRcrsas&M-' j criinibic 1■11! llbAI 1
ill j
rocket
l%% f- i shoot ahead 4 V
s: ■ V,|,v .v j

flP ' ;’К -


j (Jlj
soar
surge (ahead)
5) ■5;
d iv e decline dip
p'rnP - 1drift (lower)
p -1!.ч. fail
p lu m m e t ed g e dow n
f-v
n im b le ic tr e a t 1Cllgl.' Cl
sjlide j л!in (i »'■s01 i
Щ Ш А I
«СО I bb>><
2. Choose the correct variant for each sentence. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The cost' of living _ _ _ _ _ as high as 3.1 % on a year-to-year basis in June,
a) slipped b) climbed c) plum m eted
2. American operating profits from $51 million to $ 19.2 million last year.
a) edged down b) tumbled c) skyrocketed
3. Industrial output grew by 25.6 % in 1998 over the previous year, as China’s total economy ____by more
than 12 % . / -o ' ■
■■
".•
:- v . . . V ’
- :v,„:
a) slid (J)) edged up (c) shot ahead
4. Lodz’s rapid growth in the 19th century - between 1877 and 1914 the population____ __ from 50, 000 to
almost 500,000 - meant there was little town planning.
a) slumped bj leapt c) nosedived
5. Farm prices____ _ 0.7 % from September as raw milk prices continued their rise.
a) edged up b) rocketed c) surged
6 . Total car production , 5% because of lower sales in the US, where all European car makers are
struggling with weak demand.
a) shot ahead f h ) slid c) increased
7. A year ago, people selling their homes routinely received as many as six offers, with the winning bid often
higher than the asking price. Prices ______ as much as 35% in a single month last year.
a) edged up ( b) skyrocketed c) firm ed
8 . Japanese production has ’ falling by 9% from its peak in 1991.
a) risen b) edged down c) plum m eted
9. The dollar ___ _ to its lowest level against the mark for 18 months.
a) slumped b) rose c) advanced
10. Sales held steady, but margins more than halved from 5.6. to 2.4 %, and profits______ from $ 29.7 million
to $ 12.1 million.
a) drifted lower b) crumbled c) leapt
3. Read the following sentences and translate the italicised p art with prepositions. f •
1. Sales of Pepsi company in North America выросли на 3% do $1.65bn, but international sales упали н<$14
% Ж $ 31.1m. _ у as, а ^ л с м - -fc ■ v
2. Meanwhile, Brazil’s inflation снизилась hq 0.12 % in April no сравнению с ростом 0.23 % in March.
3. The surplus in Japan’s current account, the broadest measure of trade in goods and services, выросла на
43.8 % до $11.2bn.
4. Most banks can grant loans под залог недвижимости, земельных, участков, транспортных средств.
5. The credit policy of many stores stipulates possibility for every client to buy goods в кредит.
6 . They offer consumer goods no разумной цене и дают скидку 5%.
ге.о W C b fe<-€L Ьг fop
37
Read the following article posted on www.thetimes.co.uk on August 14,2005.
Complete the assignment after the article.

Crude politics to keep oil price rising

With oil approaching $70 a barrel, Andrew Ellson examines whether geopolitical insecurity could drive prices even higher

This week the price of a barrel of oil surged towards $70 a barrel, up more than 65 per cent on the start to the year anc
near the inflation-adjusted price last seen in 1980, shortly after the Iranian revolution. Although the latest price spike wa:
triggered by storm worries in the Gulf of Mexico and a bigger-than-expected drop in American supplies of petrol, analyst!
agree that increasing demand is the principal price driver. America is showing no let up in its demand for oil while ths
rapidly expanding economies o f India and China are importing ever-larger quantities to meet their demands o:
growth.
The International Energy Agency estimates that demand for oil will increase to nearly 84 million barrels a day by the
end of this year and will reach almost 87 million barrels a day by the end of next year. But rising demand does not tell the
whole story - geopolitical factors are also contributing and could conspire to send prices spiralling towards the "supei
spike" of $100 a barrel which some analysts warned against earlier this year. And just like in 1979, one country is causing
particular concern: Iran.
In 1979, Islamic leaders swept to power overthrowing the monarchy. Then, the uncertainty over Iran’s oil supplies senl
prices rocketing. Today, it is not the threat of another revolution but the potential consequences of Iran’s pursuit of nucleai
weapons that is agitating world oil markets. ■
Iran has always claimed that its nuclear ambitions do not go further than developing atomic energy, but growing Persian
nationalism and the revelation that the country had been secretly developing a nuclear programme over the past 20 years
has increased international suspicions and led to threats of economic sanctions.
Observers question why the country with the fourth largest reserves of oil in the world would need a nuclear
energy programme.
The international community, particularly America, seems determined to stop Iran, an Islamic state well within ballistic
missile range of Israel, from gaining nuclear weapons. The similarities with the stand-off which developed between the US
and Iraq are clear, and the use of military force cannot.be ruled out.
Analysts say this uncertainty over the outcome of the nuclear dispute is already adding a considerable "risk premium" to
the cost of oil and things are likely to get worse before they get better.
In.a research briefing, Jean-Pierre Hel!ebuyck, the chief investment strategist of ЛХА, noted that after Saudi, Arabia,
Iran is the second largest producer of oil within Opec, with an output of 4 million barrels a day. "In the current market, with
supply running perilously close to the maximum that producers can provide, losing Iran’s contribution wouid really come
as a shock, generating a situation of unmanageable chaos," he said.
Another analyst told Times Online that the price of oil could spike to $100 a barrel should the threat of conflict with
Iran escalate significantly. "It is very difficult to quantify the premium for geopolitical risk, but inventory-adjusted demand
would suggest a price of around $55 to $60 a barrel. With prices almost hitting $70, you can see how nervous the market
is," said the analyst, who asked not to be identified.
Saudi Arabia is still the world's largest oil exporter but these days it is producing at near capacity. The country's security
situation is also a worry for world oil markets with terrorists regularly attacking oil refineries in order to disrupt supply.
Islamic extremists have also been trying to ferment discontent with the ruling royal family in Saudi, so the recent death
of King Fahd sent oil prices soaring, despite the fact that there was unlikely to be any change in Saudi policy with the
succession. Any sign of political instability in Saudi Arabia makes oil dealers very anxious and the result is higher prices.
Mr Hellebuyck says that with global politics in a state of turmoil, he can’t see oil prices falling significantly before
2006. "Regardless of how things evolve, tensions will remain high, and we don’t see how the risk premium on the oil price
can contract to any significant degree." It appears that until demand falls or supply expands significantly oil prices will
remain at the mercy of politics.

1. Contextualize and give definitions of the following words and phrases:


Geopolitical insecurity, to surge towards, price spike, to spike to, to be triggered, supplies of petrol, price
driver, let up, to contribute, to conspire, to meet the demands, to send the prices spiralling, to send prices
rocketing, pursuit o f nuclear weapons, to agitate world oil markets, revelation, to be within ballistic missile
range of smn, stand-off, to rule out, output, perilous/ly, unmanageable chaos, to escalate, with prices hitting
sth, oil refinery, to disrupt supply, to send oil prices soaring, a state o f turmoil, to fall significantly, to
contract to any degree, to be at the mercy o f politics.

2. Answer the following questions:


1. What is the principal price driver in the oil market?
2. What factor can contribute to the prices spiralling towards the “super spike”?

38
3. What is a possible effect of America’s determination to stop Iran from developing nuclear weapons?
4. What is the forecast in the oil market that the experts provided?
5. Why do you think oil prices are at the mercy of politics?
3. Make a sum m ary of the article.
4. Form ulate the controlling issue of the article.

5. Translate the following sentences using the words from the previous section.
1. По сравнению с прошлым годом уровень продаж упал на 3 %.
2. Сегодня утром после первого выпуска новостей с сообщениями об урагане Катрин цена на нефть
стремительно взлетела и достигла отметки 70 долларов за баррель.
3. Скачок цен был вызван заявлением президента о возможных санкциях против стран-экспортеров
нефти, которые разрабатывают ядерное вооружение.
4. Государственный переворот обострил политическую ситуацию и тем самым вызвал резкое падение
котировок.
5. Покупательская способность снизилась на 0.3 % по сравнению с прошлым месяцем.
6 . После стабильного роста потребительской активности наступило снижение активности.
7. Сокращение доли продаж на мировом рынке было вызвано снижением выработки.

II W TO

W hat is W TO?
World Trade Organisation (WTO) is the policeman of global trade. So, when the USA and the European Union are in
dispute over steel or GM foods, it is the WTO which acts as judge and jury.
Extra powers given to the WTO are supposed to ensure that disputes are settled in harmony with international trade
principles. The WTO has 148 members and makes decisions on a basis of unanimity.
No country can wield a power of veto: The principles which members sign up to are: extending trade concessions
equally to all WTO members, aiming for a freer global trade with lower tariff's everywhere, making trade more predictable
through the use of rules and bringing about more competition by cutting subsidies. :
The details of how much countries are prepared to cut tariffs and trade barriers are hammered out at large sessions of
talks, so-called trade rounds. The scope of trade rounds has steadily expanded and now includes intellectual protection,
investment, trade in services and agriculture as well as trade in manufactured: goods.
Location: Geneva, Switzerland
Established: 1 January 1995 Anti-dumping
Measures applied
WTO in the news wheti goods are found to
be priced below
Read the news stories. Complete the assignment after them.
production cost when
exported to a foreign
1) India tops W TO anti-dumping list market, which normally
India has overtaken the US as the most active user of the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) leads to the imposition of
anti-dumping measures against foreign imports. extra tariffs on the
Traditionally, dumping was used by exporters to break into new foreign markets and products deemed to be
undercut local producers in the hope of forcing them out of business. dumped. _____
A foreign producer can then raise prices to make a profit, especially if they become a
monopoly supplier.
Under WTO rules, an investigation has to show that domestic producers are being harmed by the imports.
Anti-dumping actions can be challenged through the WTO's dispute.settlement system and if found unjustified, must be
withdrawn. Developing countries have often accused the US and other WTO members of abusing anti-dumping actions to
keep out goods competing with domestic products.
2) Australian farm ers' US anger
Simon Ramsay has spent all morning ploughing his fields and he is angry.
On Monday US President George W Bush signed off a farm bill providing billions of dollars of subsidies to American
farmers and Simon Ramsay says that is going to make life much harder. The magnitude of the subsidies puts Australian
farmers in a terribly unfair trading position.
"At first, we thought it wouldn't happen because the US is in the WTO, it supports free trade and encourages its
neighbours to adopt free-trade policies. Over production is a concern in the US. The way to tackle that is to reduce
subsidies to their farmers so that they go out and do something else," he says.
As Simon speaks, a community radio news bulletin explains US farmers will now receive about 50% of all their income
in the shape of government handouts. In Australia the figure is 7%.
Australian farmers have long since grown used to operating without subsidies. Their answer has been rapid take up of
new technologies and diversification to help them ride out commodity slumps.

39
3) Trade w ar looms over steel dispute
The European Union has vowed to protect its own steel industry in the wake of the US decision to slap punish,
penalties on imported steel. The EU said the decision flouted international trade rules, and promised to launch
immediate complaint with the World Trade Organisation.
President George W Bush's decision is in response to pressure from the US steel industry, which is struggling
compete with cheaper products from abroad.
US steel imports were worth about $8.6bn last year, making up 10% of world trade in steel. The EU is afraid of a floi
of surplus steel imports from countries such as Japan which will no longer be able to compete in the US.
European Union governments have taken a step towards imposing retaliatory sanctions against controversial I
steel import duties. The move clears the way for the EU to apply the tariffs later this year if talks with the US fail to yield
compromise solution. The EU is threatening to slap punitive 100% duties on a list of US imports, including textiles ar
fruit juice, worth about $335m a year.
In order to maximise the political impact of the tit-for-tat tariffs, the EU is targeting goods produced in margin;
Republican constituencies in the US.
President George W Bush's decision to impose tariffs of up to 30% on foreign steel has been seen by some analysts a
vote-garnering for mid-term Congressional elections in November. The EU has said that the tariffs could cost its stee
producers up to $2bn.

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases. Explain their meaning and translate them int(
Russian:
To be in dispute over sth, to be the policeman of global trade, to make decisions on a basis of unanimity, tc
wield a power of veto, to extend trade concessions, to cut subsidies, to cut tariffs and trade barriers, the scope
of trade rounds, anti-dumping measures, to break into a new foreign market, to undercut local producers, to
force smn out of business, to become a monopoly supplier, to be withdrawn, to abuse ant-dumping actions, to
provide subsidies, magnitude of subsidies, to adopt free-trade policies, government handouts, to operate
without subsidies, diversification, to ride out commodity slumps, to loom, to vow, in the wake of sth, to slap
punishing penalties on sth, to flout international trade rules, to launch a complaint, to struggle to compete
with sth/smn, surplus steel imports, to yield a compromise solution, to slap punitive duties on sth,. tit-for-tat
tariffs, to impose tariffs, vote garnering.,- . ■О
2. Answer the questions:
1. What is the WTO’s role in the global economy?
What is dumping? What are anti-dumping measures? f ■'■■■ ••
How can a country abuse anti-dumping measures?
How can a magnitude of subsidies provided by the US to its farmers threaten farmers in Australia?
What is a possible way to tackle overproduction?
What is the essence of tit-for-tat tariffs?

3. Translate the following sentences into English.


1) Ни одна из стран членов ВТО не обладает правом вето.
2) Главными принципами ВТО являются райное расширение Торговых льгот, снижение тарифов,
создание более предсказуемой торговли, развитие конкуренции за счет снижения субсидий.
3) Антидемпинговые меры, применяемые к товарам, чья цена при продаже на иностранных рынках
ниже предельно высокой себестоимости, состоят в наложении дополнительных пошлин на
товары.
4) Демпинг применяется экспортерами, чтобы сбить цены местных производителей и вытеснить их с
рынка.
5) Развивающиеся страны часто обвиняли США и другие страны-члены ВТО в злоупотреблении
антидемпинговыми мерами с тем, чтобы экспортеры и их товары не могли конкурировать с
местными производителями.
6) Проблему перепроизводства необходимо решать путем снижения субсидий. Сейчас фермеры в
США 50% своего дохода получают в виде правительственных подачек.
7) Чтобы пережить резкое падение цен на товары, фермеры начали применять новые технологии и
распространяли сельскохозяйственную деятельность на новые сферы.
8) В ответ на решение США наложить штрафные пошлины на импортируемую сталь, Европа
клятвенно обещала защитить свою сталелитейную промышленность.
9) ЕС пообещала подать жалобу в ВТО, так как решение США нарушает международные торговые
правила.
10) Если переговоры с США не приведут к компромиссному решению, то ЕС поступит по принципу
“зуб за зуб”: применит ответные санкции и наложит штрафные пошлины.
4. Be ready to speak about the WTO and major problems it is supposed to tackle.

WTO in the NEWS

Read the article that was posted on www.wto.ru on June 29,2005.


Complete the assignment after the text.

R ussia com es into serio u s crisis w ith its W T O m e m b ersh ip talk s


by Sergei Malinin

Russia has made all concessions, which it could make in the talks about its incorporation in the WTO.

The process of Russia's incorporation in the World Trade Organization may take a much longer time. In addition to the
Russian dispute between WTO's followers and adversaries, Russia continues its fight with the international community
regarding the terms of the membership in the organization.
Russia wants to secure competitive advantages of its producers, having preserved low tariffs and prohibitive duties for
substituting import. The foreign community wants to make Russia become a comfortable market. Russia's WTO
membership thus represents a system of deterrents - a compromise, at which the government of the country plans to gain
the maximum profit from the WTO membership with minimum losses for the industry of the national significance.
"For the time being, we have completed the talks with 33 states, with which Russia has 87 percent of the foreign trade
turnover," Russian Minister for Economic Development and Trade, Gherman Gref, stated during the recent talks in
Geneva. Russia signed agreements with Norway and Mexico last week, whereas only a couple of issues remain unsolved
with five other countries. In addition, Russia came to agreement to sign adequate documents with five other countries
before September; the documents with India, Japan and the USA are to be signed before the end of the current year.
Nevertheless, the Western side in the talks has a rather skeptic attitude to Russia's accomplishments in the process of the
talks. Stefan Johannesson, the chairman of the workgroup for Russia's incorporation in the WTO, stated that he was rather
concerned about the talks with Russia. According to Mr. Johannesson, Russia is not ready to set forth the suggestions, with
which it would be possible to start working. Stefan Johannesson added that he would not like to expand on the matter.
Pravda.Ru asked the question about the current affairs in the WTO talks to Aleksei Portansky, the director of the
Informational Bureau for Russia's Incorporation in the World Trade Organization.
"Minister Gherman Gref said in Geneva that Russia would not make any other coftcessions in the process of
negotiations. The minister was not the first person to release such a statement. The leader of the Russian delegation, Maxim
Medvedkov, also said that Russia had made all the concessions that it could make on the matter. They want Russia to raise
home prices on natural gas. The Russian delegation says no to it, claiming that it is an internal matter of the Russian
government. In addition, Russia does not tend to abide by international obligations on energy tariffs. The West also wants
Russia to cut prices on civil aviation. We protest against it too, for it would ruin the home aviation industry. To crown it all,
Russia is not willing to give permission to foreign banks and insurance companies to set up their branch offices on its
territory.
"Russia takes a rather tough position on tariffs for the services of natural monopolies. Our tariffs on internal and foreign
railway transportation differ, which comes into conflict with WTO principles. However, the matters are different with
energy tariffs. Unlike transportation tariffs, the WTO does not regulate them. They obviously want to deprive our certain
producers of competitive advantages. It concerns fertilizer-makers first and foremost: 70 percent of their production cost is
spent on gas.
"The market of financial services is the most sensitive one of all. Russia will not let foreign banks and insurance
companies enter the national market and set up subsidiaries here: it would only be possible to do so through branch
companies.
"Furthermore, the talks pertaining to the Russian aviation industry are still open. The USA, Canada and Brazil make their
own aircrafts and sell them. These states will continue to strive for the zero prohibitive duty for the import of aircrafts.
Russia will not make such a concession.
"There are several problems in the current talks about Russia's membership in the WTO. Russia will have to work more
on its laws to adjust them with WTO principles. This is a rather slow process, and we have to work faster on that."
Aleksei Portansky did not venture to predict, when the talks are going to be over and when the sides achieve the complete
agreement on ail issues. The specialist only hopes that all problems will be settled by December of 2005.

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases:


Incorporation, to make concessions, followers and adversaries, deterrent, competitive advantage, prohibitive
measures, accomplishment, to set forth, to release a statement, to expand on sth, to cut prices on sth, to raise
prices on sth, to abide by sth, competitive advantage, tough, sensitive, subsidiary, brunch company, to strive for
sth, to pertain to sth, to adjust, to venture.

2. Answer the questions.


1. Who are the politicians quoted in the article? What are their statements?
41
2. What concessions did Russia make in order to join the WTO?
3. W hat other concessions are expected from Russia?
3. Make a sum m ary of the article.
4. Surf the Internet for the recent news on Russia and the WTO issue. Share your news update with
your group mates. Pay special attention to the headlines and leads.

□ Follow-up

1. Describe the graph showing the sales record of Microtex. Pick out useful words and expressions from
this Unit. Use phrases from the table on the next page.

C o m p a n y p e rfo r m a n c e

1994 1995 1 9 96,1997 1.9.98 1999 2000 2001 2002 20

2. M atch terms with the'definitions.'


C om panies
1) holding company a) A firm based in a tax haven to avoid higher taxation
2) limited company b) A firm where shareholders’ liability is limited
3) nationalized company c) A firm, usually without commercial activity, created to be parent
to other companies
4)offshore company d) A company whose shares are not publicly available
5) private company e) Company owned by the state
6) public company f) Form owned by a parent company
7) subsidiary g)A company whose shares are publicly available
8)parent company h)A company which owns another

3. Translate the following sentences using the wordlist of this unit (See Glossary). Use your dictionary if
necessary.
1. He разрешается проходить таможню с заграничным паспортом, у которого истек срок действия.
2. В деловых кругах для получения дополнительной прибыли при выполнении контракта необходимо
взаимовыгодное сотрудничество.
3■ При заключении контракта оговаривается срок действия контракта и его условия.
4. Одна из договаривающихся сторон не выполнила условия контракта в предусмотренное время, и
пострадавшая сторона понесла большие потери.
5. Плата за аренду в центре города выше, чем в его окрестностях. При заключении арендного договора
оговаривается арендная плата.
6 . При покупке большой партии товара делается скидка.
7. Оптовые цены меньше розничных.
8- Текущие цены колеблются вследствие колебаний спроса и предложения.
i
1
a dramatic increase in turnover turnover is increasing dramatically
sharp rise |
1 rising sharply
steep climb j climbing steeply
upturn going up
.

steady decrease profit profit decreasing steadily


gradual fall falling gradually
slight drop dropping sightly
downturn going down

vertical
a»s a smooth
curve „ ' — a solid fine
---------a broken line
........... a dotted line
an
irregular \
curve

horizontal axis

between these curves.


They show a. similar
trend/iendency.
They reveal a pattern.
export turnover has risen 50% 15 years
bv over
domestic turnover has fallen 33% 15 years
to reach a

43
9. Виды платежа могут быть разными: можно платить наличными, бартером, по частям, банковским
переводом.
10. В США кредитная политика находится на высоком урбвне. Гражданам предоставляются кредиты.
Молодожены имеют возможность купить в кредит дом, машину, мебель. В течение жизни они
обязаны выплатить в кредит. Риски невозврата кредита сведены к минимуму.
11. Система страхования в нашей стране развита слабо. С одной стороны, стоимость страхования
довольно велика для граждан с заработной платы, уровень которой ниже среднего. С другой стороны,
страхование товара на сумму $ 10000 не означает, что стоимость вашего товара будет возмещена
полностью или частично.
12. Американская фондовая биржа, а также крупные акционерные общества могут владеть ценными
бумагами в размере нескольких миллиардов долларов.
13. Чтобы получить ссуду в банке, вам необходимо доказать свою кредитоспособность, предоставить
письменную доверенность от физического или юридического лица.
14. Вместе с понижением процентных ставок на ипотечном рынке, появится возможность
перефинансировать ваш кредит.
15. Чтобы купить квартиру, первый взнос должен быть не менее 30% стоимости квартиры, оставшиеся
70% должны быть выплачены фиксированными взносами.
16. Если вам предоставляется беспроцентная ссуда ('кредит), то для вас ставка ссудного процента не
устанавливается, и вам не нужно выплачивать проценты.
17. Купив некоторое количество акций того или иного предприятия, вы становитесь его акционером и
получаете проценты от доходов предприятия.
18. Предприниматели желают избавиться от налогового бремени. Они всячески скрывают свои
налогооблагаемые прибыли и доходы; при заполнении налоговой декларации подтасовывают факты.
19. Все сделки с землей подлежат налогообложению.
20. Налоговые поступления составляют большую долю государственных доходов.
21. В налоговое законодательство необходимо внести поправки. Необходимо выявить категории
населения, с которых можно взимать налоги, т.е. налогооблагаемое население и категории населения,
освобожденные от уплаты налогов.
22. Существуют разные виды налогов: подоходный налог, налог на недвижимость, налог на наследство,
на прибыли предприятий и компаний, на автомобили, на зем лю ,'на продажи, на добавленную
стоимость, на фонд заработной платы, на разовые прибыли.
23. Банки предоставляют широкий спектр услуг: осуществляют валютные операции, управляют
денежными средствами, ресурсами, активами, предоставляют банковские кредиты (ссуды). У вас есть
возможность открыть свой счет в банке и вести счет в течение того или иного промежутка времени.
24. В обменном пункте любой человек может узнать обменный курс любой валюты (евро, доллар,
марка и т.д.). Колебания валютного курса происходят каждый день: курс то растет, то падает.
25. Он получил место в совете директоров компании Microtex, так как это была его идея осуществить
поглощение компании Minitex.
26. Оборот этой компании достиг самой высокой отметки в 100 миллионов единиц после двух лет
стабильного роста в спросе.
27. После нескольких лет стабильного развития и небольшого повышения прибыли, компания испытала
резкое падение цен на свои акции,
28. Он застраховал всю свою недвижимость на сумму 1 млрд. долларов.

I l l M an ag in g finances

> Read the article posted on The Guardian website. Complete the assignment after it.
D egrees o f deb t

Marianne C u rp h e y
T u e sd a y A u g u st 23, 2005
Guardian Unlimited
Within weeks thousands of students will be living away from home for the first time and enjoying the social whir! of
Freshers' Week. But for many, it will be funded by unprecedented levels of debt.
Undergraduate students starting university this year can take out a student loan to cover their living costs. They can
borrow up to £4,195 for the first year if they live outside London and £5,175 in the capital. They get slightly less in their
final year because it is assumed they are about to take up a job. The loan is assessed by a student's local education authority
44
(LEA) and is usually dependent on their parents' income. Once the LEA has decided what a student is entitled to, it will
inform the government-owned Student Loans Company (SLC).
The SLC doesn't make a lump sum payment, but will pay the money in installments at the start of each term. The
money goes straight into your bank. It will then send out an annual statement every September, letting students know how
much they owe. Students are entitled to one loan a year, but they must let the SLC know if they change course. If a student
transfers courses within the first year, they will be entitled to funding for the whole of the new course.
Paying it back
Student loans are d e sire d to be inflation-neutral and are cheaper than commercially available loans. The interest rate is
based on the retail price index and fixed for the year. Loans issued this September will be fixed at 3.2% for the next 12
months. This can and will change with inflation and the new rate, based on the headline rate of inflation in March, will be
announced each September. As soon as the loan is paid to a student interest starts to build up. It continues to accrue
throughout the life of the loan, until it has been paid back in full.
Repayments start in April the year after a student has graduated, or left his or her course. How much students can expect
to pay back - and how quickly they will pay off their loan - is linked to their income after graduation, not the size of the
loan. This is why it is formally called an "income contingent loan": the more you earn, the more you pay back. This
contrasts with the old, pre-1998, mortgage-style student loans, which saw students repaying loans over a set period of five
years.
Graduates do not have to start repaying their loan until they are earning £15,000 gross a year, or £1,250 a month. Once
they earn more than that, they must pay the SLC 9% of their excess earnings. The money comes directly out of their pay.
For example, if a graduate earns £1,666 a month (£20,000 a year) they must pay 9% of £416 (£1,666 minus £1,250) to the
SLC. This works out at £37.44 a month. If their pay increases to £25,000 their repayment will rise to £74 a month,
regardless of how much they borrowed. Repayments are collected at source like tax and national insurance contributions.
It doesn't take a maths degree to work out that repaying a £4,195 loan on a £20,000 salary, without taking into account
inflation or interest, will take a long time (nine years to be exact). The idea, the SLC explains, is to make the monthly
payment bearable by reducing its size and spreading repayments over a longer period. And students can increase their
payments if they want to clear their loan more quickly. The student finance calculator on the SLC website lets you work out
how much you can expect to pay for how long, based on the minimum repayments.
Students cannot avoid repaying their loans by declaring themselves bankrupt, although if they reach 65 and have still
not paid off their loan, it will be written off. Loans will also be cancelled if a student dies, or is made permanently disabled.
Commercial alternatives
All this is likely to intimidate the average fresher, but it is worth going through as student loans compare favourably with
those available elsewhere. While student loans currently attract 3.2% interest, a high street bank might charge 7.3%. Also,
the student loan rate is fixed for the year, whereas commercial rates can rise as interest rates go up. If, however, you are
unsure about taking on a student loan, then don't worry, you don't have to decide now. The final deadline for applying for a
loan is nine months after the first day of the academic year in which you start your course.
Not all students will want to take out a student loan, or qualify for'one. If this is the case, there are a few other options.
One is a career development loan (CDL). It's a two-year loan that covers full, part-time or distance learning for up to
£8,000 to cover up to 80% of course fees. Repayments start a month after the course finishes.
The financial information company Moneyfacts says students should consider using credit cards with 0% balance
transfer offers, and make the most of their interest-free student overdrafts before thinking about taking out a personal loan.
But these are short-term solutions to a cash-flow crisis, not a funding option. Other things to steer clear of says Moneyfacts,
are store cards which charge up to 32% interest, and payment protection insurance often sold alongside unsecured loans -
an unnecessary and expensive option for most students. *
Additional research by Ed Ewing

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases, give their definition and translate them into Russian:
Social whirl, to borrow, to cover costs, loan, to be entitled to, a lump sum, installment, annual statement, to
transfer courses, interest rate, retail price, to be fixed at ...%, to accrue, contingent, mortgage, gross, to
intimidate, to charge, to qualify for sth, to steer clear of sth, short-term solution, cash-flow crisis.

2. Answer the following questions:


1. What are the terms o f getting a student loan?
2. What are the usual terms o f repaying the loan?
3. Is it possible to clear the loan more quickly?
4. Are there any other alternatives to taking a student loan?
3. Retell the article.

45
> ■Read the following article from The Guardian. Complete the assignment after it.

Anxious life o f the ’Ipod' generation


David Smith, Economics Editor

THEY should be Britain’s gilded youth, enjoying opportunities to study, travel and embark on exciting careers in a way
previous generations could only dream about. But instead they are the “Ipod” generation — “Insecure, Pressured, Over­
taxed and Debt-ridden” — according to a study by Reform, the think tank, to be published this week.
“We have always worked on the assumption that each generation would be better off than its predecessors,” said
Professor Nick Bosanquet of Imperial College London, one of its authors.
“But young people today have a lot more commitments and it is much more difficult for them to raise their incomes and
generate wealth. This really is a very big issue for the country.”
According to the report, today’s generation lacks the confidence and ability to build on the economic foundations
created by post-war baby boomers. Because they are indebted, they are also risk-averse; levels of entrepreneurship among
Britain’s young are lower than in America, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland and have fallen over the past decade. Many
opt for what appear to be safe jobs offering a good pension. Others have to take any job that is available to try to pay off
their debts.
“The student loan is the biggest chain around my neck,” said Phil Grech, 22, from Cumbria, who has a degree in maths
and meteorology from Reading University.
“I’m only doing a temporary job at the moment while I figure out what my long-term aspirations are and to pay the
mounting bills. I haven’t really thought about the long term. People assume that when you leave university you can just
walk into a job, but it’s no longer like that.”
Hayley Rathbone, '22, took a masters degree in applied criminology at Leicester University. She and her boyfriend have
a combined debt of £15,000. “We have had to pay extortionate rent and the rising council tax doesn’t help,” she said. “My
boyfriend has. taken a second job to attempt to balance the books. A holiday just isn’t going to happen, not in the next few
years, and getting on the property ladder is unthinkable for at least three years. “I’m working in the civil service but it’s
only on a fixed term contract so there is no real security, I could be out on my ear in 12 months.”
The Reform study finds that the balance of tax and spending has tilted against Britain’s under-35s. The “welfare
bargain” — of pay ing into the welfare state in the. expectation of receiving benefits from it — has broken down, it claims.
“The next half century is likely to see an unprecedented transfer of wealth from the younger to the older generation in
the form of health and pension spending,” it says.
The ageing population means that young people have to support an increasing number of pensioners, while extra public
spending, particularly on the health service,; also disproportionately benefits older people.
While previous generations enjoyed higher education funded by the taxpayer, young people today face university
tuition fees and a declining “return” in the salary advantage they will get from their degrees.
Research quoted in the study suggests that the graduate “premium” (the extra lifetime earnings for those with degrees)
is likely to average £140,000- £160,000, far short of the £400,000 assumed by the government when it introduced tuition
fees. Some graduates, notably men with arts degrees, face a negligible return for their time at university and could do better
leaving school at 18.
Young people also face dismal pensions, says the report, and have been locked out of the housing market by high prices
and increases in stamp duty and inheritance tax. They pay 35% to 40% of their income in tax and get less in return for it
than their predecessors.
Amro Karim, 24, is looking forward to completing his master’s degree in automotive engineering at Brighton, but is not
confident about the future. “I’ve got quite a large debt to pay back — around £15,000, not including credit cards and my
overdraft,” he said.
“Even if I get a good wage, as soon as it gets comfortable I’ll be in the higher tax bracket. It’s a catch-22 situation. If I
went back to my home town in Guernsey I’d only be taxed 20%, but there are no jobs in Guernsey.”
The Reform study concludes that the only way out is for the government to reduce public spending’s share of the
economy, allowing the tax burden to be cut. It also calls for more “co-payment” in the NHS and other public services, so
that those who use them bear a greater proportion of the cost.
The government’s 50% target for young people in higher education should be scrapped, it says, because it will flood the
job market with graduates. Instead there should be a focus on the skills the economy needs.

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases, give their definition and translate them into Russian:
Gilded youth, to embark on sth, think tank, to work on the assumption that, predecessor, commitment, to
generate wealth, to be a big issue, baby boomers, to be indebted, risk-averse, entrepreneurship, to opt for sth,
safe jobs, to pay of one’s debts, to have a degree in ... from ... University, long-term aspirations, mounting bills,
to assume, to walk into a job, to take a masters degree i n ..... a t ___University, a debt of £15,000, extortionate,
council tax, graduate “premium”, to balance the books, to get on the property ladder, civil service, to be out on
one’s ear, unprecedented, public spending, tuition fees, negligible, dismal, to be locked out of sth, overdraft,
catch-22 , tax burden, to be scrapped.
46
2. Answer the questions:
1. What is iPod? Why is this generation called the Ipod generation?
2. Who are baby boomers?
3. What proves the fact that this generation is risk-averse?
4. How has the balance of tax and spending tilted against Britain’s under-35s?
5. What is the possible way out to resolve the crisis?
3. Make a summary of the article.

> Read the article posted on The Guardian website. Complete the assignment after the text.

G ra d u a tin g w ith a degree o f insolvency


College debts are starting to spiral out of control, writes Barbara Oaff
Sunday January 16, 2005

Another term started; another step taken towards deep debt. As Britain's undergraduates settle down to the spring term,
this seems to be the grim reality facing them. But how grim? Just what will they end up owing? Where does that money go
and why do they spend it the way they do?
The average student debt is now £12,100, according to Barclays' annual graduate survey, a 10 per cent increase since
last year and a 500 per cent rise since 1995. It is expected most graduates will have to work for 10 years before they are out
of the red.
It’s perhaps not surprising then that the Department of Trade and Industry recently revealed that the number of
graduates who declare themselves bankrupt each year has trebled to almost 900. The situation looks set to get worse. If the
current trend continues, Barclays expects student debt to reach an average of £33,700 by 2010.
Cash has heard that a growing minority of students are hitting this point already. The Consumer Credit Counselling
Service recently dealt with one who owed £13,000 on student loans and a further £19,000 on overdrafts, credit cards and
storecards.
The Royal Bank of Scotland student living index has found UK students spend more than £8 billion in an academic
year. Of this, £2.4bn goes on rent and £330 million on course-related materials. A total of £1.49bn goes on drinking, eating
out and going out - more than twice the £670m spent on groceries.
Does this confirm a suspicion held by some that students are simply living it up now arid paying for it later? Helen
Symons, a vice-president of the National Union of Students, says not: 'Students are not in debt because they are wasting
money on a social life; they are in debt because they don't receive enough money to cover their costs- and by that Гmean
basic costs.'
Symons refers to NUS calculations that show an annual shortfall of several thousand pounds between what a student
can receive in a student loan and what they have to pay to study and live.
Doesn't this simply indicate students really should be more careful with their meagre funds?
'It depends,' says Vivienne Starkey, an independent financial adviser with Equal Partners, whose clients include new
graduates. 'The ways students handle money reflects how society at large handles money. Undoubtedly some are lax and
could do with taking greater control. Others already do that though and, to minimise their debt further, do work when they
can.'
Statistics on the percentage of students who take up a part-time job varies greatly - from 40 to 70 per cent. Of those who
do, it is accepted that they tend to put in about 15 hours a week, clearly still not enough to make ends meet, even for the
thrifty.
External factors, such as living in a particularly expensive town or city, can play a huge role in determining a student's
degree of debt. One guidebook to British universities notes that the average annual debt for a student in Newcastle, for
example, is £1,360, compared with £4,700 in London.
Other, less tangible and more psychological influences could be at work, too.
Tom Weaver, co-author of an e-advice book, The Student Finance Vigilante, points to an absence of financial
education: 'Neither schools, nor parents, teach young people how to manage their finances. Is it any wonder they can find it
a challenge to do that for themselves, by themselves, while at university?'
Banks have come under criticism for irresponsible lending and calls for change were announced in Parliament in the
Queen's Speech.
Keith Tondeur, national director of Credit Action, a charity lobbying for stricter regulation, says: 'Students get
bombarded with offers of overdrafts, credit and store cards. It's all too easy and all too tempting to say yes.'
Especially, it would appear, if no one has taught them otherwise.
Book-keeping
It is probably fair to argue that the student experience of money management mirrors that of the wider population: some
people are very conscientious; others less so.
Michelle Roberts who recently graduated from Leicester University with a combined desree in English literature and
art history, admits to being 'quite terrible with money'. 'I am now ashamed to say I kept splurging - on going out, on going
shopping, on going skiing, snowboarding, holidaying. There was a part of me that knew it was wrong, but facing up to that,
and the consequences of it, was too scary at the time.'

47
Tristan Poppas, who is in his final year of geology and physical geography at Liverpool University, 'tries really hard
with money yet still never seems to have enough'. 'I don't waste it and I do work when I can, but I do loads of field trips
which take up a lot of time, and quite a bit of cash. It is really hard.'
Erin Richards, a second-year politics student at Sheffield University, 'is very, very in control'. 'I work about two nights a
week and I have a strict budget, which I never really stray from. I prefer it that way; I'd only worry otherwise.'

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases, give their definition and translate them into Russian:
Insolvency, to spiral out of control, grim reality, to be out of the red, to treble to, student loan, overdraft, store
card, to hold a suspicion, to confirm a suspicion, to live it up, to be in debt, shortfall, meagre funds, to handle
money, lax, to make ends meet, the thrifty, tangible, vigilante, to be bombarded with, money management,
conscientious, a combined degree, to splurge, to face up to sth, field trip, to stray.
2. Answer the questions:
1. What is a usual debt of a graduate composed of?
2. Why has the number o f graduates who declare themselves bankrupt each year trebled to 900?
3. What are the usual expenditures of a graduate?
4. What are the possible ways to avoid the shortfall?
5. Why did managing finances become a challenge?
3. Make a summary of the article.
4. Speak about possibilities of taking student loans in Russia. Compare the systems in different countries.

□ Follow-up
T ra n sla tio n
1. Люди по прежнему полагают, что после университета работу получить легко.
2. Это поколение, обремененное долгами, стремится уйти от лишнего риска, поэтому им трудно
повысить свой уровень дохода.
3. Он состоит на государственной службе, но контракт подписан на конкретный срок. Таж что не
никакой уверенности, что после истечения срока его не уволят.
4. В прошлом году он получил степень магистра машиностроения в университете Колумбия, но он не
уверен в своем будущем, так как ему предстоит выплатить непомерный долг более 13 тыс. фунтов,
не считая суммы превышения кредита и долга по кредитной карточке.
5. Возможный выход из этой ситуации это сократить налоговое бремя.
6.- Ситуация со студенческими ссудами вышла из под контроля.
7. Фиксированная процентная ставка на студенческую ссуду составляет 3.5%.
8 . Суровая реальность такова, что денег не хватает даже самым экономным, и, даже не отклоняясь от
намеченного бюджета, скудные средства едва позволяют сводить концы с концами.
9. Они не умеют обращаться с деньгами и, не смотря на сообщения о превышении кредита,
продолжают кутить и транжирить деньги.
10. Ссуда предоставляется не в виде единовременного платежа, а равными выплатами каждый семестр.
Вам также присылают годовый баланс с указанием суммы задолженности.
11. Студенту следует учитывать расходы на питание, 'проживание, учебные материалы, и затраты,
связанные с производственной практикой.

A ctivate Y o u r L an g u ag e
Think of one word only th at can be used appropriately in all the sentences of a set. "
Complete the following sentences using words from the previous articles in this section.

1. It's a part-time program, but it's still you have to make a big time _____________ _.
Many parents do not get involved in schools because they have too many other _________ .
Our company has a ___________ to equal pay and opportunities.
The initial financial________ ______ amounted to $226,000,000 over a three-year period.

2. The party had not yet come to terms with the departure of Mrs Thatcher and was suffering an identity____
My initial reaction was relief: We had averted another financial ^____ .
He doesn't seem to be very good at _______ management.

3. If he keeps blossoming at th is __ , too, basketball coaches soon will be pitching tents in his yard.
Thirty dollars an hour is the going ___ _ fo r a math tutor.
It is derived by subtracting the inflation____from the market rate of interest.

48
4. By comparison, older Pentium computers are surrounded by chips that can______ data at up to 50 megabytes
per second.
Managers are frequently willing t o _______ responsibility for performing certain tasks, particularly under
supervision. 'f

5. Defense, education and tax cuts a re ______ issues for Bush officials that they link to popular campaign
promises.
Company patronage i s _______ evidence that the companies are committed to high standards of professional
management.
The atmosphere of neglect and abandonment was almost_______ .

U N IT 4: W E L F A R E

I U nem plo y m en t

1. G ive definitions of th e te rm s in th e box u sin g in fo rm atio n fro m th e tex t.


dismiss If someone is told to leave their job, especially if their employers
fire say they have done something wrong, they are dismissed. More
sack informal is to say that a person has been fired or sacked or given
the sack.
lay off If an organization gets rid of employees because they are no
make redundant longer needed, it lays them off or makes them redundant.
let go
downsizing Companies doing this sometimes talk about downsizing,
rightsizing rightsizing, re-engineering or letting employees go.
re-engineering
overstaffed They may say that they are overstaffed: they have too many
payroll employees and need to make cuts in the payroll or the workforce,
workforce the total number of people employed.
axe When a lot of redundancies are involved, journalists talk about
get the axe jobs being cut or axed, with mass layoffs or massive layoffs.
layoff Employees made redundant get the axe.
mass/ massive layoffs
redundancy pay People who are laid off may receive compensation in the form of a
payment redundancy payment, pay-off or payout, redundancy pay or,
payoff especially in American English, a severance payment.
payout
severance payment
dole Unemployment benefit or jobless benefit is also called,
dole queue informally, the dole. People receiving it are on the dole. If you
on the dole lose your job you join the dole queue.
jobless benefit
unemployment benefit
jobless Unemployed people are often referred to in the media as jobless.
job-seeker Jobless people looking for work are job-seekers or job-hunters
job-seeker’s allowance and, in Britain, receive money from the state called job-seeker’s
allowance.

2. Fill in the gaps using one of the words from the box. Check up in the dictionary meanings of any
unknown words.
headhunter(s) severance payment outplacement
■ '
layoffs on the dole payroll
redundant downsize

1) Forgan is being recommended for the post of director of corporate affairs by th e _______ employed by the
CNN to fill the $100,000-a-year post. /
2) Another major American company has announced massive " and other cost-cutting measures.

49
3) Bosses feel more embarrassed when they sack fellow managers or professionals, whom they may see again
at the golf club, than when they do the same to factory workers. They ease their embarrassment by giving
these well-paid employees more generous ____ . *
4) BP workers ought to think again about wanting to be out of work, because it’s not easy living -$£> <a4 \^
5) consultants, known as redundancy experts, train managers on how to make people redundant.
6 ) Lockheed Missiles’ management says it has to reduce its 2,000 positions by the end of the year.
7) And as more firms are making their employeesf doesn’t look like the situation with the
unemployment rate is getting any better.
8 ) With massive overstaffing most companies have to negotiate with trade unions possible ways to
workforce.

3. Translate the following sentences.


1) После того как прошли очередные массовые увольнения на крупнейших предприятиях страны,
уровень безработицы стремительно вырос и достиг драматической отметки 24%.
2) Практика сокращения рабочих до сих пор существует в этой стране, но теперь им выплачиваются
довольно высокие выходные пособия.
3) Некоторые считают, что система социального обеспечения должна поддерживать людей с момента
рождения и до конца, хотя многие думают, что социальные выплаты получают те, кто просто не
хочет работать.
4) Был период, когда увольнения коснулись как простых рабочих, так и офисных работников. Теперь
высококвалифицированным рабочим предлагают не только высокую зарплату, но и пакет
дополнительных льгот: рабочим - оплачиваемый отпуск, детский отдых, а менеджерам - рабочую
машину, бесплатные перелеты во время отпуска.

P a ra d e o f euphem ism s

Read these two extracts from The Financial Times. How many words or expressions meaning ‘dismiss’
are there?

The language of dismissal appears to have as many We all know about downsizing, rightsizing, rationalizing
euphemisms as that of sex and death. Those and other euphemisms for firing people. Yet until last
unfortunate enough to find themselves on the street week I had not come across ‘involuntary separation’.
may often wonder if they have been let go, Nor had the 1,200 Du Pont employees who on Thursday
terminated, discharged, fired, sacked, axed, given were bounced into this process by their employer.
the boot, pushed or chopped. There is no acceptable way of telling people that they
The euphemisms for executives are more gentle. have been sacked, but companies nevertheless continue
They retire, leave by mutual consent, part company to search for the perfect, painless phrase. According to
to spend more time with their family, pursue an consultancy Drake Deam Morin, there are more than 50
alternative career or accept a fresh challenge. cliches in common use among managers giving their
One of the most subtly disguised dismissals workers the chop.
appeared in the film Philadelphia, when the actor They talk of ‘careers that have plateaued’, of
Tom Hanks, playing an Aids victim, was told by ‘decruitment’, ‘deselection’ and ‘displacement’. They
his bosses: ‘We can’t make the best use of your speak of ‘exiting the organization’, of the ‘opportunity to
talents.’ At least the words ‘You’re fired’ have a look elsewhere’, o f ‘releasing people’, o f ‘retrenchment’,
certain ring to them. of employees being ‘surplus to requirements’. They say:
’your future lies elsewhere’ or ‘we are reengineering’.

Read the following two texts about welfare system in the USA and complete the exercises given after them.
Text 1.
Workfare

50
States have gone their separate ways in establishing programs to assist welfare recipients move from the assistance rolls to
the payrolls, but the national Welfare to Work Partnership is bridging differences between states with corporate cooperation
in an effort to provide jobs for the nation's welfare recipients.
A year after welfare reform, with many of the nation's welfare and former welfare recipients still jobless, the Clinton
Administration announced in the spring of 1997 that the Welfare to Work Partnership would combine federal and corporate
efforts to provide jobs for many of those still on welfare.
By 1998, the program had enlisted 5,000 companies to help hire welfare recipients. Businesses are attracted by the good
public relations and the bottom-line benefits. The Welfare to Work Partnership says involvement in the program makes
economic sense for companies and communities. The more people who have paying jobs, the partnership argues, the more
people will be able to spend money and reinvest in the community's economic health.
Besides companies who hire employees off the welfare rolls are eligible for federal wage subsidies and the Work
Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC), designed to encourage businesses to make jobs available to people on welfare, as well as
any tax incentives in place at the state level.
It seems that the move has so far been good business. The New York Times reported in May 1998 that the new workers
hired off the welfare rolls are providing a pleasant surprise for their employers by staying with the companies longer than
average employees.
Welfare recipients are also eligible for a variety of benefits as they make the transition to working full-tiri|e. Programs such
as child care, and continued eligibility to Medicaid and food stamp benefits are designed to make the transition easier and
more successful, and may have the added benefit of making employees more likely to stay in one job longer.
For their part, many companies have aided the transition by offering "buddy system" training or internships in order to
bolster skills and orient workers to their new environments.
The Welfare to Work Partnership, and its successes, began during a period of low employment and economic prosperity,
leading critics to wonder whether the success will weather an economicdowntum.
The partnership was formed by top officers at United Airlines, Sprint Corporation, Burger King, Monsanto Company and
United Parcel Service in response to Clinton's challenge to the private sector to initiate programs for hiring people off the
welfare rolls.

Text 2.
Tracking the outcomes of welfare reform

Welfare reform in Ontario, like elsewhere in the United States and Canada, has been reduced to a single narrow purpose ,
reducing the caseload. Implicit in the pursuit of this single goal is the assumption that reduced caseload implies increased
employment, that as people leave social assistance, they do so in order to enter the paid workforce.
However, the link between caseload and employment is vague, both conceptually and empirically. People can leave, or be
forced off welfare for a variety of reasons that have nothing to do with paid work: personal circumstances can change,
people move outside the jurisdiction, arbitrary changes in rules and regulations or simple administrative error can force
deserving and needy recipients off the system and onto the street.
Welfare-to-what?
There are numerous models of welfare-to-work programs with different combinations of employment services and skill
development opportunities. But inevitably modest results are common. The reasons for these limited positive outcomes are
complex, and lie on both the supply and demand sides of the labour market.
Welfare-to-work programs are frequently little more than high-pressure job search programs with little opportunity for the
participants to develop skills for anything other than the poorest jobs in the labour market. The shortest route to a job has
become the mantra of workfare, with no regard to longer-term training or investment needs of the participants.
On the demand side participants are confronted by the poor quality of many jobs, a situation which imposes severe
constraints on the outcomes of welfare-to-work programs. The labour market is increasingly polarised into so-called ‘good
jobs’ and ‘bad jobs’. The kinds of jobs that characterise the lower tier of the labour market are precisely those that many
welfare recipients face in their efforts to leave assistance for employment:
• Inequality in the distribution of market income has risen steadily since the late 1980s with the rich getting much
richer and the poor increasingly left behind.
® Ten percent of all jobs held by adults over age 25 e.g. in Ontario in 2000 paid less than $300 per week , below the
poverty line for single adult in a large city.
• 17 percent of women held such low paid jobs, as did 4 per cent of men.
« Over 10% of all jobs in Ontario are temporary jobs.

While such insecure jobs as part-time and temporary undoubtedly provide a foothold in the economy, those holding them
are more vulnerable in an economic downturn and will often be forced to cycle back and forth between marginal
employment and social assistance. This appears to be a fairly significant problem.
The research is not encouraging about the prospects of people moving up from low-paid work. Lone mothers were the least
likely to move up, possibly because they face additional barriers. Since they are solely responsible for child rearing , and
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them to meet their family obligations: Working lone mothers may choose jobs that are close to home/school, part-time jobs
with work hours that coincide with children’s school hours and occupations where it is easier to exit/enter.

51
1. Match two parts of each collocation. Find their synonyms or explain their meaning in English.
1) welfare a) recipient f-
2) to bridge b) of the goal ^ r
3)tobe c) outside the jurisdiction
4) child d) employment
5) to leave e) the caseload 4~
6) to enter f) the poverty line -f
7) to move g) internship
8) to hire h) off the welfare rolls +
9) to weather i) social assistance 4-
10) to reduce . j) difference j_
11) to offer k) of the labor market 4"
12) lower tier 1) on welfare +
13) below m) rearing -f
14) in the pursuit i n) an economic downturn j~
15) marginal o) paid workforce f

2. Read the following statements taken from two texts. In some statements words are missing; fill the gaps and
explain the meaning of these words.

Group statements on the basis of the text they were used in. Some statements might contradict each other. In what
way? Why?
a) ...the program had enlisted 5,000 companies to help hire welfare recipients. Businesses are attracted by the good public
relations and the • . ■И ■;>

b) .. .companies who hire employees off the welfare rolls are_______for federal wage subsidies and tax incentives...

c) ...the new workers ________________ are providing a pleasant surprise for ,their employers by:staying with the
companies longer than average employees.

d) Welfare recipients are also eligible for a variety of ^benefits as they make the transition to working full-time. Programs
such as child care, and Continued eligibility to Medicaid and : -are designed to make the transition; easier and more
successful...

e) ... many companies have aided the transition by offering "buddy system" training or internships in order to bolster skills
and orient workers to their new environments.

f) Welfare-to-work programs are frequently little more than high-pressure job search programs with little opportunity for
the participants to develop skills for anything other than the poorest jobs in the labour market.

g) The shortest route to a job has become the ■ of workfare, with no regard to longer-term training or investment
needs of the participants.

h) The kinds of jobs that characterise the lower tier of the labour market are precisely those that many welfare recipients
face in their efforts to leave assistance for employment.

i) While such insecure jobs as part-time and temporary undoubtedly_____________in the economy, those holding
them are more vulnerable in an economic downturn and will often be forced t o __________between marginal
employment and social assistance.

□ Follow -up
T ra n sla te th e follow ing sentences Into E nglish using th e w o rd list of this u n it (See G lossary). Use
th e d ic tio n ary if necessary.

1) Необходимо увеличить зарплаты бюджетным работникам, пенсии, социальные выплаты: пособие


на ребенка, семью, материнское пособие (пособие по беременности и родам), пособие по
нетрудоспособности (инвалидности).
2) Большинство людей живут на зарплату, уровень которой ниже среднего, следовательно, они не в
состоянии оплатить коммунальные услуги, задолженность по квартплате и электроэнергии. Тех,
кто находится за чертой бедности, нужно обеспечить продовольственными пайками и
медикаментами.
3) Существует много профессий, которые подвергают опасности здоровье человека. Работодатели
обязаны платить компенсацию за полученные рабочими травмы, профессиональные заболевания, а
так же учредить пожизненные пособия семьям, потерявшим кормильца. В условиях постоянного
роста расходов на здравоохранение фирма обязана оплатить больному больничный, а также все
дорогостоящие виды медицинского обслуживания. Если рабочий (служащий) платит за
медицинское обслуживание сам, то его расходы должны быть возмещены.
4) В случае временной нетрудоспособности либо частичной потери трудоспособности платится
пособие по болезни.
5) В случае постоянной потери трудоспособности либо пожизненной частичной потери
трудоспособности назначается содержание пострадавшему - пожизненное пособие.
6) Многодетным семьям, матерям-одиночкам. ветеранам должна предусматриваться льготы на
проезд.
7) Эффективность системы здравоохранения зависит от состояния систем жизнеобеспечения,
качества (оснащения) медицинских услуг, программы медицинского страхования. Вас не обслужат
без медицинского полиса.
8) Подходящая работа определяется уровнем заработной платы, занятостью, местонахождением
учреждения, где предлагается работа, данными по соц. обеспечению, условиями охраны труда на
месте работы и многими другими условиями.
9) В настоящее время довольно высок процент молодых семей, разведенных по причине
несовместимости характеров. Но так или иначе в случае развода отец обязан платить алименты.

II Read the article. Do the exercises after it.

O utside Looking.-In -
It’s not j list France. Ailof'Europe is. struggling to integrate.ethnic minorities into the mainstream .
BY JOHANNA MCGEARY
Adrian, Reda and lachim could be brothers: young, struggling, second-generation Europeans with a grievance. The
wiry, kinetic Adnan, 22, owns his own mobile-phone shop, but he's still subjected to regular stop-and-search by the local
cops, just like most young men in his neighborhood. When he takes his sharp Mini Cooper for a drive, he says, "The police
stop me three times a month, asking, ’Where did you get the money to buy that car?"' Reda, a short, dark-haired 21 -year-
old, is about to finish vocational school and hopes to find a job in electronics, but says, "When I walk down the street,
people say 'blackhead'just because I’ve got black hair. Whenever a job requires contact with the customer, the management
never takes a blackhead." At 26, lachim is articulate, intelligent and very frustrated. Despite a diploma in retail
management, he's prepared to do any kind of work, "even if it's cleaning floors." But for six months, he's been rejected for
every job he has applied for. "I never thought it would be this hard," he says, "and it makes me very angry. I feel the system
is not giving me a break." Adnan is British, of Pakistani descent; Reda is a German of Palestinian origin; and lachim is
Dutch, with Moroccan parents. Like the angry young men who rampaged through France for over two weeks, they are part
of Europe's embittered underclass.

France is not the only country where the ideals of Liberte, Egalite, Fratemite have failed whole generations. Nor is it the
only nation struggling to come up with the right ways to blend people of different colors, creeds and cultures into once
homogenous societies. Integration is still very much a work in progress. With debris from the riots still smoldering, Prime
Minister Dominique de Villepin acknowledged just that: "France is wounded. It cannot recognize itself in its streets. The
effectiveness of our model of integration is in question." Across the rest of the Continent, Europeans are asking whether the
pent-up frustration of ethnic minorities might erupt elsewhere. Here's a look at what's working — and what's not.

BRITANNIA'S RULES
IV vuiAAom Um-ooin vrri-uari in tbfl nnrthom Rrjrriicb гм(-у nf Bradford at the asc of 8 His Barents like many Pakistanis in
liUUUUJliJ 11UOOW11J. U1H*VU Hi U1VlWlUiViil vnj Lnuwiuiu W
iv *
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---
---
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the early 1960s, had come to fill their former colonial rulers' demand for cheap labor. While his father kept his head down
working at the woolen mill, Khaddam coped with racism. "I was the only Asian in the whole school," he says. "Day in and
day out I got beaten up and some teachers just stood there." Soon, though, there were few white faces left in the
Manningham district, where his family lived. Asians moved into the terraced houses and eventually, Pakistani supermarkets
banned alcohol. Children learned little English and not much else at ill-funded schools that were almost 95% Asian. As
tv»**-*/ rrrmx/ rviHfvr \/rvnnrr три ^nmni cnnаг! rif*r\niir'p in сpn сiti v Itv siicl borderline bnitslltv. Sогне, like Khsddsiii's son Adnan,
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yUll^ 1UV11 1UJUVUv
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had enough resourcefulness and family help to start their own businesses, but many can't find a way out of the ghetto.

The eruption came when a minor clash between white and Asian gangs exploded into three days of violence in July
2001. Young Asian men turned their rage on the police and ravaged the symbols of "white culture," like a BMW showroom
53
and a club for white working-class men. Many of the older generation were shocked their sons were involved. But young
men with Bradford rather than Punjabi accents were no longer operating by their fathers' rules. "They feel a distance from
their own parents," says Martin Baines, a West Yorkshire police inspector who has worked on police—community relations
for 25 years. "They’ve created a culture and identity all their own."

The riots coincided with the publication of a report on ways to ease cross-cultural tensions. The report painted a grim
portrait of a place where white flight had left behind an underclass of poor ethnic minorities and concluded that the nation
was in danger of becoming a collection of separate communities leading parallel lives with their own places of worship,
employment, schools, community organizations, languages and social networks.

Bradford exemplified the perils of Britain's 20-year approach to integrating its immigrants. Responding to the open
racism that greeted the first postwar wave from the old empire, Britain grudgingly decided to let the different identities of
its minorities flourish. Yet for more than a decade — and especially after the July attacks on London's transport system by
alleged homegrown suicide bombers -— the government has grown increasingly uneasy with passive multiculturalism.
Trevor Phillips, the black chair of the Commission for Racial Equality, recently fueled the debate when he charged Britain
with "sleepwalking into segregation," with its emphasis on recognizing and respecting diverse cultures.

But Britain rejects U.S.-style affirmative action in favor of something less drastic: having the government take a more
active interest in ensuring all its diverse citizens share enough values and common experiences to keep the country
together. That can entail small things like encouraging a moreprofound sense of British citizenship through tests of
national knowledge. And it can involve wholesale changes in how the police, for example, interact with minority
communities. In Bradford, Baines works for a department that now has 4.1% minority police officers, regularly consults
with an ethnic-liaison committee, broadcasts a radio program to the Asian audience, and works with locals to head off
trouble before it can build into rioting. The difference in community policing, he. says, is that "We're on the ground, we
can't run and hide."

Yet the steps are incremental. Bradford today is still a poor, uneasy mix of integration and discrimination. Iftikhar
Hussain, manager of a restaurant wrecked by white youths in revenge for the 2001 riots, has helped rebuild a business that
attracts a booming white clientele. But he is convinced racism lies behind difficulties he's had with the local authorities.
And he is angry that the schools his children attend are still almost completely Asian. He supplements their lessons with
private tutors and the kids, aged 18, 16 and 14, want to go to university. "But I worry because they haven't been to school
with any whites," says Hussain. "How are they going to handle things when they go to university With thdm or when they
start a job?" v;:;. ; ; /Ф

DUTCH NEGLECT
lachim Hicham considers himself as Dutch as any blond. His family, originally from Morocco, arrived in.the
Netherlands 35 years ago, and he has lived all his life in the West Amsterdam neighborhood of De Baarsjes. "This is my
home. I'm an Amsterdammer," he says. "But I'm not treated like one." In the six months he has been looking for work, he
has seen his Dutch friends, even those with less education, easily find jobs. But he says his Moroccan coloring and accent
are an impediment. "My friend Arthur switches jobs two or three times a year," says Hicham,

The streets of De Baarsjes, just past the outer ring of Amsterdam's city center, look-tidy, but misery hides-in the long:
brick terraces. They are home to increasing numbers of resentful males of immigrant origin, mainly Moroccan but also
Turkish and Surinamese. De Baarsjes has one of the largest concentration of minorities, and among the highest crime,
unemployment and truancy rates in the city.

For years, the Dutch government welcomed immigrants and provided them with housing and welfare benefits. It let them
assimilate or not, as they liked, and for a while, it worked. Despite their reputation for tolerance, the Dutch allowed a
growing chasm to develop between whites and ethnic minorities that turned neighborhoods like De Baarsjes into separate
and unequal enclaves. The school system provides state money to parents who want to set up their own schools around
particular beliefs, encouraging educational — and religious — segregation. And tolerance often masked indifference to
whether minorities succeeded. Today, some 1.7 million non-Western immigrants and their children make up 10% of the
Dutch population. More than half are Muslims who brought with them a traditionalist culture that fits uneasily in
freewheeling, secular Holland.

The facade of peaceful multiculturalism was shattered in 2002 by the rise to political prominence of Pim Fortuyn, who
wanted to close the door to new immigrants, and then by his assassination in the same year. The ugly rifts in society were
again laid bare two years later when a Dutch Moroccan murdered filmmaker Theo van Gogh, claiming he had "insulted
Allah." In the aftermath the country made a sharp political turn. The current government has adopted citizenship exams and
compulsory Dutch courses. It has also enacted one of the toughest political asylum laws in Europe.

However discouraging such laws might feel to Dutch immigrants, sociologist Godfried Engbersen says "the situation in
our suburbs has not yet deteriorated as badly as in France." Even problematic areas like De Baarsjes remain comparatively
better integrated than the banlieue. Authorities make a point of building well-to-do housing near poor neighborhoods to
stem white flight. But a stagnant economy and cutbacks in generous welfare benefits mean fewer jobs for the poorest —
54
like Hicham. Hatim Benjelloun, a counseler at La Rainbow youth center in De Baarsjes, says damage has already been
done. The guys who come in, he says, see no future for themselves in Dutch society, "even though they’re just as Dutch as
Klaas or Jan."

THE GERMAN WAY


May Day celebrations in Kreuzberg, a district of Berlin known for its high density of Turkish immigrants, used to break
down in open brawls between kids and police. But this year, Reda Hussein, whose parents are Palestinian, and his friends
worked with police to keep the crowds in order. "This is our home," says the muscular young man in the thick accent of a
native Berliner. "It's really lousy when the neighborhood you live in gets torn apart. People are frustrated. But projects like
this give us hope and I think that makes things different here than in Paris."

In the streets of Kreuzberg and Neukolln, one of Berlin's toughest immigrant areas, there don't seem to be many angry
young men wandering around. In these largely Turkish neighborhoods, the young are more focused on finding
opportunities to improve their lives. And, after decades of neglecting the guest workers who were supposedly going home
one day, Germany is beginning to help them. It was a long time coming, admits Marieluise Beck, the Federal
Commissioner for Migration, Refugees and Integration: "Germany overslept by 30 years." But in 2000 the government
agreed to grant citizenship to German-born children of immigrant workers. Now more immigrants are entering the
professions and taking part in politics: 15 Turks or Kurds sit in various levels of the German government.

A key reason for Germany's relative success may simply be that its main minority is Turkish — one-third of the
country's estimated 8 million immigrant community. Kemal Sahin, the president of the Association of Turkish
Businessmen and Industrialists in Europe, says Germany's Turkish community runs 65,000 businesses, employing some
323,000 people. "Creating jobs is the very best way to avoid here what has happened in France," he says. The community's
entrepreneurial culture is evident in the Turkish-language edition of the Berlin yellow pages, packed with glossy ads for
Turkish businesses.

Yet there is'still disadvantage. If any neighborhood was ever going to blow, it would be Neukolln. About half the
population of Neukolln North and one-third of total residents are immigrants and their descendents. Unemployment reaches
25%, twice the national average, and climbs to 45% among the young. But Mayor Heinz Buschkowsky says residents are
cushioned by Germany's expansive dole. A single unemployed man, he says, gets €800 a month, and families can receive a
total of €2,000 a month in state payments. "We pay for our social peace," says Buschkowsky.

Germans have also come to accept that integration doesn't just happen. Under a law enacted on Jan. 1, the government is
funding a raft of programs to nudge it along. One pays for "District Mothers," a program to visit immigrant women afraid
to venture into the larger community; another, called Quartiersmanagement, includes resume training and homework
tutorials.

But Germany should be careful not to be complacent, says Cem Ozdemir, the first ethnic Turk to win national office and
now a member of the European Parliament. The country's educational system still shuts out immigrant children. "If you
don't give the young access to the best schools," he warns, "you will lose contact with these people." More young men in
Neukolln, says Buschkowsky, are turning to "religiosity" and a fundamentalist lifestyle. Tackling discrimination in
education and employment will help, he says, but "we must get our values into their heads."

That may be the ultimate solution. Western European nations will continue to construct different models for integrating
restive minorities. Yet success requires addressing the same basic questions: What core values can be demanded from every
citizen? Which areas of difference should be maintained and respected? How to ensure that economic and political
disparities are narrowed? And how to make people feel part of a shared community? Difficult as the answers may be,
France serves as a warning that all of Europe needs to find them.

French riots in the news

> ... These families struggle to hang on to their dignity while drug dealers and petty criminals exploit some of the
only business opportunities to be found in these run-down towns. Unemployment rates are at least double the
national average of 9.8%; in some neighborhoods, they surpass 40%. It is the French version of the social malaise
that besets European cities from Amsterdam to London to Madrid.
> The core problem is what the French politely refer to as "social exclusion." Residents of the banlieues feel cut off
from jobs, from education, from decent housing, and ultimately from political life. There are some 5 million
Muslims in France, but there is no Muslim member of the National Assembly. Poverty remains the fate of far too
many alienated youth, who say they're turned away from jobs because of their ethnicity or faith.
> France's governing class is woefully out of touch with its populace. Disgruntled immigrant youths have been
trying to get government attention — occasionally by mounting violent disturbances like last week's — for years.
But France has clung to its belief that once newcomers arrive, they are officially French and do not need special
treatment to guarantee equality.

55
> French insurance giant AXA is urging other French companies to take up AXA's practice of stripping job
applications of any ethnic or social identifiers, so that a Muslim name or a school diploma from an
underprivileged neighborhood won't prevent consideration for ajob.

1. Using information from the text above and your background knowledge answer the questions.
To succeed in this task you need to study the text thoroughly and use new vocabulary units from the text.
1. What is the difference between the attitudes of today’s dissatisfied second-generation Europeans and
their parents?
2. What is “passive multiculturalism”? What are the consequences of this policy to Europe?
3. What social rates are quoted in the article?
4. Are there any social benefits that the immigrants enjoy? What are they?
5. How can the government ensure that all its diverse population shares common values and experiences?
6 . What are the possible ways to integrate ethnic minorities into the European mainstream?
2. Retell the article.

3. Formulate the message of the article. Be ready to render it.

UNIT 5: E D UC A TIO N

I Complete the assignment using the wordlist of this unit (See Glossary).

1. Find terms to the following definitions.


teaching or instruction, especially of individual pupils or small groups. ,
N. Amer. a sum of money charged for teaching by a college or university
the subjects in a course of study or teaching
a task or piece of work allocated to someone as part of ajob or course of study
Л / 4 . a long essay on a particular subject, especially, one written for a university degree or
diploma.
a long essay involving personal research, written by a candidate for a higher degree
an academic rank conferred by a college or university after examination or after
completion of a course, or conferred as an honour on a distinguished person
a grant or payment made to support a student's education, awarded on the basis of
у
academic or other achievement.
a university student who has not yet takena first degree, мм'щщ
a person who has successfully completed a course of study or training, especially a
\ i< d№
person who has been awarded an undergraduate or first academic degree.
N. Amer. a person who has received a high-school diploma,
$
a student engaged in a course of study undertaken after completing a first degree
,77. a person who holds a first degree from a university or other academic institution (only
-r in titles or set expressions)
12. a person who holds a second or further degree 'CC
рьЫ 13. a person who holds the highest university degree
14. guaranteed permanent employment, especially as a teacher or lecturer, after a
probationary period.

2. Give definition of the following words and phrases.


1. A'lSdllCi
2 . Awarding board
3. Honours degree
4. Refresher courses
5. Abstracts
6 . Inter-library loan
7. Fellowship
8 . Subsides
9. To submit an application
10 . Open day
56
11. Thesis
12. Degree student
13. External student
14. Admission

3. Fili in the blanks with prepositions and use the phrases in the sentences of your own.

or - school practice to graduate - philology


to be - the staff to draw-j the syllabus
aptitude - research to pass - merit
candidate - admission to take - the staff
to pass - a subject to excuse - attendance <f M
to carry - research to graduate - honours

R eading
H ow E u ro p e fails its yo u n g

Read the article from The Economist p rin t edition. Complete the assignment after it.
September 8,2005

The state of Europe's higher education is a long-term threat to its competitiveness

THOSE Europeans who are tempted, in the light of the dismal scenes in New Orleans this fortnight, to downgrade the
American challenge should meditate on one word: universities. Five years ago in Lisbon, European officials proclaimed
their intention to become the world's premier “knowledge economy” by 2010. The thinking behind this grand declaration
made sense of a sort: Europe's only chance of preserving its living standards lies in working smarter than its competitors
rather than harder or cheaper. But Europe’s failing higher-education system poses a lethal threat to this ambition.
Europe created the modern university. Scholars were gathering in Paris and Bologna before America was on the map.
Oxford and Cambridge invented the residential university: the idea of a community of scholars living together to pursue
higher learning. Germany created the research university. A century ago European universities were a magnet for scholars
and a model for academic administrators the world over.
But, as our survey of higher education explains, since the Second World War Europe has progressively surrendered its
lead in higher education to the United States. America boasts 17 of the world’s top 20 universities, according to a widely
used global ranking by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University. American universities currently employ 70% of the world's
Nobel prize-winners, 30% of the world's output of articles on science and engineering, and 44% of the most frequently
cited articles. No wonder developing countries now look to America rather than Europe for a model for higher education.
Why have European universities declined so precipitously in recent decades? And what can be done to restore them to
their former glory? The answer to the first question lies in the role of the state. American universities get their funding from
a variety of different sources, not just government but also philanthropists, businesses and, of course, the students
themselves. European ones are largely state-funded. The constraints on state funding mean that European governments
force universities to “process” more and more students without giving them the necessary cash—and respond to the
universities' complaints by trying to micromanage them. Inevitably, quality has eroded. Yet, as the American model shows,
people are prepared to pay for good higher education, because they know they will benefit from it: that’s why America
spends twice as much of its GDP on higher education as Europe does.
The answer to the second question is to set universities free from the state. Free universities to run their internal affairs:
how can French universities, for example, compete for talent with their American rivals when professors are civil servants?
And free them to charge fees for their services—including, most importantly, student fees.
Asia's learning
The standard European retort is that if people have to pay for higher education, it will become the monopoly of the rich.
But spending on higher education in Europe is highly regressive (more middle-class students go to university than working-
class ones). And higher education is hardly a monopoly of the rich in America: a third of undergraduates come from racial
minorities, and about a quarter come from families with incomes below the poverty line. The government certainly has a
responsibility to help students to borrow against their future incomes. But student fees offer the best chance of pumping
more resources into higher education. They also offer the best chance of combining equity with excellence.
Europe still boasts some of the world's best universities, and there are some signs that policymakers have realised that
their system is failing. Britain, the pacemaker in university reform in Europe, is raising fees. The Germans are trying to
create a Teutonic Ivy League. European universities are aggressively wooing foreign students. Pan-European plans are
encouraging student mobility and forcing the more eccentric European countries (notably Germany) to reform their degree
structures. But the reforms have been too tentative.

57
America is not the only competition Europe faces in the knowledge economy. Emerging countries have cottoned on to
the idea of working smarter as well as harder. Singapore is determined to turn itself into a “knowledge island”. India is
sprucing up its institutes of technology. In the past decade China has doubled the size of its student population while
pouring vast resources into elite universities. Forget about catching up with America; unless Europeans reform their
universities, they will soon be left in the dust by Asia as well.

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases, give their definition and translate them into
Russian:
Competitiveness, dismal scenes, to meditate on sth, to downgrade, living conditions, to pose a lethal threat to
sth, to be a magnet for, to pursue, to boast, output, ranking, precipitous/precipitously, to restore, constraints on
sth, to erode, to micromanage, GDP, to run smn’s affairs, to compete for sth, civil servant, retort, spending on
sth, regressive, undergraduates, racial minority, to be below the poverty line, fee, to pump resources into sth, to
combine equity with excellence, to be a pacemaker in sth, to woo, student mobility, tentative, to cotton on to sth,
to spruce sth up, to catch up with smn, to be left in the dust.

2. Answer the following questions using information from the text:


1. Why is Europe considered the home of the university?
2. What country is ranked number one in the world of higher education? Prove your point.
3. How can you explain that Europe has surrendered its lead in the higher education to the USA?
4. Why is it so important for a university to be free from the state?
5. What is the best possibility to combine equity with excellence in education?
6 . What are the new education reforms planned to be implemented in Europe?
7. What are the aspirations of emerging countries in the knowledge economy?

II THE BOLOGNA PROCESS

Read the inform ation about the Bologna process and complete the assignment after it.

Next stop Bergen 2005

40 European education ministers met in Berlin to take stock of progress with the so-called Bologna process and set
priorities for the period up to the next ministerial conference scheduled for 2005.
Four years before, the education .ministersfrom around ,30 of these countries had met in Bologna and undertaken in a
joint declaration (the Bologna Declaration) to establish a, European .area of higher education by 2010. 1л
The Bologna Declaration of 19 June 1999 involves six actions relating to:
1. Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees, also through the implementation of the
Diploma Supplement, in order to promote European citizens’ employability and the international competitiveness
of the European higher education and also to improve international "transparency" and facilitate academic and
professional recognition of qualifications.
2. Adoption of a system essentially based on two ma|n cycles, undergraduate and graduate. Access to the
second cycle shall require successful completion of first cycle studies, lasting a minimum of three years. The
degree awarded after the first cycle shall also be relevant to the European labour market as an appropriate level of
qualification. The second cycle should lead to the master and/or doctorate degree as in many European countries.
3. Establishment of the system of credits - such as ECTS system - as a proper means of accumulation and
transfer of credits and thus promoting the most widespread student mobility. Credits could also be acquired in
non-higher education contexts, including lifelong learning, provided they are recognised by receiving Universities
concerned.
® Promotion of mobility by overcoming obstacles to the effective exercise of free movement with particular
attention to:
» for students, access to study and training opportunities and to related services;
• for teachers, researches and administrative staff, recognition and valorisation of periods spent in European
contest researching, teaching and training, without prejudicing their statutory rights.
4. Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance with a view to develop comparable criteria and
methodologies.
5. Promotion of the necessary European dimensions in higher education, particularly with regards to
curricular development, inter-institutional co-operation, mobility schemes and integrated programmes of study,
training and research. \
The aim of the process is thus to make the higher education systems in Europe converge towards a more transparent
system which whereby the different national systems would use a common framework based on three cycles -
Degree/Bachelor, Master and Doctorate.

58

*
At the Prague ministerial conference in 2002 the ministers set the European area of higher education the objective of
responding to the needs of lifelong learning. They stressed the participation of higher education establishments and students
(mainly through their representative associations) in the process and laid emphasis on the need to make the European area
of higher education attractive to the rest of the world. The Prague Communique also called for the implementation of
policies to evaluate quality in each country in order to secure the mutual trust which is indispensable to the validation of
studies carried out in another country.
In Berlin, it was decided to speed up the process by setting certain short-term targets. Thus, by 2005, all signatory
countries should:
• have adopted a two-cycle system,
• issue the diploma supplement in a major language to all their graduates free of charge and automatically,
and
• have made a start on introducing a quality assurance system.
As far as the European Union is concerned, the Bologna process fits into the broader framework of the Lisbon
objectives.
At the March 2000 Lisbon Council, the Heads of State and Government, conscious of the upheaval caused by
globalisation and the challenges inherent in a new, knowledge-based economy, set a new objective for the Union for the
decade ahead: that of becoming "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of
sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion".

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases. Explain their meaning. Use them in the sentences of
your own.
to take stock of smth, to set priorities, to undertake, a diploma supplement, a joint declaration, employability, to
improve international “transparency”, to facilitate academic and professional recognition, undergraduate,
graduate, accumulation and transfer of credits, student mobility, lifelong learning, effective exercise of free
movement, valorization, statutory right, quality assurance system, promotion of the necessary dimensions, to
converge, to respond to the needs, to secure the mutual trust, indispensable, short-term target, upheaval,
inherent, sustainable economic growth, social cohesion.

2. Answer the questions: .


1. What is the overall goal of the Bologna Declaration?
2. What is a possible way to promote European citizens’ employability?
3. How can we facilitate academic mobility? ,,, »*.
4. How can the mutual trust between signatories be secured? : M ...

3. Make a list of pros and cons of the Bologna Process.


4. Be ready to express your point of view about the Bologna Process and Russia joining it.

I l l S tudying in th e U K

Read some inform ation about studying in the UK. Complete "the assignment after it.

C utting-edge cred e n tials.

The UK education system has a lengthy and impressive pedigree stretching back almost 800 years. From this early start,
the system has continued to evolve and develop, and has influenced education system in other countries around the world.
Students in the UK don’t just learn about their subject; they learn to think around the subject as well. You are expected
to read widely, research topics thoroughly, ask questions, contribute to discussions, and develop their own ideas. It’s an
active learning process. It’s also a personalised approach: in many colleges and universities, students are assigned an
individual tutor who provides tailored academic guidance.
This combination of a vibrant atmosphere, active independent learning and personal support means that students in the
UK develop analytical abilities, problem-solving skills and a knack for creative thinking - skills looked for by employers
around the globe.
Many different studies are open to you in the UK. Some students choose to follow the traditional academic route of
GCSEs, А-levels and then a degree course. But the system is highly flexible and you can combine academic, vocational and
English language courses at various levels to suit your own aims. You can, in effect, design the programme of study you
need.
Looking closely at UK study options, you will find a commitment to quality at all levels of system. The UK leads the
world in developing quality standards and performance measures.
Most qualifications offered in the UK, including general educational and vocational qualifications, are subject to strict
quality standards overseen by Government-appointed agencies.

59

% lii®
Postgraduate study in the UK
Postgraduate study in the UK is intensive, so the courses are of relatively short duration. International students can only
enroll for full-time study or courses involving more than fifteen hours’ organised day-time study in a week, at a single
institution. Diploma and Masters-level taught courses normally take between nine and twelve months, while PhDs should
normally take three years. This is significant advantage for many students and their employers, since it means that the
maximum professional advantage is coupled with the minimum time away from work.
International students are often surprised by the informal relationships between students and tutors, by the smaller size
of classes and the open access to a wide range of books in the well-stocked institutional libraries.
Taught courses
Taught courses benefit from the small group tutorial discussions which are an important feature of UK higher education
- a t postgraduate level, the wide range of experience, both cultural and professional, that you and your fellow students will
be able to contribute will add an extra dimension to these classes. Students’ progress is continually assessed and regular
contact with teaching staff adds to the vital interchange of ideas.

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases. Explain their meaning and translate them into
Russian.
to evolve, to assign, a tutor, to read widely, to contribute to discussions, tailored academic guidance, vibrant
atmosphere, problem-solving skills, a knack for creative thinking, cutting-edge credentials, academic route,
commitment, performance measures, to be subject to, to enroll, to be coupled with, well-stocked libraries, to
benefit from smth, to add an extra dimension.

2. Give main advantages of studying and getting a degree in the UK.


3. Compare the system of higher education in the UK and Russia.

IV L e a rn in g E nglish

> Read the article that was posted on Newsweek webpage and arrange paragraphs to correspond the
outline.
1. Language schools in poor suburbs are at the front of English-leaming industry.
2. Language is a driving power o f globalization.
3. Non-native speakers bring their own ‘attitude' into English.
4. English will experience unprecedented changes in future.
5. International English helps different nationalities to converse on equal terms.
6. English learners are becoming younger.
7. English means profitable business for a c o u n try .
8. New inventive approaches to teaching English.
9. Teaching English becomes more elaborate as it is tailored to the more specified
needs of learners. ,

Complete the assignment after the text.

N ot th e Q u een 's E nglish

Non-native English-speakers now outnumber native ones 3 to 1. And it's changing the way we communicate.

Newsweek International, March 7 issue

1) Not everyone is as open-minded about English, or its advance. The Web site of the Association for the Defence of
the French Language displays a "museum of horrors"—a series of digital pictures of English-language signs on Parisian
streets. But others say such defensiveness misses the point. "This is not about English swamping and eroding local
identities," says David Graddol, author of the British Council report. "It's about creating new identities—and about making
everyone bilingual."
Indeed, English has become the common linguistic denominator. Whether you're a Korean executive on business in
Shanghai, a German Eurocrat hammering out laws in Brussels or a Brazilian biochemist at a conference in Sweden, you’re
probably speaking English. And as the world adopts an international brand of English, it's native speakers who have the
most to lose. Cambridge dons who insist on speaking the Queen's English could be met with giggles—or blank stares.
British or American business execs who jabber on in their own idiomatic patois, without understanding how English is used
by non-natives, might lose out on deals.

60
2) From Caracas to Karachi, parents keen for their children to achieve are forking over tuition for English-language
schools. China's English fever— elevated to epidemic proportions by the country's recent accession to the World Trade
Organization and the coming 2008 Olympics—even has its own Mandarin term, Yingwen re. And governments from
Tunisia to Turkey are pushing English, recognizing that along with computers and mass migration, the language is the
turbine engine of globalization. As one 12-year-old self-taught English-speaker from China's southwestern Sichuan
province says, "If you can't speak English, it's like you're deaf and dumb."
Linguistically speaking, it's a whole new world. Non-native speakers of English now outnumber native speakers 3 to
1, according to English-language expert David Crystal, whose numerous books include "English as a Global Language."
"There's never before been a language that's been spoken by more people as a second than a first," he says. In Asia alone,
the number of English-users'has topped 350 million—roughly the combined populations of the United States, Britain and
Canada. There are more Chinese children studying English—about 100 million—than there are Britons.

3) The new English-speakers aren't just passively absorbing the language—they're shaping it. New Englishes are
mushrooming the globe over, ranging from "Englog," the Tagalog-infused English spoken in the Philippines, to "Japlish,"
the cryptic English poetry beloved of Japanese copywriters ("Your health and loveliness is our best wish," reads a candy
wrapper. "Give us a chance to realize it"), to "Hinglish," the mix of Hindi and English that now crops up everywhere from
fast-food ads to South Asian college campuses. "Hungry kya?" ("Are you hungry?"), queried a recent Indian ad for
Domino's pizza. In post-apartheid South Africa, many blacks have adopted their own version of English, laced with
indigenous words, as a sign of freedom—in contrast to Afrikaans, the language of oppression. "We speak English with a
Xhosa accent and a Xhosa attitude," veteran actor John Kani recently told the BBC.

4) All languages are works in progress. But English's globalization, unprecedented in the history of languages, will
revolutionize it in ways we can only begin to imagine. In the future, suggests Crystal, there could be a tri-English world,
ongin which you could speak a local English-based dialect at home, a national variety at work or school, and international
Standard English to talk to foreigners. With native speakers a shrinking minority of the world's Anglophones, there's a
growing sense that students should stop trying to emulate Brighton or Boston English, and embrace their own local
versions. Researchers are starting to study non-native speakers' "mistakes"—"She look very sad," for example— as
structured grammars. In a generation's time, teachers might no longer be correcting students for saying "a book who" or "a
person which." Linguist Jennifer Jenkins, an expert in world Englishes at King's College London, asks why some Asians,
who have trouble pronouncing the "th" sound, should spend hours trying to say "thing” instead of "sing" or "ting."
International pilots, she points out, already pronounce th§ word "three" as "tree" in radio dispatches;: since "tree" is more
widely comprehensible. , ■,;

5) While courses like Gyeonggi's sound simple, English and its teaching are inexorably becoming more complex.
Ilan Stavans, an Amherst College professor, recently finished a translation of Cervantes's "Don Quixote" into Spanglish,
the English-Spanish hybrid spoken in the United States and Mexico. Writing in the journal English Today last spring, Hu
Xiaoqiong argued for reorientating China's English curriculum toward China English, incorporating Chinese phrases like
"pay New Year calls," a Spring Festival tradition, and "no face,” to be ashamed—as Standard English. In countries like
Germany, where most kids begin English as early as the second or third grade, the market for English studies is already
shrinking. German language schools no longer target English beginners but those pursuing more-expert niches: business
English, phone manners or English for presentations. Beginning-English classes are filled with immigrants from places like
Turkey and Russia, eager to catch up with the natives. As with migrants the world over, they're finding that their newfound
land is an English-speaking one. *

6) To achieve fluency, non-native speakers are learning English at an ever-younger age. Last year primary schools in
major Chinese cities began offering English in the third grade, rather than middle school. A growing number of parents are
enrolling their preschoolers in the new crop of local English courses. For some mothers-to-be, even that's not early enough;
Zhou Min, who hosts several English programs at the Beijing Broadcasting Station, says some pregnant women speak
English to their fetuses. At Prague's Lamea children's English-language school, 3-year-olds sing songs about snowmen and
chant colors in English. Now 2-year-olds have a class of their own, too.

7) For the traditional custodians of English— the British and, more recently, the Americans—this means money. The
demand for native English-speakers is so huge that there aren't enough to go around; China and the Middle East are starting
to import English teachers from India. The average price of a four-day business-English course in London for a French
executive runs 2,240 euro. Despite—or perhaps because of—all the new Englishes cropping up, it's the American and
British versions that still carry prestige, particularly with tuition-paying parents. Australia and Britain, in particular, have
invested heavily in branding themselves as destinations for learning English. More than 400 foreign English-teaching
companies are trying to break into China. On a visit to Beijing last week, British Chancellor Gordon Brown said the
Chinese thirst to acquire the language was "a huge opportunity for Britain," which already boasts a 1.3 billion pound
English-teaching industry. Says Jenkins, "Owning English is very big business."

8) The name—Cambridge School of Languages—conjures images of spires and Anglo-Saxon aristocrats conversing
in the Queen's English. But this Cambridge is composed of a few dank rooms with rickety chairs at the edge of a congested
Delhi suburb. Its rival is not stately Oxford but the nearby Euro Languages School, where a three-month English course

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costs $16. "We tell students you need two things to succeed: English and computers," says Chetan Kumar, a Euro
Languages manager. "We teach one. For the other"—he points to a nearby Internet stall— "you can go next door."
The professors back in Cambridge, England, would no doubt question the schools' pedagogy. There are few books
or tapes. Their teachers pronounce "we" as "ve" and "primary" as "primmry." And yet such storefront shops aren't merely
the ragged edge of the massive English-learning industry, which in India alone is a $100 million-per-year business. They
are the front lines of a global revolution in which hundreds of millions of people are learning English, the planet's language
for commerce, technology—and, increasingly, empowerment. Within a decade, 2 billion people will be studying English
and about half the world—some 3 billion people—will speak it, according to a recent report from the British Council.

9) Schools are becoming more and more creative. Last August, South Korea set up its first English immersion camp.
The Gyeonggi English Village, built on a small island in the Yellow Sea and subsidized by the provincial government,
comes complete with a Hollywood-style fake bank and airport, where students must conduct all transactions in English.
"Through the camp, we want to train capable global citizens, who can help Korea win international competition in this age
of globalization," says Sohn Hak Kyu, governor of Gyeonggi province, who started the program. In one class, eighth grader
Chun Ho Sung, wearing a long black wig and posing as British heartthrob Orlando Bloom, sweats under the lights of a
mock television studio as he prepares to be interviewed. "Do you think you are handsome?" asks the anchorwoman. Shyly,
in broken English, Chun responds: "Yes, I do, I am very handsome." The audience of other students collapses in giggles.

1. Contextualize and define the following words and phrases:


To conjure images of sth, congested, storefront shops, ragged edge of the massive English-learning industry,
front lines of a global revolution, empowerment, fork over sth, the turbine engine of globalization, to
outnumber, to top, to mushroom, to crop up, to be laced with sth, unprecedented, shrinking minority, to emulate
sth, to embrace sth, radio dispatches, to miss the point, to erode local identities, the common linguistic
denominator, to hammer out laws, to adopt an international brand o f English, to be met with giggles or blank
stares, to jabber on in one’s own idiomatic patois, a new crop o f sth, to speak English to fetuses, traditional
custodians of English, immersion camp, heartthrob, inexorably, the market for English studies is shrinking, to
target, to pursue, to catch up with sb.

2. Answer the questions:


1. What is the ratio between non-native and native English-speakers?
2. Why is the English language called the turbine engine of globalization?
3. What is a tri-English world?
4. Why is it appropriate to embrace -local version of English instead of learning the Queen’s English?
5 . How do you understand the statement that English has become the common linguistic denorriihator?
6. How do traditional custodians o f English benefit from its worldwide use?
7. What is the idea of an immersion camp?
8 . How can you explain that the market for English studies is shrinking?

3. Form ulate the message of the article. Choose one from the list and/or try to form ulate your own.
* Owning English is very big business.
® Non-native English speakers generate a new English language that will become international.
® English language will soon cease to be a foreign language but will become an innate property.
® Sooner or later modern English will be substituted by European or International English as already right
now non-native English-speakers outnumber native 3 to 1.

4. T r a n s l a t e u s in g v o c a b u l a r y f r o m t h e a r ti c le :
1. Среди говорящих на английском носители языка превращаются во все сокращающееся меньшинство.
Вскоре, возможно, говорящих на стандартном английском будут встречать смешками и
вопросительными (озадаченными) взглядами.
2. Теперь можно не стремиться подражать классическому британскому английскому, а просто
воспользоваться вариантом этого языка.
3. Это беспрецедентный случай в истории языка. Новые виды английского появляются как грибы после
дождя, иностранцы начинают использовать свой вариант английского, щедро приправляя его
словами из собственного языка.
4. Китайский рынок со своей неуемной жаждой выучить язык предоставляет великолепную
возможность для Британии. Британия вложила не мало, чтобы зарекомендовать себя как лучшее
место для изучения английского.
5\ Обучение английскому языку неумолимо усложняется, так как теперь учащиеся ориентируются на
более специализированную область применения языка.

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!
6. Занятия для начинающих посещают иммигранты, которые стремятся не отставать от местного
населения.

> Read an article posted on The Times website. P ut paragraphs in the right order. P aragraphs 1 and 4
are already in the right place.
Complete the assignment after the text.

The answer to the education debate is only too clear: look to the stars
September 01, 2005
Anatole Kaletsky

LAMENTS ON “dumbing down” in schools and diatribes against the "grade inflation” in GCSE and A levels have become
a media staple at this time o f у ear, as surely as denunciations o f consumerism at Christmas. But the clearest evidence o f
intellectual decay in Britain lies in the quality o f this debate itself.

1) Saloon-bar bores will always believe that school exams are easier today than they were in some dimly remembered
golden past of Latin hexameters and fagging. But the perennial demands for a major overhaul of A levels, or even for their
total replacement with the International Baccalaureate (IB) or a new Tomlinson diploma, are deficient in at least two
fundamental ways.

2) One observation suffices to show that the annual rows about A levels and GCSEs are a huge distraction from the true
educational challenges facing Britain. For all the complaints about grade inflation, the laments about foreign language
teaching and the outrage over social bias (in both directions) of top university admissions, none of these issues has anything
whatsoever to do with the real failure of our education system: the failure to instil basic skills and discipline into the bottom
20 or 30 per cent of the scale. If British politicians and educationists had spent the past 40 years focusing on the control of
violent and disruptive pupils instead of tinkering with grammar schools, universities and exams, Britain might not be
disgraced today by Europe’s nastiest and most ignorant underclass.

3) First, they distract attention from the genuine problems of British education, which are at the bottom of the intellectual
scale, not the top. Secondly, the relatively minor faults that do exist at the top end of the school and university system could
easily be resolved by a small modification of A levels, without the huge costs, uncertainties and disruptions of further
structural reform.

4) To see, by contrast, that the top of the education system is doing rather well, despite ail the accusations of “dumbing
down”, we can note the global demand for places at Britain’s best universities and schools. Even more importantly, we can
look at Britain’s recent economic performance. Particularly significant is not just the relatively high overall growth rate, but
the fact that British is now more specialised than any other G7 country in economic activities with a high educational
content — finance, law, advertising, architecture, software, aerospace, pharmaceuticals and so on. Of course, the
comparative advantage in some of these fields is partly due to the English language; but even allowing for this, recent
improvements in global competitiveness suggest that Britain’s high-end education is probably stronger today in comparison
with the rest of Europe than it was a generation ago.

5) All that is needed is a minor tweak in the system of grading: adding a new grade of A* to the existing five grades. Even
if this A* grade were set moderately higher than the existing А-grade boundary, it would quite easily distinguish the good
students from those who are outstanding (at least in their ability to pass exams). According to research by the Qualifications
and Curriculum Authority, an A*, which demanded a mark of 90 per cent, instead of the 80 per cent required for the
present A grade, would cut the number of top grades awarded in maths from 41 per cent to 9 per cent, in English from 33 to
8 per cent and in history from 23 per cent to only 3 per cent. The number of students receiving three A*s would drop to
well below the number of places in top universities and medical schools.

6) Does this mean that ministers are right when they claim that each successive year’s “record” crop of exam results
represents a genuine advance? Yes and no. Yes, in the sense that getting an A grade in history or maths today probably
does require a comparable attainment, in terms of knowledge, hard work and intelligence, as it did in the early 1990s (when
serious research on comparability started).

63
I
7) But no, in that far more candidates are capable today of reaching this standard. This must imply that an A grade does not
represent the same degree of excellence, by the very definition of this word, as it did 15 years ago. A four-minute mile is
just as hard to run today as it was in the days of Roger Bannister, but it is no longer good enough to win a gold medal.

8) The fact that 28 per cent of Britain’s teenagers now pass three A levels, compared with 18 per cent in 1994, represents a
genuine and welcome advance for British education, but it also means that getting three A levels is no longer enough for a
ranking in the top fifth of one’s generation. Three A grades used to secure a place among the top 10,000 students in the
country and therefore to guarantee a place at a leading university, but now there are 24,000 students reaching this level of
attainment, so three A grades are no longer good enough, on their own, to get into Oxbridge or medical school. To do so
requires some proof of excellence in comparison with other candidates, which А-level results, designed to measure a
standard level of attainment, can no longer provide. In this sense the A level really is like the gold standard: it may well
represent an ounce of educational gold, but in a growing economy, the value of gold tends to decline in relation to GDP.

9) The distinction between attainment and excellence goes to the heart of the exam-reform debate. If the proposed
alternatives to A levels claim to improve overall educational attainment, then these claims (for example, the alleged
superiority of the IB) should be discussed on their merits and not as part of the grade-inflation debate. If, on the other hand,
the real problem is the one manifest flaw in the present grading system — the fact that some candidates with “perfect”
GCSEs and A levels are rejected by top universities and left with an understandable sense of grievance — then the solution
does not require any heavy-handed reform of a curriculum and exam structure that has served British higher education at
least as well as “bac” has served France.

10) The sense of injustice and grievance about university admissions on both sides of the class divide would vanish and the
ridiculous Office of Fair Access could be abolished, saving millions of pounds. Schools and universities could get back to
education, instead of class war and ministers could focus on the real problem in the British education system — the non­
education of the underclass.

11) In fact, the number of students attaining these top marks would probably be so small that the leading universities could
abandon their time-consuming and capricious interviews, giving automatic admission to all of these truly outstanding
students. Oxford and Cambridge, for example, have 6,500 places each year between them, compared with only 2,000
students who currently receive nine A*s in their GCSEs. Thus top universities who offered automatic admission for
students with outstanding exam grades would be left with plenty of places to fill with young people from underprivileged
backgrounds and those with broader attainments, such as music or drama.

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases. Give their definition and translate them into Russian:
Dumbing down/ to dumb down, lament, diatribe, grade inflation, to become a media staple, intellectual decay,
saloon-bar bores, dimly remembered golden past, perennial demands, major overhaul, to be deficient in sth, to
distract attention, genuine problems, to be resolved by, modification, disruption, to suffice to do sth, to instil sth
into smn, disruptive, to tinker with sth, underclass, high educational content, competitiveness, high-end
education, a genuine advance, attainment, ranking, proof o f excellence, GDP, alleged/ to allege, grade-inflation
debate, to discuss sth on its own merits, manifest, sense of grievance, heavy-handed, a minor tweak, to cut sth
down to, time-consuming and capricious interviews, automatic admission, people from underprivileged
backgrounds, to be abolished.

2. Complete the following statem ents using information from the text:
1. Grade inflation debate is based on the fact th a t................................. ...............................................
2......................................................... because they distract attention from the genuine problems of British
education.
3. British education system failed t o ............................................................ . and today Britain is disgraced by
Europe’s nastiest and most ignorant underclass.
4 and that suggests that Britain’s high-end education is probably stronger
today in comparison with the rest of Europe than it was a generation ago.
5. ................................................................................. . despite all the accusations of “dumbing down”.
6 . Three A grades are no longer enough to secure a place at a leading university because.................. .............
7.............................................. .................................then number of students attaining top marks can be cut down.

3. Answer the questions:


1. Why do some people demand a major overhaul of A levels?
2. What are the true educational challenges facing Britain?
3. What are the facts against the alleged “dumbing down55 in education?
4. Why doesn’t A grade represent the same degree of excellence than fifteen years ago?
4. Why is it important to distinguish between attainment and excellence?

64
f
4. Give an outline of the article. Attaching a message to every paragraph might help you in that.

5. Formulate the message of the article.


6. Comment on the headline.
7. Render the article.

□ Follow-up

Activate your language

1. Think of one word only that will suit all the sentences of a set. Use the words from two previous
articles.

1. But after a few months, it became apparent that Vicky did not have a ________ interest in her job.
If a student h a s _______ religious objections to a school activity, they do not have to participate.
For years people thought the picture was a _______ Van Gogh, but in fact it's a fake.

2. The great_____ o f the project is its flexibility and low cost. .


Students are selected solely o n _____ .
It's important to judge each case on its ______ .

3. D avid____ __ __ an endless succession o f rabbits out o f his hat.


Even quite wealthy individuals confess to _ _ _ _ _ up images of going cold and hungry.
The threat of computer terrorists may be enough to . money for research from Congress.

4. After college, Jeffrey said he hopes t o _______ a career in medicine.


It is capable of extension, but we shall n o t______ the matter here.
Some Health A uthorities_______ policies which limit or eradicate the use o f part-time staff.

2. Translate the sentences into Russian and explain the meaning of the underlined words.
1. In the United States the graduate school is the major arena of pedagogic activity and intellectual life.
2. The situation for teachers without tenure varies according to the circumstances surrounding the dismissal.
3. A mixed group o f students would be catered for by placing greater emphasis on electives.
4. I managed to get a charity bursary, which allowed me to take a degree at London University.
5. And there are few opportunities for students to develop such ability before they enroll in those courses.
6. It is envisaged that the successful candidate will have a recent postgraduate qualification or a good honours
degree.
7. But the regents' decision still leaves much uncertainty on campus, which has seen enrollment decline
significantly during the turmoil.
8. The loans, which are based on financial need, are limited to $3000 for undergraduates.
9. The summer term was very short and the teacher didn't manage to cover the whole syllabus.
10. Students are exempt from some classes in (on Brim Am) the curriculum for religious reasons.
11. Many universities are known to have bizarre hazing rituals.
12. My brother was crushed when he was not accepted into an Ivy League school.
13. She then earned a doctorate in political sociology at City University o f N ew York.

3. Complete the sentences using the words from the previous exercise.
1. Linguistics may be studied either as a sin g le_______ or as part o f a joint .
2. Or is this just another blow -off_____ , designed to pad the students' schedules?
3. Accepted students will be informed in admission letters o f the amount required, which is payable on

4. IT is now on th e _________ in most schools.


5. She graduated with very good grades and went on t o ______ '
6. They met when they were __________ at Cambridge.
7. We have to study algebra —it's on th e ________ for the course.
8. While still in his middle twenties, he was offered a teaching position at a n _________ university.
9. He was the third University of Texas student in nine years to die under suspicions o f ______ .
10. If a professor doesn't g e t______ after ten years, he probably never will.

65
11. For many years now, more than half the engineering___________ awarded in the United States have gone
to foreign nationals.
12. The President's Dissertation Certificates, accompanied by a £500_______ from Butterworth-Heinemann,
were awarded to.
13. Anyone with a high school diploma can _ _ _ _ _ in the course.

4. Translate into English using Education Vocabulary List.


1. Студенты, получившие диплом с отличием и имеющие склонность к исследовательской
работе, должны учиться в аспирантуре и писать диссертацию.
2. Студент, пишущий диплом или курсовую работу, должен следовать указаниям своего
руководителя и рецензента.
3. Поступающие в институт обязаны написать заявление о приеме и сдавать вступительные
экзамены. Экзамены являются конкурсными, но экзаменационная комиссия учитывает и
различные льготы. Тем не менее, для зачисления на престижный факультет, необходимо
сдать экзамены на хорошо и отлично, соблюдать условия приема, в том числе возраст
поступления.
4. Многие методисты считают 5-балльную систему недостаточной для адекватной оценки
знаний. ;
5. В этом году учебный план перегружен, очень много обязательных и факультативных курсов,
предметов основной и второй специальности, предметов, требующих большой подготовки.
6 . По окончании ВУЗа, студентам выдаются дипломы и характеристики, но до этого они
должны сдать выпускные экзамены и защитить диплом. Раньше студенты, пишущие диплом,
получали назначение на работу. " ' Л'
7. Хотя плата в этом университете была одна из самых высоких, ой закончил именно этот
университет, так как только здесь можно было получить степень магистра по гендерным
исследованиям.

UNIT 6: ART and CULTURE

THE BASICS

STYLES & MOVEMENTS of ART

1. Match the following movements and styles with their descriptions. Pay attention to the underlined
words.
a)
Classicism Baroque Romanticism Neo-classical ..
Renaissance Medieval and Gothic Art Rococo

Referring to the principles of Greek and Roman art of antiquity with the emphasis on harmonv. proportion,
balance, and simplicity. In a general sense, it refers to art based on accepted standards of beautv.

A European movement beginning in France. The artworks are characterized bv a linear, graceful, elegant
style more naturalistic than that which had existed previously in Europe.
Meaning "rebirth" in French. Refers to Europe c. 1400-1600. This art which began in Italy, stressed the
forms of classical antiquity, a realistic representation of space based on scientific perspective, and secular
subjects. The works of Leonardo. Michelangelo, and Raphael exemplify the balance and harmonv of the
High Renaissance (c. 1495-1520)
A movement in European painting in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, characterized by
violent movement, strong emotion, and dramatic lighting and coloring. Bernini, Caravaggio and Rubens
were among important artists of this period.
An eighteenth-century European style, originating in France. In reaction to the grandeur and massiveness of
the baroque, it employed refined, elegant, highly decorative forms. Fragonard worked in this stvlc

A European style of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Its elegant, balanced works revived
the order and harmonv of ancient Greek and Roman art. David and Canova are examples of this period.
A European movement of the late eighteenth to mid nineteenth century. In reaction to neoclassicism, it
66
focused on emotion over reason, and on spontaneous expression. The subject matter was invested with
drama and usually painted energetically in brilliant colors. Delacroix, Gericault, Turner, and Blake were
among the artists of that period._________________________________________________

b)

Impressionism Expressionism Futurism Surrealism


Realism Post-Impressionism Constructivism Pop-Art
Symbolism Fauvism Cubism Dada Suprematism Minimalism

A painting movement that flourished in France in the ! 880s and 1890s in which subject matter was
suggested rather than directly presented. It featured decorative, stylized, and evocative images.

In a general sense, refers to objective representation. More specifically, a nineteenth century movement,
especially in France, that rejected idealized academic styles in favor of everyday subjects.

A late-nineteenth-centurv French school of painting. It focused on transitory visual impressions, often


painted directlv from nature, with an emphasis on the changing effects of light and color.
Monet, Renoir, and Pissarro.
A term coined by British art critic Roger Fry to refer to a group of nineteenth-century painters, including
Cezanne. Van Gogh, and Gauguin, who were dissatisfied with the limitations of expressionism. It has since
been used to refer to various reactions against impressionism, such as fauvism and expressionism.
From the French word fauve. meaning "wild beast". A style adopted bv artists associated with Matisse, c.
L905-08. They painted in a spontaneous manner, using bold colors.

Refers to art that uses emphasis and distortion to communicate emotion. More specifically, it refers to early
twentieth century northern European art, especially in Germany c. 1905-25. Artists such as Rouault,
Kokoschka, and Schiele painted in this manner.

A revolutionary movement begun bv Picasso ana Braque in the early twentieth century. It employs an
analytic vision based on fragmentation and multiple viewpoints.

A movement, c. 1915-23. that reiected accepted aesthetic standards. It aimed to create antiart and nonart.
often employing a sense of the absurd.
An Italian movement c. 1909-19. It attempted to integrate the dynamism of the machine age into art.
Boccioni painted in that manner.

a Russian abstract art movement developed bv Kazimir Malevich c. 1915. characterized bv simple
geometrical shapes on plain backgrounds and emphasized the spiritual qualities of pure form.
A movement of the 1920s and 1930s that began in France. It explored the unconscious, often using images
from dreams. It used spontaneous techniques and featured unexpected juxtapositions of objects. Magritte,
Dali, Miro, and Ernst painted in that manner.
A Russian abstract movement founded by Tatiin, Gabo, and Antoine Pevsner, c. 1915. It focused on art for
the industrial age. Tatiin believed in art with a utilitarian purpose.
A movement that began in Britain and the United States in the 1950s. It used the images and techniques of
mass media, advertising, and popular culture, often in an ironic way.
Works of Warhol, Lichtenstein, and Oldenburg exemplify this style.
A movement in American painting and sculpture that originated in the late 1950s. It emphasized pure,
reduced forms and strict, systematic compositions.

NEWS STORIES
Read the news stories and complete the assignment.

1.
ART AS LIFE
by Peter Schahdal
The Matisse we never knew.
f.
Henri Matisse, unlike the other greatest modern painter, Pablo Picasso, with whom he sits on a seesaw of esteem, hardly
exists as a person in most people’s minds. One pictures a wary, bearded gent, owlish in glasses—in a house full of
67
sumptuous fabrics, plants, freely flying birds, and comely young models. Many know that Matisse had something to do
with the invention of Fauvism. and that he once declared, weirdly, that art should be like a good armchair. A few recall
that, in 1908, he inspired the coinage of the term “cubism,” in disparagement of a movement that would eclipse his leading
influence on the Parisian avant-garde, and that he relaxed by playing the violin. Beyond such bits and pieces, there is the
art, whose glory was maintained and renewed in many phases until the artist’s death, in 1954: preternatural color, yielding
line, boldness and subtlety, incessant surprise. Anyone who doesn’t love it must have a low opinion of joy. The short
answer to the question of Matisse’s stubborn obscurity as a man is that he put everything interesting about himself into his
work. The long answer, which is richly instructive, while ending in the same place, is given in Hilary Spurling’s zestful
two-volume biography, “A Life of Henri Matisse.” The first volume, “The Unknown Matisse: The Early Years 1869-
1908,” was published in 1998. The second, “Matisse the Master: The Conquest of Colour 1909-1954” (Knopf; $40),
completes the job of giving us a living individual, as familiar as someone we have long known, who regularly touched the
spiritual core of Western modernity with a paintbrush.
2.
THE ENERGIZER
By Sanford Schwartz
For well over half a century, Salvador Dali has been internationally famous for the sexy and deranged subject matter of
his paintings, for his personal nuttiness, flamboyance, and grandiosity, and for the demoralizing way in which he destroyed
the borders between creativity and commercial self-promotion. He was a: huge character; indeed, he often said, in that
simultaneously boastful, cynical, and self-deprecating manner that he perfected, that it was-his "personality" that was his
greatest achievement. At other,times he might announce to the world that his writing was his real achievement, and his
painting the "least" of him. Yet what is most solid and substantial about Dali is very specific and not wildly complex
qualities: the particular gleaming surfaces of his paintings, with their often large areas of a single; pulsating color; his
feeling for the transient, soft light of dawn or dusk and for the brilliantly hard light of a sunny summer afternoon by the
Mediterranean; and his astounding ability to delineate and make us feel the simmering strength in tiny,:tightly wound
concentrations of lines, dots, or shapes.
Dali is now the subject of a retrospective on the occasion of the centenary of his birth in 1904. It is a respectful and
measured show, with an emphasis on his early work, which is in keeping with the generally held belief that his most serious
and engaging art was done beginning in the late 1920s and was over around 1938 when, not yet thirty-five, he was still a
relatively young man. Many of his most powerful pictures from this time are here. The art he did thereafter—Dali died in
1989, but had stopped making pictures around 1983—has been presented to give a clear sense of the artist's later thinking.
We can see how he was concerned with retelling myths, or. giving his take on atomic power. Christianity, and stereoscopy,
among other topics.
An exhibition will take place at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, February 16-May 15, 2005.

1. T ran slate the underlined w ords.


2. P a ra p h ra se the sentences using the w ords from the texts above. Som etim es you m ight need to change
the stru c tu re of a sentence.
1. What is your opinion on this issue?
2. Their madness gives them superhuman strength, and they fight with astonishing fury and determination.
3. Without being remembered, he died in 1933.
4. To most people today the prophecy about the second coming seems crazy and the other about everlasting
life highly questionable.
5. Many of the writers are also professional photographers and this certainly shows - the book is crammed full
of impressive colour pictures.
6 . As she sat there, she experienced a sense of what seemed to be mysterious power.
7. The constant buzzing of helicopters filled the evening sky.
8 . The boundaries between two areas should be made clear.
3. W h at a re the events described in the news stories? Be ready to retell the articles.
4. L ook th ro u g h some new spapers and s u rf the In te rn e t to find sim ilar sh o rt news stories about o ther
cu ltu ral events. Be ready to p resen t th e inform ation to y o u r group m ates.

F e a tu re articles

> Read the article and complete the assignment after it.
Put paragraphs of this article from N ew sw eek in the right order. Paragraphs 1 and 7 are in the
right place.

K m gs o f S p ray

68
In Cape Town, graffiti is brightening the city—and providing a livelihood for talented young artists
BY CAILLE MILLNER

1. JUDGING FROM THE CROWD, IT could have been any trendy gallery opening in New York or London. Rail-
thin fashionistas clutched Gucci bags as they wobbled around on stiletto heels. Slender young men adjusted horn­
rimmed glasses before cooing over a painting's "sense of color" and "emotion." The only people who seemed out of
place were the artists themselves—a small clutch of bleary-eyed wanderers with hooded sweat shirts and matted hair—
who go by the "tags" Мак 1, Mantis and Eeb. They work not in oils or pastels but in spray paint, producing graffiti art
that has made them the talk of Cape Town. And they've always done their best work under cover of night, when
nobody else is looking.

2. Today graffiti has spread to the affluent southern suburbs, and is becoming popular elsewhere in the country as well.
Two of Cape Town's most admired artists—Mantis and Tyler Murphy—are white. "I was the first white friend Falko
ever had," says Murphy. It took him a while to win acceptance; at first Falko's crowd nicknamed him "Herald," after an
apartheid-era newspaper. But eventually he proved himself. Now, Murphy says, "the graffiti scene is the only place m
Cape Town where everyone is judged strictly on skill. We don't care what you look like because so many of us are
rootless ourselves, trying to create a culture that's not like the one we grew up with."

3. Even graffiti art's staunchest opponents are reluctant to criticize their murals, which not only are stunning but also
incorporate such elusive values as racial harmony and opportunity for the disenfranchised. Officials are careful to
distinguish the murals from tags, the ugly signature scrawls that mar the city landscape. While they're hoping to
eradicate tagging, they don't want to ban murals outright. "We simply want to regulate them, the way you would
regulate putting up a billboard," says Executive Councilor for Safety and Health Ian Neilson. Smith, who hired graffiti
artist Sky 189 to paint a mural for his campaign, is worried about the impact on the artists' livelihood. "We're just
seeking to clean up the city, not to criminalize their profession," he says. He even invited IS artists to a meeting where
he sought their input on the new bylaws. But they all walked out. "It was obvious the [officials] weren't taking us seri­
ously," says Falko. "And anyway, they need to focus on what's really making the city ugly: poverty, homelessness,
crime." ■

4. Now Cape Town's art establishment can't take its eyes off them. Impressed by the enormous murals brightening large
swaths of the city—many supporting causes like anti-retroviral drugs for AIDS patients or quitting smoking—gallery
owners have begun inviting the graffiti artists to exhibit their work on canvases. The shows have- become so popular
that some of the artists can now make a living solely off their graffiti. Advertisers, corporations, political candidates—
even private art collectors—are cQmmissioning thejr ^ r k , sometimes fbr as.muehias 10,000 rand (about $900). Two
of the country's top graffiti drtists. Мак 1 and Falko, have ,been hired to decorate buildings for the . 2004 Summer
Olympics in Athens. At home they lecture at universities and recently organized a."graffiti tour" of Mitchell's Plain,
the township where they painted their first murals. Artist Tyler Murphy, 21, edits a magazine of graffiti culture,
Realife; Mantis, who at 29 is one of the city's oldest and most respected taggers, runs a business making customized
graffiti-style shirts and pants. And the artist known as Eeb, 23, recently directed a documentary on graffiti art, called
"Overspray," for national television.

5. Contemporary graffiti art started in the 1980s in Cape Town's mixed-race, or "colored," communities. Inspired by
television images of New York buildings and subway trains ctovered with graffiti, a few young artists created their own
tags, spray-painting their signatures on walls. "Under apartheid, our schools didn't have a proper art program," says
Falko. "So we didn't have any training or materials, but we wanted to make our environments more beautiful."

6. So it came as a surprise two months ago when city officials announced a crackdown on graffiti. "We were shocked,"
says Mantis. "One minute we're the kings of Cape Town, and the next minute everyone wants to see us disappear."
Indeed, officials hoping to lure tourists and investors suddenly decided that the graffiti—which had gone largely
unpoliced—was unsightly. City councilor Jean-Pierre Smith announced a new package of laws that would regulate
spray-paint sales, confiscate artists' property and initiate a 24-hour "graffiti hot line" for citizens to report unlawful
painting. Offenders could be fined up to 2,000 rand (about $180) and even sent to jail. A few weeks ago police made
their first graffiti arrests in years, says Smith. The offenders: a pair of academics protesting the proposed bylaws by
spraying the words FREE ART on an overpass. "We felt the new laws sounded extremist and unfair," says one of the
culprits, Clinton Osbourn, a design teacher at Zonnebloom College. "There are a lot of artists who put a lot of energy
into making big, beautiful public murals."

7. Indeed, some believe officials have fixated on graffiti because Cape Town's bigger problems are so intractable. Six
months ago art editor Roger Lucey commissioned three graffiti artists to paint a piece on the front wall of his suburban
home, prompting his outraged neighbors to file a complaint with the city council. "My neighbors say. I'm bringing
crime into the area, but it's just a bloody piece of art work," he says. "They're so afraid of young people's real problems
that they fix on small things like this." Like that of all art, it seems, graffiti's appeal lies squarely in the eye of the
beholder.

69
1. Scan through the article and define the following words and phrases:
To provide a livelihood, rail-thin, to clutch, to wobble, to coo, bleary-eyed, pastel, affluent suburbs, to win acceptance,
to prove oneself, reluctant, staunch opponent, stunning, elusive values, the disenfranchised, to distinguish the murals from
tags, ugly signature scrawls, to mar the city landscape, to eradicate tagging, to seek smn’s input on new bylaws, to ban
murals outright, retroviral, to make a living solely off their graffiti, to commission work, customized, rand, to announce a
crack down on sth, to lure tourists and investors, unsightly, culprit, to fixate on sth, intractable, to file a complaint, squarely,
beholder.
2. Paraphrase the sentences using the words from the exercise above. Substitute the underlined words. (Sometimes
you’ll need to change the structure of a sentence).
1. The FBI was called in to help track down the offender.
2. Consumer goods are a symbol of prestige in a prosperous society.
2.During my first days in the office I tried to show how good I am at doing the work.
3.But Western culture was very slow and unwilling to authenticate reports of meteorite falls.
4. With this reform they made an attempt to put an end to inflation.
5.Some minorities without the right to vote also complain of police harassment.
3. Answer the following question:
1. What is the difference between graffiti and tags?
2. How did graffiti art start in Cape Town?
3. Why do you think young artists try to create a culture not like the one they grew up with?
4. Why do you think the attitude of the authorities towards graffiti has drastically changed?
5. Is graffiti real art or just ugly scrawls? Prove your point of view.
4. Formulate the message of the article.
5. Make a summary of the article. Give an outline of the article. Be ready to render it.

> Read the article. Complete the assignment after it.

H ow B rita in helps C h in a d estro y T ib et

Tristram Hunt
Sunday September 11,2005
The Observer

As well as ending the great Sino-Euro bra war, the Prime Minister's diplomatic triumphs in Beijing last week included a
series of cultural exchanges. The Victoria and Albert Museum has agreed a major Chinese design exhibition to coincide
with the 2008 Olympics. Darcey Bussell will give tutorials to China's best ballerinas. And the British Museum has secured
a ground-breaking deal with the National Museum of China to share collections.
All of which is highly regrettable. Governments have to involve themselves in mucky compromises with distasteful
regimes, but world-class cultural institutions do not. By lending their prestigious names to the Chinese government, the
British Museum and others implicitly sanction Beijing's cultural policy and, with it, the ongoing artistic, linguistic and
religious genocide in Tibet.
Over the past 10 years, mainland China has rediscovered its pre-communist past. The iconoclastic modernism of the
Great Leap Forward has been replaced by official respect for China's ancient civilisation. But this admiration for heritage
has come too late for the people of Tibet.
The terrible truth of Mao's Cultural Revolution bears repeating. Between 1966-1977, an entire civilisation was gutted as
2,000 years of Tibetan history was razed. Prior to China's invasion, there had been 6,259 Buddhist monasteries and
nunneries; by 1976, eight remained. In the name of socialist purity, untold numbers of statues, artefacts, ancient
manuscripts and paintings vanished.
A few high-profile palaces and temples were restored in the 1980s. But since 1994, the Chinese government has opted
for an active programme of destroying the nation's sense of its autonomous history. The British Museum and V&A are
lending their names to this cultural suppression.
In human terms, it has meant savage treatment of the monks and nuns who embody centuries of Buddhist teaching. The
arbitrary arrest of religious leaders Tenzin Deleg Rinpoche and Ngawang Phulchung is just the tip of an iceberg of human-
rights abuse. Currently, hundreds languish in jail without trial for 'crimes' including raising a Tibetan flag, while others
suffer the hideous inventiveness of the People's Liberation Army's torture tactics.
With the people has gone the historic fabric. China is currently engaged in a wholesale demolition of the ancient
neighbourhoods of the holy city of Lhasa. Despite its unique world heritage status and any number of objections from
UNESCO, the ancient architecture is being ruthlessly replaced with communist concrete.
Lhasa, a site of supreme significance for Tibetan Buddhists, is awash with brothels and barracks. The meditative
rhythms of a monastic city have been replaced by the sonic blare of go-go bars and neon glare of tacky commerce. An
aggressive, militaristic capitalism overwhelms the pacifist tradition of centuries. Meanwhile, in the schools, the Tibetan
language is under sustained assault.

70
Perhaps the final indignity is that, under Chinese beneficence, some gutted monasteries are being restored, not as
functioning religious sites, but as heritage attractions. An authentic culture is being transformed into faux 'living history'.
Tibet is being turned into a theme park.
Sometimes, the remit of our national museums and galleries fruitfully coincides with official policy. In the wake of the
war in Iraq, the British Museum worked tirelessly with diplomatic staff to save Mesopotamia's endangered treasures. But in
this case, the geopolitical needs of the British government and the proper calling of the V&A and British Museum are not
the same. What their directors must realise is that when modem China hears the word culture, it all too often reaches for its
revolver.

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases. Give their definition and translate them into
Russian:
Sino-, diplomatic triumph, tutorial, to secure, ground-breaking, regrettable, mucky compromise, distasteful
regime, to lend one’s name to sth, implicitly, genocide, iconoclastic, heritage, gutted, to be razed, to vanish,
high-profile, to opt for sth, to embody, cultural suppression, savage, arbitrary arrest, the tip of the iceberg, to
languish in jail, trial, wholesale demolition, concrete, UNESCO, to be awash with sth, monastic, tacky
commerce, blare, to be under sustained assault, indignity, faux, remit, in the wake of sth.

2. Answer the questions:


A.
1. What is Beijing’s cultural policy towards Tibet?
2. What are the consequences of this policy to Tibet?
3. Why is the author against cultural exchange between Britain and China?
B.
1. Governments have to involve themselves in mucky compromises with distasteful regimes, but world-class
cultural institutions do not. How do you understand this sentence?
2. How do you understand the last sentence of the article?
3. What is the role of cultural community in international relations between countries?
4. What is the author’s attitude towards the issue? What helps the reader to see it? >'
3. Give your own variant of the headline. 1
4. Formulate the controlling idea of the article.
5. Make a summary of the article. Render the article.

□ Foilow-up
Activate Your Language

Think of one word only that suits all the sentences in a set.
Use the words from two previous texts,

1 .1 think it's kind o f ______ to give her a present that someone else gave you.
They bought cheap, ______ furniture in bright colors.
The paint's still a little____ _.

2. A police investigation has led to charges o f _____ against five officers.


Republican Congressional leaders have launched a rhetorical _ _ _ _ _ against the Clinton proposal this week.
The main central banks exploited yesterday's thin market to launch another visible _ _ _ _ _ on the dollar.

3. Leaders of several parties might form a coalition in order t o _____ majority support for certain policies.
It was alleged that the shares were deposited at National Westminster Bank and used t o ______ loans for the
Maxwell companies.
The company______ a $20 million contract.

4. Both men are________ conservatives, but of the two Lott is the more ideological and aggressive.
Nevertheless, even th e _________ advocates of non-legal solutions to truancy seem to accept that legal
procedures must continue to be available.

5. Moreover, the introduction o f notepad style computers will necessitate non-keyboard ______ .
We value th e______ of everyone who answered the questionnaire.

6 . Ever since I left the company they have been making attempts to _____ me back.
71
Computer games_____ youngsters away from their lessons.
Was she the bait to ____ him into, a trap?

7. H e _____ a complaint with the House of Representatives seeking to overturn the election result.
Each lexical item is given its own card and is _____ alphabetically.
After they_____ their report, a detective was assigned to the case to investigate.

> Read the article that appeared in the comment column of The G uardian on August 17,2005.

The tyranny o f reading

by Hester Lacey

So Victoria Beckham has never read a book in her life. She doesn't have the time, apparently, and anyway she prefers
listening to music. Noel Gallagher made a similar announcement a few weeks back when, interviewed by David Williams,
he revealed that he was making his first foray into the literary world, via Angels and Deirons by Dan Brown. "I've never
read a book!" Gallagher told the amazed Williams. "This is my first ever book. Believe i: or not, it is."
I do believe it. I think there are plenty of people out there who don't read books and who are none the worse for it -| my
mum for one. It's not strictly true that she has never read a book in her life, just as tfcis probably isn't quite true for Posh
Spice either. The pesky things are hard to avoid at school, for example. But the last hefty novel mum read was The Mill on
the Floss, back in the 1950s when she took her School Certificate exam. After that she shook the dust of literature from her
feet with a sigh of relief and never looked back.
And why not? Since when did a regular quota of suitably serious reading matter become obligatory'? And who decides
what's worthy anyway? If Victoria Beckham swallowed a regular dose of sugary chick lit or violent slasher chillers, for
example (well, they're books too), would it somehow make her reading habits more acceptable than the fact, that she
happens to "love fashion magazines"?
If you love reading, which I happen to, life without books is unthinkable; that’s very tree. Not having several on the go
all at once would seem very odd; a long train journey would be absolutely unbearable. 'One o f the scariest prospects about
joining the Big Brother household would be the grim desert of weeks on end with nothing to read.
But if you don't love reading, and particularly if you positively dislike it, why should >о _ fee! in the least bit bothered if
you don't polish off a serious novel a week? The reasons for reading, as far as I can see. are either to learn something new
or, more often, for sheer enjoyment's sake. If you are unlikely to achieve either via Jane Austen or Iris Murdoch or Carol
Shields or Helen Fielding, why force yourself? We all have enough duties in our lives without adding the Booker
candidates to the list, if that's not our natural proclivity.
I am quite prepared to believe that some people don't "get" books, in the same way that I don't "get" maths, or
crossword puzzles, or Sudoku (which seems to be a hideous combination of two of my least favourite things, more akin to
torture than fun). I can see that these are perfectly valid ways to spend time and exercise the mind. But while other people
enjoy them, they leave me at best indifferent or perplexed, at worst bored to tears. Why shouldn't others feel the same way
about wading through a novel or a biography or a history book?
Parents' reading habits also don't necessarily rub off on their offspring. I have friends whose bookshelves are crammed
but who despair of getting their recalcitrant children to tackle even the simplest or the most exciting volumes. My own
mother taught me to read as soon as I showed the slightest inclination to do so, took me to the library and got me as many
books as I wanted (i.e. lots). From her I gained the keys to the kingdom and I wasn't in the least put out that she didn't
accompany them with a reading list, but let me wander where I wanted. So there is probably no need to worry unduly about
Brooklyn, Romeo or Cruz. If they want to get to grips with Harry Potter' and beyond, they will.
Some people would be miserable without horseriding; others would wither away if they were forbidden their
computers; some collect train carnage numbers; others live to shop. Which is all fair enough, surely, though it's an
unfathomable mystery why some people love cooking, others adore potholing, some can't abide either. It's probably about
as likely that Mrs Beckham will be found with Middlemarch open on her bedside table as it is that I will learn the
difference between Versace and Gucci (or care less about it). It's also probably about as likely that she would enjoy
Dorothea and Casaubon as it is that I would get any fun out of going to the Prada sale.
However, it's fine for anyone to confess that they really can't stick shopping; one can even seem quite smug about it.
Not so if you aren't keen on books. Reading must be about the only pastime that is pretty much universally seen as "good"
and virtuous - so to say openly that you don't like books puts you beyond the pale. For someone to say they don't care for
reading labels them as some kind of pariah, fair game for any insult. To decide any such thing on the basis of one single
trait seems both sweeping and snobbish.

1. Contextualize the following words and phrases, expiain their meaning and translate them into Russian:
To make one’s first foray into sth, pesky, hefty, chick lit, slasher chiller, reading habits, on the go, to polish sth
off, sheer, proclivity, perplexed, to be akin to sth, to wade through sth, to rub off on smn, offspring, to cram/ to
be crammed, recalcitrant, to tackle, inclination, to be put out, unduly, to get to grips with sth, to wither away,

72
unfathomable, smn can’t abide sth, potholing, can’t stick doing sth, smug, virtuous, beyond the pale, pariah,
sweeping, snobbish.

2. Paraphrase the sentences using the words from the exercise above.
1. It claims to be user-friendly enough so that big and heavy manuals aren't necessary.
2. The child showed no tendency to aggression.
3. And then he quoted this too general and not proved bv the facts statement about women drivers.
4. Personnel managers and employers are busy people and do not have time to read a boring thirty page
resume.
5. The language her father used was outside the bounds of acceptable behaviour.
6 . By pure luck I had given Reuters their biggest news scoop since the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in
1865.
7. I can’t stand talking to superficial people.
8 . After failing to get a promotion she felt upset and offended.
3. Answer the questions:
1. What facts made the journalist write this article?
2. What did the journalist write about Victoria Beckham? Why do you think he chose her as an example to
prove his point?
3. What is the author’s idea about people who don’t have the habit of polishing off a serious novel every week?
4. What are the arguments to back his idea?
4. Summarize the article. Form ulate the message. Be ready to render the article.
5. Do you remember your first foray into the literary world? W hat was it?
6 . W hat was the last hefty book you read?
7. Speak about your reading habits using the vocabulary of the text.

73
5 КУРС
UNIT 1: REVISING NEWSPAPER VOCABULARY.

Read the extracts and give definitions to the words presented in the box.

THE PRESS.
press The press usually refers just to newspapers, but the term can be extended to
quality press include magazines. Newspapers are either tabloid, a format usually
popular press associated in the English-speaking world with the popular press, or
tabloid press broadsheet, associated with quality journalism. Tabloids are sometimes
gutter press referred to as the gutter press by people who disapproved of them.

tabloid Tabloids often have very large circulations (numbers sold) and even bigger
broadsheet readerships (total number of people reading them). Papers such as these are
often referred to as mass circulation papers.
circulation
readership_____

Translate from English into Russian. Pay your special attention to the underlined words.

1. Yet reports in the so-called quality press and on television have blamed tabloid newspapers.
Strange that. The broadsheets fill acres o f pages with Royal stories and television never misses a
chance to show royal footage.
2. The tabloid newspapers - or gutter press as they ’re known in Britain - have always been a source
o f fascination to media watchers.
3. I wonder whether attacking our popular press is the liberal elite’s way o f acting out its own fear o f
the common people.
4. There are other stories in the papers - the mass circulation tabloids displaying their usual interest
in sex and sensation.
5. Friday night television audiences and Saturday newspaper readerships are, apparently, lower than
mid-week’s.
6. With the Easter Holiday upon us. the mass circulation: paper, “The Sun ", focuses on a strike by
French air traffic Controllers. In typically robust fashion “The Sun ” headlines the story: FILTHY
FRENCH SINK OUR HOLS.

Read the extracts and give definitions of the words presented in the box.

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN OF THE PRESS." ■■■


editor The people in charge of newspaper content are editors. The people who write
for them are journalists, sometimes referred to informally as journos or
journalism insultingly as hacks. Someone who writes articles that appear regularly,
journo usually in the same place in the paper, and often with powerfully expressed
hack opinions, is a columnist.

columnist The British national press is referred to as Fleet Street, although no national
paper is now produced in this London street.
Fleet Street

Translate from English into Russian. Pay your special attention to the underlined words.

J. With rapidly falling circulation figures, journalists have demanded the editor’s dismissal.
2 . H e’s also spending time keeping hacks out o f the way because they keep asking Dennis about
girlfriends.
3. Courier is like the hard-news journo o f cliche, who thinks only about the glory o f the story.
4. Most journos know o f a colleague who abandonedjournalism fo r advertising. We curl our lips at
such a fellow. H e ’s a sell-out, a loser, somebody whd couldn ’t stand the pace in the real game.
5. A respect fo r the role o f the king prevents the Spanish media from taking aggressive Fleet Street
approach to monarch’s private lives.

75
__

6. At the bar, we found vituperative columnist Julie Burchill and thought, at last, here is someone who
is bound to be rude and abrasive. But Burchill was a babe.

Read the extracts and give definitions of the words presented in the box.

story Newspapers run or carry articles or stories. Articles other than the most important
piece ones can also be referred to as pieces.
article
run an article Editorials give the paper’s opinion about the news of the day. In a quality paper,
carry an article the most important editorial is the leading article or leader. These, and the other
editorials, are written by leader writers.
editorial

leading article
leader
leader writer

Translate from English into Russian. Pay your special attention to the underlined words.

1. “The Financial Times ” carries an article on the situation in Albania.


2. “The Wall Street Journal ” ran an article about people in Belgium who have seen flying, triangular-
shaped craft.
3. “The National ” ran apiece about a boxer w ho’d had to have his legs amputated because o f the
damage steroid use had done.
4. The resignation was the top story fo r the “New York Times.” In a leader, the paper said that on the
issues affecting America most, substantial continuity would be assured under any o f the contenders
fo r the leadership.
5. Following his criticism o f social workers, may I suggest that your leader writer should spend a
month as a social worker to see ju st how stressful and demanding the jo b is - and be paid the same
salary as the social worker.
6. Some o f the editorial leader writers pu t their fingers on the pulse o f several points worth
discussing. . \ . ,.:..

EXERCISE. Naming of parts. M atch these newspaper expressions and the descriptions, and then use the
expressions to complete the extracts below.

1. obituary a. small advertisements about films, plays, concerts, things for sale, and so
2. gossip column on
3. classified b. news about the country the paper is published in
4. home c. exclusive story, especially an exciting one
5. masthead d. (often critical) stories about the social activities and private lives of
6. banner headline famous people
/=7
/о scoop e. headline in extremely large print
f. top of front page carrying the name of the paper
g. article about the life of someone who has recently died

1.The Sun’s _ _ _ _ _ _ is ‘Come Home Dad.’


2.The discovery o f the Goebbels diaries was yet another Sunday Times _________that left our rivals
gasping.
3.... The Observer’s front page headline - under its new royal b lu e _________.
4. Among th e ______ stories covered in British papers is the continuing legal row over the finances o f the
country’s National Union o f Mineworkers.
5.May I add a personal note to your excellent____________o f Charles Abell? Throughout his career, he
was faced with difficult problems but never hesitated to take firm decisions and to stand by the
consequences.
76
6 .M GN’s move has been seen as part o f an attempt to get its share o f the regional newspapers’ advertising
cake - particularly _ _ _ _ _ - and other tabloid national papers are expected to follow.
7.Having failed at show business he ended up in journalism writing about it. By the mid-thirties he had his
Broadway was his beat. Table 50 at New Y ork’s Stork Club was his office.

UNIT 2: FOREIGN AND HOME POLICY.

THE BEST SOLUTION TO NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION IS NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT.

TOKYO - For more than three decades, there have been five nuclear powers - without a war between them. But as
nations gather in New York to start to review the 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, the nuclear future is more
uncertain and potentially more dangerous than when the treaty, known as the NPT, was indefinitely extended in 1995.
Since then India and Pakistan have become declared, and defiant, nuclear powers, joining Israel as a trio of states
“illegally” possessing nuclear weapons. The United States Senate has rejected the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, which
would outlaw all nuclear explosive tests, thus greatly complicating the task of building a nuclear bomb without detection.
North Korea’s intentions as a potential, if not actual, clandestine nuclear power remain worrisome. Iraq’s nuclear
activities are no longer under international inspection.
There are several nuclear choices for the international community: the status quo, proliferation or abolition. A
restoration of the 1995 status quo would require a rollback of nuclear weapons by India and Pakistan and only them. But
trying to denuclearize South Asia amid the current state of tensions between India and Pakistan over Kashmir and other
issues is as unrealistic as demanding immediate abolition of all nuclear weapons everywhere.
The 1998 tests by the two countries confirmed the folly of believing that five legal nuclear powers - the United
States, Russia, China, Britain and France - could indefinitely retain their monopoly over one class of weapons. The treaty
restricts nuclear arms to those countries and the understanding that they would negotiate in good faith on giving them up.
If the NPT status quo of 1995 cannot be restored and the risks of arms control reverses and proliferation are real,
therejire two alternatives: having even more nuclear powers or a move to a world free of nuclear weapons.
It is hard to convince some countries of the futility of weapons of mass destruction when all holders insist on
keeping them. The preaching, and the use of sanctions against India and Pakistan, need to be buttressed by example. The
case for independent British and French nuclear deterrent forces is not compelling. Their phased disarmament would put
pressure on all holders of nuclear weapons, including China, to cut their arsenals. The United States also needs to move
faster in negotiating further reductions in their strategic arms.
There are other steps that would add impetus to global nuclear disarmament. They include further constraints on the
deployment of nuclear weapons outside the territory of the country that owns them, putting into force the treaty outlawing
nuclear tests, banning missile test flights and the production of fissile materials for nuclear arms, taking such arms pff alert
status and physically separating nuclear forces, warheads and missiles.
Getting the nuclear powers to take even these lesg difficult steps will be hard. Getting them to commit to total
nuclear disarmament will be even harder. The chasm over which the international community must leap is the belief that
world security can rest on weapons of total insecurity.

Comments

(Nuclear) Nonproliferation Treaty, NPT - Договор о нераспространении ядерного оружия, ДНЯО.


Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, СТВТ - Договор о всеобъемлющем запрещении ядерных
испытаний, ДВЗЯИ.
Strategic Arms Reduction Talks, START - Договор о сокращении стратегических наступательных
вооружений, СНВ.
Ballistic Missile Defense, BMD - противоракетная оборона, ПРО; Ballistic Missile Defense System -
система ПРО.
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty - Договор по ПРО.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the article. Find the sentences containing the following words and word combinations.
Translate them into Russian.

77
nuclear proliferation, nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear arms, nuclear explosive test, nuclear bomb,
nuclear deterrent forces, total nuclear disarmament, defiant, to outlaw, detection, clandestine, the
international community, abolition, status quo, alert status, rollback п., to denuclearize, reverse, futility,
weapons of mass destruction, holders o f nuclear weapons, constraints on the deployment of nuclear
weapons, to buttress by example, to compel, reductions in strategic arms, impetus, to put into force, treaty
outlawing nuclear tests, treaty banning missile tests flights, production o f fissile materials, warheads,
chasm, to leap, world security.

2. Read the text once again and find answers to the following questions.
1. Which countries are called nuclear powers? How many of them are there? Why are they
called so? Are the nuclear arms of these countries restricted by something?
2. Which countries can be named clandestine nuclear powers? Has the situation around these
countries changed recently?
3. Why is this situation so worrisome?
4. What are those two alternatives that the international community might face in the future?
5. Are there any choices for the international community? Which one would you choose?
6. What means can be used to add impetus to total/global nuclear disarmament? Is it a hard
task? Why?
7. Do you share the belief that world security can rest on weapons of total insecurity?
3. What is the central point of the article? Do you think the title reflects this idea? Using the
key sentences given below summarize the content of the article to present it at the lesson.
The controlling issue of the article is ...
The journalist focuses the reader’s attention on ...
Supporting and developing the main idea the author goes on saying th a t...
The writer goes on to describe different views on ...
The author claims th a t...
4. Translate into English using the vocabulary from the text.
1). В течение более трех десятилетий в мире существовало пять ядерных держав и при этом
удавалось избежать военного столкновения между ними. 2). Однако в данный момент, в
преддверии созыва Международной конференции в Нью-Йорке по Договору о нераспространении
ядерного оружия от 1968 г., будущее, с точки зрения распространения этого оружия, выглядит все
более неясным и потенциально более опасным, чем в 1995 г., когда было принято решение о
продлении Договора о нераспространении ядерного оружия на неопределенный срок. 3). С тех пор
появились страны, которые вопреки принятым договоренностям, создали свое собственное
ядерное оружие. К числу таких стран относятся Индия, Пакистан и Израиль. 4). Соединенные
Штаты Америки отказались присоединиться к Договору о всеобщем запрещении ядерных
испытаний на том основании, что договор запрещает все виды испытаний ядерного оружия и тем
самым осложняет задачу тому, кто хотел бы незаметно произвести новые виды оружия. 5).
Беспокойство вызывает намерение Северной Кореи относительно незаконного (тайного) создания
своей атомной бомбы. 6 ). В настоящее время международное сообщество может выбрать один из
трех путей возможного решения вопроса, связанного с атомным оружием,- сохранение статус-кво,
дальнейшее распространение ядерного оружия или его запрещение. 7). Трудно убедить в том, что
владение оружием массового уничтожения является бесперспективным (зд. futile), в то время,
когда уже имеющие его страны настаивают на сохранении своего ядерного потенциала. 8).
Призывы, обращенные к Индии и Пакистану, и направленные против них санкции должны
подкрепляться примером. Так, поэтапное сокращение сил ядерного сдерживания, находящихся в
введении Великобритании и Франции, позволит воздействовать на другие страны, имеющие
(holders) ядерное оружие, в том числе на Китай, и побудить их приступить к сокращению своих
ядерных арсеналов. 9). Среди других шагов, позволяющих ускорить темпы повсеместного
ядерного разоружения, следует отметить наложение ограничений на размещение ядерного оружия
вне пределов своей территории со стороны стран, которые им обладают, введение в силу договора,
запрещающего испытание ядерного оружия, запрет на испытательные пуски ракет и производство
расщепляющихся материалов, предназначенных для производства атомного оружия, а также
снятие ядерных ракет с боевого дежурства и отделение боеголовок от ракет-носителей. 10).
Побудить ядерные державы к принятию даже только этих мер является трудной задачей. Будет
еще сложнее добиться от них принятия на себя обязательств по осуществлению всеобщего*
ядерного разоружения. 11). Главным препятствием является убежденность этих стран в том, что
ядерное оружие обеспечивает безопасность в мире. 12). Международное сообщество должно
убедить их в том, что такая позиция не соответствует действительности.
78
5. Comment upon the changes that happened in the world. For extra information use the following
text.
5.1. Before reading.
Look through the words and phrases given below. Using the English definitions choose the most
appropriate Russian equivalent.

to amount to v prep (T not be amounting) to add up to, be in total, be equal to or be the same as
the whistleblowing disclosures discoveries about something illegal that is happening reported to
someone in authority by people
crude adj simple and not skillfully done or made
to refine v to make pure or improve, esp. by removing unwanted materials
to detonate v to (cause to) explode
to step up v adv to increase (something) in size, amount or speed
to commit to v to promise or (give your loyalty or money) to a particular principle, person or plan of
action
to scrap v to get rid o f (something which is no longer useful or wanted)
to accede v fm l to agree to do what people have asked you to do
dorm ant adj (of things) not active or growing, but having the ability to be active at a later time

5.2. Translate the following phrases into Russian. Mind the collocations.

to receive assistance to conduct nuclear tests to raise (grave) concern


to bring under full inspection
5.3. Read the following text paying spedalattention to the words given in italics. '

Introduction

In the past decade se v e ra l co u n trie s have jo in e d the w orld 's rank o f n u c le a r pow ers.

S om e are located in u n sta b le o r tense regions, w h ile others a p p e a r to la ck the m utual


understand in g w hich h elped p reven t a n u clea r exch an g e during the Cold W ar.

S eve ral cou n tries a re e ith e r not m em bers of th e 197 0 N o n -P ro life ra tio n T re a ty (NPT)
designed to stop the sp re a d o f nu clea r te ch n olog y, o r have w ith d ra w n from it. O thers have
ignored the C o m p re h e n siv e T e st Ban T rea ty (CTBT).

Isr a e l

• Nuclear weapons: 2 0 0 *
• Population: 6.7 million
• M ilitary budget: $ 9 .3 b n
• Signed NPT: n/a
*estimate.
Source: Global Security/W orld Bank

Israel is internationally recognised as a nuclear power, but has never formally confirmed or denied
that it has nuclear weapons. Its arsenal is considered to amount to some 2.00 warheads, which couid
be delivered by aircraft, missile or one of its three submarines.

Israel is thought to have begun its nuclear programme in secret in the early 1950s, and produced its
first bomb in 1967. In 1986, the whistleblowing disclosures of former nuclear scientist Mordechai
Vanunu revealed a programme larger and more advanced than previously thought.

Concerns over reaction in the Arab world, the potentially negative response from elements of the
Israeli public, and consideration of America's commitment to .non-proliferation have all been cited as
reasons why Israel has never publicly disclosed its nuclear capabilities.

In d ia

• Nuclear weapons: 110-150*

79
• Population: 1.07 billion
• Military budget: $13.2 billion
• Signed NPT: n/a
* estim ate. Sources: Global
S ecurity/W orld Bank

India has aircraft and missiles capable of delivering nuclear weapons within a 2,500km range. It is
reported to be working on more advanced missiles capable of travelling further.

India achieved nuclear capability with the test of a crude nuclear device in 1974. The plutonium used
in this test was derived from a reactor built with Canadian assistance. It carried out three further
tests in 1998.

India is receiving assistance from Russia in developing a civilian nuclear energy programme. Some
analysts fear that it could use the same technology to refine its nuclear weapons.

P akistan

• Nuclear warheads: 75*


• Population: 152 million
• M ilitary budget: $3.7bn
• Signed NPT: n/a
*estimate. Sources: W orld Bank, CEIP,
Global Security

Pakistan says it has conducted five nuclear tests since 1998.

It has aircraft and missiles capable of delivering nuclear weapons, although some experts believe the
missiles are not fully assembled, with the warhead stored away from the main body.

In recent years Pakistan has sought to acquire so-called dual use technology, which could be used for
either civilian or military nuclear purposes.

Pakistan's difficult relationship with neighbouring India, and the apparent aim of both countries to
develop nuclear arsenals, has periodically alarmed the international community.

The revelation in 2004 that its former chief nuclear scientist AQ Khan had led an international
network which covertly shared nuclear technology among countries such as Iran, Libya and North
Korea also raised grave concerns.

Morth Korea

• N uclear w eapons: 1-15*


• Population: 22.7 m illion
• M ilitary budget: $ 2 .Ib n *
• Signed NPT:” 1985
(w ithdrew 2002)
*estim ate
Sources: World Bank, CEIP

North Korea has declared that it has nuclear weapons and is building more, though it is not certain
how many it has or even whether it could actually detonate one.

The US analyst group Global Security suggests it could have seven plutonium bombs and six uranium
bombs. American intelligence estimates vary from 1-2 bombs to around 15 warheads.

The secretive Stalinist country has refused to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to
inspect its facilities and withdrew from the NPT in October 2002.

North Korea has pursued an ambitious missile building programme in tandem with Its nuclear
projects. Its long-range Taepodong I missile, tested in 1998, is thought to have a range of about
2,000km. However it is not known whether it has the technology required to fit any of its missiles
with a nuclear warhead.

80
Iran

• Nuclear weapons: О
• Population: 66.9 million
• Military budget: $6.4bn
. Signed NPT: 1970
Sources: World Bank, CEIP, FAS

Iran has stepped up its development of uranium enrichment facilities in recent years, and some
analysts believe it is not far from building nuclear weapons.

International concern is high. Britain, France and Germany are leading talks to try to persuade Iran
to commit to only developing nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.

Iran's nuclear ambitions stretch back several decades. It received substantial assistance from Russia
in the building its first nuclear power station, while Russia, China and North Korea are believed to
have helped Iran build a series of short to medium-range missiles.<>

Formerly had muclear w eapons/program m e: .

Algeria, Argentina, Belarus, Brazil,


Germany, Kazakhstan, Iraq, Libya,
South Africa, Sweden, Sw itzerland,
Ukraine

In 1993. S ou th A fric a became the first country to scrap nuclear1weapons.

In 1995, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, B e la ru s, K a za kh sta n and U k ra in e acceded to the
NPT and returned al! nuclear weapons stationed on their soil to Russia.

A lg e ria built up its nuclear infrastructure during the ^980s and is believed to have conducted
research into nuclear weapons. It agreed to IAEA safeguards in Д992, and joined the NPT in 1995.

In competition with one another, A rg e n tin a and B ra z il made;major efforts to build nuclear weapons
in the 1970s and 80s, but their programmes are now considered dormant. Both are NPT members
and have signed bilateral agreements on mutual supervision of nuciear facilities and materials.

G erm an y and Ja p a n attempted to build nuclear weapons during World War II, though neither gave
them high priority. Both are now NPT members.

Ira q began a nuclear programme in the 1970s, but this was ended after an Israeli air raid in 1981,
the 1991 Gulf War, and years of sanctions.

Libya had a secret nuclear development programme based on designs by the Pakistani scientist AQ
Khan. This programme was uncovered during investigations into Khan and in 2003, Libya admitted it,
abandoned its plans and was brought under full inspection.

S w eden and S w itz e rla n d conducted detailed research into nuclear weapons in the 1950s and 60s,
before both decided against building them.

T aiw an, although not recognized by the UN as a state, began research into nuclear weapons after
China’s first atomic test in 1964. It regards itself as part of the NPT.

/As of 2000, 187 countries have signed the NPT. Most major industrialised powers outside the
categories listed in this guide have the technical skills and resources to build a bomb. Many have
civilian nuclear programmes and some have carried out research into nuclear weapons, at some time
or another, though none are considered to have serious inclinations towards actually building or
acquiring them.

81
TERRORISM

1. Read the following text and complete the assignment given after it.

TERMS FOR DESCRIBING TERRORISM


Lynn Visson
Журнал переводчиков «Мосты», №1, 2004.

Since today's world newspapers and television programs around the globe are all too often filled with
accounts of terrorist attacks, suicide bombings and other such horrific acts, the Russian-English/ English-Russian
translator or interpreter is well advised to have a variety of synonyms in his active linguistic baggage. “Shocking,”
a word commonly used to describe terrorist acts, can be supplemented or replaced by a wide variety of negative
adjectives such as “abominable,"{отвратительный), “appalling” (жуткий), “atrocious” (зверский, гнусный),
“brutal” (жестокий), “frightful” (ужасный, страшный), “hateful” (ненавистный), “heinous”
(iомерзительный), “hideous” (безобразный), “horrible” (ужасный), “monstrous” (чудовищный), “obnoxious”
(противный, несносный), “odious” (ненавистный, противный), “outrageous” (безобразный,
возмутительный), “repugnant” (отвратительный), “repulsive” (отталкивающий), “sickening”
(тошнотворный), “terrible” (страшный, ужасный), “vile” (гнусный). Another useful word is “unspeakable” —
“unspeakable acts” imply actions so awful that one is loath to even talk of them. These deeds may also be “brazen”
(дерзкие). A common Russian adjective describing such acts is коварный, as in коварная изощренность
террористов. While the dictionary defines коварный as “treacherous” or “perfidious”, in many contexts these
may not be appropriate translations. In the given phrase, “the insidious” or “fiendish” sophistication of the
terrorists would successfully render the phrase’s meaning.
“Reprehensible” implies something which is both предосудительный and отвратительный -
“revolting.” “Disgusting” is somewhat too colloquial for such situations. And the correct adjective to render
варварский is “barbaric,” not “barbarian,” as in “barbaric bombings” or “the barbaric and sick individuals who
committed these acts.”
The individual who carries out such acts is the “perpetrator,” and he “commits,” “carries out” or
“perpetrates” his evil deeds. The individuals who order him to do so, заказчики or зачинщики are the
“masterminds,” “ringleaders” or “instigators” of violence. While the word бандиты often comes up in reference to
terrorists, the English word “bandits” should be avoided. A far better translation is “thug,” the пособники or
приспешники of terrorists are the “henchmen,” “accomplices,” or “those who aid and abet terrorists.”
Преступные банды террористов is better translated as “criminal gangs” than as “bands.” Н о дело (“cause”) can
justify the actions of any заблудившиеся (“misguided,” “deluded”) individuals, would-be martyrs (мученики) or
fanatics.
While сильный и беспощадный враг, as terrorists are often called, can be translated as “a strong and
merciless enemy”, “ruthless” is a more idiomatic translation of беспощадный, and a very useful word to describe
someone who has no scruples/moral principles/will stop at nothing/will not shrink/shirk from perpetrating any kind
of terrorist act.
Вопрос о дальнейшей активизации и повышении сотрудничества в борьбе с терроризмом is the
“vitally”, “critically important” or “crucial” issue of the continuous/continued further revitalization (“activization”
is not a good choice here) of effective cooperation in combating terrorism. Борьба с терроризмом can be
rendered in several ways: the war on terrorism/campaign against terrorism/struggle/fight against terrorism. And
решение приоритетной задачи борьбы с терроризмом can be rendered as “the high(est) priority objective of
resolving (not solving!) the challenge/issue/problem of the fight/struggle against terrorism.”
Террористические акты, потрясшие мир, are the acts which “shocked”, “stunned”, “rocked”, or
“convulsed” the world, or “made the world reel.” While террористические очаги are often translated as
“hotbeds” or “flashpoints” of terrorism, in some contexts these can be “strongholds” or “bastions.”
We often hear about the главное условие успеха - “the key to” or “prerequisite for” success in the war on
terrorism. Враг - “enemy/adversary/opponent” - далеко не сломлен - “has by no means/has not yet been
defeated/conquered/smashed.” The forces of evil рвутся к обладанию оружием массового уничтожения —“are
(desperately) trying/eager/out/to acquire weapons of mass destruction.” There are also многочисленные
неопровержимые доказательства - “a great deal of/a plethora of/incontrovertible/irrefutable evidence”
regarding terrorist activities.
Терроризм нужно полностью искоренить/ликвидировать can be translated as “Terrorism must be
eliminated/destroyed/wiped out/ended.” This also requires putting an end to its питательная среда, or “breeding
grounds.” Совместные усилия - “joint” or “common” efforts are needed to defeat terrorists, and those involved in
this struggle must “pool” or “unite” (not “share”) their efforts. What is required is а комплексный подход к
противодействию терроризму. Better than a “comprehensive” approach would be “multipronged” or
“multifaceted.” Also needed are решительные, сточенные и выверенные действия международного
сообщества - “vigorous/resolute (much better than “firm”), united and considered actions on the part of the
international community.” As the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Igor Ivanov stated in his speech to the UN
Security Council in January, 2003.

Использование методов террора ставит крест на политических амбициях тех, кто этим
занимается, однозначно превращает их в преступников и подлинных изгоев. Не может быть никакого
оправдания их действиям. И сами мы должны действовать в отношении их соответственно:
преступники обязаны нести наказание за содеянное.

The translator here is presented with plenty of interesting possibilities. The use of terror can either “doom”
or “put an end to” the political “strivings” (better than “ambitions”) of those engaged/involved in terrorism, and
(“and” is necessary in English!) clearly/unequivocally/stamps/marks/brands them as criminals and utter/absolute
pariahs/the lowest of the low/places them beyond the pale. There can be no justification (whatever) for their
actions. And we must take appropriate action against them: the criminals must be punished/punishment must be
meted out for their actions (or, much better) - for what they have wrought. In other words, they cannot be allowed
to act безнаказанно - “with impunity.” Terrorists must not be allowed to уйти от правосудия - “to escape from
justice.”
Those who укрывают террористов, “harbor/give refuge to terrorists” must also be punished. As the
Foreign Minister pointed out in his speech: «для России укрепление международной солидарности в борьбе с
терроризмом - не дань политической риторике». For Russia, strengthening/consolidating international
solidarity/unity in the war on/campaign/fight against terrorism is not empty rhetoric/hollow platitudes/mere
political gesturing/lip service/mere verbiage. All those who are fighting terrorism must питать надежду -
“harbor/cherish the hope” that terrorism will be eliminated.
And the translator/interpreter must take care to keep abreast of the growing vocabulary of political, military
and humanitarian terminology so frequently used in discussion of this scourge of the twenty-first century.

T ra n s la te the following words and word combinations:


abominable; коварная изощренность; reprehensible; действовать безнаказанно; a prerequisite
for success; оружие массового уничтожения; flashpoints o f terrorism; потрясшие мир;
hM chmen; борьба с терроризмом;^ щШ1е8^ецету; компле^сн|нй подход; vigorous; Vj - ;
преступные банды т е т о |р ^ т о ^ щ ^ ^ |п ^ £ ^ - } ^ & к д у ; a scbtfrge o f the twenty-first century;
уйти от правосудия; heirifikis; зйчинщИКи; nidfeWs? Искоренить терроризм; irrefutable ц . г |
evidence; приоритетная задача. , VwWA'jr»
■ Vs
Translate into Russian: ' ' -,!i! 4 "*- --" -
1. This is a despicable act o f terrorism.
2. The insidious sophistication of the terrorists has made the world reel.
3. Who do you think could be the masterminds if this vile act?
4. It’s appalling that terrorist acts may be committed my young males and females in their teens
and twenties.
5. He was beaten up by a gang o f young thugs.
6. These people w ouldn’t shirk from perpetrating any kind o f violence.
7. These men are ruthless terrorists and will kill anyone who tries to stop them.
8. The Foreign M inister stressed in his speech the highest priority objective o f resolving the
challenge o f the fight against terrorism.
9. Northern Ireland and Chechnya are worldly-known hotbeds o f terrorism.
10.The key to success in the war on terrorism is the effective cooperation o f all the countries o f
the world.
1 l.T he adversary has by no means been defeated.
12.The forces o f evil are desperately trying to require weapons o f mass destruction.

Translate into English:


1. Взрывы торговых центров в Нью-Йорке потрясли мир.
2. Рано или поздно преступные банды террористов ответят за свои злодеяния.
3. Наказание за содеянное понесут не только зачинщики и исполнители, но и их
приспешники.
4. Существует масса неопровержимых доказательств их зверского поведения.
5. Только совместными усилиями можно сокрушить терроризм.
6 . Не может быть никакого оправдания их действиям.
7. Мы не можем позволить террористам действовать безнаказанно.
8 . Терроризм - это бич XXI века, но мы не должны терять надежду, что он будет
побежден.
2.1. Scan the following article and find out what type of terrorism it highlights.

Hackers fight terrorists


By PETE BELL
S u n O n lin e

( 1)___________________________________________________________

THE INTERNET has become the latest frontline in the war against terror.

With the world wide web increasingly used as the main instrument of propaganda and communication for
extreme religious groups like al-Qaeda, MI5 and patriotic hackers have formed an unlikely alliance to close down
their sites.

Prime Minister Tony Blair announced this morning the Government would be looking at options to tackle the
problem.

(2 ) Alarmingly, experts believe al-Qaeda’s


master hacker is running the terrorist group’s central communications hub (центр деятельности) from the UK.

Impressionable youngsters are targeted through the web by sinister fringe organisations posing as religious groups,
as terror organisations recruit gullible (легковерные, доверчивые) young men by bombarding them with lies
about western Governments and hysterical calls to Jihad.

Neil Doyle - an expert in terrorists' use of the internet and author of the book Terror Tracker - believes since the
July 7 bombings, MI5 have changed their tactics in the cyber-war.

An MI5 unit monitors suspect websites constantly and Mr Doyle believes that since the first London bombings,
rather than simply watching the sites and harvesting them for intelligence, agents are actively working to get the
sites closed down.

And he says patriotic hackers are joining in to help.

(3)

Talking exclusively to the Sun Online, he said: "Al-Qaeda has pioneered the use of the Internet and it has a high
number of computer specialists among its ranks. They are able to use a wide variety of methods to mask where
they are operating.

"They are continually innovating and adapting to stay one step ahead of their pursuers.

"But they occasionally make mistakes. It's my understanding that the person considered to be al-Qaeda's master
hacker is operating out of London right now.

"Britain is al-Qaeda's central communications hub and much of its online activities are coordinated from here.

"There are signs that the British security services are now pushing hard to close off their communications channels.
Most of the best-known UK jihad sites went off the air on July 7 and that has now spread to the Middle East."

He added: "MI5 is known to have a team of computer specialists who are devoted to monitoring these kinds of
sites.

(4)

"The policy in the past seems to have been to let these sites continue to operate and sit back and soak-up the
intelligence. It looks like that's now been abandoned and they've gone on the offensive.

"We also see civilian hackers who have mounted something of an online anti-jihad.
"The role of patriotic hackers in taking down extremists websites is clouded in deep secrecy, as it is illegal. The
FBI has put out a statement in the past warning them to stop or face prosecution.

"The simple rule of thumb is that if a site has gone down quickly, maybe within minutes or hours after first being
identified, it's likely to be hackers. Hosting companies and the authorities are usually slow to react and often
nothing can be done, unless there's been a clear breach of the law.

"If it's a borderline freedom of speech issue, then it's likely that there will be little that the authorities can do and
the hosting company is likely side with its customer.

(5)

"Cyber-terrorism and physical terrorism go hand in hand. The bombers need secure communications and funding
and the internet provides both of these things.

"There are a myriad of ways that terrorists can contact each other in safety and that can even take place openly on
publicly-accessible sites. Funding is not a problem if you have access to the Net.

"Terrorist groups and their supporters are known to be heavily involved in credit card fraud (мошенничество). It's
too easy."

(6)

Mr Doyle says a group claiming to be north London-based ai-Muhajiroun - which used to be led by hate-preaching
cleric Omar Bakri Mohammed - has just launched a series of new websites to spread their message.

Bakri said last year he had dissolved the group, which wants to establish Taliban-style governments across the
world. ■■. t

The expert said, as the lhterftet is impossible to regulate,it is difiicultto close down terror sites for long. Pressure
can be put on the companies that host the propaganda and sites can bfe attacked by hacking; but it is easy to get
them up and running again by changing the host.

Although the vile sites have been hosted by companies in many different countries, the UK used to be popular with
extremist groups, but security service tactics seem to have: dealt with this.

Ironically, the US is now the country where most of these sites are hosted.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) says that it would be 'unconstitutional' and against the US
constitution's First Amendment on freedom of speech if they were to pressure the hosting companies.

Frighteningly, Mr Doyle says, governments across the world face a seemingly impossible task in policing the
Internet and admits: "It is a nightmare task".

2.2. Read the article and match the highlights presented below with the suitable part off the text.
To support your idea point out the key words that reveal the main idea of each part.

1. United forces to close down extremists websites.


2. The Web as the battlefield.
3. The pitfalls on the way to tackle cyber-terrorism.
4. Al-Qaeda’s master hackers against the British security services.
5. The change o f intelligence tactics in the cyber-war at the face o f increasing terrorism danger.
6. The Web as the means to coordinate the actions.

2.3.
• Which of these highlights expresses the most general idea? What do the rest present?
• Using the information from Appendix 1 tell in what part of the article you can find the
most general information and particulars. How do we call this structure?
• Judging by the highlights draw the kernel of the article.
3. Read the following article called ‘Anti-terror ABC’. Taking into account the italicized key words
split it into several parts, point out the main idea of each one and, finally, present the controlling
issue of the article.

АЗБУКА АНТИТЕРРОРА

Способна ли власть противостоять смертникам, таранящим на «КаМАЗах» больницы, взрывающим


себя в толпе? Применим ли в России мировой опыт борьбы с «чумой XXI века»? Мы спросили об этом
специалистов по истории терроризма, преподавателей Института массмедиа РГГУ - Российского
государственного гуманитарного университета-Давида ФЕЛЬДМАНА и Михаила ОДЕССКОГО.

- В 1995-м Басаев лично повел боевиков на захват больницы в Буденновске, торговался с


Черномырдиным, выдвигал политические требования. Теперь тот же Басаев действует с помощью живых
бомб - смертников. «Палестинизация» человеческого террора - свершившийся факт?
- На самом деле смертники в Европе и России появились раньше, чем в Палестине. Террорист Гриневицкий
бросил бомбу между собой и царем Александром II, отлично понимая, что сам в живых не останется. Ноу-хау
конца XX века - соединение традиций европейского террора и исламской идеологии, приветствующей
самопожертвование во имя Аллаха.
- Не отменить ли ради борьбы с терроризмом мораторий на смертную казнь?
- Пугать самоубийц расстрелом - смешно. Да и не они занимаются подготовкой терактов. Организаторов и
финансистов еще нужно найти. Остановить их могла бы не суровость наказания, а его неотвратимость - таков
международный опыт.
Самая действенная форма борьбы - пресечение финансовых потоков. Ирландская республиканская армия
обессилела после того, как развалился СССР - главный спонсор ИРА. Стоило американцам прижать крупнейших
инвесторов палестинского терроризма - талибов и Саддама Хусейна, как сразу начались переговоры о «дорожной
карте» в Израиле.
Поэтому задача номер один - перекрыть террористам «кислород». Вряд ли стоит сомневаться, что Басаева, в
частности, финансово поддерживают его московские сторонники. И что деньги заграничных инвесторов идут в
Чечню через Москву, Питер и Ростов-на-Дону.
Вторая составляющая - оперативно-розыскная. Это прежде всего работа с агентурой. Желательно бы
обеспечить ц достойную жизнь стражам порядка, не экономить на.их жалованье. Не. надо- провоцировать
ситуации, когда за сотню рублей на КПП пропускается машина с тонной взрывчатки.
Третья важнейшая составляющая - пропаганда и контрпропаганда. За пару дней до теракта в Моздоке по ТВ
прошла примечательная информация: группа террористов в Чечне, захватив мирных жителей и прикрываясь ими,
как щитом, планировала погнать их на позиции наших войск. Банду своевременно обезвредили. Но если бы
террористы реализовали свой план, то была бы очень красивая акция пропагандистского обеспечения в сочетании
с Моздокским терактом. Мол, мерзкие «федералы» расстреляли мирных жителей - что ж остается делать идейным
сепаратистам, несчастным борцам за свободу? Их просто вынудили взорвать госпиталь ...
Кстати, активно употребляемые в СМИ негативный термин «федералы» и нейтральные «сепаратисты»
далеко не безобидны. Одно дело сказать: «Банда террористов обстреляла российских солдат», и другое:
«Сепаратисты обстреляли федералов». Это большая удача террористической пропаганды, одна из деталей умело
сконструированного механизма управления массовым сознанием.
Террористов-самоубийц в прессе называют «камикадзе», «шахиды». Кто такой камикадзе? Японский воин-
смертник, направляющий свой самолет на боевой (!) корабль противника. Кто такой шахид? Воин-мусульманин,
принимающий мученическую смерть в бою с гонителями ислама. Но ведь сумели террористы добиться, чтобы
убийц женщин и детей называли так же, как храбрецов-мучеников.
- Могут ли быть эффективны против террора акции возмездия? Скажем, брать в заложники
родственников бандитов - как в свое время поступили турки, когда боевики захватили теплоход? Или
уничтожать бульдозерами их дома, как израильтяне?
- Борьба с террором средствами устрашения бывает эффективна. Но, во-первых, кого брать в заложники, чьи
дома рушить? Смертники не оставляют автографов. Во-вторых, такие «акции возмездия» не укладываются в рамки
закона.
Идеально борются с терроризмом тоталитарные режимы. Вспомним, как удавили мафию в Италии при
Муссолини. Как молниеносно в советской России покончили с террористическими организациями эсеров. Как
Сталин депортировал целые народы, помнившие обычаи кровной мести. А кто слышал про терроризм в Китае или
Северной Корее? Однако демократические государства не могут себе позволить крайности.
Да, в 1960-м израильские спецслужбы выкрали в Аргентине нацистского преступника Адольфа Эйхмана, в
1994-м французская разведка выкрала из Судана знаменитого террориста Карлоса. Но трудно себе представить,
что Россия выкрадет Яндарбиева из Катара. И тем более - воспользуется карательной техникой XIX века, которую
применял для замирения Кавказа генерал Ермолов. Не он один, кстати ... Нам остается одно - постепенная,
дорогостоящая интеграция разрушенной Чечни. И надо быть готовым к затяжной войне с террором.
Быстродействующие лекарства в данном случае опасны не менее, чем болезнь. .' :
Виталий ЦЕПЛЯЕВ
86
ДЛЯ СПРАВКИ
В США после взрыва в Оклахома-Сити (168 погибших, 800 раненых) был принят закон «О борьбе с
терроризмом и применении смертной казни». К террористической деятельности в Америке отнесли 38 видов
преступлений. После событий 11 сентября 2001 г. Дж. Буш подписал новый закон, разрешающий
спецслужбам без санкции прокуратуры и решений суда пресекать сомнительные финансовые операции,
прослушивать телефоны, перехватывать корреспонденцию и т.д.
В Великобритании закон «О терроризме» (2000г.) предусматривает преследование террористов не
только на территории Соединенного Королевстваг но и за его пределами.

В Германии действуют более 10 закон по борьбе с терроризмом, которые позволяют объявить


экстремистской любую организацию и запретить ее.
Во Франции предусмотрено 32 террористических состава преступлений. Законы допускают
проведение облав, захватов, обысков в отношении подозреваемых.
В Турции наказание за террористическую деятельность - до 36 лет строго тюремного заключения или
смертная казнь.
По данным О. Нечипоренко
(Национальный антикриминальный
и антитеррористический фонд)
___________________________ ,____________ ._____________и ПИР-центра политических расследований.

3.1. W hich m eans to tackle terro rism do you find m ost effective: dem ocratic ones or ‘crackdow ns’?

TRANSLATION. FOREIGN POLICY.

Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using the vocabulary from the wordlist (See
Glossary), the text and some extra from the b o x . ___________________________________________
to express one’s concern a treaty elapse to hold military exercises
to ratify/confirm/validate a treaty without notification o f smb a predecessor to
reopen the talks/negotiations the chairman of the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee
to drag negotiations to with draw from a treaty the deputy chairman______________

1. В данный момент открываются переговоры по свертыванию ядерного вооружения стран,


владеющих данным типом оружия массового уничтожения.
2. Для устранения угрозы ядерной войны необходимо принять меры по снятию ядерного
вооружения с состояния боевой готовности, его демонтажа и уничтожения.
3. Ряд политиков выражают свою озабоченность в связи с намерением ряда стран сохранить
снимаемые с вооружения ядерные боезаряды в резерве на случай внезапного изменения
глобальной обстановки в плане безопасности.
4. Намерения некоторых стран тайно изготовить атомную бомбу до сих пор вызывают
беспокойство мирового сообщества.
5. Несколько лет назад Китай проводил ряд боевых учений, а также испытания по запуску ракет
недалеко от побережья Тайваня.
6 . Нежелание американского сената ратифицировать договор объяснялось несогласием ряда
политиков с некоторыми положениями договора.
7. Долгое и успешное двустороннее сотрудничество двух стран в области ядерной энергетики,
налаженное еще предшественником нынешнего президента, получит новый стимул для
развития в связи с возобновлением переговоров между этими крупными ядерными державами.
8 . Побудить ядерные державы к принятию даже только этих мер является трудной задачей.
Будет еще сложнее добиться от них принятия на себя обязательств по осуществлению
всеобщего ядерного разоружения.
9. Представитель министерства иностранных дел, выступая на регулярном брифинге для
журналистов, заявил о согласии президента на ведение переговоров и назвал главу делегации.
10. Невозможность членов делегаций прийти к общему политическому решению затягивало
переговоры на неопределенный срок.
11. Среди других шагов, позволяющих ускорить темпы повсеместного ядерного разоружения.
следует отметить наложение ограничений на размещение ядерного оружия вне пределов своей
территории со стороны стран, которые им обладают, введение в силу договора, запрещающего

87
испытание ядерного оружия, запрет на испытательные пуски ракет и производство
расщепляющихся материалов, предназначенных для производства атомного оружия, а также
снятие ядерных ракет с боевого дежурства и отделение боеголовок от ракет-носителей.
12. Председатель сенатского комитета по иностранным делам считает, что сенат одобрит этот
договор, подписанный президентами двух стран.
13. В настоящее время международное сообщество может выбрать один из трех путей
возможного решения вопроса, связанного с ядерным оружием,- сохранение статус-кво.
дальнейшее распространение ядерного оружия или его запрещение.
14. Заместитель председателя одной из полуофициальных ассоциаций принял приглашение
посетить Россию.
15. Один из пунктов договора запрещает любой из сторон выйти из договора без уведомления
другой стороны.

TRANSLATION. HOME POLICY.

Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using the vocabulary from the wordlist, the
text and some extra from the box.
to settle/adjust a conflict to begin/break out hostilities large-scale to resort to
to introduce the emergency state to prevent the turning point casualties
to agree to someone’s demands a lightning attack

1. Для урегулирования данного конфликта необходимо принять самые жесткие меры.


2. Последнее время чеченские боевики все чаще прибегают к открытому террору, используя дзц
этого террористов-камикадзе.
3. Если сановникам в высшем политическом руководстве страны не удастся эффективно
обеспечить внешнюю политику страны, и ситуация усугубится, в стране будет введено
чрезвычайное положение.
4. Для того чтобы предотвратить такой поворот событий, необходимо провести переговоры по
политическому урегулированию данного конфликта и прийти к определенному соглашению.
5. Если они не подчиняться нашим требованиям, мы вынуждены будем развернуть военные
действия.
6 . Он был обвинен в несанкционированной торговле оружием.
7. Следовательно, они тоже несут ответственность за совершаемые нападения и штурмы
боевиков.
8 . Сторонники жесткой политики предлагают использовать жесткие меры, как например,
развернуть войска и провести масштабную военную акцию.
9. Другие же предлагают прекратить огонь и вывести войска, выступая тем самым в роли сил
по поддержанию мира.
10. После выстрелов в театре, правительство санкционировало проведение операции.
11. Число жертв неизвестно.
12. И хотя были жертвы, молниеносная атака российских спецслужб все же предотвратила
худший сценарий: взрыв заминированного здания и убийство 1 ООО зрителей и артистов.
13. Результаты проведенной переписи населения позволили правительству представить для
обсуждения в Думе ряд новых законопроектов.
14. Центральная избирательная комиссия внимательно следила за предвыборной борьбой
кандидатов.
15. В последнем туре выборов в законодательные и муниципальные органы власти победил
кандидат, набравший 90% голосов на выборах.
16. В результате проведенного опроса общественного мнения выяснилось, что большинство
простых граждан не согласны с политикой, проводимой органами местного самоуправления.
VOTING,

1. Electioneering cliches. Find combinations in the table that correspond to definitions 1-8. Then use the
combinations to complete the extracts a-h.

1. Trips that candidates go on


2. Things that candidates say to get elected but that they don’t really mean
3. Something that a candidate says they will do if elected
4. Unoriginal things that candidates say and do
5. An attack made by a candidate on others
6. Methods, honest and dishonest, that are used by candidates to gain electoral advantage
7. A government’s financial plan that is designed to win votes
8. Violence that is encouraged by candidates

cliches
prom ise thuggery
tours electioneering assault
tactics ; budget
rhetoric

a. ... shaven-headed youths who combine football violence with electioneering

b. He did everything in the book of electioneering ______ _ short of kissing babies.


c. He followed this up with an electioneering ■ on Labour, claiming businessmen had
no enthusiasm for a Labour government.
d. He has already been round the country three times on thinly veiled electioneering

e.: Mr Reagan’s great achievement o f his second term - tax refo rm -w as first aired as an
electioneering ~v ' in his State of the Bnion speech in 1984.
f. The prospect of an electioneering i and a cut in interest rates as an additional
sweetener gave shares a welcome boost yesterday.
g; Voters complain about electioneering ; .: . that verge on the dishonest.
h. What the Soviets at first took to be electioneering ■ they discovered to be
theological conviction. ‘Evil empire’ meant what it said.

89
2. Controlling the spin. Read this extract from The Times and answer the questions.

Bite - sized
campaigners
'Negative advertising and negative campaigning
works,' Peter Jennings, chief ABC anchorman in New York.
'We all like to say it doesn't work and it's really beneath
contempt, as it is in many cases. But until American If something is beneath contempt, do
people either individually or as a whole reject negative you have a high opinion of it?
advertising, I think that's the way it's going to go.'
The image of the candidate is so much more
important in America than in Britain, because the
combination of the greater size of the country and
the much less cohesive party system means that in 2. Is the party system stronger in the
the early stages of the campaign, many candidates United States than in Britain?
are relatively unknown.
I pressed the respected American columnist
George Will on whether that meant that television
impact now determined the choice of candidates. Was 3 If you press someone on a question,
it a case of the more telegenic they were, the more do you care if they don’t give you a
chance they had of success? clear answer?
4. Do telegenic people look good on
"No," he said, 'whatever we're getting from television it's
not glamour. Television is at best a terrible temptation, television?
because you can get away with murder on it, by 5. If you can get away with murder in
condensing your campaign into slogans. But television doing something, do people care
needn't be quite as lazy or ignorant in doing it.' what you do?
6. If you condense something, do you
Still, the absence of a national daily press cannot make it a) bigger, or b) smaller?
do other than enhance the importance of television in 7. Are lazy people energetic?
a presidential campaign.
Politicians themselves are critical of the way in
which they feel the political agenda has shifted out of If X enhances the importance of Y,
their control into the hands of the media manipulators does it increase Y’s importance?
and spin doctors.
Henry Kissinger, former Secretary of State was
particularly unhappy: The risk we're running in our 9. The political agenda consists of the
campaigns is that they've reached a stage where the issues and problems that politicians
media become part of the electoral process; they no deal with. Do politicians feel they are
longer report it, they become a part of the electoral getting more control over it?
process.' 10. If you run a risk, is the risk a danger
for you?
11. The media have reached a p_____
__tw here they are part of the
electoral process.
3. Jigsaw reading.:.' - --с я ih,
3.1. Pre-read. M ake sure von rem em ber these words. Ins- ■H f.;;; o b ^ -
to in itia te - п о л о ж и т ь н а ч а л о ■■■' e i!t v- ■ i :
to announce initiatives - объявить о нововведениях
in the wake of - следом за
local legislatures - местная законодательная власть
constituency - избирательный округ ’
faction - фракция
political clout - политическое влияние

3.2. G roup A: Read V ariant 1 of the text ‘Putin seeks M ore Control Over Regions, Governors5. Ask
questions to the gaps to find out the required information. As soon as you are ready find a
partner from group В and ask him the questions to complete’the te x t ■

V A R IA N T 1

F u ilrrS e e k s -More C o n tro l O ver R egions. G o vern o rs


MosNews.com ■ :У
To strengthen Russia’s political system President Vladimir Putin (1) He
w ill soon bring up a relevant bill, before the Duma

MN::-Boris.Yel.tsin:-..“ We Will Not Give Up On the Spirit of the


Constitution” ,. ■
{Russian) ' ' -
fiflN: "fiflikhail G o rb a c h e v on P u tin 's R efo rm s: "A Step B ack from
D em ocracy*' -; 4
(Russian)
I n ’ -a fT : address- to ( 2 ) - 0________ ____ _ o n Monday Russian
President Vladimir Putin announced initiatives that would further
strengthen the federalcenter's control over political life.

In the w ake of the school siege in Beslan, North Ossetia, that killed over
300 people, the Kremlin is set(3) ■ . In particular, Putin said
the Kremlin should nam e regional governors, who would then be
confirmed by local legislatures instead of being elected by a popular

At the moment the electoral system provides for half of the Dum a's 450 deputies to be e le c te d (4 )____________ ,
while most of the'independent candidates come from single-m andate local constituencies.

T o strengthen the national political system I deem it necessary to introduce (5) _________________ ;__ to.the State
Dum a." Putin said, "I will soon initiate an appropriate bill in the Duma." tl
H e said he wanted deputies to the Russian national parliament elected solely on a party-iist basis in the future,
doing away with (6) _______________ _________ ______________ ■
That would eliminate the individual polls and would further increase the clout of the pro-Kremlin faction and its allies
that already enjoy an overwhelm ing majority. ;,

91
G ro u p В : Read V a ria n t 2 o f the text ‘Putin seeks M o re C on trol O ve r Regions, G overnors’ . A sk
questions to the gaps to find out the required inform ation. A s soon as you are ready find a partnt
from group В and ask him the questions to complete the text.

V a r ia n t 2 .

Putin Seeks More Control Over Regions, Governors


MosNew$.com
T o strengthen R u ssia 's political system President Vladim ir Putin has initiated chan ges in the
procedure for holding electio n s to the State Duma. He wilt so o n bring up (1)___________ before
the Duma

MN: Boris Yeltsin: “We Will Not G ive Up On the Spirit of the
Constitution”

(Russian)
MN: "Mikhail Gorbachev on Putin's Reforms: "A Step Back from
Democracy"

<Russianj
In an address to the country's top officials on Monday Russian President
Vladimir Putin announced initiatives that would ( 2 ) ____________________■

In the wake of the school siege in Beslan, North Ossetia, that killed over
300 people, the Kremlin is set to tighten its grip on the regions. In
particular, Putin said the Kremlin should name regional governors, who
would then (3) _________ _____ ________________ '■

At the moment the electoral system provides for half of the Duma’s 450 deputies to be elected on party lists, while
most of the independent candidates come (4)_____ ______ ;______________ ^__________ - ' ' ■

“To strengthen the national political system I deem it necessary to introduce a proportional system of elections to
the State Duma," Putin said, ”i will soon initiate an appropriate bill in the Duma." •?

He said he wanted deputies to the Russian national parliament elected solely (5)_____ ___________ ______ *п
the future, doing away with the practice of elections of independent deputies to single-mandate constituencies.

That would eliminate (6)_____________________ _____________ _________ __;_____ '_________ _______-

3.3. Express your opinion on the quotation presented in the text. 'f £

U N IT 3: E C O N O M Y

1. The controlling issue. Match each title of the articles with the picture or statistics that suit. Translate
the headlines into English. Explain your choice. Try to guess the main point of every article judging by
the headline and by the pictures and statistics adjoined. Think over the place of each one in the
newspaper (the page, the category).

1 "Малый бизнес15 душат.

-t, Ш т яш м а щтйшшмт'.
**• Первые итога шлошвой реформ^-

I I m m iin стаяв Р

92
2. BOOM, RECESSION AND DEPRESSION. Give the definition of the words in the box using the
information from the text. - :

boom A boom on the stock market, with share prices reaching record levels, may
or may not reflect what is happening in the economy. An economic boom
growth with high economic growth (increasing demand and production), is
slowdown inevitably followed by slowdown or a dow nturn (periods of slower
downturn growth), when the economy weakens.

recession A slowdown may be the first sign of a recession: a period with little
growth, no growth or even negative growth. During a recession, there is a
slump in many kinds of economic activity and everyone waits for the
economy to start expanding quickly again, impatiently looking for signs of
recovery/ upturn a recovery or an upturn: signs that the economy is picking up or turning
picking up/ turning sip up and that things are getting better. Commentators then talk about a pick­
pick-up/ upturn up in the economy.

depression When a recession is extremely severe and prolonged, commentators talk


Depression about depression. The Depression, with a capital D, usually refers to the
years following the Wall Street crash of 1929.

a). Growth and recession. Below are four extracts about growth and recession, each divided into two parts.
Match the two parts o f each extract.

a Two surveys have indicated that Britain is headed for an economic slump next year. They refer to a
slowdown in orders and the prospect of rising unemployment.

93
b At last some people are waking to the reality that British manufacturing industry has been so weakened b>
the last two recessions that it is simply unable to take advantage of the any upturn in the economy.
с One o f the surveys, by the Confederation o f British Industry has forecast a possible
recession; the Association of British Chambers of Commerce says there has been a
steep decline in business confidence.
d South Koreans believe their country faces an economic crisis. The rate of growth last year was 6.5 per
cent, but South Koreans prefer to think o f the double digit growth of the last three years as the norm. And
the prophets o f doom point to other figures.
e The US Treasury Secretary, Mr Nicholas Brady, has acknowledged that the United States economy is
facing what he called a significant slowdown.
f These figures indicate a slump in one of the world's most successful economies.
g This was likely to continue into the first quarter of next year, he said, but he predicted that economic
growth, jobs and investment would pick up again later in the year.
h As a union with many members in manufacturing we are making every effort to
raise the debate on this subject

b). Express your opinion on whether these sentences are true about Russian economy.

1. Fears that the economy is heading into a fresh downturn will grow with new figures today showing a
nosedive in consumer confidence.
2. The government is convinced that Britain is emerging from the recession and will see an economic
upturn, possibly as soon as the autumn.
3. There is a boom atmosphere in industry. If it continues, share prices could well rise further this year.
4. Bond traders concluded the economy is picking up.
5. There were the times o f a very serious depression.
6. The country has already adopted a market economy.
7. The country’s economy is said hitting hard times.
8. Nowadays the economists turn to characterize the situation in the country as economic recovery, though
only some months ago they spoke about it as about struggling.

3. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using the
vocabulary from the wordlist. Use the dictionary if necessary.

1. Перестройка обозначила собой поворотный пункт в развитии нашей страны, в частности,


перехода к созданию рыночной экономики.
2. В настоящее время экономика страны переживает тяжелые времена. Наблюдаемый резкий
экономический спад можно рассматривать как вестник надвигающегося кризиса, возможность
урегулирования которого вызывает сомнения специалистов.
3 . Финансовый кризис, так недавно поразивший страны Западной Европы, привел к резкому
обесцениванию акций, ценных бумаг, а также обвалу цен на внутреннем государственном
рынке.
4. По предварительным подсчетам в нынешнем году будет наблюдаться значительный приток
капитала в бюджет страны, связанный с общим приростом ВВП и новой инвестиционной
политики правительства, направленной на привлечение частного инвестиционного капитала
западных и национальных инвесторов.
5. Экономическая ситуация в стране, которая еще недавно характеризовалась как испытывающая
трудности, на сегодняшний момент признана вполне нормализовавшейся. Отмечается
стабильный экономический подъем.
6. Сегодня Дума приняла решение о комплексном пересмотре расходных статей бюджета,
включая расходы на государственные нужды. Такое решение было связано с рядом
несанкционированных больших расходов из государственной казны.
7. Один из способов возрождения экономики правительство видит в претворении в жизнь
программы по пересмотру установления ряда тарифов, в последнее время вышедшее (по
мнению ряда аналитиков) из - под государственного контроля.
8. В годы перестройки большое количество предприятий, находившихся в государственной
собственности, перешло в частное владение.

94
4. F ili in th e g ap s u sin g one o f th e w o rd s fro m th e bos.
nudge up the public debt mortgage to manage traders euro qualification GI
levied attracting embezzlement share values

1. According to estimates the government is said a financial crisis caused by the recent dollar’s
decline.
2. The government is going to im p le m e n t a p ro je c t a im e d a t ______________ p riv a te in v e s tm e n t c a p ita l in to
inward small business.
3. The recent dollar’s decline can the market for goods o f home manufacturing companies.
4. Some candidates standing in the president election suggest turning the main oil and gas corporations
into________ .
5. The dollar’s decline has lead to collapse in __________ of those companies which business depends
much on the US currency.
6. Most currency express their great concern about the reluctance of the common citizens to
buy dollars.
7. One of the candidates for the post o f the president stresses the wrong policy of the sitting government
who paid back the money that could have been spent on some urgent home needs as a repayment of

8. The small business is believed to be choked by very high duties _________ by the government of the
country.
9. The fair payment of taxes won’t help to improve the fiscal policy o f the country unless the problem of
is solved.
10. To become a member o f the euro zone a country has to work -
11 . The state owned banks started to implement in practice a new program me targeted to
provide young families with accommodation.

; 5 . Translate the italicized parts o f tilefollowing sentences into English using the active vocabulary
from, the wdrdlist. . ■’.’ ..........

1. The deputy chairman of the company announced about слияние 'двух крупных корпораций.
2:. The companies signed an agreement о налаживании сотрудничества на безвозмездной основе.
3. Руководитель отдела по продажам и маркетингу has brought the most operating companies in line.
4. The agreement provides сворачивание межгосударственного сотрудничества.
5. To expand the cooperation the companies have to увеличить мощ ность производства.
6. The founder-members o f the joint venture determined to провести закрытые торги.
7. Most of the tycoons try to find different лазейки to conceal their capital gain.
8. This private entity mostly deals with грузовыми перевозками.
9. This semi-private entity deals with продажи оптом и в розницу.
10. The company sells the lettable office areas on долгосрочному кредиту.

6. TRANSLATE IN T O EN G LISH . Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using
the vocabulary from the wordlist. Use the dictionary if necessary.

1. Как и все граждане США, президент обязан платить подоходный налог.


2. В круг ведения Министерства финансов, называемого Казначейством, входит управление
государственными финансами, сбор налогов и выпуск монет и бумажных денег.
3 . В Италии, как ни в какой другой европейской стране, слабо развита система социального
обеспечения, функции которой во многом выполняет семья.
4. Существуют лишь ограниченные возможности для получения государственных выплат по
безработице, болезни и нетрудоспособности.
5. Этой лазейкой смогут в полной мере воспользоваться коррумпированные чиновники.
6. Без внешних инвестиций осуществление проекта таких масштабов было бы невозможным.
7. В Санкт-Петербурге имеется три категории гостиниц: полностью приватизированные, частично
приватизированные, в которых 60 % акций принадлежат муниципалитету, и гостиницы,
находящиеся во владении города.
8. После строительства нового моста, связывающего Данию и Ш вецию, розничные торговцы из-за
имеющихся в Дании ограничений на торговлю в сельской местности предпочитают открывать
магазины на шведской стороне.
95
9. Планируемая всеобщая забастовка может парализовать работу исполнительного органа
Евросоюза в тот самый момент, когда будет проходить совещание в верхах, посвященное
вопросам создания Экономического и валютного союза.
10. Предстоят большие капиталовложения в инфраструктуру, с тем, чтобы сделать ее
конкурентноспособной в зоне единой валюты, что также важно для дальнейшего развития
экономически недостаточно развитых районов Андалусии и Эстремадуры, где уровень
безработицы значительно выше по сравнению с другими странами.
11. За последнее время внутренний валовой продукт Киргизстана вырос на 10%. Среди факторов
экономического роста страны эксперты называют введение национальной валюты - сома - и
помощь со стороны МВФ. За последние пять лет дефицит бюджета сократился с 25 до 5%,
снизился уровень инфляции, установился стабильный курс обмена сома по отношению к
другим международным валютам. Вместе с тем стране предстоит еще многое сделать для
того, чтобы воспользоваться выгодами, связанными с введением рыночной экономики.
12. Президент подчеркнул, что Узбекистан выступает за тесную экономическую интеграцию стран-
членов СНГ.
13. Скоро в России минимальная зарплата должна достичь размера 1980 рублей и сравняться
таким образом с прожиточным минимумом.
14. Госдума приняла во втором чтении законопроект о пособиях по бедности.
15. Чтобы считаться малоимущим, надо будет написать заявление в собес и указать в нем все
доходы семьи за последние три месяца.

7. Fill in the gaps with the suitable w ord from the box.

merging labour inflow value rental interest soft the gross heavily
in line

1. As the company is about to go bankrupt, the board o f directors wants a n _______ o f foreign investments.
2. The price on accommodation on the regional _ _ _ _ _ _ market outstrips those in other regions.
3. To add impetus to establishing a long-term interstate cooperation one should bring both sides
on the most vital points.
4. The country’s two biggest banks are planning their . in order to fight off competition from
abroad.
5. The figure o f the public debt allows us to say that our country is . in debts.
6. The equity stake o f the stock company belongs to its share-holders, but the controlling __________ is in
the hands o f the director.
7. This shop sells o n ___________credit to certain categories of its customers: pensioners, large and single -
parent families, etc.
8. According to the labour rules an employee can cancel his/her__________agreement any time he/she
wants.
9. The company gets a considerable gain selling commodities i n ____________ .
10. Most traders complain about this too high __ ________ added tax.

8. Fill in the gaps with the suitable word. (Mind the collocation!)

1. The company has cut the prices on certain commodities that helped them to ______________the market
for some goods.
2. The joint venture decided t o _______ the international market introducing their new car model in
France,
3. Having gone bankrupt the private entity had to sell its capital__________.
4. I went to the bank to draw ___________charges out o f my bank account,
5. Nowadays it’s rather difficult to find a competitive lettable office _________ .
6. Struggling economy means econom y___________hard times.
7. As the company was not satisfied with the performance o f some treaty clauses it decided t o ________
the cooperation.
8. They have • an embargo on the import o f clothing.

96
9. Paraphrase the following sentences using the clue word presented.

1. The subject of the agreement is merging of the companies that have had a long-term mutually beneficial
cooperation.
Provide ....................................................................................................................................

2. Many of them were lawyers employed by those companies to find the ways to avoid following
environmental protection laws.
L o o p h o le................... ........................................... ........ .......................................................................

3. The analysts believe that the country will be able to manage the crisis by the year 2010.
E stim a te s............................................................................................ ........................................................

4. This venture mostly deals with wholesale business.


B u lk .............................................................................................................................................

5. They were arrested for embezzlement of company funds.


A buses.......................................................................................................... .................................

6. Fierce storms have been preventing the rescue teams from finding more survivors.
Hamper............................... ............................................................................................................

7. The project was worked out to be mutually beneficial for all involved.
Concerned ........................................................................................................ ................................... ...........

UNIT 4: HIGH-TECH.

1. Read the text and decide which answer (А, В, С or B) best fits each space*
I was reading an advert for a mobile phone the other day, which described the aforesaid object as an 'aid to (1)
...D....'. As a techno-phobe who does not possess a mobile phone, still less an on-line connection, I was
A . ■ .... . a. s \ I , ■ ■' .......... _ ^

intrigued by the astonishing presumptuousness of this claim. For the (2) .........reason I do not have a mobile
phone is that 1 don't want (to be at someonb else's Ъеск an(T(3) 24 hours a day .p u t apparently there are
plenty of sane adults out there who do. In factl know plenty o f people who bought their phone on the
( 4 ) ......... understanding that it was to be used for emergencies only. But the
insidious thing gradually took over their lives, to the (5 ) ..........where it seems
they can barely live without it. Giving a mobile phone to a child makes even less sense. Parents lose their
freedom and the children lose the ability to ( 6 ) ............. for themselves.

1¥A ease В handiness С utility D convenience


\ /esSuv^vOT ¥>» W'" V
\J
2) A sheer В perfect jC very D utter

В ring С need /^ c a ll

4) A strict В absolute С severe D precise

5) A mark В point С spot D position


p>CX
v-4 гь
6) A support В keep C fend D sustain

2. Complete each sentence with one of the words from the box.

appliance component equipment gadget manual


97
C ife ro J ^ e -T - Л 'ЛЛСЧЛ'Ч 0 0 0 $ S- ^C^®v>T
automation contraption experiment machinery overhaul

a) What a peculiar... .contraption .....! What on earth is thfot for?


b) A washing-machine is probably the most useful household .... 5 . . .
c) We will have to order a new to replace t)be damaged one.
d) The noise of ....filled the factory and nearly deafened me.
e) I can't make this computer Work. Let's read the .......again.
f) Scientists in this laboratory are conducting an interesting
g) When ....is introduced, the number of workers will be reduced.
h) Do you like this new ......Ш bought for peeling potatoes?
i) Every six months the nuclear reactor needs a complete .
j). My brother has a shop selling photographic . . . . . . -

3. Working with the video. The Importance of the English Language in the Field of High-tech.

a). Extensive watching: watch the video ( Beyond Babel: Future (the video is available at the university
laboratory). Jot down all technologies you see. Draw your own conclusion about the importance of Englisi
for the development of high-tech.

b). Intensive watching: fill in the gaps in the following sentences using the vocabulary you hear.
1. The XXth century witnessed the greatest period of scientific ■ in recorded history.
2. One of the reasons why English became the global language is the fact that it became the
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of expression for so much scientific and technological development.
3. If you now look at the vocabulary of modern English something li k e ____________ of that
vocabulary is scientific or technological.
4. O f all major inventions the computer is the first to ________ not the strength of man’s muscles
but the power of his brains.
5. The softw are_________ _____ used English as the basic language because the bulk of users were
English-speaking.
6. The 7-8% of ____________ in the Internet is carried out in English.
7. English is the language of instructions o r ________________ new words for the Internet.
8. On the Internet English speakers can now enjoy unimagined sources of information:___________
to the collections o f university and -national libraries.
9. We’ve created something called the National ' Library which is on our website. Am
we have loaded approximately 5 million items from our collection on this site: the movies, audio
clips, photographs, prints, wide variety o f different .
10. At the British National Library in London digital technology is being __________ to bring
priceless texts into the hands of their public.
11. We can _________ in on a particular part of the manuscript.
12. The other thing that really fascinates me about this technology is that you can look in __________
details.
13. I cannot myself foresee the time when any libraay could afford t o ____________ more than a
small proportion of all material at holds.

4. Read th e text “ Is Technology M oving Too F ast?” and com plete the exercises presented after it.

IS TECHNOLOGY MOVING TOO FAST?

Self-accelerating technologies - computers that make faster computers, for example - may have a destabilizing effect
on society.
T h e new est te ch n o lo g ie s - com p u ters, g en etic en g in eerin g an d th e em e rg in g fie ld o f nanotech—
d iffer from th e te ch n o lo g ie s th at p rece d ed th em ip a fu n d am en tal w ay. T he telephone, the
automobile, television and jet air travel accelerated for a wfyile, transforming society along the way, but then settled
into a manageable rate of change. Each was eventually rewarded ipore for staying the same than for radically transforming
itself—a stable, predictable, reliable condition known as "lock-in."
Computers, biotechnology and nanotech don't work that way. They are self-accelerating; that is, the products o:
their own processes enable them to develop ever more rapidly. Hew computer chips are immediately put to use developing
the next generation of more powerful ones; this is the inexorable acceleration expressed as Moore's law. The same
dynamic drives biotech and nanotech—even more so because all these technologies tend to accelerate one another.
Computers are rapidly mapping the DNA in the human genome, and now DNA is being explored as a medium for
computation. When nanobots are finally perfected, you can be sure that one of the first things they will do is make new and
better nanobots.
Technologies with this property of perpetual self-accelerated development—sometimes termed "autocatalysis"—
create conditions that are unstable, unpredictable and unreliable. And since these particular autocatalytic technologies drive
'whole sectors of soc iety, there is a risk that civilization itself may become unstable, unpredictable and unreliable. —
—^Perhaps what civilization needs is a NOT-SO-FAST button.
Proponents of technological determinism make a strong case for letting self-accelerating technologies follow their
own life cycle. Rapid development in computer technology, they point out, has spun off robotics and the net—to the
great benefit of industiy and human communications.
Besides, it isn’t so easy for a free society to put the brakes on technology. Even if one country decided to
forgo the next technological revolution, another country would gladly take it up.
There are scenarios, however, in which technology may brake itself. In the aging population of the developed
world, many people are already tired of trying "to keep up with the latest cool new tech. Youth-driven tech acceleration
could be interpreted as simple youthful folly—shortsighted, disruptive, faddish. The market for change could dry up,
and lock-in might again become the norm. Stress and fatigue make powerful decelerators.
So do religious and cultural factors. Radical new technologies are often seen as moral threats by conservative
religious groups or as economic and cultural threats by political groups. Powerful single-issue voting blocs like the
antiabortionists could arise. Or terrorists like Theodore Kaczynski.
Change that is too rapid can be deeply divisive; if only an elite can keep up, the rest of us will grow increasingly
mystified about how the world workT. We can understand natural biology, subtle as it is, because it holds still. But
how will we ever be able to understand quantum computing or nanotechnology if its subtlety keeps accelerating away
from us?
Constant technological revolution makes planning difficult, and a society that stops planning for the future is
likely to become a brittle society. It could experience violent economic swings. It could trip into wars fought with
vicio^. new_weapons. Its pervasive new.technologies could fail in massive or horrible ways. Or persistent, nagging
small failures could sap the whole enterprise.
With so many powerful forces in play, technology eouldHyperaccelerate to the 'stars with stunning rapidity, or it
could stall completely. My expectation is that it will do bothy with Various technologies proceedmgat various rates.
The new technologies may be self-accelerating, but they are not self-determining. They are the result of ever
renegotiated agreement with society. Because they are so potent, their paths may undergo wild oscillations, but I
think the trend will be toward the dynamic middle: much slower than the optimists expect, much faster than the
pessimists think humanity can bear.
BY STEWART BRAND

4.1. Does the title o f the text reflect its mails idea? How?

4.2.M atch the c o rre c t collocation a n d explain its m eaning in E nglish or illustrate it by the sentence of
your own.

1 • emerging ? / • whole sectors


(p ® inexorable z_ • field of
i' 9 create • rapidity
{ 9 drive H• the brakes on
1* to put ■г* weapon
A • deeply 6 « acceleration
5 • brittle > 0 conditions
; ; • vicious < divisive
3 • stunning ) •J
s society

4.3. Complete the following definitions using ideas from the text.

99
1. “Lock-in” is a ..............................................................................................................
2. Self-accelerating technologies are those th a t...........................................................
3. “Autocatalysis” i s .........................................................................................................
4. By the dynamic middle the author m eans..................................................................

4.4. Agree or disagree with the following sentences presenting your arguments based on the
information from the text.

1. Most appreciate “well-known” technological advances because they are stable, predictable and reliable.
2. Autocatalytic technologies enable only their own development.
3. Civilization needs a NOT-SO-FAST button to secure the future of next generations.
4. Rapid development of self-accelerating technologies can unexpectedly produce new trends and
advances.
5. There are no ways to put the brakes on the rapid technological development.
6. Such stunning rapidity can lead to very daunting consequences.

4.5. What are your expectations for the future of our high-tech world?

4.6. Do you share the idea that technology is moving too fast?

5. Read the text “Spam to Get Worse Before It Gets Better” and complete the exercises presented after
it.

Spam to Get
Worse Before It Gets Better
THE SPAM SITUATION IS GETTING MORE CONFUSING BY THE DAY.
GOVERNMENTS ALL OVER THE WORLD ARE PASSING LEGISLATION TO
THWART INTERNET JUNK MAIL, WHILE SPAM PROVIDERS ARE FINDING MORE
AND MORE WAYS TO SEND THEIR MORTGAGE, CHEAP V l AGRA AND
N ig e r ia n m il l io n a ir e d e l g h t s t o u n s u s p e c t i n g i n t e r n e t u s e r s

By Vernon Tidwell
THE MOSCOW NEWS

The UK government surveys businesses on a biannual basis for their opinions on the fight against
unwanted email. The most recent Department o f Trade and Industry's Information Security Breaches
Survey found that over half o f British businesses' email is spam, with 55 percent o f companies saying
that the level o f this electronic infestation is rising. Only 10 percent o f the respondents believe there has
been a drop.
Experts say that spam makes up 60 percent o f the total number o f emails sent every day around the
world. The cost o f thirty junk emails to 60 employees per day ends up costing a company over $40,000
every year. As most email users know, the typical content of spam ranges from the quasi-normal
(impotence medicine) to the absurd (collect an inheritance from a wealthy Nigerian prince). In Russia,
the increased competition among spammers has brought the cost o f sending a million emails down to
less than $200.
An interesting (but all too common) story happened on March 26, when, according to an anti-spam
committee with UNESCO, spammers sent out information for a seminar to be held by Russian Railways
(RZhD), the Moscow Chamber o f Commerce, and a certain company known as ООО PRK City
Construction. Most experienced email users would not believe that RZhD and the city's chamber of
commerce would send out millions of email letters for a small conference, and PRK Citv Construction
later admitted that it ordered the spam. The company said that the advertising was "effective" for the
cost, so "why not use it?" The company did not say whether it is a member o f the chamber o f commerce,
and RZhD said it is in no way affiliated with the construction company. In other words, if only a handful
o f people believe a received email, then the company has already made money on the purchase.
Such purchases are usually made through Internet payment plans, such as PayPal or Webmoney. Using
this system, the spammer can remain anonympus, and any attempts to catch him must first come from a
court order, whicii summons a computer specialist to find the virtual lawbreaker. This anonymity is the
only fact that allows spammers to stay in business.
Despite the difficulties that all Internet users face because of spam, legislation fighting it is slow in
coming. For example, in the United States (where approximately 80 percent or the world's spam
originates) it is legal to send commercial messages (whether by phone, email, or fax) to possible
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consumers so long as they may opt out. The European Union passed tough anti-iunk mail legislation that
would make it illegal to send a commercial message if the user had not first made the request, but so far
only one national parliament has approved the measure (all members must ratify the bill for it to become
law).
For the time being, experts say there is no way to completely protect email in-boxes from junk mail.
Legislation, they say, will help alleviate some o f the problems, but as long as the potential' profits o f
sending junk mail outweigh the costs, consumers should expect more Viagra and inheritance offers.

ASSIGNMENT

5.1. Explain the meaning of the notion “spam”? Comment upon the urgency of the problem being
discussed in the article judging by some information you read or heard.

5.2. Read the article paying special attention to the underlined words. Match each word with its correct
definition using the context. Use these words in the sentences of your own.

и to thwart ■ demonstrating a strict and uncompromising approach


■ infestation B to be heavier, greater, or more significant than smth
■ a handful of ■ to make(suffering, deficiency, or a problem) less severe
■ to summon smbd to do smth ■ to order or instruct to do smth
s tough = overrunning in dangerously or unpleasantly large numbers
a to alleviate * a small number or amount
a to outweigh ■ to oppose (a plan, attempt, or ambition) successfully

5.3. Rephrase the following sentences using the multi-word verbs from the box. Look back into the text to
see how they are used in the context. _____ :
to make up__________ to end Up ■ to send out to opt out

a. You could finally fetch up with higher income.


b. Road accident victims comprise ahnost a quarter o f the hospital’s patients. ;;
c. The government has been encouraging individuals to turn down the state pension scheme.
d. The alarm emits infra-red rays which are used to detect any intruder.

5.4. Answer the questions using the information from the text.

1. Why has spam problem become the matter of governments’ concern?


2. Explain using the example from the text how this type of electronic infestation works.
3. What hampers the computer specialists to find the virtual lawbreakers?
4. Do any countries take any steps to alleviate the problem of junk mail?

UNIT 5: SPACE

1.1. Look through the paragraphs of the following jumbled text “Space Exploration”. Put them into
the correct order.
1.2. (a) In paragraph A fill in the gaps with one of the words presented next to it.
(b) In paragraphs B, D fill in the gaps with the derivative of the word given next to each line.
( c ) In paragraphs С, E translate the underlined phrases from Russian into English.

THE FIRST SATELLITES


During the early morning of October 5, 1957-the late evening of October 4 in the
eastern United States-the Soviets________Sputnik 1, an aluminum sphere 58 cm (23
in) in diameter and weighing 84 kg (184 lb). Not only did this achievement______a
scientific challenge upon the United States, it also_______ great political pressure to
bear. After three successful development flights of the first stage of Vanguard, an
attempt was made to launch the complete system, two months after the launch of
Sputnik 1. Less than one second after________, the first-stage engine lost thrust, and WEIGHTLESSNESS
the vehicle settled back on the launch and exploded. The small satellite, 15 COLLISIONS

101
cm (6 in) in diameter, continued to signals as it lav on the pad. LIFT-OFF
In the meantime, on Nov. 3, 1957, the Soviets had launched Sputnik 2, a much larger ON
satellite than Sputnik 1, weighing 508 kg (1,121 lb). The satellite a live PAD
dog named LAIKA. Although the life-support aboard were only enough to TRANSMIT
keep the dog alive for a week, the flight proved that animals could exist in a condition CARRIED
of for an extended period of time. The flight was also a clear BACKUP
indication that the Soviet Union was embarking a space program that would THRUST
include human flight. MATERIALS
The Soviet successes generated even greater domestic pressure for a strong U.S. space CONVERTED
program. On November 8 the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) in Huntsville, INTO
Ala., was asked to provide a to the Vanguard for launching an American PAYLOAD
satellite. The group, led by Wemher VON BRAUN, had already a missile, LAUNCHED
the REDSTONE into the JUPITER launcher for reentry tests. On Jan. 31, 1958, the BROUGHT
modified rocket, renamed Juno 1, put the first American satellite orbit.
This , called EXPLORER 1, weighed 13.6 kg (30 lb) and carried
instruments designed to measure cosmic rays, temperature, and
micrometeorite . It succeeded in discovering the Van Allen radiation belts.
Not until March 1958 did the Vanguard at last fulfill its mission by launching a 1.8 kg
(4-lb) satellite.

В The space age dawned with the launching of SPUTNIK 1 by the Soviet Union on Oct.
4, 1957. Since that event many thousands of have been placed into CRAFT
Earth orbit, and numerous probes have been launched on lunar, , and PLANET
cometary missions. Most of these craft have been launched by the United States and
the USSR, with the Soviets accounting for more than 50% of all successful launches.
Although the early years of the space age were characterized as a "space race" between
the United States and the USSR, other nations quickly began developing their own
domestic programs. Such activities soon national boundaries. While the TRANSCENDENCE
programs of a number of individual nations are described below, many nations do their
most advanced work in with other nations. ALLY

с GROWTH OF OTHER NATIONAL PROGRAMS


In November 1965, France became the third nation with an independent spaceflight
capability when it выпустили на орбиту its first satellite, named A-l. from
Hammaguir, a French military base расположенной in the Algerian Sahara Desert.
The French eventually evacuated this base and moved their launch operations to
Kourou, French Guiana. In 1970, Japan and the People's Republic of China became
the fourth and fifth nations to possess independent launch capability when Osumi and
China 1, соответственно . were launched from within these two countries. In 1971.
Great Britain became the sixth nation to join the club when it launched the Prospero
satellite from Woomera, Australia, using a Black Arrow launch vehicle (the last time,
however, that Woomera served as a launch site). India, in 1980, became the seventh
nation in space when it orbited a satellite from its Sriharikota Launching Range. Israel
became the eighth space nation in 1988, when it launched a small satellite from a
стартовая площадка in the Negev desert. In addition, the дороговизна of space
programs led several European nations to form a consortium called the EUROPEAN
SPACE AGENCY (ESA), enabling a number of smaller countries to participate in
such programs. ESA has launched satellites using U.S. vehicles but now mainly orbits
them from Kourou using the ARIANE launch vehicle, which became operational in
1983.
The international character of the space effort is exemplified by the use made of U.S.
and Soviet launch vehicles by many other countries, including Australia, Canada,
France, West Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Spain, and Italy. Italy itself
owns a shallow-water launch facility, San Marco, off the coast of Kenya, which has in
turn been used by the United States. In addition, many countries have flown
experiments on foreign satellites or have otherwise participated in space programs no
средством such activities as providing TRACKING STATION facilities and
launching SOUNDING ROCKETS or sending BALLOONS aloft for observational
use in various geophysical projects

102
D DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL SPACE PROGRAMS
Since the early 1950s, scientists and engineers in both the USSR and the United States
had been planning for the flight of a n _________SATELLITE in connection with the ARTIFICIALITY
International Geophysical Year, or IGY, which ran from July 1957 through December
1958. During this period an intensive and___________effort was made throughout COORDINATE
the world to __________ data on a great variety of natural phenomena. On July 29, OBTAINABLE
1955, President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved the___________of a small Earth- LAUNCH
circling satellite as part of American participation in the IGY. Four days later the
Soviets made a similar_________ in the Moscow press. In actuality, the IGY ANNOUNCE
represented a suitable occasion for both nations to launch artificial satellites, since they
had already been vigorously________ missile programs that created the requisite PURSUE
technology.

■E FORMATION OF NASA ~
The significance of the Sputnik launches was not lost on American political leaders.
The launches confirmed an earlier claim by the USSR that it possessed the ability to
build intercontinental ballistic missiles, and they demonstrated существенную,
заметную Soviet competence in science and technology. Furthermore, the implied
threat to U.S. national security and the fact that the USSR was the first country to
achieve space flight умалять from the international image of the U.S. leadership in
advanced technology.
The United States did not then possess an integrated national space program, and the
president and congressional leaders became involved in creating a new organization
for space activity. One of the leading вопросов concerned whether the program
should be of a military nature. On Mar. 5, 1958, President Eisenhower approved a
recommendation that а штатский space agency be created from the already existing
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The NACA had a reputation
of being a competent research organization that worked closely with the Department of
Defense. Although primarily concerned with flight within the atmosphere, NACA felt
that about half its research could be classified as space related. It had its own rocket
, launch station at,Wallops Island, Va., and had,provided the technical leadership for the
X series of research aircraft, which had been funded primarily by the military. The
rocket-powered X-15 (see X -l5), the then current project in the series, was in reality
part spacecraft because it could fly ballistically above,the atmosphere for a period of
several minutes.
With congressional approval of the National Aeronautics and Space Act, signed by
President Eisenhower on July 29, Г958, NACA was.transformed into the NATIONAL
AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA) on Oct. 1, 1958. The
Vanguard project team and other employees from the Naval, Research Laboratory were
transferred to NASA, and this group became the ядро of the GODDARD SPACE
FLIGHT CENTER. Later in the year the jurisdiction of the JET PROPULSION
LABORATORY was transferred from the U.S. Army to NASA. Finally, on July 1,
1960, the Development Operations Division (the part of the ABMA supervised by
Wemher von Braun) was transferred to NASA, becoming the Marshall Space Flight
Center. Not until October 1984 did the Soviet Union announce the formation of a
civilian space agency, called Glavkosmos, that was comparable to NASA.

2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using the active vocabulary. Pay your
special attention to the underlined parts of the sentences.

1. Мы обратились к летчикам-космонавтам России с вопросами: станет ли гибель «Колумбии»


началом заката эры космонавтики? Можно ли было что-либо сделать и спасти экипаж?
2. В целом же темпы освоения космоса теперь снизятся:
3. Как специалисту, мне было видно, что челнок погиб в результате катастрофического процесса
горения при вхождении в плотные слои атмосферы.
4. То ли обшивка не выдержала температурного режима, то ли произошла ошибка в траектории
снижения. А отклонение от нее всего на 1 градус дает повышение температуры поверхности
корабля на 1000 градусов.
5. В ближайшие год-два снабжение МКС будет проходить в основном при помощи России.
6. Металл сгорел быстро из-за тепловых перегрузок.
7. Все равно будущее - за пилотируемыми кораблями.
103
8. Ирак научился получать информацию о графике пролетов спутников-шпионов над их
территорией и планировал таким образом передвижение своих войск в безопасное время.
9. По словам руководителей Военно-космических сил, несмотря на все сложности, сегодня
существует программа наращивания нашей военно-космической группировки.
10. Америка контролирует до 80% запусков, так как именно она - основной производитель
технологий, которые требуется выводить на орбиту.
11. Речь идет о доставке на орбиту «полезной нагрузки»: оборудования для связи, телевидения,
метеонаблюдений и даже разведывательных аппаратов иностранных держав.
12. Не имея возможности нормально содержать космодромы Байконур, Мирный, Россия построил;
на Дальнем Востоке еще один космодром - Свободный.

3. Read the following article.


3.1. Formulate its kernel issue.

Government Contemplates
Cable TV and Internet

THE RUSSIAN TELEVISION AND RADIO BROADCASTING NETWORK, WHICH HOSTS THE THREE-CHANNEL HARD WIRED RADIOS
FOUND IN NEARLY EVERY SOVIET ERA BUILDING, HAS PUT FORWARD A PROPOSITION TO UPDATE THE SYSTEM. THE ONLY THING
THAT IS LACKING IS MONEY - $550 MILLION WORTH
B y V e r n o n T id w e l l

THE MOSCOW NEWS

Last week the head of the Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network, Gennady Sklyar, announced; "Instead of
socket connections for three-channeled hard-wired radios, every building and apartment should have connections providing a
wide range of television and radio products, as well as the Internet."
That the seemingly omnipresent hard-wired radios placed in virtually all Soviet housing are due for an upgrade has become
thiegeneral company line for RTRN. According to the policy, eveiy television owner would receive a mounting box, essentially a cable-
TV box, that would be connected to the existing cable network, which covers over 85 percent of the country. Sklyar says that
although the cell-phone sized mounting boxes would be free, customers would be charged 150 rubles per month for them.
As with any state-owned enterprise, RTRN will offer discounts for veterans and the disadvantaged while providing higher
quality services to better-offcustomers
The company will set up five million such outlets in Moscow, where testing is planned to begin at the end of this year
High-speed connections are also being tested between Moscow and Siberia.
In all, it will take the company three years to upgrade the entire network, as well as requiring over $550 million in private
investment.
According to Sklyar, consumers will pay for television, Internet, and radio, although this will allow them to receive a wider range
of programs and channels than are currently provided. "I am for new quality of television with a wide range of programs," he
succinctly said.
If the program materialized, it could mean that consumers in Moscow could watch television programs produced in Siberia
— there are currently over 800 television and radio channels operating in Russia.
Besides added profits for RTRN, having the country wired together could prove a windfall for regional producers. Right no»
television stations that use local talent are limited to the region where things are filmed, but RTRN’s plan could allow them to react
the entire country.
Irina Maslova, the head of the RTRN press center said, “In the country there is a mass of unused resources:
communication lines that were laid for the three-channel radios are not being used today. What we are offering is a new
look at already existing communications —not to build a new' network from the ground up, but use those that we already
have.”

FACT BOX
RTRN is a federal state-owned enterprise founded in 2001 by a presidential order that merged the Ostankino
television Tower and 94 regional radio- and television-broadcasting centers. It receives 250 million rubles ($8.6
million) funding from the federal government cach year and gets over 6 billion rubles ($173 million) m earnings.

3.2. Read it once again and make sure that you know the meaning of the underlined words. Look
them up in the dictionary.
104
3.3. Explain the meaning of the italicized words from the text.
3.4. Summarize the content of the article in no more than Д sentences.
3.5. Express your opinion oia the possibility of the reform being materialized.

UNIT 6: EDUCATION.

1. Read the article and complete the exercises presented after it.

ТЕНДЕНЦИИ| ИЗ ПЕРВЫХРУК

«Лучше знать меньше, чем можно, чем знать больше, чем нужно», - утверждал Лев Толстой. Весь вопрос в
том, сколько именно и что нужно знать сегодня человеку, чтобы добиться успеха в жизни. Своими
мыслями об этом с нами поделился председатель Совета управляющих Института ЮНЕСКО по
информационным технологиям в образовании (ИИТО) профессор Петер Канисиус.

ПЕТЕР КАНИСИУС:
«Все взрослые -«мигрантыв миредетей»
- Господин Канисиус, X X I век часто называют либо «веком знаний», либо «веком цифровых технологий».
Означает ли это, что людям потребуется образование, кардинально отличающееся от сегодняшнего?
- Без сомнения. Взрывообразное развитие.информационных технологий во всех аспектах жизни общества играет
двоякую роль. Во-первых, оно открывает новые, невиданные раньше возможности как учить, так и учиться. Во-
вторых, требует от нас постоянного, непрерывного совершенствования своих знаний и профессиональных
навыков. Эти качественно, новые,условия предполагают и качественна новый подход к проблеме получения
образования. Информационнее^ коммуникационные технологии высоко поднимают планку компетентности
.нолей, которые хотят быть, усиешными. . :,-л ;
- Вы хощите сказать, что Ьаже тем странам, где качество образования традиционно считается высоким,
предстоит его реформировать?
- Речь идет о том, что в нынешнем веке меняются сами стандарты того, что мы называем грамотностью. Чтобы
иметь возможность эффективно использовать информацию, уже недостаточно просто уметь читать, писать,
считать и располагать неким набором сведений из области естественных наук и математики. Понятие
«грамотность» (literacy) в XXI веке включает в себя несколько аспектов, например, технологическая грамотность
(способность использовать новые средства массовой информации, такие как Интернет, для эффективного
получения и применения информации) и информационная грамотность (то есть способность собирать, отбирать и
оценивать информацию). Одного лишь умения использовать компьютер будет уже недостаточно.
- Какими же навыками должен обладать школьник X X I века?
- Он должен уметь читать, писать, вычислять, владеть медийными средствами, включая книги, печатные
материалы, периодику, дистанционные программы, Интернет и т.д. Он должен быть способен также осмысливать
получаемую информацию. 80% всей информации в наше время поступает к пользователю в виде образов (images),
причем они заключают в себе не одно значение. Важно научиться распознавать эти значения.
- Видимо, для обучения новым навыкам нужна и новая система образования?
- Схематично говоря, в XXI веке из трех компонентов — образование (Education), подготовка (Instructing) и
обучение (Training) — важнейшим будет последний. Учитель ничего не будет «преподавать», никого не вызовет «к
доске». Наставник раздаст своим ученикам (которые могут в этот момент находиться у себя дома) задания, для
выполнения которых они должны использовать весь арсенал источников информации. Если дело не идет или
допущена ошибка, ученик обращается к учителю за помощью. Класс перестает быть центром обучения. Процесс
этот становится интерактивным. Разнообразие программ, обеспечиваемое информационными технологиями,
позволит каждому человеку создать свой собственный, индивидуальный учебный модуль. Огромное, если не
первостепенное значение здесь приобретает мотивация. Постигать премудрости наук будут только те, кто этого
хочет, кто готов заниматься этим всю жизнь. Смысл концепции «образование в течение всей жизни» (lifelong
learning) прост: для того чтобы полноценно участвовать в жизни бурно обновляющегося общества, теперь нужно
пополнять и обновлять знания регулярно.
- Значит, каждый человек будет играть в своехп собственном образованны более активную роль, чем это
происходит сегодня?
- Безусловно. Государство по-прежнему должно играть большую роль в обеспечении возможностей учиться, но
только для тех, кто этого действительно хочет. Как сказал канцлер Германии Герхард Шредер, ученье должно быть

105
доступным не для одной лишь элиты, но и для всех, у кого есть что-то в голове, а не только в кошельке. Но без
желания самого человека его никто ничему никогда не научит. И не нужно пытаться это делать.
- Когда новая философия образования может стать реальностью?
- Нашему поколению уже не переучиться. Коренными жителями страны под названием «век информационных
технологий» являются наши дети, взрослые в ней — лишь иммигранты. Впервые в истории складывается
ситуация, когда не старшее поколение учит младших, а наоборот. С них-то все и начнется. Но действовать мы
должны уже сегодня.
- Развитие информационного общества в разных странах идет неравномерно. В этой связи, не считаете ли
вы, что молодежь, уезжающая учиться за границу, в какой-то степени отрывается от реалий собственных
стран?
- В любом случае пребывание за границей, учеба за рубежом — явление, безусловно, положительное. Границы
будут открываться все шире - в Европе, например, их уже практически нет. Молодые люди с каждым годом будут
все лучше понимать, что владение иностранными языками сегодня является непременным ключом к успеху, а ведь
языки лучше всего учить среди людей, которые на них говорят.
- А какие языки, с вашей точки зрения, нужно сегодня изучать?
- Нужно обязательно знать английский, но этого недостаточно. С каждым годом знание иностранных языков
ценится работодателями все выше. Конечно, при выборе нужно исходить из частоты использования того или
другого языка. Пожалуй, для продвижения по служебной лестнице в специальностях, связанных с экономикой,
после английского на втором месте стоит испанский, очень выгодно сегодня изучать китайский и японский, по-
прежнему пользуются спросом - особенно в восточноевропейском регионе — славянские языки. Французский
остался в дипломатическом обиходе Европы, благодаря своей красоте и точности выражения мыслей он там
доминирует. Одним словом, английский в любом случае и еще один иностранный язык - это минимум. Что
касается русских студентов, они вообще очень способны к языкам, причем чем ближе к востоку они живут, тем
легче им даются иностранные языки. Кроме того, заметьте, сейчас идет процесс, когда люди учатся относиться с
уважением к тем, кто говорит с ошибками. Ошибка — не порок. Я считаю, лучше говорить с ошибками, чем без
ошибок молчать.
- Новые подходы к образованию в X X I веке, очевидно, требуют и новых учителей?
- Их пока немного, единицы, если они вообще есть. Те, кто преподает сегодня, уже не перестроятся в полной мере.
Должны прийти молодые. Вовсе необязательно им быть на несколько голов выше, просто они будут владеть
другой «материей». Это связано не с каким-то особым умом, а лишь с иным подходом. Не было ни одного периода
истории, когда люди были бы хитрее или глупее, чем люди другого века. Просто в любые времена находился кто-
то, кто смог лучше других сориентироваться в реалиях своего века. Умные люди есть в любом поколении. К тому
же, чтобы овладеть навыками (англичане называют их skills), необходимыми для мультимедийной эпохи, не надо
быть семи пядей во лбу. Для этого не нужен и учитель, достаточно иметь ноутбук. Здесь, в Москве, я знаю
студентов, у которых нет особенных вещей, которые не могут себе позволить пойти в ресторан, но зато имеют
доступ к Интернету. Это люди завтрашнего дня, и им совсем не нужен никакой учитель. Они достигают своих
высот самообразованием. Нет, я не пессимист!
- Таким образом, вы полагаете, что будущ ее-за дистанционным обучением?
- Я бы предпочел термин «интерактивное обучение». Да, это наше будущее. Однако это будет нечто, совершенно
отличное от тех программ дистанционного обучения, которые существуют сегодня. Создать новые будет трудно,
но все поколения справлялись с новшествами, почему бы не справиться и этому?
Беседу вела Наталья Кайтмазова

1.1. Who is Peter Canisius? Bo you agree with the idea presented by him in the article that the XXI
century requires a new system of education? Can we say that it is the burden of the article: “AH
adults are immigrants in the world of children”?
1.2. Present the highlights of the article.
1.3. The article is rich in new tendencies, isn’t it? Look at the following general ideas presented in the
text. Use more detailed information from the article to elaborate on each one.

1.The XXI century can be called either “the century o f knowledge” or “the century o f digital
technologies” .
2. In this century we observe the changes in the standards o f what we call literacy.
3. The new system o f education schematically comprises three main components.
4. Nowadays the idea of lifelong learning is getting more and more popular. What does it convey?
5. “The residents of the country called “the age o f information technologies” are children, adults are only
immigrants there.” Do you think that adults are a dead-end generation?
6. The young generation is getting more and more aware o f the fact that language skills are one o f the
d ues to success. What languages are in great demand now?
7. To obtain necessary skills you don’t need a teacher, all you need is only a laptop.
8. “Interactive education” is not the same as “distance learning”.

106
1.4. Express your ideas about the following statements.

1. Information or communication technologies raise the level o f competence o f those people who want to
be successful.
2. 80% o f information that come to us nowadays is received in images containing more than one meaning.
That’s why it is important to learn to distinguish between them.
3. You cannot teach a person something if he/she doesn’t want it. Ail efforts would be in vain.
4. A mistake is not a vice. It is better to speak with mistakes than to keep silence without them.

1.5. Try to answ er the question th a t was put in the preface to the article: How much and w hat exactly
a person should know nowadays to gain success in this life.

107
G L O SSA R Y

4 КУРС

Newspaper Vocabulary

• Fleet Street - Флит стрит (улица в Лондоне, где раньше находились редакции большинства британских газет);
пресса, журналистика
• banner (headline) - заголовок во всю ширину газеты, «шапка»
• back page - последняя полоса
• box ad - реклама, помещенная в рамку
• broadsheet newspaper - широкоформатная газета
• by-line - указание имени автора в начале газетной или журнальной статьи
• censorship - цензура
• circulation - тираж
® to come out - выходить (о газете, журнале) e.g. This paper is issued three times a week = This paper comes out three
times a week
• copy - экземпляр газеты
® cover - освещать (события)
• dateline - дата
• defamation - диффамация, клевета
• to deliver (to, at) - доставлять
• digest - краткое изложение, обзор
® double page spread, central spread - разворот газеты
® to edit - редактировать
® edition - тираж книги, издание
• editor-in-chief - главный редактор
• managing editor - ответственный выпускающий; старший редактор
® sub-editor - заместитель редактора
• copy editor - корректор
• eye-opener - потрясающая новость
® exclusive - эксклюзивный материал
® feedback - отклик
® filler - статьи, рисунки, которые используются, чтобы заполнить пустое место на странице
® font (bold, italic, etc.) - шрифт (жирный, курсив)
® free-lance, stringer - внештатный корреспондент, репортер
• folio - номер страницы
® glossy - глянцевый журнал
® (the) gutter journalism, gutter press, yellow press - бульварная (желтая) пресса; yellow rag - бульварная газетка
® handout - сообщение для прессы
® hit the headlines The story hit the headlines = The story broke...
® issue - номер, выпуск (газеты, журнала)
®journalist, journo (разг.), hack (презр.) - журналист
®jump / break - продолжение статьи на другой полосе
• jump line - строка с номером страницы, на которой напечатано продолжение
® kicker - первое предложение или несколько первых слов статьи, выделенные жирным шрифтом
® layout (=makeup + contents) - схема, план; outline - краткое содержание
® lead - начало статьи
® libel - клевета
• makeup of a newspaper - оформление газеты
® media mogul = press baron - медиа магнат
® muck-raking
® message - основная идея
• mug shot - фото (как на паспорт)
® news agency/ news bureau - информационное агентство, агентство новостей
9 news blackout - запрещение передачи и публикации информации (например, со стороны властей, руководства
средств массовой информации)
® news division - отдел хроники
• news environment - событийное окружение

108
• news item - сообщение печати, газетное сообщение, газетная заметка
• news peg - событие, лежащее в основе очерка, статьи
» news release - сообщение для печати
» news summary - сводка новостей
• newsagent, news dealer - газетный киоскер, владелец газетного киоска
« newsboy, newsie - газетчик, разносчик газет
• newsbreak - событие, заслуживающее освещения
® newsmonger - сплетник, любитель сенсационных слухов
• newspaper audience (readership) - читательская аудитория газеты
a ~ columnist (commentator, correspondent, reporter, journalist, analyst) - газетный обозреватель
® ~ delivery - доставка газеты
« ~ file- подшивка газет
• ~ office - редакция газеты
® ~ printing industry - газетное производство
® ~ staffer - рекламная вставка в газете
® ~ supplement - приложение к газете
• newspaperese - газетный стиль, язык
• newsprint - газетная бумага
• newsroom - редакция новостей, отдел новостей
® news stall, newsstand - газетный киоск
® newsstand sales - розничная продажа периодических изданий
® newsworthy - достойный освещения в средствах массовой информации
« op-ed page (Q&E) - страница публицистики
в op-ed articles - публицистические статьи
® profile - очерк
• put smn’s own gloss/spin on a story - подать информацию под выгодным тебе углом
® question, issue, problem - вопрос, проблема (disputable, yitalj urgent, key .etc)
• retraction - опровержение (предыдущего материала газеты)
® reference - ссылка, сноска
• review - обзор, обозрение^делать обзор
• round-up - сводка новостей (в газете, по радио) press round-up - обзор печати
® scoop - важная информация, напечатанная раньше любого другого издания
® silly season - “пустой сезон” >:
• sound-bite - “изюминка” в речи, яркая запоминающаяся фраза или призыв
• space - интервал, место под текст
• spread - разворот
» statement - заявление (to issue a statement, to release a statement - помещать, опубликовывать заявление); to state
• subscribe to - подписываться
® suppress (to avoid giving publicity to smth) - замалчивать
» syndicate - агентство печати, приобретающее информацию и продающее ее для одновременной публикации
другим газетам
® tabloid - малоформатная газета
« tap useful sources

Vocabulary to Describe an Issue


® article (on) - статья (о, об)
® to allege - утверждать (особ, безосновательно); allegation - голословное утверждение; alleged - утверждаемый
(особ, голословно), предполагаемый.
• the article takes up (occupies) half the page - статья занимает полстраницы
• at the top, at the lower half of the page, at the bottom - в верхней части, в нижней половине страницы, нижняя часть
полосы; upper left hand/right hand - вверху слева/справа
• to arouse a great deal of comment (commentaries) - вызывать большое количество откликов
• be the biggest talking-point in the newspapers - тема, новость, событие, которое вызывает наибольшее число
откликов
© to deal with - рассматривать (вопрос); to touch (upon) - касаться, затрагивать; devote to - посвящать, помещать
® to dwell on - подробно останавливаться на что-л.; to focus upon smth.
• be fully covered on (the front-pages) - полно освещаться (на первых полосах)
« to get/give wide (extensive, enormous) coverage on - освещаться исключительно полно и широко / широко освещать
« to highlight smth - освещать ч.-л.
• to cover a wide range of topics (on foreign affairs etc) - освещать широкий круг вопросов (событий за рубежом)
• report (on) - сообщение, сообщать о; to inform (of), to present some, information on
109
• to give full attention to some event - широко освещать какое-либо событие
• to comment (briefly) on, to carry commentaries on - комментировать что-либо
• item of news - материал информационного жанра
• big (prominent) item of home (domestic, internal, national) news - важная новость на тему внутренней,
международной политики
• biggest international (external, foreign, world) item of news - важнейшая международная новость
• affairs (home, national domestic, internal) - дела, события (в стране); developments; event(s) (at home, abroad; the
latest events, the current events)
• to continue to give a considerable amount of space - по-прежнему отводить значительное место
• to devote plenty of (front-page) space; dominate the news on the front pages - занимать большую часть площади на
(первой) странице; get a considerable amount of space - занимать значительное место (on the front page); get the
most prominence/ give much space to smth - посвящать много места
• to lead a page with - подавать как главный материал полосы
• to lead the front pages - являться самым важным сообщением первых полос
• lead, leading article; editorial - наиболее важное сообщение, статья от редактора на самую важную тему номера
• main editorial subject; main subject discussed in editorial (news and opinion) columns - самая важная тема,
обсуждаемая в передовых статьях (в разделах новостей и комментариев)
• to provide the main topic for comment - являться основной темой комментариев
• publish
® to carry/ to run - публиковать, помещать, печатать; e.g. This daily carries little news o f sport
® ‘The Financial Times ’ ran an article...

• Plus English Vocabulary in Use by Michael McCarthy and Felicity O ’Dell. Units 51-54.

Politics

Word-Groups Denoting Actions of Parliamentarians: Verbal Group


» Procedural Actions:
• to add amendments - внести поправки
• to draft (draft bill) - разрабатывать проект (законопроект)
® to debate a package of bills - обсуждать пакет законопроектов
® to abstain from voting - воздерживаться от голосования
« to accord precedence - предоставить слово вне очереди
® to take action on a draft resolution - принять решение по проекту резолюции
« adopt/approve/the agenda - утвердить повестку дня
® to carry a motion - принять предложение
® to close the debate - прекратить прения
® to dismiss smb.’s comment - отвести высказывание (как необоснованное)
® to engage in a debate (a dispute) - вступить в прения
® to enter smb’s name in the list of speakers - включить кого-либо в список ораторов
® to exclude from consideration - снять с рассмотрения *
® to exhaust the subject, the agenda - исчерпать тему
® to fall in the proposal - присоединиться к предложению, поддержать
® to have (take) the floor - выступать (брать) слово
• to get (give) the floor - получать (предоставлять) слово
® to ask for the floor - просить слово
® speak from the floor - выступать с места, «от микрофона»
® to appeal to the floor - обращаться к аудитории
® to introduce an amendment, a draft resolution - внести на рассмотрение
® to appear on the list of speakers - фигурировать в списке ораторов
® to close the list of speakers; to declare the list of speakers closed - прекратить запись желающих выступить; объявить
о прекращении записи ораторов

Word-Groups Denoting Actions of Candidates & Politicians


® to speak in measured tones - говорить сдержанно, неторопливо
® to give a decided/definitive/answer - дать окончательный ответ
® to announce final results/decision - огласить конечные результаты/решение
® to intersperse one’s speech with many quotations - снабжать речи цитатами
® to speak at length (at full, at great, at some) - говорить подробно, пространно
® to lengthen out speech, discourse - чрезмерно затягивать речь

110
9 to answer (to act) in a matter-of-course manner - отвечать (поступать) естественно
•to speak (to act) offhand - действовать без подготовки, экспромтом
•to state one’s opinion outright - высказать свое мнение раз и навсегда
•to be outspoken in one’s remarks - быть откровенным в своих замечаниях
•to recess for deliberations - удалиться на совещание
\! ’’’Hi ;м:•'
i'RP
Actions of Organizational Character:

• to pass an agreement - принять соглашение


e fix the deadline - установить крайний срок
® to meet the deadline - уложиться в срок
» to postpone the deadline - продлить предельный срок
• to put on a back-burner = to postpone - отложить на более поздний срок
• to bring a report up to date - дополнить самыми последними данными
» to bring a matter in the limelight - выдвинуть вопрос на первый план
® to settle smth. by lots - решать жеребьевкой
• to conduct (to carry on, to hold) negotiations - вести переговоры
® to eliminate the post of president - устранять должность президента
» to achieve a break through in the negotiations - добиться сдвига в переговорах
• to accept as valid and binding - признать действительным и обязательным
« to reject bills - отвергнуть законопроект

Word-Groups Denoting Kinds of Political Organizations:


® ad-hoc committee - специальный комитет
« interim committee - временный комитет
• parent body - вышестоящий орган .............................
» reporting body - отчитывающий орган
• commission of inquiry - следственная комиссия
« a follow-up committee - комитет по продолжению деятельности, по принятию последующих мер

Actions Characterising Politician's Manners and Behaviour:


« equivocal answer - уклончивый ответ
® evasive answer (promise) - уклончивый ответ; неопределенное обещание
• to express consent - выражать согласие
• extraneous (uncalled-for) remark - неуместное замечание
• lip-service - неискреннее выражение преданности; пустые слова
® sound objections - здравые возражения
• an answer off the mark - ответ невпопад
® a remark lull of meaning - многозначительное замечание
• mode of speaking - манера говорить

Word-Groups Denoting Kinds of Elections:


® annual election - ежегодные выборы
® by-elections - дополнительные выборы
• general elections - всеобщие выборы
® re-election - перевыборы

Word-Groups Characterising Ballots/Tickets:


® secret ballot - тайное голосование
® (in)valid ballot papers(ballots) - избирательные бюллетени, признанные (не)действительными
® inconclusive ballot - безрезультатное голосование
® first (second) ballot - первый (второй) тур голосования
® in the run-off -во втором туре
« open ballot - открытое голосование

Word-Groups Referring to Election:


® to be up /to stand/ to run for election - баллотироваться
• to conduct /to hold/ elections - проводить выборы
• to seek election - выдвинуть свою кандидатуру
® to be elected (adopted) by acclamation - на основе всеобщего одобрения, без голосования
® to cast (to pole) a ballot (a vote) - голосовать
• to place on the ballot - включать в список для голосования
• to raise turnout - повысить явку избирателей
• to scrap up only a few votes - набрать всего несколько голосов
• to abstain from voting - воздерживаться от голосования
• to go back on (upon) a decision, a vote - аннулировать, пересмотреть принятое решение, результаты голосования
• to rescind a vote - признать результаты голосования недействительными
• to cancel a vote - объявить голосование недействительным
• to manipulate the voting - направлять ход голосования
® to manipulate facts - подтасовывать факты
• to be outvoted - оказаться в меньшинстве при голосовании, потерпеть поражение на выборах
• to challenge the results of voting - требовать признания недействительными (оспаривать) результаты голосования
• to make the elections valid - сделать выборы действительными (состоявшимися)

Economy

Market
• market-economy countries - страны рыночной экономики
• transition economy countries - страны с переходной экономикой
э to hold/to carry a stock of a product - иметь запас товара
® to sell - to buy/to purchase; a purchase of smth - продать/купить; покупка чего-либо
• seller - buyer/customer - продавец-покупатель
• wholesaler - retailer - оптовый покупатель - розничный покупатель
® turnover - оборот
в to meet somebody’s requirements - удовлетворить чьи-либо требования
® demand and supply - спрос и предложение
• to be in demand - пользоваться спросом/испытывать потребность в каких-либо товарах
® merchandise = products = goods = commodity - товары
• every-day commodity - товар первой необходимости
• to go up = rise = increase = climb = advance zero preposition/ by - увеличиться на...
• to ... - увеличиться до...
• to go down = decrease = fall = drop = retreat = slide - уменьшаться
• to grow / to expand —увеличиваться/ расширяться (о рынке)
• to shrink/ to contract - сокращаться (о рынке)

Business
® joint stock company - акционерное общество
• open joint-stock company - открытое акционерное общество
« joint venture - совместное предприятие >
® partnership - товарищество
• entrepreneurship = enterprise - предпринимательство
• Public Limited Company, Plc./PLC - соответствует термину “Открытое акционерное общество”
® Private Limited Company, Ltd. - соответствует термину “Общество с ограниченной ответственностью
закрытого типа”
• Limited Liability Company, LLC —компания с ограниченной ответственностью
® Incorporated, Inc. - зарегистрированный как юридическое лицо (корпорация)
• Corporation, Corp. - корпорация
® Company, Со. - компания
® CEO (chief executive officer) - исполнительный директор
• Board of Directors - совет директоров, правление
® to sit on the board of - быть членом правления
® branch = affiliate- филиал
® subsidiary company - дочерняя, подконтрольная компания
® merger - объединение
• takeover - поглощение

Contract
® to fulfil/to execute/to carry out/to perform a contract (execution/fulfilment/performance of a contract) - выполнять
контракт (выполнение контракта)
• to make/to conclude a contract with smb. - заключить контракт с кем-либо
® to fail to execute the contract in the time stipulated by ... не выполнить контракт в срок, оговоренный ...
• to sign a contract - подписать контракт
• party to a contract = contracting party - сторона, заключившая контракт
• validity of a contract - срок действия контракта
• terms and conditions of a contract - условия контракта
• essential clauses - существенные условия контракта
• stipulation - условие
® to observe all the terms and conditions of a contract - соблюдать все условия контракта
• to infringe/to violate a contract - infringement/violation of a contract нарушить контракт - нарушение контракта
• consignment/lot/cargo/shipment - партия товара
• receipt - получение; квитанция: расписка
® dissatisfied party - responsible party пострадавшая сторона - сторона-ответчик
• deal = operation = transaction операция, сделка
• to incur losses - терпеть убытки
» to insure goods with. . - застраховать товар у ...., в...
® assume responsibility - взять на себя ответственность
® fulfil obligations - выполнить обязательства
® default - неуплата
® in conformity with - в соответствии с

Prices
® at the price o f ... per -... по цене ... за ...
® current price - текущая цена
® wholesale prices - оптовые цены
• purchase prices - закупочные цены
® retail prices - розничные цены
• price equality - равенство цен
• to calcuiate/quote/confirm/change/revise/cut (curtail, reduce) a price/to agree on (about) the price -
рассчитать/назвать/подтвердить/изменить/пересмотреть/уменыпить/согласовать цену
• to accept/to raise (to increase) a price - принять/поднять цену
® the reduce the price by ... % уменьшить цену на ... %; to raise the price by ... %
• to give a discount of... % off the price дать скидку с цены в размере ... %
• quantity discount скидка при покупке большой партии товара
« to include smth into the price/to deduct from the price включить что-либо в цену - вычесть что-либо из цены

Crediting
® loan - заем; a loan at 15% rate - 15%-ный заем;
® interest-free ~ - беспроцентный ~; mortgage ~ - ипотечный ~; long-term ~ - долгосрочный-
® credit = loan - кредит
• on credit - в кредит
® creditor = lender = loaner —кредитор
• mortgagee - кредитор (по закладной; по ипотеке)
® borrower = loan debtor - заемщик
• credit solvency = creditability = credit worthiness = borrowing capacity - кредитоспособность
® amount of credit - размер кредита
• credit terms - условия кредита
® on the security of - под залог; collateral loan - ссуда под залог
« warrantor/ warranty - поручитель/ поручительство
® credit rate = rate on credit - процентная ставка по кредитам; fixed ~ - фиксированная ~
® down payment - первый взнос (при покупке в кредит)
© to extend/to grant/ to give/ to supply/ to provide credit - предоставить кредит
® to redeem = repay = pay off = pay back (a loan) - погашать (заем)
® to guarantee/to secure payment - гарантировать платеж
• hire purchase (Br.) = installment plan (Am.) - покупка в рассрочку
® to pay in installments - платить по частям
® to make/to effect payment - производить платеж
s to default on a loan не выполнить свои обязательства
• interest fine пеня

113
Insurance
• to insure (against) - страховать (от)
• insured - страхователь
• insurer = assurer = underwriter - страховщик
• to effect/ to cover/ to issue insurance - производить страховку
• insurance premium - страховой взнос
• insurance policy - страховой полис
• deposit insurance - страхование банковских вкладов; liability----- ответственности; compulsory ~ - обязательное
страхование; property----- собственности.
• to insure goods with an insurance company - страховать товар в страховой компании
® to insure goods for the sum of - застраховать товар на сумму ...
• cost of insurance - стоимость страхования
® Compulsory Third-Party Liability Auto-Insurance Law - Закон об обязательном страховании автогражданской
ответственности

Securities and Banking


• share = stock - акция; shareholder = stockholder - владелец акции
« bond - облигация
• assets - активы (средства, фонды); to manage assets - управлять активами
• investment portfolio - инвестиционный портфель
® mutual fund - паевой инвестиционный фонд
® Blue Chips - “ голубые фишки” (высокодоходные, мало рискованные акции и другие активы)
• holding = block - пакет; block of shares = equity stake - equity holding - пакет акций; controlling interest = majority
interest - контрольный пакет акций
® Stock Exchange - фондовая биржа
® earnings - общая выручка
• to earn interest/to pay interest - получать проценты/выплачивать проценты
® to make/to earn a profit - зарабатывать прибыль
® to issue securities - выпустить ценные бумаги
® to invest/investment - инвестировать/инвестиции
® income - доход
® net income - чистый доход
® costs - затраты; The costs increased by ... Затраты увеличились на ... %
® annual report - годовой отчет
® annual percentage yield - годовой доход в процентах ____
® automated cashpoint = automated teller machine - банкомат
® bank bill = banknote - банкнота
• to establish an account = to open an account - открыть счет
• deposit - вклад (в банке)
• to run an account - вести счет
® services provided/offered by banks include ...- услуги, предоставляемые банками, включают
• deposit - депозит, вклад
® bank guarantee - банковская гарантия
» to assess a bank’s performance - дать оценку финансовой деятельности банка
• to handle foreign exchange - вести валютные операции
9 hard; stable (strong) currency - твердая (конвертируемая) валюта
® soft (weak) currency - неконвертируемая валюта
® foreign exchange market - валютный рынок
® rate of exchange (exchange rate) - обменный курс: валютный курс
® fluctuations - колебания
• exchange rate fluctuations - колебания валютного курса
® to buy and sell currency - покупать и продавать валюту

Taxes
• taxation - налогообложение
® taxation system - система налогообложения
® tax legislation-tax law - налоговое законодательство
• fiscal policy - налогово-бюджетная политика
• fiscal revenues (tax revenues) - налоговые поступления
® tax liabilities (tax burden) - налоговое бремя
® liable to tax - подлежащий налогообложению

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• tax collector - налоговый инспектор
• tax fraud = fiscal fraud налоговое мошенничество
• income/property/inheritance/corporation/car/land/sales/wage (payroll)/windfall/value added tax (VAT) подоходный
налог/налог на недвижимость/налог на наследство/налог с прибыли предприятий и компаний/налог на
автомобили/налог на землю/налог на продажи/налог на фонд заработной платы/налог на разовые
прибыли/налог на добавленную стоимость
» business taxes - налоги на предпринимателей
• taxable = liable to tax - налогооблагаемый
• taxable income - налогооблагаемый доход
в taxable profits - налогооблагаемые прибыли
• tax rate - ставка налога
• income tax rate - ставка подоходного налога
• to be tax exempt/tax exemption - быть освобожденным от уплаты налога/освобождение от уплаты налога
• to charge/to levy taxes - взимать налог
® tax abatement/tax allowance/tax deduction/tax benefit/tax exemption - налоговая скидка
• tax return/declaration - налоговая декларация
• tax cuts - снижение налогов
• tax shelter = tax haven = tax loophole - налоговое убежище

Organizations
World Trade Organization, WTO - Всемирная торговая организация, ВТО
World Bank - Мировой (Всемирный) банк
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, EBRD - Европейский банк реконструкции и развития, ЕБРР
International Monetary Fund, IMF - Международный валютный фонд, МВФ
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, OPEC - Организация стран-экспортеров нефти, ОПЕК
United Nations Industrial Development Organization, UNIDO - Организация Объединенных Наций по
промышленному развитию, ЮНИДО
Chamber of Commerce and Industry - Торгово-промышленная палата
NYSE, New York Stock Exchange - Нью-йоркская фондовая биржа

Social Vocabulary

® The European Code of Social Security - Европейский кодекс социального обеспечения


® the Labour Code - Трудовой кодекс
« the Civil Code - Гражданский кодекс
® benefit; welfare benefit- пособие; социальное пособие
• from the cradle to the grave - социальная поддержка в течение всей жизни
в welfare payments = welfare checks (disapproving, US)= giro {disapproving, Britain) - социальные выплаты
® benefits - льготы, привилегии
® fringe benefits = perks (informal) - дополнительные льготы (оплаченный отпуск, служебная машина и т.д.)
® to get / to provide benefits - получать/ предоставлять льготы
® unemployment benefit = dole - пособие по безработице
® survivor’s benefit - пособие в связи с потерей кормильца
®- loss-of-employment compensation = severance (redundancy) payment - выходное пособие
® allowance - содержание
• family allowance - пособие многодетным семьям
® retirement pension - пенсия по возрасту
® disability pension = disablement allowance = invalidity benefit - пенсия/ пособие по недееспособности,
инвалидности
® to curtail an allowance - урезать пособие
® state employees’ wages - зарплаты бюджетных работников
® childcare allowance - пособие на ребенка; parental allowance for parents (who have to leave work temporarily to
look after children under the age of three)
® sick/sickness benefit - пособие по болезни
® cash sickness benefit - оплачиваемый больничный
• to establish a lifetime benefit - определить пожизненное пособие
• subsidy - субсидия, пособие, дотация; to subsidize субсидировать
• to misappropriate - незаконно присваивать, совершать растрату; misuse использовать не по назначению,
злоупотреблять
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• (blatant) violations of social security laws - вопиющее (бесстыдное) нарушение социальных прав
• social security - социальное обеспечение
• the poor and the disadvantaged - бедные и малоимущие
• legal guarantees of social justice and social solidarity - гарантии социальной справедливости и социального
единства
• the workforce = employees = labour = shopfloor workers = blue-collar - рабочая сила
• staff = management = white-collars - (чаще всего) офисные работники
• trade union - профсоюз
• HR (human resources), HRM (human resources management), personnel department - работа с кадрами, кадровый
отдел
• reformatory (school) - исправительная детская колония
• (mentally) retarded or (physically) handicapped child - умственно или физически неполноценный или отсталый
ребенок
• illiteracy безграмотность; illiterate, ignorant безграмотный
в to discharge, dismiss, to give smb a sack - уволить
• to be dismissed on the grounds of (e.g. misconduct, theft, dishonesty, intoxication while at work, willful disobedience
of orders or rules, frequent and unjustified absence from work, excessive bad timekeeping or repeated negligence) -
быть уволенным по причине...
• to make smb redundant - сократить (кого-либо); cutbacks политика сокращений
• to leave the service, to get one’s discharge, to quit - уволиться
• retiring age = retirement age - пенсионный возраст
• to be retired on a pension - быть отправленным на пенсию
• retirement - выход на пенсию, в отставку
• to retire, to go into retirement - уходить в отставку; a retired officer отставной офицер
• wages = salary - зарплата
® state employees' wages - зарплаты бюджетников
• maternity/paternity материнство/отцовство
• possession of many children - многодетность; having many children многодетный
• a divorce on grounds of - развод по причине (e.g. incompatibility of temper)
« alimony = maintenance; to pay alimony = to maintain one’s family платить алименты
• rebate, reduction, discount - скидка; with a reduction (of) = at discount of со скидкой в
» to be on leave - быть в отпуске; to be on sick leave быть на больничном
• medical certificate - больничный листок, справка от врача
« labour/social rights - трудовые, социальные права
• to eliminate the debts of medical, childcare, educational institutions - устранять долги медицинских^ детских,
образовательных учреждений
• arrears - задолженность (of payment); fall into arrears просрочивать платеж
• arrears on wages/on social benefits/on pensions - задолженности по з/п, соц. выплатам, пенсиям
® public utilities - коммунальные услуги; utility bills - счет за коммунальные услуги
• housing and communal services - жилищно-коммунальное хозяйство
® to cut off one’s electricity - отключить электроэнергию; a power cut - временное отключение электроэнергии
• an interruption of energy supply and heating of homes - перебои с электроэнергией и отоплением
• to take concrete administrative measures - принять конкретные административные меры
» a deviation from the specified use of funds - отклонение от использования фондов по назначению
• a (serious) financial violation (серьезное) - финансовое нарушение; to violate нарушать
• the strategy of social and economic reforms - стратегия социально-экономических реформ
• constitutional provision(s) on social and economic rights - конституционные положение(я) о социально-
экономических правах
• life-supporting systems - системы жизнеобеспечения; to restore восстанавливать
® poverty line - рубеж бедности; to live below poverty level/line - находиться за чертой бедности; to live with
below-average wages жить на зарплату, уровень, который ниже среднего
® social security - социальное обеспечение
® health insurance ■■медицинское страхование
• social insurance scheme - программа социального страхования
• to reimburse - возмещать, оплачивать что-либо кому-либо; reimbursement возмещение
® medical examination - медицинское обследование
® a health care system - система здравоохранения
® policy of obligatory medical insurance —полис обязательного медицинского страхования
® medical certificate - справка от врача
® costly forms of medical treatment - дорогостоящие виды медицинского обслуживания
® deficiency = lack = shortage - нехватка, отсутствие, недостаток (chronic shortages in funds)

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• health service - служба здравоохранения; medical service медицинское обслуживание
• life expectancy - средняя продолжительность жизни
• safe and healthy work conditions - условия охраны труда
• to restore the working capacity of an injured person - восстанавливать работоспособность пострадавшего
• temporary incapacity - временная нетрудоспособность; pennanent disability (incapacity) постоянная потеря
трудоспособности; partial disability (incapacity) частичная потеря трудоспособности; permanent partial disability
(incapacity) пожизненная частичная потеря трудоспособности
• loss of working capacity - потеря трудоспособности; to be totally incapable of work быть - абсолютно
нетрудоспособным
• seniority - стаж
• family status = marital status - семейное положение

E ducation

• applicant - абитуриент
® graduate (research) student, postgraduate - выпускник учебного заведения; имеющий ученую степень, аспирант
« Bachelor (of Arts, Science) - бакалавр
• Master’s degree/ holder of a master’s degree - магистр( учёная степень, промежуточная между бакалавром и
доктором; присваивается после одного года учёбы в аспирантуре )
® М.А. Master of Arts - магистр искусств
в PhD, Doctor of Philosophy
• doctor (of Science) —доктор наук (соответствует кандидату наук в России)
• prospective teacher - будущий учитель
® old student - бывший выпускник
® private student - вольнослушатель
« graduate - выпускник ВУЗа
• degree (diploma) student - дипломник ■
• principal, warden (Br) - директор колледжа, университета
• hostel (N.Amer dormitory) - общежитие
• external student - заочник : г.;: .

® age of entry - возраст поступления


• old students’ reunion - встреча бывших выпускников
• output of students - выпуск
• inaugural address - вступительное слово
® open day - день открытых дверей
• pass degree - диплом без отличия
® honours degree - диплом с отличием
• thesis - диссертация
• dissertation - диссертация *
» paper - научный доклад
• tenure (of the chair) - заведование кафедрой
« admission - зачисление
® application for admission - заявление о приеме
® withdrawal - исключение
в competition - конкурс
® student body/numbers - контингент
• term paper - курсовая работа
• degree work/ research - дипломная работа
• relaxations - льготы при поступлении
• internal student - студент заочного отделения
• acting - исполняющий обязанности
• assigning board - комиссия по распределению
• awarding board - стипендиальная комиссия
® examining board - экзаменационная комиссия
• candidate for admission, an entrant - поступающий в институт
• reader, reviewer - рецензент
® adviser - научный руководитель
e supervisor - научный руководитель в аспирантуре
• supervisor on school practice - руководитель школьной практики
117
• final year student - студент-выпускник
• resident student - студент, живущий в общежитии
• freshman, fresher - амер. первокурсник
• sophomore - амер. студент (второго курса)
• senior- амер. студент старшего курса
• student-teacher - практикант
• master of method - методист
• assistant-professor - доцент
• holder of the chair - зав. кафедрой

• inter-library loan - межбиблиотечный абонемент


• campus - территория колледжа/ университета, студенческий городок
• teaching methods - методика
• monograph - монография
® visual aid - наглядное пособие
• assignment - задание
• humanities - гуманитарные науки
• sciences - естественные, точные науки
• academic field - научная область
• evening department - вечернее отделение
• extra-mural department - заочное отделение
® assessment of proficiency - оценка знаний
® teaching service/experience - педагогический стаж
• overcrowded syllabus - перегруженный учебный план
® standards of admission - правила зачисления
• attendance - посещаемость
® voluntary attendance - свободная посещаемость
® five point scale system - пятибалльная система
• extra-curricular work - внеклассная работа
• aptitude/inclination for research - склонность к научной работе
• apprenticeship - стажировка/ практика

• entrance examination
• final examination
® master’s degree examination
• to read for the examination
« examining board
• to enter for an examination - быть допущенным

• supplementary course - дополнительный


® course of lectures
® a course от mathematics
« compulsory course
® course of training - курс подготовки
® optional course - факультативный
® short-time courses
® extensional courses - повышенная квалификация
® preliminary courses - подготовительные курсы
® refresher courses - курсы усовершенствования

® to be on the staff - быть в штате


• to carry out a research - вести исследование
• to hold tutorials/to give practical instructions - вести практические занятия
® to hold seminars - вести семинары
• to confer diplomas - выдавать дипломы
® abstracts, advance proofs - тезисы
• conditions of entry - условия приема
® scholarship - стипендия
• fellowship - стипендия ( на проведение научно-исследовательских работ в университете )
• confidential report on a student - характеристика
• to hold examinations - проводить экзамены

118
• to fail in an examination
• examination scheme - расписание
• to pass in a subject
• to pass satisfactory/with credit/with merit - удовлетворительно, хорошо, отлично
« pass list - список допущенных к экзаменов
• GPA (grade point average) - средний балл
• tuition - обучение
• free~/extra-mural~/inter-mural~ compulsory education
• optional/supplementary/compulsory subject
• major - амер. специализация в колледже по какому-л. предмету
• to major in/ a math, history major
• minor - амер. не основная, непрофилирующая специальность
• key subject - основной для данного курса
• mains - предметы основной специальности
• subsidiary subjects/subsides - второй специальности
• heavy-reading subject - требующий большой самостоятельной работы
® non-reading subject
® to hold/fill/occupy the chair - заведовать кафедрой
• to hold/possess a degree - иметь диплом, степень
• to attain an academic degree - получить ученую степень
• to recruit teachers - набирать преподавателей
» to graduate with honours - закончить с отличием
• to graduate cum laude (Am.) - получить университетскую степень с похвалой за особые достижения
в to graduate magna cum laude (Am.) - закончить среднюю школу или колледж и получить вторую из трех
возможных отличий
® to graduate summa cum laude (Am.) - получить самую высокую степень отличия при окончании колледжа или
университета в Америке
® to graduate in philology - окончить филологический факультет
• to excuse from attendance - освободить от посещения
• to transfer to a course - переводить на курс
• to raise entrance standards - повышать приемные требования
® to submit an application - подавать заявление
• to take on to the staff - принимать в штат
• to undergo a course of training - пройти курс подготовки
® to work at one’s doctorate - работать над докторской диссертацией
• to draw up the syllabus - составлять учебный план

A rt and C ulture

Painting • Chiaroscuro = light and shade


• amateurish - любительский ® Primary colours, flesh colour
® To make an aesthetic appeal ® Colour-scheme - палитра художника
• Arrangement - расположение, композиция • The play of colours - игра красок
• Applied art - прикладное искусство ® Riot of colours - изобилие красок
• Fine arts - изобразительное искусство • Colouring (gaudy/fierce) - колорит
® Folk art - народное искусство • Connoisseur - знаток
• Antique art - античное искусство • Conversation piece - жанровая сцена
• Art-collector, art critic, art historian • Convey - передавать
® Art-dealer • Craft - уменье, искусство, ремесло
• Flagstone (pavement) artist - уличный художник • Crayon - цветной карандаш, пастель
® Black-and-white - рисунок пером ® Dab - мазок
• Brilliance - яркость • Dash -быстрый набросок, мазок
® The brush - искусство художника ® Daub - мазня
® Brushstroke - мазок • Delineation - изображение (=depiction)
• Brushwork - манера накладывания краски • Design - композиция
• Canvas - холст, полотно ® Display = exhibition = show
• Cartoon - карикатура ® Pencil drawing
• Cast - гипсовый слепок ® Easel - мольберт
119
® Effect - впечатление
• Atmospheric effects, colour effects, effects of distance, • Architecture
perspective effects, light and shade effects • Ancient/Byzantine/civil/classical/domestic
• Execution - мастерство исполнения ® gothic/industrial/medieval/modem
• One-man exhibition - персональная вставка • To build up - воздвигать
® Face - вид спереди (full face, half face) • Construction - строительство, здание
• Fade - блекнуть, сливаться • Under construction
® Foreshortening - ракурс • Decoration - наружная и внутренняя отделка
• Genre - жанр ® Design - проект, чертеж
® Ground - грунт, фон • Edifice = building = dwelling
• In the foreground/background-in the middle ground • Ensemble - ансамбль зданий
• Against a background - на фоне • То face - облицовывать
® Hue - оттенок, цвет • То lay out - разбивать, располагать
• Life- натура • General lay-out, city lay-out
® Likeness - сходство, портрет • Masonry - каменная вкладка
® Marine - морской пейзаж • Ornate - богато украшенный
® Mass - непрерывное пространство • То project - выступать, выдаваться
® Medium - средство, способ ® То pull down = tear down - сносить
® Miniature • To rebuild = reconstruct = restore - реставрировать
® Mural - фреска = fresco
® Palette • Classical Art
® Equestrian portrait - портрет на коне • Roman Art (Romanesque)
® Half-length portrait, self-portrait ® Gothic Art
® Portrayal - изображение • Medieval Russian Art
® Saturation - насыщенность ® Renaissance Art
® Sit = stand for - позировать ® Impressionism
® Sitter = model = subject - натурщик • Expressionism
® Still life- натюрморт ® Pointillism
• Studio - мастерская художника • Cubism
® Subject matter - тема, содержание ® The Wanderers Передвижники
® Transcript - копия ® Baroque/Eclectic style
® Vamish - лак
« Varnishing day - вернисаж (первый день выставки)
® Water-colour - акварель

Sculpture
® Armature = framework - каркас
® Bust = portrait bust - бюст
« Carve (out) - вырезать
® Stone-carving, wood-carving
• To cast - отливать из металла
® Chisel - долото, резец
® Commission - заказ
® To cut - высекать
® Erect = set up = raise - воздвигать памятник S
® Figure = statue
® Figurine = statuette
• To model - моделировать, лепить
® Gypsum/wax models
9 Modelling - лепная работа
® Mould - отливать в форму
® Moulding - карниз, лепное украшение
® Relief/bas-relief = low-relief/high-relief - рельеф,
барельеф, горельеф
• In the round - отдельно стоящая скульптура
• Scale - масштаб
® On a large scale, small-scale sculpture
® Decorative/monumental sculpture
• Life-size - в натуральную величину
® Unveil - торжественно открывать памятник
® Front-view/rear-view/side-view

120
/

5 КУРС

FOREIGN AND HOM E POLICY.

Military affairs, nuclear disarmament.


■ in association with - совместно с
B abolition - отмена, аннулирование; ликвидация, избавление, устранение
s to appease - проводить политику умиротворения
* arms - оружие; nuclear arms - ядерное оружие / вооружение; arms control - контроль над вооружением; arms
dump - склад оружия; arms hand-over - сдача оружия; arms negotiations - переговоры по разоружению; arms
race - гонка вооружений; reductions in strategic arms - сокращение стратегического (наступательного)
вооружения
■ anti-ballistic missile system —система противоракетной обороны
в armed conflict - вооруженный конфликт
■ arms traffic - торговля оружием, поток оружия
а armed neutrality - вооруженный нейтралитет
а to call for - предусматривать, обязывать, призывать
в to call on - призывать, взывать; обращаться; предоставлять слово
н collaboration / coordination - сотрудничество; bilateral coordination - двустороннее сотрудничество
■ cease - fire - прекращение огня
й constraints on the deployment of nuclear weapons - ограничения на размещение ядерного оружия
н conventional weaponry - обычное вооружение
* to deploy armforces - развертывать войска
Е nuclear disarmament - ядерное разоружение
в deterrent - сдерживающее/ удерживающее средство, средство устрашения
Е peacekeeping force-силы по поддержанию мира
и forceful, action - силовая акция
friction - трения, разногласия .
я hyper-power - сверхдержава
и missile - реактивный снаряд, ракета; to fire missile tests - проводить испытания ракет-носитеЛей
и to put pressure - оказывать давление
■ peace accord - мирный договор; peacec-.agreemeot*- -мирноеггсоишййййе; peace talksJ Мирные переговоры;
peacemaker - миротворец, примиритель
■ proliferation - распространение . ... . .'Н-о :1*№" -г ;
0 process of reconciliation —процесс примирения
■ removal from alert status - снятие с режима боевой готовности
8 to lift a threat - снять/ устранять угрозу
я to tighten borders - укреплять границы
* reduction of troops - сокращение численности войск
и warhead - боеголовка
■ military build-up - увеличение военных сил

Foreign policy: terrorism, negotiations.


0 accord - (неофициальное соглашение)
* adjustment - урегулирование, согласование, улаживание
а to affect national interests - подрывать национальные интересы
в aimed to / aiming at - имеющий целью, нацеленный / ориентированный на что-либо
а alliance - союз, альянс
* ally - союзник
в multilateral approach - многосторонний подход, подход с учетом интересов (мнения) других стран
* to go for approval - быть вынесенным на рассмотрение
в to subject to approval-п р и условии одобрения
accidental - несанкционированный, непреднамеренный
to launch an attack - атаковать, начать наступление, обрушиться с нападками
act of sabotage - диверсионный акт
act of war - военная акция
to appoint an ambassador / to recall an ambassador - назначать / отзывать посла
to carry out/ to make an assault (on) - нападать, штурмовать
to commit assault - совершить нападение
bomb-and-bullet campaign - террористическая кампания, теракты
to come under attack - подвергнуться нападению; подвергнуться критике
to come to terms / to make terms- прийти к соглашению, договориться
consensus - консенсус; согласованность, согласие, единодушие
high-level delegation - правительственная делегация
121
to dictate the terms - диктовать условия
dignitary - высокопоставленный чиновник, сановник, чиновник высокого ранга
political dissent - политическое разногласие
G8 - большая восьмерка, страны группы восьми, страны-члены ЕЭС
guerilla - партизан, боец; боевик
to hold contacts - иметь/ поддерживать отношения
hard-line - бескомпромиссный; hard-liner - сторонник жесткой линии/политики, противник соглашений
immediate priority - ближайшая задача (первостепенной важности)
intended target - намеченная цель
to lead the fight against - вести борьбу против
massacre - резня, избиение, бойня
Moslem, Muslim - мусульманин, мусульманский
scope of talks - круг вопросов, вынесенных в повестку переговоров
to secure support - обеспечивать/гарантировать поддержку
semiofficial - полуофициальный
to hold talks-вести переговоры
timely - своевременный, современный
topical issues - важные/актуальные вопросы
я to pay a visit - нанести визит

Home policy.
■ to add an amendment/ to amend- вносить дополнение / поправку
* to appoint - назначать (на пост), утверждать (в должности)
* appointee - назначаемое лицо
* to assign duties - определять обязанности
* bill - законопроект; bill of impeachment - законопроект об импичменте; to introduce a bill - представить/
внести законопроект; to sign a bill - подписать законопроект; to pass a bill-принимать законопроект; to
draft a bill - составлять законопроект; to get a vote on the bill - поставить на голосование, проголосовать;
to force the bill up to a vote - заставить вынести (« протолкнуть») законопроект на голосование; to oppose
the bill - выступать против законопроекта, подвергать критике законопроект.
а census - перепись (населения)
■ chamber - палата
в crackdown-крутые/жесткие меры (по наведению порядка); (амер.) разгром, подавление, разгон
(демонстрации и т.п.)
■ domestic - домашний, внутренний; domestic politics - события внутриполитической жизни; domestic policy
- внутренняя (национальная) политика; domestic reaction - реакция внутри страны
в to table a document - представить/ вынести документ на рассмотрение
а fellow Commonwealth of Independent States members - страны-члены СНГ
* handicap - помеха, препятствие, затруднительное положение
в at the top of the political leadership- в высшем политическом руководстве
® nationwide - общенародный, всенародный, общенациональный
8 government issue (GI) - государственная собственность; state owned - являющийся государственной
собственностью
я major power - основные полномочия, to stay in powef - оставаться у власти
* regional self-rule - местное самоуправление
в sitting president - (ныне) действующий президент

Elections, voting.
s ballot - избирательный бюллетень; баллотировка; (тайное) голосование; список кандидатов для голосования;
результаты голосования, количество поданных голосов; жеребьевка; право избирать
■ election - выборы; national election - национальные выборы; general election - всеобщие выборы; election
violence - столкновение с применением силы в ходе выборов
* electoral battle - предвыборная борьба; electoral support - поддержка избирателей/электората
а Central Election Commission - Центральная избирательная комиссия, Центризбирком, ЦИК
я clean election - чистые выборы; free and fair election - свободные и справедливые выборы; legislative and
municipal elections - выборы в законодательные и муниципальные органы власти; long-postponed
elections - надолго/постоянно откладываемые выборы; run-off elections - последний тур выборов из двух
ведущих кандидатов, не получивших абсолютного большинства; to win 90% of the vote in an election -
набрать 90% голосов на выборах
■ (public) opinion polls - опрос общественного мнения; polling - голосование; polling station - избирательный
пункт
“ in the run up to the election - в предвыборной гонке

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ECONOM Y

The state of economy:


■ to dominate the economy of ... —доминировать экономику
3 to adopt a market economy - создать рыночную экономику
* austerity - строгость, суровость, крайняя экономия; (режим) строгой/суровой экономии
* collapse - обвал, падение, крах, крушение, провал, банкротство; collapse of economy - экономический крах,
падение экономики
■ crisis - кризис, кризисная ситуация; crises p i; financial crisis - финансовый кризис; impending crisis —
надвигающийся кризис; to manage serious crisis - урегулировать серьезную кризисную ситуацию,
преодолеть серьезный кризис
■ economy’s downturn - экономический спад
а according to estimates-п о предварительным подсчетам
в inflow of funds-приток капитала
■ sustained growth - устойчивый рост; overall growth - общий прирост
■ gross - валовой; gross domestic product, GDP - внутренний валовой продукт, ВВП
в gross - общее количество, в целом, в сумме, суммарно; брутто
ш to hamper - мешать, затруднять, препятствовать
я get out of hand - выйти из-под контроля
* to hit hard times - переживать тяжелые времена
■ implement - выполнять, осуществлять, обеспечивать выполнение, проводить/претворять в жизнь; снабжать,
обеспечивать; to implement in practice - осуществлять на практике, претворять в жизнь; to implement а
project - осуществлять/реализовывать проект; implementation - осуществление, выполнение, реализация;
снабжение, обеспечение; implementation of the programme - претворение в жизнь (реализация) программы
и investment: foreign investment - иностранные инвестиции; investment capital - инвестиционный капитал; to
attract private investment capital - привлекать частный инвестиционный капитал, частные инвестиции; to
provide investment - давать/предоставлять инвестиции; инвестировать; to sign an investment contract-
подписать/заключить договор о предоставлении инвестиций; investment strategy - инвестиционная
политика; inward investor - внутренний (национальный) инвестор
■ imposition of tariffs —установление тарифов
■ market: financial market - финансовый рынок; commercial market--коммерческий рынок; global /world
market - мировой рынок; domestic market - внутренний рынок; .regulated . market - регулируемый ;
(государством) рынок; labour market - рынок труда; single-currency market - рынок единой валюты; rental
market - рынок жилья; to nudge up market - повысить спрос на что-либо; to tap the market - выходить на
рынок, осваивать рынок
■ own: state owned - государственный, находящийся в государственной собственности, являющийся
государственной собственностью; government issue (GI)- государственная собственность
■ economic recovery - экономическое восстановление, экономический подъем; revival of the economy-
возрождение экономики
в struggling economy - испытывающая трудности экономика

Companies:
в the deputy chairman - заместитель председателя (компании)
■ cooperation - сотрудничество; mutually beneficial cooperation - взаимовыгодное сотрудничество; foreign
economic cooperation - внешнеэкономическое сотрудничество; all-round cooperation - всестороннее
сотрудничество; long-term cooperation - долговременное сотрудничество; interstate cooperation -
межгосударственное сотрудничество; cooperation on a gratuitous basis - сотрудничество на безвозмездной
основе; to establish cooperation - налаживать сотрудничество; to curtail cooperation - сворачивать
сотрудничество; to expand/extend/broaden/intensify cooperation - расширять сотрудничество; to promote
cooperation - содействовать развитию
0 main line - железнодорожная магистраль
H gas - pipeline - газопровод
■ agreement - соглашение, договор; (collective) labour agreement - (коллективный) трудовой договор;
agreement to sell - соглашение о продаже; as per agreement/ by agreement - согласно договору/ по
договору; barter agreement - бартерная сделка (экспортно-импортная операция по обмену определенного
количества одного или нескольких товаров на эквивалентное по стоимости или цене количество
другого товара; может носить как двусторонний, так и многосторонний характер); business agreement
- деловое соглашение; custom(s) agreement - таможенное соглашение; production-sharing agreement -
соглашение о разделе продукции (СРП); merchandising agreement - торговое соглашение; subject of an
agreement - содержание соглашения; working agreement - соглашение о сотрудничестве; the agreement
provides - соглашение предусматривает
■ bring: to bring down - свалить, сломать, сбивать, снижать, привести к падению; to bring together - соединять,
собирать, объединять; to bring in line - привести в согласие/соответствие, убедить
согласиться/сотрудничать, согласовать

123
■ capacity - мощность; способность; емкость, вместимость, объем; carrying capacity - пропускная способность;
capacity to manufacture - производственная мощность; capacity to pay one’s way - окупаемость,
самоокупаемость; to increase the capacity - увеличить мощность/объем/выход
■ output - выпуск; продукция; производство; выработка; добыча; производительность; мощность; отдача; выход;
итог, результат
■ capital: capital goods - средства производства, основные фонды (производственные здания, сооружения,
машины и оборудование); capital expenditure/investment - капиталовложение, инвестиция; capital gain -
доходы от прироста капитала
■ company - общество, компания, товарищество; manufacturing company - промышленная/производящая
компания, фирма-производитель, компания-изготовитель; operating company - фирма-производитель; stock
company - акционерное общество
■ nonprofit corporation - некоммерческая организация
* dealing - распределение, раздача; сделка; dealings - деловые отношения; коммерческие сделки; торговые
связи
* entrepreneur - предприниматель
* private entity - частное предприятие; semi-private entity - предприятие со смешанной (частной и
государственной) собственностью
s founder-member - член-учредитель, член-основатель
в joint venture - совместное предприятие; joint-stock company - акционерное общество (АО)
0 marketing - торговля, продажа, сбыт; маркетинг; sales and marketing executive - руководитель отдела по
продажам и маркетингу; marketing right - право на сбыт/продажу
* merging - слияние
s pay back period - период окупаемости
■ tycoon - магнат, «олигарх»
в umbrella: umbrella organization - головная/ведущая организация; under the umbrella - под прикрытием,
(состоящий) при (какой-либо организации), под эгидой
■ semiofficial - полуофициальный
s workforce - рабочие, работники; общая численность сотрудников (в организации); рабочая сила

Finances:
■ in terms of - в пересчете на
1 accruals - прирост, накопление, приумножение; tax accruals - накопление налоговых сумм; accrued charges-
наросшие проценты, начисленные проценты.
а benevolence - доброжелательность, благожелательность, благосклонность; благотворительность, благодеяние,
пожертвование
Е (chronic) shortage - (хронический) дефицит; deficiency - отсутствие, нехватка; недостаток, дефицит; deficiency
of funds - дефицит средств; fund-raiser - сборщик средств, организатор работы по сбору средств
* financial collapse - финансовый крах, обвал; collapse in values - резкое обесценивание чего-либо (акций,
ценных бумаг и т.п.); collapse in price - обвал цен
e bankruptcy/ defaulting - банкротство
я commerce - оптовая торговля, коммерция; domestic commerce - внутренняя торговля
" currency trader —банк/организация, осуществляющие валютные операции
s curve - кривая (в т.ч. графика, диаграммы, спроса, предложения и т.д.)
в currency: depreciated currency - обесцененные деньги; currency’s decline-понижение стоимости валюты
" debt - долг; debt issue - проблема задолженности; settlement of the UN debt issue - соглашение no
вопросам задолженности перед ООН; public debt - государственный долг; debt-payback/ debt-repayment
agreement - соглашение о порядке выплаты долга; debt ratio - коэффициент задолженности; debt
rescheduling - реструктуризация долга; to be heavily in debts - иметь большие долги, сильно задолжать
в devaluation - девальвация
я duty - пошлина, сбор, налог (on - на, с)/ dues pi. - сборы, налоги, пошлины, взносы; customs duties -
таможенные пошлины; import duties - импортные пошлины; to levy - собирать, взимать (налоги, сборы,
пошлины); облагать (налогами и т.д.)
* default - невыполнение обязательств; неплатеж, отказ от уплаты долга
а embezzle - присваивать, растрачивать (чужие деньги); embezzlement - хищение, растрата (чужих денег)
® abuses: Ашшсш! sbuscs —финансовые нйрх/шсния/злоупотреблвния
■ euro: euro qualification - соответствие требованиям зоны хождения евро; euro-zone countries - страны с
единой валютой (евро); membership of the euro - участие/функционирование стран в едином
денежном/валютном пространстве (евро)
я excise - акциз, акцизный сбор; excise duties - акцизный сбор
* exchequer - казначейство, государственная казна
3 equity stskc —хшкет 2.кций‘ controlling interest —контрольный гшкет з-кций
* fiscal policy - финансовая/бюджетная политика
' to invest in - инвестировать в ...
я monetary - денежный; монетный; монетарный; валютный; monetary policy - финансовая (регулирующая
валютно-денежную систему) политика; monetary base - валютная база
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■ net - нетто, сальдо; чистый доход, доход без вычетов; net profit - чистая прибыль
я spending - трата, затрата, расходы; heavy spending - большие затраты/расходы; spending ministry -
дотационное министерство; spending totals - общая сумма расходов; annual public spending round -
ежегодные расходы на государственные нужды; comprehensive spending review - комплексный пересмотр
расходных статей (бюджета)
■ subsidy - субсидия, дотация, денежное пособие
■ bank: mortgage bank - ипотечный банк; state-owned bank - государственный банк; bank share - банковская
акция

Business operations:
в to lay/ place / put embargo - наложить эмбарго
* to lift/ raise/ remove/ take off embargo - снимать эмбарго
* audit - аудит, проверка, ревизия; audit team - группа аудиторов; to audit - проводить
аудит/проверку/ревизию; auditor - аудитор, бухгалтер-ревизор
■ bids: sealed bids - закрытые торги (преим. при государственных закупках); to suspend bids -
приостанавливать торги
■ credit: credit crunch - ограничение кредита; sovereign credit rating - независимая оценка
кредитоспособности; credit sale - продажа в кредит (to sale on credit); short-term/ long-term credit -
краткосрочный/долгосрочный кредит; soft credit - льготный кредит
B freight - груз, перевозка грузов, фрахт, стоимость перевозки; бремя; товарный вагон; freight shipment -
грузовые перевозки; rail freight services - железнодорожные грузовые перевозки; freight depot - грузовой
склад; freight wagon - товарный вагон
3 loophole - лазейка, увертка
* lettable - сдаваемый внаем; выдаваемый напрокат; lettable area - помещения, сдаваемые в аренду; lettable
office space - офисные помещения, сдаваемые в аренду, внаем
“ wholesale— оптовый ; wholesale cost-оптовая стоимость; wholesale business - оптовая торговля; wholesale
dealer, warehouse - оптовый торговец;' by the gross, in the gross - оптом, большими партиями; to sell in bulk
- продавать оптом, большими партиями
■ retail - розничный; retail trade, retail business - розничная торговля; to sell by retail - продавать в розницу

Social welfare:
■ social welfare/welfare/public administration1- (органы) социального обеспечения
■ welfare recipient - получающий государственное вспомоществование
и average wages - средний уровень заработной платы
■ all-out strike - всеобщая забастовка
■ benefit - преимущество, привилегия; польза, благо; благодеяние, доброе дело; пенсия, пособие (денежное);
benefit office - организация социального обеспечения; fringe benefits' - дополнительные (к зарплате) льготы
и привилегии; social insurance benefits - пособия или выплаты по социальному страхованию; to the
benefit of all concerned - с выгодой для всех заинтересованных сторон; targeted benefits - целевые
пособия; unemployment benefit - пособие по безработице
я bom: native-born (citizen) - уроженец, коренной житель (страны); foreign-born - родившейся вне пределов
страны, не уроженец ,
в per capita- н а душу населения
в cut - снижение, сокращение; cuts in income - сокращение доходов; price cut-снижение цен; rate c u t-
снижение ставки/тарифа; tax cut - снижение налога
■ commodity - предмет потребления, товар (широкого потребления); commodity products - продовольственные
товары; commodity prices - цены на товары
в deregulation programme - программа приватизации
* earnings - заработки, доход, прибыль; source of earnings - источник дохода; gain - доходы, заработок;
выигрыш; выгода, прибыль; увеличение, рост, прирост; commercial gain - коммерческая прибыль/выгода;
прибыль, полученная в результате торговли
в finished food - готовая продукция; semi-finished food - полуфабрикаты
* income - доход, приход, заработок; low income - низкий доход; income tax - подоходный налог; average
income level - средний уровень дохода; operating income - доход по сделкам/операциям; low-income -
малообеспеченный, малоимущий; с низким доходом; across-the-board personal income tax - единый
подоходный (совокупный) налог
■ labour: labour agreement - трудовой договор, трудовое соглашение; labour market - рынок труда; labour rules
- трудовое законодательство
в extra money - дополнительные выплаты

г т п А м г е л т г п м с АМП PFRSONAIJf
-Д. n il Ч А -TSkJLJja.A

1 Chamber of Commerce - Торговая палата


■ Economic and monetary union, Emu - экономический и валютный союз
в International Monetary Fund, IMF - Международный валютный фонд, МВФ
125
World Bank - Мировой (Всемирный) банк ь
World Trade Organisation, WTO - Всемирная торговая организация, ВТО
European Bank of Reconstruction and Development, EBRD - Европейский банк реконструкции и развития
VAT, value added tax - НДС, налог на добавленную стоимость

H IG H -TECH

access п.: open access to cable’s Internet networks - открытый доступ к кабельным сетям Интернета; канал
доступа к Интернету
amplifier тех. усилитель; antenna amplifier - антенный усилитель
antenna: directional antenna - направленная/радиопеленгаторная антенна; snooping antenna - антенна, при
помощи которой можно получать информацию (подслушивать, считывать с компьютера и т.п.)
anti-eavesdropping: anti-eavesdropping laws - законодательство, направленное против подслушивания
телефонных разговоров и т.п.
anti-surveillance: anti-surveillance monitoring tool - средство борьбы с несанкционированным доступом к
данным, находящимся в компьютере; устройство мониторинга отслеживания; computer-screen surveillance
system - несанкционированный (визуальный) доступ к данным на дисплее компьютера
biotech = biotechnology - биотехнология
brand - фабричная/торговая марка; brand name - торговая марка
cellular phone, cellphone - сотовый телефон; cellphone operator - оператор сотовой связи
computer chips - компьютерные микросхемы
computer-intercept equipment - устройство компьютерного перехвата; оборудование, позволяющее осуществить
несанкционированный доступ к данным, находящимся в компьютере
computer interface - компьютерный интерфейс
computer network - компьютерная сеть
computer pointing device - устройство перемещения курсора
conductive: highly conductive - с высокой проводимостью
convertible - автомобиль с открывающимся/закрывающимся верхом
desktop: desktop computer - настольный компьютер, десктоп, в отличие от переносного (laptop)
digital - цифровой
double-digit - увеличение в 100 раз (т.е. с добавлением двух нулей); six digit - увеличение в миллион раз (т.е. с
добавлением шести нулей) .. ..... .
electron: electron gun - электронная пушка, электронный прожектор
fixed and mobile networks - стационарная и мобильная сети связи/коммуникации
free-lance sites - сайты, на которых не занятые специалисты предлагают свои услуги, а компании сообщают о
своих потребностях
frequency: radio-frequency waves - радиоволны;, частоты электромагнитных волн, используемых для
радиопередач; частоты радиодиапазона; wave frequency - частота электромагнитных колебаний
ground -breaking - новаторский
high-end - находящийся в начале списка; high-end model - новейший образец
icon, graphics icon - пиктограмма, «иконка»
instant-messaging service - услуги/сервис мгновенного доступа
keyboard - клавиатура
lackluster - прям., перенос, тусклый, блеклый; посредственный
long-distance voice business - система удаленной голосовой связи
to zap m e s s a g e s быстро передавать информацию
network data base - сетевая база данных
obsolescence - тех. износ (оборудования)
pedigree sports car - элитная спортивная машина
to point - поставить/установить курсор
рГО^ГаГШПСГ —ПрОГраММИСТ
prototype - (опытный) образец, модель; эталон
pulp - целлюлоза
research and development staff - научно-технический персонал; инженеры и техники
semiconductor - полупроводник
substandard - нестандартный; ниже качества, установленного стандартом; некондиционный, не отвечающий
ТСХНИЧССККМУСЛОВИЯМ, неудовлетворительного Качества
technological convergence - сближение/слияние технологий
touchpad - коврик для компьютерной мыши
trackball - шарик для компьютерной мыши (on laptop) - ;
video-display unit - видеодисплей
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■ technical wizard - технический гений
Michael McCarthy, Felicity O’Dell “English Vocabulary in Use” advanced, CUP:
Units 52, 60,61

SPACE

a to alter the orbit - изменять орбиту


m prearranged/predetermined area - заданный район
■ an artificial satellite (man-made) - искусственный спутник
* astronaut (cosmonaut, spaceman, space pilot) - астронавт
1 astronautics/cosmonautics - астронавтика, космонавтика
s atmosphere: lower ~ - нижние слои атмосферы; rare (thin) ~ - разреженная атмосфера; to re-enter the ~ -
входить в атмосферу (re-entry - вхождение в плотные слои атмосферы)
1 the Earth’s attraction/gravitation.- земное притяжение
й to overcome the pull of gravity/ gravitational pull - преодолеть земное притяжение
* axis - ось
■ celestial body - небесное тело
■ booster (carrier-rocket) - ракета-носитель
■ to bring back/ to recover - возвращать (из космического полета)
я to bum out - сгорать (о спутнике), выгорать (о топливе двигателя)
■ capsule - капсула
в to circle (the Earth)/ to go round/ to move round/ to orbit/ to orbit (a)round/ to revolve around - двигаться no
орбите, вращаться
a orbiting - полет по орбите
■ to come down/ to land/ to touch down - приземлиться
■ to maintain communication (contact, link)/ to communicate - поддерживать связь
и direct contact - прямая связь
B regular and stable contact - регулярная и прочная связь
■ manual control - ручное управление; remote ~ - дистанционное управление; automatic (manual) control
system - система управления, пульт управления
■ cosmodrome - космодром
» to count down (count-down n.) - отсчитывать время (перед стартом)
а to cover the distance - пролетать (расстояние)
в (space)craft/vehicle/ship - любой космический аппарат
в (three-man) crew - команда корабля
а eclipse - затмение
в to eject - катапультироваться
и to the naked eye - невооруженным глазом
* to explore outer space/ to probe - исследовать космическое пространство (exploration/probing)
18 to fall off/ to separate (off) - отделяться (о ступени ракеты и т.п.)
■ to fire/ to launch/ to get/ to put/ to send into orbit, into space/ to project/ to shoot - запускать (ракету)
a free flight - свободный полет; full-orbital ~ - орбитальный полет; group/joint —групповой полет;
interplanetary — межпланетный полет; tree-manned space ~
* extraterrestrial life - внеземные формы жизни; intelligent life - разумная жизнь; terrestrial life - земная форма
жизни
- lift-off/take-off - старт, взлет
в meteor - метеор
s meteorite - метеорит
■ multi-stage (rocket) - многоступенчатая
* (launching) pad - стартовая площадка
я (orbital) parameters - параметры
* (to carry) payload - полезный груз
■ to pilot a spaceship - управлять, пилотировать
* impact point - точка падения; landing point - точка приземления, посадки
■ probe/ space station - космическая исследовательская ракета-зонд, космическая станция
■ to process data/ information - обрабатывать информацию
■ to refuel - заправлять топливом
= to relay/ send' signal/ transmit (data/info) - передавать (информацию)
* rendezvous n. (pi. - vous) - встреча, сближение (кораблей): orbital ~; space ~; to rendezvous
■ spacesuit/ pressure suit - скафандр космонавта
■ steerable satellite - управляемый (спутник)

127
■ to support life - иметь благоприятные для жизни условия
■ two-way communication/contact/link - двусторонняя связь
■ velocity - скорость; escape — вторая космическая скорость; orbital ~- первая космическая скорость
■ to attain/ reach escape, orbital velocity
■ weightless - невесомый; under weightless conditions - в условиях невесомости; weightlessness/zero-gravity -
невесомость
0 to withstand (great loads) - выдерживать, переносить (большие перегрузки)

EDUCATION

н candidate, applicant - абитуриент


я administrative staff - администрация
я period - академический час
я assembly hall-актовый зал
я postgraduate training - аспирантура
B classes - аудиторные занятия
и demonstration school - базовая школа
■ to confer diplomas - выдавать дипломы
ш output of students - выпуск ( окончивших высшее учебное заведение)
* final examinations - выпускные экзамены
в to give (assign) marks —выставлять оценки
в open day-день открытых дверей
■ degree, diploma - диплом университета ш!и другого вуза
н pass degree - диплом без отличия
в honours degree - диплом с отличием
в principal - директор колледжа
в headmaster - директор школы
в to follow the curriculum - заниматься по программе
■ classes, tutorials - практические занятия
я external student - заочник
я extra-mural department - заочное отделение
в admission - зачисление
я application for admission, admission form - заявление о приеме
■ title, academic title - научное звание (title of professor)
B acting - исполняющий обязанности
“ testing / probationary period - испытательный срок
H the chair - кафедра; holder of the chair - заведующий кафедрой; to hold (to fill, to occupy) the chair -
заведовать кафедрой; tenure (of the chair) - заведование (кафедрой)
* society - кружок
я preliminary courses - подготовительные курсы
® refresher courses - курсы усовершенствования
8 to enter for an examination - быть допущенным к сдаче экзаменов
■ to be on the s ta f f- быть в штате
' private student - вольнослушатель
B old students’ reunion - встреча бывших выпускников
“ entrance examinations - вступительные экзамены
* thesis, disertation - диссертация
® paper - доклад (научный); provocative paper - доклад, вызвавший дискуссию
H pre-school child - дошкольник
■ assistant - professor - доцент
“ to take English, History - заниматься английским, историей
B assigning body - комиссия по распределению выпускников
я awarding board - стипендиальная комиссия; to award grants/scholarships - назначать стипендии
■ examining body/board of examiners - экзаменационная комиссия
и student body - контингент студентов
a competitive examinations - конкурсные экзамены
* supplementary course-к у р с дополнительный
B compulsory course - обязательный курс
B advanced course - курс повышенного типа, аспирантский курс
н course of training-ку р с подготовки
я full-time course - полный курс
в specialist course - специальный курс

128
* course of study - учебный курс
a optional course - факультативный курс
■ short-time courses - краткосрочные курсы
B summer school - летние курсы
■ extension courses - курсы повышения квалификации
■ relaxations - льготы при поступлении
■ interdepartmental - межфакультетский
* library loan - библиотечный абонемент
■ extra-curricular activities - внеклассные мероприятия
и hostel accomodation - место в общежитии
■ teaching methods - методика преподавания
в monograph - монография
■ visual aid - наглядное пособие
■ assignment - назначение (на работу)
■ humanities - гуманитарные науки
■ sciences - естественные и точные науки
■ social sciences - науки социально-экономические
■ academic field - научная область
а the system of exchange experience - обмен опытом
» tuition/education - обучение; free tuition - бесплатное обучение; extra-mural tuition - заочное обучение; inter­
mural tuition - очное обучение; compulsory education - обязательное обучение
я to complete a second (third) year - окончить второй (третий) курс
а to graduate with honours - окончить с отличием
* to graduate in philology - окончить филологический факультет
a teaching experience - опыт преподавания
я to excuse from attendance - освободить от посещения
® evening department - вечернее отделение
а extra-mural department - отделение заочного обучения
■ to assess the proficiency - оценивать знания; assessment of proficiency
* teaching/school practice - педагогическая практика
B intense curriculum - перегруженная программа
B intense syllabus - перегруженный учебный план
■ to write from dictation - писать под диктовку -
в to raise entrance standards - повышать приемные требования
■ academic qualification - научная подготовка ;
■ to gain an academic degree with a dissertation on получить ученую степень на основе диссертации на
тему...
я attendance - посещаемость; voluntary attendance - свободная посещаемость
я a student on entry, candidate for admission —поступающий в институт
в standards of admission - правила приема
я teaching is maintained at a very high level - преподавание ведется на высоком уровне
* teaching duties - преподавательская нагрузка
в five point scale system - пятибалльная система
* sessional work - работа учебная в течение года
■ to take a course of lectures - слушать курс лекций
в staff meeting - совещание преподавателей
■ to draw up the syllabus - составлять учебный план
■ intellectual strain - умственное напряжение
■ demonstration lesson - открытый урок
а regulation lesson - урок по расписанию
* teaching aid-учебное пособие
■ accademic year-учебный год
я teaching scheme/ syllabus - учебный план
■ confidential report - характеристика, составляемая на студента

129
A PPEN D IX I.

The Press (Quality Press and Popular Press)

Q uality papers ("Heavies") and tabloids

a) Overall layout and typographical level

Certain devices of (the) layout facilitate [= make easier] the reading of news stories:

- a headline attracts the reader’s attention, it serves as an eye-catcher

- this headline may be printed in large block letters: a banner headline

- the headline may cover as much space as the body of the text

- sub-headlines divide the text into different sections

- headlines and sub-headlines may be underlined

- columns and paragraphs visibly break up the1text

- the text may be printed in narrow or broad columns, short or long paragraphs

- different sizes and kinds of type act as orientation aids [= draw attention to things]

- the sizes of types in the paragraphs may differ from one another

- headlines and sub-headlines may be printed in bold type (thick letters) or italics (letters that

lean over to one side)

- key words may be put in inverted commas [= "" ]

- illustrations may be inserted in the body of the text

- there often is a caption printed below the illustration

These are some of the most important (or: obvious, easily recognized) features of the layout

Example:

Daily Readers' Rag printed London, New York, Tokyo, Hamm Date: today, of course

BANNER HEADLINE - READ THIS NEWS STORY NOW!

blablablablablablablablablabla blablablablablablablablablabla blablablablablablablablablabla


important blabla (underlined!) blablablablablablablablablabla blabla in a different type

blablablablablablablablablabla ЫаЫа in bold type (wow!) blablablablablablablablablabla


blabla iTi italics (important?) blablabla. blablablablablablablablablabla
blablablabia. "blabla" in inverted commas blablablab.

130
blablablablablablablablablabla blablablablablablablablablabla

Subheadline (underlined) blablablablablablablablablabla blablablablablablablablablabla


blablablablablablablablablabla blablablablablablablablablabla blablablablablablablablablabla
blablablablablablablablablabla blablablablabla. blablablablablablablablablabla
blablablablablablablablablabla blablablablablablablablablabla blablablablablablablablablabla

This text is printed in three columns of equal length and width.

It has a banner headline and a sub-headline, which is set in column one, between paragraphs one and two. The text is
divided into five paragraphs - all of them composed of a lot of useless blabla, some of which has been stressed by various
typographical devices.

b) Corapository level

- the presentation of the news story is in the form of the inverted pyramid story :

- the news story progresses from the general to the particular :

- there is general-to-partieular stucturing

- the news story consists of three main parts: headline - lead(s) - body

- the headline informs the reader of (or: gives the reader some information on) the most - ^

important aspect of the news story

- the lead sums up the news (or: gives the most important information)

- in the lead(s) the "w-questions" are answered: Who? Where? When? What? (Why?)

- additional information is given in the body of the text

- the body provides more details, particularly... (or: for instance... / such as...)

- in the body, the facts given in the lead(s) are reported in greater detail

c) Semantic level / choice of words

- the language is reader-orientated (= is chosen with a certain kind of reader in mind)

- the tone of a news story may be objective (or: neutral) or it may be emotional

- the objective tone of the text is underlined by.... (examples of choice of words)

- the emotional tone of the text, typical of the popular papers, is apparent in ...

- the journalist uses emotive (or: dramatic) words

- the text contains a number of abstract words

- the news story may show biased reporting or unbiased reporting

- the high proportion of emotive / abstract words aims at... (i.e. arousing interest)

- there may be evidence of a wide range of words or a limited range of words


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■the level of language employed can be seen in the use of colloquialisms / slang expressions

- much of the vocabulary refers to the field of ../i.e. politics education / sociology ...)

d) Syntactic level

- the news story can contain a high percentage of complex sentences

- it may be composed of short, simple sentences

- the complexity and the average length of the sentences suggest that. ..

- the oyerall style of the news story, as seen in syntax and semantics, may be elevated

(or: formal, elaborated) - on the other hand, it may be simplified (or: simple)

- the style and tone employed in this text indicate that it is aimed at... (a certain type of reader)

e) Some common features of headlines

- use of a simplified tense system

- omission of articles

- use of quotations (with or without quotation marks)

- use of idioms, slang, colloquialisms

- use of abbreviations

- use of colon [:] or dash [-]

- use of monosyllabic words

i) Finally, some useful phrases

[ News stories ( contents, language, layout) and their reader ]


i
- the journalist has a particular readership in mind

- the purpose of [XYZ] is to enable the addressee to form his own independent opinion of

facts I events (without being influenced by the reporter)

- the necessity of attracting the reader's attention

- th e r e a d e r w ill ( n o t ) e x p e c t t o b e p r e s e n t e d w ith ...

- to appeal to the reader's emotions

- to satisfy a desire for sensationalism

- to persuade the reader to accept this opinion by selecting (only details o f .... / words which...)

th e r e a d e r is p r e s e n te d w ith a n o b s c c t u d e s c r i p t i o n ОГ a S ilbjcC tiV S ucSCrigStlOia O i...

- to m a in ta in th e r e a d e r ’s a tte n tio n b y ...


.is meant to evoke ад emotional response

- the popular press (or; yellow press / possibly: gutter press) is aimed at a certain readership

- the quality papers are targeted at a certain readership

A PP E N D IX II, LIST OF LIN K IN G DEVICES

> above all больше всего, > furthermore кроме to ro , к тому же


главным образом
> actually фактически, на > generally/in вообще, в основном,
самом деле general большей частью
> admittedly по общему
признанию > however однако; как бы ни
> after all в конце концов, в
конечном счете > in addition в дополнение, к тому
> afterward впоследствии, же
потом > meantime/ тем временем
> all at once, all of неожиданно, вдруг meanwhile
a sudden > moreover кроме того, сверх того

> all in all в целом > naturally естественно,


разумеется
> all the more тем более > nevertheless тем не менее

> anyhow во всяком случае > none the less./ тем не менее
notwithstanding
> anyway во всяком случае,
так или иначе > obviously очевидно
> apparently по-видимому,
очевидно > on the whole в общем, в целом
> at first сперва, сначала
> otherwise в противном случае,
> at last наконец иначе
> possibly возможно •
> basically по существу
> practically фактически,
> besides/by the кроме того практически
way > presently вскоре, после; теперь,
t сейчас
> consequently/in следовательно, > presumably предположительно, по-
consequence поэтому видимому
> quite honestly честно говоря
> eventually в конечном счете, в
конце концов > strictly speaking строго говоря
> evidently очевидно > that is why вот почему

> finally в конце концов, в > thence оттуда, следовательно


конечном счете поэтому
> firstly во-первых > therefore таким образом
> thus
> first of all прежде всего
> ultimately в конечном счете, в
> for this (that) с этой (той) целью конце концов
purpose > virtually фактически, в
> fortunately к счастью сущности

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