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BE A
Human
CALCULATOR
Mere Observation - No Magic
BE A
Human
CALCULATOR
Mere Observation - No Magic
Notion Press
Old No. 38, New No. 6
McNichols Road, Chetpet
Chennai - 600 031

First Published by Notion Press 2016


Copyright © Rajesh Sarswat 2016
All Rights Reserved.

ISBN 978-93-5206-607-0

This book has been published with all efforts taken to make the material error-
free after the consent of the author. However, the author and the publisher do
not assume and hereby disclaim any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or
disruption caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions result
from negligence, accident, or any other cause.

No part of this book may be used, reproduced in any manner whatsoever without
written permission from the author, except in the case of brief quotations embodied
in critical articles and reviews.
CONTENTS
Preface�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ix
Acknowledgments����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������xiii
1. Some Basic Techniques��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1
  1.1 Digital root or digit sum����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1
  1.2 Bases and complements ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2
  1.3 Vinculum��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
2. Addition��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7
  2.1 One line addition or row addition��������������������������������������������������������� 8
  2.2 Marking the carry forward technique�������������������������������������������������� 8
  2.3 Addition of decimal numbers ���������������������������������������������������������������10
3. Subtraction�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������13
  3.1 One line subtraction���������������������������������������������������������������������������������13
  3.2 Subtraction by adding compliments���������������������������������������������������13
  3.3 Adding and subtracting together���������������������������������������������������������14
4. Multiplication �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17
  4.1 Multiplication of two digit numbers���������������������������������������������������17
  4.2 Multiplication of three digit numbers�������������������������������������������������20
  4.3 Multiplication of two numbers with
unequal number of digits �����������������������������������������������������������������������23
  4.4 General method of multiplication �������������������������������������������������������24
  4.5 Multiplication near a base number�����������������������������������������������������26
  4.6 Some special cases of multiplication���������������������������������������������������30
  4.7 Multiplication of three numbers simultaneously���������������������������33
5. Divisibility��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������37
  5.1 Divisibility tests of 2, 4, 8, 16 etc.���������������������������������������������������������37
  5.2 Divisibility tests of 5, 25, 125, 625 etc.�����������������������������������������������39
  5.3 Divisibility tests of 3 and 9���������������������������������������������������������������������40
  5.4 Divisibility test of 11���������������������������������������������������������������������������������41
  5.5 Divisibility check for Prime Numbers�������������������������������������������������43
  5.6 Divisibility check for Composite Numbers���������������������������������������46
6. Percentage�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������49
  6.1 Equivalent fractions ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������49
  6.2 Finding quicker percentage �������������������������������������������������������������������50
  6.3 Flipping the Number Technique�����������������������������������������������������������51
Contents

 7. Division�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������53
   7.1 Division by using vinculum �����������������������������������������������������������������53
   7.2 Division by using complements���������������������������������������������������������55
   7.3 Modified cancellation Technique�������������������������������������������������������57
 8. Squaring Techniques ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������59
   8.1 Squaring of numbers ending with 5�������������������������������������������������59
   8.2 Squaring of numbers from 51 to 59�������������������������������������������������60
   8.3 General Method of Squaring a two digit number�������������������������61
   8.4 Squaring near a base number �����������������������������������������������������������62
   8.5 General Method of Squaring of any number ���������������������������������63
 9. Cubing Techniques �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������67
   9.1 Cubing a two digit number�������������������������������������������������������������������67
   9.2 Cubing near a base number�����������������������������������������������������������������69
10. Square Root���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������73
   10.1 Square root of Perfect Square Numbers consisting
of 3 or 4 digits (By Inspection) �������������������������������������������������������73
   10.2 Square root of Perfect Square Numbers consisting
of 5 digits (By Inspection) �����������������������������������������������������������������76
   10.3 Approximate square roots of non-perfect squares�������������������79
11. Cube Root�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������83
   11.1 Cube Root of Perfect Cubes up-to 6 digit numbers�������������������84
   11.2 Cube Root of Perfect Cubes of 7 to 9 digit numbers�����������������89
   11.3 Finding approximate cube roots of non-perfect cubes�����������93
12. Fractions and Decimals�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������97
   12.1 Addition of mixed fractions���������������������������������������������������������������95
   12.2 Subtraction of mixed fractions���������������������������������������������������������95
   12.3 Multiplication/Square of Mixed Fractions ���������������������������������95
   12.3 Converting recurring decimals into fractions�����������������������������96
13. LCM and HCF����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������101
   13.1 Finding LCM and HCF of two numbers��������������������������������������101
14. Checking Your Answer����������������������������������������������������������������������������������103
Algebra������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������107
15. Long Division or Synthetic Division��������������������������������������������������������109
   15.1 Long division ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������109
   15.2 Synthetic division of a polynomial by a linear
polynomial of the type x ± a ����������������������������������������������������������109
   15.3 Synthetic division of a polynomial by a linear
polynomial of the type ax ± b��������������������������������������������������������111
   15.4 Synthetic division by a polynomial of degree two
and above����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������112
vi
Contents

16. Factorization of Polynomials����������������������������������������������������������������������115
   16.1 Factorization of quadratic polynomials by inspection ��������115
   16.2  Factorization of cubic polynomials��������������������������������������������116
17. Solving Equations������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������121
   17.1 Linear equations in two variables������������������������������������������������121
   17.2 Linear equations in three variables��������������������������������������������124
   17.3 Quadratic equations��������������������������������������������������������������������������128
   17.4 Solving equations of degree more than 2����������������������������������131
   17.5 Some special equations��������������������������������������������������������������������131
  (a) Equations of the form ����������������������������������������������������������������������131
     x + y = a
     x − y = b
  (b) Equations of the form ����������������������������������������������������������������������132
      ax + by =
c1
     bx + ay =
c2
2
  (c) Equations of the form: ��������������������������������������������������������������������132
     ( x + a ).( x + b) = ( x + c).( x + d ), where ab = cd
  (d) Equations of the form: ��������������������������������������������������������������������133
     ( x + a ).( x + b) = ( x + c).( x + d ), where ab ≠ cd
  (e) Equations of the form: ��������������������������������������������������������������������133
1 1
+ 0
=
      ax + b cx + d
  (f) Equations of the form: ����������������������������������������������������������������������134
ax + b ex + f
= ⇒ N=
1 N2
      cx + d gx + h D1 D 2
    where N 1 + N 2 = D1 + D 2
  (g) Equations of the form: ��������������������������������������������������������������������135
      1 1 1 1
+ = +
x+a x+b x+c x+d
     Where, (x+a) + (x+b) = (x+c) + (x+d)
Answers����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������137

vii
Preface
The roots of this book could be traced to the year 1991 when I
skimmed through a small article in a vernacular newspaper on quick
mathematics. The article was based on a technique of multiplication
evolved by Jakow Trachtenberg, the famed Russian mathematician. The
article left a deep imprint in my mind, and I wondered as to whether there
were other such techniques of quick mathematics. This incident led me
to look for more insightful articles and papers. As I was preparing for
competitive examinations conducted by various public agencies which
almost always require consummate mathematical skills for success, I
found these techniques truly useful. Little did I realize at that time that my
incessant journey into the realm of quick mathematics had begun! I had
taken to a passion that would be in my psyche for all times to come.
These techniques worked very well, and I cleared a plethora of
competitive examinations. The more I practiced the techniques, the better
I got at them. Very soon I was able to appreciate the deeper and subtle
aspects of quick mathematics. I realized that speed at solving problems
directly influenced the appreciation of the problems. Moreover, through
appreciation of mathematical problems, every great mathematician
would tell you, is the key to solutions. I also deem it essential to mention
at this juncture that the faster you get at problem-solving, the greater is
your accuracy.
I have always had this conviction that only by spreading knowledge
does one expand one’s own sphere of knowledge. Holding on to one’s
ken as a well-guarded secret doesn’t help. Such an approach makes the
knowledge stagnant and often devoid of soul. So I was very happy to share
my techniques with my family and friends. Many of my friends actually
improved their grades in mathematics, and of course, many of them
cleared difficult competitive examinations. It was then that I decided to
write this book for the benefit of all. However, I resisted my impulse of
rushing through with the project. That’s because I wanted the book to be
truly useful to all kinds of students (even for those who hate mathematics!)
Preface

cutting across continents and nations. And in order to make the book
truly useful for all, it was imperative for me to conduct more exhaustive
research on quick mathematics and the educational patterns pertinent to
mathematics in various countries and cultures.
I am so happy that after years of research and writing, this book has
finally become ready. I must say in full humility that the exhaustive nature
of my research allowed me to innovate on many of the existing techniques
and even devise my own methods. I have presented the essence of all my
hard work in this book.
It will perhaps also not be out of place to mention that this is my third
academic book. While one of my earlier works deals with the conceptual
aspects of mathematics, the one that you are currently reading lays greater
emphasis on essential appreciation of problems and quick calculations.
While I do not guarantee miracles to the students willing to improve
their problem solving abilities, I can certainly assure better performance
and success in competitive examinations and of course better appreciation
of problems and their solutions if one works hard and perseveres with the
methods so as to eventually master them.
I have read scores of books that make similar promises, but to my utter
dismay I discovered that more often than not the authors of such books
had not tested the techniques, they propound and promote in real-life
problem solving situations. However, the techniques that you shall find
in this book have been tested and used (not only by me but by countless
other people) in examinations time and again. So I have no hesitation in
calling these techniques trustworthy and truly effective.
I have also very often come across techniques mentioned in other books
which are pretty impractical and sometimes completely unusable. I must
tell you again that this book is not a package of magic. It is rather a package
of methods that if practiced and persevered with can churn up magical
results! This book could be a great resource for various competitive
examinations and students in middle and senior school. It could help
the reader in myriad ways depending upon his or her needs and scope
for practice. At the same time one could figure out as to which technique
would work for one and which would not, again depending upon one’s
set of circumstances and needs. By reading this book, the students will be
able to:

x
Preface

• learn quicker methods by observing some simple techniques;


• compare various techniques available on each topic;
• know the limitations of each technique;
• save some precious minutes in various competitive and school
examinations by employing the quick calculation techniques;
• develop their own tools in the field of quick calculations.
I have consciously avoided writing the lengthy and often dull derivations
of the formulas and methods that will help you improve your calculative
speed and accuracy. That’s because the presentation of those derivations
and lengthy explications would only add to the volume of the book and do
little else to improve your skills.
Now I offer you this book for your reading and mathematical pleasures!
I shall warmly welcome your comments on the work… even the bitterest
of criticisms would be accepted with the same spirit.

xi
Acknowledgements
To start with, I am thankful to my Late father Shri H.S. Sarswat and my
mother Smt Maya Sarswat because of whom I have been able to achieve
the things I have always aspired for.
My wife Swati Sarswat and son Aniket Sarswat have always been great
sources of inspiration and encouragement. I spent countless hours in
my study for research and writing which rightfully belonged to them.
However, I never heard even the mildest of complaints. In fact, their
excitement about a book on quick practical mathematics being written
catalyzed this work by a degree that I could never have achieved if I had
worked in isolation.
I am also thankful to my friends Virender Singh, Yogesh Sharma,
Vijayant Arora, Parveen, Tapas Dey, Pankaj Dhamija and Soumitra Basu for
their profound support to my endeavors. I have derived untold motivation
and encouragement from their ideas and words.
I also wish to extend my heartfelt thanks to my friend Biswajit Banerjee
for being a constant source of inspiration! Biswajit being a writer himself
often demonstrates how one should pursue one’s literary passion
regardless of the circumstances one finds oneself in.
We are a large family, and I get immense support from all my family
members in my ventures. I am thankful to my brothers, sisters, cousins
and all other loved ones for their indescribable contributions to my life.
My sister Rashmi Sarswat merits special mention for being a perennial
source of motivation. Her words and actions have always acted as infallible
pillars of strength.
Last but not the least, I would also like to extend my appreciation and
thanks to Shri Utkaarsh R. Tiwaari, my senior, for his timely support that
greatly facilitated the writing of the book.
Subscribe Author’s mail
list to get his upcoming
book as a free gift

http://beahumancalculator.com/
Chapter

1 Some Basic Techniques


Before proceeding further, students should understand some powerful
techniques used in mental/faster calculations:

1.1 Digital Root or Digit Sum:


Digital root of a number is the sum of all the digits of a number, continued
until there is only one digit left.
Example 1:
Digital root of 123 = 1+2+3=6
Example 2:
Digital root of 563281 is 5+6+3+2+8+1=25 = 2+5=7
Example 3:
Digital root of 2637896 is 2+6+3+7+8+9+6 = 41 = 4+1=5
The process of finding digital roots can further be simplified by using a
faster method, known as “Casting out Nine Method”.

CASTING OUT NINE METHOD


In this method, we eliminate or leave 9 or group of digits whose sum is 9. The
digits left thereafter at the end are added up for finding the digital root.
Let’s understand this method through some examples:-
Example 4: Digital Root of 93 is 3 (cast out nine to get the left out digit
3 as the digital root.)
Example 5: Digital root of 732 is 3 (cast out 7+2 = 9, 3 is the digital root.)

Example 6: Digital root of 9 7 4 3 8 2 1 is 7 (cast out 9, 7+2 and 8 + 1 and


the left out numbers 4 &3 are added to get 7 as the digital root.)

Note:
(1) From the above examples, it may be seen that the value of 9 may be
taken as 0 for the purpose of calculating digital root.
Be a Human Calculator

(2) The concept of digital roots can be used to check the correctness


of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and lots more. We
will learn about the same in detail in chapter 14.

Exercise 1.1
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)
Find the digital root of the following numbers:
1. 213927 2. 3148653 3. 523827
4. 4846471 5. 43471648 6. 567324
7. 334325 8. 8856746 9. 678905
10. 123456

1.2 Bases and Complements:


Bases: The numbers starting with 1 and follwed by 0’s are called bases.
For example 10, 100, 1000, 10000, 100000, and so on are called bases.
Normally, these kinds of numbers are considered as bases for doing
faster/calculation in various methods and tricks.
Numbers such as 25, 50, 250, 500 etc., which are factors or multiples of
bases are called secondary bases.
Complements: The difference of the given number from its next nearest
base is called complement of the given number.

Example 1: Consider the number 156. The next nearest base of 156 is
1000. So, the complement of 156 is 1000 – 156 = 844.

Example 2: Consider the number 73. The next nearest base of 73 is 100.
So, the complement of 73 is 100 – 73 = 27.

Example 3: Complement of 6 is 4 (Base is 10).

Example 4: Complement of 25 is 75 (Base is 100).

Example 5: Complement of 6545 is 3455 (Base is 10000).

Finding Complement of a number:


Complement of a number can be calculated by subtracting all digits of the
number from 9 and the last digit by 10.

2
Be a Human Calculator

Example 6: Find the complement of 358732?


Solution: 9 9 9 9 9 10
– 35873 2
6 4 1 2 6 8
Example 7: Find the complement of 5183?
Solution: 9 9 9 10
– 518 3
4 8 1 7
Finding Complement of a number when its last digit is zero
Find complement of the number after leaving the last digit (that is zero)
by using the method explained above. Add zero to the answer to get the
complement of the given number.
Example 8: Find the complement of 69560670?
Solution: 9 9 9 9 9 9 10
– 6 9 5 6 0 6 7 0
3 0 4 3 9 3 3 0

Exercises 1.2
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)
Find the Complements of the following numbers
1. 234 2. 3457 3. 523827
4. 10910 5. 989 6. 167324
7. 21975 8. 885674 9. 678905
10. 990

1.3 Vinculum:
(i) The vinculum is one of the most powerful methods used in mental/
faster calculations as it allows us to remove some or all digits over five
from a calculation so that only 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are used.
(ii) Vinculum Numbers are those numbers which have one or more digit
as negative (shown by using a bar over them). The vinculum is a
horizontal line written over a digit thereby making it negative.

3
Be a Human Calculator

Conversion of ordinary numbers into vinculum numbers


We convert any number into a vinculum number by converting the
digits which are above 5 to less than 5 without changing the value of
that number.
Step-I: Digit or digits to be converted are replaced by their complements
from next higher base;

Step-II: Increase the immediate left digit by one.

Example 1: 8 = 08 = 12 (as complement of 8 is 2)


(In 12, 1 is positive digit and 2 is negative digit, so the place value of 1 is
10 and place value of 2 is -2. Therefore 12 = 10 - 2 = 8).
Example 2: 288 = 312 (as complement of 88 is 12)
as 312 = 300 -12 = 288
Example 3: 174 = 234 (as complement of 7 is 3)
as 234 = 200 -30 + 4 = 174
Example 4: 589 = 611 (as complement of 89 is 11)
as 611 = 600 -11 = 589
Example 5: 284491 = 324511 (as complement of 9 and 8 are 1 & 2
respectively)
as 324511 = 300000 - 20000 + 4500 – 10 + 1 = 284491
Conversion of vinculum numbers into ordinary numbers

Step-I: Vinculum digit or digits are replaced by their complements from


next higher base;

Step-II: Decrease the immediate left number by one.

Example 1: 12 = 08 (as complement of 2 is 8)

Example 2: 312 = 288 (as complement of 12 is 88)

Example 3: 234 = 174 (as complement of 3 is 7)

Example 4: 611 = 589 (as complement of 11 is 89)

Example 5: 324511 = 284491

4
Be a Human Calculator

Example 6: 109 = 111 = 091


(Better if we do, 100 – 9 = 91)
Example 7: 1009 = 1011 = 1191 = 0991
(Better if we do, 1000 – 9 = 991)

Exercises 1.3 (a)


Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)
Convert the following numbers into vinculum numbers by reducing digits
more than 5 to digits less than 5:
1. 237 2. 3457 3. 52382
4. 10917 5. 889 6. 167324
7. 21975 8. 885674 9. 678905
10. 993

Exercises 1.3 (b)


Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)
Convert the following vinculum numbers into ordinary numbers:
1. 237 2. 5372 3. 1326
4. 1342 5. 2131 6. 27801
7. 34795 8. 21921 9. 1002
10. 98765

5
By the Same Author

Avoid Silly Mistakes in


Mathematics

Amazon bestseller in Counting and


Numeration Category at
https://www.amazon.com
Chapter

2 Addition
Addition is the first arithmetical operation we learn, so for the students
with good mathematical skills, no short tricks are required for doing
a faster addition. However, for students having an average or weak
mathematical ability, some techniques are required, which may help
them in computing addition of numbers at an improved pace. Before
learning these techniques, students must ensure that they are thorough
in one digit addition and are able to add the following numbers within
a fraction of second:

1+1=2 2+2=4 3+3=6 4+4=8 5 + 5 = 10


1+2=3 2+3=5 3+4=7 4+5=9 5 + 6 = 11
2+1=3 3+2=5 4+3=7 5+4=9 6 + 5 = 11
1+3=4 2+4=6 3+5=8 4 + 6 = 10 5 + 7 = 12
3+1=4 4+2=6 5+3=8 6 + 4 = 10 7 + 5 = 12
1+4=5 2+5=7 3+6=9 4 + 7 = 11 5 + 8 = 13
4+1=5 5+2=7 6+3=9 7 + 4 = 11 8 + 5 = 13
1+5=6 2+6=8 3 + 7 = 10 4 + 8 = 12 5 + 9 = 14
5+1=6 6+2=8 7 + 3 = 10 8 + 4 = 12 9 + 5 = 14
1+6=7 2+7=9 3 + 8 = 11 4 + 9 = 13
6+6 =12
6+1=7 7+2=9 8 + 3 = 11 9 + 4 =13
1+7=8 2 + 8 = 10 3 + 9 = 12 6 + 7 = 13
7 + 7 = 14
7+1=8 8 + 2 = 10 9 + 3 = 12 7 + 6 = 13
1+8=9 2 + 9 = 11 7 + 8 = 15 6 + 8 = 14
8 + 8 = 16
8+1=9 9 + 2 = 11 8 + 7 = 15 8 + 6 = 14
1 + 9 = 10 8 + 9 = 17 7 + 9 = 16 6 + 9 = 15
9 + 9 = 18
9 + 1 =10 9 + 8 = 17 9 + 7 = 16 9 + 6 = 15
Be a Human Calculator

2.1 One Line Addition or Row Addition:


We start learning addition in various columns as follows:
2134
3455
+ 6666
12 2 5 5
It is only a matter of habit that we add numbers using columns as
we have been doing it for years after years. If a question appears in the
examination like:
215.49 + 345.76 + 2134.98 = ?
The first reaction of most of the students (if not of all) would be as
follows:
215.49
345.76
+ 2134.98
It is an interesting fact that you are going to get the same answer, if
you add the numbers after re-writing them in columns as per our habit or
write the sum directly in front of the question itself by using the normal
addition. It will save at least the time of re-writing the numbers into
columns. So our first trick is (which of course is a mere observation) that
whenever you get any question of addition in the examination, don’t re-
write it on paper in columns. Instead, you should write the answer directly
in front of the question itself. It may look like:
215.49 + 345.76 + 2134.98 = 2696.23
Our procedure will remain the same as we do in normal column
addition. This technique will also save some space on your examination
question booklet, which you can use for really lengthy questions.
Summary of the discussion is-Add the numbers in whatever formats
they are given in the question (without re-writing) to save time.

2.2 Marking the Carry Forward Technique:


(1) In this technique, we never count beyond ten. As soon as the
accumulated sum crosses 10, we reduce it by 10 and move forward
with a reduced figure, and put an appropriate mark on the number
that made our total more than 10.

8
Be a Human Calculator

(2) When we move to add ten’s digits, we count the marks made while
adding the unit’s digits. These marks will be added as carry forward
when we will add ten’s digits.
(3) Repeat step -1 and step-2 till you get the answer.
Example 1: Let us illustrate the technique with an example

2134 + 3453 + 23456 + 1234 + 2345=?


We start adding unit’s digit from left to right:
4 + 3 = 7, 7 + 6 =13 (As the sum has crossed ten, we will put a cross mark
over 6 and reduce number by 10. Now we have 3 as the accumulated sum),
3 + 4 = 7, 7 + 5 = 12 (As the sum has again crossed ten, we will put a cross
mark over 5 and reduce number by 10. Now we have 2 as the accumulated
sum). We will put 2 as the unit’s place of the answer as follows:
2134 + 3453 + 23456 + 1234 + 2345 = 2
Now we may see that there are two cross marks at unit’s places. These
are “carry forward” for addition of digits at ten’s place. We will start with
carry forward as follows:
2 + 3 = 5, 5 + 5 = 10 (cross mark 5 and start with 0), 0 + 5 = 5, 5 + 3 =8,
8 + 4 = 12 (cross mark 4 and put 2 as the ten’s place of the answer
2134 + 3453 + 23456 + 1234 + 2345 = 22
Again carry forward is 2. We will start adding digits at hundredth place
as follows:
2 + 1 = 3, 3 + 4 = 7, 7 + 4 =11 (mark 4 and start with 1), 1 + 2 = 3,
3 + 3 = 6. Put 6 as the hundredthplace of the answer.
2134 + 3453 + 23456 + 1234 + 2345 = 622
Now, carry forward is 1. We will start adding digits at thousandth place
as follows:
1 + 2 = 3, 3 + 3 = 6, 6+3 =9, 9 + 1 = 10 (mark 1 and start with 0),
0 + 2 = 2. Put 2 as the thousandth place of the answer.
2134 + 3453 + 23456 + 1234 + 2345 = 2622
Carry forward 1 + 2 (only number at ten thousandth place) = 3.
Therefore, our answer is:
2134 + 3453 + 23456 + 1234 + 2345 = 32622

9
Be a Human Calculator

2.3 Addition of decimal numbers


Example 2: 215.491 + 345.76 + 2134.9823 =?

Solution:
Step-1: Make number of places after decimal equal by adding appropriate
number of zeroes
215.4910 + 345.7600 + 2134.9823

Step-2: Add the numbers as mentioned in article 2.2 to get,

215.4910 + 345.7600 + 2134.9823 = 2696.2333

Exercises 2
Total Questions 25 Ideal Time 5 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 25 questions in 5 minutes)

Add the following numbers:


 1. 23784 + 73423 + 76854 + 464564
 2. 75767 + 3453 + 54646 + 46644
 3. 423424 + 78 + 7878 + 3453535
 4. 8688 + 7575 + 242342 + 5555353
 5. 5535 + 535 + 654 + 96567 + 5354
 6. 685787 + 74789 + 757 + 6656
 7. 64644 + 553353 + 3486 + 54646
 8. 56335.424 + 75757.32323
 9. 56563.3323 + 5335.44 + 68.332
10. 6464.555 + 3535.5353 + 3355.97
11. 355.535 + 3535.898 + 586.36635
12. 996.3532 + 3663.90630 + 366.323
13. 7474.366 + 4774.36643 + 66464.3566
14. 3666.646 + 363.36464 + 363.3636
15. 3663.363 + 47.6898 + 588.47 + 34667.3437

10
Be a Human Calculator

16. 63673.688 + 36.3636 + 699.557 + 356.36


17. 965.46734 + 5858.558 + 699.6795 + 3526.36
18. 8548.54788 + 234663.3467 + 7.4856
19. 547.848 + 688956.89568 + 57.97976
20. 57754.7878 + 5484.6868 + 68865.9997
21. 373.48 + 5656857.568856 + 47.754757
22. 57756.577 + 547.78678 + 547.5478
23. 7676.788 + 68965.99 + 780567.4634
24. 5477.77 + 4778448.488 + 568568.56865
25. 3466736.6634 + 74754.5685 + 575.7647

11
By the Same Author

How to Memorize Formulas in


Mathematics
Book-1
Calculus

Amazon bestseller in Calculus


Category at
https://www.amazon.com
Chapter

3 Subtraction
3.1 One Line Subtraction or Row Subtraction:
As explained in the chapter addition, students have to change their
habit of column subtraction to give way to One Line Subtraction or Row
subtraction in a normal fashion:
So, instead of going for:
76543
– 23456
53087
Go for,

76543 – 23456 = 53087

3.2 Subtraction by Adding Complements:


This is a powerful method, which uses addition of complements to do
subtraction and so in the process, we end up doing no subtraction for
getting the answer. The method has two simple steps:
Step-1: If the first digit is more than the second digit, simply
subtract it.
Step-2: If the first digit is less than the second digit, add the complement
of second digit to the first digit and increase the immediate left
digit of second number by one by putting a • over it.
Example 1: 76546 – 23453 =?
76546 – 23453 = 3

76546 – 23 4 53 = 93
(As 4 is less than 5, we will add the complement of 5 ( i.e. 5) to 4 to get 9
and will increase next digit 4 by 1 by putting a • over it).
• •
76546 – 23 4 53 = 093 (5 - 4 = 5 - 5 = 0)

76546 – 23 4 53 = 53093 ( 6- 3 = 3 and 7 – 2 = 5)
Be a Human Calculator

Example 2: 2378452 – 634625 =?


2378452 – 6346 2 5 As 2 < 5, add complement of 5 with 2
= 7 to get 7. Put • over next number 2.


2378452 – 6346 2 5 • •
As 5 > 2 , 5 - 2 = 5 - 3 = 2
= 27
• •
As 4 < 6, complement of 6 i.e. 4 + 4
2378452 – 63 4 6 2 5
=8. Put • over next number 4.
= 827
• •
2378452 – 63 4 6 2 5 • •
As 8 > 4 , 8 - 4 = 8 - 5 = 3
= 3 8 27
• •
2378452 – 63 4 6 2 5 As 7 > 4, 7 - 3 = 4
= 43287
• •
2378452 – 63 4 6 2 5 3 - 3 = 0, 2-0=2
= 2043827

Note: Whenever, you add the complement of a number to the lesser


number, increase immediate left digit of the first number by 1 by putting
a • mark over it.

3.3 Adding and subtracting together:


As a matter of habit, whenever we came across a question in which we
have to perform addition and subtraction together; we try to do it in
two or more than two steps depending upon the qunatity of numbers
we have to add and subtract whereas the same can be performed by
doing a single row addition/subtraction together. In these questions,
whenever we have a number to carry over, we can use “Marking the
Carry Forward Technique” and whenever, we have to subtract the
bigger digit from a smaller digit we can use “Subtraction by Adding
Complements Technique” as explained above.

14
Be a Human Calculator

Let us understand the concept through an example:


Example 3: 214789 – 065466 + 5345345 = ?

214789 – 65466 + 5345345 9–6+5=8


= 8
214789–65466 + 5345345 8–6+4=6
= 68
214789 – 65466 + 5345345 7–4+3=6
= 668

214789 – 65466 + 5345345 4–5+5=4


= 4668
• 1-6 + 4 = 5-6, as we have to
2 14789– 65466 + 5345345 subtract larger digit from
= 9 4668 smaller one, we will add
complement of 6 i.e. 4 to 5 to
get 9 and will increase the left
digit 2 by putting a • over it.
• •
2 14789– 65466 + 5345345 2 - 0 + 3 = 3 + 3 = 6 and 5 + 0
= 56 9 4 6 6 8 +0=5

Exercises 3.1
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)
Subtract the following numbers:

1. 23784 - 13423
2. 75767 - 3453
3. 423424 - 353535
4. 8242342 - 5555353
5. 96567 - 65354

15
Be a Human Calculator

 6. 685787 - 74789
 7. 553353 - 54646
 8. 56335.424 - 7575.32323
 9. 56563.3323 - 5335.44
10. 6464.555 - 3535.5353

Exercises 3.2 (2 Minutes)


Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)
Subtract the questions given in Exercise 3.1 by adding the complements
method and check your answer.

Exercises 3.3 (2 Minutes)


Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min

(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)

Solve:
 1. 23784 - 73423 + 76854 + 464564
 2. 75767 + 3453 - 54646 + 46644
 3. 423424 - 78 - 7878 + 3453535
 4. 8688 + 7575 - 242342 + 5555353
 5. 5535 - 535 + 654 + 96567 - 5354
 6. 685787 - 74789 - 757 + 6656
 7. 64644 + 553353 - 3486 - 54646
 8. 56335.424 + 75757.32323 – 312.23
 9. 56563.3323 - 5335.44 + 68.332
10. 6464.555 - 3535.5353 + 3355.97

16
By the Same Author

How to Memorize Formulas in


Mathematics
Book-2
Trigonometry

Amazon bestseller in Trigonometry


Category at
https://www.amazon.com
Chapter

4 Multiplication
4.1 Multiplication of two digit numbers
Students should observe to learn the working of this method.
A B
× C D
A × C/A × D + B × C/B × D

Step - 1: Multiply the unit digits (rightmost digits) of both the numbers,
A B

× C D
//B × D

Step - 2: Add the cross product of the digits as shown below:


A B

× C D
/A × D + B × C/B × D

Step - 3: Multiply the ten’s digits (leftmost digits) of both the numbers.
A B

× C D
A × C/A × D + B × C/B × D

Note: If the results obtained in step 1 and step 2 have more than one digit,
note down the unit place of the result and carry over the ten’s place of the
result to the left. Let us understand the process through some examples:
Be a Human Calculator

Example 1: Solve 13 × 12
Step - 1: Multiply the unit digits (rightmost digits) of both the numbers,
1 3

× 1 2
// 3 × 2

Step - 2: Add the cross product of the digits as shown below:


1 3

× 1 2

/1 × 2 + 3 × 1/3 × 2

Step - 3: Multiply the ten’s digits (leftmost digits) of both the numbers.
1 3

× 1 2
1 × 1/1 × 2 + 3 × 1/3 × 2

So,13 × 12 = 156

Example 2: Solve 14 × 13.


Step - 1: Multiply the unit digits (rightmost digits) of both the numbers,
1 4

× 1 3
//4 × 3

Step - 2: Add the cross product of the digits as shown below:


1 4

× 1 3
/1 × 3 + 4 × 1/3 ×2

18
Be a Human Calculator

Step- 3: Multiply the ten’s digits (leftmost digits) of both the numbers.
1 4

× 1 3
1 × 1 /1 × 3 + 4 × 1/4 ×3= 1712

So, 14 × 13 = 182

Example 3: Solve 28 × 35.

Step- 1: Multiply the unit digits (rightmost digits) of both the numbers,
2 8

× 3 5
//8 × 5

Step - 2: Add the cross product of the digits as shown below:


2 8

× 3 5
/2 × 5 + 3 × 8/8 × 5

Step- 3: Multiply the ten’s digits (leftmost digits) of both the numbers.
2 8

× 3 5
2 × 3 /2 × 5 + 3 × 8 /8 × 5= 63440

So, 28 × 35 = 980

Note: After knowing the procedure correctly and after some practice,
students will be able to get the answer only in one step as follow:

Example 4: Solve 78 × 47
7 8

× 4 7
28 /81 /56 = 288156 = 3666

19
Be a Human Calculator

Exercises 4.1
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)
Multiply the following numbers:

 1. 41 × 24
 2. 78 × 56
 3. 91 × 27
 4. 89 × 74
 5. 76 × 54
 6. 65 × 87
 7. 76 × 43
 8. 69 × 31
 9. 83 × 42
10. 99 × 43

4.2 Multiplication of three digit numbers


Observe the following steps carefully to learn the method:
A B C

× D E F
A × D/ A × E + B × D /A × F + C × D + B × E/B × F + C × E /C × F

Step - 1: Multiply the unit digits (rightmost digits) of both the numbers,
A B C

× D E F

/C × F

20
Be a Human Calculator

Step - 2: Add the cross product of the last two digits of both the numbers
as shown below:
A B C

× D E F
/B × F + C × E/C × F

Step - 3: Add the cross product of the Extreme digits of both the numbers
and to the sum add the product of two middle digits as shown below:

A B C

× D E F

/A × F + C × D + B × E/B × F + C × E /C × F

Step - 4: Add the cross product of the two leftmost digits of both the
numbers as shown below:

A B C

× D E F
/A × E + B × D/ A × F + C × D + B × E /B × F + C × E /C × F

Step - 5: Multiply the hundredth’ digits (leftmost digits) of both the


numbers.
A B C

× D E F

A × D/A × E + B × D/ A × F + C × D + B × E /B × F + C × E /C × F

21
Be a Human Calculator

Example 5: Solve 123 × 321


Step - 1: Multiply the unit digits (rightmost digits) of both the numbers,
1 2 3

× 3 2 1
/3 × 1
Step - 2: Add the cross product of the last two digits of both the numbers
as shown below:
1 2 3

×3 2 1
/2 × 1 + 3 × 2/3 × 1

Step - 3: Add the cross product of the Extreme digits of both the numbers
and to the sum add the product of two middle digits as shown below:
1 2 3

× 3 2 1

/1 × 1 + 3 × 3 + 2 × 2/2 × 1 + 3 × 2/3 × 1

Step - 4: Add the cross product of the two leftmost digits of both the
numbers as shown below:
1 2 3

×3 2 1
/1 × 2 + 2 × 3 /1 × 1 + 3 × 3 + 2 × 2/2 × 1 + 3 × 2 /3 × 1

Step - 5: Multiply the hundredth’ digits (leftmost digits) of both the


numbers.
1 2 3

×3 2 1
1 × 3 /1 × 2 + 2 × 3 /1 × 1 + 3 × 3 + 2 × 2/2 × 1 + 3 × 2 /3 × 1

22
Be a Human Calculator

So, 123 × 321 = 381483 = 39483


Note: After knowing the procedure correctly and after some practice,
students will be able to get the answer only in one step as explained
in the next example:

Example 6: Solve 789 × 456


7 8 9

× 4 5 6

7 × 4 /7 × 5 + 8 × 4 /7 × 6 + 9 × 4 + 8 × 5/8 × 6 + 9 × 5/9 × 6

So, 789 × 456 = 28671189354 = 35 9 7 84

Exercises 4.2
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 3 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 3 minutes)
Multiply the following numbers:

 1. 412 × 241
 2. 781 × 561
 3. 913 × 273
 4. 891 × 743
 5. 763 × 541
 6. 651 × 873
 7. 764 × 433
 8. 691 × 316
 9. 831 × 423
10. 991 × 433

4.3 Multiplication of two numbers with unequal number


of digits:
The procedure for multiplication of two numbers with unequal number
of digits is same as explained in previous pages. The only different thing
we have to do is to make digits of both the numbers equal by adding a

23
Be a Human Calculator

zero or zeroes prior to the number having lesser number of digits. See the
following example:

Example 7: Solve 789 × 56


7 8 9
× 0 5 6
7 × 0 /7 × 5 + 8 × 0 /7 × 6 + 9 × 0 + 8 × 5 /8 × 6 + 9 × 5 /9 × 6

So, 789 × 56 = 035829354 = 441 84

Exercises 4.3
Total Questions 4 Ideal Time 1 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 4 questions in 1 minute)
1. 412 × 41 3. 789 × 54
2. 781 × 56 4. 987 × 34

4.4 General Method of Multiplication:


The general method of multiplication may be understood with the help of
following diagram:

24
Be a Human Calculator

Exercises 4.4
Total Questions 20 Ideal Time 5 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 20 questions in 5 minutes)

Question Multiply
1 312 × 223
2 2341 × 2345
3 2314 × 456
4 45 × 67
5 1234 × 4321
6 12345 × 54321
7 69 × 89
8 673 × 54
9 4536 × 78
10 567 × 678
11 231 × 23
12 23 × 456
13 2345 × 567
14 789 × 91
15 234 × 567
16 4578 × 987
17 3456 × 098
18 345 × 78
19 345 × 765
20 34 × 78

25
Be a Human Calculator

4.5 Multiplication near a base number:


(a) When both the numbers are near the same base and above
the base:
Step-1: Find the base near the given numbers and write down the excess
of numbers from the base in front of numbers as follows:
12 +2
× 13 + 3 (base = 10)
102 +2
× 104 + 4 (base = 100)
1008   +8
× 1007  + 7 (base = 1000)
Step-2: The answer will have two parts. The rightmost part of the answer
will be the product of excess of two numbers from their base. The number
of digits in this part will be equal to number of zeroes in the base.
12 +2
× 13 + 3 (base = 10)
/ 6 (one digit)
102 +2
 × 104 + 4 (base = 100)
/ 0 8 (two digits)
1008 +8
  × 1007   + 7 (base = 1000)
/ 0 5 6 (three digits)
Step-3: The left part of the answer will be obtained by adding the first
number with the excess of second number or by adding the second
number to the excess of first number.
12 +2
 × 13 +3
(12+3) or(13+2)/ 6 = 156
102 +2
× 104   +4
(102 + 4) or(104 +2)/08= 10608
1008 +8
  × 1007 +7
(1008 + 7) or (1007 + 8) / 0 5 6 = 101556

26
Be a Human Calculator

(b) When both the numbers are near the same base and below the
base:

Step-1: Find the base near the given numbers and write down the defi-
ciency of numbers from the base in front of numbers as follows:
 98 -2
× 97 - 3 (base 100)
999 -1
× 991 - 9 (base = 1000)
Step-2: The answer will have two parts. The rightmost part of the answer
will be the product of deficiencies of two numbers from their base. The
number of digits in this part will be equal to number of zeroes in the
base.
98 -2
 × 97 - 3 (base 100)
/06 (two digits)
999 -1
× 991 - 9 (base = 1000)
/009 (three digits)
Step-3: The left part of the answer will be obtained by subtracting de-
ficiency of the first number from the second number or by subtracting
deficiency of the second number from the first number as follows:
98 -2
× 97 -3
(98-3) or ( 97-2)/06 = 9506
999 -1
× 991   -9
(999-9) or (991-1) /009 = 990009

(c) When both the numbers are near the same base, one is above the
base and another is below the base
98 - 2
× 107 +7
−− −−
(98 +7) or (107-2)/ 1 4 = 105 1 4

27
Be a Human Calculator

−−
105 1 4 = 10486 (see chapter 1, how to convert vinculum number into
ordinary number).

(d) When both the numbers are near a secondary base

The method will be similar to method 4.5 (a), (b) and (c) with only one
difference. We will choose a base and a secondary base and find the
deficiency or excess of given numbers from the secondary base. However,
the number of digits in the rightmost part of the answer will be equal to
the number of zeroes in the base. Let us understand through an example
of multiplying 48 by 42.

Base = 100, Secondary Base = ½ × 100 = 50


48 -2
× 42 -8
(48-8) or (42-2)/16 = 40/16
Now as our secondary base = ½ × 100 = 50
The leftmost part of the answer will also be ½ × 40 = 20
Therefore, 48 × 42 = 2016.

(e) When both the numbers are near different bases

53 +3 (Base 50)
× 102 +2 (Base 100)

Here, the ratio of bases = 100/50 = 2

Multiply the first row by 2, we have:

106 +6 (Base 50)


× 102 +2 (Base 100)
(106 + 2) or (102 + 6)/12
Therefore, we have 10812,
As we had multiplied the first row by 2, we will divide the interim answer
by 2 to get 10812/2 = 5406 as the answer.
Therefore, 53 × 102 = 5406.

28
Be a Human Calculator

Exercises 4.5
Total Questions 20 Ideal Time 5 Min

(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 20 questions in 5 minutes)

Question Multiply
1 102 × 103
2 108 × 109
3 98 × 99
4 96 × 94
5 996 × 994
6 53 × 52
7 104 × 96
8 996 × 1008
9 59 × 52
10 109 × 107
11 1004 × 1002
12 104 × 51
13 1005 × 997
14 1009 × 991
15 502 × 501
16 499 × 497
17 1001 × 1002
18 57 × 59
19 1006 × 994
20 103 × 93

29
Be a Human Calculator

4.6 Some Special Cases of Multiplication:


(a) Multiplication by 11 to 19:

Multiplication by 11: Write down the number by prefixing 0 before it


and add every digit to its right digit to get the answer.

To get 123 × 11, write 123 as 0123

0123 × 11 = 0+1/1+2/2+3/3+0 = 1353

Multiplication by 12: Write down the number by prefixing 0 before it


and add twice of every digit to its right digit to get the answer.

0123 × 12 = 0 × 2+1/1 × 2 +2/2 × 2 +3/3 × 2 + 0 = 1476

Multiplication by 13: Write down the number by prefixing 0 before it


and add thrice of every digit to its right digit to get the answer.

0123 × 13 = 0 × 3+1/1 × 3 +2/2 × 3 +3/3 × 3 + 0 = 1599

Multiplication by 14: Write down the number by prefixing 0 before it


and add four times of every digit to its right digit to get the answer.

0123 × 14 = 0 × 4+1/1 × 4 +2/2 × 4 +3/3 × 4 + 0 = 161112 = 1722

Multiplication by 15: Write down the number by prefixing 0 before it


and add five times of every digit to its right digit to get the answer.

0123 × 15 = 0 × 5 +1/1 × 5 +2/2 × 5 +3/3 × 5 + 0 = 171315 = 1845

Multiplication by 16: Write down the number by prefixing 0 before it


and add six times of every digit to its right digit to get the answer.

0123 × 16 = 0 × 6 + 1/1 × 6 +2/2 × 6 +3/3 × 6 + 0 = 181518 = 1968

Multiplication by 17: Write down the number by prefixing 0 before it


and add seven times of every digit to its right digit to get the answer.

0123 × 17 = 0 × 7 + 1/1 × 7 +2/2 × 7 +3/3 × 7 + 0 = 191721 = 2091

Multiplication by 18: Write down the number by prefixing 0 before it


and add eight times of every digit to its right digit to get the answer.

0123 × 18 = 0 × 8 + 1/1 × 8 +2/2 × 8 +3/3 × 8 + 0 = 1101924 = 2214

30
Be a Human Calculator

Multiplication by 19: Write down the number by prefixing 0 before it


and add nine times of every digit to its right digit to get the answer.

0123 × 19 = 0 × 9 + 1/1 × 9 + 2/2 × 9 +3/3 × 9 + 0 = 1112127 = 2337

(b) Multiplication by 9, 99, 999 etc.

Add number of zeroes equal to number of 9’s in the multiplier to the given
number and subtract the given number to get the answer.

453 × 99 = 45300 – 453 = 44847


(We have added two zeroes after the number as we are multiplying by 99)
453 × 999 = 453000 – 453 = 452547
(We have added three zeroes after the number as we are multiplying
by 99)
453 × 9999 = 4530000 -453 = 4529547
(We have added four zeroes after the number as we are multiplying by 99)

(c) Product of numbers when the sum of the Last 1, last 2, last 3, last
4 - - - digits added respectively equal to 10, 100, 1000, 10000 and
the remaining part of both the numbers is same:

This method is used for calculating products like 98 × 92, 998 × 902, 9978
× 9022 etc.

Method:
Step 1: Divide the number into two different parts separating common
part of both the numbers with the remaining part of both the numbers
whose sum is 10, 100, 1000 etc.

Step 2: Rightmost part of the answer will be obtained by multiplying the


rightmost parts of the numbers whose sum is 10, 100, 1000 as the case
may be.

Step 3: Multiply the remaining part (which is same for both the numbers)
by its successor to get left part of the answer.

31
Be a Human Calculator

Example 1: Solve 98 × 92

Solution: Visualize the given product as 9/8 × 9/2,

Here left most part is same for both the numbers i.e. 9 and sum of
rightmost part is 8 + 2 = 10.

The rightmost part of the answer will be 8 × 2 = 16

Leftmost part of the answer will be 9 × 10 = 90

Therefore, the answer will be 9016.

Example 2: Solve 698 × 602

Solution: The rightmost part of the answer will be 98 × 02 = 196

Leftmost part of the answer will be 6 × 7 = 42

Therefore, the answer will be 42196.

Some more examples:


Question Left part of Right part of Answer
the answer the answer
97 × 93 9 × 10 = 90 7 × 3 = 21 9021
(two digits)
91 × 99 9 × 10 = 90 1 × 9 = 09 9009
(two digits)
988 × 912 9 × 10 = 90 88 × 12 =1056 901056
(four digits)
891 × 809 8 × 9 = 72 91 × 09 =0819 720819
(four digits)

32
Be a Human Calculator

Exercises 4.6
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 3 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 3 minutes)

Question Multiply
1 899 × 801
2 94 × 96
3 1234 × 11
4 3456 × 999
5 1099 × 1001
6 797 × 703
7 4567 × 99
8 2345 × 17
9 678 × 9999
10 8765 × 19

4.7 Multiplication of three numbers simultaneously:


(i) When all the numbers are above a particular base:

101 +1
102 +2
× 103 +3

Leftmost part of the answer

= 101 + 2 + 3 or 102 +1+3 or 103 +2+1 = 106

Middle Part of the answer

= 1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + 3 × 1 = 11

Rightmost part of the answer

= 1 × 2 × 3 = 06

33
Be a Human Calculator

(As all the three numbers are more than the same base 100, the number of
digits in the middle part and right part of the answer will be 2).

Therefore, the answer is 1061101

(ii) When all the numbers are below a particular base:

99 -1
98 -2
× 97 -3

Leftmost part of the answer

= 99 - 2 - 3 or 98-1-3 or 97-1-2 = 94

Middle Part of the answer

= (-1 × -2)+(-2 × -3) +(- 3 × -1) = 11

Rightmost part of the answer

= -1 × -2 × -3 = 06

(As all the three numbers are more than the same base 100, the number of
digits in the middle part and right part of the answer will be 2).

Therefore, the answer is 94/11/ 06 = 941094

(iii) When the numbers are below and above a particular base both:

102 +2
98 -2
× 97 -3

Leftmost part of the answer

= 102 - 2 - 3 or 98 +2-3 or 97 +2-2 = 97

Middle Part of the answer

= (2 × -2)+(-2 × -3) +(- 3 × 2) = 04

34
Be a Human Calculator

Rightmost part of the answer

= 2 × -2 × -3 = 12

(As all the three numbers are more than the same base 100, the number of
digits in the middle part and right part of the answer will be 2).

Therefore, the answer is 97/ 04 /12 = 969612

(iv) When the numbers are near different bases:


102 +2 (Base = 100)
13 +3 (Base = 10)
× 104 +4 (Base = 100)
Multiply the middle number and its excess by 10 to have,

102 +2 (Base = 100)


130 +30 (Base = 100)
× 104 +4 (Base = 100)

Leftmost part of the answer

= 102 + 30 +4 or 130 +2 +4 or 104 + 30 +2 = 136

Middle Part of the answer

= (2 × 30)+(30 × 4) +(4 × 2) = 188

Rightmost part of the answer

= 2 × 3 × 4 =24 (Note)

(However, as smaller base is 10 and bigger base is 100, the number of


digits in rightmost part will be one and number of digits in middle part
will be two).

Therefore, the answer is 136/188/24 = 137904

35
Be a Human Calculator

Exercises 4.7
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 3 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 3 minutes)

Question Multiply
1 101 × 102 × 103
2 1002 × 1004 × 1005
3 98 × 99 ×97
4 999 × 998 × 997
5 101 × 102 × 98
6 1002 × 1004 × 996
7 101 × 12 × 103
8 1004 × 1006 × 112
9 1004 × 1008 × 992
10 991 × 997 × 998

36
Chapter

5 Divisibility
5.1 Divisibility Tests of 2, 4, 8, 16 etc./ Divisibility test of
the numbers of the form 2n:
Number Divisibility Test
Last digit of the given number
2= 2 1 should be divisible by 2 or
even.
Last two digits of the given
4= 2 2 number should be divisible
by 4.
Last three digits of the given
8= 2 3 number should be divisible
by 8.
Last Four digits of the given
16 = 2 4 number should be divisible
by 16.
Last five digits of the given
32 = 2 5 number should be divisible
by 32.

Examples
Check the
Number Solution
divisibility by
Divisible as the last digit
31890 2 of the given number is
even (0).
Divisible as the last digit
21985634 2 of the given number is
even (4) or divisible by 2.
(Contd.)
Be a Human Calculator

Divisible as the last two


2178988 4 digits of given number
(88) are divisible by 4.
Not, Divisible as the
last three digits of given
31276 8
number (276) are not
divisible by 8.
Divisible as the last four
21256784 16 digits of given number
(6784) are divisible by 16.
Divisible as the last five
digits of given number
2178932064 32
(32064) are divisible by
32.

Exercises 5.1
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min

(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)

Question Check the divisibility of following


numbers by 2,4,8,16 and 32
1 998
2 1024
3 9967
4 12345
5 123464
6 9962
7 100400
8 576775338
9 54676
10 99789

38
Be a Human Calculator

5.2 Divisibility Tests of 5, 25, 125, 625 etc./Divisibility


test of the numbers of the form 5n:
Number Divisibility Test
Last digit of the given number
5= 51 should be divisible by 5 or
should be 0.
Last two digits of the given
25 = 5 2 number should be divisible by
25 or should be 00.
Last three digits of the given
125 = 5 3 number should be divisible by
125 or should be 000.
Last Four digits of the given
625 = 5 4 number should be divisible by
625 or should be 0000.

Examples
Check the
Number Solution
divisibility by
Divisible as the last digit of
31895 5
given number is 5.
Divisible as the last digit of
21985630 5
given number is 0.
Divisible as the last two digit of
2178900 25
given number are 00.
Divisible as the last two digits
31275 25 of given number are divisible
by 25.
Divisible as the last three digits
21256000 125
of given number are 000.
Divisible as the last three digits
2178932500 125 of given number are divisible
by 125.
(Contd.)

39
Be a Human Calculator

Divisible as the last four digits


2170000 625
of given number are 0000.
Divisible as the last four digits
1272500 625 of given number are divisible
by 625.

Exercises 5.2
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)

Question Check the divisibility of following


numbers by 5, 25, 125 and 625
1 990
2 1025
3 9960
4 12345
5 123465
6 9960
7 100400
8 576775335
9 54675
10 91250

5.3 Divisibility Tests of 3 and 9:

Number Divisibility Test


Sum of all the digits of the
3 given number should be
divisible by 3.
Sum of all the digits of the
9 given number should be
divisible by 9.

40
Be a Human Calculator

Examples
Check the
Number Solution
divisibility by
Divisible as the Sum of all
32895 3 the digits (3 + 2 + 8 + 9+5
= 27) is divisible by 3.
Divisible as the Sum of all
the digits (2 + 1 + 9 + 8 +
21985650 9
5 +6 +5 = 36) is divisible
by 9.

Exercises 5.3
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)

Question Check the divisibility of following


numbers by 3 and 9
1 990
2 1025
3 9960
4 12345
5 123465
6 9960
7 100400
8 576775335
9 54675
10 91250

5.4 Divisibility Test of 11:


If the difference of sum of digits at odd places and sum of digits at even
places is a multiple of 11 or 0, the given number will be divisible by 11.

41
Be a Human Calculator

Examples

Check the
Number Solution
divisibility by
(5+8+3)-(9+2) = 16 – 11= 5,
32895 11
Not divisible
(0+6+8+1)-(5+5+9+2) = 15
21985650 11 – 21= -6,
Not divisible
(8+6+8+1)-(5+5+9+4) = 23
41985658 11 – 23= 0,
Divisible
(5+8+3)-(3+2) = 16 – 5= 11,
32835 11
Divisible

Exercises 5.4
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)

Question Check the divisibility of following


numbers by 11
1 990
2 1025
3 9966
4 10307
5 2244858
6 9724
7 100400
8 576775335
9 54675
10 91250

42
Be a Human Calculator

5.5 Divisibility Check for Prime Numbers:


To understand the divisibility by prime numbers, we have to learn concept
of positive osculator and negative osculator.

Positive Osculator or One More Osculator:


If a number or its multiple + 1 = n × 10, then n will be positive osculator
of that number.

Examples

Number Find Positive Osculator


7 7 × 7 + 1 = 50 = 5 × 10 (Ans : 5)
13 13 × 3 + 1 = 40 = 4 × 10 (Ans : 4)
17 17 × 7 + 1 = 120 = 12 × 10 (Ans : 12)
19 19 + 1 = 20 = 2 × 10 (Ans : 2)

Negative Osculator or One Less Osculator:


If a number or its multiple - 1 = n × 10, then n will be negative osculator
of that number.

Examples

Number Find Negative Osculator


7 7 × 3 - 1 = 20 = 2 × 10 (Ans : 2)
13 13 × 7 - 1 = 90 = 9 × 10 (Ans : 9)
17 17 × 3 - 1 = 50 = 5 × 10 (Ans : 5)
19 19 × 9- 1 = 170 = 17 × 10 (Ans : 17)

Divisibility test for prime numbers using osculators:


Step-1: Find the positive or negative osculator of the given number
(whichever is small);
Step-2: Multiply the unit digit of the number by the osculator and add
to the remaining number (in case you have used positive osculator) or

43
Be a Human Calculator

subtract from the remaining number (in case you have used the negative
osculator).
Step-3: Check whether remaining number is divisible by the given num-
ber. If it is still a big number; repeat the step-2 till you get a smaller num-
ber by which we can get the divisibility by visualization only.

Check the
Number Solution
divisibility by
As 7 × 3 -1 = 2 × 10, its negative
osculator is 2.
2179 – 3 × 2 = 2173
 217 – 3 × 2 = 211
21793 7
   21–1 × 2=19
(not divisible by 7)
Therefore, the given number
is also not divisible by 7.
As 29 + 1 = 3 × 10, its positive
osculator is 3.
489764 + 5 × 3 = 489779
48977 + 9 × 3 = 49004
4900 + 4 × 3 = 4912
4897645 29
  491 + 2 × 3 = 497
49 + 7 × 3 = 70
(not divisible by 29)
Therefore, the given number
is also not divisible by 29.

Note: The method may sound little lengthy but it is very useful for
students who are not comfortable with tables higher than 10 and un-
able to do quick division. It is also useful for checking divisibility by
large prime numbers like 79, 89 etc.

44
Be a Human Calculator

Let us see some more examples,

Check the
Number Solution
divisibility by
As 79+ 1 = 8 × 10, its positive
osculator is 8.
215787 + 2 × 8 = 215803
 21580 + 3 × 8 = 21604
 2160 + 4 × 8 = 2192
2157872 79   219 + 2 × 8 = 235
23+ 5 × 8 = 63
(not divisible by 79)
Therefore, the given number
is also not divisible by 79.

As 71 -1 = 7 × 10, its negative


osculator is 7.
234156 – 7 × 7 = 234107
23410 – 7 × 7 = 23361
2341567 71   2336 – 1 × 7 = 2329
232 – 9 × 7 = 169
(not divisible by 79)
Therefore, the given number
is also not divisible by 79.

45
Be a Human Calculator

Exercises 5.5
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 5 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 5 minutes)

Question Check the divisibility of following


numbers by 7, 29, 31, 37
1 990
2 1025
3 9966
4 10307
5 2244858
6 9724
7 100400
8 576775335
9 54675
10 91250

5.6 Divisibility Check for Composite Numbers:


Number Divisibility Test
12 As 12 = 3 × 4, the number should be divisible by 3 and 4 both.
14 As 14 = 2 × 7, the number should be divisible by 2 and 7 both.
15 As 15 = 3 × 5, the number should be divisible by 3 and 5 both.
18 As 18 = 2 × 9, the number should be divisible by 2 and 9 both.
21 As 21 = 3 × 7, the number should be divisible by 3 and 7 both.
24 As 24 = 3 × 8, the number should be divisible by 3 and 8 both.
As 26 = 2 × 13, the number should be divisible by 2 and 13
26
both.
28 As 28 = 4 × 7, the number should be divisible by 4 and 7 both.
As 33 = 3 × 11, the number should be divisible by 3 and 11
33
both.

Similarly, students may derive divisibility test for other composite


numbers.

46
Be a Human Calculator

Exercises 5.6
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 5 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 5 minutes)

Question Check the divisibility of following


numbers by 12, 14, 15, 18
1 990
2 1025
3 9966
4 10307
5 2244858
6 9724
7 100400
8 576775335
9 54675
10 91250

47
Chapter

6 Percentage
In every QA or DI paper, students have to find percentage of a given number
on a large number of occasions. A faster method based on common sense
is therefore required to save time.

6.1 Equivalent Fractions
The first step towards getting faster percentage is to learn some equivalent
fractions as described below:

Equivalent Equivalent
% %
Fraction Fraction

1
1% 1/100 3 % 1/32
8

1
5% 1/20 6 % 1/16
4
1
8% 2/25 8 % 1/12
3
1
10% 1/10 12 % 1/8
2
1
15% 3/20 13 % 2/15
3
2
20% 1/5 14 % 1/7
7
1
25% 1/4 33 % 1/3
3

(Contd.)
Be a Human Calculator

1
30% 3/10 37 % 3/8
2
1
40% 2/5 62 % 5/8
2
2
50% 1/2 66 % 2/3
3
1
60% 3/5 87 % 7/8
2
75% 3/4

Example 1: 87.5% of 800 = 800 × 7/8 = 700

Example 2: 12.5% of 80 = 80 × 1/8 = 10

Example 3: 75% of 400 = 400 × 3/4 = 300

6.2 Finding Quicker Percentage:


We can always find 1% or 10% or 100% of any number by observation
immediately. With the help of this fact and equivalent fractions given
above, we can find any % of any number with a quicker speed.

Example 1: Find 7% of 329.


Thought Process: 1% = 3.29
7% = 3.29 × 7 = 23.03

Example 2: Find 42% of 7289.


Thought Process: 10% = 728.9, 1% = 72.89
40% = 728.9 × 4 = 2915.60
2% = 72.89 × 2 = 145.78
Therefore, 42% of 7289 = 2915.60 + 145.78 = 3061.38

Example 3: Find 114% of 287


Thought Process: 100% = 287, 10% = 28.7, 4% = 2.87 × 4
Therefore, answer is = 287 + 28.70 + 11.48 = 327.18

50
Be a Human Calculator

Example 4: Find 49% of 3452


Thought Process: 50% = 1726, 1% = 34.52
Therefore, answer is = 1726 – 34.52 = 1691.48

Example 5: Find 273% of 523


Thought Process: 200% = 523 × 2 = 1046, 70% = 52.3 × 7=366.1, 3% =
5.23 × 3 = 15.69
Therefore, answer is = 1046 + 366.10 + 15.69 = 1427.79

Exercise 6
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 3 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 3 minutes)
 1. Find 23% of 489
 2. Find 87.5% of 400
 3. Find 49% 463
 4. Find 22.4% of 3245
 5. Find 25% of 484
 6. Find 112.5% of 1200
 7. Find 36% of 7843
 8. Find 57% of 5674
 9. Find 674% of 2341
10. Find 28% of 435

6.3 Flipping the Number Technique:


We know that, x % of y = y % of x but this small observation may save a lot
of time, when we apply it on many questions like:
Example 1: 48 % of 50 = 50% of 48 = 24
Example 2: 348 % of 75 = 75% of 348 = ¾ × 348 = 3 × 87 = 261

Example 3: 58 % of 25 = 25% of 58 = ¼ × 58 = 14.5


Example 4: 82 % of 20 = 20% of 82 = 1/5 × 82 = 16.4
Example 5: 81 % of 33 1/3 = 33 1/3 % of 81 = 1/3 × 81 = 27

51
Chapter

7
7.1 Division by using vinculum:
Division

Let us divide 48765 by 998, we have,

998 | 48765 | 48.86


- 3992
----------
8845
- 7984
----------
8610
- 7984
-----------
6260
- 5988
----------
272
We have learnt about Vinculum Numbers in Chapter-1. Now, let us learn
a great use of these numbers. We found ourselves uncomfortable while
dealing with division by big numbers like 998, 999, 9971, 879 etc. If big-
ger digits of these numbers are converted in vinculum digits less than 5,
the divisor will look like:
998 = 1000-2 or 100 2
999 = 1000 -1 or 1001
9971 = 10031
879 = 1000 – 121 = 1 1 2 1
And obviously the division with vinculum numbers will be far easy
keeping in view the small digits.
Let us have a relook on the question solved above by using vinculum
number.
Be a Human Calculator

We can write 998 = 1000-2 or 1002, division will be as follows:



100 2 | 48765 | 48.86
− −
-400 8 {876 − 8 = 876 − (−8) = 876 + 8 = 884}
----------
  8845
−− −−
-80 1 6 {845 − 16
= 845 − (−16)
= 845 + 16
= 861}
----------
8610−− −−
-80 1 6 {610 − 16
= 610 − (−16)
= 610 + 16
= 626}
-----------
6260
−− − −
-60 1 2 {260 − 12
= 260 − (−12)
= 260 + 12
= 272}
----------
272
Isn’t it simpler as compared to normal division? Practice it further till
students are comfortable with this new method.
Let us take another example of division of 123456 by 879.
We can write 879 = 1000-121 or 1 1 2 1, division will be as follows:
− − −
11 21 |123456 |140.45
−−−
-1 1 2 1
---------
3555
− − −
- 4 48 4
----------
3960
− − −
- 4 48 4
-----------
4440
− − −
-5605
----------
45
----------

54
Be a Human Calculator

Explanations:
−−−
{234 − 1 2 1 = 234 − (−121) = 234 + 121 = 355}
− − −
{3555 − 4 48 4 = 3555 − (4000 − 484) = 3555 − 3516 = 39}
− − −
{3960 − 4 4 8 4 = 3960 − (4000 − 484) = 3960 − 3516 = 444}
− − −
{4440 − 56 05 =4440 − (5000 − 605) =4440 − 4395 =45}

7.2 Division by using Complements:


Another interesting application of techniques given in Chapter-1 of this
book is doing division using Complements of the numbers. Let us see the
following example:

Example: Divide 2402 by 99.


Solution: Here base 100, complement of 99 = 01 and this will be our
modified divisor.
Step-1: Number of digits in the divisor will be equal to number of zeroes
in the base, so divisor will be 01.
Step-2: Dividend should be divided into two columns known as Quotient
Column and remainder Column by drawing a vertical line. The number of
digits in the remainder column will be equal to number of zeroes in the
base. So, the division should look like this:
Divisor Quotient Column Remainder Column
0 1 | 2 4 | 0 2

Step-3: Under quotient column, find the sum of the first column as follows:
Quotient Column Remainder Column
0 1 | 2 4 | 0 2


 | 2
Step-4: Now multiply the first quotient digit 2 by divisor 01 to get 02 and
write this below next two columns as shown:

55
Be a Human Calculator

Quotient Column Remainder Column


0 1| 2 4 | 0 2
0 |2

|2 |
Step-5: Now get second quotient digit as follows

Quotient Column Remainder Column


0 1| 2 4 | 0 2
0 | 2

|2 4 |

Step-6: Now multiply the second quotient digit 4 by divisor 01 to get 04


and write this below next two columns as shown below:

Quotient Column Remainder Column


0 1| 2 4 | 0 2
0 |2
| 0 4
|2 4 |
Step-7: Get the remainder as shown below:

Quotient Column Remainder Column


0 1| 2 4 | 0 2
0 | 2
| 0 4
|2 4 | 2 6
Thus, the quotient is 24 and remainder is 26.

56
Be a Human Calculator

Exercise 7.1
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)
Divide the following numbers by using Vinculum method or by using
complements to find quotient and remainder:
 1. Divide 9875 by 99
 2. Divide 12345 by 979
 3. Divide 56789 by 1099
 4. Divide 6754 by 999
 5. Divide 98765 by 1187
 6. Divide 76234 by 199
 7. Divide 98765 by 99
 8. Divide 54634673 by 1999
 9. Divide 686758 by 1089
10. Divide 998788 by 399

7.3 Modified Cancellation Technique:


Whenever we simplify terms like this 248 ÷ 48, we try to bring the fraction
into lowest form by dividing numerator and denominator both by suitable
numbers as follows:

(Cancelling Numerator and Denominator by 8)

2178 1089
= = 4.86
448 224
(Cancelling Numerator and Denominator by 2)

But when we have fractions like 445/48, 1297/33, 56789/21, we never


go for cancellation as numerator and denominator don’t have a common
factor or are not fully divisible by the same number. It is only a mental block
which stops us to cancel out the numbers in case only one number is fully
divisible. We may cancel out the numbers even if only the denominator is
fully divisible by some number as follows:

57
Be a Human Calculator

445 55.625 27.8125


= = = 9.27
48 6 3
(In the above example, we divide the numerator and denominator both by
8 and 2 successively even if the numerator was not fully divisible by these
numbers and that made our calculation easier).

129 432.3
= = 39.3
33 11

(Divide numerator and denominator by 3)


Thus, by modifying our cancellation habits a bit, we may solve such
questions at a faster pace.

Exercise 7.2
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 4 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 4 minutes)
 1. Divide 123456 by 15
 2. Divide 12345 by 24
 3. Divide 56789 by 18
 4. Divide 6754 by 21
 5. Divide 98765 by 33
 6. Divide 76234 by 38
 7. Divide 98765 by 105
 8. Divide 54634673 by 64
 9. Divide 686758 by 63
10. Divide 998788 by 99

58
Chapter

8 Squaring Techniques
8.1 Squaring of Numbers ending with 5:
It is one of the easiest techniques used in mental calculations. It has two
simple steps:
Step-1: Square of any number ending with 5 will end with 25
Step-2: Multiply number prior to 5 with its successor and prefix the
answer before 25 to get the square root.

Examples
152 1 × 2 = 2 ∴152 =
225
252 2 × 3 = 6 25 625
352  3 × 4 = 12  352 = 1225
452  4 × 5 = 20  452 = 2025
552  5 × 6 = 30  552 = 3025
652  6 × 7 = 42  652 = 4225
752  7 × 8 = 56  752 = 5625
852  8 × 9 = 72  852 = 7225
952  9 × 10 = 90  952 = 9025
1052  10 × 11 = 110 105 2 = 11025
1152  11 × 12 = 132 115 2 = 13225
1252  12 × 13 = 156 125 2 = 15625
1352  13 × 14 = 182 135 2 = 18225
1452  14 × 15 = 210 145 2 = 21025
1552  15 × 16 = 240 155 2 = 24025
Be a Human Calculator

Exercise 8.1
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)
Find squares of following numbers

 1. 25
 2. 35
 3. 45
 4. 55
 5. 65
 6. 75
 7. 85
 8. 95
 9. 105
10. 115

8.2 Squaring of numbers from 51 to 59:


This is another great technique used in speed mathematics. It has two
simple steps:
Step-1: Answer will have two parts. The right most part will have two
digits and will be the square of number after 5.
Step-2: The leftmost part of the answer will be 25 + right digit of the
number.

Examples
512 25+1/12 2601
522 25+2/22 2704
532 25+3/32 2809
542 25+4/42 2916
552 25+5/52 3025
562 25+6/62 3136
572 25+7/72 3249
582 25+8/82 3364
592 25+9/92 3481

60
Be a Human Calculator

Exercise 8.2
Total Questions 9 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 9 questions in 2 minutes)
Find squares of following numbers

1. 51
2. 52
3. 53
4. 54
5. 55
6. 56
7. 57
8. 58
9. 59

8.3 General Method of Squaring a two digit number:


We may use the following algebraic identity to get square of any two digit
number irrespective of its format:

(a + b) 2 =a 2 + 2ab + b 2
The answer will have three parts. The Rightmost part will be given by b2,
the middle part of the answer will be given by 2ab and leftmost part of the
answer will be given by a2 . If the answer of rightmost and middle part so
obtained has more than 2 digits, unit’s digit will be noted as answer and ten’s
digit will be carried forward to the number on the immediate left side.

61
Be a Human Calculator

Examples

212 22/2 × 2 × 1/12 441


322 32/2 × 3 × 2/22 = 9124 1024
472 42/2 × 4 × 7/72 2209
= 165649 = 16609
672 62/2 × 6 × 7/72 4489
= 368449 = 36889
732 72/2 × 7 × 3/32 = 49429 5329

Exercise 8.3
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)

Find squares of following numbers

 1. 78
 2. 67
 3. 43
 4. 89
 5. 83
 6. 49
 7. 94
 8. 64
 9. 74
10. 62

8.4 Squaring near a base number:


This technique is useful when given number is near to some base such as
100, 1000, 10000 etc. It has two steps:
Step-1: Answer will have two parts. The right most part will have digits
equal to number of zeroes in the base and will be equal to square of defi-
ciency or excess of the number from the base.

62
Be a Human Calculator

Step-2: The leftmost part of the answer will be given number – deficiency
or given number + excess as the case may be.

Examples

98
2
Base = 100, 9604
98-02/(2)2
Deficiency = 2
Base = 1000, 994009
997 2 997-03/(3)2
Deficiency = 3
Base = 1000, 1004004
1002 2 1002+02/(2)2
excess = 2
Base = 1000, 1018081
1009 2 1009+09/(9)2
excess = 9
Base = 10000, 99960004
9998 2 9998 - 2/(2)2
Deficiency =2

Exercise 8.4
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 2 minutes)
Find squares of following numbers
 1. 98
 2. 998
 3. 1002
 4. 97
 5. 96
 6. 1009
 7. 996
 8. 1004
 9. 99
10. 999

8.5 General Method of Squaring of any number:


This method may be used to find square root of any number irrespective
of its format or number of digits in it.

63
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Before we learn this method, we have to learn concept of Index Number.


Index Number (IN): The concept of index number has been explained in
the following table:

Number Index Number Number Index Number


a a2
3 32 = 9
ab 2ab 23 2 × 2 × 3 = 12
abc 2ac + b 2
123 2 × 1 × 3 + 22=10
abcd 2ad + 2bc 1234 2 × 1 × 4 + 2 × 2 × 3=20
abcde 2ae + 2bd + c 2
12345 2 × 1 × 5 + 2 × 2 × 4 + 32 = 35

Now we will learn this method through following example:

Example 1: 472 =?

Solution:
472 = IN for 4/ IN for 47 / IN for 7
= 42 / 2 × 4 × 7 / 72
= 16 / 56 / 49
= 16 / 56 / 4
9
= 16 / 56 + 4 / 9
= 16 / 6
0 / 9
= 16 + 6 / 0 / 9
= 22 / 0 / 9
∴472 = 2209

Example 2: 2142 =?

Solution:
2142 = IN for 2 / IN for 21 / IN for 214 / IN for 14 / IN for 4

= 22 / 2 × 2 × 1 / 2 × 2 × 4 + 12 / 2 × 1 × 4 / 4 2
= 4 / 4 / 7 / 8 / 16
1

= 4 / 4+1 / 7 / 8+1 / 6
= 4 / 5 / 7 / 9 / 6

∴ 2142 =
45796

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Example 3: 36472 =?

Solution:
36472 = IN for 3/IN for 36/IN for 364/IN for 3647/IN for
647/IN for 47/IN for7
= 32 / 2 × 3 × 6 / 2 × 3 × 4 + 6 2 / 2 × 3 × 7 + 2 × 6 × 4 /
2 × 6 × 7 + 42 / 2 × 4 × 7 / 72
= 9 / 6 /
3 6
0 / 90 / 10
0 / 56 / 9
4

= 9+3 / 6+6 / 0+9 / 0+10/ 0+5 / 6+4 / 9


= 12 / 2 / 9 / 10 / 5 / 10 / 9
1
= 13 / 2 / 10 / 0 / 5+1 / 0 / 9
= 13 / 3 / 0 / 0 / 6 / 0 / 9

∴ 3647 2 =
13300609

Note: Again this method looks very difficult and lengthy in the first look
as all the steps are explained and written in detail. In fact, once students
know, how to get IN for any number, they can find the answer orally in one
line as follows.

Example 4: 12342 =?
Solution:
Thought process (not to be written on paper)
12342 = IN for 1/IN for 12/IN for 123/IN for 1234/IN for 234/
 IN for 34/IN for4
Steps to be written actually
1/4/10/20/25/24/16
12342 = 1522756

65
Be a Human Calculator

Exercise 8.5
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 4 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 4 minutes)
Find squares of following numbers

 1. 214
 2. 123
 3. 3456
 4. 128
 5. 543
 6. 1019
 7. 778
 8. 2134
 9. 234
10. 456

66
Chapter

9 Cubing Techniques
In competitive examinations, students have to find the cube of a 2 digit
number often. Cubes of very large numbers are rarely used. To learn the
short cut tricks to find the cube of a two digit number, cubes of all the
single digits should be memorized.
The cubes of first ten natural numbers are given below-
13 = 1,              23 = 8,              33 = 27,            43 = 64,            53 = 125,
63 = 216,         73 = 343,         83 = 512,         93 = 729,       103 = 1000

9.1 Cubing a 2 digit number


First Step: Write down the cube of the tens-digit followed by three more
numbers from left to right such that the last number will be the cube of
unit’s digit and the other two numbers in the first row should be in the
same ratio which is there between the digits of the given number.
Second Step: Put down, under the second and third numbers, double of
second and third number.

Third Step: Add up the two rows obtained in step one and two above.
While adding just write down the unit digit of the answer and carry for-
ward the remaining number as we do in normal addition.

Example 1: Finding the cube of 12

Step I: Digit in ten’s place is 1, so write the first number as the cube of
1. The fourth number will be the cube of 2 i.e. 8. And also as the ratio
between 1 and 2 is 1:2, the next digits will be double the previous one. So,
the first row:
1248
Step II: In the above row 2nd and 3rd digits (from right) are 4 and 2 respec-
tively. So, write down 8 and 4 below 4 and 2 respectively.
Be a Human Calculator

Step III: Then add up the two rows.


1 2 4 8
4 8
-------------------------------------------
1 6 1
2 8 = 1728
Example 2: Finding the cube of 22
(As the ratio of digits in 22 is 1:1)
8 8 8 8
16 16
Carry Over 2 2
-------------------------------------------
10 2
6 2
4 8 = 10648

Example 3: Finding the cube of 16


Solution:
(As the ratio of digits in 16 is 1:6)
1 6 36 216
12 72
Carry Over 3 12 21
--------------------------------------------
4 3
0 12
9 21
6 = 4096
Example 4: Finding the cube of 32
First row 27 18 12 8
(Note that, first number is cube of 3 and last number is cube of 2. 2nd num-
ber from left is 2/3 of 27 i.e. 18 and 3rd number from left is 2/3 of 18 i.e. 12).

27 18 12 8
36 24
Carry Over 5 3
------------------------------------------
32 5
7 3
6 8 = 32768

Example 5: Finding the cube of 79


First row 343 441 567 729
(Note that, first number is cube of 7 and last number is cube of 9. 2nd num-
ber from left is 9/7 of 343 i.e. 441 and 3rd number from left is 9/7 of 441
i.e. 567).
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Be a Human Calculator

343 441 567 729


882 1134
Carry Over 150 177 72
------------------------------------------------
493 150 0 1773 72
9 = 493039

Advantages of this Method


1. Best suited for numbers like 11, 22, 33, 44 etc.
2. Also good for numbers like 12, 21, 24, 42, 48, 84, 26, 62 where digits
are multiples of each other.

Limitations of this Method


1. Applicable only for two digit numbers.
2. The calculation is tedious for numbers like 79, 67, 85 etc., where digits
are not multiples of each other. In this case, it is better to square the
number and then multiply it again or to use method 9.2.

Exercise 9.1
Total Questions 89  Ideal Time 30 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 89 questions in 30 minutes)
Q 1 to 89: Find the cubes of all the numbers from 11 to 99.

9.2 Cubing near a base number


Step- I: Identify the nearest base to the given number and find the
excess or deficiency of the number from it.
For example:
For the number 97, base is 100 and deficiency is -3.
For 104, base is 100 and the excess is 4.
For 996, base is 1000 and deficiency is -4.
Step-II: The answer will have three parts. Left, Middle and Right. These
will be given by:
Left Part = Given number + 2 × Excess or Deficiency
Middle Part = 3 × (Deficiency or Excess) 2
Right Part = (Deficiency or Excess) 3

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Note 1: The number of digits in Middle and right part will be equal to the
number of zeroes in the base. The remaining part will be carried forward.
Note 2: In case of deficiency, the right part will come in negative or
vinculum number and it has to be converted to ordinary number by using
techniques explained in chapter-1.

Example 1: Finding the cube of 104


Base = 100, Excess = 4
Left Part = 104 + 2 × 4 = 112
Middle Part = 3 × (4)2 = 48
Right Part = (4) 3=64
Therefore, answer will be 1124864.

Example 2: Finding the cube of 107


Base = 100, Excess = 7
Left Part = 107 + 2 × 7 = 121
Middle Part = 3 × (7)2 = 147
Right Part = (7) 3= 343
Therefore, answer will be 121/147/343 or 1225043.
(See Note 1)

Example 3: Finding the cube of 97


Base = 100, Deficiency = -3
Left Part = 97 + 2 × (-3) = 91
Middle Part = 3 × (-3)2 = 27
Right Part = (-3) 3= - 27 or 2 7
Therefore, answer will be 91/27/ 2 7 or 912626.
(See how to convert vinculum numbers into ordinary numbers –
Chapter-1).

Example 4: Finding the cube of 991


Base = 1000, Deficiency = -9
Left Part = 991 + 2 × (-9) = 973
Middle Part = 3 × (-9)2 = 243
Right Part = (-9) 3= - 729 or 7 2 9
− − −
Therefore, answer will be 973/243/ 7 2 9 or 973242271.

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Be a Human Calculator

Advantages of this Method


Best suited for numbers which are near to any base number like 10, 100,
1000 etc.

Limitations of this Method


The calculation is tedious if the given number is far away from the base.

Exercise 9.2
Total Questions 20 Ideal Time 5 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 20 questions in 5 minutes)
Find the cube of following numbers:

Question Number Question Number


1 91 11 992
2 92 12 993
3 93 13 994
4 94 14 995
5 95 15 996
6 96 16 997
7 97 17 998
8 98 18 999
9 99 19 9996
10 991 20 9997

71
Chapter

10 Square Root
10.1 Square Root of Perfect Square numbers consisting
of 3 or 4 digits (By Inspection)
For using this technique, students are advised to learn Squares of first 10
natural numbers and Square Roots of first 10 Perfect Square numbers by
heart, which are given below:

Table-1

Squares/Square Root Observation


If a perfect Square ends with 1, its
12 = 1 ⇒ 1 = 1 Square root may end with 1
If a perfect Square ends with 4, its
22 = 4 ⇒ 4 = 2 Square root may end with 2
If a perfect Square ends with 9, its
32 = 9 ⇒ 9 = 3
Square root may end with 3
If a perfect Square ends with 6, its
42 =16 ⇒ 16 =4
Square root may end with 4
If a perfect Square ends with 5, its
52 =25 ⇒ 25 =5 Square root will end with 5
If a perfect Square ends with 6, its
62 =36 ⇒ 36 =6 Square root may end with 6
If a perfect Square ends with 9, its
72 =49 ⇒ 49 =7 Square root may end with 7
If a perfect Square ends with 4, its
82 =64 ⇒ 64 =8 Square root may end with 8
If a perfect Square ends with 1, its
92 =81 ⇒ 81 =9 Square root may end with 9
If a perfect Square ends with 0, its
102 =100 ⇒ 100 =10 Square root will end with 0
Be a Human Calculator

Summary of observations:
Perfect Square end with Square root will end with
0 0
1 1 or 9
4 2 or 8
5 5
6 4 or 6
9 3 or 7
Perfect Square Numbers never end with 2,3,7 and 8

Step -1: Divide the number into two parts by making a partition after two
digits from right. So, 1936 should look like 19/36.
Step -2: Pick the left part of the number and by observation, ascertain as
to between squares of which of the two numbers, this part lie. The lower
number out of the two numbers observed, will be the ten’s digit of the
answer. In 19/36, left part 19 lies between 4 2 and 5 2 , so ten’s digit of
1936 will be 4.
Step -3: Now, see the unit digit of the given number and find unit digit of
the answer by observation. As the unit digit of 19/36, is 6, the square root
should end with 4 or 6 (see table 1). So, the answers may be 44 or 46.
Step -4: If there are two answers in step-3, eliminate one answer by
observation. As the likely answers are 44 or 46, and 452 = 2025 which is
more than 1936, so the answer will be 44.

Examples
Find the Ten’s Digit of Unit’s Answer
Square Root the Answer Digit of the
of following answer
numbers
4489 6 as 44 lies 3 or 7 as 63 or 67
(write it as between 6 2 4489ends (But,
44/89 ) and 7 2 with 9. 65 = 4225), so
2

4489 > 65.


Answer is 67.
(Contd.)

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8464 9 as 84 lies 2 or 8 as 92 or 98
(write it as between 92 8464 ends (But,
84/64) and 102 with 4. 952 = 9025),
so 8464
<95. Answer
is 92.
7225 8 as 72 lies 5 as 7225 85
(write it as between 8 2 ends with 5.
72/25) and 9 2

10816 10 as 108 lies 4 or 6 as 104 or 106


(write it as between 10 2
10816 ends (But,
108/16) and 112
with 6. 105 2 = 11025 ),
so 10816
<105. Answer
is 104.

Exercise 10.1
Total Questions 50  Ideal Time 10 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 50 questions in 10 minutes)
Find the square root of following perfect squares:

Question Number Question Number


1 441 9 2401
2 576 10 2601
3 1024 11 2704
4 1296 12 2809
5 1521 13 2916
6 1681 14 3136
7 2209 15 3249
8 2304 16 3364
(Contd.)

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Question Number Question Number


17 3481 34 6241
18 3721 35 6561
19 3844 36 6724
20 3969 37 6889
21 4096 38 7056
22 4356 39 7396
23 4489 40 7569
24 4624 41 7744
25 4761 42 7921
26 5041 43 8281
27 5184 44 8649
28 5329 45 8836
29 5476 46 9025
30 5625 47 9216
31 5776 48 9409
32 5929 49 9604
33 6084 50 9801

10.2 Square Root of Perfect Square numbers consisting


of 5 digits (By Inspection)
For using this technique, students are advised to learn Squares of first 32
natural numbers, which are given below:
Number Square Number Square
1 1 10 100
2 4 11 121
3 9 12 144
4 16 13 169
5 25 14 196
6 36 15 225
7 49 16 256
8 64 17 289
9 81 18 324
(Contd.)
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Number Square Number Square


19 361 26 676
20 400 27 729
21 441 28 784
22 484 29 841
23 529 30 900
24 576 31 961
25 625 32 1024

The method is exactly similar to method 11.1 and this fact will be clear to
students from the following examples:

Examples
Find the Square First two Unit Digit of Answer
Root of following Digits of the the answer
numbers Answer
13225 11 as 132 lies 5 as 13225 115
(write it as between 112 ends with 5.
132/25) and 122

54756 23 as 547 lies 4 or 6 as 54756 234 or 236


(write it as between 232 ends with 6 (But,
547/54) and 242 235 2 = 55225),
so 54756 <235.
Answer is 234
98596 31 as 985 lies 4 or 6 as 98596 314 or 316
(write it as between 312 ends with 6 (But,
2
985/96) and 322 315 = 99225 ),
so 98596 <315.
Answer is 314
47961 21 as 479 lies 1 or 9 as 47961 211 or 219
(write it as between 212 ends with 1 (But,
479/61) and 222
215 2 = 46225),
so 47961 >215.
Answer is 219

77
Be a Human Calculator

Exercise 10.2
Total Questions 50  Ideal Time 10 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 50 questions in 10 minutes)
Find the square root of following perfect squares:

Question Number Question Number


1 10201 26 84681
2 10609 27 85849
3 11236 28 87616
4 11881 29 88804
5 14641 30 89401
6 16129 31 90601
7 17161 32 91204
8 17956 33 91809
9 18769 34 92416
10 19321 35 93025
11 19881 36 93636
12 21609 37 94249
13 22201 38 94864
14 22801 39 95481
15 24336 40 96100
16 24964 41 96721
17 25281 42 97344
18 25921 43 97969
19 28224 44 98596
20 28561 45 99225
21 30276 46 99856
22 39204 47 100489
23 44944 48 101124
24 65536 49 101761
25 77841 50 103041
(Contd.)
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Be a Human Calculator

10.3 Approximate Square Root of non-perfect squares:


Step-1: Get Square root of nearest perfect square number by observation
to get our estimated answer.
For finding 7 , nearest number is 9 =3 (estimated answer)
Step-2: Find the difference between the given number and nearest perfect
square number and divide it by twice of our estimated answer. From,
difference of 9 and 7, divide twice of our estimated answer 3 to get:

9−7 2 1
= = = .33
6 6 3
Step-3: See if the required answer will be less than or more than our
estimated answer. As 9 =3, 7 < 3. So, approximate value of 7 will be
less than 3. So, subtract the value obtained in step 2 from our estimated
answer to get: 7 = 3- 0.33 = 2.67 (approx.)

Answer by using Calculator = 2.65 (So, method is perfect up-to first


place of decimal)

Note: If we see by observation that real answer is more than our es-
timated answer than we will add the value obtained in step-2 to our
estimated answer to get the approximate square root. This fact will
be evident from the following examples:

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Examples
Find the Approximate
Estimated Approx.
approx. deviation from
Answer Answer
value of estimated answer
5 as 29 − 25 4 5 + 0.40 = 5.40
=
29 25 =5 10 10 (Actual Answer
= .40 is 5.38)

9 as 81 − 78 3 9- 0.17 = 8.83
=
81 = 9 18 18 (Actual Answer is.
78
= .17 8.83)

11 as 129 − 121 8
= 11 + 0.40 = 11.40
22 22
129 121 =11 (Actual Answer is
4
= = .36 11.36)
11
4900 − 4794
70 as
140 70- 0.75 = 69.25
4794 4900 =70 106 53 (Actual Answer is
= =
140 70 69.24
= .75
90 as 8100 − 7987
90- 0.63 = 89.37
180
7987 8100 =90 (Actual Answer is
113
= = .63 89.37)
180

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Exercise 10.3
Total Questions 50  Ideal Time 10 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 50 questions in 10 minutes)

Find the approximate square root of following numbers:

Question Number Question Number


1 12 26 290
2 23 27 319
3 34 28 412
4 47 29 527
5 56 30 629
6 67 31 731
7 78 32 803
8 89 33 1021
9 103 34 1259
10 112 35 1679
11 123 36 2056
12 131 37 2890
13 138 38 3412
14 141 39 3819
15 147 40 4123
16 159 41 5123
17 161 42 5670
18 167 43 5918
19 174 44 6126
20 178 45 6789
21 212 46 7123
22 234 47 8234
23 259 48 9312
24 278 49 9789
25 288 50 9930

81
Chapter

11 Cube Root
Cube Root is just opposite process of cubing. For example, if cube
of 2 is 8 than cube root of 8 will be 2. Cube root of a number x is
represented as x1/3 or 3 x (commonly used).

∴ 23 =8 ⇒ 3 8 =2,
33 =27 ⇒ 3 27 =3

Perfect Cubes Numbers who have their cube roots as natural


numbers are called perfect cubes. For example: 27, 64, 1000 are
Perfect Cubes as=
3
27 3,=
3
64 4, 3 =
1000 10
Non-Perfect Cubes, on the other hand, the numbers who have their
cube roots in decimal numbers are called non-perfect cubes. For
example: 30, 68, 129 are Non-Perfect Cubes as their approximate
cube roots are

=
3
30 3.11,
= 3
68 4.08,
= 3
129 5.05 .

Traditional Method of finding Cube Roots of Perfect Cubes


Step 1: Factorize the given number into its prime factors;
Step 2: Divide the factors obtained in step 1 into group of three identical
factors;
Step 3: Pick one number each from each group and multiply them to get
the cube root.

Examples:
3
216 = 3 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 2 × 3 = 6
3
1728 = 3 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 2 × 2 × 3 = 12
Be a Human Calculator

Traditional Method of finding Cube Roots of Non-Perfect Cubes


There is no traditional method available in elementary mathematics for
getting Cube Roots of Non-Perfect Cubes. Normally it is done by using
logarithm table or scientific calculator.

11.1 Cube roots of Perfect Cubes upto 6 digit numbers


(By Inspection)
For using this technique, students are advised to learn Cubes of first 10
natural numbers and Cube Roots of first 10 Perfect Cube numbers by
heart, which is given below:

Table-1
Cubes/Cube Root Observation
If a perfect Cube ends with 1, its
13 =⇒
1 31=1 Cube root also ends with 1
If a perfect Cube ends with 8, its
23 =⇒
8 38=2 Cube root ends with 2
If a perfect Cube ends with 7, its
33 =27 ⇒ 3 27 =3 Cube root ends with 3
If a perfect Cube ends with 4, its
43 =64 ⇒ 3 64 =4 Cube root also ends with 4
If a perfect Cube ends with 5, its
53 =125 ⇒ 3 125 =5 Cube root also ends with 5
If a perfect Cube ends with 6, its
63 =216 ⇒ 3 216 =6 Cube root also ends with 6
If a perfect Cube ends with 3, its
73 =343 ⇒ 3 343 =7 Cube root ends with 7
If a perfect Cube ends with 2, its
83 =512 ⇒ 3 512 =8 Cube root ends with 8
If a perfect Cube ends with 9, its
93 =729 ⇒ 3 729 =9 Cube root also ends with 9
If a perfect Cube ends with 0,
103 =1000 ⇒ 3 1000 =10 its Cube root also ends with 0

84
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Summary of observations:
(i) If a perfect cube ends with 0, 1, 4, 5, 6 and 9 than its cube root will also
end with the same number.
(ii) If a perfect cube ends with 2, 3, 7 and 8 than its cube root will end
with its complement i.e. 8, 7, 3 and 2 respectively.
Step 1: Divide the given number into two 3-digit partitions starting
from the right. Answer will have two digits
For getting cube root of 2197, we will write it as 2/197,46656 as 46/656
and 857375 as 857/375.
Step 2:See the last (unit) digit of the given number and get the Unit’s
digit of the answer by observation as per table-1.

For example:
Unit’s digit of cube root of 2/197 will be 3.
Unit’s digit of cube root of 46/656 will be 6.
Unit’s digit of cube root of857/375 will be 5.
Step 3: Find the ten’s digit of the answer by inspection by seeing the
left partition.

For example:
Ten’s digit of cube root of 2/197 will be 1 as 2 lies between 13 and 23 .
Ten’s digit of cube root of 46/656 will be 3 as 46 lies between 33 and 43 .
Ten’s digit of cube root of 857/375 will be 9 as 857 lies between 93 and
103 .
Therefore,
Cube root of 2197 = 13
Cube root of 46656 = 36
Cube root of 857375 = 95

85
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More Solved Examples:


Find the
Unit’s
Cube Root Ten’s Digit of
Digit of the Answer
of following the Answer
answer
numbers
1 as 2 lies
2197 3 as the
between 13
(write it as number ends 13
and 23
2/197) with 7

46656 3 as 46 lies
6 as the
(write it as between 33
number ends 36
46/656) and 43
with 6

857375 9 as 857 lies


5 as the
(write it as between 93
number ends 95
857/375) and 103
with 5

Advantages of this Method


1. After knowing this method, one can find cube root of any 4, 5 or 6 digit
perfect cube number within 4-5 seconds.
2. This method involves no factorization and no written calculations. One
can directly find the answer through inspection in seconds.

Limitations of this Method


1. Applicable only for perfect cubes.
2. Applicable up-to 6 digit numbers and not beyond.
3. One should use this method only when he is sure that the given number
is a perfect cube.
4. One should not use this method for questions involving approximate
cube root.

86
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Finding Cube Root of a 4, 5, 6 digit Perfect Cube Number


(Summary of the Method)
Find the cube root of a b c d e f.
Step 1


Write or visualize a b c d e f as a b c/d e f.

  Step 2 Step 3


Find Ten’s digit Find Unit’s digit
of the answer of the answer

By seeing the last digit of the number


If abc is between x 3
3 i.e. f, we may get the unit digit of the
and y , ten’s digit of
answer by inspection.
the answer will be x.
If f is 0, 1, 4, 5, 6 & 9, the unit’s digit of
the answer will be the same.

If f is 2, 3, 7, 8 than the unit digit of


the answer will be it’s complement.

87
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Exercise 11.1
Total Questions 82  Ideal Time 5 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 85 questions in 5 minutes)
Find the cube root of following perfect cubes:

Question Number Question Number


1 1331 27 68921
2 1728 28 74088
3 2197 29 79507
4 2744 30 85184
5 3375 31 91125
6 4096 32 97336
7 4913 33 103823
8 5832 34 110592
9 6859 35 117649
10 9261 36 132651
11 10648 37 140608
12 12167 38 148877
13 13824 39 157464
14 15625 40 166375
15 17576 41 175616
16 19683 42 185193
17 21952 43 195112
18 24389 44 205379
19 29791 45 226981
20 32768 46 238328
21 35937 47 250047
22 39304 48 262144
23 42875 49 274625
24 46656 50 287496
25 50653 51 300763
26 54872 52 314432
(Contd.)
88
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Question Number Question Number


53 59319 68 614125
54 357911 69 328509
55 373248 70 636056
56 389017 71 658503
57 405224 72 681472
58 421875 73 704969
59 438976 74 753571
60 456533 75 778688
61 474552 76 804357
62 493039 77 830584
63 512000 78 857375
64 531441 79 884736
65 551368 80 912673
66 571787 81 941192
67 592704 82 970299

11.2 Cube roots of Perfect Cubes consisting 7, 8 and 9


digits (By Inspection)
This method is almost similar to the first method except for one additional
step that calculates the middle digit (ten’s digit) of the answer as in these
cases answers will be of three digits.
Step 1: Divide the given number into three 3-digit partitions starting
from the right. Answer will now have three digits
For example to get the cube root of 122,023,936, we will write or see it as
122/023/936
Step 2: See the last digit ( Unit digit) of the given number and get the
Unit digit of the answer by observation as per table-1. For example,
Unit digit of cube root of 122/023/936 will be 6

Step 3: Find the leftmost digit of the answer by observing the left par-
tition.

For example: Leftmost digit of cube root of 122/023/936 will be 4


as 122 lies between 43 and 53.

89
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Step 4: Find the ten’s (middle) digit of the answer by using the follow-
ing method. Denote left, right and middle digits of the answer by L, R
and M respectively.
Now, L = 4, R = 6, M = ?
(i)  Subtract R3 from the given number
122023936 – 216 = 122023720
(ii)  Note down the penultimate digit (second last digit) from right. In
this case, it is 2.
(iii)  Get M by using the result: 3 R2M will end with the penultimate
digit obtained in step 4 (ii).
In this case: 3 x 36 x M will end with 2 or 108 M will end with 2 =» M is 4
or 9. So our answer is 446 or 496.
But we know that, 4003= 64,000,000 and 5003= 125,000,000. So by
observation, given number is closer to 5003 and therefore our answer is 496.

Example2: Find Cube root of 72, 511, 713.


Step-I : 72/511/713

Step-II: Unit digit of the answer (R) will be 7

Step-III: Leftmost digit of the answer (L) will be 4 as 72 lies between 43


and 53
Step-IV: (i) Penultimate digit of 72511713 – 343 is 7.
(ii) 3 R2M should end with 7 =» 3 x 49 x M or 147 M should end
with 7 =» M =1
Therefore, answer is 417.

Example 3: Find Cube root of 10, 503, 459.


Step-I: 10/503/459
Step-II: Unit digit of the answer (c) will be 9
Step-III: Leftmost digit of the answer (a) will be 2.
Step-IV: (i) Penultimate digit of 10,503,459 – 729 is 3.
(ii) 3 R2M should end with 3 =» 3 x 81 x M or 243 M should end
with 3 =» M =1
Therefore, answer is 219.

90
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Exercise 11.2
Total Questions 50 Ideal Time 10 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 50 questions in 10 minutes)
Find the cube root of following perfect cubes:

Question Number Question Number


1 1030301 26 14706125
2 1092727 27 21484952
3 1191016 28 30371328
4 1295029 29 36926037
5 1367631 30 49836032
6 1442897 31 69934528
7 1643032 32 94818816
8 1771561 33 134217728
9 2000376 34 194104539
10 2048383 35 229220928
11 2248091 36 254840104
12 2406104 37 360944128
13 2571353 38 395446904
14 2685619 39 465484375
15 2803221 40 469097433
16 2985984 41 535387328
17 3176523 42 580093704
18 3442951 43 700227072
19 3581577 44 758550528
20 3652264 45 814780504
21 3869893 46 846590536
22 4173281 47 904231063
23 5735339 48 935441352
24 7077888 49 988047936
25 9528128 50 994011992

91
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11.3 Finding approximate Cube roots of non-Perfect Cubes

Case-I: The approximate cube root is more than the


approximate answer
To understand this method, let us go through an example. To find the cube
root of 250.

We know that 3 250 will be more than 6 and less than 7. But as the given
number is closer to 216, so our first approximation for the cube root of
250 is 6.

Now divide the given number by our first estimate twice to get second
approximation.

250 ÷ 6 = 41.67
41.67 ÷ 6 = 6.94 (second approximation)
Now divide the difference between second approximation and first ap-
proximation by 3, we get

0.94 ÷ 3 = 0.31
Adding this to our first approximation, we get 6 + .31 = 6.31. Round it
off little downward to get the approximate answer as 6.3. If we check it
through calculator, we will get the answer as 6.2996, which is very close
to our approximate answer.

Case-II : T
 he approximate cube root is less than
the approximate answer
Let us find the cube root of 201.

We know that 3 201 will be more than 5 and less than 6. But as the given
number is closer to 216, so our first approximation for the cube root of
201 is 6.

Now divide the given number by our first estimate twice to get second
approximation.

201 ÷ 6 = 33.50
33.50 ÷ 6 = 5.58 (second approximation)

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Now divide the difference between second approximation and first ap-
proximation by 3, we get

0.42 ÷ 3 = 0.14
Subtracting this from our first approximation, we get 6 - 0.14 = 5.86. If we
check it through calculator, we will get the answer as 5.8577, which is very
close to our approximate answer.

Exercise 11.3
Total Questions 20 Ideal Time 5 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 20 questions in 5 minutes)
Find the approximate cube root of following numbers:

Question Number Question Number


1 148 11 4758
2 278 12 8686
3 123 13 54
4 3487 14 87868
5 287 15 644
6 765 16 785
7 3224 17 646
8 987 18 255
9 2134 19 8866
10 88 20 612

93
Chapter

12 Fractions and Decimals


12.1 Addition of Mixed Fractions
Traditional Method:
1 1 13 29 13 × 7 + 29 × 4 91 + 116 207 11
3 +4 = + = = = =7
4 7 4 7 28 28 28 28
Alternative Method:

1 1  1 1 11 11
3 + 4 =(3 + 4) +  +  =7 + =7
4 7  4 7 28 28

12.2 Subtraction of Mixed Fractions


Traditional Method:

1 1 21 29 21 × 7 − 29 × 4 147 − 116 31 3
5 −4 = − = = = =1
4 7 4 7 28 28 28 28

Alternative Method:

1 1  1 1 3 3
5 − 4 =(5 − 4) +  −  =1 + =1
4 7  4 7 28 28

12.3 Multiplication/Square of Mixed Fractions:


(a) Square of Mixed Fractions with fractional part as ½:
(i) Fractional Part of the answer will always be ¼,
(ii) Whole number part of the answer will be whole number part of
the question multiplied by its successor.
Examples: (3 ½ )2 = 12 ¼, (4 ½ )2 = 20 ¼, (5 ½ )2 = 30 ¼, (6 ½ )2 = 42 ¼
(b) Multiplication of Mixed Fractions with sum of fractional parts as
1 and identical whole number part:
(i) Fractional Part of the answer will always be product of fractional parts
of the question,
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(ii) Whole number part of the answer will be whole number part of
the question multiplied by its successor.
Examples:
(i) 4 1 × 4 2 =20
2
3 3 9

(ii) 5 1 × 5 6 =
30
6
7 7 49
(c) Multiplication of Mixed Fractions with sum of fractional parts as
1/2 and identical whole number part:
(iii) F
 ractional Part of the answer will always be product of fractional
parts of the question,
(iv) Whole number part of the answer will be whole number part of
the question multiplied by its successor added by ½ of whole
number part.
Examples:
(iii) 4 1 × 4 3 =18
3
5 10 50
(iv) 6
1 3 3
×6 =
39
8 8 64
12.4 Converting Recurring decimals into Fractions
Type 1: When numbers are pure decimals and each number after
decimal is repeated i.e. numbers like 0.3333…, 0.353535…,
0.127127127… etc.

Traditional Approach One line Approach

Let x = .333…… −
10x = 3.33……. .333….= .3 = 3/9 = 1/3
On subtraction, we get
9x = 3 or × = 3/9 = 1/3

Let x = .353535…… − −
100 x = 35.3535……. .353535……= .3 5 = 35/99
On subtraction, we get
99 x = 35 or x = 35/99

Let x = .127127…… − − −
1000 x = 127.127127……. .127127127….= .1 2 7 =127/999
On subtraction, we get
999 x = 127 or x = 127/999

96
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Step-I: Write the given number into bar form by showing bar over digits
which are repeated again and again.
Step-II: Write the answer with numerator as number obtained in first
step without decimal and denominator as a number with 9s only equal to
the number of digits in the numerator.
Type 2: When numbers are pure decimals and each number after
decimal is not repeated i.e. numbers like 0.43333…...,
0.1353535……, 0.21127127127… etc.

Traditional Approach One line Approach


Let x = .4333……
10x = 4.3333……. −
On subtraction, we get .4333….= .4 3 = 43-4/90 =
9x = 3.9 or × = 3.9/9 = 39/90 39/90 = 13/30
=13/30
Let x = .1353535……
100x = 13.5353535……. − −
On subtraction, we get .1353535……= .13 5 =135-1 /990
99x = 13.4 or x = 13.4/99 = = 134/990 = 67/495
134/990 = 67/495
Let x =.21127127……
1000x = 211.27127127……. .21127127127…. = 211 2 7
On subtraction, we get = 21127-21/99900 =
999x = 211.06 or x = 211.06/999 21106/99900= 10553/49950
= 21106/99900 = 10553/49950

Step-I: Write the given number into bar form by showing bar over digits
which are repeated again and again.
Step-II: Write the answer with numerator as a number obtained in
first the step without decimal subtracted by number not repeated and
denominator as a number with 9s and 0s only. The number of 9s will be
equal to the number of digits with bar followed by number of zeroes equal
to number of digits without bar.

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Type 3: When numbers are not pure decimals and each number
after the decimal is repeated i.e. numbers like 1.3333…...,
2.353535……, 3.127127127… etc.

Traditional Approach One line Approach

Let x = 1.333…… 3 1
10x = 13.33……. 1.333….= 1.3 = 1 = 1
9 3
On subtraction, we get (From type 1-
1
9x = 12 or x = 12/9 = 4/3 = 1
3 .3 = 3/9 = 1/3)
Let x = 2.353535……
100x = 235.3535……. − − 35
On subtraction, we get 2.353535……=2 .3 5 = 2
35 99
99x = 233 or x = 233/99 = 2 (From type 1-
99 .3 5= 35/99)
Let x = 3.127127…… − − −

1000x = 3127.127127……. 3 . 1 2 7 1 2 7 1 2 7 … . = 3 .1 2 7 =
On subtraction, we get
127
999x = 3124 or x = 3
999
127
3124/999 = 3 (From type 1-
999 − − −
.1 2 7 =127/999)

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Type 4: When numbers are not pure decimals and each number
after the decimal is not repeated i.e. numbers like 1.43333…,
2.1353535…, 3.21127127127… etc.

Traditional Approach One line Approach


Let x = 1.4333…… 13
1.4333….= 1.4 3 = 1
10x = 14.3333……. 30

On subtraction, we get
(From Type-2, .4 3 = 13/30)
9x = 12.9 or x = 12.9/9 =

13
129/90 =43/30= 1
30

Let x = 2.1353535…… 67
2.1353535……=2.1 3 5= 2
100x = 213.5353535……. 495
On subtraction, we get (From Type-2, 1 3 5= 67/495)
99x = 211.4 or x = 211.4/99
= 2114/990 = 1057/495 =
67
2
495
Let x =3.21127127…… 3.21127127127…=3.21 1 2 7=
1000x = 3211 .27127127……. 10553
On subtraction, we get 3
49950
999x = 3208.06 or
x = 3208.06/999 (From type -2, 21 1 2 7 =
= 320806/99900 10553/49950)
= 160403/49950

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Exercise 12.1
Total Questions 8 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 8 questions in 2 minutes)
1 2 5
1.4 + 2
1.  +7 =
3 5 6
3 2 2
2.5 + 7
2.  + +2 =
4 7 3
7 5 5
3.11 − 12 +
3.  − =
9 4 12
1 2
4.5 + 27 +
4.  =
8 13
4 2 1
5.19
5.  + + 14 =
9 9 11
8 1 4 1 3
6.2
6.  +2 +3 −4 − =
35 5 7 2 5
1 3 2
7.
7.  − 19 + 67 =
11 17 11
172 95 65 24
8.5
8.  + 10 + + =
110 100 52 32

Exercise 12.2
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 2 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 5 minutes)
Covert the following decimal numbers into fraction:

Question Number Question Number


1 .3535….. 6 0.9575757…
2 .213213… 7 1.2222….
3 1.2929….. 8 4.797979….
4 .77777…… 9 .234234……
5 21.2353535.. 10 12.57777…..

100
Chapter

13 LCM and HCF


Students are well aware of the traditional methods for finding HCF and LCM.
Here we will discuss some alternative methods for finding LCM and HCF.

13.1 Finding LCM and HCF of two numbers:


Method-1
Example 1:    Find the HCF and LCM of 120 and 36
Solution:  Write the numbers as follows:
36 3
= (In lowest form)
120 10
Now HCF = 36 ÷ 3 or 120 ÷ 10 = 12
and LCM = 36 × 10 or 120 × 3 = 360

Example 2:    Find the HCF and LCM of 150 and 255


Solution:  Write the numbers as follows:
150 10
= (In lowest form)
255 17
Now HCF = 150 ÷ 10 or 255 ÷ 17 = 15
and LCM = 255 × 10 or 150 × 17 = 2550
Method-2
By using, Product of two numbers = L.C.M. × H.C.F.
Example 3:   Find the HCF and LCM of 78 and 216.
Solution: Divide the given numbers by 2 to get 39 and 108 as quotients.
Again divide the 39 and 108 by 3 to get 13 and 36. Now, 13 and 36 are not
divisible by a single prime number simultaneously, so stop here.
 2 | 78 216 |
 3 | 39 108 |
13 36
So, HCF = 2 × 3 = 6 and LCM = (78 × 216) ÷ 6 = 2808
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Example 4:   Find the HCF and LCM of 129 and 219.

Solution:
 3 | 129 219 |
   | 43 73 |

So, HCF = 3 and LCM = (129 × 219) ÷ 3 = 9417


Method-3 If ratio of numbers is a : b and H is the HCF of the numbers,
then,

LCM of the numbers = H × a × b = HCF × Product of the ratios.

Example 5:   Find the HCF and LCM of 16 and 40.


Solution:
 By observation HCF = 8, Ratio of numbers is 2: 5,
Therefore, LCM = 8 × 2 × 5 =80

Exercise 13
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 3 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 3 minutes)
Find the LCM and HCF of the following numbers:

 1. 106, 54
 2. 84, 212
 3. 1208, 2112
 4. 78, 98
 5. 125, 650
 6. 441, 9261
 7. 180, 590
 8. 2970, 8712
 9. 252, 792
10. 192, 1056

102
Chapter

14 Checking Your Answer


We had learnt a powerful technique called ‘Digit Sum Method’ in chapter 1
of this book. Now we will learn, how to use this method to check or verify
your answer. This method normally works for addition, subtraction and
multiplication only but with little observation and common-sense, the same
may be made applicable to check your answers in case of squaring, square
root, cubing and cube roots as well. Students will be able to understand
the above facts in a better way after going through the following examples:

Checking Addition:
Example 1: Verify 98765 + 23875 = 122640
Solution: Digit Sum of 98765 = 8, Digit Sum of 23875 = 7
Digit Sum of Question (Left Hand Side) = 8 + 7 = 15 = 6
Digit Sum of Answer (Right Hand Side) = 122640 = 6
Therefore, Answer is verified.

Checking Subtraction:
Example 2: Verify 98765 - 23875 = 74890
Solution: Digit Sum of 98765 = 8, Digit Sum of 23875 = 7
Digit Sum of Question (Left Hand Side) = 8 - 7 = 1
Digit Sum of Answer (Right Hand Side) = 74890 = 19 = 1
Therefore, Answer is verified.
Note: While subtracting if digit sum of Left hand side comes out to
be negative, add nine to make it positive as we have already learnt
in Chapter 1 that nine means zero while calculating digit sum of a
number.
Example 3: Verify 9765 - 3875 = 4890
Solution: Digit Sum of 9765 = 0, Digit Sum of 3875 = 5
Digit Sum of Question (Left Hand Side) = 0 - 5 = -5 = -5 +9 = 4
Digit Sum of Answer (Right Hand Side) = 4890 = 3
Therefore, Answer is incorrect. The correct answer is 5890.
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Checking Multiplication:
Example 4: Verify 12345 × 875 = 10801875
Solution: Digit Sum of 12345 = 6, Digit Sum of 875 = 2
Digit Sum of Question (Left Hand Side) = 6 × 2 = 12 = 3
Digit Sum of Answer (Right Hand Side) = 10801875 = 12 = 3
Therefore, Answer is verified.

Checking Division:
The process of verifying a division is slightly different from process of
checking addition, subtraction or multiplication. It may be checked as
follows:
Digit Sum (D.S.) of Dividend = D.S. of Divisor × D.S. of Quotient

Example 5: Verify 12625/25 = 505


Solution: Digit Sum of 12625 = 7, Digit Sum of 25 = 7
Digit Sum of 505 = 1
We may see that D.S. of 12625 = D.S. of 505 × D.S. of 25
Therefore, Answer is verified.

Checking Square of a number:


Example 5: Verify 532 = 3409
Solution: Digit Sum of 53 = 8, Digit Sum of 532 = 8 × 8 = 64 = 1
Digit Sum of 3409 = 7
Therefore, Answer is incorrect. The correct answer is 2809 with digit sum
as 1.

Checking Square Root of a number:


Example 6: Verify 7921 = 89
Solution: We have to check if 892 = 7921
Digit Sum of 89 = 8, Digit Sum of 892 = 8 × 8 = 64 = 1
Digit Sum of 7921 = 1
Therefore, Answer is correct.

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Checking Cube of a Number:


Example 7: Verify 213 = 9261
Solution: Digit Sum of 21 = 3, Digit Sum of 213 = 3 × 3 × 3 = 27 = 9 = 0
Digit Sum of 9261 = 9 = 0
Therefore, Answer is correct.

Checking Cube Root of a Number:


Example 8: Verify 3
704969 = 89
Solution: We have to check if
Digit Sum of 89 = 8, Digit Sum of 893 = 8 × 8 × 8 = 512 = 8
Digit Sum of 704969 = 8
Therefore, Answer is correct.

Important Note:
This method will work for calculations involving decimals as well.
However, one has to check the position of decimal manually.
For example verify: 52.3 × 56.9 = 297.587
Digit Sum of LHS = 1 × 2 =2, Digit Sum of RHS =2
It seems that answer is right but if you see closely answer should be
2975.87

If the digit sum of Left side is not matching with digit sum of right
side, it is sure that your answer is wrong. Even if digit sum of both
sides are matching, still there is a possibility (though remote) that
your answer may be wrong.
For example verify: 123 × 456 = 56088 but suppose you have written the
answer as 56808. You will get Digit Sum of LHS = Digit Sum of RHS =0

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Summary of Digit Sum Method


Operation How to apply Digit Sum Method
Addition (a + b = c) Check if D.S.(a) + D.S.(b)= D.S.(c)
Subtraction (a – b = c) Check if D.S.(a) - D.S.(b)= D.S.(c)

Multiplication (a × b = c) Check if D.S.(a) × D.S.(b)= D.S.(c)


Division(a ÷ b = c) Check if D.S.(c) × D.S.(b)= D.S.(a)
Squaring (a2 = b) Check if D.S.(a2) = D.S.(b)
Cubing (a3 = b) Check if D.S.(a3) = D.S.(b)

Square Root ( b = a ) Check if D.S.(a2) = D.S.(b)

Cube Root ( 3 b = a) Check if D.S.(a3) = D.S.(b)

Exercise 14
Check the answers of questions given in exercise 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 by
using digit sum technique.

106
ALGEBRA
Chapter

15
Long Division or Synthetic
Division
15.1 Long Division
All the students must be aware of the process of long division of a
polynomial by another polynomial. An example of the same is given below:

Example1: Divide x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x + 11 by x − 2

x − 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x + 11 x 2 + 9 x + 27 (Quotient)

x 3 − 2x 2

(-) (+)
----------------------
9x2 + 9x
9x2 − 18x
(-) (+)
-----------------------
27x + 11
27x − 54
(-) (+)
---------------------------------
65 (Remainder)
---------------------------------
15.2 Synthetic Division of a polynomial by a linear
polynomial of the type x ± a
A very powerful technique for simplifying the procedure of long division
is Synthetic Division. This technique, not only saves time but also saves
a lot of space, which is a constraint in all the competitive examinations
these days. In this technique, the quotient and the remainder are obtained
only with the help of coefficients.
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Step-1: In place of dividend, put down all the coefficients of the original
dividend (including co-efficient of missing powers, if any) and in place of
the divisor put down the constant term of the divisor by changing its sign
as follows:
Let us take the same example of division ( as discussed on pre-page) of
x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x + 11 by x − 2
3 2
Coefficient of x +x7 x+ 7 x+x 9++x97x+x+11
3 23
+ 9 x + 11
112
Constant Term

2 |1 7 9 11


Opposite of constant term (-2) in the Divisor x − 2

Step-2: Put 0 below the first coefficient of the dividend and draw a parti-
tion before the last coefficient of the dividend as follows:
2 |1 7 9 | 11
0
-------------------------------------------
Step-3: Add the first column to get 1. Multiply the result by divisor 2 and
put down the answer in the second row below 7. Add the second column
to get 9. Again multiply 9 by divisor 2 to get 18 and put it down in the third
column in the second row. Repeat the process till you get the sum in the
last column. Entries in the third column are the coefficients of our answer.
The power of first term in the quotient will be the difference in the highest
power of the term in the dividend and the divisor.

2 |1 7 9 | 11

0 2 18 | 54
--------------------------------------------------------
1 9 27 | 65

x2 x 2 Constant Remainder

Therefore, the quotient is x 2 + 9 x + 27 and the remainder is 65.

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Example 2: Divide 3 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 2 x − 1 by x + 4

-4 | 3 4 -2 | -1
0 -12 32 | -120
-------------------------------------------------
3 -8 30 | -121
2
x x Constant Remainder

Therefore, the quotient is 3 x 2 − 8 x + 30 and the remainder is -121.


Example 3: Divide x 5 + 1 by x + 1 (observe the coefficients of the
dividend).
-1 | 1 0 0 0 0 | 1
0 -1 1 -1 1 |  -1      

---------------------------------------------------------------
1 -1 1 -1 1 | 0

x4 x3 x2 x Constant Remainder

Therefore, the quotient is x 4 − x 3 + x 2 − x + 1 and the remainder is 0.

15.3 Synthetic division of a polynomial by a linear


polynomial of the type ax ± b
This method is almost similar to the first method except one step which
has been illustrated through the following example:

Example 4: Divide −4 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 9 x − 12 by 2 x − 4

3 2 3 2 3 9 2 9
−4 x + 9 x + 9 x −12 −4 x + 9 x + 9 x −12 −2 x + 2 x + 2 x − 6
= =
2x − 4 2( x − 2) x−2

And after this step, the method of division is similar to method 15.2
2 | -2 9/2 9/2 | -6
0 -4 1 | 11
-------------------------------------------------
-2 1/2 11/2 | 5
x2 x Constant Remainder

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1 11
Therefore, the quotient is −2 x 2 + x+ and the remainder is 5.
2 2
15.4 Synthetic division by a polynomial of degree two
and above
This method has been illustrated through the following example:
Example 5: Divide x4 + 8x3+ 15x2 + 4x + 1 by x2 + 3x + 2
Steps involved:
1. In place of dividend, put down the coefficients of the dividend (includ-
ing co-efficient of missing powers, if any). The last two coefficients will
be used to find the remainder of the answer. In place of divisor, put
down the opposite of co-efficient of the linear term and the constant
term of the divisor as follows:

Divisor Dividend/ Remainder


Quotient
-3 -2 1 8 15 4 1
2 Row
nd

3rd Row
4th Row
5th Row

2. Put 0 in the second, third and fourth rows under the first column of the
dividend to get sum as 1 as follows:

Divisor Dividend/ Remainder


Quotient
-3 -2 1 8 15 4 1
2nd Row 0
3 Rowrd
0
4 Rowth
0
5 Rowth
1

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3. Multiply the sum of first column (1) by both the dividends and put
the answer in the second and the third column of the second row as
follows:

Divisor Dividend/Quotient Remainder


-3 -2 1 8 15 4 1
2 Row
nd
0 -3 -2 0 0
3rd Row 0 0
4 Row
th
0 0
5 Row
th
1 5

4. Multiply the sum of the second column (5) by both the dividends and
put the answer in the third and the fourth column of the third row as
follows:

Divisor Dividend/Quotient Remainder


-3 -2 1 8 15 4 1
2 Row
nd
0 -3 -2 0 0
3 Row
rd
0 0 -15 -10 0
4 Row
th
0 0 0
5 Row
th
1 5 -2
5. Multiply the sum of the third column (-2) by both the dividends and
put the answer in the fourth and the fifth column of the fourth row as
follows:

Divisor Dividend/Quotient Remainder


-3 -2 1 8 15 4 1
2nd Row 0 -3 -2 0 0
3 Row
rd
0 0 -15 -10 0
4 Row
th
0 0 0 6 4
5 Row
th
1 5 -2 0 5
Answer x + 5x -2
2
5

6. Since this is the division of a fourth-degree polynomial by a second de-


gree polynomial, the answer will be of the second degree, and the last
two cells on the 5th row will represent coefficient of a linear remainder.
In this case the quotient is x2 + 5x -2 and the remainder is 0. x + 5 i.e. 5.

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Note: In first glance, it seems to be a lengthy process but after some


practice students will find the method easier, time saving and
space saving. This fact will be evident to students from the fol-
lowing example.

Example 6: Divide 2x4 + 4x3+ 5x2 + 1 by x2 + 4x + 1

Divisor Dividend/Quotient Remainder


-4 -1 2 4 5 0 1
2 Row
nd
0 -8 -2 0 0
3 Row
rd
0 0 16 4 0
4 Row
th
0 0 0 -76 -19
5 Row
th
2 -4 19 -72 -18
Answer 2x2 -4x +19 -72 x -18

Exercise 15
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 5 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 5 minutes)
Divide the following polynomials and find quotient and remainder:

 1.  x + 6 x + 8 x + 10 by x − 3
3 2

 2.  2 x + 7 x + 9 x + 11 by x − 2
3 2

 3.  3 x + 7 x + 10 x + 11 by 2 x − 3
3 2

2
 4.  x + 7 x + 9 x + 11 by x + x + 1
3 2

2
 5.  2 x + 5 x + 9 x + 9 by x + 2 x + 1
3 2

 6.   3 x − 5 x − 10 by x + 1
2

 7.   x − 3 x + 27 by 2 x + 1
2

 8.   7 x + 3 x + 2 by x + 1
3

 9.  x + 3 x + 2 by x + 3
4

10. 3 x 2 + 5 x + 2 by 2 x + 1
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Chapter

16 Factorization of Polynomials
16.1 Factorization of Quadratic Polynomials by inspection:
Type -1: Polynomial of the form x 2 + bx + c
Step 1: Split c into two parts such that their sum is b and product is c. Let
two parts are α and β
Step-2: Factorization of x 2 + bx + c will be ( x + α ).( x + β )

Example 1: Factorize x 2 + 7 x + 12

Step 1: Split 12 into the product of two numbers such that their sum is 7.
Such numbers are 4 and 3.
Step-2:∴ Factorization of x 2 + 7 x + 12 will be ( x + 4).( x + 3)

Example 2: Factorize x 2 − 6 x + 8

Step 1: Split 8 into the product of two numbers such that their sum is -6.
Such numbers are -4 and -2.
Step-2:∴ Factorization of x 2 − 6 x + 8 will be ( x − 4).( x − 2)

Example 3: Factorize x 2 − 3 x − 18

Step 1: Split -18 into the product of two numbers such that their sum is -3.
Such numbers are -6 and 3.
Step-2: ∴ Factorization of x 2 − 3 x − 18 will be ( x − 6).( x + 3)

Type -2: Polynomial of the form ax 2 + bx + c

Step 1: Split a × c into the product of two numbers such that their sum is
b. Let such numbers be α and β .

2 1
Step-2: Factorization of ax + bx + c will be (ax + α ).(ax + β )
a
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Example 4: Factorize 2 x 2 + 7 x + 6

Step 1: Split 2 × 6 = 12 into the product of two numbers such that their
sum is 7. Such numbers are 4 and 3.
Step-2:∴ Factorization of 2 x 2 + 7 x + 6 will be
1
(2 x + 4).(2 x + 3) = ( x + 2).(2 x + 3)
2

Example 5: Factorize 3 x 2 − 2 x − 8
Step 1: Split 3 × (-8) = -24 into the product of two numbers such that their
sum is -2. Such numbers are -6 and 4.

Step-2: ∴ Factorization of 3 x 2 − 2 x − 8 will be

1
(3 x − 6).(3 x + 4) = ( x − 2).(3 x + 4)
3
16.2 Factorization of Cubic Polynomials:
Type -1: Polynomial of the form x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c

Step-1: Let p ( x) = x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c .
Find all the possible factors of c including negative factors. Out of these
factors, let for x = α , we have p (x) =0, so α is a zero of x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c
and therefore, ( x − α ) will be a factor of x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c .

Step-2: Divide x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c by ( x − α ) using synthetic division


technique and get quotient which will be a quadratic polynomial.
Step-3: Factorize the quotient received in step-2 to get two factors. Write
down the answer by using factors obtained in step-1 and step-2.
Alternative Method (By inspection):
3 2
For polynomial p ( x) = x + ax + bx + c
(1) Find all possible factors of c including negative factors.
(2) Identify three factors of c (let α , β , δ ) by inspection such that
α p+( βx) +=δx3=+−aax, αβ
2
+ βδ
+ bx b , and α.β.δ = −c
+ c+ δα =
(3) Therefore, x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c = ( x − α )(
. x − β )(
. x −δ )

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Note: This method is very useful for those students whose observation
skills are strong. It is also useful for Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
where one can easily verify step-2 out of the available options.

Type -2: Polynomial of the form ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d

Step-1: Let p(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d


Find all possible factors of d including negative factors. The possible zeroes
of p(x) will be ±α, ±ß, ±γ, ±α/a, ±β/a and ±δ/a. Out of these numbers,
let for x = α , we have p(x) =0, so α is a zero of ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d and
therefore, ( x − α ) will be a factor of ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d .
Step 2: Divide ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d by ( x − α ) using synthetic division
technique and get quotient which will be a quadratic polynomial. Let the
quotient be (ax 2 + px + q )

Write ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = ( x − α ).(ax 2 + px + q )

Factorize (ax 2 + px + q )

Step-3: Write down the answer by using factors obtained in step-1 and
step-3.

Example 1: Factorize x 3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10

Solution:

Step-1: All possible factors of 10 are ±1, ±2, ±5, ±10

Step-2: Out of these factors, observe three numbers 5, 1 and -2 such that 5
× 1 × (-2) = -10, 5 + 1 + (-2) = 4 and 5 × 1+ 1 × (-2) + (-2) × 5 = -7.
Step-3: Therefore,

x 33 − 4 x 22 − 7 x + 10 = ( x 22 − 3 x − 10).( x − 1)
x − 4 x − 7 x + 10 = ( x − 3 x − 10).( x − 1)
= ( x + 2).( x − 5).( x − 1)
= ( x + 2).( x − 5).( x − 1)

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Example 2: Factorize x3 - 2x2 - 5x + 6


Solution: Step – 1: Possible factors of 6 are ±1,±2,±3,±6
Step-2: By observation, 3, -2 and 1 are the numbers for which,
3 x (-2) x 1 = -6, 3 +(-2) + 1 = 2 and 3 x (-2) + (-2) x 1 + 1 x 3 = -5.
Step-3: Therefore, x3 - 2x2 - 5x + 6 = (x -3) (x +2) (x-1)
Example 3: Factorize 2x3 - 9x2 + 10x - 3
Solution: Step – 1: Possible zeroes of the polynomial are ±1,±3,±1/ 2,±3/ 2
Step-2: Putting x =1 in the given polynomial we have value of polynomial
as zero.
Therefore, (x-1) is a factor.
Step-3: Divide 2x3 - 9x2 + 10x – 3 by (x-1) using synthetic division, we
get quotient as = 2x2 - 7x + 3, which on factorization gives factors as
(x-3) (2x-1)
Step-4: Therefore, 2x3 - 9x2 + 10x – 3 = (x-1) (x-3) (2x-1)

Exercise 16
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 5 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 5 minutes)
Factorize the following polynomials into linear factors:

 1. x 2 − 8 x + 15
 2. x 2 + x − 42
 3. 2 x 2 − 19 x + 24
 4. x 2 + 4 x − 45
 5. x 3 − 6 x 2 + 11x − 6
 6. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 5 x + 6
 7. 2 x 3 − 25 x 2 + 76 x − 32

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 8. x 3 − 11x 2 + 35 x − 25
 9. x 3 + 7 x 2 − 6 x − 72
10. 2x4 + 15x3 + 5x2 - 15x -7

119
Chapter

17 Solving Equations
17.1 Linear Equations in two variables:
The standard form of linear equations in two variables is as follows:
a1 x + b1 y = c1
a2 x + b2 y = c2

Traditional Methods of Solving Linear Equations in two


variables:
(1) Elimination Method: Let us revisit the method through an example:
Example 1: Solve the following equations through elimination method:
2x + 3y = 7------(1)
3x + 7y = 11-----(2)
Step-I: To eliminate x, Multiplying equation (1) by 3 and equation (2) by
2, we have:
6x + 9y = 21------(3)
6x + 14y = 22----(4)
Step-II: Subtract equation (3) and (4) to get the value of y as follows:
-5y = -1 or y = 1/5
Step-III: Substitute the value of y in equation (1) to get the value of x as
follows:
2x + 3/5 = 7 or 2x = 7 – 3/5 =32/5 or x = 16/5
So, the solution of given equations is
x = 16/5 and y = 1/5
(2) Substitution Method: Let us revisit the method through an example:

Example 2: Solve the following equations through substitution method:


3x + 4 y = 10------(1)
5x + 6 y = 10------(2)
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Step-I: Get the value of x from equation (1) in terms of y,


i.e. 3x = 10 – 4 y or x = (10-4 y )/3
Step-II: Substitute the value of x in equation (2) to get the value of y as
follows:

5(10 − 4 y ) 5(10 − 4 y ) + 18 y
+ 6y =
10 or = 10
3 3

50 − 20 y + 18 y
30 or 2 y = 20 or y = 10
or 50 − 2 y =

Step-III: Substitute the value of y in equation (1) to get the value of x as


follows:
3x + 40 = 10 or 3x = 10 – 40 =-30 or x = - 10
So, the solution of given equations is
x = - 10 and y = 10
(3) Cross Multiply Method

a1 x + b1 y = c1
a2 x + b2 y = c2
In this method, equations are solved using the following result:

x y −1
= =
b1 c 2 − b2 c1 c1 a 2 − c 2 a1 a1 b2 − a 2 b1

Example 3: Solve the following equations through cross multiply method:


5x + 6 y = 7------(1)
8x + 9 y = 10----(2)

x y −1
= =
6 × 10 − 9 × 7 7 × 8 − 10 × 5 5 × 9 − 8 × 6
x y −1
= = ⇒ x = −1, y = 2
−3 6 −3

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(4) Graphical Method: As this method requires graph paper and so it is


not useful at all for the purpose of faster calculation.
Analysis of Traditional Methods: From the above discussion, it may
be seen that out of all the methods, cross multiply method is the shortest
and space saving method. Students, who are willing to solve the linear
equations in two variables traditionally, are advised to go through this
method only to save space and time.
Short cut methods of Solving Linear Equations in two variables: The
short-cut method of solving linear equation in two variables requires a close
observation of cross multiply method to make it further simpler and shorter:

a1 x + b1 y = c1
a2 x + b2 y = c2
(1) Get D (by leaving coefficients of constant terms) by finding the
difference of cross product of coefficients of x and y as follows:

D = a1 b2 − a 2 b1

(2) Get N x (by leaving the coefficients of x) by finding the difference


of cross product of coefficients of y and constant terms as
follows:

N x = b1 c 2 − b2 c1

(3) Get N y (by leaving the coefficients of y) by finding the difference


of cross product of coefficients of x and constant terms as
follows:

N y = a1 c 2 − a 2 c1
(4) Now, found the answer using,

−N x Ny
x= ,y=
D D

Example 4: Solve the following equations:


8x + 3y = 11------(1)
5x + 7y = 9-------(2)

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Solution: Here D = a1 b2 − a 2 b1 = 8.7 - 5.3 = 41

N x = b1 c 2 − b2 c1 = 3.9 - 7.11 = -50


N y = a1 c 2 − a 2 c1 = 8.9 - 5.11 = 17

− N x − ( −50) 50 N y 17
=x = = =,y =
D 41 41 D 41
Note: Once students understand clearly how to get D, N x and N y ,
they may get their answer in only one step as follows:

Example 5: Solve the following equations:


3x - 5y = 7––––(1)
7x + 7y = -8––––(2)

Solution:

− N x − (( −5).( −8) − 7.7) 9


=x = = ,
D 3.7 − 7.( −5) 56

N y 3.( −8) − 7.7 −73


y
= = =
D 56 56

17.2 Linear equations in three variables:


The standard form of linear equations in three variables is as follows:
a1 x + b1 y + c1 z = d 1
a 2 x + b2 y + c 2 z = d 2
a 3 x + b3 y + c 3 z = d 3

Traditional Methods of Solving Linear Equations in three variables


(Elimination Method): Let us revisit the method through an example.

Example 6: Solve the following equations:

5 x + 2 y + 3 z = 4 − − − −(1)
3 x + 4 y + 5 z = 6 − − − −(2)
2 x + 3 y + 4 z = 5 − − − −(3)

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Solution:

Step-I: Eliminate x from equations (1) and (2) by multiplying equation (1)
by 3 and equation (2) by 5 and subtracting them as follows:
15 x + 6 y + 9 z= 12 − − − −(1)
15 x + 20 y + 25 z= 30 − − (2)
On subtracting (1) and (2), we get:
−14 y − 16 z = −18
or 7 y + 8 z = 9 − − − (4)
Step-II: Now, eliminate x from equations (2) and (3) by multiplying equa-
tion (2) by 2 and equation (3) by 3 and subtracting them as follows:
6 x + 8 y + 10 z= 12 − − − − (2)
6 x + 9 y + 12 z= 15 − − − − (3)
On subtracting (2) and (3), we get:
− y − 2 z =−3
or y + 2 z = 3 − − − −(5)
Step-III: Solve equation (4) and (5) to get y and z,

7 y + 8 z = 9 − − − −(4)
y + 2 z = 3 − − − −(5)

On solving, z = 2, y = -1

Step-IV: Substitute the values of y and z obtained in Step-III in equation


(1) to get x = 0.

Therefore, the solution is x = 0, y = -1 and z = 2.

Short cut method of Solving Linear Equations in three


variables:
a1 x + b1 y + c1 z = d 1
a 2 x + b2 y + c 2 z = d 2
a 3 x + b3 y + c 3 z = d 3

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Step-I: Observe the following four terms:

 a1 b1 c1   d 1 b1 c1   a1 d 1 c1 
     
D =  a 2 b2 c 2  , D x =  d 2 b2 c 2  , D y =  a 2 d 2 c 2 
a b c  d b c  a d c 
 3 3 3  3 3 3  3 3 3

 a1 b1 d 1 
 
D z =  a 2 b2 d 2 
a b d 
 3 3 3

Explanation: D contains coefficients of x, y, z retaining their position. Dx


is obtained by replacing the first column of D by coefficients of constant
terms, Dy is obtained by replacing the second column of D by coefficients
of constant terms and Dz is obtained by replacing the third column of D by
coefficients of constant terms

Step-II: The values of D, Dx, Dy and Dz may be obtained as follows:

Finding the value of D: Write first two columns of D again,

a1 b1 c1 a1 b1
a2 b2 c2 a2 b2
a3 b3 c3 a3 b3

D = ( a1 b2 c3 + b1 c 2 a3 + c1 a 2 b3)-(a3 b2 c1 + b3 c 2 a1 + c3 a 2 b1)

Finding the value of Dx:

d1 b1 c1 d1 b1
d2 b2 c2 d2 b2
d3 b3 c3 d3 b3

Dx: = (d 1 b2 c3 + b1 c 2 d 3 + c1 d 2 b3)-( d 3 b2 c1 + b3 c 2 d 1 + c3 d 2 b1)

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Finding the value of Dy:

a1 d1 c1 a1 d1
a2 d2 c2 a2 d2
a3 d3 c3 a3 d3

Dy = ( a1 d 2 c3 + d 1 c 2 a3 + c1 a 2 d 3 )-( a3 d 2 c1 + d 3 c 2 a1 + c3 a 2 d 1 )

Finding the value of Dz:

a1 b1 d1 a1 b1
a2 b2 d2 a2 b2
a3 b3 d3 a3 b3

Dz = ( a1 b2 d 3 + b1 d 2 a3 + d 1 a 2 b3 )-( a3 b2 d 1 + b3 d 2 a1 + d 3 a 2 b1 )

Step-III: Find the answer by using the following formulae:

Dy
x = Dx , y = , z = Dz
D D D
Note: Initially students may find the process little difficult or lengthy but
after some practice, they will find that it is the fastest method to find the
solution of equations in three variables. For solving such questions fast,
students are advised to master the skills to get values of D, Dx, Dy and Dz.
Example 7: Solve the following equations:

x + 2 y + 3 z = 4 − − − −(1)
5 x + 6 y + z = 8 − − − −(2)
2 x + 3 y + 4 z = 5 − − − (3)

Solution:
1 2 3 1 2
5 6 1 5 6
2 3 4 2 3

D = (1.6.4 + 2.1.2 + 3.5.3)-(2.6.3 + 3.1.1 + 4.5.2) = 73 - 79 = -6

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4 2 3 4 2
8 6 1 8 6
5 3 4 5 3

D x = (4.6.4+2.1.5+3.8.3)-(5.6.3+3.1.4+4.8.2) = 178-166=12

1 4 3 1 4
5 8 1 5 8
2 5 4 2 5

D y = (1.8.4+4.1.2+3.5.5)-(2.8.3+5.1.1+4.5.4) = 115-133=-18

1 2 4 1 2
5 6 8 5 6
2 3 5 2 3

D z = (1.6.5+2.8.2+4.5.3)-(2.6.4+3.8.1+5.5.2) = 122-122=0

Dx 12 Dy −18 Dz 0
x === − 2, y = = = 3, z == = 0
D −6 D −6 D −16

17.3 Quadratic Equations:
The standard form of quadratic equation is as follows:

ax 2 + bx + c= 0, a ≠ 0
Traditional Methods of Solving Quadratic Equations:

1. Factorization Method:

Example 1: Solve x 2 − 7 x + 12 =
0 by factorization method.

x 2 − 7 x + 12 =
0
x 2 − 4 x − 3 x + 12 =0
x( x − 4) − 3( x − 4) = 0
( x − 4).( x − 3) = 0
x = 3, 4

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Example 2: Solve 2 x 2 + 10 x + 8 =0 by factorization method.

2 x 2 + 10 x + 8 =0
2 x2 + 8x + 2 x + 8 = 0
2 x( x + 4) + 2( x + 4) =0
( x + 4).(2 x + 2) =
0
x =−4, −1

2. Completion of Square Method:


Example 3: Solve x 2 −+76x
x ++12
8=00 by completion of square method.

x2 + 6x + 8 = 0
( x) 2 + 2.3.x + (3) 2 − (3) 2 + 8 = 0
( x + 3) 2 − 1 =0
( x + 3) 2 =
1
x + 3 =±1
x= −2, − 4

3. Quadratic Formula Method:


For any quadratic equation:

ax 2 + bx + c= 0, a ≠ 0

−b ± b 2 − 4ac
x=
2a

Example 4: Solve x 2 + 3 x + 2 = 0 by quadratic formula method.

−b ± b 2 − 4ac −3 ± 32 − 4.1.2 −3 ± 1
=x = =
2a 2.1 2
∴ x =−2, −1
Analysis of Traditional Methods: From the above discussion, it may
be seen that out of all the methods, Quadratic Formula method is the
shortest and space saving method and can be used to solve any quadratic

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equation even with imaginary or irrational roots. Factorization method


may work only when roots are rational.

Short cut methods of Solving Quadratic Equations:


Type -1: Equations of the form x 2 + bx + c =0
Step 1: Factorize c into two parts such that their sum is b. Let such factors
are α and β
Step-2: Solution is x =−α , − β

Example 5: Solve x 2 + 11x + 24 =


0 by inspection.
Solution: Observe various factors of 24 in mind,

Ist 2nd Sum


Factor Factor
1 24 25
2 12 14
3 8 11
4 6 10

We may see that, 24 = 8 × 3, also 11 = 8 + 3


So, the requisite factors are 8 and 3 and the solution is x = -8 and -3

Example 6: Solve x 2 − 7 x − 60 =
0 by inspection.
Solution: Observe various factors of -60 in mind,

Ist 2nd Sum Ist 2nd Sum


Factor Factor Factor Factor
1 -60 -59 -1 60 59
2 -30 -28 -2 30 28
3 -20 -17 -3 20 17
4 -15 -11 -4 15 11
5 -12 -7 -5 12 7
6 -10 -4 -6 10 4

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By observation,
-12 × 5 = -60 and (-12) + 5 = -7
So, the requisite factors are -12 and 5 and solution of the given equation
is x = 12 and –5.

Type -2: Equations of the form ax 2 + bx + c =0


Step 1: Factorize a.c into two parts such that their sum is b. Let such
factors are α and β .

Step-2: Solution is x = −α / a,− β / a

Example 7: Solve 3 x 2 − 2 x − 8 = 0

Solution: See various factors of 3 × (-8) = -24

Ist 2nd Sum Ist 2nd Sum


Factor Factor Factor Factor
1 -24 -23 -1 24 23
2 -12 -10 -2 12 10
3 -8 -5 -3 8 5
4 -6 -2 -4 6 2

It may be observed that, 4 × (-6) = -24, and 4 + (-6) = -2.

So, the requisite factors are 4 and -6 and solution of the given equation is
x = -4/3 and – (-6)/3 = 2

17.4 Solving Equations of degree more than 2:


The method for solving these equations will be same as of factorizing
them. The same has already been explained in chapter 15.

17.5 Some Special Equations:


(a) Equations of the form:
x+ y =a
x− y =b

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Method: Add both the equations to get 2x = a+b or x = (a+b)/2.

Subtract both the equations to get 2y = a-b or y = (a-b)/2

Thus, solution is x = (a+b)/2 and y = (a-b)/2.

Example 8: Solve following equations:


x+ y =
92
x− y =42

92 + 42 134 92 − 42 50
x
Solution:= = y
= 67,= = = 25
2 2 2 2
(b) Equations of the form:
ax + by = c1
bx + ay = c2
Method: Understand the method through the following example.

Example 9: Solve following equations:


37 x + 31 y =
105
31x + 37 y =
99
Solution: Add both the equations to get
68 (x +y) = 204 or x + y = 3-----(3)
Subtract both the equations to get
6 (x - y) = 6 or x - y = 1-----(4)
From (3) and (4) we get,
X = (3 + 1)/2 = 2 and y = (3-1)/2 = 1 (Method 17. 5 (a))
(c) Equations of the form:
( x + a ).( x + b) = ( x + c).( x + d ), where ab = cd
Traditional Method: Multiply and solve.

Short cut Method: Answer will always be x = 0.

Example 10: Solve ( x + 2).( x + 3) = ( x + 6).( x + 1)

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Solution:
Traditional Method: Short cut Method:
On Multiplication, we get As 2.3 = 6.1, we know that
x 2 + 5x + 6 = x 2 + 6 x + 6 x=0
⇒ 5x = 6 x ⇒ x = 0
(d) Equations of the form:
( x + a ).( x + b) = ( x + c).( x + d ), where ab ≠ cd

Traditional Method: Multiply and solve.

Short cut Method: Answer will always be

cd − ab
x=
a+b−c−d
if a + b # c + d and no solution if a + b = c +d
Example 11: Solve (x + 2).(x + 3) = (x + 4).(x + 2)

Solution:

Traditional Method: Short cut Method:


cd − ab
On Multiplication, we get x=
a+b−c−d
x2 + 5x + 6 = x2 + 6x + 8

x = −2
(e) Equations of the form:

1 1
+ 0
=
ax + b cx + d

Traditional Method: Take LCM and solve.

Short cut Method: By observation, answer will be given by


(ax + b) + (cx + d ) =
0

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1 1
Example 12: Solve + =0
2 x + 3 3x + 9
Traditional Method: Short cut Method:
1 1 By observation, we know that
+ = 0
2 x + 3 3x + 9 (3 x + 9) + (2 x + 3) =
0
(3 x + 9) + (2 x + 3)
=0 5 x + 12 =0 ⇒ x =−12 / 5
(2 x + 3)(3 x + 9)
(3 x + 9) + (2 x + 3) =0
5 x + 12 =0 ⇒ x =−12 / 5
(f) Equations of the form:
ax + b ex + f N1 N 2
= ⇒ = , where N 1 + N 2 = D1 + D 2
cx + d gx + h D1 D 2
Traditional Method: Cross multiply and solve.

Short cut Method: Answer will always be given by N 1 + N 2 = D1 + D 2 = 0


and N 1 − D1 = N 2 − D 2 = 0

2 x + 3 3x + 6
Example 13: Solve =
4x + 5 x + 4
Traditional Method:

2 x + 3 3x + 6
=
4x + 5 x + 4
(2 x + 3).( x + 4) = (4 x + 5).(3 x + 6)
2 x 2 + 8 x + 3 x + 12= 12 x 2 + 24 x + 15 x + 30
2 x 2 + 11x + 12= 12 x 2 + 39 x + 30
10 x 2 + 28 x + 18 = 0 ⇒ 5 x 2 + 14 x + 9 = 0
5x2 + 5x + 9 x + 9 = 0
5 x( x + 1) + 9( x + 1) = 0 ⇒ (5 x + 9).( x + 1) = 0
x= −9 / 5, −1

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Short cut Method:


Here, N 1 + N 2 = (2 x + 3) + (3 x + 6) = 5 x + 9

Also, D1 + D 2 = (4 x + 5) + (2 x + 4) = 5 x + 9 so the answer will be giv-


en by (2 x + 3) + (3 x + 6) = 0, ( x + 4) + (4 x + 5) = 0 ⇒ x = −9 / 5 and
(2 x + 3) − (4 x + 5) = 0, (3 x + 6) − ( x + 4) = 0 ⇒ x = −1
(g) Equations of the form:
1 1 1 1
+ = +
x+a x+b x+c x+d
Where, (x+a) + (x+b) = (x+c) + (x+d)
Traditional Method: Take LCM of both sides and cross multiply to solve.

Short cut Method:The solution will be given by

(x+a) + (x+b) = (x+c) + (x+d) = 0

1 1 1 1
Example 14: Solve + = +
x+3 x+9 x+5 x+7
Traditional Method:

1 1 1 1
+ = +
x+3 x+9 x+5 x+7
( x + 9) + ( x + 3) ( x + 7) + ( x + 5)
=
( x + 3)( x + 9) ( x + 5)( x + 7)
(2 x + 12)( x + 5)( x + 7) =(2 x + 12)( x + 3)( x + 9)
(2 x + 12)( x 2 + 12 x + 35) = (2 x + 12)( x 2 + 12 x + 27)
(2 x + 12)( x 2 + 12 x + 35) − (2 x + 12)( x 2 + 12 x + 27) =
0
(2 x + 12) ( x 2 + 12 x + 35) − ( x 2 + 12 x + 27)  = 0
(2 x + 12).8 = 0 ⇒ (2 x + 12) = 0 ⇒ x = −6

Short cut Method:


Here ( x + 9) + ( x + 3) = ( x + 7) + ( x + 5) = 2 x + 12

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Therefore, the solution is given by,


(2 x + 12) =0 ⇒ x =−6

1 1 1 1
Example 15: Solve − = −
x+2 x+3 x+5 x+6
Short cut Method: Transpose the given equation to get,
1 1 1 1
+ = +
x+2 x+6 x+5 x+3
Here ( x + 2) + ( x + 6) = ( x + 5) + ( x + 3) = 2 x + 8

Therefore, the solution is given by,


(2 x + 8) = 0 ⇒ x = −4

Exercise 17
Total Questions 10 Ideal Time 5 Min
(Students are advised to practice this exercise till they are able to
solve all 10 questions in 5 minutes)
Solve the following equations:
 1. 4 x − 5 y =
−1, 7 x − 3 y =
4
 2. 3 x + 7 y =
17, 7 x − 5 y =
−3
 3. 2 x 2 − 19 x + 24 =
0
 4. 3 x + 7 y + 2 z = 12, 7 x − 5 y + 3 z = 5,3 x + 5 y + 2 z = 10
 5. x 3 − 6 x 2 + 11x − 6 =0
 6. 3 x + 7 y + 2 z= 23, 7 x − 5 y + 3 z= 6,3 x + 5 y + 2 z= 19
 7. 2 x 3 − 25 x 2 + 76 x − 32 =
0
 8. x 3 − 11x 2 + 35 x − 25 =
0
 9. x 3 + 7 x 2 − 6 x − 72 =
0
10. 2 x 4 + 15 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 15 x − 7 =0

136
ANSWERS
Be a Human Calculator

Exercise 1.1
1. 6 2. 3 3. 0
4. 7 5. 1 6. 0
7. 2 8. 8 9. 8
10. 3

Exercises 1.2
1. 766 2. 6543 3. 476173
4. 89090 5. 011 6. 832676
7. 78025 8. 114326 9. 321095
10. 010

Exercises 1.3 (a)


1. 24 3 2. 3 5 4  3 3. 524 2 2
4. 11 1 2 3 5. 1 111 6. 2  3  3  3  24
7. 220 3 5 8. 1 11 4  3 3 4 9. 1 3 2 11 05
10. 1 0 13

Exercises 1.3 (b)


1. 177 2. 4768 3. 726
4. 658 5. 1929 6. 13799
7. 25215 8. 19881 9. 998
10. 81355

Exercises 2
1. 638625
2. 180510
3. 3884915
4. 5813958
5. 108645
6. 767989
7. 676129

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 8. 132092.74723
 9. 61967.1043
10. 13356.0603
11. 4477.79935
12. 5026.5825
13. 78713.08903
14. 4393.37424
15. 38966.8665
16. 64765.9686
17. 11050.06484
18. 243219.38018
19. 689562.72344
20. 132105.4743
21. 5657278.803613
22. 58851.91158
23. 857210.2414
24. 5352494.82665
25. 3542066.9966

Exercises 3.1 and 3.2


 1. 10361
 2. 72314
 3. 69889
 4. 2686989
 5. 31213
 6. 610998
 7. 498707
 8. 48760.10077
 9. 51227.8923
10. 2929.0197

Exercises 3.3
1. 491779
2. 71218
3. 3869003
4. 5329274

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 5. 96867
 6. 616897
 7. 559865
 8. 131780.51723
 9. 51296.2243
10. 6284.9897

Exercises 4.1
 1. 984
 2. 4368
 3. 2457
 4. 6586
 5. 4104
 6. 5655
 7. 3268
 8. 2139
 9. 3486
10. 4257

Exercises 4.2
 1. 99292
 2. 438141
 3. 249249
 4. 662013
 5. 412783
 6. 568323
 7. 330812
 8. 218356
 9. 351513
10. 429103

Exercises 4.3
1. 16892 3. 42606
2. 43736 4. 33558

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Exercises 4.4

Question Answer
1 69576
2 5489645
3 1055184
4 3015
5 5332114
6 670592745
7 6141
8 36342
9 353808
10 384426
11 5313
12 10488
13 1329615
14 71799
15 132678
16 4518486
17 338688
18 26910
19 263925
20 2652

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Exercises 4.5

Question Answer
1 10506
2 11772
3 9702
4 9024
5 990024
6 2756
7 9984
8 1003968
9 3068
10 11663
11 1006008
12 5304
13 1001985
14 999919
15 251502
16 248003
17 1003002
18 3363
19 999964
20 9579

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Exercises 4.6
Question Answer
1 720099
2 9024
3 13574
4 3452544
5 1100099
6 560291
7 452133
8 39865
9 6779322
10 166535

Exercises 4.7
Question Multiply
1 1061106
2 1011038040
3 941094
4 994010994
5 1009596
6 1001983968
7 124836
8 113122688
9 1003935744
10 986050946

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Exercises 5.1
Question Number 2 4 8 16 32
1 998 Yes No No No No
2 1024 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
3 9967 No No No No No
4 12345 No No No No No
5 123464 Yes Yes Yes No No
6 9962 Yes No No No No
7 100400 Yes Yes Yes Yes No
8 576775338 Yes No No No No
9 54676 Yes Yes No No No
10 99789 No No No No No

Exercises 5.2
Question Number 5 25 125 625
1 990 Yes No No No
2 1025 Yes Yes No No
3 9960 Yes No No No
4 12345 Yes No No No
5 123465 Yes No No No
6 9960 Yes No No No
7 100400 Yes Yes No No
8 576775335 Yes No No No
9 54675 Yes Yes No No
10 91250 Yes Yes No No

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Exercises 5.3
Question Number 3 9
1 990 Yes Yes
2 1025 No No
3 9960 Yes No
4 12345 Yes No
5 123465 Yes No
6 9960 Yes No
7 100400 No No
8 576775335 Yes No
9 54675 Yes Yes
10 91250 No No

Exercises 5.4
Question Answer
1 Yes
2 No
3 Yes
4 Yes
5 Yes
6 Yes
7 No
8 No
9 No
10 No

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Exercises 5.5
Question Number 7 29 31 37
1 990 No No No No
2 1025 No No No No
3 9966 No No No No
4 10307 No No No No
5 2244858 Yes No No No
6 9724 No No No No
7 100400 No No No No
8 576775335 No No No No
9 54675 No No No No
10 91250 No No No No

Exercises 5.6
Question Number 12 14 15 18
1 990 No No Yes Yes
2 1025 No No No No
3 9966 No No No No
4 10307 No No No No
5 2244858 No Yes No No
6 9724 No No No No
7 100400 No No No No
8 576775335 No No Yes No
9 54675 No No Yes No
10 91250 No No No No

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Exercise 6
1. 112.47
2. 350
3. 226.87
4. 726.88
5. 121
6. 1350
7. 2823.48
8. 3234.18
9. 15778.34
10. 121.8

Exercise 7.1
1. Quotient : 99, remainder : 74
2. Quotient : 12, remainder : 597
3. Quotient : 51, remainder : 740
4. Quotient : 6, remainder : 760
5. Quotient : 83, remainder : 244
6. Quotient : 383, remainder : 17
7. Quotient : 997, remainder : 62
8. Quotient : 27331, remainder : 4
9. Quotient : 630, remainder : 688
10. Quotient : 2503, remainder : 91

Exercise 7.2
1. 8230.4
2. 514.375
3. 3154.94
4. 321.619
5. 2992.88
6. 2006.16
7. 940.62
8. 853666.77
9. 10900.92
10. 10088.77

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Exercise 8.1
1. 625 2. 1225 3. 2025 4. 3025
5. 4225 6. 5625 7. 7225 8. 9025
9. 11025 10. 13225

Exercise 8.2
1. 2601 2. 2704 3. 2809 4. 2916
5. 3025 6. 3136 7. 3249 8. 3364
9. 3481

Exercise 8.3
1. 6084 2. 4489 3. 1849 4. 7921
5. 6889 6. 2401 7. 8836 8. 4096
9. 5476 10. 3844

Exercise 8.4
1. 9604 2. 996004 3. 1004004 4. 9409
5. 9216 6. 1018081 7. 992016 8. 1008016
9. 9801 10. 998001

Exercise 8.5
1. 45796
2. 15129
3. 11943936
4. 16384
5. 294849
6. 1038361
7. 605284
8. 4553956
9. 54756
10. 207936

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Exercise 9.1
Number Cube Number Cube
11 1331 41 68921
12 1728 42 74088
13 2197 43 79507
14 2744 44 85184
15 3375 45 91125
16 4096 46 97336
17 4913 47 103823
18 5832 48 110592
19 6859 49 117649
20 8000 50 125000
21 9261 51 132651
22 10648 52 140608
23 12167 53 148877
24 13824 54 157464
25 15625 55 166375
26 17576 56 175616
27 19683 57 185193
28 21952 58 195112
29 24389 59 205379
30 27000 60 216000
31 29791 61 226981
32 32768 62 238328
33 35937 63 250047
34 39304 64 262144
35 42875 65 274625
36 46656 66 287496
37 50653 67 300763
38 54872 68 314432
39 59319 69 328509
40 64000 70 343000
(Contd.)
150
Be a Human Calculator

Number Cube Number Cube


71 357911 86 636056
72 373248 87 658503
73 389017 88 681472
74 405224 89 704969
75 421875 90 729000
76 438976 91 753571
77 456533 92 778688
78 474552 93 804357
79 493039 94 830584
80 512000 95 857375
81 531441 96 884736
82 551368 97 912673
83 571787 98 941192
84 592704 99 970299
85 614125

Exercise 9.2
Question Answer Question Answer
1 753571 11 976191488
2 778688 12 979146657
3 804357 13 982107784
4 830584 14 985074875
5 857375 15 988047936
6 884736 16 991026973
7 912673 17 994011992
8 941192 18 997002999
9 970299 19 998800479936
10 973242271 20 999100269973

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Exercise 10.1
Question Answer Question Answer
1 21 26 71
2 24 27 72
3 32 28 73
4 36 29 74
5 39 30 75
6 41 31 76
7 47 32 77
8 48 33 78
9 49 34 79
10 51 35 81
11 52 36 82
12 53 37 83
13 54 38 84
14 56 39 86
15 57 40 87
16 58 41 88
17 59 42 89
18 61 43 91
19 62 44 93
20 63 45 94
21 64 46 95
22 66 47 96
23 67 48 97
24 68 49 98
25 69 50 99

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Exercise 10.2
Question Answer Question Answer
1 101 26 291
2 103 27 293
3 106 28 296
4 109 29 298
5 121 30 299
6 127 31 301
7 131 32 302
8 134 33 303
9 137 34 304
10 139 35 305
11 141 36 306
12 147 37 307
13 149 38 308
14 151 39 309
15 156 40 310
16 158 41 311
17 159 42 312
18 161 43 313
19 168 44 314
20 169 45 315
21 174 46 316
22 198 47 317
23 212 48 318
24 256 49 319
25 279 50 321

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Exercise 10.3
Question Answer Question Answer
1 3.46 26 17.02
2 4.79 27 17.86
3 5.83 28 20.29
4 6.85 29 22.96
5 7.48 30 25.08
6 8.18 31 27.04
7 8.83 32 28.34
8 9.43 33 31.95
9 10.14 34 35.48
10 10.58 35 40.97
11 11.09 36 45.34
12 11.44 37 53.75
13 11.74 38 58.41
14 11.87 39 61.8
15 12.12 40 64.2
16 12.61 41 71.57
17 12.69 42 75.3
18 12.92 43 76.93
19 13.19 44 78.26
20 13.34 45 82.39
21 14.56 46 84.34
22 15.3 47 90.74
23 16.09 48 96.5
24 16.67 49 98.94
25 16.97 50 99.65

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Exercise 11.1
Question Answer Question Answer
1 11 31 45
2 12 32 46
3 13 33 47
4 14 34 48
5 15 35 49
6 16 36 51
7 17 37 52
8 18 38 53
9 19 39 54
10 21 40 55
11 22 41 56
12 23 42 57
13 24 43 58
14 25 44 59
15 26 45 61
16 27 46 62
17 28 47 63
18 29 48 64
19 31 49 65
20 32 50 66
21 33 51 67
22 34 52 68
23 35 53 39
24 36 54 71
25 37 55 72
26 38 56 73
27 41 57 74
28 42 58 75
29 43 59 76
30 44 60 77
(Contd.)
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Question Answer Question Answer


61 78 72 88
62 79 73 90
63 80 74 91
64 81 75 92
65 82 76 93
66 83 77 94
67 84 78 95
68 85 79 96
69 69 80 97
70 86 81 98
71 87 82 99

Exercise 11.2
Question Answer Question Answer
1 101 17 147
2 103 18 151
3 106 19 153
4 109 20 154
5 111 21 157
6 113 22 161
7 118 23 179
8 121 24 192
9 126 25 212
10 127 26 245
11 131 27 278
12 134 28 312
13 137 29 333
14 139 30 368
15 141 31 412
16 144 32 456
(Contd.)
156
Be a Human Calculator

Question Answer Question Answer


33 512 42 834
34 579 43 888
35 612 44 912
36 634 45 934
37 712 46 946
38 734 47 967
39 775 48 978
40 777 49 996
41 812 50 998

Exercise 11.3
Question Answer Question Answer
1 5.29 11 16.82
2 6.53 12 20.56
3 4.97 13 3.78
4 15.16 14 44.46
5 6.6 15 8.63
6 9.14 16 9.22
7 14.77 17 8.64
8 9.96 18 6.34
9 12.87 19 20.7
10 4.45 20 8.49

Exercise 12.1

17 59 11 29
1. 14 2. 15 3. 4. 32
30 84 18 104

25 9 18 113
5. 33 6. 2 7. 48 8. 19
33 10 187 120

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Exercise 12.2

Question Answer Question Answer

1 35/99 6 474/495

2 213/999 7 2
1
9

3 29 8 79
1 4
99 99

4 7/9 9 234/999

5 233 10 26
21 12
990 45

Exercise 13
1. LCM = 2862, HCF = 2
2. LCM = 4452, HCF =4
3. LCM = 318912, HCF =8
4. LCM = 3822, HCF =2
5. LCM = 3250, HCF =25
6. LCM = 9261, HCF =441
7. LCM = 10620, HCF =10
8. LCM = 130680, HCF =198
9. LCM = 5544, HCF =36
10. LCM =2112, HCF =96

158
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Exercise 15
2
1. Quotient: x + 9 x + 35
  Remainder: 115
2. Quotient: 2 x 2 + 11x + 31
  Remainder: 73
 3. Quotient: 3 x 2 + 23 x + 109
2 4 8
   Remainder: 415/8
 4. Quotient: x + 6
   Remainder: 2 x + 5
 5. Quotient: 2 x + 1
  Remainder: 5 x + 8
 6. Quotient: 3x-8
  Remainder: -2
7. Quotient: x/2 - 7/4
  Remainder: 115/4
8. Quotient: 7x2-7x+10
  Remainder: -8
9. Quotient: x3-3x2+9x-24
  Remainder: 74
10. Quotient: 3x/2+7/4
  Remainder: 1/4

Exercise 16
1.  ( x − 3).( x − 5) 2.  ( x − 6).( x + 7)

3.  (2x- 3).(x-8) 4.  ( x − 5).( x + 9)

5.  ( x − 1).( x − 2).( x − 3) 6.  ( x − 1).( x + 2).( x − 3)


7.  (2x-1).(x-4).(x-8) 8.  ( x − 1).( x − 5).( x − 5)
9.  ( x − 3).( x + 4).( x + 6) 10.  ( x − 1).( x + 1).( x + 7).(2 x + 1)

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Exercise 17

1.  x = 1, y = 1 2.  x = 1, y = 2 3.  x = 3 / 2, y = 8


4.  x = 1, y = 1, z = 1 5.  x = 1,2,3 6.  x = 1, y = 2, z = 3
7.  x = 1 / 2,4,8 8.  x = 1,5,5 9.  x = 3,−4,−6
10.  x = 1,−1,−7,−1 / 2

160