Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 108

УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«Белорусский государственный экономический университет»

Л.Н. Клейнер, И.В. Кузьминова, М.В. Койрович

THE ENGLISH VERB: LEARN AND ANALYSE

МИНСК

2014

1
CONTENTS
The Present Indefinite……………………………………………………......…..4
The Present Continuous……………………….…………...…………...………..7
The Present Perfect……………………………………………………..……….10
The Present Perfect Continuous……………………………………………..…12
The Past Indefinite………………………………………………………..……..14
The Past Continuous……………………………………………………..……...16
The Past Perfect……………………………………….………………..………..18
The Past Perfect Continuous………………………….………………..……….20
The Future Indefinite…………………………………….……………..……….21
The Future Continuous………………………………….……………..………..23
The Future Perfect………………………………………..…………..………….24
The Future Perfect Continuous…………………………………………………25
The Passive Voice………………………………………...…….………………..26
The Sequence of Tenses…………………………………..………..…………….29
Indirect Speech…………………………………………..…………..…………. 33
Oblique Moods………………………………………..…………….……………34
The Conditional Mood………………………….…………….……………35
Subjunctive II…………………………………...………….………………38
The Suppositional Mood/Subjunctive I…………..……….………………41
Modal Verbs……………………………………………….…….……………….46
Can………………………………………………….………….……………46
May……………………………………………….…………………………52
Must…………………………………………………………………………55
Have to………………………………………………………………………58
Need…………………………………………………………………………59
Be to…………………………………………………………………………60
Should (Ought to)…………………………………..………………………63
Will (Would)……………………………………...…...……………………65
Shall…………………………………………………………………………67
2
Verbals……………………………………………………………….…………..69
The Infinitive……………………………………………………….……………69
The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction…………….…………...77
The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction…………….……..……79
The For-to-Infinitive Construction………………………………..………81
Participle I……………………………………………………………….……….83
The Objective Participial Construction……………………………..……87
The Subjective Participial Construction……………………….…………89
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction………..……….……90
The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction……………………91
Participle II………………………………………………………………..……..93
The Objective Participial Construction……………………..……………95
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction……………...………96
The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction………........………97
The Gerund………………………………………………………………...…….99
The Predicative Construction with the Gerund….……………...…103

The Gerund or the Infinitive………………………………………..……105

THE PRESENT INDEFINITE

3
The Present Indefinite Tense is used to denote:

1. habitual facts, repeated actions, which are normally indicated by adverbials of


frequency such as often, always, usually, seldom, rarely, sometimes, never,
generally, as a rule, every day (month), every other day (week, month, etc.,), once
a week, etc.

e.g. They get up at 8.

2. an action or a state permanently characterizing the subject (working hours,


characteristics)e.g. He speaks English fluently.

3. general rules, laws of nature, universal truths

e.g. Snow melts at 0° C.

ACTIONS AT THE MOMENT OF SPEAKING

4. actions and states continuing at the moment of speaking instead of the


Present Continuous tense with stative verbs that are not used in the
continuous form:

а) feelings and emotions: like, dislike, hate, love, wish, want, prefer, care, etc

b) sense perception: see, hear, notice, taste, smell, etc

c) mental activity: understand, think, believe, remember, know, forget, mean,


suppose, recognize

d) possession: have, belong, own, possess

e.g. I hear the music well.

5. declarations and announcements, observations, commentaries, stage


directions referring to the moment of speaking

e.g. I declare the meeting open.

6. a demonstration, i.e. a succession of actions going on at the moment of


speaking

e.g. I take a match, light it, put it into the glass and … nothing happens.

7. instructions, directions

e.g. Before you place a phone call, first you think what the purpose of the call is.

4
8. to denote an action going on at the present moment when the fact is more
important than the process

e.g. Why do you look at me as if you had never seen me? Why don’t you answer?
Why don’t you write?

9. an action going on at the present moment (instead of the Present Continuous


tense form) if a verb (stand, sit, lie) is followed by Participle I

e.g.: The managing director sits reading the annual report.

10. in the expressions Here comes …, There goes …

Look, here comes your Mum.

11) an action going on at the moment of speaking with the verbs to itch, to
ache, to hurt, to feel

e.g. I feel well now.

12. an action going on at the moment speaking when the subject is expressed
by an inanimate noun.

e.g. I can see the letter that lies on the table.

FUTURE ACTIONS

13. with timetables, programmes, schedules, plans

e.g. The train leaves at three o’clock.

14. to denote a future action in subordinate clauses of

- time (after the conjunctions: when, while, till, until, before, after, as soon as,
once)

- condition (after the conjunctions: if, unless, on condition(that), provided,


providing, in case)

- concession (after the conjunctions: even if, even though, no matter how,
whenever, whatever, however, etc.)

- in object clauses (after to see (to), to take care, to make sure)

e.g. When she comes, I will ring you up. I’ll see that the lady is properly looked
after.

5
15. in some special questions with reference to the immediate future

e.g. What do we do next? (Что будем делать?) Where do we go now? (Куда


сейчас пойдем?) What happens next? (Что сейчас будет?)

16. to make suggestions, offers, invitations

e.g. Why don’t they go on a day-trip?

PAST ACTIONS

17. with perfect or past meaning in introductory expressions: I hear, I see, I


understand

e.g. I hear you are getting married.

NB It’s possible to use the Present Perfect with the verb to hear to express an
action.

e.g. I’ve heard he has arrived. (someone has told me)

I hear he has arrived. (I know he has arrived)

18. a succession of actions in the past to make a vivid narrative of past events
in the literary style

e.g.: She arrives full of life and spirit. Then she sits down in a chair, says she
doesn’t feel well, gasps a bit and dies.

19. in headlines to make the events closer to the reader

e.g. Blind girl climbs Everest.

Comment on the use of the Present Indefinite in the following sentences:


Model:
1. Every day I come to the University early in the morning. - The verb to come is
used in its Present indefinite tense form to denote a habitual action. The
repeated character of the action is shown by the adverbial every day.
2. Peter is a member of the University team because he plays football very well. -
The verb to play is used in its Present Indefinite tense form to denote an action
permanently characterizing the subject.
3. When spring comes, the rays of the sun warm the earth. - The verb to warm is
used in its Present Indefinite tense form to denote a law of nature.
4. Do you feel cold? Why don't you answer? You speak too slowly. - The verbs
to feel, to answer, and to speak are used in their Present Indefinite tense forms

6
to denote actions going on at the present moment when the fact is more
important than the process.

5. I understand you quite well. - The verb to understand is used in its Present
indefinite tense form to denote an action going on at the present moment, with
the verb of mental activity which doesn’t admit of the continuous form.
6. If I come home early time, I will call you. – The verb to come is used in its
Present indefinite tense form to denote a future action in the subordinate
clause of time.
A. 1. Nurses look after patients in hospitals. 2. Why don't you give up smoking? 3.
I am weighing myself. I weigh 65 kilos. 4. This coat belongs to you. 5. She drives to
London once a week. 6. The car stops outside the National Bank. Three men get out
and the driver stays in the car. The three men walk into the bank and take out their
guns. 7. Let me explain what you have to do. First you take the photos and sort
them into categories. Then you file them according to subject. 8. Gases expand
when heated. 9. The coach leaves at 6 this morning. 10 Ellis throws the ball in to
Snow, but he loses it. 11. I hear she is getting married. 12. If it keeps on raining, we’ll
have to stay at home. 13. The concert starts at 7.30 tomorrow night. 14. I’ll make
sure he does everything in time. 15. I hear you are leaving for Canada.

B.1. She loves her baby more than anything. 2. I occasionally eat meat. 3.
Vegetarians don't eat meat or fish. 4. Why doesn't he take up tennis? 5. Something
smells strange. 6. Ellis throws the ball in to Snow, but he loses it. 7. Watson gives the
ball to Tanner. Tanner goes past two men, he shoots, but the ball hits a Liverpool
player. 8. If you need money, why don't you get a job? 9. The earth goes round the
sun. 10. You cook it for five minutes, and then you put the onions in. 11. Look.
Here comes the bus. 12. Hot air rises. 13. I hear a bird. It is singing. 14. I'm hungry.
I want a sandwich. 15. The conference starts on June 3rd and finishes on June 10th.

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

The Present Continuous Tense is used to denote:

1. actions going on at the moment of speaking

e.g. Don’t bother him, he is working.

2. actions happening at the present period of time

e.g. He is building his own house.

3. changing situations

e.g. The population of our country is growing.


7
4. frequently repeated actions expressing annoyance or criticism (with always,
constantly, continually, forever)

e.g. He is always asking stupid questions.

5. two or more simultaneous/parallel actions in progress at the moment of


speaking or at the present period of time (conjunctions: while, when, as)

e.g.: While the speaker is summarizing the main ideas of his report, the listeners
are already packing their things.

6. temporary actions (with the verbs to work, to live)

e.g. I’m working at a shop.

7. an unusual state, behavior

e.g. He is being very naughty these days.

8. great intensity of feelings with stative verbs

e.g. I am liking my new life very much.

9. insistence

e.g. I’m telling you to come.

10. with stative verbs when they change their meaning

e.g. He is weighing apples.

FUTURE ACTIONS

11. a planned action in the near future

e.g. We are having a party tonight.

12. to denote an action which will be taking place at a definite moment in the
future (instead of the Future Continuous tense form) in subordinate clauses of

time (after the conjunctions: when, while, till, until, before, after, as soon as,
once),

condition (after the conjunctions: if, unless, on condition(that), provided,


providing, in case),

concession (after the conjunctions: even if, even though, no matter how,
whenever, whatever, however, etc.)
8
e.g.: Tomorrow when you are making a presentation, I’ll be listening to you
attentively.

Comment on the use of the Present Continuous in the following sentences:

Model:
1. Look at that woman. What a nice dress she is wearing! - The verb to wear is
used in its Present Continuous tense form to denote an action taking place
at the moment of speaking.
2. He isn’t playing football this season. - The verb to play is used in its
Present Continuous tense form to express an action taking place during the
present period of time.
3. We are moving to a new flat soon - The verb to move is used in its Present
Continuous tense form to denote a planned action in the near future.
4. Benny's grandmother is going to give him his usual morning milk. - The
construction to be going to is used to denote the speaker’s intention or plan.
5. He is always speaking in a loud voice. - The verb to speak is used in its
Present Continuous tense form to show irritation, indignation, criticism.
6. While Ann is cooking Mary is laying the table. - The verbs to cook and to
lay are used in their Present Continuous tense form to denote two
simultaneous actions at present.
A. 1. I'm always paying for your coffee. Why can't you pay for a change? 2. We're
spending next winter in Australia. 3. Don't rush me. I'm working as fast as I can. 4.
We're enjoying our holiday here very much. 5. Young people are becoming more
and more politically aware these days. 6. You are constantly panicking, aren't you?
Calm down. 7. She is running 1,500 metres in the next Olympics. 8. What is Maria
doing these days? — She is studying English at a school in London. 9. She is forever
forgetting to lock the front door. 10. Prices are rising all the time. Everything is
getting more and more expensive. 11. I'm having treatment on my bad back for a few
weeks. 12. While you are cooking dinner tomorrow, I will be watching a film on
TV. 13. Ben and Patty are in London on holiday. They are staying at a small hotel
near Hyde Park. 14. I'm meeting Sue on Saturday evening. 15. He's hurrying to catch
his train.

B. 1. He is always upsetting people by asking personal questions. 2. Tom isn't


playing football this season. He wants to concentrate on his studies. 3. Is your
English getting better? 4. He's always lying. You can't believe a word he says. 5.
Let's go out now. It isn't raining any more. 6. My sister is very busy these days.
She's writing an article. 7. Jennifer's always losing her key. 8. We are having our
examinations in January. 9. You know that cinema audiences are declining in the
United States. 10. What book are you reading this term? 11. While they are
travelling I am working. 12. Someone is knocking on the door. 13. I hear your
9
parents are coming to see you. 14. Why are you feeling my forehead? 15. We are
going ice-skating tomorrow.

THE PRESENT PERFECT

The Present Perfect Tense is used to denote:

1. a completed past action connected with the present in its result (which is a
part of the present situation)

e.g. The place looks neat. He has cut the grass.

2. when the action is over but the period of time within which it was
performed is not over yet

e.g. I have seen her today.

3. an action which began in the past, has been going on into the moment of
speaking or has just finished (instead of the Present Perfect Continuous tense
form):

- with state/stative verbs, i.e. the verbs which don’t admit of the continuous
form,

e.g. We have been partners since we first met. I have missed you since you’ve
been away.

- in negative sentences (preferred to the Present Perfect Continuous tense


form) when it’s the action that is completely negated.

NB But when the negation doesn’t refer to the action itself but to the
circumstances/or the duration of an action is emphasized the Present Perfect
Continuous is used

e.g. The children haven’t been sleeping well recently.

4. to introduce a new topic, to announce a piece of news

e.g. We have had a terrible day at the office. My secretary fell ill, we lost three
contracts

5. in subordinate adverbial clauses of time and condition to emphasise the


completion of the future action (but not with the verbs of motion)

e.g. I’ll stay with you until you have finished everything.

10
6. to sum up a situation or to emphasize number

e.g. You have been good to me.

e.g. He has worked in two schools

7. to denote a more permanent action (instead of the Present Perfect


Continuous) with verbs to work, to live, to feel, etc

e.g. I have worked here for 20 years.

But to emphasize the process Present Perfect Continuous is used

e.g. I have been working here for 20 years.

8. to denote two parallel actions (with stative verbs)

e.g. He has loved her since he has known her.

Comment on the use of the Present Perfect in the following sentences:

Model:

1. Nick has already finished school. - The verb to finish is used in its Present
Perfect tense form to denote a completed past action connected with the present
in its result
2. Nick has been in the library since early morning/for two hours. - The verb to be
is used in its Present Perfect tense form to denote an action/state which began
in the past and has been going on into the moment of speaking. The starting
point of the action is indicated by the preposition since/the whole period of
duration is indicated by the preposition for
3. After he has paid all the money, he can call the house his own - The verb to pay
is used in its Present Perfect tense form to denote the completion of the future
action.
A. 1. Look. Somebody has spilled milk on the carpet. 2. I have done a lot of work
today. 3. I haven’t heard from him since he moved to London. 4. We’ll continue
the discussion as soon as you have collected more facts. 5. Luckily we haven’t had
any trouble so far. 6. She is in hospital. She has had a bad crash. 7. He has played
a lot of football this year. 8. She has had a headache since she got up this morning.
9. I’ll tell you the news after I have learnt everything. 10. I have seen my dentist
this morning. 11. I have known him for a long time. 12. What a shame. I have lost
my umbrella. 13. They haven’t decided yet what further actions to take. 14. Have
you heard their new records? 15. Jane is crying. She has hurt her knee.

B. 1. I’m sorry for her. She has had bad luck all her life. 2. We have had a lot of
visitors this year. 3. After we've done all the packing it w i l l be nice to have a light
11
meal. 4. The cheese is mouldy. I think it has gone off. 5. You can go for a walk
only after you have done your homework. 6. Peter has asked for a pay-rise three
times this year. 7. I haven’t seen him for three years. I wonder where he is. 8. We
have missed the bus. Now we’ll have to walk. 9. My brother has written three
books. 10. I have known Mary since I was six. 11. When I’ve finished this I'll go
and put the child to bed. 12. I have loved chocolate since I was a child. 13. I have
learnt a lot in this class. 14. I'm going to eat something. I haven't had anything
since last night. 15. I shall probably bore you to death by the time I've finished
talking about myself.

THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used to denote:

1. an action that started in the past and has been continuing up to the present
and is either still going on or has just finished

e.g. He has been washing his bike for an hour.

2. a past action of certain duration having visible results in the present

e.g. You look sad. Have you been crying?

3. anger, irritation, annoyance or criticism

e.g. Someone has been lying to me!

4. in subordinate clauses of time and condition to denote a future action in


progress before a certain moment in the future

e.g. He’ll get accustomed after he has been staying here for a week or two.

5. two parallel actions

e.g. I have been learning more and more since I have been studying here.

6. an action of some duration with a repeated character

e.g. I have been shopping successfully recently.

Comment on the use of the Present Perfect Continuous in the following


sentences:
Model:

1. It has been raining for a week. - The verb to rain is used in its Present Perfect
Continuous tense form to denote an action which began in the past, has been going
12
on up to the present and is still going on. The whole period of duration is indicated
by the preposition for
2. I’m so tired. I have been shopping the whole morning. - The verb to shop is used
in its Present Perfect Continuous tense form to denote a past action of certain
duration having visible results in the present

A. 1. Who has been drinking my orange juice? 2. She has been doing the
crossword since morning. 3. They are so scruffy because they have been camping
for three weeks. 4. Her feet are sore. She has been walking all morning. 5. He has
been laughing at me since the very morning! 6. You will know everything after
you have been working here for some months. 7. I have been waiting for you since
4 o’clock. 8. I have been learning English for 10 years. 9. He is tired. He has been
working non-stop all morning. 10. It has been raining steadily for three days on
end now. 11. He has been collecting stamps since his childhood. 12. You are out of
breath. Have you been running? 13. I don't want anyone to know I've been crying.
14. I am not really hot. It's just that I’ve been running. 15. She has been playing
since 12 o'clock.
B. 1. I have been trying to learn English for years. 2. He has been overworking.
That is why he looks so tired. 3. I have been looking for my bag for ages. 4. I have
been bathing. That’s why my hair is all wet. 5. I have been driving for ten years. 6.
I have been shopping and I haven’t a penny left. 7. The children have been looking
forward to this holiday for months. 8. I have been waiting for you for about an
hour. 9. How long have you been wearing glasses? 10. I’m on a diet. I have been
eating nothing but bananas for the last month. 11. He has been teaching in this
school for years. 12. Sorry, I’m late. Have you been waiting for me? 13. That pipe
has been leaking for ages. We must get it mended. 14. Someone has been using my
bicycle. The chin has fallen off. 15. Your fingers are brown you have been
smoking too much.

THE PAST INDEFINITE

The Past Indefinite Tense is used to denote:

1. actions performed at a definite moment in the past (indicators: yesterday,


last week (month, year, time, etc.), ago, in 2005, just now (=a moment ago),
the other day (на днях), in those days (в те дни, в то время), etc.)

e.g. I saw him yesterday.

Note1: sometimes there is no indication of past time in the sentence but the
moment is definite in the minds of the speaker and his listener/listeners either

13
because the action has already been mentioned or because the situation is very well
known to the listener/listeners

e.g.: What did you say? – Что вы сказали? I didn’t hear your question. – Я не
слышал вашего вопроса. Did you hear what he said? Did you sleep well? Did
you enjoy the play? Did you have a good journey (trip, ride, flight, time, day, etc.)?
Did you see the accident?

Note2: sometimes an adverbial modifier of place points to a past period of time


and can be easily transformed into an adverbial modifier of time

e.g.: Did you see him at the theatre (= when you were at the theatre)?

I ran into her in Oxford Street (= when I was in Oxford Street).

Note 3: in questions introduced by when, where, how. (to show definite time,
place, attendant circumstances)

e.g. How did you get in?

2. a succession of past actions

e.g. He got up, put on his hat and left.

3. repeated actions in the past (can also be expressed by used to (for actions
and states) or would (for actions only))

e.g. He made an entry in his diary every night. He used to write articles at night.

4. actions going on at a certain moment in the past (with stative verbs)

e.g. He heard what they were speaking about.

5. two fully simultaneous actions joined by the conjunction as

e.g. They talked as they walked.

6. inquiries, requests, suggestions with verbs like hope, think, wonder, etc. in
situations referring to the present

e.g. I wondered if you could give me a lift.

7. to refer to a belief that has just been shown to be true or false

e.g. You’re older than I thought.

14
8. an action performed within a period of time in the past which is already
over (indicators: for 3 years, during his vacations, etc.). The emphasis is placed
on the reference of the fact to the past, not on the duration of the activity. The
period of duration belongs completely to the past time sphere.

e.g.: I baked the cake for 30 minutes yesterday. They lived in Minsk for 5 years
before the war.

9. future actions in subordinate clauses of time and condition depending on


principal clauses with the predicate verb in a past tense form

e.g. She said she would come when the film was over.

Comment on the use of the Past Indefinite in the following sentences:

Model:

1. John played tennis for two hours yesterday. -The verb to play is used in the Past
Indefinite tense form to denote an action performed within a period of time in
the past which is already over.
2. First he did the exercise then had dinner and went for a walk. -The verbs to do,
to have, to go are used in the Past Indefinite tense form to denote a succession
of past actions
3. Every morning at 8 o’clock he went out into the street to walk about the city. He
often went to the Neva. - The verbs to go out, to go are used in the Past
Indefinite tense forms to denote repeated actions in the past.
4. She used to get up early in the morning. – The expression used to get up is used
to denote a repeated action in the past.

A. 1. I felt very happy in those days. 2. The dog picked up the bone and carried it
away. 3. Every week he took his girl out. 4. He used to like comedies. 5. He lived
on the farm for ten years. 6. As a student he travelled a lot. 7. 8. She promised she
would phone me when he finished doing the washing up. 9. Where did you see
him? 10. They laughed a lot as they walked . 11. He lived in London for 3 years
when his father worked there. 12. In those days Paul looked young and handsome.
13. We walked in silence for a long time. 14. They set out early in the morning. 15.
He often felt ill.
B. 1. He said he would help me when he came home from work. 2. Before coming
to the city we lived on the farm. 3. The film is not as interesting as I expected. 4. I
thought you could give me a piece of advice. 5. I remember you smoked 30
cigarettes a day. How did you give up? 6. My father burst into a rage and
demanded his money back. 7. In those days Paul looked young and handsome. 8.
She came in and laid all the books on the table. 9. I asked him what he was going
to do if he was sacked. 10. He collected books on Carribean flora. 11. Last year we
won a TV set on the lottery. 12. We met in the foyer and went into the hall. 13.
15
When I was a teenager I went to a disco every week. 14. She taught Russian for
two years when she lived in France. 15. He looked up as Eric came in.

THE PAST CONTINUOUS

The Past Continuous Tense is used to denote:

1. actions going on at a definite moment or period of time in the past

e.g. It was 12 and he was still sitting.

2. a past action of unusual frequency to convey a feeling of annoyance or


irritation (with always, constantly, continually)

e.g. He was constantly losing things.

3. future planned actions viewed from the past

e.g. She said she was leaving in a week.

4. to show that the planned action wasn’t carried out with the verbs: to expect,
to intend, to hope, to plan, to mean

e.g. I was meaning to go there.

5. two or more simultaneous past actions in progress

e.g. He was cooking while she was sleeping.

6. background description to events in a story

e.g. The sun was shining and the birds were singing …

7. past actions in progress interrupted by another past action

e.g. I was playing football when I broke my ankle.


Comment on the use of the Past Continuous in the following sentences:

Model:

1. When I left the house, it was raining. -The verb to rain is used in the Past
Continuous tense form to denote an action which was going on at a definite
moment in the past. The definite moment is indicated by another past action,
expressed by the verb to leave used in the Past Indefinite tense form.

16
2. While Jane was doing her homework Peter was repairing the bike. -The verbs to
do and to repair are used in the Past Continuous tense form to denote two
simultaneous actions in the past.
3. It was drizzling the whole day. - The verb to drizzle is used in the Past
Continuous tense form to denote an action which was going on at a certain
period of time in the past
4. She was always idling away her time at school. -The verb to idle is used in the
Past Continuous tense form to denote a past action of unusual frequency to
convey a feeling of annoyance or irritation.

A. 1. She was sitting in the library from 2 till 4 yesterday. 2. When John arrived I
was cooking supper. 3. In those days he was always borrowing money and
forgetting to pay it back. 4. While he was watching TV I was working in the
garden. 5. She said she was going abroad in summer. 6. I was planning to move
house. 7. I wasn’t driving very fast when the accident happened. 8. As I was
driving to London I was listening to music on the radio. 9. At 6 o’clock this
morning I was having a wonderful dream. 10. He remembered that Jack was
coming for lunch in the evening. 11. Nick was always teasing me when we were at
school. 12. He was gardening all weekend. 13. Sue met her husband while she was
working in Paris. 14. It was snowing heavily when we got to Warsaw. 15. Are you
going to Rome? I thought that you were going to Milan.
B. 1. When I first met him he was studying painting. 2. Some children were
bathing, others were looking for shells. 3. He was always losing his things when he
was at school. 4. I was intending to visit my grandmother this summer. 5. He was
playing the guitar and everybody was listening attentively. 6. He explained that he
was leaving for Australia the following year. 7. When I was looking for my
passport I found this old photo. 8. I knew Harry was coming sometime on Monday.
9. It was raining when I left. 10. At 10.20 yesterday I was playing chess with my
wife. 11. Ann was sitting on the park bench while the children were playing. 12.
He was always leaving dirty clothes on the floor! 13. While I was working in my
offices yesterday my cousin stopped by to visit me. 14. He was constantly showing
that he was smarter than me. 15. He was meaning to help me.

THE PAST PERFECT

The Past Perfect Tense is used to denote:

1. an action completed before another action or a certain moment in the past

e.g. He had spent all his money before he returned to his native city.

He had spent all his money by the end of the month.

17
2. to denote the completion of the action but not priority

e.g. He waited until she had found the key and opened the door.

3. to denote a succession of past actions preceding the narrative as a whole

e.g. In front of me was a neat square of grass and a path. Someone had opened the
gate, had walked very quietly up to the house …

4. with the conjunctions: hardly … when, scarcely … when, no sooner … than


to denote an action completed before a certain moment in the past.

e.g. He had hardly finished doing his homework when the telephone rang.

NB If a sentence starts with hardly, scarcely, no sooner, the sentence has an


inverted word order.

e.g. Hardly had he finished doing his homework when the telephone rang.

5. to denote an action which began before a definite moment in the past,


continued up to that moment and was either still going on at that moment or
had just finished:

a) with stative verbs

e.g. I had known him for many years before I learnt about the tragedy.

b) in negative sentences

e.g. They hadn’t spoken to each other for three days before they made up.

6. is used in combination with the Past Continuous when one action is


accomplished before another still in progress

e.g. She had got up and was breathing deeply.

7. in a complex sentence with a when-clause containing the Past Indefinite in


the subordinate clause and the negative form of the Past Perfect in the
principal clause.

e.g. I hadn’t been in the office for two minutes when my boss came in with his
numerous tasks.

8. future action in a subordinate clause of time to emphasize the completion of


an action

18
e.g. He decided to read nothing but the dictionary until he had mastered every
word of it.

Comment on the use of the Past Perfect in the following sentences:

Model:

1. She had finished her homework by 5 o’clock. -The verb to finish is used in the
Past Perfect tense form to denote an action completed before a certain moment
in the past. The definite moment is indicated by the adverbial phrase by 5
o’clock.
2. Hardly had she laid the table when she heard the telephone. - The verb to lay is
used in the Past Perfect tense form with the conjunctions hardly … when to
denote an action completed before another moment in the past indicated by the
verb to hear.
3. Ann added she hadn’t seen much of Nick since 1986/for 3 years. - The verb to
see is used in the Past Perfect tense form to denote an action which began
before the definite moment in the past indicated by the verb to add and
continued into it (with the verbs which don’t admit of the continuous form). The
preposition since is used to indicate the starting point of the action/the
preposition for is used to indicate the whole period of duration.
A. 1. I understood they had just fallen asleep. 2. When John came home his sister
hadn’t gone to bed yet. 3. Maggy had scarcely introduced her boy-friend to me
when I recognized him. 4. He was pleased to meet Dave again. He had known him
for ten or eleven years. 5. He waited until she had finished doing her homework
and left the room. 6. The rain had stopped and the sun was shining. 7. Mary had
hardly come home when it began to rain. 8. The Hiltons hadn’t bought tickets
before they took the train. 9. Mary told she hadn’t gone to her grandmother since
she finished school. 10. She mentioned that she had lived in London for 5 years.
11. Nelly was out of practice in English. She hadn’t taught it since she left
London. 12. I noticed that my car had disappeared. 13. Sam had already left when
Ann got here. 14. Jack chose the hotel. He had never been there before but he had
heard his mother speak of it once. 15. He was pleased to meet Dave again. He had
known him for ten or eleven years.

B. 1. I knew they had been married for nearly 50 years. 2. I did not remember
much about the Pimleys, whom I had not seen for about ten years. 3. Hardly had
she arrived when she started to complain. 4. By the time we arrived at the zoo they
had already fed the elephants. 5. He told me he had not heard from her since the
day she walked out of their office. 6. He had finished working and was having a
rest. 7. When we left the beach the rain had already started. 8. I told him I had
been in all evening. 9. Hardly had we put up the tent when it started to rain. 10. I
19
rang the shop as soon as I had checked the contents of the box. 11. By the time we
arrived the party had finished. 12. They had locked the gates before I got there. 13.
Before I went to London I had never been abroad before. 14. Hardly had we
started lunch when the doorbell rang. 15. At last he returned home. His wife had
cooked dinner for him, had cleaned the house, and had done the shopping.

THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense is used to denote:

1. an action which began before a definite moment in the past, continued up to


that moment and was either still going on at that moment or had just finished

e.g. She had been trying to get a visa for months before she gave up.

2. an action of certain duration which had visible results in the past

e.g. Her fingers hurt because she had been playing the guitar all day.

Comment on the use of the Past Perfect Continuous in the following sentences:

Model:

1. By last year she had been studying English for 3 years. -The verb to study is
used in the Past Perfect Continuous tense form to denote an action which
began before a definite moment in the past, continued into that moment. The
whole period of duration is indicated by the prepositional phrase for 3 years.
2. She was tired. She had been working in the garden all day. - The verb to work is
used in the Past Perfect Continuous tense form to denote an action of certain
duration which had visible results in the past.

A. 1. He had only been sitting there for half an hour when his friend entered the
room. 2. I knew she had been doing nothing since she came home. 3. After he had
been looking out of the window for a short time he began to write. 4. They had
been working for three hours before they stopped for a meal. 5. John got tired as he
had been hunting since early morning. 6. I was sure she had been listening to the
radio since she came home. 7. The travelers looked tired because they had been
travelling since the beginning of the month. 8. Tom had been travelling abroad for
a year before he returned home. 9. Mary could see that the child had been crying.
10. They felt exhausted that morning because they had been driving all night. 11.
James was very cross. He had been working in the kitchen all morning. 12. Diana
had been waiting for an hour before Nick arrived. 13. My eyes ached because I
had been reading for three hours. 14. The Browns had been living in the same
house for ten years before they decided to move. 15. I was tired. I had been
digging all day.
20
B. 1. I had been waiting outside the cinema for half an hour before my friend
turned up. 2. He said that they had now been hunting hard for ten days. 3. She was
aware that they had been getting on each other's nerves lately. 4. I told him I had
been waiting to talk with him. 5. We were all wet because we had been running in
the rain. 6. They had been talking for three hours when it got dark. 7. His legs hurt
because he had been jumping too much. 8. Patrick had been waiting for a new
appointment until last year. 9. We got a suntan because we had been lying in the
sun for three hours. 10. She had been working here for ten years before she
resigned. 11. We had been cooking for the party all day and by 8 o’clock we still
weren’t ready. 12. We talked about what we had been doing since we left school.
13. The noise woke the baby who had been sleeping in his pram. 14. He said he
had been writing all day. 15. His hands were covered in oil because he had been
trying to fix his car all morning.

THE FUTURE INDEFINITE

The Future Indefinite Tense is used to denote:

1. a single point future action (indicators: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow,
in a week (month, year), next week (month, year, time, etc.); in a day or two,
one of these days)

e.g. It will ruin her.

2. an action occupying a whole period of time in the future

e.g. I will remain in love with you all my life.

3. a succession of actions in the future

e.g. We will just talk and then we will have dinner.

4. in the object and attributive subordinate clause to denote a future action

e.g. I don’t know if he will help us.

I don`t know the exact time when he will come.

5. decisions taken at the moment of speaking (on-the-spot decisions)

e.g. It’s cold in here. I will turn on the heating.

6. hopes, fears, threats, warnings, offers, promises, invitations, suggestions,


etc. after the corresponding verbs and expressions to hope, to fear, to be afraid,
etc
21
e.g. I hope he will like his birthday present.

7. actions and predictions which may (not) happen in the future (indicators:
probably, etc.)

e.g. She will probably win.

8. actions which we cannot control and will inevitably happen

e.g. The baby will be born after Christmas.

9. an officially planned future action

e.g. The government will lower taxes.


\
But: I’m leaving tomorrow. (an individually planned future action)

Comment on the use of the Future Indefinite in the following sentences:

Model:

1. She will help you. -The verb to help is used in the Future Indefinite tense
form to denote a single point future action.
2. Spring will come soon. - The verb to come is used in the Future Indefinite
tense form to denote an action which we cannot control and which will inevitably
happen.
3. I don’t know whether the play will be interesting. - The verb to be is used in
the Future Indefinite tense form to denote a future action in the object subordinate
clause.
A. 1. She will be thirty next February. 2. I think they will easily win the match. 3.
He will lend you the money you need. 4. He will have to help us. 5. I wonder if he
will catch any fish. 6. The world will become overpopulated in 50 years. 7. I will
give you the money back in a week. 8. It’s very hot in here. – I’ll open the window.
9. The Indian Government will probably impose a ban on tiger hunting. 10. Soon
the sun will rise and will paint the land in bright colours and the camp will awake.
11. The days will become shorter soon. 12. They hope the company will make a
profit next year. 13. Perhaps he will arrive in time for lunch. 14. I hope I will find
it. 15. I wonder how many of us will be here next year.
B. 1. I wonder if he will succeed. 2. It’s getting chilly in the room. –Is it? I will
turn on the heating. 3. Christmas will fall on Saturday this year. 4. I will go and
sort out some drinks for the guests. 5. Tom will probably get the promotion he
wants. 6. I will be back at 8.30. 7. The fire has gone out. – So it has. I will go and
get some sticks. 8. Jack will be 21 next month. 9. We are not sure if he will return
soon. 10. Probably they will stay with us. 11. I don’t know when he will return. 12.
I am dying of thirst. – I will go and fetch you some water. 13. I doubt if everything
22
will happen as we expect. 14. I have spilt my coffee. – I will get you a cloth. 15. I
wonder when we will write our test in history.

THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS

The Future Continuous Tense is used to denote:

1. an action in progress at a definite future moment or a period of time


(indicators: at 2 p.m., at this time tomorrow, all evening, from October to
December, from 4 till 6p.m., etc.)

e.g. I will be revising for my exam the whole evening tomorrow.

2. actions which are the result of a routine, which doesn’t need any special
arrangement

e.g. I will be going to the bank tomorrow.

3. to ask politely about people’s arrangements to see if they can do something


for us (an implicit request)

e.g. Will you be driving into town this afternoon? Can you give me a lift?

4. an action which is supposed or anticipated in the future

e.g. I hope that during our holidays we will be skating on the ice and skiing in the
woods.

5. an action which the speaker expects to take place in the natural course of
events

e.g.The leaves will be falling off soon.

Comment on the use of the Future Continuous in the following sentences:

Model:

1. This time tomorrow I will be enjoying skating. -The verb to enjoy is used in
the Future Continuous tense form to denote an action which will be going on at a
definite moment in the future. The definite moment is indicated by the adverbial
phrase this time tomorrow.
2. When you come to him, he will be having a wonderful time. - The verb to
have is used in the Future Continuous tense form to denote an action which will be
going on at a definite moment in the future. The definite moment is indicated by
another future action expressed by the verb to come used in the Present Indefinite
tense form.
23
3. I hope that during our holidays we will be skating on the ice and skiing in the
woods. - The verbs to skate and to ski are used in the Future Continuous tense
form to denote actions which are supposed or anticipated in the future.

A. 1. At four o’clock tomorrow we will be flying over Vienna. 2. I will be passing


the post-office on my way home from work, so I’ll buy you a newspaper. 3. From
9 to 10 tomorrow I will be walking the dog. 4. Will you be using your iron in the
evening? Could you lend it to me? 5. I’m sure they will be enjoying their stay at the
summer camp. 6. I won’t bother to fix the time to see you, because I will be calling
into the office several times next week. 7. I will be waiting for you all morning
tomorrow. 8. When you see me I will be wearing my new dress. 9. Will you be
using the car this afternoon? 10. I think it will be raining hard in about ten minutes.
11. What will you be doing early on Monday night? 12. At 3 o’clock tomorrow I
will be attending a conference. 13. This time next month I will be sitting on a
beach. 14. I will be waiting for you when you come out. 15. They are pulling down
all the old houses in this street. I expect they will be pulling down mine in a few
years’ time.
B. 1. You’d better go back now your mother will be wondering where you are. 2. It
won’t be easy to get out of the country. The police will be watching all the ports. 3.
Will you be using your camera tomorrow or can I borrow it? 4. We’ve just got to
the top in time. The sun will be rising in a minute. 5. We’d better go out tomorrow
because Mary will be practicing the piano all day. 6. Don’t ring her up at 6.00; she
will be putting the children to bed. 7. I will be going to the shop so I can buy you
some milk. 8. This time tomorrow Maria will be sunbathing on a beach in
Majorca. 9. Look, I can give you a lift to the station – I will be driving that way
anyway. 10. When you get to the station, I will be waiting for you outside. 11. I
must phone Julia. – Well, don’t phone her now. She will be sleeping. 12. “The
evenings will be getting long soon," I said to my aunt, to cheer her up. 13. Will you
be working all tomorrow evening? 14. I will be working at home tomorrow. You
can call me there. 15. Don't phone them now: they will be having dinner.

THE FUTURE PERFECT

The Future Perfect Tense is used to denote:

1. an action completed before a definite future moment

e.g. I will have received your answer before this letter reaches you.

2. an action which began before a definite moment in the future, will continue
up to this moment and will be still going on at this moment or will have just
finished by this moment (instead of the Future Perfect Continuous tense form)

24
with stative verbs, i.e. the verbs which don’t admit of the continuous form and in
negative sentences

e.g. They will have been friends for 20 years by this time next year.

THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense is used to denote:

1. an action which began before a definite moment in the future, will continue
up to this moment and will be still going on at this moment or will have just
finished by this moment
e.g. By this time next month he will have been studying the piano for two years.

Comment on the use of the Future Perfect (Continuous) in the following


sentences:

Model:

1. My sister will have left school by July. -The verb to leave is used in the
Future Perfect tense form to denote an action which will be completed before a
definite future moment which is indicated by the adverbial phrase by July.
2. Kate will have been a student for half a year by March. - The verb to be is
used in the Future Perfect tense form to denote an action/state which began
before a definite moment in the future indicated by the adverbial by March and
will continue into this moment. (with a stative verb)
3. By the end of the year, they will have been working at this project for two
years. - The verb to work is used in the Future Perfect Continuous tense form to
denote an action which began before a definite moment in the future indicated by
the adverbial phrase by the end of the year and will continue into this moment.

A. 1. By the end of the year the workers will have completed the project. 2. They
will have completed the bridge by the end of the year. 3. By the end of the week I
will have been waiting seven weeks for my car to be repaired. 4. On August 15 I
will have been living in this house for 50 years. 5. I hope I will have finished the
report by the end of the day. 6. They will have known each other for a year by
September. 7. Next year they will have been making furniture for 50 years. 8. Your
aunt will have cooked dinner by the time we arrive. 9. How long will you have had
your old car before you buy a new one? 10. She will have been waiting for some
time before we meet her. 11. By next Christmas they will have been here for 8
years. 12. She will have left before the children get home. 13. I hope when I call
you, you will have returned from work. 14. By the end of the interview the
reporters will have found out a lot of interesting facts. 15. The train will have left
the station before we reach it.
25
B. 1. We will have been flying non-stop for 14 hours before we get to Calcutta. 2.
When you come back I will have finished all the housework. 3. By December I will
have been studying English for 3 years. 4. Next month he will have been in prison
for 10 years. 5. By this time next year I will have saved 250$. 6. By the end of the
year she will have been working here for two years. 7. I will have finished this job
by 5 o’clock. 8. On Saturday we will have been repairing the flat for two weeks. 9.
I will have finished this book by tomorrow evening. 10. Next year our
grandmother will have been living with us for a year. 11. By 5 o’clock she will
have been waiting for her friend for 20 minutes. 12. By the end of the term I will
have read all twelve volumes. 13. Come back in an hour. I will have done my
packing by then and we will be able to have a talk. 14. By September I will have
known him for 12 years. 15. If we don’t hurry the sun will have risen by the time
we reach the top.

THE PASSIVE VOICE


Voice is a grammatical category of the verb which indicates the relation
between an action and its agent. It shows whether the subject is the doer of the
action or whether it is acted upon.
THE PASSIVE VOICE shows that the person or thing denoted by the subject is
acted upon. Thus, the subject of a passive construction, unlike the subject of an
active one, is not the doer of the action but the receiver of it, while the doer of a
passive verb is expressed by the object of the passive construction. The passive
voice is used mostly with transitive verbs.
Subject Predicate Object
The roof was damaged by the storm.
receiver doer

Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect


(Simple) (Progressive) Continuous
Present am/is/are am/is/are being invited has/have been –
invited invited
Past was/were was/were being invited had been invited –
invited
Future will be – will have been –
invited invited
Future- would be – would have been –
in-the- invited invited
Past
The Passive Voice is used:

26
1. When it is not necessary to mention the doer of the action as it is obvious
who he is.
e.g. The streets are swept every day.
2. When we don’t know who did the action.
e.g. You will be met at the station.
3. When we are more interested in the action than the person who does it.
e.g. A new public library is being built.
The Passive Voice is not used when the object is expressed by:
1. an infinitive
e.g. We agreed to meet at 5 p.m.
2. a gerund/gerundial phrase
e.g. John enjoyed seeing his native town.
3. a reflexive pronoun or a noun with a possessive pronoun referring to the
same person as the subject of the sentence.
e.g. He hurt himself. He cut his finger.
4. an object clause (introduced by the conjunction that)
e.g. Helen said that everything was all right.
In this case however we can use either the passive construction with the
anticipatory it or Complex Subject.
e.g.: It was said that everything was all right. OR Everything was said to be all
right.
Sometimes we use get instead of be in the Passive Voice. It is informal and is
used for something happening by chance or unexpectedly. In negative and
interrogative sentences the auxiliary verb do is used.
e.g. There was a fight at the party but nobody got hurt. The windows don’t
get cleaned very often. How did the painting get damaged?
We also use get in the following expressions: get dressed/changed, get
washed (=wash oneself), get engaged/married/divorced, get started (=start), get
lost (=lose one’s way).
The doer of the action, e.g. a thing, a team, a group of people, an organization
or a company who/which performs an action in a passive sentence is introduces by
BY:
e.g. He was accompanied by his friend.
The building was hit by lightning.
WITH is used to introduce an instrument, materials and ingredients.
e.g. He was killed with a knife.
The room was filled with smoke.
HAVE SOMETHING DONE
We use the structure have something done to say that we arranged for
somebody else to do something for us. In negative and interrogative sentences the
auxiliary verb do is used.
e.g. Claire decorated the room. (= she decorated it herself)
Claire had the room decorated. (= she arranged for a decorator to do it)
We can also use the construction to get something done in the same meaning
27
but it is more informal.
e.g.: We’re getting the carpet cleaned. Where did you get your hair cut?
The structure to have something done can be used in the meaning ‘to
experience something’, often something unpleasant.
e.g.: The car had its mirrors pulled off. Have you ever had your passport
stolen?
Comment on the use of the Passive Voice in the following sentences:
Model:
1. Tom was praised by the teacher yesterday. - The verb to praise is used in the
Past Indefinite Passive tense form to denote an action performed at a definite
moment in the past.
2. An examination dictation is being written in this room. - The verb to write is
used in the Present Continuous Passive tense form to denote an action going on
at the moment of speaking.

A. 1. The best cream cakes are made by Mary. 2. By the end of the party all the
food had been eaten. 3. Williams was beaten by Azarenko in the Women's Tennis
Final. 4. The building is being examined by Health and Safety experts this week. 5.
Who was the television invented by? 6. The English language is now spoken by
over two billion people worldwide. 7. My overdraft will be extended by the bank
tomorrow. 8. Hundreds of free gifts are being given away by Daniel this Saturday.
9. The beds haven’t been made yet. 10. The tickets were booked weeks ago. 11. A
new shopping centre is being built on the outskirts of town now. 12. She hasn't
been christened yet. 13. A new shampoo is being developed in the lab. 14. The
awards will be presented by Tom Hanks. 15. Rainforests are being cut down in the
Amazon at present.
B. 1. The old barn has been pulled down. 2. The results will be published in July.
3. The trip was ruined by bad weather. 4. Why hasn't the house been painted yet?
5. His car has been stolen. 6. A famous actress will be chosen to advertise the
product. 7. John was made to do the washing up. 8. The ozone layer is gradually
being destroyed by pollution. 9. A bring-and-buy sale is being held next month. 10.
Thousands of rare birds are killed by hunters every year. 11. Her purse was stolen
on the bus. 12. An ancient village has been uncovered by archaeologists. 13. Why
hasn't the dishwasher been repaired yet? 14. A new drug is being developed by
scientists. 15. The furniture will have been removed by noon.

THE SEQUENSE OF TENSES


In English the tense of the verb in a subordinate clause (mainly, an object clause)
depends on that of the verb in the principal clause. This adjustment of tense-forms
is called The Sequence of Tenses.
The following are the rules of the Sequence of Tenses:
28
1. A present or future tense in the principal clause may be followed in the
subordinate by any tense that is required by the sense.
e.g. His horoscope reads that he has just had a rather difficult financial period, but
that this week he will be lucky with money matters.
2. A past tense in the principal clause must be followed by a past tense or future-
in-the past in the subordinate clause. The choice of the type of a past tense
depends on the time relations between the principal and the subordinate clause.
a) If the action of the subordinate clause is simultaneous with the action of the
principal clause the Past Simple or the Past Continuous is used in the
subordinate clause:
e.g. I didn’t know you two were related to each other.

b) If the action of the subordinate clause is prior to the action of the principal
clause or lasted a certain time before the action of the principal clause, the Past
Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous is used in the subordinate clause:
e.g. I knew she had not played the piano for a long time.

c) If the action of the subordinate clause is posterior to the action of the principal
clause, a Future tense-form is replaced by the so-called Future-in-the-Past.
e.g. They were sure that they would have sold the house by the end of the year.

The change of tenses according to the rule of the sequence of tenses.


the Present Indefinite is replaced the Past Indefinite
the Present Continuous by the Past Continuous
the Present Perfect the Past Perfect
the Present Perfect the Past Perfect Continuous
Continuous
the Past Indefinite the Past Perfect
the Past Continuous the Past Perfect Continuous
the Past Perfect remains unchanged
the Past Perfect remains unchanged
Continuous
the Future Indefinite the Future Indefinite in the Past
the Future Continuous the Future Continuous in the Past
the Future Perfect the Future Perfect in the Past
the Future Perfect the Future Perfect Continuous in
Continuous the Past

The change of demonstrative pronouns and adverbials:

this that
these those
here there
29
is replaced by
today that day
tonight that night
ago before
now then, at that time, at the moment, immediately
last night the previous night/the night before
tomorrow the next/following day, the day after
the day after tomorrow two days later, in two day’s time
yesterday the day before/(on) the previous day
the day before yesterday two days before/previously

The change of modal verbs according to the rule of the sequence of tenses.

is replaced by
must must (supposition)/had to (necessity)
have to had to
needn’t needn’t/ didn’t need to/ didn’t have to
can could/would be able to (future reference)
may might
shall should
will would
would, could, might, should, do not change
ought to

The rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed:


1. In subordinate clauses of time the Past Indefinite and the Past Continuous are
not changed then the verb in the main clause can either remain unchanged or
change:

e.g. “While I was staying in Madrid, I met Pedro,” she said. – She said she met/
had met Pedro while she was staying in Madrid.
2. When a definite past moment is indicated:
e.g. My aunt said, “I moved to the seaside in 1995.” – My aunt boasted that she
moved to the seaside in 1995.
3. When there is a succession of past actions:

e.g. He said, “We decided to go to the pictures, got a 63 bus and got off at the
Elephant Castle as the pictures were just next door.” – He told me that they
decided to go to the pictures, got a 63 bus and got off at the Elephant Castle as the
pictures were just next door.

4. The Past Indefinite after since remains unchanged; used to + the Infinitive and
would + the Infinitive also remain unchanged:

30
e.g. She said, “I have been writing since I came.” – She said she had been writing
since she came.

She said, “He used to get up/would get up at 6 a.m.” – She said that he used to get
up/would get up at 6 a.m.

5. If the action in an object clause expresses general truths, existing laws and
permanent states, conditions.

e.g. “Water boils at 100°C”, she said. – She said water boils at 100°C.

“What time does the earliest train to Manchester start?” he asked. – He asked
what time the earliest train to Manchester starts.

6. when a future action is still to come

e.g He said, “Next Olympic games will take place in Rio in 2016.” - He said that
the next Olympic games will take place in Rio in 2016.

7. In conditional sentences (type 2 and type 3)

e.g. “If I were you, I would apologize,” he said. – He said if he were me, he would
apologize. (type 2)

“I would have helped you if you had asked me,” she said. – She said she
would have helped me if I had asked her. (type 3)

8.In Subjunctive II after the expressions It’s time…, I wish…

e.g. “It is time he went,” she said. – She said it was time he went.

“I wish he were here,” she said. – She said she wished he were there.

Comment on the use of the Sequence of Tenses in the following sentences:


Model:
1. Mary remarked that she had food for a dozen people. – The verb to have is used
in its Past Indefinite tense form to denote an action simultaneous with the action
expressed by the verb to remark in its Past Indefinite tense form in the principal
clause.
2. Mary confessed that she had had a bad night. – The verb to have is used in its
Past Perfect tense form to denote an action prior to the action expressed by the
verb to confess in its Past Indefinite tense form in the principal clause.
3. He informed us that we would go abroad. – The verb to go is used in its Future
Indefinite in the Past tense form to denote an action posterior to the action

31
expressed by the verb to inform in its Past Indefinite tense form in the principal
clause.

A. 1. She always told people that she was good at languages. 2. When I came to
the station I saw my cousin. I understood that she had missed the 8 o’clock train. 3.
Nick didn’t want to stay at his relatives’. He explained he would put up at a hotel.
4. Everybody praised the film. Mary was sorry she hadn’t seen it. 5. He predicted
that he would discover the tiny particle when he conducted his next experiment. 6.
It was raining hard. Mrs Parker regretted she hadn’t taken an umbrella. 7.
Everybody knew that Susan was strict about keeping things tidy. 8. I was not sure I
would be able to remember the exact details. 9. My friend called on me yesterday.
He boasted he had bought two tickets for the match. 10. I forgot that she was
always letting people down. 11. I hoped that she would mature as the years went
by. 12. Harry didn’t come to the party. We thought he hadn’t received our
invitation. 13. What he was saying was not true. 14. The company promised that
they would reimburse our expenses. 15. Liz told me she had had a really weird
dream the previous night.
B. 1. We wanted to know where she had been all that time. 2. Mary complained
that she was bored with the same old routine day after day. 3. We decided that we
would travel to New York by sea rather than go by air. 4. Jack was happy to have
got a ticket. He didn’t complain he had been standing in a queue for 2 hours. 5.
Max was sure that we all needed a holiday. 6. I had always believed that one day I
would see him. 7. He knew that his grandparents always went to church on
Sundays. 8. He explained that when he was born his parents had been married for
12 years already. 9. He wanted us to see that he was not hostile. 10. He insisted
that the reforms would save the system, not destroy it. 11. We knew that the bridge
was unsafe. 12. She was sure that her kids would like a light breakfast. 13. We
heard on the radio that only a minority of people had voted for him. 14. My sister
agreed that she needed a shoulder to cry on. 15. When she said she wouldn’t give
me my money back I got furious.

INDIRECT SPEECH
Indirect speech is a complex sentence with a subordinate object clause in which the
reporting phrase forms the principal clause, while the quoted speech forms the
subordinate clause.
Peculiarities of the sentence structure in indirect speech are revealed by
considering indirect statements, questions, imperatives.
Indirect statements are typically introduced by the verbs to say, to tell, to
announce, to inform, to declare, to promise, to remark, to remind, to assure, to
admit, to deny, etc.

32
e.g. She said to us, “I’ll be back directly.” – She told us she would be back
directly.
e.g. She said to him, “Don’t forget to buy some bread.” – She reminded him to buy
some bread.
e.g. She said to him, “I didn’t do it.” – She denied doing it.
NB. The verb to say introduces both direct and indirect speech. The verb to tell
introduces indirect speech only. If a person is mentioned, the verb to tell is
preferable.
Indirect questions are generally introduced by the verbs to ask, to inquire, to
want, to know, to wonder, to interest, to be interested. An indirect general
question is introduced by the conjunction if or whether. An indirect special
question is introduced by the same adverb or pronoun that introduces a direct
question. The word order is direct.
e.g. I said to her, “Have you lived here long?” – I asked her if she had lived there
long.
She said (to him), “When will the secretary come?” – She inquired when the
secretary would come.
Imperatives – an order, a request, an invitation, a warning or advice – are
generally reported with the help of an infinitive. The choice of the verb is
determined by the character of the order/request etc.
e.g. The officer said to the soldiers, “Stop!” – The officer commanded the soldiers
to stop.

He said to her, “Shall I fetch you a glass of water?” She said, “Do, please./No,
don’t trouble.” – He offered to fetch her a glass of water and she accepted/declined
the offer.

Comment on the use of the Indirect orders, requests, special and general
questions in the following sentences:
Model:
1. The mother told her son to come home at 7. - The infinitive to come is used to
express an indirect order.
2. He asked Ann where she came from. - Where she came from is an indirect
special question, introduced by the question word where. The word order is the
same as in a statement.
3. I wanted to know if the meeting had been held the day before. - If the meeting
had been held the day before is an indirect general question, introduced by the
conjunction if. The word order is the same as in a statement.
33
A. 1. Mrs. Wilson begged her husband to drive more carefully. 2. The foreign
tourists wanted to know when the building of the University was built. 3. She asked
her son if he had enjoyed the view of the city. 4. Irene asked her husband not to
drive the car too fast. 5. Mr. Wilson told his wife to get ready for the trip. 6. Helen
asked Peter what places of interest in Kiev he had already seen. 7. Henry asked if
Ann really didn’t like to go to the theatre. 8. I advised her not to worry about the
missing money. 9. My mother warned us not to ignore traffic lights while crossing
the street. 10. Jenny asked us if we could water her plants for a week. 11. He
wanted to know which was the best way to drive to Portsmouth. 12. They invited
us to go round and see the new baby. 13. Anne inquired when she could hand in
her resignation. 14. I asked my parents if we had to change trains. 15. Jane asked
what had caused her success.
B. 1. Ann asked if he had ever been interested in painting. 2. Tom asked when she
had taken up her new post. 3. He advised them to buy a burglar alarm. 4. His
mother warned him not to put sticky things in his pockets. 5. Grand wanted to
know how much my new guitar was. 6. She asked if the seat was taken. 7. My
mother asked who had started the fight. 8. Nina was wondering where she had left
her watch the day before. 9. My mother warned me not to do anything dangerous.
10. My brother advised me to say nothing about it. 11. He asked if he could park
there. 12. She wondered who had been using her computer. 13. The man asked if I
had ever seen a flying saucer. 14. The driving instructor ordered me to get into the
right lane. 15. They invited us to spend the weekend with them.

OBLIQUE MOODS

Mood is the form of the verb that shows in what relation to reality the
speaker places the action expressed by the predicate verb.

There are the following moods in English:

 the Indicative Mood (actions as real facts)


 the Imperative Mood (commands or requests)
 the Oblique moods (unreal or problematic actions)
In English there are several kinds of oblique moods: the Conditional Mood,
Subjunctive I, Subjunctive II, the Suppositional Mood. Oblique moods are
generally used to express an action as an imaginary phenomenon, i.e. the subject of
a hypothesis, speculation, desire, regret, etc.

34
The Conditional Mood and Subjunctive II (the Past Subjunctive Mood)
represent an action as unreal (hypothetical), contrary to reality.

The Suppositional Mood and Subjunctive I represent an action as


problematic, but not contradicting reality, as desirable or undesirable, suggested,
advised, etc.

The Oblique moods

unreal problematic

Subjunctive II Subjunctive I
The Conditional mood The Suppositional mood

THE CONDITIONAL MOOD

The Conditional Mood denotes an unreal action the unreality of which is due
to the absence of necessary conditions.

It is formed with the help of the auxiliary verb would (rarely should for the
1st person singular and plural) and the necessary form of the infinitive depending
on the kind of action expressed in the sentence:

would do - the Indefinite form of the Conditional Mood (used


to denote a general, permanent, recurrent action or a present /
future time action / state);

would be doing - the Continuous form of the Conditional Mood


(used to denote an action in progress / going on at the moment
of speaking / going on at the current period of time);

would have done - the Perfect form of the Conditional Mood (used to
denote an action referring to the past / a state of some duration
which began before the moment of speaking and continued /
continues up to it or into it);

would have been doing - the Perfect Continuous form of the Conditional
Mood (used to express an action of some duration which

35
began before the moment of speaking and continued /
continues up to it or into it).

The Conditional Mood can be used in simple and complex sentences. In


simple sentences it is used:

1) to express an unreal action when the condition is implied by the context


I wouldn’t believe him.

I wouldn’t have believed that. But I saw it with my own eyes.

2) after the combination but for (если бы не)


But for his help they would not have finished the work in time.

But for the rain I wouldn’t have been waiting here for 40 minutes already.

3) after the expression in your place


In your place I wouldn’t join him.

4) after the conjunctive adverb otherwise


We were lucky that the weather was fine. Otherwise we would have put off
our outing.

5) to sound polite
I would be grateful.

In complex sentences the Conditional Mood is used in:

1) the principal clause of complex sentences with adverbial clauses of unreal


condition and concession to express:
a) unreal consequence:
If I had a map I would lend it to you.

b) regret about an action that was / wasn’t carried out


If I had known that you were coming I would have met you at the airport.

2) object clauses after the verb to wish:


a) to express request
I wish you would help me.

b) to express annoyance
I wish they would stop playing this loud music.

c) to express a wish for change in the future


I wish they would change the menu.
36
d) usually when the subject of the object clause is inanimate
I wish the sun would come out.

NB The subjects of the principal and object clauses never coincide. So, it’s
impossible to say I wish I would …

Comment on the use of the Conditional Mood:

Model:

1. In you place I would be furious with John. – The verb to be is used in the
Indefinite form of the Conditional Mood to denote an unreal state at present
in a simple sentence with an implied condition.
2. If she had stayed in that shop for another five minutes she would have come
away with another pair of shoes. – The verb to come is used in the Perfect
form of the Conditional Mood to express an unreal consequence in the past
in the principal clause in a complex sentence of unreal condition.
3. I’ve lost your phone number, otherwise I would have warned you. – The
verb to warn is used in the Perfect form of the Conditional Mood to denote
an unreal action in the past in a simple sentence after the conjunctive
adverb otherwise.
4. If I had worked harder at school I wouldn’t be sweeping the streets now. –
The verb to sweep is used in the Continuous form of the Conditional mood
to denote some regret about an action going on at the current period of
time.

5. I wish prices would come down. – The verb to come is used in the Indefinite
form of the Conditional Mood to denote a wish for change in the future in
an object clause after the verb to wish.
A.1. He would not have recognized her but for her manners. 2. I learnt a good deal
about human nature in that place that otherwise I would never have known. 3. This
would not have occurred to Michael; but it seemed a splendid idea. 4. I certainly
would never have recognized him, he was extremely thin. 5. It would have been
false to say that at forty she was as good looking as she had been when she was
twenty-seven. 6. George would have preferred to go to the skating-rink. Instead he
had to help his mother about the house. 7. If I were on holiday I would be touring
Italy too. 8. If he had tried to leave the country he would have been stopped at the
frontier. 9. If I had worked harder at school I would be sitting in a comfortable
office now. 10. I would have joined you yesterday but for my toothache. 11. I wish
it would stop raining. 12. If I had had time yesterday, I would have helped you. 13.
37
I wish he would come with us. 14. He would go there with pleasure. 15. If you had
arranged it properly, you would have been working on it for more than several days
now.

B.1. It was raining cats and dogs, otherwise we would have come. 2. In your place
I would be more thankful. 3. I know she has a heart of gold, otherwise she
wouldn’t help you so often. 4. But for his laziness he would be more successful. 5.
If he were more communicative he would make friends with ease. 6. I would have
written to tell you this long ago if you had given me the address. 7. He went on
searching, determined that if evidence existed he would find it. 8. And if I were in
your place I would resist her. 9. I would have enjoyed the film more if we had had
better seats. 10. If I had remembered the rule I would have made fewer mistakes in
the test. 11. I wish you would stop talking. 12. It would have been too wonderful if
he had said that. But he didn’t. 13. But for you, I would have gone to the theater.
14. Why didn’t you come yesterday? You would have had a good time. 15. I wish
it would stop raining.

SUBJUNCTIVE II

Subjunctive II or the Past Subjunctive Mood represents an action as unreal,


contrary to reality.

It has the following forms:

did / were - the Indefinite form of Subjunctive II (used to express a


present time action / state; an action / state in the future; an
action / state simultaneous with that in the principal clause; an
action / state posterior to that in the principal clause);

were doing - the Continuous form of Subjunctive II (used to denote an


action in progress / going on at the moment of speaking /
going on at the current period of time);

had done - the Perfect form of Subjunctive II (used to denote an


action in the past / an action prior to that of the principal clause
/ a state of some duration which began before the moment of
speaking and continued / continues up to it or into it);

had been doing - the Perfect Continuous form of Subjunctive II (used to


denote an action of some duration which began before the
moment of speaking and continued / continues up to it or into
it).
38
Subjunctive II can be used in simple and complex sentences. In simple
sentences it is used to express:

1) wish / regret after the expressions if only / Oh, that… / Oh, if…
If only he hadn’t missed that chance.

2) advice / preference
The children had better go to bed early.

In complex sentences the Past Subjunctive is used in different types of clauses:

1) object clauses after the verb to wish to express regret


I wish you had been there with us.

He wished she weren’t so loud.

NB Be attentive about the translation of such sentences into Russian, negation


in particular. I wish is normally translated as Мне жаль, so be careful about the
use of negation in the object clause:

I wish he were here. – Мне жаль, что его здесь нет.

2) object clauses after the expressions would rather and would sooner
I’d rather you paid cash.

I’d rather she didn’t try to repair it herself.

3) in object clauses after expressions of doubt and the conjunctions if, whether.
I doubted if it were possible.

4) attributive clauses after the expressions it’s time, it’s high time in which
the Subjunctive Mood modifies the noun time. Only non-perfect forms are
used.
It’s time we left.

It’s high time you were washed and dressed, children.

5) predicative clauses after link verbs (to be, to feel, to look, to sound, to
seem, etc.) and the conjunctions as if and as though
It seemed as though the silence of the night were getting on her nerves.

You look as if you had not slept.

6) adverbial clauses of comparison (or manner) after the conjunctions as if


and as though
He smiled as if he were amused by my joke.

39
He orders me around as if I were his wife.

7) adverbial clauses of condition after the conjunctions if, on condition, in


case, suppose (предположим)
If he came into the room now, I’d know him right off.

If she had worked hard, she would have finished the work long ago.

If it were not for your help, I would not be able to finish my work in time.

Suppose he wrote to you, would you answer?

NB The inverted word order is possible in the sentences beginning with


adverbial conditional clauses as a means of emphasis on condition due to the
author’s wish to produce a certain stylistic effect. Inversion can occur when the
predicate is expressed by the Indefinite form of the verbs to be, to have and any
verb in the Perfect form of Subjunctive II.

Were I free, I would join you.

Had I been at home last night, I would have heard the noise.

8) adverbial clauses of concession after the conjunctions even if, even though
Even if I knew the truth, I wouldn’t tell it to you.

Comment on the use of Subjunctive II

Model:

1. If only he had been up there yesterday. – The verb to be is used in the Perfect
form of Subjunctive II to denote a state in the past in a simple sentence
expressing wish / regret.
2. I wish you had told me the whole story properly. – The verb to tell is used in
the Perfect form of Subjunctive II to denote some regret about an action prior
to that in the principal clause in the object clause after the verb to wish.
3. I wished he were more attentive. - The verb to be is used in the Indefinite form
of Subjunctive II to denote a state simultaneous with that in the principal clause
in the object clause after the verb to wish.
4. She sounded as if she were threatening him. – The verb to threaten is used in
the Continuous form of Subjunctive II to denote an action in progress
simultaneous with that in the predicative clause after the link verb to sound.
5. If you worked like me, you would be strong. – The verb to work is used in the
Indefinite form of Subjunctive II to denote unreal condition at present in the
conditional clause.
40
6. Had you had his experience, you would have known what to do. – The verb to
have is used in the Perfect form of Subjunctive II to denote emphatic unreal
condition in the past in the conditional clause with the inverted word order.
A.1. I wish I had never brought you into the house. 2. It wouldn’t have happened if
Matt hadn’t come here. 3. Peter looked at her severely, as though she had
deliberately deceived him. 4. He wished suddenly he had never taken this voyage.
5. If only he were beside her now. 6. I would rather you started at once. 7. I wish
you hadn’t been waiting for so long. 8. It was almost as though she did not realize
the truth. 9. She looked at me as though she did not realize the truth. 10. Even if
you knew the details, you still wouldn’t understand the main idea. 11. It’s high
time you started working. 12. Had he known it, he would have been here long ago.
13. He looks as if he had been working for too long. 14. He acted as if it were the
end of the world. 15. He wished she were more helpful.

B.1. He wished he listened to his friend’s advice more often. 2. You must act as
though you didn’t have a care in the world. 3. The boy went away, and had I been
free, I might have walked to the lake with him. 4. I’d rather he didn’t waste so
much time on computer games. 5. It’s time I were going now. 6. He stared at her as
if he didn’t understand her. 7. The floor seemed as if it were giving way under
Alice. 8. I wished we had thought of it before. 9. I think if I had ever lived in such
a beautiful place, I would never have the courage to leave it! 10. Had you seen the
film, you would have enjoyed it immensely. 11. Suppose you had this opportunity,
would you do? 12. He wished they were travelling together. 13. If he had been
rich, he would have afforded that place. 14. If it hadn’t been for my friend, I would
have been sacked long ago. 15. I’d rather you repaid the money.

THE SUPPOSITIONAL MOOD / SUBJUNCTIVE I

The Suppositional Mood and Subjunctive I represent an action as


problematic, but not contradicting reality, as desirable or undesirable, suggested,
advised, etc. They are used to express necessity, suggestion, advice, supposition,
etc. The Suppositional Mood and Subjunctive I are close in their meaning, but the
Suppositional Mood is peculiar for British English and Subjunctive I is mostly
used in the language of official documents, high prose and the American variant of
English.

The forms of these moods are different. The Suppositional Mood is formed
with the help of the auxiliary verb should for all the persons (singular and plural)
and the necessary form of the infinitive depending on the kind of action expressed
in the sentence:
41
should do - the Indefinite form of the Suppositional Mood
(used to denote a general, permanent, recurrent action; a
present time action / state; an action / state simultaneous with
that in the principal clause; an action / state posterior to that in
the principal clause);

should be doing - the Continuous form of the Suppositional Mood


(used to denote an action in progress / going on at the moment
of speaking / going on at the current period of time);

should have done - the Perfect form of the Suppositional Mood (used
to denote an action referring to the past / prior to that in the
principal clause / a state of some duration which began before
the moment of speaking and continued / continues up to it or
into it);

should have been doing - the Perfect Continuous form of the Suppositional
Mood (used to express an action of some duration which
began before the moment of speaking and continued /
continues up to it or into it).

Subjunctive I has only one form which coincides with that of the Bare
Infinitive. It is used with reference to any person and any kind of action.

Both the Suppositional Mood and Subjunctive I are used in

1) object clauses after verbs denoting suggestion, demand, recommendation


and order (to suggest, to order, to request, to advise, to propose, to insist, to
demand, to recommend, etc.).
He suggested that we (should) take part in the sightseeing tour.

I recommend that the work (should) be done as soon as possible.

2) predicative clauses after nouns denoting suggestion, demand,


recommendation and order (suggestion, order, request, advice, command,
desire, demand, recommendation, wish, aim, idea, etc.) and a link verb.
His suggestion is that we (should) take part in the sightseeing tour.

My recommendation is that the work (should) be done as soon as possible.

3) attributive (appositive) clauses modifying nouns denoting suggestion,


demand, recommendation and order (suggestion, order, request, advice,
command, desire, demand, recommendation, etc.).

42
His suggestion that we (should) take part in the sightseeing tour is worth
listening to.

My recommendation that the work (should) be done as soon as possible is


important.

4) subject clauses after the introductory (anticipatory) it, a link verb and an
adjective expressing an emotional attitude of the speaker, subjective
appraisal, estimation of the action or situation described in the subordinate
clause (necessary, impossible, strange, imperative, annoying, vital,
important, urgent, etc.).
It was strange that she should be thinking about a clock at this moment.

It is really remarkable that he say that.

5) object clauses after the formal object it and an adjective expressing


subjective appraisal, estimation of the action or situation described in the
subordinate clause (necessary, impossible, strange, imperative, annoying,
vital, important, urgent, etc.).
This made it imperative that I (should) proceed with the project.

6) attributive clauses after the introductory (anticipatory) it, a link verb and
a noun expressing an emotional attitude of the speaker (pity, shame,
wonder, etc.).
It’s quite a pity she should have said it.

It’s a shame he (should) be so dull.

7) object clauses after the verbs and expressions of fear (to fear, to worry, to
tremble, to dread, to be afraid, to be anxious, etc.) and the conjunctions lest
(как бы ни), that, in case.
He feared lest they (should) be late.

He was afraid lest they (should) be late.

8) attributive (appositive) clauses modifying nouns of fear and the


conjunctions lest (как бы ни), that.
John continued for fear that he (should) be interrupted.

9) adverbial clauses of purpose after the conjunctions lest, in case, in order


that, so that.
Put down my address lest you (should) forget it.

10) adverbial clauses of concession after the conjunctions though, although,


whoever, wherever, etc.
Wherever he (should) be, we will be able to find him.
43
There are some cases in which only the Suppositional Mood or Subjunctive
I is used. Thus, the Suppositional Mood is used in:

1) simple sentences after the expression and what if…?


And what if she should come first?

2) conditional clauses to give some extra emphasis to condition. In Russian we


have «вдруг», «а вдруг если», «а что если».
Should he come this way, I will speak to him.

NB Adverbial clauses of condition containing the Suppositional Mood are


introduced without any conjunction, the inverted word order is often used as a
means of emphasis on condition.

Subjunctive I is used in simple sentences with an optative meaning


which are usually exclamatory.

Success attend you! Пусть сопутствует вам удача!


God save the Queen! Боже, храни королеву!
Heaven help us! Да поможет нам бог!
(God) bless you! Благослови вас Господь!
Be it so! Да будет так.
Suffice it to say that … Достаточно сказать, что…
Far be it from me… Я далек от того, чтобы…
Manners be hanged! К черту хорошие манеры.
Confound it! К черту! Будь оно проклято!
God forbid! Боже упаси! Сохрани бог!
Damn it! Черт возьми! Черт побери!
Curse this fog! Чертов туман!
Comment on the use of the Suppositional Mood and Subjunctive I
Model:
1. It was splendid that Gracie should have settled work. – The verb to settle is
used in the Perfect form of the Suppositional Mood to denote an action prior to
the state in the principal clause in a subject clause after the anticipatory it and
the emotional adjective splendid.

2. He said good night, in a low tone and quickly, lest he say something worse. –
The verb to say is used in the Subjunctive I form in the subordinate clause of
purpose after the conjunction lest.

3. She insisted that Ann should learn to keep her room tidy. – The verb to learn is
used in the Indefinite form of the Suppositional Mood to denote an action
posterior to that in the principal clause in the object clause after the verb to
insist.
44
A. 1. One day he suggested that they should go back to live in Florence. 2. It
seemed such a natural thing that you marry. 3. It was for fear that he should ever
become like Sam. 4. I don’t think the passports are even necessary, but in case
some fool should ask to see them I have arranged the photographs. 5. I suggest you
should start learning quickly and stop chattering at breakfast. 6. She dared not say
a word lest they should hear tears in her voice. 7. The doors must be closed so that
no one should be admitted. 8. Scarlette came down the dark stairs slowly, like an
old woman, feeling her way, clinging to the banisters lest she fall. 9. Should you be
stopped on the way, I can provide you with two separate passes. 10. She put her
finger to her lips fearing lest someone should hear us. 11. She sent me after you for
fear you should lose the way. 12. Nick suggested that they should show the town to
her. 13. The suggestion that she settle the problem herself was disapproved of. 14.
It was desirable that the question be settled at once. 15. It’s so important that they
should know the right things from the beginning.
B.1. He suggested that we send the child to the country. 2. It was not strange that
he should so heartlessly have betrayed his friends’ confidence. 3. For a moment or
two he was afraid lest he lose her. 4. When I looked at his impassive face I began
fearing lest he should have fallen ill. 5. He saw he must stop them, so that they not
come to an untimely end. 6. His advice that she should be more attentive was never
followed. 7. Should I lose my way, I will call you. 8. It was a shame that such a
fine little woman be alone and helpless. 9. I consider it necessary that you should
start at once. 10. It’s rather strange that the information he has asked for should
have reached him three days later. 11. It’s absolutely necessary that you should be
listening now. 12. I put on flat heels and a short-sleeved sweater, in case the place
should be very hot. 13. She did not demand that I should remain with her. 14. They
were terrified lest someone should discover their secret. 15. Jack insisted that she
be present.

MODAL VERBS

Modal verbs is a special group of verbs which indicate modality, i.e. the
speaker’s subjective attitude to the action or state expressed by the infinitive that
follows the modal verb. The infinitive action is considered as possible, impossible,
probable, obligatory, necessary, advisable, doubtful, uncertain, etc.

Modal verbs have some peculiar features which make them special:

1) they are followed by the Bare Infinitive (without the particle to) (except
have to, be to, ought to);
2) they build up negative and interrogative forms without the auxiliary
verb do (except have to).
45
CAN

The modal verb CAN has different meanings:

1) ability (skills, talent, expertise, etc.), capability (practical ability). The verb is
used in all kinds of sentences (affirmative, interrogative, negative) and is
followed by the Indefinite Infinitive.
He can dance well.

I can’t understand you.

In this meaning two forms of the modal verb are used:

a) can with reference to the present or future moment


Our baby can’t walk yet.

b) could
- with reference to the past
When a boy I could climb any tree.

- to express unreal ability, capability


You could speak more clearly.

NB It is possible to distinguish between these forms. Thus, for the past


could there is usually a past-time context in the sentence (Could the girl
read before she went to school?), whereas for unreal ability (capability)
the sentence is either simple (You could be more practical.) or the modal
could is used in a complex sentence of unreal condition (If you tried
harder, you could articulate these words better.).

NB To express unreal ability or capability which was not realized in the


past the modal verb is followed by the Perfect Infinitive (If you had
tried harder yesterday, you could have done the task better).

The modal can is substituted by the expression to be able to and the verbs to
manage and to succeed (more formal) to denote a specific achievement, a
particular action, i.e. an action in a particular situation, or an action
performed with an effort.

Compare: The girl could win a spelling bee. – a general ability

The girl was able to win a spelling bee. – it was achieved

But the equivalents are not used with verbs of sense perception and
mental activity, so you say

46
I was too far away and couldn’t see the scene.

2) possibility

a) due to circumstances (circumstantial possibility). The verb is used in all


kinds of sentences (affirmative, interrogative, negative) and is followed by the
Indefinite Infinitive.

I can come at 5.

I can’t use the car, because my parents haven’t allowed me to.

Like in the meaning of ability, capability two forms of the modal verb are
used:

c) can with reference to the present or future moment


He can get the book at the library tomorrow.

d) could
- with reference to the past
We couldn’t ski on the hills because there wasn’t enough snow.

- to express unreal possibility


He could be in the library.

NB The differentiation between these two forms is the same as for the
meaning of ability, capability (see the information above). Compare:

We could leave because it was not raining.

He could invite you to the party, if he wanted.

NB To express unreal circumstantial possibility the modal verb could is


followed by any form of the infinitive depending on the kind of action:

If he had enough time, he could be finishing the work now.

If he had had enough time yesterday, he could have finished the


work.

If you had brought the book earlier, I could have been working for
more than an hour already.

The modal can in the meaning of circumstantial possibility is also substituted


by the expression to be able to and the verbs to manage and to succeed

47
(more formal) to denote a specific achievement, a particular action, i.e. an
action in a particular situation, or an action performed with an effort.

Compare: He could settle the difficulty. – a general possibility which was not
realized

He was able to settle the difficulty. – it was achieved, realized

b) due to the existing laws and rules.

You can park your car here.

You could park your car here last year.

The forms can and could are used in present-time and past-time contexts
correspondingly and are followed by the Indefinite Infinitive only.

3) request. This meaning is found in interrogative sentences, the Indefinite


Infinitive is used after the modal verb:

Can I take these books?

For a polite request the form could is used:

Could I take these books?

4) permission in affirmative sentences, the Indefinite Infinitive is used after the


modal verb.

You can use my car, because I don’t need it today.

5) prohibition in negative sentences, the Indefinite Infinitive is used after the


modal verb.

a) due to circumstances

You can’t use my car today, because I need it.

b) due to the existing rules and laws

You can’t park your car here. Do you see the sign?

6) surprise, astonishment which are expressed in different types of sentences:


interrogative and negative. Various kinds of actions we express surprise about
are described with the help of different forms of the Infinitive. So, the
Indefinite Infinitive is used to express a present-time action or an action
simultaneous with the action mentioned in the sentence (situation).
48
Can he be late? He is so punctual. (Неужели …?)

He can’t be late. He is so punctual.

Why can he be late? He is so punctual.

The Continuous Infinitive is used to denote an action in progress, going on at


the moment of speaking.

Can they still be discussing the project?

They can’t still be discussing the project.

What can they still be discussing?

The Perfect Infinitive is used to express an accomplished action, a state in the


past or an action prior to another action / actions mentioned in the sentence.

Can he have come late? He is so punctual.

He can’t have come late. He is so punctual.

Why can he have come so late? He is so punctual.

The Perfect Continuous Infinitive is used to express an action of some


duration which began before the moment of speaking and continues / continued
up to it or into it.

Can he have been doing it for so long?

He can’t have been doing it for so long.

Why can he have been doing it for so long?

Thus, we find

a) uncertainty, doubt in interrogative sentences (general questions). In


Russian we express the same meaning using Неужели…? Неужели это
правда, что…? Разве….?

Can he really be ill?

Can he still be working?

Can he have left?

Can she have been waiting for us all this time?

49
As uncertainty is usually expressed at the moment of speaking, the form can is
used.

Can it be true?

The form could is used in past-time contexts (He wondered if it could be


true.) and to express more uncertainty or doubt (Could it be true?).

b) incredulity, improbability in negative sentences. In Russian we express it


with Не может быть, чтобы… Невероятно, чтобы… Вряд ли…

He can’t be your brother.

He can’t still be working.

He can’t have deceived you.

He can’t have been waiting all this time.

The forms can and could are used with different time reference: can for present-
time situations, could for past-time situations. In addition could is also used to
make the statement less categorical.

She couldn’t have told a lie.

NB As the sentences in this meaning are already negative to express another


negation some special means are used:

- the verb to fail


He can’t have failed to come. – Не может быть, чтобы он не
пришел.

- opposites of verbs formed with negative prefixes

He can’t have misunderstood you.

c) emotional colouring in special questions. In Russian we express it with И


что это…? И где это…? И почему это…?, etc.

Where can he be?


Where can he be hiding?
When can he have done it?
Where can he have been waiting all this time?
The difference between the forms can and could is the same as in the meaning
of uncertainty, doubt.

50
He didn’t know why she could have stayed at home.

7) supposition implying uncertainty, doubt. This meaning is found in affirmative


and negative sentences and corresponds to Russian возможно, может
быть. The form could is used and is followed by any Infinitive depending
on the action:

I wonder where Tim is. – He could be in the library now.

I wonder why Bill isn’t here. – He could still be waiting for a bus.

I wonder how Tim knew about it. – He could have heard it from Ann.

There are some set expressions with the modal can:

- cannot (can’t) help doing smth. – не могу не делать что-л.


I can’t help liking her.

- cannot (can’t) but do smth. – ничего (другого) не остается, как…


They couldn’t but refuse him.

- can’t possibly do smth. – просто не могу…


I can’t possibly do it.

Comment on the meaning of the modal can:

Model:

1. You can’t go out. It’s raining. – The modal verb can is used in the meaning of
prohibition due to the circumstances.
2. He can’t have left you alone. – The modal can is used in the meaning of
incredulity, improbability and is followed by the Perfect Infinitive denoting an
accomplished action.
3. He was able to pass the exam successfully. – The modal expression to be able
is used to denote a specific individual achievement in the past.
4. He didn’t know if she could dance. – The modal verb can is used in the
meaning of ability, capability. The form could is used to describe the situation
in the past.
5. I’m not sure. The plane could be delayed by fog. – The modal can is used in
the meaning of supposition implying uncertainty, doubt and is followed by the
Indefinite Infinitive to express an action at present.
A.1. If you think you cannot do it, say so now. 2. You can’t be serious! 3. I can’t
stand it any more, Emmy. 4. Who can he be? 5. I was unable to bear heat in the
51
town. 6. I don’t know, he could be at home now. 7. He could have had a yacht
himself, but nobody would have sailed with him. 8. I could not tell this family the
truth. 9. I can’t make out what you mean. 10. We were able to hire a taxi without
more ado. 11. How can you have been so disagreeable? 12. Could you spare me a
moment? 13. Could the ring have cost so much money? 14. I could have helped
you, but I didn’t know you needed help. 15. You can’t make a noise in the library.

B.1. He could speak Greek when he was 12 years old. 2. What can have
happened? 3. Nick was ill and unable to study for a month. 4. I can hear the noise
all over the place. 5. You can go, if you want to, of course, but could you leave the
boy here? 6. He was able to make good progress in English because he worked
hard. 7. What can Nick have been doing here all this time? 8. Could you speak to
the Dean? 9. There can’t be anything of the sort! 10. Can there have been any
misunderstanding between us? 11. I could have finished the work yesterday. 12.
One can’t enter this room. Personnel only! 13. He couldn’t possibly afford a car,
his salary was too low. 14. He can’t have failed to meet her at the station. 15. He
didn’t explain why he had left. He could have told us.

MAY

The modal may is used in the following meanings:

1) request in interrogative sentences. It sounds formal and very polite.


May I use your phone?

The form might is used to express greater uncertainty about the answer, in even
more formal situations which are rare and in past-time situations, usually in
reported speech:

He wanted to know if he might use the phone.

NB Can is also possible but in informal situations.

2) permission in affirmative sentences.


May I use you phone? – Yes, you may.

NB The reply – Do, please sounds less strict and categorical.

3) prohibition in negative sentences. It is formal and the speaker’s will is


emphasized.
You may not take my things.

NB In the situation – May I use your phone? – Don’t, please. the reply is less
strict and is rather asking not to do smth. than prohibiting it.
52
4) possibility due to circumstances (circumstantial possibility) in affirmative
sentences only.
You may find the necessary information here.

The form might is used in past-time situations:

They said he might order a taxi by phone.

NB To express unreal circumstantial possibility the modal verb might is


followed by any form of the infinitive depending on the kind of action:

If he had enough time, he might be finishing the work now.

If he had had enough time yesterday, he might have finished the work.

If you had brought the book earlier, I might have been working for more
than an hour already.

Sentences corresponding to Russian чуть не… also belong to the meaning of


unreal circumstantial possibility.

He might have broken the window. – Он чуть не разбил окно.

5) reproach. The form might is always used and is followed by any Infinitive
depending on the kind of action. The Infinitive denotes a desirable action
which is not carried out by the subject usually expressed by you.
You might be more attentive to your friends.

You might be doing your homework now.

You might have come earlier.

You might have been doing it for an hour now.

6) supposition implying uncertainty, doubt. This meaning is found in


affirmative and negative sentences and corresponds to Russian возможно,
может быть. The forms may (for present-time situations) and might (used in
more hesitant and in past-time situations) are followed by any Infinitive
depending on the action:
He may know the answer. (a 50% chance)

He might know the answer. (a 30% chance)

She might be working now.

She may have finished the planned work.

She may have been working for several hours on end.


53
7) wish, hope in imperative sentences.
May success attend you!

May all your dreams come true!

There are some set expressions with the modal may:

- I may as well – Я, пожалуй, … - a mild way to express an intention


I may as well wait a little.

- If I may say so… – Если можно так сказать…


If I may say so, I think you have treated him very badly.

- Strange as it may seem… - Как бы странно не казалось…


Strange as it may seem, I always felt I belonged here.

Comment on the meaning of the modal may:

Model:

1. Might I stay up till the end of the programme? – The modal may is used in the
meaning of a polite request. The form might indicates greater uncertainty about
the answer.
2. He may be waiting for us at the station when we arrive. – The modal verb may
is used in the meaning of supposition implying uncertainty, doubt and is
followed by the Continuous Infinitive which denotes an action in progress at
the definite moment in the future indicated by the verb to arrive.
3. You may find some interesting books in his library. – The modal verb may is
used in the meaning of circumstantial possibility.
4. You might have explained your behavior. – The modal may is used in the
meaning of reproach and is followed by the Perfect Infinitive to denote an
action which was not completed.
A.1. Children may borrow books from the library. 2. What you tell me may be true,
but it happened many years ago. 3. He may have felt ill. 4. May I have some more
cheese? 5. They knew that at any moment he might be attacked by one of the gang.
6. There may be things that you know which I don’t. 7. Look everywhere. She may
have left a message. 8. You might be more careful. 9. You may not stay here any
longer. 10. She might have been working abroad all this time. 11. You might have
helped the old man. 12. He may not know the address. 13. If he wanted, he might
earn the world of money. 14. He thought he might come later. 15. I may as well
give you a lift.

54
B.1. That’s all right, Robert. You may go. 2. I thought we might go to the hills. 3.
Sorry, sir, you may not smoke here. 4. You might leave me in peace. 5. He might
be coming. 6. You might have called me as soon as you arrived. 7. May you live
long. 8. Ann might have stuck in a traffic jam. 9. It may have stopped raining by
tonight. 10. She said she might be late. 11. Be careful. You might have broken my
favourite cup. 12. I might as well wait for some more. 13. I might have done
betterat the exam. 14. You may use my car. 15. You might be listening to me now.

MUST

The modal must is used in the following meanings:

1) obligation, duty from the speaker’s point of view or with no freedom of


choice. The modal must is used in affirmative, negative and interrogative
sentences and is followed by the Indefinite Infinitive only.
You must cut down on your smoking.

Must I do it now? – Yes, you must.

NB If in replies no obligation is meant, the modal need is used.

Must I do it now? – No, you needn’t.

2) orders, instructions (usually written)


Passengers must cross the line by the footbridge.

3) strict prohibition in negative sentences. The modal is used only with the
Indefinite Infinitive.
You mustn’t tell anyone what I said. (нельзя…)

The child mustn’t go home alone.

4) emphatic advice, request or invitation in affirmative and negative sentences.


The Indefinite Infinitive is used after the modal only. In Russian this meaning
corresponds to непременно должен (следует), обязательно должен
(следует).
You must try this cake. It’s so good.

You must come and see us one day.

5) supposition implying (bordering on) assurance in affirmative and negative


sentences. The modal is followed by any Infinitive depending on the action
expressed. The Russian equivalents are должно быть, скорей всего,
наверняка, наверное, вероятно, по всей вероятности, по-видимому.
He must read a lot. He is knowledgeable.

55
She must be reading now. Don’t disturb her.

She must have read the book. She knows its plot.

She must have been reading for several hours already.

NB In this meaning the action reference to the future is expressed with the
help of two means:

- the expressions to be likely / unlikely / sure / bound


He is likely to arrive tomorrow.

- probably / surely / obviously / evidently, etc. + the Future Indefinite


He will probably arrive tomorrow.

NB In this meaning negation is expressed not with the help of the form
mustn’t (belonging to the meaning of prohibition), but with the following
means:

- the verb to fail


He must have failed to do the work.

- opposites of verbs / adjectives formed with the help of negative


prefixes
She must have misunderstood you.
She must be unaware of it.
- negative adverbs, pronouns
He must never have experienced it before.

6) sarcastic use in interrogative sentences. The modal is followed by any kind of


the Infinitive.
Why must you always be finding fault with Sally?

There are some set expressions with the modal must:

- I must be off. / I must be going. – Мне пора идти.


- I must say that … / I must tell you that… - Я должен сказать, что
- must needs do smth. – necessity, obligation (the use is rare)
We must needs go now. = Он непременно должен пойти сейчас.

Comment on the meaning of the modal must:

Model:

1. You must come to your classes in time. – The modal must is used in the
meaning of obligation with no freedom of choice.

56
2. You mustn’t be late for your classes. – The modal must is used in the meaning
of prohibition.
3. The boy must be sleeping now. – The modal must is used in the meaning of
supposition implying assurance and is followed by the Continuous Infinitive
denoting an action going on at the moment of speaking.
4. She is very likely to come. – The expression to be likely is used in the meaning
of supposition implying assurance to denote a future action.
A.1. I must help my mother about the house. 2. Something must have happened to
her. 3. You must use a dictionary. I’m tired of correcting your spelling mistakes. 4.
There must be something wrong with it. 5. You must be imagining it. 6. He must
have gone back to town last night. 7. What can’t be cured, must be endured. 8. You
must take more exercise. Join a tennis club. 9. You mustn’t leave your car
unlocked. This place is full of thieves. 10. You must see this film. 11. Why must
you always be speaking so loud? 12. I must be getting sentimental. 13. It is
unlikely to rain tomorrow. 14. We must not jump at conclusions. 15. He is playing
so well. He must have been practicing a lot.

B.1. You mustn’t go out, Alec. It’s too cold. 2. She must be working too hard. 3.
Visitors must not feed the animals. 4. The boy must be twenty now. 5. A trailer
must have two rear lamps. 6. This man must be mad. 7. You must wear a dress
tonight. You can’t go to the opera in those dreadful jeans. 8. You must be starving.
9. Staff must be at their desks by 9.00. 10. You must buy the dress. It becomes you.
11. Why must you always be talking on the phone? 12. It’s impossible. I must be
going mad. 13. He is sure to come soon. 14. You must tell me all about yourself.
15. He has passed the exam successfully. He must have been working hard this
term.

HAVE TO

The modal have to is used in the following meanings:

1) obligation, necessity due to external circumstances (imposed by


circumstances) in affirmative and interrogative sentences and is combined
with the Indefinite Infinitive only. The modal is used in any necessary tense
and requires an auxiliary verb to form negation and a question.
Do you have to go now?

I have been having to study mathematics for several years now.

NB In colloquial English and especially in American English have got to and


got to are used. No auxiliary is used.
57
We’ve got to watch things now.

Have you got to all this work now?

You still got to do the work.

Got to go?

2) absence of necessity in negative sentences.


I didn’t have to walk, I took a tram.

He hasn’t got to go there.

3) supposition implying assurance. This usage of the modal have to is similar to


that of the modal verb must, peculiar for American English, but is now also
heard in Britain. Unlike the modal verb must have to takes only the Indefinite
Infinitive.
There’s a tall grey bird fishing in the river. – It has to / must be a heron.

I wonder who took the money. – It had to be Jim. / It must have been Jim.

4) sarcastic use (similar to that with must) in questions.


Do you have to make that noise while eating?

The modal verb have to is used in the following set phrase:

You have (got) to be kidding. – Должно быть, ты шутишь.

NB Have got to has the same basic meaning as to have to. To have to denotes a
habitual action and to have got to denotes a particular one:

Do you have to get up early every morning? Have you got to get up early
tomorrow morning?

NEED

The modal need is used in the following meanings:

1) personal necessity in mainly interrogative sentences. It is followed by the


Indefinite Infinitive.
Need I come in tomorrow?

Need she go there?

2) absence of necessity in negative sentences. In reported speech it remains


unchanged.
She needn’t come with us if she doesn’t want to.

58
The teacher said that we needn’t come.

NB Need followed by the Perfect Infinitive indicates that the action expressed
by the Infinitive was performed but it was not necessary. The combination
implies a waste of time or effort and is translated зря, незачем, не к чему
было, не надо было.

He needn’t have left home at 6.00; the train doesn’t start till 7.30.

You needn’t have written such a long essay. The teacher only asked for 300
words, and you have written 600.

Comment on the meaning of the modal verbs

have to:

Model:

1. I have to get up at 6 every day. – The modal verb have to is used in the
meaning of obligation, necessity due to circumstances.
2. There was a knock on the door. It had to be Jim. – The modal verb have to is
used in the meaning of supposition implying assurance.
need:

Model:

1. Need I wear a coat? – The modal verb need is used in the meaning of personal
necessity.
2. He needn’t have bought such a large house. His wife would have been quite
happy in a cottage. – The modal verb need is used in the meaning of absence
of necessity and is followed by the Perfect Infinitive indicating an action that
was performed but was not necessary, a waste of money.
A.1. I have to go shopping every day. 2. We have to cook our own meals. 3. I had
to help my sister with her English. 4. Sooner or later we have all to pay for what
we do. 5. It has to be dad. He called some minutes ago. 6. She doesn’t have to
wear glasses now. 7. You’ve got to be tired now after a long run. 8. Why do you
have to speak so loud? 9. Need I tell Tom? 10. You needn’t pay till the 31st. 11. I’m
retiring. After Friday I need never go to the office again. 12. You needn’t have
brought your umbrella for we are going by car. 13. She needn’t have stood in a
queue. 14. You needn’t write me another cheque. Just change the date. 15. You
needn’t call me Mr. Jones. We all use first names here.

59
B.1. He has to go to the dentist. 2. She had to change trains in Moscow. 3. I had to
get rid of that habit. 4. Then the day came when I had to go back to school. 5.
You’ve got to be cold and hungry after your travels. 6. Did you have to study
literature when you were at school? 7. Your briefcase has to be in the living room.
You often leave it there. 8. I will have to go there immediately. 9. Why do you
have to tie up the phone for hours? 10. I need hardly say how pleased we are to
welcome Mr. Peters. 11. You needn’t do it by hand. I’ll lend you my machine. 12.
You needn’t have carried all these parcels yourself. The shop would have
delivered them if you had asked. 13. You needn’t have walked up, you could have
taken the lift. 14. I’m in no hurry. He needn’t send it by air. He can send it by sea.
15. You needn’t type your essays but you must write legibly.

BE TO

The modal be to is used in the following meanings:

1) obligation arising out of a plan, arrangement, agreement in affirmative and


interrogative sentences. The modal verb is used in the present and past tenses
and is followed by the Indefinite Infinitive.
We are to meet at 5.

Is he to arrive tomorrow?

NB When used with the Perfect Infinitive the modal verb be to denotes a
planned action which was not fulfilled.

He was to have made a speech at the meeting but he fell ill.

I was to have started work last week, but I changed my mind.

2) a strict order, instruction in affirmative and negative sentences.

No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police.

He is to stay here till we return.

This is a rather impersonal way of giving instructions is chiefly used with the 3 rd
person. When used with you it often implies that the speaker is passing on
instructions issued by someone else.

You are to stay here, Tom. (the speaker merely conveys to Tom the wishes
of another person)

3) possibility in all kinds of sentences. The modal is followed by the Passive


Infinitive and is equal to can and may.
60
This book is to be found in our library.

He was not to be seen anywhere.

4) something destined to happen (something thought of as unavoidable) in any


kind of sentences in combination with the Indefinite Infinitive. The Russian
equivalents are суждено, предстоит.

He was never to see his family again.

What is to happen to us?

5) desire, wish in if-clauses in conditional sentences. In this case the modal has the
same meaning as the verb to want.

If we are to remain friends you must tell me everything. (= If we want to


remain friends…)

There are some set expressions with the modal be to:

- What am I to do? – Что мне делать?


- What is to become of me? – Что со мной будет?
- Where am I to go? – Куда же мне идти?
- Who is to begin? – Кому начинать?
- Who is to blame? – Кто виноват?
- When am I to be there? – Во сколько мне приходить?
- What’s to be done? – Что делать?
- It’s to be hoped. – Надо надеяться.
Comment on the meaning of the modal verb be to:

Model:

1. We are to meet in the afternoon. – The modal verb be to is used in the meaning
of obligation arising out of a plan, arrangement.
2. She was to be seen at every race-meeting. – The modal verb be to is used in the
meaning of possibility.
3. He told me I was to go back to London. – The modal be to is used in the
meaning of a strict order, instruction.
4. He was to have arrived by the 5-o’clock train, but he must have missed. – The
modal be to is used in the meaning of obligation arising out of a plan,
arrangement and is followed by the Perfect Infinitive which indicates that the
plan was not fulfilled.

61
A.1. The plane is to land at 4.10. 2. The museum is to open in two days. 3. He is to
show the guests around. 4. She was to have got some extra money for her work,
but she didn’t. 5. How many times am I to go over all this? 6. Come in. You are to
report at once. 7. You are not to tell mother about it. 8. Some ancient monuments
are to be seen here. 9. Do you know what your career is to be? 10. If we are to be
neighbours for life, we should be on friendly terms. 11. He was often to be seen in
the street alone. 12. All junior officers are to report to the colonel at once. 13.
Gather the wits, the best is yet to come. 13. Where am I to turn next? 14 We are to
have a busy day. 15. I thought we were to have some ice-cream for dessert.

B.1. They are to hold a meeting in the hall. 2. They are to have their exam on
Monday. 3. The meeting is to last at least 2 hours. 4. The ship was to have arrived
in the port last night, but it didn’t. 5. You are not to enter this room. 6. If you are
to go sightseeing, you should prepare everything in advance. 7. Nothing was to be
done under the circumstances. 8. I wanted you to follow me in my business. But it
wasn’t to be. 9. Jack was nowhere to be seen. 10. John needs to improve his
technique if he is to win gold at the next Olympics. 11. Mr. Bill Haynes, who was
to have made such a blighting speech at the mass meeting, didn’t come. 12. These
things are to be accepted. 13. I am to stay here for a week or two. 14. My bike is
under repair and I am to collect it this afternoon. 15. The family are to leave for the
South in June.

SHOULD (OUGHT TO)

The modal should (ought to) is used in the following meanings:

1) obligation, duty, weakened to the sense of advice or desirability, which


may not be fulfilled. They are used in all types of sentences.
You ought to help your friend. He is in trouble.
You should be more careful.
NB: Ought to and should are very close in this meaning and are often
interchangeable. Ought to tends to express moral obligation, should is more
common in instructions and corrections.
You ought to look after your children better.
You should take this medicine three times a day.

2) criticism, reproach
The Continuous Infinitive expresses the idea that the subject is not fulfilling his
obligations.
He shouldn’t/oughtn`t to be playing computer games for hours.

62
The Perfect Infinitive in:

a) an affirmative sentence indicates an unfulfilled or neglected action in the past:


He looks very ill. He should/ought to have stayed at home.
b) a negative sentence means that an undesirable action was carried out:
You shouldn’t have eaten so any sweets.
3) supposition implying probability. The Indefinite Infinitive refers the
action to the present or future, while the Perfect Infinitive refers the action to the
past.
You should/ought to be hungry by now. (In this sense ought to (should) is a
weaker equivalent of must when the latter denotes near certainty.)

4) for emotional colouring. Only should is used in this meaning.


 in object clauses beginning with why:
I don`t know why he shouldn`t do his homework.

 in rhetorical questions beginning with why:


Why should I do that?

 attributive clauses beginning with why after the noun ‘reason’:


I see no reason why they shouldn`t understand it.

 in some set expressions:


Why should I? (С какой стати?)
How should I now?
That it should come to this! (И до чего дошло дело!)
To think that it should come to this! (Только подумать, до чего дело дошло!)
To think that it should have happened to me! (Только подумать, что это
произошло со мной!)

Comment on the meaning of the modal should/ought to:

Model:

1. You should read this book. It`s very interesting. – The modal verb should is
used in the meaning of obligation weakened to the sense of advice.
2. This dish ought to be delicious as it has been cooked by the Chef. – The modal
verb ought to is used to express supposition implying probability.

63
3. You should have helped her in this difficult situation. – The modal verb should
is used to express reproach. The Perfect Infinitive indicates that the action
wasn`t carried out.
4. Why should you be surprised? – The modal verb should is used in the special
question for emotional colouring.
A. 1.You are a big boy and you ought to look after your little brother when
your mother is out. 2. There is no reason why he shouldn't win two or three
matches. 3. I think you ought to write the answer at once. 3. They ought to
have done all the exercises to this lesson already. 4. You should have finished
all the arrangements for your trip. 5. They ought to be speaking more clearly.
6. Mary ought not to have packed her son’s toys. He ought to do it himself. 7.
You ought to have known that he usually leaves for his office at 8. 8. It is
already 10 o’clock, you should go to bed. 9. They should have come long ago.
I don’t know what has happened to them. 10. You can’t change anything; so
you ought to put up with it. 11. Why should he think that? 12. He didn't know
why he should have expected them to look different. 13. The plane should be
landing now. 14. The preposition should be pronounced with a neutral tone.
15. They shouldn’t have concealed it from us.

B. 1.The responsibility is entirely mine. I acted very wrongly indeed. I


ought not to have let this relationship start. 2. "When is he going back?"
"How should I know?" 3. I think I ought to put all my cards on the table.
4. You should have gone to the concert. Why should you miss the music?
5. George did not see why he should not discuss the matter with his
chief. 6. "Are you sure you ought to be doing that?"7. He should be back at
any moment".8. He ought to be studying for the exams. 9. You shouldn’t say
things like that.10. I don’t see any reason why we shouldn’t be happy. 11. You
ought to have changed for the Underground. This street is far away from here.
12. You shouldn`t have allowed him to go out so early after the illness. 13. You
oughtn`t to be watching cartoons for hours. 14. That it should come to this! 15.
I don`t see any reason why she shouldn`t be more attentive.
WILL (WOULD)

The modal verb WILL has two forms: WILL for present tense, WOULD for past
tense. WOULD is used either in past-time context or in present-time contexts to
express unreality or as a milder and more polite form of WILL.

The modal will (would) is used in the following meanings:

1) willingness, intention, determination. It is used in affirmative and negative


sentences.
I will write as soon as I can.
64
We decided that we wouldn’t interfere.

This meaning is often found in conditional sentences.

If you will (would) help me we can finish by six. (WOULD is used to sound
more polite)

2) A polite request or an offer. In this meaning it is used in interrogative


sentences.
Will you pass the salt, please?
Will you have some tea?
WOULD shows a greater degree of politeness.
Would you please pass the salt?
3) A command. (only form WILL) It is used in affirmative and interrogative
sentences.
You will do exactly as I say.
Don’t be late, will you?
Sit down, will you?
4) Insistence, resistance. In this meaning it is used in affirmative and negative
sentences.
Don’t call him. – But I will call. (все равно позвоню)
The door won’t (wouldn’t) open.
5) Inevitability, characteristic behavior, quality or something naturally
expected.

What will be will be. (Чему быть, того не миновать)

Boys will be boys.

That’s exactly like Jocelyn – she would lose the key.

This sort of inevitability or prediction often occurs in sentences with


conditional clauses.

If people study they will learn.

6) Habitual or recurrent actions. It is found in affirmative sentences. (WILL


for present-time context, WOULD for past-time context)
She will (would) sit for hours reading a book.

7) Supposition. (similar to must) It is used with the Indefinite Infinitive with


reference to the present or to the future, with the Perfect Infinitive with
reference to the past. This meaning is found with the 2nd and 3rd persons.
This will be the school, I believe.
You will have heard the news.
65
WILL in this meaning is not common.
8) Disapproval of something expected. In this meaning only WOULD is
used. It is found in affirmative and negative sentences (mainly in responses).
It is rendered into Russian Этого и следовало ожидать, на него похоже.
I know she attended the place. – Oh yes. She would.
I don’t understand him and I don’t approve of his decision. – No, you
wouldn’t.
9) In some set phrases:

I won’t have you – Я не допущу.

I won’t have you talk to me like that!

Comment on the meaning of the modal will/would:

Model:

1. I will write as soon as I can. – The modal verb will is used to express
willingness, intention.
2. Would you please pass the salt? – The modal verb would is used to express a
polite request.
3. The door won’t open. – The modal verb will is used to express resistance.
4. John will have arrived already. – The modal verb would is used to express
supposition and is followed by the Perfect Infinitive to show an accomplished
action.
A. 1. Then there were weekends when he would ride over to the house of one
farmer. 2. The doctor knows I won’t be operated on. 3. The door wouldn’t open. 4.
I’m going to get out of this hole. I will make money! 5. Will you dine with me
tomorrow? 6. That will be my wife. 7. Auntie Meg has been very brave. – Yes. She
would be brave. 8. I won’t have you interfere into my business! 9. You will
forgive me, won’t you? 10. Accidents will happen. 11. I said I would do anything
for him. 12. My pen won’t write. 13. I don’t like it and I don’t visit the place. – No,
you wouldn’t. 14. If litmus paper is dipped in acid, it will turn red. 15. Shut the
door, will you?
B. 1. The engine wouldn’t start. 2. Would you please lend me your pencil? 3. I
can and I will learn. 4. Oil will float on water. 5. He refused to interfere. – He
would. 6. Don’t tell me. – But I will tell you. 7. I should be very grateful if you
would keep your hands off my business in future. 8. This car will hold six people
comfortably. 9. Don’t be late, will you? 10. I couldn’t and wouldn’t believe she was
becoming interested in me. 11. This will be our train. 12. He would often come
66
down to watch the building of the house which was to have been his home. 13. He
was wet through but he wouldn’t change. 14. I asked him not to bang the door, but
he would do it. 15. If you will wait for me, I will be very grateful.
SHALL
Shall is not a purely modal verb. It combines its modal meaning with the
function of an auxiliary verb expressing futurity. As a modal verb it is not
translated into Russian, its meaning is rendered by emphatic intonation.

The modal shall is used in the following meanings:

1) Compulsion, strict order, prohibition. It is always used with the second and
third persons in affirmative and negative sentences.
· He shall go there now. (Он должен пойти туда сейчас)
· When he comes in, nobody shall say a word.
2) Offers or suggestions. We use shall in questions with ‘I’ to make offers
Shall I carry your bag for you? – That’s very kind of you. Thank you. /
No,thank you.
· NB Compare shall I…? and will you…?:
· Shall I shut the door? (= Do you want me to shut the door?)
· Will you shut the door? (= I want you to shut the door.)
We use shall in questions with ‘we’ to make suggestions.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight? – I’d love to/No, I’d rather not / No, I’d
rather we didn’t.
NB We use shall in question tags after ‘let’s’ to make suggestions.
· Let’s forget about it now and talk about something else, shall we?
3) Asking for instruction in interrogative sentences.
·
· Shall he go there?
· Shall I translate the text? – Please, do.
4) Formal instruction. It is used in formal style (often in official documents) with
the 3rd person.
· The secretary shall minute the proceedings of each meeting.
5) Threat or warning. It is used in the second and third persons in affirmative and
negative sentences.
You shall never see me again!
You shall pay for this, you shall.
6) Promise. It is also used with the second and third persons and with a weak
stress in affirmative and negative sentences.
You shall not be punished.
I shall make you happy, see if I don’t
7) Unwillingness or refusal to do something.
· Go and buy some milk, will you, love? – No, I shan’t. I’m busy.
· Drink your milk, Jimmy! – I shan’t!
67
8) Determination.
As you sow, so shall you reap.

Comment on the meaning of the modal verb shall:


Model:
1. Shall I open the window? – The modal verb shall is used to ask for instruction.
2. You shall have my answer tomorrow.- The modal verb shall is used in the
meaning of promise.
3. The President shall hold office for 5 years. – The modal verb shall is used
with the 3rd person in the meaning of a formal instruction.

A. 1. Where shall we put this vase? 2. I’ll begin again and you shan’t stop me this
time! 3. He shall repent for this neglect of duty.4. You shall have it back
tomorrow. 5. He shall never come here again! I’ll take care of it. 6. He who does
not work neither shall he eat. 7. ‘Shall I leave the candle for a little while?’ I asked.
8. I give you my word; the work shall be done on time. 9. Persons under 18 shan’t
be employed in night-work. 10. I’ll have coffee with you and then you shall play
and sing for me. 11. I must ask that what I tell you shall be understood to be
entirely confidential. 12. You shall not search my rooms. You have no right to do
it. I forbid you! 13. He hasn’t seen you and he shan’t. 14. The police shall take you
up (арестовывать). 15. You shall have all the news I can send you.

B. 1. Man shall not live by bread alone. 2. As a man lives, so shall he die. 3. You
shall read this letter yourself. 4. Shall we wait a bit? 5. Shall I read the text? 6. The
officer shall be responsible for the fleet of lorries. 7. "Shall I order a taxi?" he
asked. 8. He shall get his money. 9. The senior manager shall be responsible for
this department. 10. When he comes in, nobody shall say a word. 11. "She shall go
off tomorrow, the little artful creature.” 12. Shall he go there? 13. You shall never
see me again!" 14. Drink your tea, Mum! – I shan’t! 15. He shall go there right
now.
VERBALS

The various forms that a verb can take fall into two main divisions: finite
and non-finite (verbals). The latter are the infinitive (to discuss), the gerund
(discussing), participle I (discussing), participle II (discussed).

THE INFINITIVE
The infinitive names a process in a most general way.
The split infinitive
In all its forms and functions the infinitive has a special marker, the particle
to. It can be separated from the infinitive by some other words (more often
an adverb or emphatic particles). This separation is acceptable only to give special
emphasis to the verb.
They were seen to just touch each other’s hands.
68
The bare infinitive
The infinitive is used without to in the following cases:
 after auxiliary verbs;
 after modal verbs (except ought to, have to, be to) and modal expressions
had better, would rather, would sooner:
She’d sooner die than forgive.
 after the verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to
notice, to observe, to listen, etc.) in the construction Complex Object:
I heard him arrive.
However, in passive sentences (the Complex Subject) with these verbs a to-
infinitive is obligatory:
She was noticed to hesitate.
N B : The verb to be after the verb to feel is used with the particle to:
I felt this to be very true.
 after causative verbs (to let, to make, to have, to bid) in the construction
Complex Object
They made me reduce my expenditures (But! - He was made to rewrite his
introduction letter)
 after the verb to know in the meaning “to experience, to observe” (usually
used in the perfect form) in the construction Complex Object:
Have you ever known him tell a lie?
 after phrases with but (cannot but, do anything but, do nothing but, couldn’t
but):
He cannot but accept it.
 in “why-(not)” sentences:
Why not let me help you?
 if two infinitives are joined by ‘and’ or ‘or’, the to of the second infinitive
can be omitted:
I want to call Mr Smith and fax or send him a message.
 if two or more to-infinitives are linked by the conjunctions but, except,
than, as (well as), like, the particle to used with the first infinitive only:
I have to feed the animals as well as look after the children.
To-infinitive
The to-infinitive is used:
 to express purpose
He entered University to become an economist.
 after the following verbs: (can/can’t) afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask,
claim, consent, decide, decline, demand, expect, fail, hesitate, hope, hurry, learn,
manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, tend, threaten,
volunteer, want, wish, etc.:
He threatened to dismiss the strike leader.
The shop refused to accept the customer’s credit card.
69
 after would like, would love, would prefer:
I’d love to live in a more spacious apartment.
NB: after help we can use either a to-infinitive or bare infinitive:
He helped me (to) net a handsome profit.
 after some nouns: advice, attempt, chance, decision, desire, dream, goal,
motivation, need, opportunity, order, plan, proposal, recommendation, refusal,
request, requirement, suggestion, surprise, tendency, wish, way, etc.
What a surprise to see him there!
 after too/enough constructions:
I was foolish enough to believe her.
 with ‘it + be + adjective + of’:
It was nice of Joe to congratulate us on our anniversary.
 after certain adjectives (happy, glad, sorry, etc)
She was happy to win the prize.
 with: so + adjective + as
Would you be so kind as to help me cook dinner?
 after: be + the first/second etc next/last/best, etc
He was the first to come to work.
 in the for + to infinitive construction
For John to be so rude was very unusual.
 in such expressions as: to tell you the truth, to begin with, to be honest, etc.
To be honest, I didn’t like her.
Repetition of the particle to
For the sake of emphasis or contrast the particle to may be repeated before
each of the infinitives:
It’s such a delight, you know, to go into the field and to pick up a sweet
spring flower!
The particle to is sometimes used without any infinitive if it is clearly
understood from the context:
You can stay if you want to!
It is common after the verbs to want, to wish, to mean, to try, to allow, to be
going, ought to, have to, should (would) like.

The forms of the Infinitive


Active Passive
Indefinite to write to be written
I want(ed) to see you. I like to be asked questions.
It denotes an action simultaneous with or posterior to that
expressed by the finite verb

70
Continuous to be writing
Mike is lucky not to be ---------------------
having problems now.
It denotes an action in progress simultaneous with or
posterior to that expressed by the finite verb
Perfect to have written to have been written
I’m glad to have talked to I’m glad to have been given a
you. present.
It denotes a completed action prior to that expressed by
the finite verb
Perfect Continuous to have been writing
I’m glad to have been -------------------------
talking to you for an
hour.
It denotes an action of some duration which began before
the action of the finite verb and continues up to/into it.

NB: After the verbs to mean, to expect, to intend, to hope, to plan, to try, to
attempt used in the Past Indefinite, the Perfect Infinitive shows that the intention
was not carried out.
I meant to have gone there. = I meant to go there, but never did.

Syntactical functions of the Infinitive


The Infinitive can be used in the following functions:
1) a subject (used at the beginning of sentences or in sentences introduced by
the introductory IT)
To collect all this information for such a short period of time would be
completely impossible!
It is very hard to work under such conditions.
2) a simple nominal predicate
 It is used in exclamatory sentences
You – of all men – to say such a thing!
Me – marry him! Never!
 It is used in interrogative why-sentences
Why not go away?
3) part of the compound nominal predicate
 a predicative (if the infinitive follows the link verb to be, to become, to seem,
etc immediately):
The plan was to go to the dean.
71
 part of a predicative (if any part of speech appears between the link verb and
the infinitive):
The problem was how to begin.
4) part of the compound verbal modal predicate
The Infinitive is used after:
1. The modal verbs: can/could, may/might, must, be to, have to, should, ought to,
will, would, shall, need, dare.
2. The modal expressions: had better/best, would rather/sooner.
You should have told me about it yesterday.
5) part of the compound verbal aspect/phasal predicate
The Infinitive is used after the verbs expressing various stages/phases of the action,
such as its beginning, duration, repetition, end: to begin, to start, to come (=to
begin), to commence, to continue, to go on, to cease, used to/would + Inf., etc.
She began to cry.
NB: If the verb to stop is followed by the infinitive it functions as an adverbial
modifier of purpose (as it means to pause in order to do smth). If it is followed by
the gerund it functions as part of a compound verbal aspect/phasal predicate (as it
means to finish an action).
6) an object
The infinitive follows the word it modifies:
1. monotransitive verbs (i.e. that take 1 object): to agree, to refuse, to remember,
to forget, to love, to hate, to aim, to fail, to arrange, to manage, to pretend, etc.
I hate to ask people such questions.
2. set phrases: can(’t) afford, can(’t) bear, can(‘t) afford, take care, take the
trouble, make sure, etc.
Can you afford to buy such an expensive car?
3. ditransitive verbs (i.e. that take 2 objects): to teach, to allow, to help, to assist,
to tell, to instruct, to request, to advise, to beg, to invite, to instruct, etc.
NB: some verbs (to ask, to beg, to help, to prefer, to wait, etc.) can take either 1 or
2 objects.
She persuaded me to come.
4. after the formal object it that follows such verbs as to find, to consider, to
believe, to think, to make, to feel, etc.
He found it difficult to spot her in the crowd. - Он обнаружил, что найти ее
в толпе очень сложно.
5. adjectives (adjectivized participles) which can be divided into two groups:
Group 1
determined, difficult, eager, easy, free, inclined, interested, keen, powerless,
prepared, ready, reluctant, slow, worthy, etc.
The infinitive denotes actions simultaneous with or posterior to the states
expressed by the predicate, and cannot therefore be used in perfect forms:
She’s inclined to turn down the offer.
72
Group 2
annoyed, astonished, frightened, glad, grateful, happy, pleased, proud, scared,
sorry, surprised, thankful, etc.
The infinitive denotes an action slightly preceding the state expressed by the
predicate, and can have both non-perfect and perfect forms:
He is proud to have achieved the highest results.
To discriminate between the infinitive object and the infinitive used as part of a
predicative it should be borne in mind that the latter is active in form and passive
in meaning.
He is glad to see you. (the infinitive is used as an object)
He is hard to please. (the infinitive is used as part of a predicative)
7) an attribute.
The infinitive follows the word it modifies:
1. class nouns: a patient, a doctor, a sportsman, etc.:
He is the man to do it.
2. abstract nouns: time, hope, desire, love, hate, beauty, help, assistance, etc.:
I had a strong desire to be drinking hot milk.
3. the noun-substitute the one:
I am not the one to discuss my affairs with other people.
4. expressions of quantity: much, little, a great deal, plenty, (no) more,(no) less,
little more, enough, etc.:
I have no more to add.
5. indefinite, negative, universal pronouns: somebody, something, anybody,
anything, no one, nowhere, etc.:
Have you got anything to offer me?
6. the substantivized adjectives: the next, the last:
Tom was the last to come.
7. the ordinal numerals: the first/second/third/etc.:
Jack was the first to come.
8) an adverbial modifier:
1) an adverbial modifier of purpose (with the conjunctions in order and so as).
In negative sentences these conjunctions can’t be omitted.
She put on her coat in order not to catch cold.
2) an adverbial modifier of result/consequence (occurs after adjectives modified
by the adverbs enough and too, such…as, so+ adj+as.)
He was so weak as to be unable to work. - Он был так слаб, что не мог
работать.
3) an adverbial modifier of comparison/manner (with conjunctions as if, as
though):
She began to talk loudly as if to show that she was not upset.

73
4) an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances (without any conjunction
or introduced by the preposition with. The Infinitive denotes simultaneous
actions):
An astronaut leaves the Earth and returns fifty years later to find his twin-
brother quite an old man while he is still in the prime of his life. -
Астронавт покидает Землю и возвращается через 50 лет, при этом
находит брата близнеца стариком, и он сам в расцвете жизни...
5) an adverbial modifier of subsequent events (mainly after the adverbs only,
simply, never. In this function it is translated by the infinitive or by a sentence with
the conjunctions «и» или «но». The Infinitive denotes consecutive actions after the
verbs of motion)
He managed to obtain this concession from the management only to find that
no one really needed it. - Он добился этой уступки от администрации, но
обнаружил, что она никому не нужна.
If there are no words mentioned above it may be translated by a clause with the
conjunction “и”.
Last year he resigned his post never to return to public life. - В прошлом
году он ушел в отставку и никогда уже не возвращался к общественной
жизни (государственной деятельности).
NB: The Infinitive in the function of an adverbial modifier of subsequent events
preserves some difficulty in translation into Russian. It may be easily confused
with the Infinitive of purpose .You should analyze the sentence or even a wider
situation to understand its function.
He reached the island to discover he had left his fishing rods (subsequent
events). - Он добрался до острова и обнаружил, что забыл удочки.
The interest rate was raised to attract customers (purpose).-Процентная
ставка была увеличена для (с целью) привлечения вкладчиков (чтобы
привлечь вкладчиков).
6) an adverbial modifier of condition (the infinitive in this function denotes a
condition and the predicate denotes its consequence.)
I’ll thank you to keep it secret (=I’ll thank you if you keep…)
7) an adverbial modifier of exception (introduced by the conjunctions but,
except. The particle to is most frequently omitted after them. It is used only in
negative and interrogative sentences.)
What can I do but tender my resignation?
8) an adverbial modifier of time
My great-grandmother lived to be ninety-nine.
9) an adverbial modifier of cause or motivation (introduced by the conjunction
so. The Infinitive refers to a compound nominal predicate with the predicative
expressed by an adjective, a noun, or a prepositional phrase denoting someone's
qualities. The infinitive denotes an action which serves as a cause or a motivation
on which this or that charaterisation is based.)
They are so careless not to check everything before they leave!
74
9) parenthesis
It is usually part of a collocation:
to begin with – во-первых, прежде всего; начать с того, что; сначала; для
начала
to cut/make a long story short; to put it in a nutshell; to put it briefly –
короче/кратко (говоря), одним словом, в двух словах
to say the least – мягко выражаясь, без всякого преувеличения, по меньшей
мере, чтобы не сказать больше
needless to say – не приходится и говорить; не говоря уже о
to say nothing of/not to mention/not to speak of … – не говоря уже о
not to say – 1) чтобы не сказать; 2) не сказать, что; это не значит, что
so to speak/say – так сказать
to tell (you) the truth; to speak the truth – по правде говоря
to be (quite/perfectly) frank/honest – (совершенно) откровенно говоря, по
правде говоря
to put it in another way – другими словами, иначе
that is to say – то есть, другими словами, иначе говоря
strange to say – удивительно/любопытно, что; как ни странно; смешно сказать
to put it mildly – мягко говоря
to put it plainly/clearly – просто, откровенно/прямо говоря, выражаясь ясно
to put it crudely/bluntly – грубо/прямо говоря
to make (the) things/matters (still) worse; to crown (it) all – в довершении ко
всему (неприятному)
to be (more) precise – точнее говоря, чтобы/если быть точным
to be sure – конечно (used to concede the truth of something that conflicts with
another point that one wishes to make)
to repeat – повторюсь
to sum (it) up – подводя итог, резюмируя, суммируя, в заключение
To begin with we have not enough money to buy it.-Начнем с того, что у
нас недостаточно денег, чтобы это купить.
State the function of the Infinitive and comment on its form:
Model:
1. It is my intention to show her the great change in our city. – To show is the
Indefinite Infinitive Active which is used in the function of the subject. The
Indefinite form of the Infinitive denotes an action posterior to that of the finite
verb/the predicate of the sentence.
2. A lot of people must be living from hand to mouth. – Be living is the
Continuous Infinitive Active which is used as (a) part of the compound verbal
modal predicate. The Continuous Infinitive of the verb to live denotes an
action going on at the present period of time. The Infinitive is used without
the particle to as it follows the modal verb must.

75
3. There’s nothing more to be said. – To be said is the Indefinite Infinitive
Passive which is used in the function of the attribute after the pronoun
nothing. The Indefinite form of the Infinitive denotes an action simultaneous
with that of the finite verb/the predicate of the sentence.

A.1.You ought to have warned us in due time! 2. He was ashamed to speak to her
after that. 3. I was too shy to try to speak to her again. 4. He’ll probably get a
chance to be offered that post. 5. He is not so easy to persuade. 6. It wasn’t hard to
persuade them. 7. Whether to agree or not is not the main problem. 8. The
question is how to get there. 9. I didn’t know what to believe. 10. She was about to
say that they had no right to do so, but she stopped in time. 11. He had something
to think over. 12. He stopped to greet a neighbor. 13. He awoke one morning to
find himself famous. 14. Not a soul was to be seen in the street. 15. The weather
was so bad as to keep us in all day.

B.1. To cut a long story short, the infant Dial's just gone out of the room. 2. ...the
next thing to be done is to move away from this house. 3. All the deep maternity in
her awoke, never to sleep again. 4. He paused as if to find a way to phrase his next
thoughts. 5. Nobody asked you to come out here. I didn't ask you to stay. I told you
to go while it was daylight. 6. It was too hot to go out into the town. 7. The
prospective buyer is someone who is not, to put it mildly, a supporter of female
emancipation. To consent to this sale would be to consent to change the character
of the newspaper altogether. 8. He had been one of the first to become interested in
the development of the street-car system. 9. The floor of the forest was soft to walk
on... 10. He was a man to attract immediate sympathy. 11. He knew he must not
say anything at all in order to establish communication with her. 12. After all,
you're young enough to be my son. 13. To begin with, he did not like the way his
editor had spoken to him that morning. 14. To make the real decisions, one's got to
have the real power. 15. To know all is to forgive all.

The Predicative Infinitive Constructions


In Modern English we distinguish the following predicative constructions
with the infinitive:
1. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction
2. The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction
3. The For-to-Infinitive Construction
I. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction
The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the
Infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the
objective case. In the sentence this construction has the function of a Complex
Object.
It is used after the verbs denoting:
1) sense perception (to hear, to see, to watch, to feel, to observe, to notice, etc.)
Only the Indefinite Infinitive Active is used here to denote a completed action.
76
I haven't heard anyone call me. – Я не слышал, что кто-то меня позвал.
If the meaning is passive Participle II is used.
I saw the fire slowly faded. - Я видел, как пожар постепенно потух.
If a process is expressed, Participle I Indefinite Active is used.
He saw Wendy coming - Он увидел, как Венди идет.
NB: the verb to see, to feel should be followed by a clause and not by the
Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction, when it is used in the meaning “to
understand”.
I saw (felt) that he did not realize the danger.
After the verbs to see and to notice the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction
is not used with the verb to be. In such cases we use a subordinate clause.
I saw, that he was pale. - Я видел, что он побледнел.
When the verb to hear is not a verb of sense perception and is used in the meaning
“to learn, to be told”, a clause or a gerund is used, but not the Objective-with-the-
Infinitive Construction.
I heard that he had left for France/I heard about his leaving for France. -
Мне сказали (Я слышал), что он уехал во Францию.
2) mental activity (to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect,
to imagine, to find, to feel, to trust, etc.)
I know you to be the most honest, spotless creature that ever lived.
Everybody expected her to marry Pete.
NB: In the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction after the verbs to think, to
consider, to find, the verb to be can be left out.
I consider him a good specialist.
3) declaring (to pronounce, to declare, to report)
She declared him to be the most disobedient child in existence.
4) wish and intention (to want, to wish, to desire, to mean, to intend, to choose, I
would like)
I want you to come and dine with me.
5) feeling and emotion (to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cannot bear, etc.)
I dislike you to talk like that.
6) order, permission (to order, to allow, to suffer, to have, etc.)
He ordered the prisoners to go away.
7) compulsion (to make (in the meaning“заставить”), to cause (“заставить”,
“распорядиться”), to get (“добиться”), to have (“заставить”, ”сказать чтобы”).
She caused a telegram to be sent to him.

Comment on the use of the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction:


Model:
1. I felt him touch my hand. – Him touch is the Objective-with-the-Infinitive
Construction in which the Indefinite Infinitive Active touch is in predicate
relation to the personal pronoun him used in the objective case. The Infinitive is
used without the particle to as it follows the verb of sense perception to feel. The

77
Indefinite form of the Infinitive denotes an action simultaneous with that of the
finite verb/the predicate of the sentence.
2. Jess found them to have been waiting at the station for hours. – Them to have
been waiting is the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction in which the
Perfect Continuous Infinitive Active to have been waiting is in predicate relation to
the personal pronoun them used in the objective case. The Infinitive is used with
the particle to as it follows the verb of mental activity to find. The Perfect
Continuous form of the Infinitive denotes an action of some duration which began
before the action of the finite verb and continues into it.

A.1. We saw them jump from parachutes. 2. I expect you to join our excursion. 3. I
heard the door of the entrance hall open and close softly. 4. They all gathered on
the hill to watch the sun rise. 5. The people in the North do not see the sun come
out for months. 6. He made the tractor work at full speed.7. She felt her hands
tremble. 8. We wished him to succeed. 9. We had not expected her to reply, but
she did. 10. We knew him to be a clever man. 11. The traveler entered the inn and
ordered supper to be prepared. 12. He felt his old friend to lie to him. 13. He
reported the boat to have been seen not far away. 14. We saw him cross the street
looking to the left and to the right. 15. I felt the wind blow through a chink in the
wall.
B.1. I want you to listen to me and I expect you to understand me. 2. If you don't
want anyone to know about your business, keep your mouth shut. 3. What made
you decide to enter that competition? 4. They wanted her to relax and sent the
children to her aunt's. 5. Everybody knows him to be a responsible man. 6.
Sunglasses always make you look mysterious.7. The desire for success makes
Martin work hard. It doesn't let him rest a minute. 8. Let me take you to the Milky
Way on your holiday! 9. It takes two days to make a dream come true. 10. The
boss expects you to finish the report by Monday. Would you like me to help you?
12. I don't let my children watch TV shows that are violent. Some of them will
make your hair stand on end. 13. We saw Megan cross the street and enter the
supermarket. 14. Angela felt her heart stop beating. 15. The detective watched
people come in and go out of the house in the middle of the night.

II. The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction


(The Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction)

The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction (traditionally called the


Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction) is a construction in which the
Infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or pronoun in the
nominative case.
Jane is said to resemble me. - Говорят, что Джейн похожа на меня.

78
The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as one part of the
sentence. One of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other
forms part of a compound verbal predicate.
The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used with the following
groups of verbs in the Passive Voice which denote:
1) sense perception: (to see, to hear, etc.) The Indefinite Infinitive is used to
denote a completed action. The particle to is obligatory here. (unlike the Complex
Object)
The rider was seen to disappear in the distance.
If a process is expressed Participle I Indefinite Active is used.
Jill's father was heard approaching at that moment.
2) mental activity (to think, to consider, to know, to expect, to believe, to
suppose)The Infinitive is used in any form.
My father was considered by many to be a great man.
3) order, compulsion and permission (to make, to get, to have, to order, to
command, to ask, to permit, to allow (to let turns into to be allowed to in the
passive.), etc. )
Little boy was made to put on his clothes.
4) saying (to say, to report, to announce, to declare, to state)
The delegation was reported to have arrived already.
The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used with the following
verbs in the Active Voice:
1) the verbs turn out, happen, chance:
I happened to hear this yesterday.
2) the verbs seem, appear, prove:
He seems to have lost the keys.
3) the word groups to be likely/unlikely, to be sure/certain/bound:
She is likely to become your friend.
Comment on the use of the Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction:

Model:
1. He is known to have been elected chairman. – He + to have been elected is the
Subjective/Nominative with-the-Infinitive Construction in which the Perfect
Infinitive Passive to have been elected is in predicate relation to the personal
pronoun he used in the nominative case. The Perfect form of the Infinitive denotes
an action prior to that of the finite verb/the predicate of the sentence. The Infinitive
is used with the particle to as it follows the verb of mental activity to know which
is used in the Passive Voice.
2. They seemed to have quite forgotten him already. – They +to have forgotten is
the Subjective/Nominative with-the-Infinitive Construction in which the
Perfect Infinitive Active to have forgotten is in predicate relation to the personal
pronoun they used in the nominative case. The Perfect form of the Infinitive
denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb/the predicate of the sentence. The

79
Infinitive is used with the particle to as it follows the verb to seem which is used in
the Active Voice.

A.1. Many books are known to be published in our country every year. 2. You are
supposed to graduate in four years. 3. This device was known to have been
designed in that laboratory. 4. His invention is considered to be of great importance.
6. The sun is known to represent a mass of compressed gases. 7. The new rocket is
reported to go into operation next year. 8. This type of rocket is supposed to have
many advantages. 9. He is said to be a good translator. 10. Roberta was known to be
an honest and hardworking girl. 11. Clyde was expected to arrive at the weekend.
12. Becky and Tom were supposed to have stayed at the window Douglas. 13. The
number of the unemployed is reported to be increasing with every year.14. Many
new textbooks are expected to be published soon. 15. Cecily and Gwendolyn are
perfectly certain to be extremely great friends.

B.1. Money just doesn't happen to interest me. 2. In the middle of the lecture Dr.
Somerville happened to pause and look out of the window. 3. From the very first
mention of Long John, I was afraid that he might turn out to be the very one-legged
sailor whom I had watched for so long at the inn. 4. Clyde seemed to have been
thinking of no one else but Sondra since their last meeting. 5. Clyde appeared to
have forgotten of his promise to spend his spare evenings with Roberta. 6. She
appeared to be an excellent actress. 7. One day a Hare happened to meet a
Tortoise. 8. He was made to keep silent. 9. The Hare turned out to be the loser of
the race. 10. He was often seen to walk alone. 11. You appear to have found in him
something that I have missed. 12. She is likely to be late. 13. She is said to have
returned at last. 14. The new methods of work appear to be very effective. 15.
Irving turned out to be a long, pale-faced fellow.

III. The For-to-Infinitive Construction

The For-to-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the Infinitive is


in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective
case preceded by the preposition for. The construction is used where the doer of
the action, expressed by the Infinitive, is different from that of the finite verb.
He wanted to find out the truth. (the doer of the action of the finite verb and
of the Infinitive is the same) – Он хотел узнать правду.
He wanted for me to find out the truth. (the doer of the action of the finite
verb and of the Infinitive is not the same) – Он хотел, чтобы я узнал правду.
The construction can have different functions in the sentence. It can be:
1) a subject (often with the introductory it)
It was difficult for me to translate this text.
2) a predicative (often with the link verb to be)
That was for him to find out.
3) an attribute
80
There is nobody here for him to play with.
4) the Complex Object
He waited for her to speak.
5) an adverbial modifier:
a) of result/consequence
He spoke loud enough for you to hear.
b) of purpose
He stepped aside for me to pass.

State the function of the for-to-Infinitive Construction and comment on its use:
Model:
1. That is not for me to decide. – For me to decide is the for-to-Infinitive
Construction in which the Indefinite Infinitive Active to decide is in predicate
relation to the personal pronoun me used in the objective case preceded by the
preposition for. The Indefinite form of the Infinitive denotes an action
simultaneous with that of the finite verb. It/the construction is used as (a) part of
the predicative of the compound nominal predicate.
2. There’s a plan for Jack to spend a year in Japan. – For Jack to spend is the for-
to-Infinitive Construction in which the Indefinite Infinitive Active to spend is in
predicate relation to the proper noun Jack used in the common case preceded by
the preposition for. The Indefinite form of the Infinitive denotes an action posterior
to that of the finite verb/the predicate of the sentence. It/the construction is used in
the function of the attribute.
3. It’s impossible for the job to be finished in time. – For the job to be finished is
the for-to-Infinitive Construction in which the Indefinite Infinitive Passive to be
finished is in predicate relation to the noun job used in the common case preceded
by the preposition for. The Indefinite form of the Infinitive denotes an action
simultaneous with that of the finite verb/the predicate of the sentence. It/the
construction is used in the function of the subject.

A.1. He waited for Holly to say something. 2. Their house is always ready for
anyone to come into. 3. It was really warm for May, and still light enough for him
to see his sheep in the meadow.4. And it is not for you to make terms. It is for you
to accept them. 5. There was no home for him to go to. 6. Greensborough street,
where Johnny spent the first eight years of his life, was a nice place for a boy to
live.7. Mr. Downing waited for Helen to sit down.8. There’s nothing for us to do
but amuse ourselves.9. He cordially extended one forefinger for Brian to shake.10.
My dear, this isn’t the time for us to quarrel.11. Ken opened the door of his room
for Veronica to go out.12. But the pain in James’s head asserted itself too cruelly
for him to think of anything else for the moment.13. It’s impossible for me to write
about that time in detail – I can’t bear to.14. There were plenty of papers for him to
read, but he left them alone.15. On the first occasion it was necessary for him to
indicate his requirements to her.

81
B.1. It is necessary for the goods to be packed in strong cases. 2. They were
waiting for the moon to rise. 3. He stepped aside for us to pass. 4. The water was
too cold for the children to bathe. 5. It is an easy plan for us to fulfill. 6. It’s
important for the children to learn to get on with each other. 7. Anna was a
suitable child for the Smiths to adopt. 8. He had said enough for me to get alarmed.
9. For him to be so rude was unforgivable. 10. The doctor gave the patient
anesthetic for him not to feel such acute pain. 11. I bet it’s wrong for him to be
entrusted with such a challenging task. 12. I was anxious for him to pick up a
bargain at the sale.13. It’s unusual for him to complain. 14. I’m enclosing a list of
my proposals for you to consider them. 15. She spread jam for him and cut up the
bread and butter into convenient slices for the child to eat.

Point out the Predicative Infinitive constructions. Translate them into Russian.
1. Never once had she been seen to cry. 2. It was the first time he had ever seen her
weep. 3. He didn’t mean this to be a long meeting. 4. There was a rumour that at
least they were likely to be married. 5. He spoke loud for me to hear. 6. Irving
proved to be a long, sallow-faced butler chap, solemn as an undertaker. 7. Mr.
Worthing is sure to be back soon. 8. I came to get someone to tell me the truth. 9.
I’ll have Bertha bring you breakfast. 10. He had consented, and it was too late for
him now to recede. 11. I have never known Hector Rose behave like this. 12. His
‘office’ turned out to be in one of the back streets close by Olympia. 13. I saw
David enter the room. 14. He … looked at his watch, rang the bell and ordered the
vehicle to be brought round immediately. 15. Paul felt his heart lift as at a great
victory.

PARTICIPLE I
Participle I is a non-finite form of the verb which possesses verbal and some
adjectival and adverbial features and is formed by adding the suffix –ing to the
stem of the verb.
The forms of Participle I
Forms Indefinite Perfect
Active doing Knowing that Paul having done Having passed
was in the city I my driving test I
phoned him. was able to buy
my first car.
Passive being done The report being having been Not having been
typed now is very done asked Tom didn’t
long. want to interfere.

82
Distinction denotes an action simultaneous denotes an action prior to that of the
s with, posterior to, immediately finite verb
prior to that of the finite verb

Notes:
Participle I Indefinite denotes an action immediately prior to that expressed
by the finite verb, when the action expressed by the finite verb closely/immediately
follows the action expressed by the Participle, with the verbs of:
 sense perception (to see, to hear, to look, to notice, to find, etc.)
Looking out of the window, she saw a man working in the garden.
 motion (to come, to arrive, to enter, to pass, to cross, to leave, to turn, etc.)
Entering his house, Robert saw the policeman.
 certain specific actions associated with motion (to put(on), to take (off), to
switch, to seize, to close, to open, to grasp, etc.)
Switching off the light, I turned over and buried my head in the pillow.
 some other verbs (to smile, to say, to realize, to understand, etc).
Realizing that, she left the room.
Participle I Perfect of the same verbs is used when there is a lapse of time
between the two actions.
Seeing Jane, I rushed to greet her. vs Having seen the girl only once, I
didn’t recognize her.
Syntactical functions of Participle I
Participle I can be used in the following functions:
1) an attribute:
It may stand in pre-position or in post-position
Don’t tease the barking dog!
We went along the street leading to the shore.
NB: When a prior action is meant no Participle I can be used as attribute, only an
attributive clause is used:
The diplomat addressed the students who had filled the lecture hall
(Дипломат выступил перед студентами, собравшимися в зале).
Compare: Женщина, стоявшая на крыльце, вошла в дом → The woman who
had been standing on the porch went into the house (the action expressed by the
participle is prior to that of the finite form); Я обратился к женщине, стоявшей
на крыльце → I addressed the woman standing on the porch (simultaneous
actions);
2) an adverbial modifier:
1. an adverbial modifier of time (introduced by the conjunctions when(shows
that both actions are taking place at a given moment) and while (serves to express
habitual actions):
Don`t forget articles when speaking English.
He used to contract flue while travelling in the North.
83
NB: Participle I of the verb to be is not used as adverbial modifier of time. Thus
the sentence Будучи в Петербурге, я посетил несколько раз Эрмитаж should
be translated with the help of the when-clause When in Petersburg (or When I was
in Petersburg) I visited the Hermitage several times.
2. an adverbial modifier of condition (without any conjunction)
Helen ought to be there and her absence might be resented, but being there she
wouldn’t know what to say.
3. an adverbial modifier of comparison (introduced by the conjunctions as if, as
though)
He kept shaking his head as if saying, “Don’t trust her”.
4. an adverbial modifier of manner (without any conjunction)
Florence rushed downstairs gasping for breath.
5. an adverbial modifier of concession (without any conjunction or introduced
by the conjunctions though, although)
Although admitting his inefficiency, he still refuses to cooperate with us.
6. an adverbial modifier of attendant/ attending circumstances.
He was standing on the top of the mountains admiring the beautiful view.
(Participle I and the predicate of the sentence denote parallel actions)
7. an adverbial modifier of cause/reason
Being of a more slender figure than Mr. Smith, Mr. Skimpole looked
younger.
If the Russian adverbial participle (деепричастие) with the negative particle не
is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of cause/reason, it is translated
by the Participle with the negative particle not.
Не сообщив им об этом, он чувствовал себя виноватым. –
Not having informed them about it, he felt guilty. (why?)
If the Russian adverbial participle (деепричастие) with the negative particle не
is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of manner (or attendant
circumstances), it is translated by the Gerund with the preposition without.
Он уехал, не сообщив им об этом. –
He left without informing them about it. (how?)
8. an adverbial modifier of subsequent events (Participle I is used here to
denote an action posterior to that of the finite verb)
The climber left at dawn, returning late.
3) part of the compound verbal predicate (=the Complex Subject). Participle I
follows:
1) verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to find, to catch) in the
passive voice and denotes an action in progress

84
Jane was heard playing the piano. – Слышали/слышно было, как Джейн
играет на рояле.
2) causative verbs (to keep, to leave) in the passive voice.
I was kept waiting an hour or so. – Меня заставили ждать почти целый час.
4) part of the compound nominal predicate
 a predicative (if Participle I follows the link verb to be, to look, to get, to grow,
to become, to seem, to turn, to remain, etc. immediately)
The answer of the student was disappointing.
 part of a predicative ( if any part of speech appears between the link verb and
the Participle)
The trip to the mountain was very exciting.
5) parenthesis:
generally/broadly speaking – вообще говоря/ в сущности/ в общих чертах
mildly speaking/putting it mildly – мягко говоря
frankly speaking – откровенно говоря
strictly/properly speaking – строго/собственно говоря
roughly speaking – грубо говоря; примерно
judging by/from (appearance, words, etc.) – судя по …
saying nothing of – не говоря уже о
leaving aside … – не говоря о
allowing for … – делая поправку на …
joking aside – шутки в сторону/кроме шуток
talking/speaking of … – к вопросу о …/говоря о …
talking of the angel/devil – легок на помине
speaking personally for myself – выражая собственное мнение
Strictly speaking, these actions are illegal.
State the function of Participle I and comment on its form:
Model:
1. The country being shown on the map now is Great Britain. – Being shown is
Participle I Indefinite Passive which is used in the function of the attribute. The
Indefinite form of the Participle denotes an action/an action in progress
simultaneous with that of the finite verb/the predicate of the sentence.
2. Having lost the book, the student couldn’t prepare the topic. – Having lost is
Participle I Perfect Active which is used in the function of the adverbial modifier
of cause/reason. The Perfect form of the Participle denotes an action/a completed
action prior to that of the finite verb/the predicate of the sentence.
A.1. Judging him by his figure and movements, he was still young. 2. Having
traversed seven hundred miles, he was now travelling toward the border of the
USA. 3. Placing his drink upon the mantelpiece, the ex-convict stood for a
moment, observing the young man out of the corner of his eye. 4. Being very tired
with his walk, however, he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles. 5. Having
85
shaken hands with them, he brought his own hands together with a sharp slap. 6.
Manuel went in, carrying his suitcase. 7. I am going to Rome, having friends there.
8. While pondering this problem, I sat in the dormitory window-seat. 9. His eyes,
though questioning now, were persistently friendly.10. But another bright red light,
still glowing, showed that the forward cabin door had not been closed. 11. He
observed as if watching someone else that his hand holding the coffee cup was not
entirely steady. 12. Sitting in the back seat and listening to the continuous noise of
the running wheels, I was half lulled into a drowse. 13. Wearing it, he looked
handsome and very distinguished. 14. The cabinet office runs a busy
communication network keeping ministers in touch with each other and drawing
up agendas for the cabinet meetings. 15. Putting her hands around the blissful
warmth of the coffee mug, she decided that she would concentrate on this moment
of total relief.
B.1. You must be very careful when crossing the street. 2. The windows facing the
bridge were open. 3. Arriving at the station we went to get a taxi. 4. The man
watched the fighting boys. 5. Having no dictionary I couldn't translate the article.
6. All those studying the subject will take their exam in January. 7. He gave me a
welcoming smile inviting me to join them for evening prayer. 8. She was outside
on the step, gazing at the winter afternoon. 9. There was sunlight coming in
through the shutters. 10. Abraham appeared at noon the next day, bringing with
him two hundred dollars in cash. 11. Much of the afternoon I looked out of the
window, as though thinking, but not really thinking. 12. Cecilia had heard very
little, being absorbed in her own reflections. 13. Having breakfasted, I went
out.14. He looked at his father listening with a kind of painful desperation. 15.
Never having encouraged friends to drop in spontaneously, she was almost totally
alone.
Predicative constructions with Participle I
In Modern English we find the following predicative constructions with the
participle:
(1) the Objective Participial Construction;
(1) the Subjective Participial Construction;
(2) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction;
(2) the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction.
I. The Objective Participial Construction
The Objective Participial Construction is a construction in which the
participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the
objective case forming a syntactical complex – Complex Object. The objective
participial construction is used with the verbs of:
1) sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to notice, to find, to
catch, to smell, to discover) to denote an action in progress
Can you hear the dog barking outside?
2) causative meaning/inducement (to have, to get, to keep, to leave, to set, to
start)
86
He kept me waiting.
3) wish (to want, to like)
They didn`t like me leaving so early.

NB!
Infinitive Participle
We saw oil prices rise this year We saw oil prices rising this year
(suggests a single or completed action) (suggests a repeated, incomplete or
ongoing action)
I observed him cross the street, and I could watch them building a new
then I dialed the indicated number. car park from my office window.
(We watch, hear, etc. the whole action, (We watch some of the action, but not
from start to finish) from start to finish)

Lily heard him come downstairs and I saw her bodyguard watching her
call the police. and smiling to himself.
(Homogeneous infinitives denote (Homogeneous participles suggest
actions in succession) simultaneous actions)

Comment on the use of the Objective Participial Construction:


Model:
1. They didn’t like me leaving so early. Me leaving is the Objective Participial
Construction in which Participle I Indefinite Active leaving is in predicate
relation to the personal pronoun me used in the objective case, the Participle is
used after the verb to like. The Indefinite form of the Participle denotes an action in
progress simultaneous with that of the finite verb/the predicate of the sentence.
2. We watched our car being serviced yesterday. – Our car being serviced is the
Objective Participial Construction in which Participle I Indefinite Passive being
serviced is in predicate relation to the noun car used in the common case, the
Participle is used after the verb of sense perception to watch. The Indefinite form
of the Participle denotes an action in progress simultaneous with that of the finite
verb/the predicate of the sentence.
A.1. Through the open window we watched the cars moving along the road. 2. He
saw the warm spring day beckoning to him. 3. He was so preoccupied that he
didn't hear the car coming up the road and stopping at the gate. 4. He watched the
planes landing and taking off. 6. There was an earthquake, we felt the ground
shaking. 7. Suddenly she heard someone approaching. 8. All the while she felt her
heart beating with a vague fear. 9. She averted her eyes each time she found
herself being stared at. 10. I won’t have you smoking at your age! 11. They soon
got (started) things going.12. Don’t keep me waiting.13. I don’t want you talking

87
back to me. 14. They didn’t like me leaving so early.15. We saw the train
approaching the station.
B.1. Suddenly he heard someone running down the stairs. 2. Through the open
door of her room, he saw her pushing up her window. 3. I had seen her three hours
ago turning off the main road. 4. He saw the car coming over the rise of a hill. 5.
Just look at the rain coming down! 6. Suddenly I saw the brush moving on the
opposite side of the ravine. 7. I hear him calling her name. 8. I thought I detected a
bazooka replying, then all was quiet again. 9. You’ll have them fighting. 10. She
could hear the man and Soames talking together. 11. And yet I don’t see him doing
it. 12. And yet we can see him taking no further notice. 13. I don’t want them
writing home. 14. Despite his concern for Alexander, Coleman found himself
becoming annoyed. 15. As he spoke, Mike Seddrus found himself regarding this
girl with even greater interest.
II. The Subjective Participial Construction
The Subjective Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle
is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the
nominative case, which is the subject of the sentence.
The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as one part of the
sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other
forms part of a compound verbal predicate.
In this construction Participle I follows the verbs of:
1) sense perception (to hear, to see, to feel, to watch, to observe, to notice, to find)
in the passive voice:
Linda was heard telling her son off.
2) causative verbs (to keep, to leave, to catch) in the passive voice:
I was left standing on the stage.

Comment on the use of the Subjective Participial Construction:


Model:
1. He was seen running down the street. – He + running is the Subjective
Participial Construction in which Participle I Indefinite Active running is in
predicate relation to the personal pronoun he used in the nominative case, the
Participle is used after the verb of sense perception to see used in the Passive
Voice. The Indefinite form of the Participle denotes an action in progress
simultaneous with that of the finite verb/the predicate of the sentence.

A.1. Sam is heard talking. 2. Sam will be heard talking. 3. They were watched
arguing. 4. I was kept waiting. 5. He was noticed hiding. 6. Jim wasn’t noticed
stealing nuts. 7. I was left standing on the stage. 8. They weren’t noticed going in.
9. The birds were heard singing. 10. Was he seen running away? 11. Her voice was
felt trembling. 12. The dog was heard barking. 13. They were found selling the
stolen car. 14. The cat was seen climbing the tree. 15. The little boy was found
feeling ill.
88
B.1. They were seen kissing on the street.2. She was found lying on the ground. 3.
Shе was found sleeping. 4. They were heard speaking English together. 5. Bill was
seen swimming in the sea. 6. The plane was heard flying over the wood. 7. They
were seen leaving the station. 8. She was seen dancing. 9. Jane will be heard
singing. 10. The horse was seen descending the hill. 11. The men were seen cutting
trees. 12. Jane was found crying in the corner. 13. She was heard typing in the next
room. 14. He was seen making the experiment at that time. 15. He was found
writing anonymous letters.

III. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction


The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is a construction
consisting of two independent elements: nominal and verbal, which are in a
predicate relation. The nominal element is a noun in the common case or a pronoun
in the nominative case; the verbal element is Participle I in any form. The
construction usually describes environment, a person’s behavior, or mood.
The rain having ruined my hat, I had to buy a new one.
Participle I can be used as an adverbial modifier:
1) of attendant circumstances (It is always placed at the end of the sentence and
denotes simultaneous actions)
She sat looking out, the feeble sun shining full upon her.
2) of condition
Weather permitting, we’ll take a boat trip.
3) of time
This being settled, they shook hands and left.
4) of cause/reason
It being now pretty late, we took our candles and went upstairs.
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction often occurs in fiction and
scientific literature; the use of this construction in colloquial English is rare. It is
always separated by a comma in the sentence.

State the function of the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction and


comment on its use:
Model:
1. The lamp having been lit, she began reading his letter. – The lamp having been
lit is the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction consisting of the verbal
and nominal elements, in which Participle I Perfect Passive having been lit is the
verbal element which is in predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by
the noun lamp used in the common case. The Perfect form of the Participle denotes
an action/a completed action prior to that of the finite verb/the predicate of the
sentence. It/the construction is used in the function of the adverbial modifier of
time.
2. Weather permitting, we shall start tomorrow. – Weather permitting is the
Nominative Absolute Participial Construction consisting of the verbal and

89
nominal elements, in which Participle I Indefinite Active permitting is the verbal
element which is in predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by the
noun weather used in the common case. The Indefinite form of the Participle
denotes an action simultaneous with that of the finite verb/the predicate of the
sentence. It/the construction is used in the function of the adverbial modifier of
condition.

A.1. That being the case, the cabinet decided to resign. 2. The business of the
meeting being finished, the secretary put away her papers. 3. The criminal being
found, the search came to an end. 4. When the child heard the shots, he pressed
against the wall, his whole body trembling with fear. 5. The tour having been
postponed, we stayed at home. 6. Weather permitting, we’ll spend the whole
weekend in the open air. 7. Charles stopped and stared at great piles of chocolate,
his mouth watering like mad. 8. It being a hot day, they went to the river. 9. He
watched her, his bright eyes blinking.10. The postman's footsteps going away, he
gathered the letters. 11. The room being practically dark, I couldn't at first see
anything. 12. Their house being ruined by the fire, they had to ask their neighbours
for shelter. 13. This having been settled, John left them. 14. Everybody coming on
time, the discussion won't take us long. 15. Then, the little bird ran out of the
shadow, its little head bobbling swiftly, its white legs twinkling brightly for a
moment.
B.1. Не just kept walking, a cruel hammer beating against his brain. 2. Helplessly
I watched her, my heart thudding. 3. The boy walked around the horse, patting him
and talking to him, his eyes shining with delight. 4. People were hurrying about,
doing their last minute shopping, their feet slithering over the stones. 5. “Is it
bad?” he asked, his voice shaking. 6. He stared at me for some time, his chest
rising and falling with emotion. 7. Alexander was looking at him despairingly, his
eyes pleading. 8. There was a pause, Coleman listening. 9. It was colder now, the
rain increasing in force, clearing the fog rapidly. 10. The work went slowly, both
men knowing that their thoughts were elsewhere. 11. Unfortunately the late Mrs de
Winter relaxed her watchfulness for a moment and she lost her life, the boat
sinking with her aboard. 12. The boy being your son, you’re responsible for
whatever he does. 13. Such things being impossible, he waited to see what it would
turn out to be. 14. Her greeting came out awkwardly, Vivian having just bitten into
a chicken leg. 15. Cautious observation having proven the creature to be indeed
dead, order was restored.

IV. The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction


This construction is introduced by the preposition with and is not necessarily
set off by a comma. It is in most cases used in the function of an adverbial modifier
of attendant circumstances. The meaning of attendant circumstances may be
combined with time or cause/reason.
Just now, with the harvest coming on, everything looks its richest →
Теперь, когда приближается время жатвы, всё вокруг так красиво.
90
State the function of the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction and
comment on its use:
Model:
1. I feel awkward with all these people staring at me. – With all these people
staring at me is the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction introduced
by the preposition with and consisting of the verbal and nominal elements.
Participle I Indefinite Active staring which is used as the verbal element is in
predicate relation to the nominal element introduced by the noun people used in
the common case and the preposition with. The Indefinite form of the Participle
denotes an action in progress simultaneous with that of the finite verb/the predicate
of the sentence. It/the construction is used in the function of the adverbial modifier
of cause/reason (or time).

A.1. With her eyes sparkling brightly, Kate sat quietly studying the illustration on
her drawing board. 2. With his voice breaking and his hands shaking, Maxim tried
hard to defend himself. 3. They wrestled and struggled for a minute, with
everybody looking at. 4. Then, with her heart beating fast, she went up and rang
the bell. 5. It was real pleasure to go on a trip together, with everyone laughing,
joking and having fun. 6. What do you mean?-he asked, with his face turning pale.
7. It will never do!- she shouted, with her voice trembling. 8. I missed you!-she
said, with tears running down her cheeks. 9. They were walking together again,
with Tom joking and laughing. 10. It ended with us having a very pleasant lunch
together.11. With a hurricane approaching, we prepared to stand a siege. 12. With
the big clock striking twelve, he got up and took his head. 13. The little thing ran
behind with her lips still smiling. 14. With all those things swarming in the air,
none of the men dared to cross the lawn.15. She stood there quite alone with the
tears filling her eyes.

B.1. With these men listening he inspected the shelves. 2. In the early morning and
with the hospital only just beginning to come awake, he met them at the main
doorway. 3. Now, with another baby coming, the loss seemed easier to accept. 4.
With Washington agreeing to the test, we’ll be able to get the model of our own by
next year, I think. 5. I drove away from them with my heart still fluttering. 6. With
this business hanging over him, he was quite cut off. 7. Surely he can’t want to go
on with it, with this story going about? 8. He looked up at me, with his grin
widening. 9. “I wonder,” she thought, “if he shoots better or worse, with a woman
watching.” 10. There, too, was the platform, with insect-like figures moving near
it. 11. With so many things pending, he had hoped the problem could be left for a
while. 12. He swung to the right desperately, with the heart beating on his left side
and the fire racing inward like a tide. 13. They were walking on again, with Hugh
calmly drawing at his pipe. 14. With the number of refugees increasing, Great
Britain will soon face a serious of over population.15. With his head aching from

91
the slap of the bullet and the blood dripping over the ear, he went over to the
Frenchman.

Point out the Predicative constructions with Participle I. Translate them into
Russian.
1. In the midday quiet of the bush she heard a small bird singing. 2. The taxi
could be seen waiting outside. 3. The sun having set, they made a fire. 4. With the
number of refugees increasing, Great Britain will soon face a serious of over
population. 5. All the while she felt her heart beating with a vague fear. 6. The
weather being cold, the children stayed at home.7. Somewhere a long way off a
telephone bell rang and a voice could be heard speaking. 8. This being done, we
left the room.9. With the big clock striking twelve, he got up and took his head. 10.
Temple heard the woman fumbling at the wall. 11. The two- men were heard
descending. 12. Two days later she heard sleigh bells coming up the drive. 13.
They walked in the park, with John smoking his pipe. 14. I was left standing on the
stage.15.They didn`t like me leaving so early.

PARTICIPLE II
Participle II is a non-finite form of the verb which possesses verbal and
adjectival features and denotes a state or a result of some action or an action itself.
Participle II has no tense distinctions. It has only one form which can express both
an action simultaneous with and prior to the action expressed by the finite verb.

Syntactical functions of Participle II


It can be used in the following functions:
1) an attribute (may stand in pre-position or in post-position)
Things seen are mightier than things heard.
He entered the abandoned house.
2) part of the compound nominal predicate:
 a predicative (if Participle II follows the link verb to be, to look, to get, to grow,
to become, to seem, to turn, to remain immediately)
The customer looked troubled.
 part of the predicative (if any part of speech appears between the link verb and
the Participle)
She looked extremely worried.
3) an adverbial modifier:
1) of time (introduced by the conjunctions when, until)
He won’t stop arguing until interrupted.
2) of reason/cause (without any conjunction)

92
Weakened by his long stay in space the space tourist will have difficulty
walking.
3) of condition (introduced by the conjunctions if, unless)
If picked green peaches won’t ripen.
4) of concession (introduced by the conjunctions though, although)
Though frightened, he didn’t show it.
5) of comparison (introduced by the conjunctions as if, as though)
He looked bewildered as if told something unbelievable.
6) of attendant/ attending circumstances (in this function the Nominative
Absolute Participial Construction and the Prepositional Absolute Participial
Construction are used)
The daughter sat quite silent and still, with her eyes fixed on the ground.
State the function of Participle II and comment on its form:
Model:
1. He seemed delighted to see me again. – Delighted is Participle II which is used
as (the) predicative of the compound nominal predicate after the link verb to seem.
2. Though frightened, he didn’t show it. – Frightened is Participle II which is used
in the function of the adverbial modifier of concession after the conjunction
though.
3. As mentioned above, the company does not deal in computers. – Mentioned is
Participle II which is used as (a) part of the parenthesis.

A.1. Stirred by the beauty of the twilight, he strolled away from the hotel. 2. All
the country near him was broken and wooded. 3. For a moment the trio stood as if
turned to stone. 4. Through the dark hall, guarded by a large black stove I followed
her into the saloon. 5. If left to myself, I should infallibly have let this chance slip.
6. He spoke when spoken to, politely and without much relevance. 7. He cast upon
her one more look, and was gone. 8. Miss Brodrick, though not personally well
known in the county, had been spoken well of by all men. 9. Prepared, then for any
consequences, I formed a project. 10. Thus absorbed, he would sit for hours
defying interruption. 11. As directed, I took the lead, almost happily. 12. He
looked at her for a moment as though amazed at her friendliness. 13. Fancy a
married woman doomed to live on from day to day without one single quarrel with
her husband. 14. He bowed low when presented to Dinny. 15. Displeased and
uncertain Brande gazed from his son to the Spanish gardener.

B.1. The secretary couldn’t find the lost documents. 2. The cake cooked by mother
was the tastiest! 3. The story told by Nick turned out unbelievable. 4. When
interviewed the actor felt excited. 5. Sister Polly went out called by her brother. 6.
The foreigner came up straight to us followed by his interpreter. 7. The child
looked very sad as if hurt by somebody. 8. Jim hid in a safe place but if found he
would be brought home and beaten cruelly. 9. The offer though approved of
93
wasn’t accepted. 10. What would you say if asked about it? 11. Her feelings
though hurt weren’t destroyed. 12. What are you surprised at? 13. You’ve had
your hair cut, haven’t you? 14. I want the work completed today! 15. If picked
green peaches won’t ripen.
Predicative constructions with Participle II
In Modern English we find the following predicative constructions with the
participle:
(1) the Objective Participial Construction;
(2) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction;
(3) the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction.
I. The Objective Participial Construction
This construction consists of a noun in the common case or a personal
pronoun in the objective case and Participle II forming a syntactical complex –
Complex Object. The objective participial construction is used with the verbs:
1) of causative meaning (to have, to get, to make)
You must get your tickets registered.
2) of sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to find)
Have you ever heard their dean’s name mentioned before?
3) of wish (to wish, to want, to like, to prefer)
I’d like my car serviced, please.

Comment on the use of the Objective Participial Construction:


Model:
1. He kept the dog chained. – The dog chained is the Objective Participial
Construction in which Participle II chained is in predicate relation to the noun
dog used in the common case. It is used after the verb to keep.

A.1. His face clouded when he heard his name spoken. 2. She had the drawing-
room redecorated. 3. The darkness found him occupied with these thoughts. 4. For
their New Year's Eve party she had all the furniture moved out of the parlour and
sitting-room. 5. They wanted the Committee convened over the week-end. 6. She
had her bed moved to the corner of the porch. 7. I heard your name called. 8. She
wanted the mistakes corrected. 9. He wants the game demonstrated to the children.
10. She had her tooth filled.11. I’ll have the house cleaned by the time you get
home.12. He had his appendix removed when he was six.13. We heard the
symphony played on the radio a few years ago. 14. It was disappointing to see the
team beaten by weaker opposition. 15. I’d like my car serviced, please.

B.1. I found the envelopes opened. 2. I heard my name pronounced. 3. I saw the
window broken. 4. I have a new house built. 5. Have you had this article typed? 6.
I didn’t have my photo taken. 7. I want the letter sent at once. 8. We wish it done
as fast as possible. 9. He soon made his presence felt. 10. She wanted her pie
heated. 11. I’d prefer everything done at once.12. They always keep the gate

94
locked. 13. We can’t get the press law changed. 14. I wanted them caught and
carried away. 15. He has had his car repaired.

II. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction


This construction consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the
nominative case and Participle II which form a syntactical complex, the nominal
element and Participle II being in subject-predicate relation. It is always separated
by a comma in the sentence.
The preparation completed, we started off.
This construction has the function of an adverbial modifier of:
1) time
This duty completed, he had three months’ leave.
2) manner
She sat on the sofa, her legs crossed.
3) reason
The choice made, she ran up to Tom.
4) condition
He was a gentleman, the cup once sipped, would he consent to put it down?
5) attendant circumstances
He sat down with a smile, his good humor quite restored.

State the function of the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction and


comment on its use:
Model:
1.Willy began to talk but we wouldn’t listen, our attention distracted by the noise.
– Our attention distracted by the noise is the Nominative Absolute Participial
Construction consisting of the verbal and nominal elements, in which Participle II
distracted is the verbal element which is in predicate relation to the nominal
element expressed by the noun attention used in the common case. It/the
construction is used in the function of the adverbial modifier of cause/reason.

A.1. He sat down with a smile, his good humor quite restored. 2. The choice made,
she ran up to him. 3. The drinks ordered and the men settled on the verandah of
the clubhouse, Haydock repeated his question. 4. She got up, the clothes folded
over her arm. 5. This question settled, the reunion was on again. 6. Iris stared out
over the landscape, her chin cupped in her hand. 7. The job done, I was able to
take a week’s holiday. 8. Less than half an hour ago, after Dodo’s leave-taking, he
had paced the suite living-room, his thoughts confused and troubled. 9. He sat
motionless, his head bowed on his knees. 10. The boys played on, their promises
forgotten. 11. His time at last expired; he could now leave this horrible country for
good. 12. Edwin was advancing through the undergrowth, his gaze fixed upon the
ground. 13. The old man sat staring into the fire, his long legs stretched out. 14.
Our efforts to start the car failed, we spent the night at a nearby village. 15. She
was smoking now, her eyes narrowed thoughtfully.
95
B.1. Не stood in the middle of the room, the fragments of the broken glass
scattered on the floor. 2. Everything packed as quickly as possible; you may still
catch your boat. 3. She walked on, her proud head carried high. 4. He was directly
in front of the younger man now, his hand jutted forward. 5. The captain spread his
hand open, the thumb up and fingers outspread, as when you make shadow
pictures. 6. I did not know how late it could be, my watch lost in the darkness of
the corridors. 7. In the silk dressing gown and with a scarf at the throat, the dark
curly hair carefully combed, he made an imposing figure. 8. His tale told, he put
his head back and laughed. 9. Father gone, they returned to the kitchen. 10. He
was leaning against the wall, his arms folded across his chest. 11. We began to
talk, but my attention distracted by my surroundings, I took small notice of him.
12. This duty completed, he had a leave. 13. The next day I observed you - myself
unseen - for half an hour. 14. The duster refolded and restored, he threw his legs
across the saddle. 15. He was a gentleman, but he was passionate, the cup once
sipped, would he consent to put it down?

III. The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction


It is introduced by the preposition with and its nominal element is hardly
ever presented by a pronoun; it is more closely related to the predicate verb and
is seldom set off by a comma:
This construction has the function of:
1) an adverbial modifier of manner or attendant circumstances
The daughter sat quite silent with her eyes fixed on the ground.
2) time, reason or condition (it may be prompted by the context)
I can’t walk with my leg broken. (an adverbial modifier of reason)

State the function of the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction and


comment on its use:
Model:
1. The daughter sat quite silent and still with her eyes fixed on the ground. – With
her eyes fixed on the ground is the Prepositional Absolute Participial
Construction introduced by the preposition with and consisting of the verbal and
nominal elements. Participle II fixed which is used as the verbal element is in
predicate relation to the nominal element introduced by the noun eyes used in the
common case. It/the construction is used in the function of the adverbial modifier
of attendant circumstances/manner.

A.1. I lay idly in a big chair, talking now and then, listening sometimes with my
eyes closed. 2. With the bridge constructed, the communication between the two
parts of the city has been improved. 3. With the driver’s cab equipped with radio,
the danger of train collision can be easily eliminated. 4. With reconstruction of
96
railway terminals completed, the comfort for passengers has been considerably
increased. 5. With numerous road building machines involved in the construction
process, considerable saving of the capital cost was achieved. 6. I can’t walk with
my leg broken. 7. With promotion got, a senior clerk headed the Personnel
Department.8. With the decision made, the Board of Directors held a meeting of
shareholders. 9. With the data processed, the computer was switched off. 10. The
professor was writing some formulae on the blackboard, with his back turned to
the audience. 11. The room looked untidy, with all the things spread over the floor.
12. She stood in amazement, with the letter taken from the drawer. 13. You don’t
remember me? – she said, with her eyes surprised. 14. He stood silent, with his
mouth opened. 15. The kitchen looked new, with everything washed and painted.

B.1. With these words spoken at last, she felt much relieved. 2. He was standing
with his arms crossed and his bare head bent. 3. With their arms linked, they
waited, but he did not stir. 4. But Adrian remained silent, with his eyes fixed on the
advancing vision. 5. Suddenly she spoke again, with a sheet of newspaper folded
in one hand. 6. He was looking at the man with his mouth wide opened. 7. He was
sitting in a corner with his eyes shut up, surrounded by two young women who
looked like teachers. 8. He could not ask her to him with that untold. 9. With the
job done in time, I might be granted some days of idleness. 10. She lay back in her
chair with her eyes shut. 11. Denny came in, with her head held high. 12. With the
symptoms described, I would say a closer examination was needed 13. The rector
sat at a table with his head pressed on his hands. 14. She lay sobbing with her face
buried in the warm earth. 15. She sat on the steps, with her bare arms crossed
upon her knees.

Point out the Predicative constructions with Participle II. Translate them into
Russian.
1. His face clouded when he heard his name spoken. 2. She had the drawing-room
redecorated. 3. Taken together, the results of the reaction proved the existence of
some touch in the solution. 4. She had her bed moved to the corner of the porch. 5.
Mr. Quest, once again interrupted, turned his darky-irritable eyes on him. 6. I can’t
walk with my leg broken. 7. The darkness found him occupied with these thoughts.
8. For their New Year's Eve party she had all the furniture moved out of the parlor
and sitting-room. 9. Get your things packed. 10. They wanted the Committee
convened over the week-end. 11. My task finished, I went to bed. 12. I consider
this matter closed. 13. With reconstruction of railway terminals completed, the
comfort for passengers has been considerably increased. 14. His question
unanswered, he couldn’t go away. 15. He wants it done as soon as possible.

THE GERUND
The gerund is formed by adding the suffix – ing to the stem of the verb and its
grammatical meaning is that of a process.
Thank you for your help. (the noun emphasizes the fact)
97
Thank you for helping me. (the process is emphasized)
The forms of the gerund
Forms Indefinite Perfect
Active doing Swimming is a having done I appreciate your
popular form of having helped me.
exercise.
Passive being done Every child likes having been John resents
being told fairy done having been
tales. dismissed.
Distinction denotes an action simultaneous denotes an action prior to that of the
s with, posterior to, immediately finite verb
prior to that of the finite verb

Notes:
The Indefinite Gerund is used to denote a prior action after:
1) the verbs of recollection, gratitude, blame, reproach, punishment and
reward (to remember, to forget, to thank, to excuse, to forgive, to regret, etc.)
I hardly remember seeing a better game.
2) the prepositions on (upon), after, without, since
Young people enter college after finishing high school at 18.
NB: the Gerund is used in the active form though it is passive in meaning after
 the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require (the Indefinite Infinitive
Passive may also be used)
My watch needs repairing/to be repaired.
 the adjective worth.
The film is worth seeing.

Syntactical functions of the gerund


The gerund can be used in the following functions:
1) a subject
Working full-time was extremely difficult.
It’s no use/ good arguing. (After the introductory IT in such patterns as:
be(of) no use, be no good, be useless, be worth (while), make all the/no difference)
There’s no point in revising the matter twice. (After the introductory
THERE the gerund is preceded by NO)
2) part of the compound nominal predicate:
 a predicative (if the Gerund follows the link verb immediately)
The only remedy for such a headache as mine is going to bed.

98
 part of the predicative (if any part of speech appears between the link verb
and the Gerund, the Gerund can be introduced by the prepositions against, for,
on the point of, far from) :
The director is for extending the time of shipment.
3) part of the compound verbal phasal/aspect predicate (with phasal verbs like
to burst out, to continue, to finish, to give up, to keep on, to quit, to stop, etc)
On hearing the joke everybody burst out laughing.
NB: There are some restrictions on the use of gerunds in this function:
1. Gerunds of stative verbs – to feel, to know, to understand, to see
(=understand), etc can NOT be used in this function e.g. He began to
understand what they said.
2. The gerund is NOT used when the finite verb is used in the continuous
form. E.g. We are beginning to read a new article.
3. The gerund is NOT used in this function when the subject denotes a
lifeless thing. E.g. The soup began to boil.
4) part of the compound verbal modal predicate (with the modal expression
can’t help)
I couldn’t help staying in a hotel when on a business trip.
5) an object:
1. the gerund as direct object is used after:
admit enjoy put off
anticipate escape recall
appreciate excuse recollect
avoid fancy resent
delay feel like resist
deny forgive risk
detest involve suggest
discuss mention understand
can’t stand mind worth
can’t help miss
can`t bear postpone
consider practice

NB: Gerund objects can be introduced by IT. They follow predicates expressed by
the verbs: to believe, to consider, to find, to hold, to judge, to presume, to reckon,
to think, etc.
I find it strange his coming home on time.
2. the gerund as prepositional object is used after:
aim at apologize for blame for
accuse of approve of boast of
agree to assist in care for
99
complain about/of feel like put up with
congratulate on forgive for rely on
confess to have no difficulty in result in
consist in keep from sentence for smt to smt
count on learn of speak of
depend on look forward to stop from
devote to look like succeed in
(dis)approve of object to suspect of
discourage from persist in thank for
dream about/of praise for think of
hear of prefer smt to smt threaten with
help in prevent from worry about
insist on punish for
3. the gerund as prepositional object is used after adjectives, statives and past
participles:
be absorbed in be anxious be furious about/over
be afraid of about/for/over be grateful for
be aware of be astonished at/by be guilty of
be (in)capable of be certain about/of be keen on
be clever at be charged with be indignant at
be conscious of be content with be interested in
be fond of be delighted at be opposed to
be ignorant of be devoted to be preoccupied with
be proud of be(dis)pleased be responsible for
be sure of with/at/about be right in/*about
be absorbed in be disappointed at be selfish (in)
be/get accustomed to be engaged in be slow at
be amused at be engrossed in be sorry for/about
be angry at be excited about be surprised at
be annoyed at be fed up with be tired of

be/get used to
He suggested discussing my chances of promotion.
6)an attribute:
1. after nouns, mainly abstract nouns, followed by a preposition:
apology (for) excuse (for) idea (of)
art (of) experience (in/of) importance (of)
astonishment (at) fear (of) intention (of)
chance (of) habit (of) interest (in)
custom (of) harm (in) means (of)
disappointment (at) hope (of) method (of)
100
necessity (of) precaution (of) risk (of)
objection (to) preparation (for) right (of)
opportunity (of) problem (of) skill (in)
plan (for) process (of) surprise (at)
pleasure (of) prospect (of) thought (of)
possibility (of) reason (for) way (of)

It was my first experience of sharing with total strangers.


2.the gerund may be used as a premodifying attribute (in pre-position):
a dancing hall, a dining table, writing paper.
7)an adverbial modifier of:
1) time (introduced by the prepositions in, on (upon), before, after, at, since)
Only on/after hearing the request he decided to make a donation.
2) manner (introduced by the prepositions by, in, without)
He saved a good deal of time by going there by air.
3) attendant circumstances (introduced by the prepositions without, besides,
instead of, apart from)
She passed by without noticing me.
4) purpose (introduced by the preposition for, for the purpose of, with the object
of, with a view to)
This hall is used for dancing.
5)reason/cause (introduced by the prepositions for, for fear of, owing to, through,
because of, on account of, from)
He was in hospital for having been run by a car.
6) condition (introduced by the prepositions without, in case of, but for, in the
event of, subject to)
The order will be accepted subject to receiving your confirmation within 10
days.
7)concession (introduced by the prepositions in spite of, despite)
I didn’t object in spite of their moving in the wrong direction.
State the function of the Gerund and comment on its form:
Model:
1.Working full-time was extremely difficult. - Working is the Indefinite Gerund
Active which is used in the function of the subject. The Indefinite form of the
Gerund denotes an action simultaneous with that of the finite verb.
2. She felt better for having spent some days in the country. - Having spent is the
Perfect Gerund Active which is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of
cause. The Perfect form of the Gerund denotes an action prior to that of the finite
verb.
A.1. I can`t help smiling. 2. Would you mind opening the window? 3. She could
talk about impersonal things without turning the conversation into a lecture. 4. On
hearing the bell, she went to open the door. 5. Creating more jobs will reduce
101
unemployment. 6. You`d better stop talking on the phone for hours. 7. I`m thinking
of buying a color television. 8. John`s hobby is collecting all sorts of butterflies. 9.
It`s no use doing it. 10. In spite of everything she ceased speaking. 11. She didn`t
succeed in taking this post. 12. He had the gift of winning hearts. 13. He decided
not to go there without being invited. 14. Avoid using very long sentences. 15. We
lost ourselves through not knowing the way.
B.1. She entered without making a sound. 2. It`s no good making the mounting out
of a molehill. 3. Your health will improve as soon as you give up smoking. 4.
Imagine his surprise at seeing me. 5. Roy accused me of disliking him. 6. I`m
afraid of walking alone late at night. 7. He denied having eaten the cake. 8. After
being corrected by the teacher, the students' papers were returned to them. 9. I
wondered at my mother's having allowed the journey in the end, in spite of being
against it. 10. She made the jump perfectly without hesitating. 11. The best thing
for them is talking heart to heart. 12. At last he broke the silence by inviting
everybody to walk into the dining-room. 13. On being told the news she turned
pale. 14. The place is good for resting. 15. Your idea of staying here is really
splendid!
The Predicative Construction with the Gerund
(the Gerundial Construction)
Like any construction the Gerundial construction consists of two elements
- the nominal and the verbal one in which the verbal element is in predicate
relation to the nominal element. The verbal element is expressed by the Gerund;
the nominal element can be expressed in three ways:
 by a possessive pronoun.
It resulted in his being arrested.
 by a noun in the Possessive case.
I insist on our customer's being invited to this discussion.
 by a noun in the Common case.
Einstein being rewarded the Nobel price soon became widely known.
There are cases where the nominal element must be expressed by a noun in
the common case:
1. When the nominal element is expressed by two or more nouns.
I insist on Ivanov and Smirnov joining our group.
2. When the nominal element has an attribute in postposition:
He insisted on all Russian prisoners of war being returned to their
motherland.

102
3. When the nominal element is expressed by a noun denoting a lifeless
thing:
The captain insisted on the boat being unloaded at once.
4. When the nominal element is expressed by a pronoun that is not
possessive.
I hope I can rely on everything being done in a proper way.

The construction also has the following functions. Usually it forms:


1. the Сomplex Subject (in sentences introduced by the introductory IT)
It’s no use your telling me not to worry.
2. the Complex Predicative (after link verbs)
What annoyed me most was his being invited there regularly.
3. the Complex Object
I was irritated with him having been put in an awkward position.
4. the Complex Attribute
I don’t like the idea of Mary’s going home alone.
5. the Complex Adverbial Modifier
I stayed at the party a bit longer in spite of her having told me the news.
The Predicative Construction is nearly always rendered in Russian by a
subordinate clause introduced by то, что; тем, что; как; после того, как,
etc.
His being a foreigner was bad enough. - То,что он был иностранец,
было уже плохо.

State the function of the Gerundial Construction and comment on its use:
Model:
1.It resulted in his being arrested. - His being arrested is the Gerundial
construction consisting of the verbal and nominal elements in which the
Indefinite Gerund Passive being arrested is the verbal element which is in
predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by the possessive pronoun
his. It/the construction is used in the function of the Complex Object.

A.1. You must excuse my being so breathless, I'm not really breathless, it's just the
excitement. 2. I don’t like the idea of Mary’s going home alone. 3. The maid said
something about the American lady's having come back to Rodnik. 4. It was easy to
imagine Cave sitting silent... 5. She was interrupted by her father's voice and by her
father's hat being heavily flung from his hand and striking her face. 6. Besides, there's
no danger of it happening again. 7. Excuse my interrupting you. 8. I wonder at your
overcoming difficulties so easily. 9. He proposed our immediately telling the whole
story. 10. The rule against visitors entering the lab at the time of the experiment is
strict. 11. His having carried out the measurements so easily doesn’t surprise us. 12.
We insisted on their delivering the goods immediately. 13. He objected to the ships
103
leaving port in such stormy weather. 14. What annoyed me most was his being
invited there regularly. 15. I stayed at the party a bit longer in spite of her having told
me the sad news.

B.1. Jack laughed. Their being bothered amused him. 2. He was awakened by
someone knocking at the door. 3. There is something so inexpressibly absurd to me
in the idea of Caddy being married. 4. I was not surprised by Caddy’s being in low
spirits. 5. She laughed at the thought of her husband and Johnny looking after the
house. 6. He felt almost a gloomy satisfaction at the thought of all these disasters
happening at once. 7. What surprised us was his coming. 8. The idea of his coming
surprised us. 9. At last he began his answering. 10. He surprised us by his dancing.
11. You may use the room for your dancing. 12. After his coming we felt better.13.
In spite of her being busy she helped us. 14. She felt better owing to John’s
coming. 15. Jim hid behind the baskets for fear of his father punishing him.

The Gerund or the Infinitive?

Verbs + Infinitive + Gerund


be afraid of To be too frightened to do smth Be afraid of the result:
(a future action, the idea): Because I’m afraid of being
I’m afraid to go out. bitten by the dogs.

be ashamed (of) Feel sorry for a To regret, feel sorry for a prior
posterior/simultaneous action (+ action
to say/tell/inform/etc.) Nancy was ashamed of telling
I am ashamed to tell you that I him lies.
have failed my exam.
be sorry (for) Apologize for a Apologise for a prior action
posterior/simultaneous action (+to I am sorry for using your
say/tell/inform) phone.
I’m sorry to say this, but your
work is rather unsatisfactory.
begin, start With the verbs of mental activity A process:
and feeling: It started drizzling.
I began to feel cold.
The subject is an inanimate noun:
The barometer began to fall.
After Continuous Tenses:
It is starting to snow.
consider To regard as (считать): To think:
I consider him to be clever. I consider going to Italy.

104
dread It is sometimes used with Usually it is followed by a
infinitives such as "think" or gerund.
"consider."
He dreaded to think of the She dreaded taking the test.
consequences of his actions.
( means "did not want to think

forget Forget to do sth (a future activity): Forget a past event:


I forgot to lock the car. We’ll never forget visiting
Paris.
go on Finish doing smth and start doing Continue (about the same
smth else): activity):
After finishing her BA, she went She went on watching TV.
on to get a master’s degree.
hate Hate what one is about to do: Feel sorry for what one is
I hate to interrupt, but I must talk doing:
to you. I hate making you feel
uncomfortable.
like 1.To consider something to be 1.To like the process of doing
useful, necessary (to like the idea): something (general
I like to get up early. preference):
2.Smth concrete (a particular I like cooking.
reference):
I like to fish in this pond.
loathe (не In particular: In general:
выносить) I loathe to have to do this dirty I loathe travelling by air.
work.
mean To intend to do smth (to plan): Involve (значить):
He means to move to Newcastle. Working harder means getting
more money.
prefer Prefer + to-inf + (rather) than + inf In general (a habit) (general
without to: preference):
I prefer to read a book (rather) I prefer driving to cycling.
than watch TV.
would prefer Specific preference:
I’d prefer to have an early night -
tonight.

105
propose To intend, to plan: To suggest smth (but more
What do you propose to do now? formal):
He proposed dealing with the
problem without delay.
recommend With an object: Without an object:
(allow, advice, I recommend her to stop I recommend doing it.
encourage, smoking.
permit)
regret Be sorry to (in apologies), to To feel sorry about a past
announce bad news: action (сожалеть о прошлых
I regret to tell you that you have действиях):
failed (It’s a pity!) I regret telling lies.
remember Remember to do smth (не забыть) Recall a past event:
(a future activity): I don’t remember meeting him
Remember to read the before.
instructions.
remind Remind to do smth in the future Remind of a past event:
(напомнить): She reminded me of missing
She reminded me to feed the dog. the date.
stop Pause temporarily with the Finish, cease, give up an
purpose to start another activity activity ( an object.)
(чтобы) (adverbial modifier of Stop talking to each other,
purpose): please!
He stopped to buy some milk on
his way home.
teach/learn The result of the study is meant: Lessons or subjects of study
He learnt to read when he was 5. are meant:
He teaches skiing in the winter.
try Do one’s best; attempt Do smth as an experiment to
(пытаться): see what will happen
She tried hard to cope with her (пробовать):
new job. Try adding some more sauce
to your pasta.
want Wish (хотеть): Smth needs to be done:
I want to find a better job. Your dress wants cleaning.

Explain the differences in meaning between the verbs given:

106
A. 1. a. I like studying English grammar. b. I would like to study English grammar
today. 2. a. I remembered shutting the window. b. I remembered to shut the
window.3. a. The Browns stopped buying cigarettes last week. b. The Browns
stopped to buy cigarettes.4. a. Mrs. Smith prefers going to the cinema to watching
TV. b. Mrs. Smith prefers to watch TV tonight. 5. a. Mary has forgotten visiting
me last month. b. Mary has forgotten to visit me. 6. a. Dr. Clark encourages
drinking milk. b. Dr. Clark encourages his sons to drink milk. 7. a. He tried skating
for a change. b. He tried to skate. 8. a. Don’t forget doing your grammar exercises.
b. Don’t forget to do the grammar exercises. 9. a. It means more studying. b. She
means to study English harder. 10. a. I regret telling him the news. b. I regret to tell
you that you have failed your entrance examination. 11. a. The child wasn’t afraid
of staying alone. b. He was afraid to stay alone on such a thunderstorm. 12.a. If
you can’t go to sleep, try drinking some milk. b. We tried to get tickets but they
were sold out. 13.a. I am sorry for using your phone. b. I’m sorry to say this, but
your work is rather unsatisfactory.14.a. He hates reading. b. I hate to see you
unhappy. 15.a. She reminded me to feed the dog. b. She reminded me of missing
the date.

B.1. a. He usually begins doing his homework after dinner. b. He began to do his
homework after lunch yesterday. 2. a. Go on speaking about this matter. b. Go on
to say how you managed to escape from prison. 3. a. I dread thinking about Tom.
b. I dread to think about Tom. 4. a. Professor Ross permitted smoking during his
lecture. b. Professor Ross permitted her to smoke cigarettes. 5. a. Mr. Smith
proposed waiting till his wife comes back. b. Mr. Smith proposed to wait for his
wife. 6. a. Miss Sams acknowledged receiving the parcel. b. Miss Sams
acknowledged her boy friend to be very handsome. 7. a. I am learning signing. b. I
am learning to sing Verdi.8. a. I noticed her cross the road safely and meet her
parents. b. I noticed her crossing the road. 9. a. I heard him speak English. b. I
heard him speaking English. 10. a. When they saw their captain they stopped
talking. b. When they saw their captain they stopped to talk to him. 11.a. He
proposed dealing with the problem without delay. b. What do you propose to do
now? 12. a. I loathe travelling by air. b. I loathe to have to do this dirty work. 13. a
I consider going to Italy. b. I consider him to be clever.14. a. Nancy was ashamed
of telling him lies. b. I am ashamed to tell you that I have failed my exam. 15. a. It
started drizzling. b. I started to feel cold.

107
108