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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

высшего образования
«Брянский государственный университет
имени академика И.Г. Петровского»



СЕЛИФОНОВА Елена Дмитриевна

ШЛЫК Елена Владимировна



учебное пособие по английскому языку

для студентов 3-4 курса
отделений «Международные отношения» и «Регионоведение»


ББК – 81.2 Англ.я.73


Селифонова Е.Д., Шлык Е.В.The English language in Diplomacy and International Relations.
Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов 3-4 курсов, обучающихся по
специальности «Международные отношения» и «Регионоведение» – Брянск: РИО БГУ,
2017. - 136 с.

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 3 и 4 курсов отделений

«Международные отношения» и «Регионоведение» и освещает самые актуальные темы
дипломатии, международных отношений и нравственных проблем общества. Учебное
пособие имеет двухуровневую структуру и может использоваться для работы со
студентами, имеющими Intermediate Level and Advanced Level.


Чугунова С.А., доктор филологических наук, профессор

Стрекалова И.В., кандидат педагогических наук, доцент

Печатается на основании решения кафедры теории английского языка и переводоведения

Брянского государственного университета им. акад. И.Г. Петровского. Протокол № 7 от

© РИО БГУ, 2017

© Селифонова Е.Д., 2017

© Шлык Е.В., 2017


PART 1 The English language and its global role

Unit 1 The changing English language

Unit 2 Dialects and regional variants of English

Unit 3 Doublespeak and Political correctness

PART 2 International relations

Unit 4 Diplomacy and diplomats

Unit 5 International Organizations

Unit 6 New Geopolitical situation

Unit 7 National identity problem and patriotism in globalized world

Unit 8 Right for privacy vs surveillance

PART 3 Global Problems

Unit 9 Religion and science

Unit 10 Robots attack





PART 1 The English language and its global role

Unit 1 The changing English language

Text A Language

On 1 January 1800 there were approximately 140 million native speakers of

English in the world. Two centuries later that figure has almost tripled to nearly 400
million. Add to them about 100 million who speak English as a second language.
Consider how English has become the international language of communication, both
conventional and digital. Think, moreover, of the massive increase in literacy since 1900,
the legacy of the spread of universal education in the 19th-20lh centuries. The English
language is in an unprecedented number of hands.

In that same period, the world itself has changed beyond recognition. In 1900, no
powered heavier-than-air craft had left the Earth's surface, a hundred years later we
started looking in complacency at pictures of the Earth taken from outer space; various
forms of electronic communication have brought all corners of the globe into
instantaneous touch with each other. The old European colonies have become
independent nations, a clash of empires, East and West, has risen and subsided.
Sigmund Freud and his successors have delved into the recesses of the human psyche.
The computer has grown, and shrunk, from a set of winking throbbing cabinets big
enough to fill a room to a miniaturized component of everyday life, holding the threat of
and the promise of the future in its microcircuits. Given all that, it would be astonishing
if the vocabulary of English had not grown substantially. And so it has.

Words are a mirror of their times. By looking at the areas in which the vocabulary of a
language is expanding in a given period, we can form a fairly accurate impression of the
chief preoccupations of society at that time. The new technology of cars, aircraft, radio
and film dominated lexical innovation in the 1900s (aerodrome, wireless, cinema), along
with the vocabulary of psychology and psychoanalysis (libido). In the decades of World
War I and World War II, they were, not surprisingly, overshadowed by the broad
spectrum of military vocabulary (gas mask, shell shock, tank, Blitzkrieg, black-out, gas
chamber, kamikaze), but the return of peace brought other concerns to the fore:
reconstruction and the nuclear threat (Marshall Plan, superpower, the bomb). The 1950s
saw the first significant burgeonings of youth culture (beatnik, teen), which in its
various manifestations has continued to be a prolific contributor to the English
language. In the 1970s, concerns about the destruction of the environment became a long-
term source of new vocabulary (green, global warming), and the language of political
correctness and its proponents began to get into its stride (chairperson). The 1980s were
the decade of money, typified by the lifestyle terminology of those who made and
enjoyed it (yuppie, dinky). The major new player on the 1990s lexical scene was the
Internet (cybernaut, web site).

But it is not only the areas of activity characterized by high vocabulary growth that
give us clues about the direction the human race is going in. Our changing modes of
social interaction have a lexical fingerprint too. Take, for example, the 20th century's
rehabilitation of the notorious 'four-letter words', formerly so beyond the pale that no
dictionary would print them. As their common (and often euphemistic) epithet 'Anglo-
Saxon' suggests, they have been around a long time, and no doubt have been used
widely in casual speech, but the taboo imposed on them means that printed examples
from the 19th century and earlier are quite rare. It appears to have been the great
melting pot of World War I, bringing together people of all classes and backgrounds that
encouraged the spread of such words (fuck off). You still ran a great risk if you printed
them, though: between the wars, the likes of James Joyce and Henry Miller had their
work banned when they tried to, and as recently as 1960 in Britain the use of ‘Anglo-
Saxon words’ was one of the main issues in the trial of the Penguin Books edition of
D.H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover for obscenity.

What does this revolution in usage tell us about changes in English-speaking

society? It certainly seems to be part of a more wide spread tendency to upgrade the
status and acceptability of spoken English. Up to at least the 1960s, the notion of
'Standard English' was based exclusively on written English, and the colloquial language
was regarded as an irrelevant but occasionally embarrassing and annoying offshoot that
needed to be kept in its place. Now this is no longer so, and colloquial usages (both
lexical and syntactic) are widely accepted in situations (including quite formal writing)
where they would once have been considered inappropriate.

On the other hand, there are a good many usages which we now dare not allow to
pass our lips. In the 19' century, it was socially acceptable, if not positively desirable, to
be fat, and there was no stigma attached to the word 'fat'. Now, however, thinness is
fashionable, and to call someone fat is a monstrous insult. We have evolved a range
of euphemisms, from the colloquial chunky to the ponderous circumferentially
challenged, to avoid the direct accusation.

It sometimes seems as if the 20 th century were the century of euphemism. Much

of the doublespeak is counterbalanced by areas in which frankness has lately become the
rule, but there is no doubt that there are many areas which English speakers have
become embarrassed to talk about in the last hundred years. The one with highest profile
is probably racial differences. The fragmented history of English words for black people
down the decades illustrates this. Terms such as black and nigger fell under a taboo in
the middle part of the 20th century. They tended to be replaced by negro, but this went out
of favour in the 1960s. Back stepped black, revived by blacks themselves as a term of
pride. In the US it was joined by Afro-American and later African-American, in Britain
by Afro- Caribbean. The politically correct lobby enthusiastically revived the 18 century
person of colour, and added its own rather unwieldy member of the African Diaspora.

Then in 1980s US blacks subverted the whole process by reclaiming nigger, in the
assertive new spelling nigga.

By what mechanisms did English expand its vocabulary in the 20 lh century? There
are fundamentally five ways in which neologisms are created: by putting existing words
to new uses ( mouse in computers); by combining existing words or word parts and
forming what is called blends (motor + hotel = motel); by shortening existing words and
forming what is called initials (GP, NHS) or acronyms (AIDS, NATO); by borrowing
words from other languages, which are known as loan words or barbarisms (pizza,
anschluss, fuhrer, glasnost and peres'troika); by coining new words out of nothing
(Teflon, quark).That leaves a tiny residue of strange coinages which sometimes catch the
public imagination by their very outlandishness. A famous example of such coinages is
the wordsupercalifragilisticexpialidocious'.

(Taken from an introduction written by John Ayto to WORDS.


Comprehension tasks

1. What does the sentence “the English language is in an unprecedented number of

hands” mean?
2. What historic events made the world change beyond recognition in the past two
3. Do you agree that words are mirrors of their times?
4. Define the following notions - political vocabulary, the language of political
correctness, politically correct words and euphemisms.
5. Give the reasons for spreading "Anglo-Saxon words" and colloquial usages.
6. Point out the areas with the highest profile of doublespeak.
7. List the ways in which neologisms are created.
8. Give your own examples of the new vocabulary in the following areas:
technological, psychological, military, youth, environmental, political, social, the
9. Prepare short reports about Sigmund Freud, James Joyce, Henry Millerand
D.H. Lawrence

Task 1. Find in the article the words that answer the following definitions

1. the state of being able to read and write –
2. something passed on or left behind by someone –
3. a feeling of satisfaction with oneself or a situation without good reason –
4. a broad and continuous range of smth –
5. a feeling of shame or dishonour –
6. a new stem or branch –

7. to make smth or smb appear less important –
8. to make smth fit for use again –

9.producing many works –
10. widely known for smth bad –
11. expressing strong opinions, showing a confident belief in one's own ability –
12. difficult to use –

Task 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following word combinations and recall
how they are used in the text. Translate the sentences from the text into Russian.

1. conventional and digital language

2. legacy of the spread of universal education
3. to rise and subside, to grow and shrink
4. to delve into the recesses of the human psyche
5. in various manifestations
6. to have a lexical fingerprint
7. to upgrade the status of the language
8. area with highest profile of

Task 3. Explain in English the following word combinations

1. to bring concerns to the fore

2. burgeonings of youth culture
3. to get into the stride
4. formerly beyond the pale
5. to subvert the process
6. irrelevant and annoying offshoot
7. stigma attached to the word
8. politically correct lobby
9. outlandishness of coinages

Vocabulary Work



Subvert – 1.свергать; ниспровергать; свергнуть; ниспровергнуть; 2. разрушать;

разрушить; 3. смущать; развращать; подрывать мораль (чью-л.); извращать
(принцип); смущать (умы)
To subvert an agreement Plot to subvert a foreign government
subvert the process of detente
Convert –1. превращать; превратить; 2. переделывать; переделать; 3. обратить;
трансформировать; видоизменять; переставлять; перерабатывать; преобразовывать;
4. присваивать (имущество); конвертировать; обращать; 5. обращаться (в другую

convert to Christianity convert a warehouse to a dance-hall

convert smth. into smth. else convert securities into cash

Revert – 1. возвращаться (в прежнее состояние); возвратиться; вернуться;

возвращать; 2. повернуть назад; переходить к прежнему владельцу; 3.
проявлять атавистические признаки

revert the eyes revert to a custom revert to old habits

Pervert – 1. извратить; совращать; совратить; развращать; развратить; 2. искажать;

неправильно истолковывать; извращать; 3. портить.


pervert minds pervert the administration of justice

(sexual) pervert

Divert – 1. отводить; отвести; отклонять; отклонить; 2. отвлекать (внимание);

отвлечь; 3. забавлять; развлекать; позабавить; развлечь; 4. рассеивать;
отводить в сторону; переводить по другим каналам.


divert a sum to charity divert from a purpose

divert suspicion e.g. from himself divert the conversation
divert thoughts divert with an amusing story
flights were diverted
nothing will divert him from this trip

Avert – 1. отводить (взгляд; from); 2. отвести; отвлекать (мысли); 3. отвлечь;
отвращать (удар, опасность и т. п.); предотвращать


Avert a crisis avert a gaze avert a war

Invert – 1. перевёртывать; переворачивать; опрокидывать; перевернуть;

опрокинуть; 2. переставлять; менять порядок; переставить; изменить порядок;
инвертировать; 3. ставить вверх дном; вверх ногами; выворачивать.


invert the order of words in a sentence invert the natural order

Task 4. Find the words that answer the following definitions.

1. to entertain someone (FORMAL)

2. to cause something or someone to change direction
3. to try to destroy or weaken something
4. to become the property of a particular person again
5. to take someone's attention away from something
6. to prevent something bad from happening; avoid
7. to change something so that it is not what it was or should be, or to influence
someone in a harmful way
8. to (cause something or someone to) change in form, character or opinion
9. to return to doing, using, being or referring to something, usually something bad
or less satisfactory
10. to turn something upside down or change the order of two things
11. to turn away your eyes or thoughts
12. to use something for a different purpose

Task 5. Translate the sentences

1. By persistently remaining single a man converts himself into a permanent public

temptation. 2. While grief is fresh, every attempt to divert only irritates. You must wait
till it be digested, and then amusement will dissipate the remains of it. 3. Our best
intentions are sometimes subverted by our natural tendency to selfishness. 4. I used not to
like exercise, but my sister has converted me (to it). 5. Could we convert the small
bedroom into a second bathroom? 6. Why does the conversation have to revert to money
every five minutes? 7. When I die, the house will revert to my sister. 8. The history
teacher tried to pervert (= persuade into unacceptable sexual activity) the boys by
showing them pornographic magazines. 9. She told him he had a sick and perverted
mind. 11. He used a perverted form of socialism to incite racial hatred. 12. Our flight had

to be diverted to Stansted because of the storm. 13. Should more funds/money/resources
be diverted from roads into railways? 14. The war has diverted attention (away) from the
country's economic problems. 15. I averted my gaze/eyes while he dressed. 16. It took a
lot of effort to avert disaster. 17. In some languages, the word order in questions is
inverted (= the verb comes before the subject of the sentence).18. Cover the bowl with an
inverted plate. 19. It's a marvellous game for diverting restless children on long car
journeys. 20. Here the theme is inverted.

Task 6. Fill in the gaps with these verbs

1. We must not let our civil liberties be …ed by the current crisis. 2. Her ideas have been
shamelessly …ed to serve the president's propaganda campaign. 4. We …ed to the old
rules. 5.He … to (= starting believing in) Catholicism when he got married. 6. When the
bloody pictures were shown of the crime scene, several people …ed their eyes. 7. To …
something or someone is also to use them for a different purpose: The administration had
to … funds from the defense budget to pay for the emergency relief effort. 8. Only one of
the former prisoners …ed to criminal behaviour. 9. What's the formula for …ing pounds
into kilos? 10. When they divorced, she …ed to using her maiden name. 11.The will of
the people is being …ed by their elected representatives. 12. The last-minute agreement
…ed renewed fighting. 13. Traffic will be …ed through the side streets while the main
road is resurfaced. 14. In some languages, the word order in questions is …ed (= the verb
comes before the subject of the sentence).

Task 7. Translate into Russian (Level Intermediate)

1. Повстанческая (rebel) армия предпринимает попытки свергнуть правительство. 2.

Его жена приняла иудаизм. 3. Мы снова начали говорить о детях. 4. К сожалению,
журналисты часто искажают новости. 5. В связи с туманом маршрут был изменен:
наш самолет летел не в Сан-Франциско, а в Окленд. 6. Когда я умру, дом перейдет
моей сестре. 7. Мы постарались отвлечься от своих огромных финансовых
проблемах. 8. Они отвели взгляд, когда вошел король. 9. Этот разговор перевернул
мое представление о данном вопросе. 10. Некоторые языки умирают, не оставив
лексического следа после себя. 11. Очень трудно проникнуть в тайники
человеческой души и не ранить ее. 12. Заимствование английских слов не всегда
помогает усовершенствовать русский язык. 13. Русский язык – велик и могуч во
всех своих проявлениях. 14. Современное общество считает, молодежная культура
иногда выходит за рамки дозволенного. 15. Общее число языков в мире
уменьшается, а различия между ними увеличиваются.

Task 8. Translate into Russian (Level Advanced)

1. Всплеск развития молодежной культуры в 50-е годы оставил лексический след

во многих языках. 2. Разговорный английский расширил общепринятый
английский и многие слова, которые раньше были запрещены в литературном
языке, больше не считаются несоответствующими его нормам. 3. Он отвел взгляд,
когда мы задали этот вопрос. 4. Ученые-генетики часто обвиняются в том, что они
оказывают вредное (извращенное) влияние на природу. 5. Анна недавно приняла
ислам. 6. Писатели-фантасты, несомненно, приносят огромное число неологизмов в
свои языки, необычность придуманных ими слов часто привлекает внимание
читателей, и они становятся популярными. 7. Гражданская война в этом регионе
главным образом является следствием апартеида в его различных проявлениях. 8.
Компания должна направить больше ресурсов на исследовательскую работу. 9.
Когда в обществе появляются новые идеи и на передний план выходят новые виды
деятельности, в языке также происходят огромные перемены. 10. Трагедию можно
было бы избежать, если бы экипаж соблюдал технику безопасности.(to follow safety
procedures). 11. Чтобы получить точное представление о том, как изменился язык,
достаточно исследовать словарные и стилевые различия в литературе 19 и 20 вв.
12. Он снова (вернулся к прежней привычке) по утрам долго ваяется (to lazy) в
постели и в итоге опаздывает на работу. 13. В последнее время некоторые
выражения, которые были непопулярны в связи с их политической
некорректностью, вновь вернулись в мир политики. 14. Попытки подорвать
демократический процесс выдвинули на передний план вопрос о лояльности к
правительству. 15. Одним из решающих факторов расширения языка является
создание неологизмов, вызванное развитием общества. 16. Снижение налогов
отвлекло внимание от реальных экономических проблем страны. 17. Разговорный
язык больше не рассматривается как неприемлемая и вызывающая раздражение
ветвь языка, даже многие лингвисты в ряде случаев оправдывают использование
скандально известных слов в литературном языке, а писатели считают, что они
превосходят стандартную лексику своей экспрессивностью. 18. После показа было
проведено открытое обсуждение, частично касающееся тех шагов, которые могут
сделать школы и общины, чтобы рассеять (to dispel) негативное отношение,
окружающее труднообучаемых детей. 19. Ходят слухи о планах по повышению
статуса и реконструкции этого аэропорта для приёма международных рейсов.

Discussion Practice

Comment on the quotations

1. “Language is the only homeland.” Czesław Miłosz

2. “Language is the source of misunderstandings.” Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
3. The limits of my language means the limits of my world.” ― Ludwig
4. English language is sometimes more than a mere taste, judgment, and education –
sometimes it’s sheer luck, like getting across a street. E.B. White
5. I am always sorry when a language is lost, because languages are the pedigree of
nations. Samuel Johnson
Read the extract and express your point of view on the problem

“If you cannot understand my argument, and declare "It's Greek to me", you are quoting
Shakespeare; if you claim to be more sinned against than sinning, you are quoting
Shakespeare; if you recall your salad days, you are quoting Shakespeare; if you act more
in sorrow than in anger; if your wish is farther to the thought; if your lost property has
vanished into thin air, you are quoting Shakespeare; if you have ever refused to budge an
inch or suffered from green-eyed jealousy, if you have played fast and loose, if you have
been tongue-tied, a tower of strength, hoodwinked or in a pickle, if you have knitted your
brows, made a virtue of necessity, insisted on fair play, slept not one wink, stood on
ceremony, danced attendance (on your lord and master), laughed yourself into stitches,
had short shrift, cold comfort or too much of a good thing, if you have seen better days or
lived in a fool's paradise -why, be that as it may, the more fool you , for it is a foregone
conclusion that you are (as good luck would have it) quoting Shakespeare; if you think it
is early days and clear out bag and baggage, if you think it is high time and that that is the
long and short of it, if you believe that the game is up and that truth will out even if it
involves your own flesh and blood, if you lie low till the crack of doom because you
suspect foul play, if you have your teeth set on edge (at one fell swoop) without rhyme or
reason, then - to give the devil his due - if the truth were known (for surely you have a
tongue in your head) you are quoting Shakespeare; even if you bid me good riddance and
send me packing, if you wish I was dead as a door-nail, if you think I am an eyesore, a
laughing stock, the devil incarnate, a stony-hearted villain, bloody-minded or a blinking
idiot, then - by Jove! O Lord! Tut tut! For goodness' sake! What the dickens! But me no
buts! - it is all one to me, for you are quoting Shakespeare.”

― Bernard Levin https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/language?page=5

Unit 2 Dialects and regional variants of English

Pre-reading tasks
1. Read the scientific explanation of the terms ‘dialect’ and ‘accent’.
2. What is the difference between a dialect and a standard variant?
3. What differentiates a dialect from an accent?
4. What types of dialects are there in linguistics?
5. Find the information about the British dialects and make a presentation on the

A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language used by
people from a particular geographic area. The number of speakers, and the area itself, can
be of arbitrary size. It follows that a dialect for a larger area can contain plenty of (sub-)
dialects, which in turn can contain dialects of yet smaller areas, etc.

A dialect is a complete system of verbal communication (oral or signed but not
necessarily written) with its own vocabulary and/or grammar.

Standard and non-standard dialects

A standard dialect (also known as a standardized dialect or “standard language”) is a

dialect that is supported by institutions. Such institutional support may include
government recognition or designation; presentation as being the “correct” form of a
language in schools; published grammars, dictionaries, and textbooks that set forth a
“correct” spoken and written form; and an extensive formal literature that employs that
dialect (prose, poetry, nonfiction, etc). There may be multiple standard dialects associated
with a language. For example, Standard British English, Standard American English and
Standard Indian English may all be said to be standard dialects of the English language.

The concept of dialects should be distinguished from:

 sociolects, which are a variety of a language spoken by a certain social class;
 jargons, which are a variety of a language spoken by people belonging to the same
 slang, which is a very informal language that includes new and sometimes rude
words used only by particular groups of people such as criminals or

Varieties of language such as dialects, idiolects and sociolects can be distinguished not
only by their vocabulary and grammar, but also by differences in phonology.

In linguistics, an accent is a pronunciation characteristic of a particular group of

people relative to another group. In some cases, the term is also used to describe the
stress on a syllable.

Accented speech can affect a listener’s impressions about a speaker. In particular, non-
standard accents are often thought of less favorably than standard accents. This thought
process leads to prejudice against individuals with non-standard accents. Certain regional
accents lend positive or negative traits to speakers.

Text A

Symphony or Cacophony?

ISSUE 3/2003 Crossroads of Cultures English Today:

My wife and I have recently returned to Russia after several months in America. We had
been on short trips to the States many times before, but living there was a different
linguistic experience. Our stay made us realize the importance of the form of spoken
English, the way in which people actually speak, the sounds produced when speaking.

Outside the academic environment, in which we spent most of our time with well-
educated colleagues, we frequently had to ask people "could you repeat that, please" or to
"speak more slowly, please", after saying "Sorry, I didn't understand". Usually people
had no problem in understanding what I said to them, and when they did it was almost
invariably due to differences in word usage: lift (British English) / elevator (American
English), biscuit / cookie, and so on.

Despite such - relatively few - differences in vocabulary, I had no problems with

reading local newspapers, non-specialized books, and magazines. But local radio and
TV programmes often presented a problem in terms of pronunciation and speed of
speech. Many films on TV were largely incomprehensible. All of which goes to show
that the written English word is more "standardized" than the spoken. And non-
"standardized" oral English is a barrier to communication.

So what can be done about this sorry and confusing state of affairs?

Let's go back to my childhood in the Yorkshire Dales. There, most people spoke three
"languages": English with a Yorkshire accent, Yorkshire dialect, and "BBC English".
At school the beautiful Yorkshire dialect, full of words from the Vikings, was banned.
(Few English men or women outside Yorkshire would understand "Ista laikin tomorn?",
but Scandinavians could probably understand the meaning: "Are you playing [football,
rugby, cricket, etc.] tomorrow?")

Speaking with a Yorkshire accent at school was punished by some masters, and
very much discouraged by my mother, who told me that I would never get a good job if I
didn't speak the King's English! And I think that, in those days, she was right! So, at
school and at home, kids all spoke "R.P." English, but switched to a mixture of
Yorkshire accent and dialect when hiding behind the cricket pavilion, smoking a
cigarette. (In those days the health dangers of smoking were not known, and it was the
"grown-up" thing to do: "Where there's a man there's a Marlboro" and so on.)

But I digress. The written form of British English has been largely standardized for
centuries. Not so the spoken form. Regional accents abound. For such a small island
the number of accents is astonishing. I grew up under 200 kilometers from Newcastle
and had great difficulty in understanding the local accent. The dialect - Geordie - was,
and is, as comprehensible to me as Outer Mongolian. Clearly some sort of countrywide,
commonly accepted accent was, and remains, desirable.

There are some terms above which all mean more or less the same thing: BBC English,
Standard English, the King's/Queen's English, and R.P. They are all concerned with a
standard pronunciation of British English. As my dear friend Professor A. C. Gimson
put it in his "An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English", "... such a standard
pronunciation does exist, although it has never been explicitly imposed by any official
body." Although R.P. - Received Pronunciation - was not explicitly imposed by the BBC,
it was certainly strongly favoured for nationwide broadcasts, which lead to it becoming
very widely accepted as a speech model when in formal situations: at school, applying for
a job, talking with people from other parts of the country, and so on. A sort of internal
British lingua franca. But wait. Not only internal. External, too, largely due to the BBC
World Service. So R.P. became an international standard. Not only via the "Beeb", but
also via British teachers - not only of English - working abroad, and through highly
placed and influential people from the British Empire, later the Commonwealth, who
were trained in Britain.

So where was this form of pronunciation received from?

The short answer is that it came from the area with most social prestige: south-east
England, especially the London area, with its wealth, the Court, the Houses of
Parliament: the centre of power and influence.

Things have changed over the past few years. Regional broadcasting uses a mixture
of R.P. and regional accents, which I welcome. The main newscaster on World Service
news is sometimes an American. Very talented, but with an annoying habit of
pronouncing 100 as "hundert".

Many English language courses (my own included) have a variety of recorded
accents. Good! - In terms of helping students to understand, to "tune in" to different
forms of spoken English. But this needs to be counterbalanced by an emphasis on
Standard English pronunciation when it comes to speech production by the student.
R.P. is well established and documented, so why not use it as a model? With English
being used by more and more people around the world as a means of communication
between non-native speakers of English, it seems to me that we need to aim at a
standard. Otherwise there is a danger that various "Englishes" will grow apart and
become mutually incomprehensible in the spoken form.

Finally, a story that relates to usage rather than pronunciation.

An elderly American couple were on holiday in England, and came across the Tower of
Husband: "Gee, honey, ain't that cute?"
Wife: "Ain't? Elmer, Ain't? ... Isn't! Don't you know the Queen's English?"
Elmer: "Well, I always thought she was English."

Comprehension questions

1. Explain the title of the text. What’s the difference between symphony and
cacophony in terms of music?
a. Report on the BBC, the Commonwealth, lingua franca
b. Give all the terms to denote the standard pronunciation of British English.
c. How did it happen that R.P. became an international standard?
d. What area did R.P. come from?
e. Why is the author so annoyed by the existence of many “Englishes”?

Task 9. Give the Russian equivalents for the following word combinations; recall
how they are explained in the text and make up your own sentences with them.

academic environment
to be invariably due to
a barrier to communication,
to be discouraged by
to abound in
to be explicitly imposed by
newcaster on
to be counterbalanced by
to grow apart
to become mutually incomprehensible

Task 10. Explain in English the following words and word combinations

standardized English
non-standardized English
to be banned
nationwide broadcast

Task 11. Find in the text the words that answer the following definitions

1. a particular way of speaking, usu. connected with a country, area or social class -
2. a building beside sports field for the use of the players and those watching the game -
3. a tendency to behave in a particular way, esp. regularly over a long period -
4. something on which a copy is based -

5. filling with great surprise and perhaps disbelief -
6. of or in the side, esp. of the body -
7. on, of or for the outside-

8. to forbid, esp. by law -
9. to take away courage, confidence or hope from -
10. to turn aside from the main subject or line of argument and talk about smth else -
11. to concern -
12. to be in touch with what is happening or with what people are thinking or saying -


English is the second most widely spoken language in the world. It is the official
language of the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States, Canada, Jamaica, South
Africa, Australia and New Zealand and it is widely spoken in India. It is the language of
international business and science, of aviation and shipping. As so many people speak
English in so many countries, there are many different “Englishes”. The best form of
English is called Standard English and it is the language of educated English speakers.
The government, the BBC, the Universities, uses it and it is often called Queens English.
American English is the variety of the English spoken in the United States. It is different
from English in pronunciation, intonation, spelling, vocabulary and sometimes even
grammar! An Englishman goes to the town center to see a film while an American goes
downtown to see a movie. If an Englishman needs a pen he would ask you: "Have you
got a pen, please?" but the American would say:" Do you have a pen?" Australian and
New Zealand English, also called Australian English, are very similar. Especially in
pronunciation they are also similar to British English, but there are differences in
vocabulary and slang. Many terms, such as kangaroo, dingo, wombat and boomerang,
come from the Aboriginal language and many others from the Cockney dialect spoken by
the first settlers, The Londoners. Canadian English is different both from American and
from British English.

Herbert Agar wrote in his article in 1931“The English should try to cope with their
philological ignorance. They should train themselves to realize that it is neither absurd
nor vulgar that a language, which was once the same should in course of centuries
develop differently in different parts of the world. Just as French and Italian may be
described as divergent forms of modern Latin, so it would be helpful to think of the
language of Oxford and the language of Harvard as divergent forms of modern English. It
is perhaps a pity, from the point of view of international good feelings that the two forms
have not diverged a little further. At any rate, when an Englishman can learn to think of
American as a language, and not merely as a ludicrously unsuccessful attempt to speak as
he himself speaks, when he can learn to have for American only the normal intolerance
of the provincial mind for all foreign tongues, then there will come a great improvement
in Anglo-American relations. For even though Americans realize absurdity of the English
attitude toward their language, nevertheless they remain deeply annoyed by it. This is
natural, for a man’s language is his very soul; it is his thoughts and almost all his
consciousness. Laugh at a man’s language and you have laughed at the man himself in
the most inclusive sense…” This statement may refer to any of “Englishes” mentioned
Another American linguist John Algeo states in his essay “A Meditation on the
Varieties of English”, that “all linguistic varieties are fictions. A language system, such
as English, is a great abstraction, a fiction, analyzable into large areal varieties American,
Australian, British, Canadian, Northern Irish, Scots, Welsh, and so on. But each of those
is in turn an abstraction, a fiction”. The point, Algeo argues, is that even though these
terms American, Australian, Canadian English describe the reality that is in fact not
there, they are nonetheless useful fictions. “Useful” is the key term in Algeo’s argument,
but unfortunately he fails to adequately define in what way these fictions are useful. The
only definition of usefulness he offers is this: “without such fictions there can be no
linguistics, nor any science. To describe, to explain, and to predict requires that we
suppose there are stable things behind our discourse”. This explanation hardly seems to
clarify the situation. The claim that the fictions of national Englishes are useful because
they are the foundation for linguistics is a tautology that serves more to undermine
linguistics than to justify those fictions. Further, Algeos points that all science is based on
certain necessary fictions is perhaps true, though usually science attempts to resolve
known fictions into more stable, at least less fictional truths. Finally, the role of
predicting language change hardly seems an essential component of linguistics. Algeo
returns to the term “useful” in his conclusion. He suggests that the common practice of
equating “English” with UK English, and the English of England in particular, is one of
these useful fictions. How or in what way he never makes clear. The suggestion that
national boundaries are convenient regional groupings for studying a linguistic
community is valid, and perhaps there is some “usefulness” in studying that linguistic
community as such provided there is indeed a unique or binding set of linguistic features
shared by that group. But by emphasizing Algeos remark that “all linguistic varieties are
fictions”, we may argue that in certain circumstances, “Canadian English” being one, the
“usefulness” of the fiction is so limited, that not only is it almost purposeless but it can
and does result in negative social and political effects.

Comprehension questions

1. Read the text and name all the regional variants of English mentioned in Text B1.
2. Explain the statement by Herbert Agar “The English should try to cope with their
philological ignorance”. Do you agree with him? Why? Why not?
3. Find out the peculiar features of the basic regional features – British English,
American English, Canadian English and Australian English. Make reports and
presentations on each variant.

Task 12. Give the Russian equivalents to the following words and word
combinations. Make your own sentences using your active vocabulary.

to cope with ignorance

divergent forms

a ludicrously unsuccessful attempt
the normal intolerance of the provincial mind
in the most inclusive sense
to be analyzable into
to adequately define
to clarify the situation
to undermine linguistics
to resolve smth into smth
valid, binding set of linguistic features

Task 13. Explain the given notions in English

a linguistic community

Task 14. Insert the prepositions where necessary

Thank God we live … an age when a Hungarian pilot can talk … a Chinese
…duty …. Moscow airport’s control tower. Thank God that we can discuss trade,
medicine or the weather … a common language … any corner … the world. Thank God
… the evolution … a world language … which we can exchange our ideas and thoughts
…. the need … an interpreter. And yet, there is just one warning signal. Has English
achieved the status … the world language or is it becoming a mother tongue … foreign
soils? Replacing the variety … human expressions and thoughts … distant lands would
be like cutting … the supply … oxygen. While it is an advantage to everyone that there
are millions who use English … addition … their regional languages and their mother
tongues, it would be wrong to confuse the role … a world language with that … a mother
tongue. What a loss it would be … our colourful planet if all the thought processes
followed the same route, where the potential … distinctive human achievements were
lost and where all … us spoke alike, dressed alike, ate the same food, read the same
fiction and enjoyed the same music. This is already beginning to happen in places like
Ethiopia, Nigeria and India. The miracle … human variety is … danger …. disappearing.

Text С From Seaspeak to Singlish: celebrating other kinds of English

The Guardian 2017 by Rosie Driffill

It was recently reported that the government is being urged to create opportunities for
Britons to learn languages like Polish, Urdu and Punjabi, in order to effect more social
cohesion. According to Cambridge professor Wendy Ayres-Bennett, language learning,
and indeed social integration, should not be a one-way street; rather, the onus should also
fall on British people to learn community languages.

For me, this idea of a two-way street taps into a wider question about linguistic influence
and evolution. There is interest and joy to be had not only in learning the languages of
other cultures, but also in appreciating the effect they might have had on English.

Part of that process is ceding British English to the prospect of change, noting the ways in
which ethnically marked forms of English, such as Bangladeshi and African-Caribbean
varieties, have played their part in shaping how new generations across the country will
speak: take Multi-Cultural London English, the dialect that has almost completely
replaced Cockney on the streets of the capital.

Outside the UK too, creoles and dialects have bent, broken and downright flipped the
bird at the rules, offering not only musicality and freshness, but new ways of conceiving
of language that staunch protectionism doesn’t allow for.

Grammar rules have their place, of course, insofar as they offer a framework for
precision and comprehension. But rules can be learned to be broken, leading to the
formation of identities, cultural protests and unique means of expression.

Not persuaded? Then consider these examples of syntactic rule-bending and linguistic
intermarriage that have taken English into intriguing and delightful new directions.

Irish English

Otherwise known as Hiberno-English, this refers to dialects spoken across the island of
Ireland. Frank McCourt immortalised West and South-West Irish English in his memoir
Angela’s Ashes, with its liberal use of the definite article (“Do you like the Shakespeare,
Frankie?”), and the unbidden musicality that comes with inverted word order (“Is it a
millionaire you think I am?”).

Some of my friends from Northern Ireland will plump for the past simple form of a verb
where a past participle is usually required, saying things like: “They’d never have did it
had they knew.” Rule breaking at its most ballsy: and it’s music to my ears.


Short for Colloquial Singaporean English, a creole language for which English is the
lexifier (meaning it provides the basis for most of its vocabulary) plus words from Malay,
Tamil and varieties of Chinese. The Singaporean government rallies against it at every
turn with Speak Good English campaigns, to the detriment of some extremely interesting
grammatical structures.

Take Singlish’s being topic-prominent, for example: like in Mandarin, this means that
Singlish sentences will sometimes start with a topic (or a known reference of the
conversation), followed by a comment (or some new information). For example, “I go
restaurant wait for you.” Grammatically, it’s worlds apart from “I’ll be waiting for you at
the restaurant,” but it’s evolved in a region where that kind of sentence structure is the
order of the day.

Belizean creole (Belize Kriol)

Another English-based creole language, similar to Jamaican patois, which offers some
compelling takes on tense. The present tense verb does not indicate number or person,
while the past is indicated by putting the tense marker mi in front of the verb (“ai mi ron”
- I ran), but this is optional and considered superfluous if a time marker like “yestudeh”
(yesterday) is used.

Basic English

Basic English was invented by CK Ogden in 1930. Designed to allow language learners
to acquire English quickly and communicate at a very basic level, Ogden managed to
reduce the language to 850 words, including only eighteen verbs!

A controlled natural language (CNL) based on English that provides a lingua franca for
sea captains to communicate. First conceived in 1985, the premise is simple, grammar-
free phrases that facilitate comprehension in often fraught and dangerous situations. It has
now been codified as Standard Marine Communication Phrases.

Ultimately, English grammar has always been in flux: both in its native land and abroad.
When it comes to ‘offshoots’ of the language, whatever label we apply – be it dialect,
patois, creole or CNL – each exists as a yardstick for linguistic evolution, and ought to be
celebrated as such.

Source: https://www.theguardian.com/media/mind-your-language/2017/mar/11/from-

Task 15 Translate from English into Russian and make situations of your own.

1. to create opportunities for Britons

2. to effect more social cohesion
3. to cede British English to the prospect of change
4. to offer a framework for precision and comprehension
5. linguistic intermarriage
6. the lexifier
7. rallies against smth at every turn
8. superfluous
9. to facilitate comprehension
10. to be in flux

Task 16 Find in the article the words that answer the following definitions
Verbs –
1. Arrange (laws or rules) into a systematic code. Arrange according to a plan or
2. Learn or develop (a skill, habit, or quality); Come to have (a particular
reputation) as a result of one's behaviour or activities.
3. Shake or pat (a cushion or pillow) to adjust its stuffing and make it rounded and
soft. Become rounder and fatter. Decide definitely in favour of (one of two or
more possibilities).
4. Try earnestly or persistently to persuade (someone) to do something.

Nouns –
1. The whole system and structure of a language or of languages in general, usually
taken as consisting of syntax and morphology (including inflections) and
sometimes also phonology and semantics.
2. A standard used for comparison.
3. A language that is adopted as a common language between speakers whose native
languages are different., A mixture of Italian with French, Greek, Arabic, and
Spanish, formerly used in the eastern Mediterranean.

Task 17 Translate sentences into Russian

1. According to his theory, humans produce language through a deep structure that
enables them to generate and transfer their own grammar to any other language.
2. But seeing the world as we do, and being informed about the multiple courses of
its history, we can also see that the spread of a universal common language, a
lingua franca, does not actually require the loss of smaller languages.
3. By the 1960s he had acquired another reputation, that of guerrilla leader.
4. Despite her refusal to buy anything, the salesman measured her bed while she lay
on it and plumped up pillows around her back and feet.
5. Diversity is still measured by the yardstick developed by Russian scientist N I
Vavilov half a century ago.
6. If you don't quite see the point after the first one, I urge you to persist and
everything will become clear.
7. In codifying the grammatical rules of Sanskrit as he did, Panini was instrumental
in closing the language.
8. Progress towards democracy and towards freedom of press are the standard
Western yardsticks to judge how China is developing politically.
9. Specifically military skills were acquired by actual practice and performance
under supervision.
10. ‘The company had spoken to other food companies and even considered closing
the unit before plumping for a management buyout.’
11. We urge him to persuade the president to help mediate the situation.’
12. English is the lingua franca of computer software.’
13. In other words, it is a lingua franca used between those for whom English is not
their native language, but the only common language in which any sort of
communication is possible.’

Unit 3 Doublespeak and Political correctness

Text A Doublespeak

Doublespeak’s Definition
We hear and read doublespeak every day, but what, exactly, is doublespeak? Webster's
dictionary defines doublespeak with these words: evasive, ambiguous, high-flown
language intended to deceive or confuse.
Doublespeak’s Forms
Doublespeak can be classified into several different types. Being able to recognize the
different forms doublespeak can take can help you spot doublespeak more easily.
1. Euphemisms are words that attempt to soften, hide, or distort reality by putting the
thing described into a better light, making the object it describes sound less frightening,
less threatening, or less offensive:

 categorical inaccuracy or terminological inexactitude: a lie

 constructive dismissal, voluntary severance, vocational relocation, or career
assignment and relocation: fired or laid off the job
 senior citizen or the chronologically advantaged: old

2. Jargon is a specialized language used by a particular professional, trade, or hobby

group; this specialized language used in discourse with lay audiences; overly-complex
terms used to impress others:

 organoleptic analysis: the act of smelling something

 fused silicate: glass
 distributionally conservative notions: conservative economic policies

3. Gobbledygook is a complicated language, especially in an official document, which

seems to have no meaning as many long, sophisticated words (think «gobs of words»)
used in long, convoluted sentences to confuse the audience and hide the real issue of the

Here's a classic piece of gobbledygook from Alan Greenspan. (It's OK to laugh when you
read this. As Lutz mentions, if we all laughed at statements such as these, perhaps the
people making the statements would be forced to quit.)

It is a tricky problem to find the particular calibration in timing that would be

appropriate to stem the acceleration in risk premiums created by falling incomes without
prematurely aborting the decline in the inflation-generated risk premiums.

4. Inflated language is a language that uses puffed-up, important sounding words to give
commonplace things and events an elevated, glowing appearance:

 negative patient care outcome: the patient died

 mental activity at the margins: insanity
 reutilization marketing yard: junkyard

Doublespeak’s Results

Doublespeak is insidious because it can infect and eventually destroy the function of
language, which is communication between people and social groups.

-William Lutz

So, what's the all the fuss about doublespeak? Nearly everyone uses it, we see it
everywhere – as long as we know it's out there, it can't affect us, right? WRONG!!
Doublespeak corrupts thought, destroys communication, and erodes trust.

Lutz provides several defining attributes of doublespeak:

 misleads
 distorts reality
 pretends to communicate
 makes the bad seem good
 avoids or shifts responsibility
 makes the negative appear positive
 creates a false verbal map of the world
 limits, conceals, corrupts, and prevents thought
 makes the unpleasant appear attractive or tolerable
 creates incongruity between reality and what is said or not said

Doublespeak’s Influence
The words we use to ask questions or to label an issue will influence our actions or alter
the way we see the issue.
-William Lutz

 Are you in favor of welfare? No? Then how about assistance to the poor?
 Do you think the US should spend more on the military? Or would you rather
support the national defense?
 Are you in favor of foreign aid? Well, how about assistance to other countries?
As you can see from these examples, words are incredibly powerful in shaping our
perceptions about issues. In the world of doublespeak, no word is used idly! Each word is
carefully chosen, with its particular nuances and shades of meaning, to fulfill the mission
of the speaker or writer.

More detailed look at euphemisms as a kind of doublespeak

A euphemism (from Greek euphemos ‘auspicious/good/fortunate speech/kind) is

an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the
listener than the word or phrase it replaces, or in the case of doublespeak to make it less
troublesome for the speaker.
Many euphemisms fall into one or more of these categories:
- Terms of foreign and/or technical origin (derriere, copulation, perspire, urinate,
security breach, prophylactic);
- Abbreviations (SOB for "son of a bitch", BS for "bullshit");
- Abstractions (it, the situation, go, left the company, do it);
- Indirections (behind, unmentionables, privates, live together, go to the bathroom,
sleep together).
In religion Euphemisms for God and Jesus are used by Christians to avoid taking
the name of God in a vain oath, which would violate one of the Ten Commandments.
Euphemisms for hell, damnation, and the devil, on the other hand, are often used
to avoid invoking the power of the adversary.

Task 18 Match the euphemism and the phrase it stands for

1. restroom vomit bag / barf bag

2. acting like rabbits, making love to, garbage dump

getting it on, doing it, or sleeping
3. motion discomfort bag / air-sickness hacking
4. sanitary landfill used cars

5. 3rd party unauthorized use toilet room

6. ill-advised cancer

7. pre-owned vehicles Where can I wash my hands? or Where can

I powder my nose?

8. Correctional facility having sexual intercourse with

9. the big C toilet paper

10. bathroom tissue, t.p., or bath tissue very poor or bad

11. custodian jail

12. sanitation worker/ sanitation janitor


13. Where can I wash my hands? or garbage man

Where can I powder my nose?

Task 19. Paraphrase euphemisms using plain English; find euphemisms with the
same meaning.
1. resettlement camp
2. mentally challenged
3. pre-owned vehicles
4. sunshine units
5. to neutralize the target
6. collateral damage
7. lethal injection
8. outgassing, runoff
9. to see a man about a horse (a dog)
10. deceased
11. the dearly departed
12. to push up daisies, to sleep the big sleep
13. to take a dirt nap or six feet under
14. terminological inaccuracy, categorical inaccuracy, terminological inexactitude
15. constructive dismissal, voluntary severance, vocational relocation, or career
assignment and relocation
16. senior citizen /the chronologically advantaged

Task 20. Sort out the words given at the end of the text to fill in the gaps.
Source: http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/5552

Euphemisms substitute a more pleasant word or phrase for one that is, for any reason,
objectionable. They express unpleasant things in less harsh and direct ways: ............... (1)
for die,………… (2) for sweat, ………… (3) for corpse, ………..(4) for drunk. Most
common euphemisms are associated with the basic facts of existence – birth, age, death,
sex, the bodily functions – and often seem necessary for politeness or tact. We are more
comfortable describing a good friend as one who is……………. (5) and likes to drink
than as a fat drunk. And in such contexts these terms are harmless.

But the use of euphemisms to distract us from the realities of work, unemployment,
poverty, and war is at best misleading and at worst dishonest and dangerous. Today we
take for granted such terms as………… (6) for plumber, ………….. (7) for undertaker,
and …………… (8) for janitors. Such terms perhaps help protect the feelings of
individuals and give them status. But the individuals themselves still have to sweat
pipes, prepare bodies for burial, and sweep floors - in short do work that is hard or
unpleasant. And if terms make us forget that reality they are misleading. It is a short step
further to language consciously intended to deceive. Such language gives
us…………. (9) for bombing, …………… (10) for killing people and destroying their
homes, …………. (11) for retreat, …………… (12) for spying, and ………… (13) for
lies. Such phrases are downright dishonest. They are created for the sole purpose of
distracting us from realities that we need to know about. Slums and ghettos are no
less slums and ghettos because we call them the ..……… (14). And if you're fired,
you're out of a job even if you've been …………. (15) or ………… (16).

1. maintenance people 9. inoperative statements

2. mortal remains 10. protective reaction
3. pass away 11. visual surveillance
4. funeral director 12. terminated
5. strategic withdrawal 13. Pacification
6. stout 14. inner city
7. deselected 15. sanitation engineer
8. perspire 16. intoxicated

Task 21. Consider a new list of phrases containing instances of doublespeak and
euphemisms. Explain in plain English what they really mean.


SURVEILLANCE for decades.
2. One of my best friends is currently categorized as a DISPLACED HOMEMAKER.
3. Military commanders usually warn soldiers not to FRATERNIZE with the local
4. ARTIFICIAL DENTURES are believed to have inspired people with confidence.
5. Make sure your niece does not bring a DARKEY into the family.
6. The company spent $12 million on CONTRIBUTIONS.
8. A true NEW RUSSIAN can hardly do without a LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT.
9. He took us by surprise in our BIRTHDAY SUITS.
10. The Americans were shocked when they heard about the number of CRIMINAL
OPERATIONS performed annually on schoolgirls.


Political Correctness in the USA

“All men are created equal.” This 18th-century statement was a reaction to royal rule.
The rule of law was supposed to replace the rule of man. “Justice is blind”.
Unfortunately, the law was discriminatory. It treated women, slaves, children, non-
citizens, etc. differently. However, the strong individualism of the settlers reinforced
egalitarianism. Discrimination in the law also diminished. You cannot just legislate away
the social practices of centuries. Attitudes are resistant. The language is resilient. Equal
rights for women and minorities have been legislated; but there is still a lot of fine-tuning
to be done. This is enforced in part by the ubiquitous guns. America continues to resist
gun control. More importantly, Americans love to drag each other into court. Lawyers
encourage this. If you sue someone, you pay the lawyer only if you win.

Originally, political correctness meant that language and social practices should
correspond to spirit of the law. Language and gestures shape thought, which shape action.
The first step was to discourage derogatory names for minorities, such as “wop” or
“kike”. The offending “nigger”, “boy”, “black Sambo”, “blackie”, “colored” were
changed to “Negro”, then “black”, and today “Afro-American”. Some terms were
considered implicitly derogatory. For example, the “Indian”, had been “damaged” by
Hollywood stereotypes. Today “Native American” is more politically correct. “Spic” is a
shortening of “Hispanic”, but the former is insulting, and the latter is politically correct.

More difficult to change is the orientation of the language towards males. For example, a
middle-aged unmarried male is given the neutral term “bachelor”, but the older
unmarried woman is given the derogatory term “spinstress”. A “Sir” is someone knighted
by the Queen, but a “Madam” runs a brothel11. A male “escort” is a bodyguard or guide.
A female “escort” is a high-paid prostitute. “The doctor treated his patient” is classically
correct, unless it is known that the doctor is female.

This last example has found a “politically correct” solution, even though it complicates
the grammar. In America, the classic rule of noun-adjective agreement has been
discarded. Now: “The doctor treated their patient.” This was easy to introduce. The
agreement rule had earlier been amended for words such as “everybody” or “everyone”,
when the sense was plural, but the form was singular. Example: “Everybody loves their
freedom” in the J7 commercial.

Another example. The word “man” means not only “male” but also “humanity”. “All
men are created equal” is therefore ambiguous. The politically correct version would be
“All humans are created equal.” The popular series Star Trek changed its “...mission to
go where no man has gone before” to “...where no one has gone before”.

It used to be natural to include “man” in the name of the male-dominated professions.

This is today politically incorrect. “Fire-fighter” replaces “fireman”, and “police officer”
replaces “policeman”. One says “congressperson” instead of “congressman”, “chair”
instead of “chairman”, “spokesfolks” instead of “spokesmen”. A “garbage man” has
become a “sanitation worker”, or even a “sanitation engineer”. Even objects are renamed:
“manhole covers” are now “sewer access entry points” and the term “chess piece” is
favored over “chessman”. The reverse is also true. Traditionally female professions are
renamed. In a plane, you call a “flight attendant”, not a “stewardess”. “Meter maids” used
to give fines for illegal parking. Now “parking enforcement officers” do it.

The fundamental principle is: try not to offend. For example, the insulting term “invalid”
is replaced by a neutral “handicapped”. However, positive is better than neutral.
Therefore the terms “physically (or mentally) challenged” and “differently abled” have
become widespread.

Language is not the only aspect of political correctness. Due to the rise in known cases of
pedophilia, it is no longer politically correct to pat an unknown child on the head in
public. Also, there are more suits for sexual harassment — false as well as real. Therefore
male professors and doctors never see a female student or patient alone in a closed office.
To be politically correct (“PC”) is not only in good taste, but also safe.

Being “PC” is also good for advertising and vote-getting. Americans worship youth. To
be reminded that one is “old” or even “aged” is uncomfortable. But if “senior citizens” is
a euphemism, “respected citizens” is a misnomer. “The third age” sounds like the Riddle
of the Sphinx. The “golden age” is definitely not golden. But nonetheless, “Golden Age
Retirement Villa” is a common name for a common living area for “the aging.”

The British have allowed similar language change. On both sides of the Atlantic, one
refers to “sex workers” instead of “prostitutes”. Your chromosomes determine your
“gender”, not your “sex”. In general, however, the phenomenon is stronger in the USA.
America calls itself “The Land of the Free”. Well, maybe, but you must still watch your

Comprehensive Questions

1. Give the definition to the notion “political correctness”.

2. What is the difference between Political correctness and Doublespeak.
3. In what way is Political Correctness connected with euphemisms.
4. Scan the text and write out all the examples of a politically correct language.

Task 22 Read the article about Political Correctness and its aftereffects for the


Oscar, Hollywood's Politically Correct Award

(by Greg Crosby)

The Academy Awards show will be on this Sunday (I'm still a little bugged that
they changed it from Monday. I don't know why, but it seemed more exciting on
Mondays somehow) and last week the Screen Actors Guild had their awards show.

Let's focus on the SAG awards for a second. For quite some time now the Guild has
done away with the actress designation preferring to use the more politically correct
term, Female Actor. The categories are Best Male Actor and Best Female Actor. If the
purpose was to have equal designations, I suppose they could have just as easily gone the
other way and made the categories Best Male Actress and Best Female Actress. You
know, I actually like that better. They really should have consulted me first.

The fact is, if they truly wanted to address all actors fairly, equally, and politically
correctly, then they should do away with the male and female gender labels altogether.
Let's be gender nonspecific and just have one Best Acting award given to the one actor,
male or female, who brought in the best performance for that year. Listen, if you want
gender equality then let's really have it.

And while we're on the subject, aren't the designations male and female separatist
by definition? Men and women, boys and girls, lads and lassies, guys and dolls — all
separatist and therefore unequal by their very nature. Why not do away with those sexist
terms, not only in acting, but in normal daily life? Just call people persons without any
reference to gender at all. No differentiation whatsoever. Instead of the men's room and
women's room, there would be one large people's room (or person's room if you prefer).
Clothing would be devoid of any gender references, too — just different sizes and
different styles. And let's lose the children labels as well. After all, children are just
people that happen to be younger and smaller, right?

For quite awhile now P.C.A.M.P.A.S. (Politically Correct Academy of Motion

Picture Arts And Sciences) has used the phrase, "... and the award goes to..." Replace that
bad old judgmental term, "... and the winner is..." That way they can have their contest
without actually having to refer to the winner of that contest as the winner — even
though that is exactly who the award recipient is — the winner. But, you see, the word
winner is a negative word because it makes the other four contestants, by process of
elimination, losers — even though that is exactly what they become when they don't win.

But getting back to those best acting awards, I believe it's high time that they be
completely, utterly 100 percent all-inclusive. Yes, only one Best Acting award a year
should be awarded — but that category should not be exclusive to human beings. I think
the award should take into account non-human performances also. Remember the
drunken horse in "Cat Ballou?" Even Lee Marvin, when accepting his Oscar for that
picture, said that the horse really should have gotten the award.

How many times have you seen an animal upstage a human actor in a movie?
Plenty. Is it so far-fetched to think that in any one year, perhaps the only creature who
would truly deserve the acting award might be an animal? Think of all those great dog
actors like Lassie, Rin Tin Tin, Asta, and Beethoven. Think of Trigger. Gentle Ben. And
don't tell me that Johnny Weissmuller's acting was any better than the chimpanzee in
those "Tarzan" films.

Why stop with animals? Plants are living things too. Shouldn't Audrey II, the plant
in "Little Shop of Horrors," have at least been nominated for an Oscar? Or the field in
"Field of Dreams?" After all, the field played a part in that movie every bit as important
as the human actors. Heck, it even got the title role. And what about the mashed potatoes
in "Close Encounters of The Third Kind?" Deserving of at least a supporting nomination,
don't you think?

I don't believe best acting awards should include animated, stop-action, or computer
generated characters, however. They aren't real. Besides, you've got to draw the line
somewhere — otherwise everything would be eligible for a best acting award. And that
just wouldn't be fair.

Comprehension and discussion questions:

1. What do you know about Hollywood, Oscar and the Screen Actors Guild?
2. Why has the Guild done away with the actress designation? What can this kind of
reasoning lead to in Academy awards show?
3. How is political correctness viewed in normal daily life?
4. In what spheres of life should people be PC?
5. What examples of PC does the author give besides gender reference?
6. Where does the author suggest drawing the line both in best acting awards and in
ordinary life?

Task 23 Translate the following word combinations into Russian and look up the
sentences which contain them in the text.

1. equal designations
2. to be separatist by definition
3. to be devoid of references
4. to by process of elimination
5. to be exclusive to
6. to upstage smb in
7. to draw the line at/between
8. to be eligible for an award

Task 24 Use the words from the previous task in the following sentences.
1. How can a person _____ humor be employed in the company's public relations?
2. It's a question of finding the mean between too lenient treatment and too severe
punishment. One should know where _____.
3. Men and women _____to participate in any capacity and under conditions of
equality in the UN principal and subsidiary organs.
4. The luxury suite in the hotel, spacious and decorated in an antique style is _____
presidents and high-ranking officials.
5. The police established the identity of the dead man _____.
6. The task of any chief executive officer is to ensure that the staff have fair _____.
7. The two politicians embarked on their political careers pursuing the interests of
one and the same party but ended up in the leadership of the parties _____. .
8. The young actor who _____ a famous star in the performance truly deserves the
acting award.

Vocabulary Work

Task 25 Analyze the clusters of derivatives and fill in the gaps.

to equal — (un)equal — equally — equal — (in)equality — to equalize

1. _____ disturbing were comments made by Sir H. O., chairman of the Commission
for Racial _____.
2. New Labour academics think the notion that one in four Britons is living in
poverty actually measures _____, which has certainly increased, rather than
3. None of the diplomats can _____ the Foreign Secretary's skills and mastery as an
4. Representatives of all social groups and ethnic minorities should get _____ pay
for _____ work.
5. The candidate was reported to be competing on _____ terms, which caused a
6. The diplomats chose a neutral country so that they could meet on _____ terms.
7. The person who leads a group of people but is not seen as being better or more
important than the other members of the group is first among _____.
8. The ruling party's policy was _____the tax burden.
to separate — separate — separatist — (in)separable — separation — separatism
1. _____ minorities from each other is sometimes the only way of preventing riots
and clashes.
2. He rejected the validity of a common culture, saying that black children needed to
be taught and to have a _____ curriculum.
3. In the case of _____ or divorce, it is the children's needs that should come first.

4. It is not clear whether such interests do more harm than good in their emphases on
racism, discrimination and a _____ agenda.
5. Other nations, such as China and Burma have seized the opportunity to link
domestic ethnic _____ with the terrorist network.
6. Some claim that the issue of political correctness is _____ from the issue of
human rights.

to exclude — exclusive — exclusively — exclusion

1. He writes _____ for the Financial Times.
2. His _____ from the negotiations was widely commented on by the press.
3. In an _____ interview the Prime Minister dwelled on the economic aspects of the
4. This type of activity _____ to people who are extremely fit.
5. You can't keep going with a society where many _____ unless you have gated
to design — designing — design — designer — to designate — designation

1. As a result of promotion his official _____ was the editor of the Daily Telegraph.
2. The _____ for the new residence approved, the builders got down to work the next
3. The official residence _____ for holding receptions and parties and hosting
exhibitions and sales conferences.
4. The residence also _____ as an emergency centre in the event of an attack or any
unexpected upheaval.
5. The staff was impressed by the work of the _____ whose intricate patterns yielded
instant credit to him.

Text C Sensitive Language

Sensitive language is a linguistic instrument of sexism. Sexism is both discrimination

based on gender and the attitudes, stereotypes, and the cultural elements that promote this
discrimination. Given the historical and continued imbalance of power, where men as a
class are privileged over women as a class (see male privilege), an important, but often
overlooked, part of the term is that sexism is prejudice plus power. Thus feminists reject
the notion that women can be sexist towards men because women lack the institutional
power that men have.

Sexism is the most difficult bias to avoid, in part because of the convention of using man
or men and he or his to refer to people of either sex. Other, more disrespectful
conventions include giving descriptions of women in terms of age and appearance while
describing men in terms of accomplishment.

Avoid This Use This Instead

mankind, man human beings, humans, humankind, humanity,
people, society, men and women
man-made synthetic, artificial
man in the street average person, ordinary person

Using gender-neutral terms for occupations, positions, roles, etc.

Terms that specify a particular sex can unnecessarily perpetuate certain stereotypes when
used generically.

Avoid This Use This Instead

businessman businessperson, executive, manager, business owner,
retailer, etc.
chairman chair, chairperson
cleaning lady, girl, maid housecleaner, housekeeper, cleaning person, office
clergymen the clergy
congressman representative, member of Congress, legislator
fireman firefighter
forefather ancestor
housewife homemaker
insurance man insurance agent
mailman, postman mail or letter carrier
policeman police officer or law enforcement officer

salesman, saleswoman salesperson, sales representative, sales associate, clerk

spokesman spokesperson, representative
stewardess, steward flight attendant
weatherman weather reporter, weathercaster, meteorologist
actress actor

Replacing the pronoun he

Like man, the generic use of he can be seen to exclude women.
Avoid This Use This Instead
When a driver approaches a red When drivers approach a red light, they must
light, he must prepare to stop. prepare to stop
When a driver approaches a red When approaching a red light, a driver must
light, he or she must prepare to prepare to stop.

Referring to members of both sexes with parallel names, titles, or descriptions

Don't be inconsistent unless you are trying to make a specific point.

Avoid This Use This Instead

men and ladies men and women, ladies and gentlemen
Betty Schmidt, an Betty Schmidt, a physician, and her husband, Alan
attractive 49-year-old Schmidt, an editor
physician, and her
husband, Alan Schmidt,
a noted editor
Mr. David Kim and Mrs. Mr. David Kim and Ms. Betty Harrow (unless Mrs.
Betty Harrow is her known preference)
man and wife husband and wife
Dear Sir: Dear Sir/Madam:
Dear Madam or Sir:
To whom it may concern:
Mrs. Smith and Governor Smith and President Jones
President Jones

Race, Ethnicity, and National Origin

Some words and phrases that refer to racial and ethnic groups are clearly offensive. Other
words (e.g., Oriental, colored) are outdated or inaccurate. Hispanic is generally accepted
as a broad term for Spanish-speaking people of the Western Hemisphere, but more
specific terms (Latino, Mexican American) are also acceptable and in some cases
Avoid This Use This Instead
Negro, colored, Afro- black, African-American (generally preferred to
American Afro-American)
Oriental, Asiatic Asian or more specific designation such as Pacific
Islander, Chinese American, Korean
Indian Indian properly refers to people who live in or come
from India. American Indian, Native American, and
more specific designations (Chinook, Hopi) are
usually preferred when referring to the native
peoples of the Western hemisphere.
Eskimo Inuit, Alaska Natives
native (n.) native peoples, early inhabitants, aboriginal peoples
(but not aborigines)


The concept of aging is changing as people are living longer and more active lives. Be
aware of word choices that reinforce stereotypes (decrepit, senile) and avoid mentioning
age unless it is relevant.
Avoid This Use This Instead
elderly, aged, old, older person, senior citizen(s), older people, seniors
geriatric, the elderly,
the aged

Sexual Orientation
The term homosexual to describe a man or woman is increasingly replaced by the terms
gay for men and lesbian for women. Homosexual as a noun is sometimes used only in
reference to a male. Among homosexuals, certain terms (such as queer and dyke) that are
usually considered offensive have been gaining currency in recent years. However, it is
still prudent to avoid these terms in standard contexts.

Avoiding Depersonalization of Persons with Disabilities or Illnesses

Terminology that emphasizes the person rather than the disability is generally preferred.
Handicap is used to refer to the environmental barrier that affects the person. (Stairs
handicap a person who uses a wheelchair.) While words such as crazy, demented, and
insane are used in facetious or informal contexts, these terms are not used to describe
people with clinical diagnoses of mental illness. The euphemisms challenged, differently
abled, and special are preferred by some people, but are often ridiculed and are best
Avoid This Use This Instead
Mongoloid person with Down syndrome
wheelchair-bound person who uses a wheelchair
AIDS sufferer, person afflicted with person living with AIDS, P.W.A., HIV+, (one
AIDS, AIDS victim who tests positive for HIV but does not show
symptoms of AIDS)
polio victim has/had polio
the handicapped, the disabled, cripple persons with disabilities or person who uses
crutches or more specific description
deaf-mute, deaf and dumb deaf person

Task 26 Read politically correct versions of well-known fairy tales. Choose

euphemisms, politically correct vocabulary.

Three little pigs

Once upon a time three pigs lived together in mutual respect and in harmony with
the environment. Using materials of a natural origin, everyone has constructed on the
beautiful house. One pig has constructed the house of the straw, the second - from twigs,

and the third -from the cow flat cakes, clay and the dry leaves generated in bricks and
burnt in an oven. When houses were finished, pigs were very happy with the work and
returned by a life in rest and self-determination.
But their idyll was soon destroyed. One day a big bad wolf with expansionists
ideas appeared. He saw the pigs and became hungry both in physical and in ideological
sense. When pigs saw the wolf, they run in a small house from straw. The wolf run up
to the house and started to knock at the door, shouting:" Pigs, pigs, start me up! Let me
Pigs cried in the answer:" You tactics cannot intimidate the pigs protecting the
houses and culture ". But the wolf did not wish to refuse his special mission and the
supreme appropriation. Therefore he puffed up, made an effort and at last blow off the
straw house.
The scared pigs run in a small house from twigs, the wolf - followed them. Where
there was a small house from straw, other wolves bought the ground and broke a banana
plantation. In the house from twigs the wolf again knocked at a door and cried:" Pigs,
pigs, start me up! Let me in!" Pigs cried in the answer:" Be off, the predatory,
imperialistic oppressor!"
The wolf indulgently smiled. He thought:" They are children. It will be a pity, if
they disappear, but it is impossible to stop progress ". It strained every nerve, puffed up
and blow off the house from twigs. Pigs run in a small house from bricks, the wolf -
behind them. Where there was small house from twigs, other wolves constructed
condominium for having rest wolves where each apartment was a copy of a small house
from twigs, and there was also a shop of local wonders and pool for a scuba diving.
In the house from bricks the wolf knocked again at a door and cried:" Pigs, pigs,
start me up". This time pigs started singing songs of solidarity and began to write letters
of the protest to the United Nations. The wolf became angry about pigs because they
refused to consider a situation from its point of view of a predator. He made an effort
and puffed up, puffed up and made an effort, seized by a breast and passed away
because of the extensive heart attack caused by a lot of fat food.
Three pigs were delighted, that validity got the best, and executed small dance
around the body of the wolf. A following problem was to release the native land. They
collected group of pigs which have been thrown out from the grounds. The brigade
porkinists attacked condominiums with a help of automatic devices and rockets and cut
severe wolf oppressors, having sent the clear prevention to other hemisphere about
undesirability of intervention in their internal affairs. Then pigs established exemplary
social democracy with free-of-charge formation, public health services and accessible
habitation for everybody.
The note: the Wolf in these texts - metaphorical construct. The damage during a
writing of this history has not been caused to any valid wolves.
Little Red Riding Hood

There once was a young person named Little Red Riding Hood who lived on the edge
of a large forest full of endangered owls and rare plants that would probably provide a cure
for cancer if only someone took the time to study them.
Red Riding Hood lived with a nurture giver whom she sometimes referred to as
"Mother," although she didn't mean to imply by this term that she would have thought less of
that person if a close biological link did not in fact exist. Nor did she intend to denigrate the
equal value of nontraditional households, and she was sorry if this was the impression
One day her mother asked her to take a basket of organically grown fruit and mineral
water to her grandmother's house.
"But mother, won't this be stealing work from the unionized people who have
struggled for years to earn the right to carry all packages between various people in the
Red Riding Hood's mother assured her that she had called the union boss and gotten a
special compassionate mission exemption form.
"But mother, aren't you oppressing me by ordering me to do this?"
Red Riding Hood's mother pointed out that it was impossible for women to oppress
each other, since all women were equally oppressed until all women were free.
"But mother, then shouldn't you have my brother carry the basket, since he's an
oppressor, and should learn what it's like to be oppressed?"
Red Riding Hood's mother explained that her brother was attending a special rally for
animal rights, and besides, this wasn't stereotypical women's work, but an empowering deed
that would help engender a feeling of community.
"But won't I be oppressing Grandma, by implying that she's sick and hence unable to
independently further her own selfhood?"
But Red Riding Hood's mother explained that her grandmother wasn't actually sick or
incapacitated or mentally handicapped in any way, although that was not to imply that any of
these conditions were inferior to what some people called "health." Thus Red Riding Hood
felt that she could get behind the idea of delivering the basket to her grandmother, and so she
set off.
Many people believed that the forest was a foreboding and dangerous place, but Red
Riding Hood knew that this was an irrational fear based on cultural paradigms instilled by a
patriarchal society that regarded the natural world as an exploitable resource, and hence
believed that natural predators were in fact intolerable competitors.
Other people avoided the woods for fear of thieves and deviants, but Red Riding
Hood felt that in a truly classless society all marginalized peoples would be able to "come
out" of the woods and be accepted as valid lifestyle role models.
On her way to Grandma's house, Red Riding Hood passed a woodchopper, and
wandered off the path, in order to examine some flowers. She was startled to find herself
standing before a Wolf, who asked her what was in her basket. Red Riding Hood's teacher
had warned her never to talk to strangers, but she was confident in taking control of her own
budding sexuality, and chose to dialogue with the Wolf.
She replied, "I am taking my Grandmother some healthful snacks in a gesture of
The Wolf said, "You know, my dear, it isn't safe for a little girl to walk through these
woods alone."

Red Riding Hood said, "I find your sexist remark offensive in the extreme, but I will
ignore it because of your traditional status as an outcast from society, the stress of which has
caused you to develop an alternative and yet entirely valid world view. Now, if you'll excuse
me, I would prefer to be on my way."
Red Riding Hood returned to the main path, and proceeded towards her Grandmother's
house. But because his status outside society had freed him from slavish adherence to linear,
Western-style thought, the Wolf knew of a quicker route to Grandma's house.
He burst into the house and ate Grandma, a course of action affirmative of his nature
as a predator. Then, unhampered by rigid, traditionalist gender notions, he put on Grandma's
nightclothes, crawled under the bedclothes, and awaited developments.
Red Riding Hood entered the cottage and said, "Grandma, I have brought you some
cruelty-free snacks to salute you in your role of wise and nurturing matriarch."
The Wolf said softly, "Come closer, child, so that I might see you." Red Riding Hood
said, "Goddesses! Grandma, what big eyes you have!" "You forget that I am optically
challenged." "And Grandma, what an enormous, what a fine nose you have."
"Naturally, I could have had it fixed to help my acting career, but I didn't give in to
such societal pressures, my child."
"And Grandma, what very big, sharp teeth you have!"
The Wolf could not take any more of these speciesist slurs, and, in a reaction
appropriate for his accustomed milieu, he leaped out of bed, grabbed Little Red Riding Hood,
and opened his jaws so wide that she could see her poor Grandmother cowering in his belly.
"Aren't you forgetting something?" Red Riding Hood bravely shouted. "You must
request my permission before proceeding to a new level of intimacy!"
The Wolf was so startled by this statement that he loosened his grasp on her. At the
same time, the woodchopper burst into the cottage, brandishing an axe.
"Hands off!" cried the woodchopper.
"And what do you think you're doing?" cried Little Red Riding Hood. "If I let you
help me now, I would be expressing a lack of confidence in my own abilities, which would
lead to poor self-esteem and lower achievement scores on college entrance exams."
"Last chance, sister! Get your hands off that endangered species! This is an FBI
sting!" screamed the woodchopper, and when Little Red Riding Hood nonetheless made a
sudden motion, he swung the axe and sliced off her head.
"Thank goodness you got here in time," said the Wolf. "The brat and her grandmother
lured me in here. I thought I was a goner."
"No, I think I'm the real victim, here," said the woodchopper. "I've been dealing with
my anger ever since I saw her picking those protected flowers earlier. And now I'm going to
have such a trauma. Do you have any aspirin?"
"Sure," said the Wolf. "Thanks."
"I feel your pain," said the Wolf, and he patted the woodchopper on his firm, well
padded back, gave a little belch, and said "Do you have any Maalox?"

Discussion Practice
1. Much unhappiness has come into the world because of bewilderment and things
left unsaid.
F. Dostoyevsky
2. Political correctness is simply a speed bump in the traffic of truth, free thought and
Author Unknown
3. It’s a damn shame we have this immediate ticking off in the mind about how
people sound. On the other hand, how many people really want to be operated
upon by a surgeon who talks broad cockney?
Eileen Atkins
4. It is difficult for a woman to define her feelings in language which is chiefly made
by men to express theirs.
Thomas Hardy
5. Language is using us to talk – we think we’re using the language, but language is
doing the thinking. We’re its slavish agents.
Harry Mathews
6. After all, when you come right down to it, how many people speak the same
language even when they speak the same language?
Russell Hoban
7. Dialect words are those terrible marks of the beast to the truly genteel.
Thomas Hardy
8. As was his language so was his life.
William Butler Yeats
9. If we spoke a different language we would perceive a somewhat different world.
Ludwig Wittgenstein


Unit 4 Diplomacy and diplomats

Pre-reading tasks

1. Explain the basic diplomatic notions – unilateral diplomacy, bilateral diplomacy,

multilateral diplomacy.
2. Study the course of diplomacy and make reports about the outstanding Russian and
Soviet diplomats – Alexander Gorchakov, Sergey Witte, Vyacheslav Molotov,
Alexandra Kalantai, Maksim Litvinov, Georgy Chicherin, Andrey Gromyko,
Evgeny Primakov, Igor Ivanov, Sergey Lavrov, Vitaly Churkin
Outline both personal characteristics of the personality and his/her most famous
achievements on the diplomatic arena.

3. Discuss the basic principles of the Vienna Convention

4. Find out what types of diplomacy have existed throughout the human history and
characterize them in comparison.
Language Work

Task 1 Explain the abbreviations and give Russian or English equivalents



Task 2 Study the information about the essentials of diplomatic work, learn the
vocabulary by heart, discuss every point and summarize the given material

Multilateral diplomats’ roles

1) To represent and promote the country’s interests

2) To serve the interests of the global community
3) To upgrade the status of the country on the international arena and build up its
4) To serve as a political adviser to national authorities on particular issues
5) To be a researcher who can delve independently

experience, knowledge, skills and activities

personal characteristics
Three-dimensional experience
1)in bilateral environment Participation in committee work,
2)in multilateral environment coordinating work, negotiation,
3)in work in national ministries and arbitration, organizational work
government agencies

Knowledge Negotiation, committee work,

1) Fluency in a second language establishing personal contacts,
2) Advanced education: activities on promoting the country’s
a) Formal training in policy, heading different UN councils
international relations and committees
b) Special knowledge of
international economics, trade,
c) Keeping abreast of structure,
workings and evolution of the
UNO, its procedures and rules

Personal characteristics and skills

1) Capacity for continued learning

2) Outgoing personality
Negotiation, representing and
3) Capacity to establish strong
defending the country’s interests,
personal relationships
serving the interests of the global
4) Abilities to speak convincingly
5) Negotiation and arbitration skills
6) Intuition
7) Intellect
8) Great stamina
9) Aptitude for research work
10) Leadership skills
11) Truthfulness and honesty
12) Thorough understanding of the
common diplomatic vocabulary
13) A feel for accuracy
14) Maneuverability
15) Calm, good temper, patience,
modesty, zeal
16) Adaptability
17) Psychological flexibility
18) Language versatility

Opportunities and benefits of the service in the UNO

1) To broaden one’s horizons (experience, knowledge, contacts, career prospects)

2) To practice your leadership skills, to develop your aptitudes for organizational and
coordinating work
3) To participate in the life of the global community at the highest level and to
contribute to its development
4) To be satisfied with presenting nation

Task 3 Translate the sentences. Use such phrases as

to be of prime importance, to be of utmost importance, to be essential
1. Участвуя в работе ООН, приходится решать вопросы, касающиеся разных
сторон жизни общества, поэтому специальные знания международной экономики,
торговли и современных технологий необходимы любому дипломату.
2. То, что иногда делегатами в ООН являются неопытные дипломаты,
неизбежно; их молодость и энергия, свежие идеи, конечно же, важны для
Организации, но настоящим достоянием для нее станет человек, имеющий опыт в

двусторонней или многосторонней дипломатии, или опыт работы в
правительственных организациях или министерствах.
3. Ведение переговоров, участие в работе разнообразных комитетов,
продвижение интересов своей страны и служение интересам мирового сообщества,
несомненно, являются трудоемким процессом и требуют огромной энергии,
специальных навыков и широкого кругозора.
4. Чтобы преодолеть культурные различия, различия в подходе к решению
глобальных и региональных проблем, различия государственных интересов,
дипломат должен быть гибким и, в то же время, настойчивым человеком и
обладать способностью налаживать личные контакты.
5. Любой представитель страны-члена ООН может быть назначен на
руководящие посты Организации в комиссиях и комитетах, если он обладает
качествами лидера и владеет знаниями о структуре ООН, ее нормах и правилах
6. В связи с тем, что основными видами деятельности многосторонней
дипломатии являются бесконечные заседания, сессии, взаимодействия с
делегациями других стран, такие навыки как умение вести переговоры и иметь
опыт участия в разрешении споров в международных судебных инстанциях,
особенно важны для дипломата.

Task 4 Translate the sentences paying attention to your active vocabulary

1. Henry tries to keep abreast of the latest development in computing. 2. Three-

dimensional experience embraces experience in multilateral, bilateral diplomacy as well
as service in government agencies whose work has international dimensions and requires
organizational and coordinating skills. 3. Few people have natural aptitude for
diplomacy, so young diplomats have to work hard to cultivate necessary skills in pursuit
of his objectives to develop a Foreign Service career. 4. Advanced knowledge and a
capacity for continued learning can be an asset to a young diplomat as serving both
national and global interests is a laborious and a very demanding job. 5. It’s difficult to
define concisely what type of person is best suited to work in multilateral diplomacy but
he or she is sure to have the desire to promote his country’s interests, to build up its
influence in the international arena and to contribute to solving the problems of the
global community. 6 Though the service in the UNO is laborious and nerve-tracking, it
provides you with a lot of rewards: first and foremost is an opportunity to broaden
your horizons and advance your career prospects both within and outside the UNO.

Task 5 Make a profile of a professional diplomat

Text A Read and translate the text about diplomatic immunity

The curious world of diplomatic relations

It may let diplomats get away with murder, but 50 years on, the Vienna convention on
diplomatic relations is still the only option

By Paul Behrens
When CIA agent Raymond Davis was arrested in Pakistan in January, an
international treaty suddenly found itself in the headlines: the Vienna convention on
diplomatic relations, which, according to the US state department, gave immunity to its
man in Lahore. An unassuming document at first sight (53 articles, couched in technical
language), it has over the years become the bible for diplomats around the world. Today,
it celebrates a special birthday – it was signed exactly 50 years ago.
But it's a strange anniversary. Don't expect street parties; Foreign offices prefer not
to mention Vienna. This is a treaty that has everything: rules on the establishment of
diplomatic missions, on the diplomatic bag, the protection of the embassy and even the
question of whether diplomats have to pay tax. But it also gives almost unlimited
immunity to diplomatic agents. It is a bit embarrassing to be reminded of that.
It was the Vienna convention that in 1981 protected a young hotheaded diplomat
by the name of Moussa Koussa, who publicly approved the planned assassination of
Libyan dissidents. Investigations into this situation were never going to get very far: as
head of the Libyan mission, he was immune from prosecution.
And this was certainly not the worst case. It so happens that last Sunday marked
another anniversary: 27 years ago, PC Yvonne Fletcher was killed by bullets fired from
the Libyan embassy into a crowd of anti-Gaddafi protesters. The perpetrators had
diplomatic immunity and were therefore merely expelled from the country (a suspect was
arrested by rebel forces last month). In other cases, diplomats were accused of drink-
driving, shoplifting and rape.
Davis, the CIA agent for whom the US claimed diplomatic immunity, was charged
with the murder of two motorcyclists.
To be sure, it would be unfair to blame the convention for all of that. After all, the
treaty makes clear that diplomats have duties too: they must respect the laws of the
receiving state; they must not interfere with its internal affairs. The diplomatic bag must
only contain articles for official use (not kidnapped opposition politicians), and the
collection of information can only be carried out by "lawful means" (not by bugging the
state department).
But these duties are, on the whole, toothless tigers. Diplomats who commit crimes
still can't be arrested. There are very few sanctions the receiving state can use against
them, and they all sound a bit wimpy. You can summon the diplomat to the foreign
office, warn him, expel him. But expulsions can stand for anything. They may indicate a
sniffle in the relations between the two countries. Or they may be punishment for murder.
As a sanction, they have pretty much lost their sting.
So why not the full criminal procedure for diplomats who break the law? In the
case of consular officers, immunity is not absolute: in matters of "grave crimes", consular
law allows their arrest.
But it's a dangerous law. What is a "grave crime"? Blasphemy might be an
extremely serious offence in the receiving state; other states do not even criminalise it.
And there is another problem: diplomats move in the world of politics and negotiation.
For some receiving countries, the temptation would be just too great to use threats of
arrest as a tool of political bargaining.
Another suggestion is the creation of an international criminal court for diplomats.
That would certainly look more impartial than prosecution by the receiving state, and
such a court could use independent international standards. It is an intriguing thought.
Only it won't happen. Members of the UN remember too well the ever-increasing budgets
of the existing international criminal tribunals, and there is little appetite for establishing
yet another one. Especially since diplomatic misdemeanor, for all its gravity, hardly
reaches the level of war crimes and crimes against humanity.
The shortcomings of the Vienna convention cannot be denied – absolute
diplomatic immunity in particular is difficult to defend from a moral point of view. But
the great strength of the convention does not lie in its moral aims.
On the contrary, what makes the Vienna convention an outstanding success is its
pragmatism; the fact that it was content to settle for the realities of diplomatic relations.
By so doing, it established a basis for diplomacy with which all states, across all
ideological divides, can live. Today, no fewer than 187 countries are party to the
convention, which has thus become that rarest of all animals: a treaty that has found the
agreement of virtually the entire world.

Source: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/apr/18/vienna-convention-on-

Comprehension questions
1. What is a diplomatic immunity?
2. What document declares it and why?
3. What crimes can’t be investigated if a diplomat is immune?
4. Are there any shortcomings in the Vienna Convention? What are they?
5. Explain the phrase “toothless tigers”
6. Express your own opinion concerning diplomatic immunity

Vocabulary work

1. Write out all types of crimes mentioned in the text.

2. Find the verbs describing duties of diplomats in the text.
3. Make your own situations with these verbs.

Task 6 Study the text thoroughly and find lexical units corresponding the definitions

1. a written agreement between two or more countries, formally approved and

signed by their leaders
2. a formal agreement between countries
3. a connection between two or more things
4. a situation in which you are protected against disease or from legal action
5. the day on which an important event happened in a previousyear
6. a business or other organization, or the place where an organization operates
7. an important job, especially a military one, that someone is sent somewhere to
8. the group of people who represent their country in a foreign country; the
building that these people work in
9. an official whose job is to represent one country in another, and who usually
works in an embassy
10. making you feel embarrassed
11. the murder of someone famous or important
12. the lawyers in a trial who try to prove that a person accused of committing a
crime is guilty of that crime
13. someone who has committed a crime or a violent or harmful act
14. to force someone to leave a school, organization, or country
15. to hide a listening device in something
16. to do something illegal or something that is considered wrong
17. to breathe in quickly and repeatedly through the nose, usually because you are
crying or because you have a cold
18. cowardice
19. something that you say or do that shows you do not respect God or a religion
20. not supporting any of the sides involved in an argument
21. a crime considered to be one of the less serious types of crime
22. the force that attracts objects towards one another, especiallythe force that
makes things fall to the ground
23. to protect someone or something against attack or criticism; to speak in favour
of someone or something
24. the process of discussing something with someone in order to reach an
agreement with them, or the discussions themselves

Task 7 Translate set-expressions into Russian, learn them by heart

1. to commit a suicide
2. to give immunity to
3. establishment of diplomatic missions
4. to be immune from prosecution
5. to mark an anniversary
6. to be expelled from
7. to make clear
8. to respect the laws
9. to interfere with its internal affairs
10. to be carried out by "lawful means"
11. to bug the state department
12. to use sanctions against
13. to indicate a sniffle
14. a tool of political bargaining
15. to reach the level of

Task 8 Match the adjective with the noun

Adjectives: entire, outstanding, intriguing, political, serious, criminal, opposition,

internal, receiving, another, planned, hotheaded, unlimited, Foreign, unassuming,
diplomatic, international

Nouns: immunity, procedure, success, office, treaty, assassination, offence, relations,

politicians, affairs, immunity, world, thought, state, anniversary, bargaining, diplomat,

Task 9 Insert the prepositions where necessary

1. The diplomatic bag must only contain articles … official use.

2. It is a bit embarrassing to be reminded … that.
3. …an international treaty suddenly found itself … the headlines.
4. They must not interfere … its internal affairs.
5. Diplomats move … the world … politics and negotiation.
6. It has … the years become the bible … diplomats … the world.
7. according … the US state department
8. rules … the establishment … diplomatic missions
9. Investigations … this situation were never going to get very far:

Text B

Guerrilla Diplomacy: The Revolution in Diplomatic Affairs

By Daryl Copeland, Dec. 25, 2009

… In recent years, America's unilateral exercise of hard, which is to say, mainly military,
power, supported by controversial doctrines such as pre-emptive defense, has not only
exacted a great human and financial toll, but it has come at considerable expense in terms
of Brand USA's global appeal.

Yet diplomacy has in recent years been marginalized and allowed to atrophy. As
conceived, resourced and practiced at present, it does not seem up to the challenge.
The current state of diplomacy is all the more unfortunate, because in principle at
least, the business case in its favor is strong. Defense departments and military
organizations exist, in the first instance, for the purpose of exerting power. Foreign
ministries and the diplomatic service, on the other hand, are designed mainly to exercise
influence through persuasion. Skilfully conducted, diplomacy represents the promise of a
peaceful way forward when it comes to resolving complex differences and addressing
even the most vexing of interstate and transnational problems. Especially in economic
and humanitarian terms, diplomacy is subtle, versatile and highly cost-effective in
comparison to the use of organized violence.
Attaining its full potential, however, will require a Revolution in Diplomatic Affairs,
and not just in the United States. Diplomacy is in trouble almost everywhere, and its main
institutions need reconstruction from the ground up. Moreover, for such a revolution to
succeed, a major rethinking of international relations will be essential. In the age of
globalization, if long-term, human-centered development has in large part become the
basis of sustainable security, then diplomacy must displace defense at the center of
international policy.
This will entail returning to foreign ministries the catalytic role in international policy
development and implementation now played by departments of defense, and inserting
diplomats, rather than soldiers, into the roiling interstices which connect development
and security, or, more commonly, underdevelopment and insecurity.

In the elemental quest to meet basic human needs by providing economic opportunities,
good governance, social justice and political progress, bombs, guns and expeditionary
interventions just won't work. You can't garrison against global warming.
Diplomacy is the tool of choice for anyone with a penchant for negotiation and
compromise, and a general preference for talking over fighting and dialogue over diktat.
But it is currently facing a crisis of relevance and effectiveness. A rising tide of violence,
inequality, and unaddressed threats provides powerful testament not only to the
socialization of globalization's costs and the privatization of its benefits, but to the abject
failure of diplomacy to engage remedially.
Today, diplomacy remains the orphan of international relations, rarely discussed and
widely misunderstood, even by experts and diplomats themselves. In the public mind,
diplomacy has never really recovered from the legacy of Chamberlain in Munich, when it
came to be associated with weakness and appeasement.
But in addition to an unfortunate image problem -- of spoiled ditherers, lost
somewhere between alcohol and protocol in a haze of irrelevance -- diplomacy is
suffering from a very real substance problem, related mainly to the inability of diplomatic
practices, practitioners and institutions to change with the times. As a result, the world is
facing a double diplomatic deficit: an increasing demand for, but reduced supply of

diplomatic solutions to widespread problems of conflict and suffering; and a host of
serious shortcomings which afflict foreign ministries and foreign services globally.
The prospect of rehabilitating diplomacy has been complicated by the wholesale
militarization of international policy, a psychological carry-over from the Cold War to
the Long War that is now firmly lodged in place. It finds expression in the persistence of
a binary, Manichean worldview and an associated tendency to respond to supposedly
universal and undifferentiated threats -- then communism, now terrorism -- with armed
force. Not only is this black-and-white model of little use when confronted with grey
ambiguities and constantly shifting circumstances, it leaves little scope for the peaceful
resolution of differences.
While the focus of this discussion is on the diplomatic rather than defense dimension
of smart power, the two are by no means disconnected. The military's already significant
domestic political clout has been reinforced across government by personal ambitions,
career interests, organizational mandates and budgetary allocations that grew out of the
Cold War and depend now on the continuation of the Long War. Such a concentrated
combination of financial and human resources results in all kinds of further international
policy distortions -- for instance, tasking the military with strategic communications,
agrarian reform or infrastructure reconstruction. This is somewhat akin to asking an aid
worker to direct an air strike, or a diplomat to run a field hospital.
Unless the enormous inertia supporting the status quo can somehow be broken,
diplomacy will inevitably be cast in a minor, supporting role. Statesmen will continue to
play second fiddle to generals and admirals, and calls for real change will be met with a
resounding chorus of, "No, you can't."
On the other hand, just dusting diplomacy off or changing the wrapping won't suffice.
Traditional diplomacy is rigid, hierarchic, and formulaic. Its practices are deeply
entrenched, and turn on conventions, some formally codified, others embedded in
bureaucratic culture.
Getting to the Revolution in Diplomatic Affairs will depend not on conventions, but
on the embrace of the unconventional, and will require going beyond the ritual motions
of conducting relations between states. If it is to be restored, diplomacy will have to be
reframed, repositioned, and, in essential respects, re-invented. That will mean taking
diplomacy public, to be sure, but also taking it to the streets . . . and not just overseas.
Diplomacy needs desperately to demonstrate its relevance domestically. In the
erstwhile global village, which today looks like an island patchwork of gated, heavily
guarded communities surrounded by an angry sea of seething shantytowns, nothing less
will do.
Is Smart Power Really so Smart? Refurbishing diplomacy may be job one for U.S
international policy, but it is also only one job among many. An assessment of whether
diplomacy should be situated within the discourse of power -- whether soft, hard, or
smart -- rather than influence is also needed. Because as soon as diplomacy, and
especially public diplomacy (PD), is framed primarily in the context of power, it
immediately becomes instrumental, a tool to be used in order to have your way with
others, rather than as a platform for political communication, social interaction, and
intercultural contact.
In an era of shared (in)security and persistent (under)development, two hallmarks of
the globalization age, the fundamental threats and challenges to world order -- and human
survival -- are less military in nature than they are rooted in science and driven by
technology: climate change, pandemic disease, and environmental collapse, among
others. With the military far and away its preponderant component, smart power does not
seem the most apt instrument with which to address these global issues.
For the same reason, neither is it well-positioned to promote transparent public
administration, respect for human rights or grass-roots democracy, or to help develop the
kinds of functioning markets which generate employment, fund government services and
facilitate participation in the wealth-creating side of globalization.
Smart power, all told, is not the tool of choice with which to pursue a grand strategy
of comprehensive international development as the basis of the new security.

Enter Guerrilla Diplomacy The pursuit of influence through the practice of a highly
leveraged, transformational form of public diplomacy -- what I dubbed Guerrilla
Diplomacy in a recently published book of the same title -- could be a less costly, more
practical alternative. George Washington University's Bruce Gregory has described this
approach as "PD on steroids," and it starts with recognizing the need to build a better
Profile of a guerrilla diplomat Guerrilla diplomats don't exist in any institutionally
recognized form, but some of their defining attributes can be described. They are
resilient, determined self-starters who integrate into and support civil society while
leaving a light representational footprint. They are inclined toward abstract thinking,
innovation and analytical cognition. They are naturally curious, with a highly developed
sense of personal and situational awareness. They are adept with new media, connected
intimately to their environment and expert at cross-cultural communications. And they
are proactive intelligence generators who place a premium on acquiring granular, local
knowledge through the development and maintenance of networks of contacts. In seeking
and considering diverse viewpoints, often from under-represented, marginalized or
excluded groups, guerrilla diplomats will routinely test the received wisdom, and will
never fail to make the distinction between intelligence (what is actually happening), and
policy (what their employers would like to see or make happen).
Does this non-linear, outside-the-box thinker and network node sound like anyone
you know in the foreign service? In my experience, there are some, but not many, and
their professional prospects are usually less-than-glowing. Yet vested with the triple-A
qualities of agility, acuity and autonomy, guerrilla diplomats will be able to bore deep
into the interstices of influence, seeping into their environs like oil into a fabric and
navigating pathways inaccessible to others.
Think of guerrilla diplomacy as occupying one end of a diplomatic spectrum which
features traditional, state-centric diplomacy at the other end, and public diplomacy
stretching across the broad middle reaches. Supple, inventive and rapidly adaptive,
guerilla diplomacy is a diplomatic business model attuned to the compressed space,
accelerated time, and interconnected precincts that characterize globalization. In the
prevailing diplomatic paradigm, those elusive qualities are not enough in evidence. Most
tenured practitioners, unlike guerrilla diplomats, are almost completely dissociated, even
alienated from the critical realm of science and technology, which not only girds
globalization but is giving rise to a raft of fundamental threats and challenges -- ranging
from food security to ecological collapse to resource scarcity to others mentioned earlier.
Notwithstanding the State Department's admirable Jefferson Fellows scientific
internship program, too many serving diplomats exhibit an ignorance of, and general
aversion to most things scientific and technological. Worse still, more than a few prefer
the familiar company of colleagues to the risks and uncertainties of embracing their host
countries at ground level.
In traditional diplomacy, there is too much hearsay and not enough listening; too
much looking and not enough seeing; too much saying and not enough doing what has
been said. Exchanging clever stories with the like-minded and chatting about what might
be going on in a given place too often substitutes for doing what's required to find out
Practitioners of laterally organized, digitally empowered and network-based
diplomacy will prefer mixing it up with the locals to hanging around the chancellery
schmoozing with other diplomats or awaiting instructions from headquarters. He or she
will be able to swim with ease in the sea of the people, and never be perceived -- as is all
too often the case with the traditional diplomat -- like a fish flopping around out of water
when venturing outside the embassy gates. And they must be prepared to do all this not
just in store-front operations established in major metropolitan centers, but also in the
barrios and souks of less developed areas, and in the Quonset huts set astride conflict
zones. In those dynamic and unpredictable environments, results will turn on the ability
to connect with the population through genuine dialogue and, in so doing, to help instill
an atmosphere of confidence, trust and respect.
To be in a position to earn that, however, the guerrilla diplomat must in turn enjoy the
same from his or her superiors, which is rare in the top-down, risk-averse model which
dominates at present.
The guerrilla diplomat will need the sensibility and street smarts of a world traveller,
the knowledge of a new age polymath, and the enterprising spirit of an entrepreneur. Yes,
the more conventional diplomatic virtues of dedication, judgment, tact and discretion will
still be required, as will the practice of traditional diplomacy itself. But Ivy League
credentials and fancy titles alone are not enough to cut it in today's highly charged, ever-
evolving operating environment.
The greater institutional flexibility required to facilitate such an approach can be
achieved by diversifying the ranks of the foreign service, by adopting new approaches to
recruitment, and through training and professional development. Existing employees
must also be re-skilled in order to more adeptly manage new issues and engage multiple
actors, many not affiliated with states. Cold War-era skills such as brokering ideological
competition, mediating territorial disputes, or mastering the great game of deterrence and
containment won't necessarily qualify candidates for the top jobs.
In short, those responsible for representing their country abroad must go about
diplomatic business in a manner which is smarter, faster and lighter than ever before. If
that does not come naturally, it will have to be learned, or a career change considered.
Most important, however, will be engineering the cultural shift within the diplomatic
institutions, injecting and establishing the required alternative values while overcoming
the conservatism that seems part of the DNA of foreign ministries.
For the reasons set out above and more, examples of guerrilla diplomacy are not as
plentiful as one might wish. But they are not unknown. Think, for instance, of the heroic
guile demonstrated by Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg in spiriting Jewish children
from Hungary during World War II; of the covert assistance rendered in 1979 by
Canadian Ambassador Ken Taylor to his American colleagues in Iran; or of the difficult
successes orchestrated in Cambodia and East Timor by U.N. diplomat Sergio Vieira de
Mello prior to his tragic death in Baghdad in 2003.
There are doubtless more illustrations . . . but not many. This is a list that should --
and could -- be much longer. Without the serious effort required to break with ingrained
habits and overcome orthodoxy, however, it won't happen.

Towards the Further Shore With their eyes wide-open and ears to the ground, guerrilla
diplomats could begin to treat, through concrete action, the resentment, humiliation,
anger and alienation that give rise, among other things, to religious extremism and
political violence, to jihad and suicide bombings.
Over time, guerrilla diplomacy can be used to address not only these sorts of
sentiments and their symptoms, but the suite of longer-term, and in important respects
more profound and potentially debilitating problems: public health, alternative energy,
genomics, and weapons of mass destruction, to name a few. Put another way, in the
climate change-challenged, pandemic disease-ridden, chronically resource-short world
we live in, governments need to find a better way to deliver international policy.
Such a doctrine must not only work, but it must work without the manifold costs
associated with the reliance upon hard power, as expressed through armed interventions,
whether the Long War or any of its derivatives. Guerrilla diplomacy can help make good
on that promise, because messages are not only transmitted but received, and fed back
into the policy development process. As such, it offers the prospect of finding sustainable
solutions by altering behavior at both ends of the conversation. That is the essence of the
guerrilla diplomacy's commitment to meaningful exchange.
Dialogue, then, is the key. No dialogue, no justice. And no justice, no peace.

Guerrilla diplomacy offers a kernel of hope that states can do a better job of managing
the future than they have the past, and do it in a way which will avoid unnecessary costs
in terms of lives and financial burden. Yet in diplomacy, as in most everything else, at the
end of the day there is a demonstrable dialectic between results and resources. Reform
requires re-investment, and both are urgently required today.
Much of that reform could be financed through re-allocation, mainly, although not
exclusively, from the defense budget. And the State Department, not the Pentagon,
should again be at the center of the action, the locus for international policy leadership
and the hub for the management of globalization.
We have yet to learn that leading with the sword is usually not the answer, and that
the blade is often more fearsome when left in its sheath. That is perhaps the most
enduring lesson of the Cold War. In the age of globalization, more can be achieved with
less, rather than the inverse.
When force must be used, and unless human nature can be perfected there will
sometimes be such occasions, it should be strategically calibrated and carefully applied,
rather than ideologically motivated or bluntly imposed. And while there may be
circumstances in which guerrilla diplomats, no matter how empowered and able, will
need military assistance to provide a modicum of physical security, this would most often
be effected in a peace-building rather than a war-fighting context. With more guerrilla
diplomats in circulation, it must be added, there should over time be many fewer such
In the final analysis, this is not a matter of hawks or doves, left or right, but rather
what works. To return to the distinction between power and influence, the former may
have been determinant internationally during the Cold War, but in the globalized era,
influence is a more appropriate, effective instrument through which to craft mutually
agreeable outcomes.
Guerrilla diplomacy begins with the conviction that only by applying relentless
creativity, extraordinary imagination and rigorous intellect might it be possible to solve
problems and to build, in concert with others, something better. It is not clear that the
smart power formula, as currently articulated, is capable of the complex and delicate
balancing which would be essential. It necessarily affords too much weight to the
military, a vast and unwieldy instrument, in an age in which security is not a martial art.
In other words, rather than supporting a diplomatic renaissance, smart power could end
up smothering it.
A focus on long-term, human-centered development offers a more sensible, strategic
way ahead. Such an approach would also help to ensure that the vital diplomatic
component, rather than being overwhelmed, would be placed front and center.
With the election of President Obama, and now with his Nobel Peace Prize, the gaze
of millions, until recently averted, is once again fixed on Washington. It will not always
be thus. If decision-makers can be convinced that in the era of globalization, development
has become the new security, and accordingly that diplomacy must displace defense in
the mainstream of international policy, then smart power just might have enough
influence to make a difference.
Carpe diem.

Comprehension questions and tasks
1. What is the current state of diplomacy, according to the author?
2. What’s the difference between diplomacy and the use of the organized skill?
3. Explain the terms “the Cold War” and “the Long War”.
4. What characteristics can be found in the article for traditional, state-centre
diplomacy? Do you agree with them? Why or why not?
5. Why does the author compare a diplomat to a fish?
6. What can change the traditional diplomacy?
7. Write out positive and negative features of character for a diplomat. Make profiles
of a traditional diplomat and a guerilla diplomat.
8. What type of a diplomat is more professionally successful in current state of affairs?
Prove it.

Task 10 Explain the following ideas

1. Diplomacy remains the orphan of international relations, rarely discussed and widely
misunderstood, even by experts and diplomats themselves.
2. Statesmen will continue to play second fiddle to generals and admirals…
3. ..leading with the sword is usually not the answer, and that the blade is often more
fearsome when left in its sheath…

Task 11 Translate the set-expressions, find them in the text.

Make your own situations with them

a) to exercise influence through persuasion

to resolve complex differences
to address the most vexing of interstate and transnational problems
to meet basic human needs
to face a crisis of relevance and effectiveness
to rehabilitate diplomacy
to be cast in a minor, supporting role
to go beyond the ritual motions of conducting relations between states.
to promote transparent public administration
to leave a footprint on
to be adept with
to be alienated from the critical realm of science and technology
to give rise to
to range from to
to connect with the population through genuine dialogue
to instill an atmosphere of confidence, trust and respect
To apply relentless creativity, extraordinary imagination and rigorous intellect
unilateral exercise of hard power
controversial doctrines
in terms of
a host of serious shortcomings
diplomatic virtues of dedication, judgment, tact and discretion
game of deterrence and containment
international policy distortions
diverse viewpoints
religious extremism and political violence
jihad and suicide bombings
sustainable security

b) уладить территориальные споры

продемонстрировать незнание чего-либо
поддержать статус кво
две важных характеристики века глобализации
изнуряющие проблемы

Task 12 Translate from Russian into English

1. Реальность дипломатической жизни, конечно, отличается от подобных
историй, но дипломатический стиль, суть которого прежде всего
во внутренней культуре, аккуратности в манерах, отточенности идей
и формулировок, усиливает эффект от решительных и твердых позиций,
которые занимают российские дипломаты по различным проблемам.
2. Определение настоящего дипломата в шуточной форме дал посол РФ
в Венесуэле Владимир Заемский: "Дипломат — это такой человек, который
может убедить свою жену в том, что шуба её полнит".
3. В каждой профессии имеется своя специфика, и хорошее знание
иностранных языков является неотъемлемой основой и инструментом
4. Конфуций: "Надо остерегаться трех ошибок: говорить, когда тебя об этом
не просят, — это нахальство; не говорить, когда тебя об этом просят, — это
утаивание; говорить, не обращая внимание на реакцию слушающего, — это
5. Черчилль говорил, что "дипломат — это человек, который дважды подумает,
прежде чем ничего не сказать".


Функции дипломатии - представительство, дипломатическое общение и

переписка (коммуникация), проведение переговоров, добыча информации,
разработка рекомендаций.
Обязанности дипломата - официальные и иные визиты и переговоры на
высшем (саммиты) и высоком уровне;дипломатические конгрессы, конференции,
совещания и встречи; подготовка и заключение двусторонних и многосторонних
международных договоров и иных дипломатических документов; участие в работе
международных организаций и их органов; повседневное представительство
государства за границей, осуществляемое его посольствами и миссиями;
дипломатическая переписка; публикация дипломатических документов; освещение
в печати позиции правительства по тем или иным международным вопросам.
Основные составляющие успеха в дипломатической службе — это высокий
образовательный, интеллектуальный и культурный потенциал, исторический опыт,
а также искусство применения всего этого на практике. Таким образом, дипломат
должен быть всесторонне развитым человеком, иметь гибкий ум и способность
адаптироваться к любой, самой неожиданной ситуации.
Хороший дипломат должен обладать целым рядом личных качеств:
обаянием, чувством юмора, порядочностью, тактом; быть человеком
трудолюбивым, волевым, находчивым, психологически устойчивым, энергичным и
ответственным; иметь хорошую память и интуицию.
Кроме того, дипломат просто обязан знать культуру и традиции
иностранных государств, а также владеть иностранными языками, ведь без этого не
возможно наладить простое взаимопонимание и общение.
Искусный дипломат — это тонкий психолог, который умеет найти подход к
любому собеседнику и убедить его в собственной правоте, при этом человек
придёт к данному выводу самостоятельно и не будет чувствовать, что на него кто-
то оказывает давление.

Discussion Practice
Comment on the quotations

1. A Diplomat is a person who can tell you to go to hell in such a way that you actually
look forward to the trip.
Caskie Stinett, Out of the Red, 1960
2. Diplomacy is to do and say the nastiest thing in the nicest way.
Bisaac Goldberg

3. An ambassador is an honest man sent to lie abroad for the commonwealth.

Henry Wotton, Reliquiæ Wottonianæ
4. Be polite; write diplomatically; even in a declaration of war one observes the rules of
Otto von Bismarck, Founder and
Chancellor of the German Empire
5. To say nothing, especially when speaking, is half the art of diplomacy.
Will Durant

Writing Practice
Write an essay

1. Diplomacy is a disguised war, in which states seek to gain by barter and intrigue,
by the cleverness of arts, the objectives which they would have to gain more clumsily by
means of war.
Randolph Bourne
2. When envoys are sent with compliments in their mouths, it is a sign that the
enemy wishes for a truce.
Sun Tzu

Unit 5 International Organizations

Pre-reading tasks

1. Explain the following statement “A number of International Organizations

have been set up to deal with issues that concern the world in general, rather than
the interests of the individual countries”.
2. The League of Nations – its history, objectives, purposes.
3. What connection exists between World War II and the United Nations

Text A United Nations: Objectives and Roles of United Nations

Source: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/uno/united-nations-objectives-and-roles-of-

The United Nations Organisation (UNO) is the global international organisation

of sovereign independent states. It was established on 24 October 1945. The
destruction caused by the Second World War compelled the people to establish an
international organization for keeping the world away from war and in favour of
friendship and cooperation among all the nations. The UNO was designed to save the
future generations from the scourge of war by promoting International peace and

After the end of the Second World War, the United States, the United Kingdom,
the Soviet Union (Former USSR) some other states held several meetings and planned
to establish an organisation for preserving peace and promoting social, economic and
political co-operation among all nations. As a result of their efforts, the United
Nations Organisation came into existence in 1945 when the representatives of 51
nations signed the Charter of the UNO at San Francisco.

The name “United Nations” was suggested by US President Franklin

Roosevelt. It was first used in the Declaration of the United Nations made on January
1, 1942. At San Francisco Conference, it was unanimously adopted as the name of the
new international organization as a tribute to the late President of the United States.

India had not achieved its independence by then and yet it became one of the founder
members of the United Nations.

All nations pledged themselves to the UN Charter. In the UN Charter they

pledged “to save the succeeding generations from the scourge of war” They also
promised to “promote social progress and better standards of life.” The Charter came
into force on October 24, 1945 after a majority of the signatories deposited their
instruments of ratification. Since then every year, 24th October is celebrated as the
United Nations Day.

The Charter is the Constitution of the United Nations Organisation. It was

made in October 1944 by the Dumbarton Oaks (Washington DC) Conference. It lays
down the rules which govern the organisation and functions of the UNO and all its
organs. The Charter has a Preamble, 19 Chapters and 111 Articles which explain the
purposes, principles, organs, and operating methods of the UN.

The purposes of the UN are defined in Article 1 of the UN Charter. These are:

1. To maintain international peace and security and to take adequate steps to avert
wars. 2. To develop friendly relations among nations on the basis of equality. 3. To
achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic,
social, cultural or humanitarian character. 4. To be a centre for harmonizing the
actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.

The principles are the means to achieve the objectives of the UN. These are
contained in Article 2 of the UN Charter:

1. All the member states are equal. 2. The member states shall fulfill their obligations
to the UN honestly. 3. The member states shall settle their international disputes by
peaceful means. 4. The member states shall refrain in their international relations
from the threat or use of force against any other state. 5. The member states shall give
to the UN every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the UN Charter.
6. The states which are not members of the UN, should also act in accordance with
these principles for the maintenance of international peace and security. 7. No
member state shall interfere in the internal affairs of any other state.

The headquarters of UN is located at First Avenue, UN Plaza, New York the

USA. The UN building stand on a 17 acre tract of land donated, by John D Rockfeller
on Manhattan Island, a suburb of New York. It is a 39-storey building which can
house about 8000 employees.

The UN General Assembly adopted the UN Flag on October 20, 1947. The
white UN emblem is superimposed on a light blue background. The emblem consists
of the global map projected from the North Pole and embraced in two Olive Branches

(symbol of peace)

Under the UN Charter, membership of this global organisation is open to all

“peace loving” states who accept the obligations of the organization as contained in
the Charter. New members are admitted by a two thirds vote of the UN General
Assembly and on the recommendations of the UN Security Council. The present
strength of UNO is 191.

The UN conducts its business in six official languages; Arabic, Chinese,

English, French, Russian and Spanish.

The Charter of UN establishes six principle UN organs. These are:

1. The UN General Assembly:

The General Assembly is the highest deliberative organ of the UN. It is also called the
World Parliament of Nations. Each member state sends five representatives to it but
each state has only one vote. The session of the General Assembly is convened on
third Tuesday in the month of September every year.

The opening day of the session stands designated as the International Day of Peace.
The UN General Assembly holds deliberations on all issues which are related to the
Charter of the United Nations. It also approves the annual budget of the UN. It’s
headquarter is located at New York (the USA).

2. The UN Security Council:

The Security Council is the executive body of the UN. It is called “the Power
House” of the UN. It is made up of 15 members out of whom 5 are permanent
members, each with a veto power. These are the USA, Russia, China, France and
United Kingdom. Remaining 10 are non-permanent members who are elected by the
General Assembly by a 2/3 majority for a term of two years.

The decisions of the Security Council are taken by a majority and vote but each of its
five permanent members has the right to veto its decisions. Under the “uniting for
peace resolution” adopted in November 1950, the UN General Assembly can direct
the Security Council to act for meeting any threat to international peace by taking
collective security action against aggression. The Security Council is a powerful
organ of the UN. It’s headquarter is located at New York in USA. India now wants to
become a permanent member of the UN Security Council.

3. The Economic and Social Council:

The Economic and Social Council has 54 members, they are elected by the UN
General Assembly for a term of three years. One-third members (18) out of these
retire every year and in their place new members are elected. This Council helps the
UN in solving the economic and social problems of the world. It also supervises the
work of some other UN bodies. It’s headquarter is located at New York in the USA.

4. The Trusteeship Council:

The Trusteeship Council supervises the administration of those backward and

disputed territories, the responsibility for the development of which has been taken
over by the UNO. Apart from the permanent members of the Security Council, the
administering countries of the trust territories are its members. These are elected for
three years by the UN General Assembly the Trusteeship Council monitors the
development of trust territories.

5. The International Court of Justice (ICJ):

It is the chief judicial body of the UN. It is also called “the World Court.” It consists
of 15 judges who are elected by the General Assembly on the recommendations of the
UN Security Council; each judge of ICJ holds a tenure of 9 years. It’s one third judges
retire after three years and in their place new judges are elected.

The International Court of Justice gives its verdict on such disputes/cases which are
brought to it by the concerned states by their mutual consent. It gives advisory
opinion on legal matters to the organs and special agencies of the UN when solicited.
It’s headquarter is located at The Hague (Netherlands).

6. The UN Secretariat:

Secretariat is the administrative organ of the UN. It implements the policies and
decisions taken up by organs of the UN. It consists of international civil servants who,
while serving the UN, must forget their national loyalties and work for securing the
interests of the UN. There are about 4000 employees of the UN Secretariat.

Their salaries are paid by the UN. The Secretariat General is the head of the
Secretariat. He is called the “Watchdog of the UN”. He is appointed for a term of 5
year by the UN General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. At
present. Mr. Ban Ki Moon is the UN Secretary General.

The Specialised Agencies of the UN have been playing a significant role in

implementing the policies, decisions and programmes of the UN. These are looking
after specific areas and issues like research, health, labour, trade, culture, human
rights etc. Some of the important specialized agencies of the UN are: International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UN Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO),
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), World Labour Organisation (WLO),
World Health Organisation (WHO), International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD), World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), UN International
Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF), UN Environment Programme (UNEP), and


Role of the United Nations:

To maintain international peace and security has been the prime responsibility of the
UN. During about 64 years of its existence, it has done a valuable work in this
direction. It has done a fairly good amount of work in the settlement of several
controversies, which could have posed serious threats to the world peace. Along with
it, the UN has contributed greatly in the field of decolonization, human rights,

However, the UN has several weaknesses and limitations: (i) It lacks adequate funds
to meet all its objectives. (ii) The veto power of the five permanent members of the
Security Council has virtually left this powerful UN organ at the mercy of “Big-Five”
ie USA, UK, Russia France and China. Hence, the need is to reform the UN system
from within and outside. (iii) The urgent need is to democratize the UN. Democracy
and transparency must characterize the Working of all the organs of the UN. The
Security Council needs to be expanded and restructured. Almost all countries now
advocate the need for an increase in the permanent and non-permanent members of
the UN Security Council. There has been a big increase in the members of the UN. As
such, the UN Security Council needs an expansion for giving due representation to all
continents and major powers of the world. (iv) The issue of Veto Power needs to be
debated and amended. (v) The General Assembly should be made stronger. It should
be turned into a forum for consensus on important global issues. (vi) The voice of the
smaller nations should carry equal weight in all UN decisions. (vii) The rules and
practices of the UN institutions need reform in the light of past experience. (viii) The
organisation and the functioning of the Economic and Social Council and the
Secretariat demand a complete over-hauling. (ix) The UN peacekeeping role needs to
be restructured technically and financially.

Recently, the US War against Talibans & A1 Queda in Afghanistan and the US-War
in Iraq have put a question mark on the relevance of the UN. The US operators in Iraq
do not enjoy the sanction of the UNO. Further, the UN has not been successful in
securing disarmament as well as in preventing the outbreak of local wars and
terrorism in various parts of the world.

However, this does not mean that the UN has failed to serve the international
community. It has successfully prevented the outbreak of a third world war. It has
played an effective role in keeping several wars limited. It has been now engaged in
peace-keeping operations in 22 different parts of the world.

It has been contributing to the cause of preservation of world peace, security and
development. The need of the hour is to introduce some reforms in the UN so that in
may become more effective and fully capable of ensuring a stable, healthy and secure
world order. UN Security Council must be expanded and democratised. India, Japan,
Brazil, South Africa and Germany have a strong case for getting permanent
memberships in the UN Security Council.

Comprehension Tasks

4. Read the text about the structure of the Unite Nations and find out additional
information about its main functions.
5. What are the principles of the UNO working?
6. What is the role of the United Nations on the international arena?
7. What are the main UN organs? Name them and define their functions.
8. Discuss the strong and weak points of the UNO.

Vocabulary Work

Task 13 Explain the given notions in English

1. sovereign
2. tribute
3. preamble
4. headquarters
5. destruction
6. attainment
7. independence

Task 14 Learn the set-expressions by heart. Retell the situations from the text
where they were used.
1. A scourge of war
2. To come into existence
3. To promote social, economic and political cooperation
4. To pledge oneself to
5. To come into force
6. To maintain international peace
7. To solve problems
8. To achieve objectives
9. To fulfill obligations
10. To settle disputes by peaceful means
11. To act in accordance with the UN charter
12. To interfere in the international affairs

Text B UN Programmes and Funds

UNDP - The United Nations Development Programme works in nearly 170 countries
and territories, helping to eradicate poverty, reduce inequalities and build resilience so

countries can sustain progress. As the UN’s development agency, UNDP plays a
critical role in helping countries achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

UNICEF - The United Nations Children's Fund provides long-term humanitarian and
development assistance to children and mothers.

UNHCR - The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees – UNHCR protects
refugees worldwide and facilitates their return home or resettlement.

WFP - The World Food Programme aims to eradicate hunger and malnutrition. It is
the world’s largest humanitarian agency. Every year, the programme feeds almost 80
million people in around 75 countries.

UNODC - The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime – UNODC helps Member
States fight drugs, crime, and terrorism.

UNFPA - The United Nations Population Fund – UNFPA is the lead UN agency for
delivering a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every birth is safe, and every
young person's potential is fulfilled.

UNCTAD - The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development is the United
Nations body responsible for dealing with development issues, particularly
international trade – the main driver of development.

UNEP - The United Nations Environment Programme established in 1972, is the

voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst,
advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable
development of the global environment.

UN Women - UN Women merges and builds on the important work of four

previously distinct parts of the UN system, which focus exclusively on gender
equality and women’s empowerment.

UN-Habitat - The mission of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme is

to promote socially and environmentally sustainable human settlements development
and the achievement of adequate shelter for all.

UN Specialized Agencies

The UN specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United
Nations. All were brought into relationship with the UN through negotiated
agreements. Some existed before the First World War. Some were associated with the
League of Nations. Others were created almost simultaneously with the UN. Others
were created by the UN to meet emerging needs.

World Bank

The World Bank focuses on poverty reduction and the improvement of living
standards worldwide by providing low-interest loans, interest-free credit, and grants
to developing countries for education, health, infrastructure, and communications,
among other things. The World Bank works in over 100 countries.

IMF - The International Monetary Fund fosters economic growth and employment by
providing temporary financial assistance to countries to help ease balance of
payments adjustment and technical assistance. The IMF currently has $28 billion in
outstanding loans to 74 nations.

WHO - The World Health Organization is the directing and coordinating authority on
international health within the United Nations system. The objective of WHO is the
attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health, as defined in
the WHO Constitution, is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being
and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

UNESCO - The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

focuses on everything from teacher training to helping improve education worldwide
to protecting important historical and cultural sites around the world. UNESCO added
28 new World Heritage Sites this year to the list of irreplaceable treasures that will be
protected for today's travelers and future generations.

ILO - The International Labor Organization promotes international labor rights by

formulating international standards on the freedom to associate, collective bargaining,
the abolition of forced labor, and equality of opportunity and treatment.

FAO - The Food and Agriculture Organization leads international efforts to fight
hunger. It is both a forum for negotiating agreements between developing and
developed countries and a source of technical knowledge and information to aid

IFAD - The International Fund for Agricultural Development, since it was created in
1977, has focused exclusively on rural poverty reduction, working with poor rural
populations in developing countries to eliminate poverty, hunger and malnutrition;
raise their productivity and incomes; and improve the quality of their lives.

IMO - The International Maritime Organization has created a comprehensive

shipping regulatory framework, addressing safety and environmental concerns, legal
matters, technical cooperation, security, and efficiency.

WMO - The World Meteorological Organization facilitates the free international

exchange of meteorological data and information and the furtherance of its use in
aviation, shipping, security, and agriculture, among other things.

WIPO - The World Intellectual Property Organization protects intellectual property

throughout the world through 23 international treaties.

ICAO - The International Civilian Aviation Organization sets international rules on

air navigation, the investigation of air accidents, and aerial border-crossing

ITU - The International Telecommunication Union is the United Nations specialized

agency for information and communication technologies. It is committed to
connecting all the world's people – wherever they live and whatever their means.
Through our work, we protect and support everyone's fundamental right to

UPU - The Universal Postal Union is the primary forum for cooperation between
postal sector players. It helps to ensure a truly universal network of up-to-date
products and services.

UNWTO - The World Tourism Organization is the United Nations agency

responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible

Task 15 Guess the name of the international organization

1. The _____ was established in 1944 and promotes world trade. It has 184
member countries. Headquartered in Washington D.C., it works to improve the
financial condition of its member countries.

2. The _____ is a part of the United Nations. It promotes health matters

worldwide and aims to raise medical standards and monitor diseases.
3. ______ was set up in 1947. It works to improve the health and welfare of
children and mothers in developing countries.
4. ______ was set up in 1946. It encourages countries to get together on matters
such as education, culture and science.
5. The ____ was set up in 1961 and is the world’s largest conservation
organization. its main aim are to protect endangered animals and the placed where
they live.
6. The Swiss based ____ encourages International trade by establishing trade
agreements between countries. With 153 member countries and consisting more
than 97% of entire world trade, it propagates the International trade policies.
7. The _____ was founded in 1945. Most countries of the world – a total of 191,
are members. The general assembly of UN makes decision about peacekeeping and
human rights.

8. The ____ was founded in 1949 in Washington. The foreign ministers of 10

countries signed a defense treaty that committed them to helping each other in the
event of attack. There are now 26 country members with headquartered in Belgium.

Task 16 Match the organization and its emblem

World Wildlife Fund (WWF)

United Nations Educational, Scientific

and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

United Nations Children’s Fund


World Health Organization (WHO)

Task 17 Decipher the names of international organizations


Task 18 Find the English abbreviations for the following international



Vocabulary practice

Task 19 Translate from Russian into English

Организация Объединенных Наций преследует четыре цели: поддержание мира
и безопасности на планете; развитие дружественных отношений между
странами; сотрудничество в решении международных проблем и в обеспечении
уважения прав человека; и согласование действий разных стран. В достижении
этих целей сотрудничают более 30 родственных организаций, которые вместе
образуют систему ООН.

Организация Объединенных Наций не является мировым правительством и не

устанавливает законы. Она предоставляет возможности для урегулирования
международных конфликтов и выработки стратегий по вопросам, которые
касаются каждого из нас.

В этом процессе все государства — члены ООН — крупные и малые, богатые и

бедные вне зависимости от политического устройства и социальных систем —
имеют право голоса. Организация Объединенных Наций дает странам
возможность в условиях всеобщей взаимозависимости соблюдать
национальные интересы при решении международных проблем.

Деятельность системы ООН направлена на содействие уважению прав человека,

уменьшение масштабов нищеты, борьбу с болезнями и охрану окружающей
среды. Организация Объединенных Наций возглавляет международные
кампании по борьбе с оборотом наркотиков и терроризмом.

ООН и ее учреждения помогают наращивать производство продуктов питания,

оказывают помощь беженцам, направляют работу по борьбе со СПИДом,
разрабатывают программы разминирования и делают многое другое в разных
странах мира.

Source: http://www.un.org/ru/aboutun/booklet/intro.shtml

Speech Practice

Task 1 Comment on the quotation

1. More than ever before in human history, we share a common destiny. We can
master it only if we face it together. And that, my friends, is why we have the United
Nations. Kofi Annan
2. The United Nations system is still the best instrument for making the world less
fragile. Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
3. If the United Nations once admits that international disputes can be settled by using
force, then we will have destroyed the foundation of the organization and our best hope
of establishing a world order. Dwight D. Eisenhower
4. No one wants the United Nations to suffer the fate of the League of Nations, which

collapsed because it lacked real leverage. This is possible if influential countries bypass
the United Nations and take military action without Security Council authorization.
Vladimir Putin
Source: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/united_nations.html
Task 2 Study the official web-site of the United Nations Organization and find out
how many and what countries are official UN members; what countries are not
recognized by the world community and why.

Unit 6 New Geopolitical situation

Pre-reading tasks
1. Read the definition of Geopolitics and explain in what way it relates to International
relations and diplomacy
Geopolitics (from Greek γη ge "earth/land" and πολιτική politikē "politics") is the
study of the effects of geography (both human and physical) on international politics
and international relations.
Geopolitics is a method of foreign policy analysis which seeks to understand,
explain, and predict international political behavior primarily in terms of geographical
variables. Typical geographical variables are the physical location, size,
climate, topography, demography, natural resources, and technological advances of the
state being evaluated.
2. Agree or disagree with Alfred Thayer Mahan proposing six conditions required for
a nation to have sea power:

1. Advantageous geographical position;

2. Serviceable coastlines, abundant natural resources, and favorable climate;
3. Extent of territory
4. Population large enough to defend its territory;
5. Society with an aptitude for the sea and commercial enterprise; and
6. Government with the influence and inclination to dominate the sea. [8]

Explain your point of view on the example of any two countries

Discussion tasks

1. Explain the notions “unipolar world”, “bipolar world” and “multipolar world”
2. Skim the course of international diplomacy and find the information about the
Organization of Warsaw Agreement and North-Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Prepare the report about their structure, aims and goals.
3. Discuss the changes in the geopolitical situation throughout the world.
4. Make a list of countries having sovereignty dispute

Language work

Task 20 Make words following the word building patterns

Pattern 1 able – to enable
Courage, act, case, cash, close, force

Pattern 2 China – Chinese

Portugal, Japan, Vietnam, Surinam, Senegal, San Marino, Malta, Lebanon, Congo,
Burma, Bhutan

Pattern 3 Canada – Canadian

Uruguay, Syria, Slovenia, Palestine, Lithuania, Jordan, Nigeria, Peru , South Ossetia,

Text A 21st century: towards new foreign policy and diplomacy

The transition of the international relations system has been widely discussed
recently. It`s normal against the background of what is happening in the world. But what
foreign policy factors this process brings to the forefront of attention remains an open
question. Think tanks, analysts and experts voice their opinions on the problem, which is
also a subject of lively discussion in political and diplomatic circles in superpowers. For
us, the subject can be of particular importance to Azerbaijan too from a number of
Global geopolitics and leadership ambitions: controversial situation
It`s very hard to predict how the global balance of power will change in the 21st
century. Experts say that complex and inextricably interwoven processes are now taking
place on the global scale. If the period between 1991 and early 2000 can be called a stage
of geopolitical, economic and ideological leadership of the West led by the United States,
the years 2003-2010 offered a different picture, which saw the weakening of the West`s
position, revealed that America had limited influence capabilities and witnessed the
emergence of new leaders (China, Russia, India etc.). However, these changes did alter
neither the philosophy nor the structure of world governance.
This caused controversy in global geopolitics. There is still no effective
mechanism of regulating relations between countries. New conditions require making
changes to foreign policy and diplomacy. Think tanks of superpowers have already
started considering this.
Figuratively, they point to several factors that caused "complicated'', "complex''
and "confusing'' situation on the global scale. First and foremost, the United States is no
longer capable of fulfilling a function of the global leader. Experts blame this on failures
in the U.S. foreign policy since 2003, including Iraq, Afghanistan, and in the past few
years, Syria.
Secondly, several countries with geopolitical leadership claims emerged. China
and Russia are most widely spoken about, while others are India, Brazil and Turkey. This
adds to the tension as interests clash in geopolitics. Competition between China and

America makes itself felt globally. Geopolitical environment, which involves many
active forces, offers a picture quite different from the situation in the 20th century.
Thirdly, global governance is becoming very difficult under the new global
geopolitical circumstances. The reason is that classic politics and diplomacy are not
effective enough. There is a need to renew the content of "governance'' concept. The
point is that unlike a single leadership model, governance of an environment influenced
by many forces should be based on completely different criteria. Humanity has not yet
found these effective regulation conditions.
Fourthly, international organizations cannot effectively carry out their activities on
the global scale. They still apply the methods of the Cold War era. Interestingly, these
organizations` efforts to renew their mechanisms have not yet yielded any fruits. We
think that it is the major task facing the world political circles because, on the one hand,
everybody obviously realizes ineffectiveness of the old system of relations, and on the
other, they cannot reach the common denominator. But why?
We believe that there are some points that Western, Russian and Chinese analysts
intentionally or unintentionally do not pay due attention to. It is the excessive leadership
ambitions of super powers. A superficial analysis of the content, strategies and goals of
studies of analysts shows that the West, Russia and China are seeking to build a system
of regulating international relations that will be in the best interests of their own. They
almost have no confidence in each other. By the way experts stress this too.

Foreign policy: is a new era beginning?

However, super powers started searching for new political and diplomatic
methods. They already understand that it`s important to try a fresh approach. In this
context, analysts single out scientific, technical and technological innovations among
major factors influencing politics and diplomacy. One should admit that studying the
strong impact of the information and communication technologies on diplomacy is of
critical importance. This, in fact, adds fresh dynamism to the geopolitical environment.
The point is that at a stage when information plays such a big role foreign policy
and diplomatic activities should be built based on relatively different foundations. They
should meet contemporary requirements. In this context, some say that traditional
diplomatic instruments of such a powerful state as Russia are insufficient (see: previous
source). What is emphasized is that diplomats carry out their activities in an atmosphere
of global mutual dependence. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Andrey
Kolosovski believes that the Internet has already become "a productive force'' for politics
and diplomacy.
Growing mutual influence of policies of countries, on the one hand, and the
information technologies` playing a critical role in this process, on the other, necessitate
the introduction of new methods. Highly-skilled professionals are a high priority.
According to Kolosovski, Moscow does not yet possess such human resources. This
leads to certain shortcomings in the work to build a positive image of the country abroad.
This is one of the key foreign policy priorities at the modern stage.
Interestingly, experts believe that using, figuratively saying, "public methods'' in foreign
policy has become more important. And finding a right correlation between hard and soft
power is a vivid sign of it. More exactly, it`s about increasing the influence of

information rather than using military methods. For example, capability to work with
leaders of public opinion in foreign policy has taken a special importance. Experts work
out the following formula: a government should work with a government, a society
should work with a society, social networks should work with social networks, the media
should work with the media.
No doubts it is difficult to build diplomatic activities or organize foreign policy, as
a whole, using the aforementioned method. This requires finding course of the country`s
systematic development, building mechanisms of effective application of information and
communication technologies in politics. In short, modern diplomacy should be built
based on effective use of information.
If foreign policy is built on the basis of the aforementioned principles, the cultural
power of the country and the society will make itself felt on the international scale. It is
called soft power, and it has become part of political vocabulary. The method of tactical
decisions is much more effective here because when the country wants to build a positive
image on the international scene businessmen, religious organizations, the media, non-
governmental organizations and others should work in coordination. It is one of the
important conditions for successful foreign policy on the modern stage.
All this proves that foreign policy and diplomacy are on the verge of serious
changes. In fact, the society`s involvement is becoming more and more topical. Analysts
figuratively say that "foreign policy is now basically aimed at ordinary citizens''. This
means that building dialogue with all layers of the society should be among key priorities
in diplomatic activities. But is humanity ready for the philosophy of dialogue?
Leyla Mammadaliyeva
Source: http://newtimes.az/en/relations/2597/

Comprehension tasks

1. Give brief characteristics to historic periods a) from 1990-2000; b) from 2003 to

2010; c) 2012-2014.
2. Underline the factors that caused "complicated'', "complex'' and "confusing''
situation on the global scale.
3. What does the function of a global leader imply?
4. What are major factors influencing politics and diplomacy? Prove it on the
example of such countries as Russia, China, the USA and Germany.
5. Prove that ‘foreign policy and diplomacy are on the verge of serious changes’.

Vocabulary work

Task 21 Study the text thoroughly and find lexical units corresponding the definitions

1. unable to be separated, released, or escaped from

2. people in general
3. to change something, usually slightly, or to cause the characteristics of something to
4. a lot of disagreement or argument about something, usually because it affects or is
important to many people

5. to do something that is expected, hoped for, or promised, or to cause it to happen
6. the way that organizations or countries are managed at the highest level, and the
systems for doing this
7. an official rule or the act of controlling something
9. the position or fact of being the leader
10. the air, water, and land in or on which people, animals, and plants live
11. of the greatest importance to the way things might happen
12. the edge or border of something
13. the most noticeable or important position
14. a group of experts brought together, usually by a government, to develop ideas on
a particular subject and to make suggestions for action
15. to increase the life of or replace something old

Task 22 Translate the set-expressions into Russian, learn them by heart and make your
own sentences/situations with them
1. mutual dependence
2. to meet contemporary requirements
3. to be based on relatively different foundations
4. to be of critical importance
5. to have no confidence in
6. leadership ambitions
7. to apply the methods
8. to carry out one’s activities
9. Humanity
10. under the new global geopolitical circumstances
11. governance
12. to involve forces
13. First and foremost
14. To regulate relations between countries
15. To cause controversy
16. complex and inextricably interwoven processes
17. To bring to the forefront of attention
18. To be on the verge of
19. hard and soft power

Task 23 Find the English equivalents for the following set-expressions in the text
1. Обращать должное внимание на
2. Ослаблять позиции
3. Происходить в мировом масштабе
4. Выполнять функции мирового лидера
5. Иметь человеческий ресурс
6. создавать положительный образ своей страны
7. механизмыэффективногоиспользованияинформационныхикоммуникационн

Task 24 Find all the set-expressions in the text expressing the meaning ‘иметь особую
важность, быть крайне важным'.
Task 25 Translate from Russian into English using Active vocabulary
1. Прежде всего, дипломаты обязаны регулировать отношения между
2. Человечество использует все возможные методы, чтобы справиться с
лихорадкой Эбола – опасной болезнью, унесшей жизни многих людей.
3. В новых геополитических условиях, соблюдение общепринятых
международных норм является крайне важным фактором сохранения мира
на Земле.
4. Считается, что такие организации как НАТО и ЕС построены на совершенно
разных принципах.
5. Так называемые мировые лидеры не уделяют должного внимания
соблюдению прав личности в странах, чьи экономические позиции
ослаблены последствиями глобализации.
6. Мир на пороге третьей мировой войны, самой разрушительной войны на
протяжении всей истории человечества. Нужно не только создавать
положительный образ своей страны, но привлекать разнообразные виды
активности, чтобы предотвратить межэтнические конфликты.
7. Россия – богатая страна, у нее есть и природные и человеческие ресурсы,
чтобы реализовать свои лидерские стремления.

Render the text

Text B The European Union: geopolitical ambitions and foreign policy problems
Amid intensified complex geopolitical processes on a global scale, the fate of such
an organization as the European Union sparks great interest. In particular, the fact that it
has faced a deep crisis in recent years makes this issue even more topical. At present, the
tension exists in a number of regions with armed confrontations taking place. There are
even attempts to violate the territorial integrity of some countries. Under these
circumstances, much will depend on the foreign policy course the EU will choose.
Analysts make their forecasts on this. There are different approaches. Two strategic lines
are especially underlined among them: Europe does not seem to have found a concrete
way out.
Problems caused by the old paradigm
The European Union`s role in the global geopolitics is indisputable. This
organization, hub for integration processes in Europe considered the world`s developed
area, has demonstrated for decades its serous power to exert influence in the international
arena. Beginning from late 20th century, the EU favored the policy of becoming the
major geopolitical center of power (mainly after the Lisbon summit). Some processes
related to the organization began to manifest themselves after this decision. These
controversial processes need to be analyzed.
First of all, let us note that the EU is very ambitious in the geopolitical
context. The aims the EU set itself in this capacity automatically make the world`s other
great powers – the USA, Russia and China – its rivals. Although, the USA is a natural
ally of Europe, it pursues its own geopolitical interests. Washington is not going to make

any concessions to anybody on its own geopolitical interests. I believe Russia`s and
China`s response to the EU`s ambitions is clear.
Nevertheless, there is a shared geopolitical issue between Moscow and Beijing
with respect to the relationship with the EU. It is associated with Russia`s and China`s
seeing Europe in the capacity of the reliable ''rear area''. They seek free assistance from
Europe in introduction of new technologies, high-level human resources development
and formation of new infrastructure. Undoubtedly, the EU in this capacity has to play the
role of a ''rear area'' boosting development of others rather than of an independent global
geopolitical power. It is hard to believe that Brussels will accept this role.
As far as America is concerned, it has many shared interests with the EU. The idea
of creating the transatlantic free trade zone came from over the sea. If this process takes
place, the new geopolitical power will emerge. It will dramatically make potential
resistance to this force very much complicated. The developed countries are concerned
about this idea. The USA-Europe unity has an enormous potential from the political,
military, economic and demographic points of view. On the other hand, the EU tries to
play an independent role in the world politics. It is hard to claim that Washington is
happy with that because the USA does not give up its ambitions to be the only global
leader. For this reason, Europe must be strong enough to actively protect the American
interests in the Eurasian area.
Global power ambition: is there any potential?
European politicians have their own plans. They are confident that the EU has
enough potential to become a global power. Experts also underline the following three
areas the EU can lead. Firstly, the organization’s economic potential is high.
Secondly, Europe has huge opportunities in terms of culture and cultural-political
influence. In this sense, the fact that the idea of ''European values'' occupies a central
position in the activity of the organization is not accidental. This term is used in a broad
sense. As a matter of fact, it is based on the Kantian paradigm in international relations.
The great German philosopher gave preference to extreme liberal values in this context.
By taking this idea, the EU provided the European Values with broader sense elements.
Such controversial issues as peaceful resolution of disputes, observing political and civil
rights, ensuring human rights, respecting rights of ethnic minorities occupy a special
place here. "The European values'' also include such factors as ensuring economic and
political stability on the basis of the public solidarity, formation of foreign environment
based on security and friendship.
English researcher Lindley- French laconically describes the essence of
Europe. On the European values, he wrote, ''The whole essence of the power of Europe as
expressed through the European Union is its fundamental morality''. It is interesting that
this point holds a central position in the organization’s foreign policy. The Middle East
and Ukraine crisis manifested itself more clearly.
Thirdly, there is a wide array of opportunities for military and political
influence. Experts underscore that the EU has members with strong military. Of them,
France and England possess nuclear weapons. Germany has a traditionally strong
military system. The EU `s affiliating 28 countries makes this organization stronger in
this aspect. Basically, the EU can play the role of a global geopolitical power with such
military and political potential.

In the light of all these developments, the Western analysts` and experts` criticism
of the EU foreign policy looks completely logical. They claim the time has come to
change Europe’s traditional political course referred to as "soft power'' and envisaging
extreme liberalization. The point is that the policy called "turf wars'' (tough fight for
sovereignty, power, human rights and control) does not prove its value in the modern
geopolitics. The organization must develop a "more realist” foreign policy instead. It
must conduct reforms both within itself and towards its strategic partners.
In this context, experts criticize the European Union`s policy on the Middle East,
northern Africa and Ukraine. They describe Brussels` "soft stance” on the Egyptian,
Iranian and Syrian issues as a sign of a ''week policy''. The EU sent its special envoy to
Egypt and Iran, but talks yielded no results. In Egypt, Morsi was overthrown, while in
Iran, Europe-proposed framework has not yet proved fruitful.
The ineffectiveneness of the EU`s foreign policy clearly manifested itself in
Syria. Brussels plays unimportant role here, and is just observing the games of the USA,
Russia, Iran and China. The critics also do not hide their surprise at the EU`s passive role
in Syria amid Iran`s growing influence there. They explain it by "soft power'' and
"normative power Europe'' policy.
"Realist Europe'': the way out of the ''fragmented decline''?
Supporters of a new stance propose a ''Realist Europe power'' model. They accuse
the line of Normative Power Europe of bringing the organization on the brink of ''soft,
slow, fragmented decline.'' This issue regarded the main problem of the EU`s foreign
policy. By mentioning "being realist'', supporters of this approach mean that the need for
Europe to become the world power must be apprehended. By looking at the foreign
policy of this organization from this angle it is possible to observe some interesting
The European Union`s using military force is highlighted first of all. ''Realists''
claim the time has come to take this step. The Middle East and Ukraine developments are
underlined to justify this. One may recall Germany`s ideas voiced from this perspective
in recent months underlining that the EU must use military force. In addition, Berlin
voiced its force-based ambitions at the international security event held earlier this year.
It appears that the ''realist'' approach does not only belong to the analytic and expert
communities. It is also known that none of the great powers favored Germany`s new
world leadership ambitions. Even though Washington expressed its support of Berlin in
words only, it took a different stand when it came to concrete actions. For example, the
reports surfaced that the USA wish that Germany concedes on the Ukraine issue.
Germany-backed Klitchko`s refusal to run for presidency is portrayed as an evidence of
this. Additionally, Washington is said to have turned down Berlin`s proposal of "harsh
military response.''
One should not forget what is seen within the EU in recent years as a division
among the UK, France and German on some international issues. These countries do not
even have shared position on the reforms within the EU. While Berlin is keen on
deepening the economic and financial integration, Paris and London favour more
overarching process.
The contradictory approach is seen with respect to the EU`s single currency
too. On top of all, although Germany is interested in taking a permanent seat in the UN

Security Council, the UK and France are not satisfied with this. Experts underline that the
different approach of France and Germany is behind the EU`s failure to take an active
part in the Arab Spring.
Promising geopolitics: does a new conception exist?
Experts say that all these factors will affect the EU`s policy in 2014. Whether the
organization will be active or not is one of the major issues because the EU member
countries continue to pursue their own interests. Instead of taking a shared stand, they are
seeking to ensure their personal interests. In particular, the member countries are cautious
towards crises. In this respect, the fact that the 2014 year is called a difficult time is down
to the two factors.
Firstly, this year is set to see serious reshuffles. Parliamentary elections will be
conducted with the new person taking the foreign policy office (Ashton`s term of office
is about to expire). One of the changes expected to occur is associated with the election
of a new president of the European Union`s Council.
Although, this process will not harm the EU`s strategic goals, it can cause
difficulties in solving current problems. For example, it can delay the efforts to get
Ukraine out of crisis. According to experts, the EU`s foreign policy may face stagnation
and damages .
Secondly, the opportunities to form a shared position on the foreign policy among
the EU member states seem to be limited. There is no hope for their concerted efforts this
year. One of the major factors here is associated with the fact that these states do not tend
to cooperate with the countries which are not committed to the European values. Such a
position causes some difficulties in the EU`s relations with the great geopolitical
powers. We find the need to pay attention to some issues in this respect.
George Friedman writes on the Ukraine issue in the context of the West`s shared
stance in talks with Russia: "There is no single figure in Europe who speaks for the
European states on a matter of this importance. The British speak for the British,
the French for the French, the Germans for the Germans and the Poles for the Poles. In
negotiating with the Europeans, you must first allow the Europeans to negotiate among
themselves. After negotiations, individual countries -- or perhaps the European Union --
might, for example, send monitors. But Europe is an abstraction when it comes to power
politics'' .
The Stratfor founder concludes that Washington should talk with Moscow on its
own. No doubt, this is not in line with the EU`s intentions to become a global power.
However, the chance of a change in this aspect is very slim in 2014. For this reason, the
geopolitical contradictions between the USA and EU are forecast to remain. In this
aspect, what can be interesting is the US` reaction to the EU`s world leadership ambitions
of realists who rose in Europe in recent period.
The point is that the position of European "realists'' is not aligned with the US`
balance of powers strategy.In line with this conception, the Americans do not consider
military force as a right option. Friedman believes that "there need to be layers of options
between threat and war” in solution of international problems. Realists suggest paying
attention to the military option and this is not in line with the above-mentioned position.
In addition, there are some contradictions between national interests and
international norms at this juncture. There are attempts to create broader international

norms in order to prevent the use of force in occupying territories. It is obvious that the
cases of military occupation continue emerging. Examples of this include Nagorno-
Karabakh, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Iraq, Afghanistan and Crimea as the latest of them.
In this context, Fareed Zakaria`s words are very interesting. He writes: "Over the
next decade or so, depending on how rising new powers behave, these norms will be
strengthened or eroded. And that will make the difference between war and peace in the
21st century.”
The above-mentioned give grounds to conclude that much will depend on how the
states with the ambitions to make the EU the global geopolitical force, will observe
international legal norms themselves.Unfortunately, there is still more of "double
standards’ in place. Against the backdrop of the Western countries` reaction to the
Crimea developments, this manifests itself more clearly. Now the European countries as
well as the USA underscore that international law was violated. However, there was no
such response with respect to the Nagorno-Karabakh dispute. What is the reason?
On the other hand, if the European Union wants to portray the use of military force
to become a global geopolitical power as a "realist approach'', the accusations of Russia
or China for the same behaviour looks like artificial humanity. Creation of the stable
geopolitical order in the world under such circumstances is, as we believe,
impossible. The other aspect of the problem is connected with the fate of the European
The point is that some forecasts say this organization may weaken very much or
collapse completely.Some politicians and military experts do not seem to rule out this
scenario. For this reason, they tend to include radical elements into the foreign policy.
However, how much "realist” this change can be is rather a controversial matter. We
believe that there is an opportunity to exacerbate the existing geopolitical situation even
more on a global scale. It is interesting that the EU is reluctant to speak in this context.
We can conclude that the "Realist European power’ idea is not the way
out. Moreover, if all the great powers choose this course, the humanity may face new
disasters. As a matter of fact, the hallmarks of this can now be seen. The armed conflicts
observed in different regions of the world, attempts to violate territorial integrity of
states, double standard approaches to the international law are reasons to come to such a
conclusion. Perhaps, this is one of the most important problems of foreign policy of not
only the European Union but also all the great powers.
Kamal Adigozalov
Source: http://newtimes.az/en/relations/2735/

Comprehension questions

1. What are European values, according to the article?

2. Explain the statement by Lindley- French ''The whole essence of the power of
Europe as expressed through the European Union is its fundamental morality''
3. Decipher the term "turf wars''.

Discussion questions
1. Speak about Russian, European and American values. What are the differences and

2. Characterize the European Union`s role in the global geopolitics.

Vocabulary work

Task 26 Use monolingual dictionaries and explain the meaning of the verb to
a) Find all the synonyms for the verb
b) Translate into Russian
1. Information gathered by them revealed that he was persuaded to cancel his visit
today by the state government as it apprehended major controversy.
2. Let's remember that we were never apprehended, arrested, charged or deported.
3. According to reports, an off-duty police officer tried to intervene and was struck
by the robber before he was apprehended and arrested.
4. He posits that ‘understandings can only be apprehended and appreciated if they are
performed by a student’.
5. It is only through the force of the emotionally apprehended that he can perceive the
6. But what controls and regulates feeling will be a wider web of feelings, which
reason helps us apprehend and understand, not any reason holding authority over all
7. During the follow-up interviews, one subject admitted that he was apprehended via
an arrest warrant.

Task 27 Verbs ending in –cede: Concede, accede, precede, succeed

1. The Liberal Democrats have already conceded that they cannot deny him a further
term in office.
2. The Sikhs had to agitate for nearly 15 years until their demand was conceded in
3. There is also a possibility that Australia and New Zealand could be included, though
it depends on the two countries agreeing to accede to ASEAN's nonaggression pact,
known as the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation
4. Churchill, who was in office when Elizabeth acceded to the throne in 1952, is
thought to be the queen's favorite prime minister
5. Elections are won and lost not in the four weeks of campaigning but in the long
battle of ideas that precedes them
6. When competition becomes the dominant model for social reward, only a few can
succeed, whereas the rest grow embittered

Task 28 Translate into English

1. В научных кругах геополитика предполагает географический, исторический
и социологический анализ вопросов, связанных с политикой и территориальными
структурами на различных уровнях (от государственного до международного). При
этом рассматриваются политическое, экономическое и стратегическое значение
географии, в зависимости от местоположения, размера, функции и
взаимоотношения местностей и ресурсов.
2. Последняя президентская кампания показала, что на пост президента часто
баллотируются люди далекие от современной политики.
3. Страны БРИГС обеспокоены тем, что меры по предотвращению глобального
потепления не приносят никаких видимых результатов.
4. Очевидно, что западные страны преследуют вои геополитические интересы,
нарушая при этом территориальную целостность отдельных стран.
5. Вопрос о неприкосновенности журналистов занимает главное место в
последнем отчете министра иностранных дел.
6. Во время первой чеченской войны правительство РФ не пошло ни на какие
уступки террористам и использовало весь арсенал средств для решения
внутреннего конфликта.
7. Страны Африки, бесспорно, столкнулись с глубочайшим экономическим
кризисом и, поэтому, не могут оказать влияния на отдельные террористические

Speech Practice
Comment on the quotation

1. “A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than
on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death.”
Martin Luther King, Jr. (American Baptist Minister and Civil-Rights Leader. 1929-1968)
2. Let us fight for a new world, a decent world!
Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977), British actor, screenwriter, director.
3. For nonconformity the world whips you with its displeasure.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), U.S. essayist, poet, philosopher.

UNIT 7 National identity problem and patriotism in our globalized world

Pre-reading tasks

1. Think over the notion of national identity and try to give your own understanding
of the term. Compare it with the given one.
National identity is a person's identity and sense of belonging to one state or to one
nation, a feeling one shares with a group of people, regardless of one's citizenship status.
Yoonmi Lee sees national identity in psychological terms as "an awareness of difference"
- "a feeling and recognition of 'we' and 'they'".

National identity is not an inborn trait; various studies have shown that a person's
national identity results directly from the presence of elements from the "common points"
in people's daily lives: national symbols, language, national colours, the nation's history,
national consciousness, blood ties, culture, music, cuisine, radio, television, etc.

2. Do you agree that the expression of one's national identity seen in a positive light
is patriotism, and the negative is chauvinism.
3. Explain what patriotism and chauvinism are.
4. Give the definition to ‘nation’, ‘nationality’, ‘nation state’, ‘ethic minority’

Text A National identity vs European identity

August 15, 2009 by James Clive-Matthews

The debate continues to rage in the comments to my history: starting assumptions post,
much of it coming from EUtopia regular Robin, a man firmly convinced of the
superiority of national identities over any “European” one:

your national identity comes readily to you but this EUropean identity seems
manufactured by those who are stakeholders in this EU project or its supporters.I also
pointed out that Europeans may not, depending on their nationality, have that much in
common with other Europeans, and many will have more in common with nations
outside of Europe

Some fair points there, for sure. But what about the claim that “your national identity
comes readily to you” contrasted with “this European identity seems manufactured” – the
implication seems to be that national identities are somehow organically-formed.

This certainly can be the case – true national identities are usually based on a closely-
shared culture and language. Think the Basques or Celts or Roma – not confined within
the borders of any one country, but with a definite sense of nationhood.

The rise of national identities

Nation states, however, are entirely different beasts. The histories of France and Germany
– two of the Great Powers of Europe, and key personifications of the nation state concept
– are dominated prior to the last couple of hundred years by centuries of internal conflict
and power struggles as their various constituent parts battled for control. People in the
16th century may have felt “French” or “German” – but only AFTER they felt
themselves Angevin, Bavarian, and so on. The same goes for Spain, Italy, Poland,
Austria, Switzerland – pretty much every European state. Even England was formed from
constituent parts, albeit rather earlier than many other future European nation states.

In every case, a “national” identity had to be superimposed over the smaller-scale, pre-
existing identities of the units that were brought together to make up the new, larger
nation state, to forge a sense of shared identity between Angevins and Provencals,
Bavarians and Saxons, Catalonians and Andalucians, where previously there was not just
none, but also frequently a sense of hostility and rivalry.

Much of the time this has been due to the perception of some external threat, either real
or fictional – in the case of 16th/17th century France, the rise of the Habsburgs in Spain,
the Spanish Netherlands, Austria, Northern Italy and the Holy Roman Empire; in the case
of 19th century Germany, the perceived threat from Austria-Hungary to the south and
Denmark to the north; in 1930s Germany, the perceived threat was the Great Depression,
communism and “the Jews”. The reason for forging a new sense of unity is aimed both
internally – to promote loyalty to the state in a time of crisis – and externally – to
demonstrate that unity to your enemies, and make clear that your constituent parts are no
longer potential allies.

The rise of the British and English national identities

The British national identity has only been created during the last 3-400 years (first under
James VI/I to try to mesh his Scottish/English subjects together – something that didn’t
work – then after the Act of Union of 1707, mostly in response to the rise of France under
Louis XIV to prevent the revival of the old Franco-Scottish anti-England alliance). Yet
this British identity *still* hasn’t fully taken hold, with sizable chunks of the population
still feeling Scottish/Welsh/English/Cornish/Irish/whatever far more than they feel
British – a feeling heightened by the different cultures and traditions, languages and
religions and even (in the case of Scotland) legal systems still in place in the various
constituent states of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Just as the British national identity rose in response to a threat, so too did the English.
The Danish/Viking invasions of the 9th/10th centuries first led to concerted efforts at
defence, then to alliances, finally to the expansion of the old Kingdom of Wessex as the
Anglo-Saxons fought back against the Danes. The Heptarchy – the old kingdoms of
Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia, Northumberland, Kent, Sussex and Essex (not to mention
smaller kingdoms likeBernicia, Deira, Surrey, Lindsey, the Isle of Wight, Hwicce,
Magonsaete, Pecsaetan,Wreocensae, Tomsaete, Haestingas, the Middle Angles, and
Cornwall which were mostly sucked into the major seven during the course of the Dark
Ages) – was united as England not due to any inherent feeling of shared identity, but
thanks to the Viking threat and Alfred the Great’s realisation that the best bet was safety
in numbers. (A very similar idea to that which led to the European Union, in fact.)

But that’s just the creation of England as an entity – not Englishness as an identity. As
Robin rightly notes, just because you can identify a geographical area with some
common features (like England back in the 9th century, or Europe today), doesn’t mean
that there is any sense of shared identity among the people of that area.

English national identity took several centuries to emerge after England’s unification –
there were early hints under Edward I as he battled the Welsh, Scots and French (again,
the threat of war being a the key), though most historians now agreeing that it was first
fully conceived during the reign of Henry VII as a more or less entirely political, top-
down attempt to reunify the kingdom after the Wars of the Roses. (One of the key
manifestations of this new “English” identity was Henry’s entirely PR-driven decision to
name his first-born son Arthur, after the legendary English King, made newly popular by
Thomas Mallory’s Le Mort d’Arthur, published the very year that Henry seized the
throne and brought the long-running civil wars of York vs Lancaster to a close. How
much better a symbol of England’s unity could there have been than for a new King
Arthur to take the throne? Shame he died, really…)

“Englishness” was maintained as an idea by Henry VIII, first to secure his throne and
then (almost by accident) during his dispute with the Papacy and subsequent
Reformation. It was further solidified under Elizabeth I as she tried to unite her
religiously-divided country in the face of the constant threat of Spanish and French
Catholic invasions (trying to create a sense of national identity that could override the
Catholic identities of some of her subjects). But even that didn’t work – witness the Civil
War that erupted 40 years after her death.

Local vs national identities

Even today, there are sub-categories beneath “Englishness” that many people within
England will pick as their primary “identity”: Scouse; Geordie; Brummie; Yorkshireman;
Northerner – and so on. (Some of the pre-English kingdoms have retained some sense of
identity remain – notably in Cornwall (mostly due to the older Celtic national identity
that pre-dates Cornwall as an entity); others have been entirely forgotten – how many
people in modern-day Lincolnshire perceive themselves to be Lindseyans?)

All of these local identities are far more natural in origin than the “English” or “British”
“national” identites that lie above them as a broader unifying concept – and such smaller-
scale identities will always exist – because before both English and British identities
arose, the most important identities were (quite naturally) local – the village, the town,
and at a push the county.

And little wonder – until the 19th century, let’s not forget, it would take at least a week to
travel from London to Edinburgh or Penzance. The only other “Englishmen” you’d be
likely to meet – unless you were a politician or noble – would be at the local market or
the county fair. Why should someone from Devon feel any kinship with someone from
Yorkshire? They would never meet, and even if they did they would speak differently,
have different customs and traditions – and after the Reformation sometimes even
different religions. (The conversion to Protestantism was a decidedly localised affair in
England, despite being a top-down, state-ordained decision – there are even records of
neighbouring villages in early 17th century Somerset, less than five miles apart, where
one was Catholic, one was Protestant – they went on to join different sides in the Civil
War, one supporting Parliament, the other the King…)

This argument about not meeting people from far away and having little in common with
them when you do, of course, you could use against the concept of a “European” identity
today – what does a Yorkshireman have in common with a Romanian?, etc.

Only today we are far more likely to encounter people from other EU member states than
our forebears ever were to meet a fellow Englishman from the other side of the country.
You can drive to Romania in a couple of days – a journey time that, when the English
national identity was being formed, wouldn’t have got you even a quarter of the way
from Cornwall to London. It’s quicker to fly from London to Romania today than it
would have been, back in the 16th/17th/18th centuries when national identities were
forming, to ride to the next town.

An attempt at a conclusion

All this, of course, goes to explain my belief that that broad, higher-level senses of
belonging – at national or European level – are less important than lower-level,
“primary” identites.

Yet even this isn’t entirely true – because senses of identity are entirely personal things.
You can pick a bunch of people who were all born and raised in the same village, and yet
there will still be a wide range of opinions among them as to what their primary identity
(or identities) may be. Some may pick their national identity as most important, others
that of their local area, still others their religion or their class.

Because if the case study of the manufacture of Britishness and Englishness has proved
anything, it shows that the top-down imposition of a broad identity will only ever meet
with limited success.

A broad identity can be a positive unifying force – the creation of a sense of

“Britishness” in particular has prevented war within the island of Great Britain for the
last three hundred years – though it can also cause conflict – as in Northern Ireland,
where the imposition of the concept of Britishness continues to meet with violent

As such, although I don’t see a “European” identity as a threat to my own sense of

identity or place, I can see how others might. And although I agree with Robin that there
have been efforts to artificially create such a European identity – just as the English and
British and French and German and Spanish and Italian (and so on) identities were
artificially created before it – I don’t agree entirely. The growth of a European identity is
also partially natural and organic as the economies and societies of Europe grow closer
together, and as improvements in technology and transportation bring Europeans from
different countries into more regular contact with each other – just as a sense of
“Britishness” grew organically during the course of the last few hundred years as
Britain’s infrastructure improved and people from Devon and Yorkshire and Scotland
encountered each other more regularly, and grew to see the things that they had in
common as well as those things that were different.

Some pre-English and pre-British identities have been lost; others have survived. The
same will doubtless be the case in Europe if the European identity takes hold. But the
process will be a long one. More than a thousand years after the formation of England,
the Cornish still feel Cornish; seven hundred years after the conquest of Wales, the Welsh
still feel Welsh; three hundred years after the Act of Union, the Scots still feel Scottish.

And so, in short, while I have no wish to impose a European identity on anyone who
doesn’t wish it, I honestly can’t see how it can be seen as a threat. And likewise, I can’t
see how any attempt to break down the perceived barriers between peoples of different
identities in pursuit of a common good can be a bad thing. The creation of a European
identity is not an aggressive movement, like the creation of a German identity was in the
late 19th through to the mid-20th century – it is a positive attempt to bring together a
continent whose entire history has been marked by warfare and conflict.

I can only see this as a good thing.

Source: www.jcm.org.uk
Comprehension questions

1. What is the author’s attitude to any national identity.

2. Follow the course of forging the German and British nation identities. Think over
the one for the Russian identity.
3. Explain where Scouse; Geordie; Brummie; Yorkshireman; Northerner live.

Task 29 Study the text thoroughly and find lexical units corresponding the

1. A thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof

2. The characteristics determining who or what a person or thing is:
3. Form an edge along or beside (something)
4. A large body of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language,
inhabiting a particular state or territory
5. Being a voting member of an organization and having the power to appoint or
6. Hostile behavior; unfriendliness or opposition
7. Competition for the same objective or for superiority in the same field
8. Belonging to or forming the outer surface or structure of something
9. A statement of an intention to inflict pain, injury, damage, or other hostile action
on someone in retribution for something done or not done:
10. A union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or
11. The political strategy of extending a state’s territory by encroaching on that of
other nations
12. A thing with distinct and independent existence
13. Coming after something in time; following
14. Unexpectedly be faced with or experience (something hostile or difficult)
15. Move out of or away from something and become visible
16. The process of being united or made into a whole
17. An ancestor
18. (Of a situation or concept) not existing naturally; contrived or false
19. Force (an unwelcome decision or ruling) on someone
20. The use of force or violence to oppose someone or something

Task 30 Word building

a) Find all the derivatives for the noun ‘identity’. Make your own sentences to show
their meaning.
b) Study the suffix –hood denoting a condition or quality or a collection or group
Make about 10 words according to the model: nation - nationhood

Task 31 Consult the dictionary and translate the verbs in –sume

To assume, to presume, to consume

Note: In common usage both assume and presume can mean ‘suppose’ and are often
interchangeable in this meaning. However, technically there is a subtle difference
between the two where presume is to ‘suppose to be the case on the basis of probability’:
two of the journalists went missing and are presumed dead
Assume on the other hand is to ‘suppose to be the case without proof’:
I just assumed it to be the case
Both words also share other meanings that can be summarised as ‘to take on oneself’. In
this senseassume is generally used to describe taking on a role:
I assumed the role of the aggressor in the conversation
Whereas presume is generally used when taking on an attitude:

he had presumed too great a level of familiarity

Translate into Russian

1. After all, it refers to a standard of proof that assumes innocence until guilt is proven.
2. He also said the missing American is presumed dead.
3. The overall goal of these institutions is to prepare each generation to assume the
obligations and responsibilities of a productive citizen.
4. Society cannot survive on the intangible ‘feelgoods’ of ideas and creativity - it needs
to consume goods and services produced
5. The hijackers assumed the controls of the Boeing 757, cruising in the airspace near
the capital.
6. Federalism presumes that states exist within a larger nation
7. Each human, particularly each American human, consumes enormous resources

Summarize the text using underlined vocabulary

Text B British National Identity

By Robert Colls | Published in History Today Volume: 62 Issue: 8 2012
Robert Colls asks what British identity is - and what it is not.

What it is not

1. National identity is not something governments can invent. It is more a feeling than an
opinion and not a policy statement. Like all identities it is not unduly hampered by being
difficult to put into words.

2. National identity should not be confused with national values. The values which
politicians have tried to lay on Britons are no different from the claims of other states,
even nasty ones. If these values bind us, why do they need setting out? If they don’t bind
us, in what sense are they ours?

3. Nor is national identity an aggregate of all the diverse values that may exist in a
society at any one time. Indeed, a society with high levels of diversity may have to face
the fact that it has no identity to speak of. Such a society may equate diversity with
tolerance, but tolerance needs the nation there in the first place to do the tolerating.

4. Much recent scholarship stresses the exclusivity of nations but misses the
emergentquality of national identity, particularly the process of inviting people to become
more equal and alike. In the British case national identity was built on the edging
together of state and nation over a long history of political compromise and on a series of
modern wars in which the Anglo-British state was remarkably successful. So closely did
the British peoples appear to identify with aspects of this settlement, the political class
has long been able to claim that it does not need to be regulated by a written constitution.

5. British national identity was not born of a deplorable past. It is true that British
dominion was not built according to the principles of the Equal Opportunities
Commission and we have to accept, too, that it was interwoven with imperialism and
what we now call racism. In this it was not alone among other imperialisms – including
republican and socialist imperialisms. At the same time we have to accept that British
national identity survived because it was a broadly acceptable expression of the British
people, to the British people, if not by the British people. Ireland was the great failure in
this regard. Even so, most Irish were late in finding union with Great Britain an
unacceptable representation of who they were.

6. British national identity has not always been called that. We have to be ready to deal
with different names and concepts. E.P. Thompson and G.A. Williams, for instance,
demonstrated that it was through their myths of national origin that the English and
Welsh working poor became class conscious. It was clear to them, for example, that

being ethnically Welsh or English was incompatible with being a factory slave or a
dispossessed debtor.

7. National identity can be expressed in images and representations. But in order to be

meaningful it has to fit experience and think of itself as a long-term arrangement.
Although there has been much talk in recent years of ‘invented’ nations, all working
nation states seek to underwrite the long-term obligations upon which all national
relationships depend.

8. National identity is not just that which it is not. Sometimes called a theory of
otherness, ‘alterity’ stems from the psycholinguistic disciplines and is ubiquitous in
contemporary university teaching. Whole continents and epochs of human experience are
being taught to undergraduates in terms of a ‘we’ that relates to an ‘other’. So ‘we’
becomes a very unstable pronoun where all identities are rendered provisional, multiple,
situational and relative. There is not even room for the ‘we’ of human nature.

But in an individual any notion of reacting to the other without a prior sense of self would
be seen as a pathological condition. In the nation that sense derives from a living
relationship with the past. Most people, like most nations, are capable of thinking of
themselves as a precondition to thinking for themselves.

9. If you want a national identity, people have got to want to identify and have a reason
for doing so.

What has happened to it?

Our current predicament is that the main channels of national identity as mapped, for
example, by Linda Colley in Britons (1992) have almost run out. In the 1960s
relationships that for over 200 years had sustained the British people began to erode: their
relationship with Parliament and the belief that it was sovereign and essentially belonged
to them as key component of a free society; their relationship with the armed forces and
the idea of a superior British imperial world; their relationship with Protestantism and the
idea of a free heritage; their relationship with manufacturing and their reputation as the
world’s oldest industrial nation; and finally their relationship with themselves as British
and alike and growing more alike in fundamental ways. When the Millennium Dome was
erected its organisers didn’t know what to put in it. They certainly didn’t put any of this
stuff in it. In other words in 2001 there was no ‘manifest doctrine’ of Britishness as there
had been in 1851 or even in 1951. It was not so much that the British people had ceased
believing in themselves; it was more that over a very short period the conditions of that
belief had evaporated. Between the Festival of Britain and the Millennium Dome, say,
British national identity was no more.

In recent times the British state’s thinking has been federal, multicultural, and free market
– a soft Thatcherite mix which, according to the last five prime ministers at least, was
more befitting the minimum process known as ‘Europe’ and the maximum process
known as globalisation. Our current predicament is that none of this thinking has been
sympathetic to the principle and the practice of British national identity.

Comprehension questions

1. What is the author’s understanding of national identity? Do you agree or disagree?

2. Explain the difference between national identity and national values.
3. How long did it take to build up the British national identity?
4. Explain what imperialism and racism and globalization are.
5. What state is Britishness in nowadays?

Discussion tasks

1. Study the topic of national features thoroughly and fill in the table
Nationality Positive features Negative features

Russians industrious, brave, Suspicious, over -

progressive ... patriotic..

Britons reserved, tradition- extremely nationalistic


Frenchmen Romantic

Americans Ambitious

Germans Practical-minded

2. Find the definition of the term ‘patriotism’. Does it correspond with your
understanding of patriotism? Why or why not?
3. What is the difference between true patriotism and pseudo-patriotism? Give true-
to- life examples of both.

Task 32 Learn the set-expressions by heart

1. to put smth into words
2. to be confused with
3. to face the fact
4. to equate smth with smth
5. emergent quality
6. to be born of a deplorable past
7. to deal with
8. to underwrite the long-term obligations
9. to survive
10. to become class conscious

Task 33 Find the English equivalents in the text

1. затруднительное положение; затруднение
2. исчезать, улетучиваться, растворяться; испаряться; исчезать без следа
3. происходить, вести свое происхождение
4. происходить от (чего-л.); являться результатом (чего-л.)
5. несовместимый с
6. поддерживать кого-то
7. подписать долгосрочные обязательства

Task 34 Translate the sentences paying your attention to active vocabulary

1. Мировое сообщество встало перед фактом, что коммерческая выгода ошибочно

принимается за благотворительную помощь.
2. Оказавшись в затруднительном положении, россияне всегда находили выход.
3. Национальное разнообразие Российской Федерации поражает.
4. Враждебность и соперничество являются новыми чертами национальной
борьбы между странами.
5. Во многих странах буржуазные революции происходили, когда рабочий класс
становился классово сознательным.

Speech Practice

Comment on the quotations

1. Patriotism is a lively sense of collective responsibility. Nationalism is a silly cock

crowing on its own dunghill and calling for larger spurs and brighter beaks.
RICHARD ALDINGTON, The Colonel's Daughter
2. By patriotism is meant, not only spontaneous, instinctive love for one's own
nation, and preference for it above all other nations, but also the belief that such love and
preference are good and useful.
LEO TOLSTOY, letter to a Polish journalist, Sept. 1895

3. Patriotism assumes that our globe is divided into little spots, each one surrounded
by an iron gate. Those who have had the fortune of being born on some particular spot,

consider themselves better, nobler, grander, more intelligent than the living beings
inhabiting any other spot. It is, therefore, the duty of everyone living on that chosen spot
to fight, kill, and die in the attempt to impose his superiority upon all the others.

EMMA GOLDMAN, Anarchism and Other Essay

4. Patriotism: Your conviction that this country is superior to all other countries
because you were born in it.

GEORGE BERNARD SHAW, The Public: A Journal of Democracy, 1910

5. Patriotism is the willingness to kill and be killed for trivial reasons.

BERTRAND RUSSELL, The Bertrand Russell Society Quarterly

Unit 8 Right for privacy vs surveillance

Pre-reading tasks

1. Study the below-given definitions of privacy and give your explanation to the
a) Right of a person to be free from intrusion into matters of a personal nature.
Although not explicitly mentioned in the U.S. Constitution, a right to privacy has
been held to be implicit in the Bill of Rights, providing protection from
unwarranted government intrusion into areas such as marriage and
contraception. A person's right to privacy may be overcome by a compelling state
interest. In tort law, privacy is a right not to have one's intimate life and affairs
exposed to public view or otherwise invaded. Less broad protections of privacy
are afforded public officials and others defined by law as public figures (e.g.,
movie stars).
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia

b) Privacy (from Latin: privatus "separated from the rest, deprived of something, esp.
office, participation in the government", from privo "to deprive") is the ability of
an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and
thereby reveal themselves selectively.

2. In what way does privacy differ from confidentiality?

3. Comment: A person's right to privacy is protected under Article 12 of the United

Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948): "No one shall be
subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home, or
correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honor and reputation. Everyone has the
right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks." UN
member countries are morally, if not legally, bound by such declarations.
4. Explain why the Fourth and Fifth Amendments are critical for rights for privacy.
5. Discuss different types of privacy - Personal privacy, Informational,
Organizational, Spiritual and intellectual privacy
6. Make brief reports on history of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Vkontakte and
other social networks.

Text A Privacy no longer a social norm, says Facebook founder

Bobbie Johnson

The rise of social networking online means that people no longer have an expectation
of privacy, according to Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg.
Talking at the Crunchie awards in San Francisco this weekend, the 25-year-old chief
executive of the world's most popular social network said that privacy was no longer a
"social norm".
"People have really gotten comfortable not only sharing more information and different
kinds, but more openly and with more people," he said. "That social norm is just
something that has evolved over time."
Zuckerberg said that the rise of social media reflected changing attitudes among ordinary
people, adding that this radical change has happened in just a few years.
"When I got started in my dorm room at Harvard, the question a lot of people asked was,
'why would I want to put any information on the internet at all? Why would I want to
have a website?'."
"Then in the last 5 or 6 years, blogging has taken off in a huge way, and just all these
different services that have people sharing all this information."
His statement may not be a surprise, particularly since it helps to justify the company's
recent – and highly controversial – decision to change the privacy settings of its 350
million users.
But it also represents a remarkable shift from where the Californian company originally
started out.
Launched in 2004 as an exclusive network for Ivy League students, the site grew in part
because allowed people to communicate privately – or at least among small groups of
The constant tug of war between public and private information that ensued led to a
series of embarrassing incidents where individuals published information online thinking
it was private, only to have it reach the public.
These episodes are partly the result of the way people use Facebook, which has changed
its service on several occasions in recent years. Each time the site brings more
information into the public domain – and at each point it faces a series of protests and
adverse reactions from users.

Moves included the decision in 2006 to introduce the "news feed" – an update of people's
activities that is now central to Facebook's service. A year later it launched Beacon,
a contentious advertising system that allowed advertisers to track your activities online.
That eventually led to the company settling a lawsuit for $9.5m, but it did not prevent it
from bringing in new privacy changes in December that one campaign group called
"plain ugly".
In his talk, however, Zuckerberg said it was important for companies like his to reflect
the changing social norms in order to remain relevant and competitive.
"A lot of companies would be trapped by the conventions and their legacies of what
they've built," he said. "Doing a privacy change for 350 million users is not the kind of
thing that a lot of companies would do.
"But we viewed that as a really important thing, to always keep a beginner's mind and
what would we do if we were starting the company now and we decided that these would
be the social norms now and we just went for it."
Not everybody agrees. Marshall Kirkpatrick, of the technology industry blog
ReadWriteWeb, said Zuckerberg's statement was "not a believeable explanation" and
pointed to the company's complicity in changing the way people think about online

Meanwhile, others have rejected the idea that younger people, in particular, are less
concerned about privacy. Last month Microsoft researcher and social networking expert
Danah Boyd told the Guardianthat such assumptions often misunderstood the reasons that
people put private information online.
"Kids have always cared about privacy, it's just that their notions of privacy look very
different than adult notions," she said.
"As adults, by and large, we think of the home as a very private space … for young
people it's not a private space. They have no control over who comes in and out of their
room, or who comes in and out of their house. As a result, the online world feels more
private because it feels like it has more control."
Source: http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2010/jan/11/facebook-privacy

Comprehension questions

1. Who is Mark Zuckerberg? What did he invent?

2. What is the Ivy League?
3. What was the reason for creating the social network Facebook?
4. How do younger generation feel about privacy? Do you agree or disagree with this
point of view?
5. Render the text

Language Work

Task 33 Word building. Make adjectives according to the pattern

Pattern: To believe +able = believable

To eat, to read, to drink, to respond, to conceive, to remark, to understand

Task 34 Explain the following words and set-expressions in English

public domain, tug of war, blogging, user, privacy, surveillance, site

Task 35 Study the text thoroughly and find lexical units corresponding the

1. (Of a fictional character or situation) convincing or realistic

2. Preventing success or development; harmful; unfavourable
3. Giving rise or likely to give rise to controversy or public disagreement
4. Develop gradually
5. A state in which one is not observed or disturbed by other people
6. Embody or represent (something) in a faithful or appropriate way
7. A settled way of thinking or feeling about something
8. Move or cause to move from one place to another, especially over a small distance
9. Share or exchange information, news, or ideas:
10. Start or set in motion (an activity or enterprise)
11. Closely connected or appropriate to the matter in hand
12. Relating to or characterized by competition

Task 36 Translate from Russian into English using Active Vocabulary

1. Социальные сети были созданы, чтобы людям было легче общаться на
2. В следующем году мы запустим проект, касающийся безопасности данных в
3. Отношение старшего поколения к интернету менее терпимое по сравнению
с отношением их детей.
4. Пресса должна отражать события объективно и беспристрастно.
5. Вероятно, что противоречивое освещение событий в этой стране нанесет
вред взаимным дипломатическим отношениям.

Text B Why the NSA undermines national security

Post Editorial

Questions about the legitimacy and efficacy of the mass-surveillance techniques
used by the National Security Agency continue to swirl around the globe. The debate in
the United States has mostly focused on a misleading trade-off between security and
privacy. “If you don’t have anything to hide,” goes the refrain, “you shouldn’t mind if the
government collects information to prevent another terrorist attack.” In this trade-off,
security will always trump privacy, especially when political leaders rightly see
preventing terrorist acts as their top national security responsibility. But this zero-sum
framework ignores the significant damage that the NSA’s practices have done to U.S.
national security. In a global digital world, national security depends on many factors
beyond surveillance capacities, and over-reliance on global data collection can create
unintended security vulnerabilities. There’s a better framework than security-versus-
privacy for evaluating the national security implications of mass-surveillance practices.
Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called it “smart power.”

Her idea acknowledges that as global political power has become more diffuse,
U.S. interests and security increasingly depend on our ability to persuade partners to join
us on important global security actions. But how do we motivate disparate groups of
people and nations to join us? We exercise smart power by inspiring trust and building
credibility in the global community. Developing these abilities is as important to U.S.
national security as superior military power or intelligence capabilities. I adopted the
smart-power approach when serving as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations Human
Rights Council. Our task at the council was to work with allies, emerging democracies
and human rights-friendly governments to build coalitions to protect international human
rights. We also built alliances with civil society actors, who serve as powerful
countervailing forces in authoritarian systems. These partnerships can reinforce stable
relationships, which enhances U.S. security.

The NSA’s arbitrary global surveillance methods fly in the face of smart power. In
the pursuit of information, the spy agency has invaded the privacy of foreign citizens and
political leaders, undermining their sense of freedom and security. NSA methods also
undercut U.S. credibility as a champion of universal human rights.

The U.S. model of mass surveillance will be followed by others and could
unintentionally invert the democratic relationship between citizens and their
governments. Under the cover of preventing terrorism, authoritarian governments may
now increase surveillance of political opponents. Governments that collect and monitor
digital information to intimidate or squelch political opposition and dissent can more
justifiably claim they are acting with legitimacy.
For human rights defenders and democracy activists worldwide, the potential
consequences of the widespread use by governments of mass surveillance techniques are
dark and clear. Superior information is powerful, but sometimes it comes at greater cost
than previously recognized. When trust and credibility are eroded, the opportunity for
collaboration and partnership with other nations on difficult global issues collapses. The
ramifications of this loss of trust have not been adequately factored into our national
security calculus.
What is most disconcerting is that the NSA’s mass surveillance techniques have
compromised the security of telecommunication networks, social media platforms,
private-sector data storage and public infrastructure security systems. Authoritarian

governments and hackers now have a roadmap to surreptitiously tap into private
networks for their own nefarious purposes.By weakening encryption programs and
planting backdoor entries to encryption software, the NSA has demonstrated how it is
possible to infiltrate and violate information-security systems. In effect, the spy agency
has modeled anarchic behavior that makes everyone less safe.
Some have argued, though, that there is a big difference between the U.S. government
engaging in mass-surveillance activities and authoritarian governments doing so. That
“big difference” is supposed to be democratic checks and balances, transparency and
adherence to the rule of law. Current NSA programs, however, do not operate within
these constraints.

With global standards for digital surveillance now being set, our political leaders
must remember that U.S. security depends upon much more than unimpeded surveillance
capabilities. As German Chancellor Angela Merkel, one of President Barack Obama’s
most trusted international partners, has wisely reminded us, just because we can do
something does not mean that we should do it. National security policies that fail to
calculate the real costs of arbitrary mass surveillance threaten to make us less secure.
Without trusted and trusting partners, U.S. priority initiatives in complex global
negotiations will be non-starters. The president, his advisers and our political leaders
should reassess the costs of the NSA’s spy programs on our national security, our
freedom and our democracy. By evaluating these programs through a smart-power lens,
we will be in a stronger position to regain the global trust and credibility so central to our
national security.
Source: www.theguardian.com

Comprehension questions and tasks

1. How do you understand the set-expression ‘mass-surveillance’? What mass-

surveillance techniques can be used to monitor opponents?
2. Do you agree with the refrain “If you don’t have anything to hide, you shouldn’t mind
if the government collects information to prevent another terrorist attack.”? Why/why
3. What can cause unintended security vulnerabilities?
4. What does the expression ‘to exercise smart power’ imply?
5. What is considered critical to U.S. national security?
6. Do you support the idea that ‘there is a big difference between the U.S. government
engaging in mass-surveillance activities and authoritarian governments doing so’?
7. Explain the economic terms – check and balance system, transparency.

Language work

Task 37 Read the text thoroughly and write out all the verbs denoting actions referring to
the noun security.

Task 38 Word building. Look through the text to find verbs composed on the
following patterns

Pattern 1: to read – to reread, the prefix re- is used to form a new verb

Pattern 2: to achieve – to underachieve, the prefix under- is used to form a new verb

You should find 4 verbs with re- and 2 verbs with under-.

Vocabulary work

Task 39 Learn the set-expressions by heart

1. to trump privacy
2. to exercise smart power
3. to persuade smb to do smth
4. to undermine one’s sense of freedom
5. to build credibility
6. to intimidate smb
7. to squelch political opposition and dissent
8. to set standards for digital surveillance
9. to monitor digital information
10. to invert the democratic relationship between smb

Use them in the situations of your own.

Task 40 Study the text thoroughly and find lexical units corresponding the

1. Forcefully silence or suppress

2. A balance achieved between two desirable but incompatible features; a
3. A basic structure underlying a system, concept, or text
4. Excessive dependence on or trust in someone or something
5. (usually as adjective) Offset the effect of (something) by countering it with
something of equal force
6. Close observation, especially of a suspected spy or criminal
7. Involving or relating to the use of computer technology
8. The programs and other operating information used by a computer

Task 41 Find the synonyms for the given words in the text

1. translucency, clearness, clarity –

2. passport holder, native; taxpayer, voter –
3. the state of being in peril, in jeopardy, exposed to –
4. group, section, body, company, set, circle –
5. strengthen, fortify, bolster up –

Speech Practice

1. In digital era, privacy must be a priority. Is it just me, or is secret blanket surveillance
obscenely outrageous?
Al Gore
2. Should surveillance be usable for petty crimes like jaywalking or minor drug
possession? Or is there a higher threshold for certain information? Those aren't easy
Bill Gates
3. The concept of surveillance is ingrained in our beings. God was the original
surveillance camera.
Hasan M. Elahi

5. I realize at one point, that I was being followed, and then I began to see the
surveillance that was going past the road on my house. And so, these cars began to
surveil me. People began to follow me around, and it did, it was very disrupting to think
that your privacy was being violated, and for no reason that I could come up with.
Gloria Naylor

6. Governmental surveillance is not about the government collecting the information

you're sharing publicly and willingly; it's about collecting the information you don't think
you're sharing at all, such as the online searches you do on search engines... or private
emails or text messages... or the location of your mobile phone at any time.
Mikko Hypponen

7. I can't in good conscience allow the U.S. government to destroy privacy, internet
freedom and basic liberties for people around the world with this massive surveillance
machine they're secretly building.
Edward Snowden
8. Facebook is not your friend, it is a surveillance engine.
Richard Stallman
9. Openness and participation are antidotes to surveillance and control.
Howard Rheingold
10. Relying on the government to protect your privacy is like asking a peeping tom to
install your window blinds.”
John Perry Barlow
11. Privacy is not something that I'm merely entitled to, it's an absolute prerequisite.
Marlon Brando

PART 3 Global Problems

Unit 9 Religion and science

Text A
Pre-reading task
a. Give the definition to the following notions
Religion knowledge science nature

Religion and Science: Irreconcilable?

By Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein examines if there truly exists an insuperable contradiction between
religion and science.

Does there truly exist an insuperable contradiction between religion and science? Can
religion be superseded by science? The answers to these questions have, for centuries,
given rise to considerable dispute and, indeed, bitter fighting. Yet, in my own mind there
can be no doubt that in both cases a dispassionate consideration can only lead to a
negative answer. What complicates the solution, however, is the fact that while most
people readily agree on what is meant by "science," they are likely to differ on the
meaning of "religion."

As to science, we may well define it for our purpose as "methodical thinking directed
toward finding regulative connections between our sensual experiences." Science, in the
immediate, produces knowledge and, indirectly, means of action. It leads to methodical
action if definite goals are set up in advance. For the function of setting up goals and
passing statements of value transcends its domain. While it is true that science, to the
extent of its grasp of causative connections, may reach important conclusions as to the
compatibility and incompatibility of goals and evaluations, the independent and
fundamental definitions regarding goals and values remain beyond science's reach.

As regards religion, on the other hand, one is generally agreed that it deals with goals and
evaluations and, in general, with the emotional foundation of human thinking and acting,
as far as these are not predetermined by the inalterable hereditary disposition of the
human species. Religion is concerned with man's attitude toward nature at large, with the
establishing of ideals for the individual and communal life, and with mutual human

relationship. These ideals religion attempts to attain by exerting an educational influence
on tradition and through the development and promulgation of certain easily accessible
thoughts and narratives (epics and myths) which are apt to influence evaluation and
action along the lines of the accepted ideals.

It is this mythical, or rather this symbolic, content of the religious traditions which is
likely to come into conflict with science. This occurs whenever this religious stock of
ideas contains dogmatically fixed statements on subjects which belong in the domain of
science. Thus, it is of vital importance for the preservation of true religion that such
conflicts be avoided when they arise from subjects which, in fact, are not really essential
for the pursuance of the religious aims.

When we consider the various existing religions as to their essential substance, that is,
divested of their myths, they do not seem to me to differ as basically from each other as
the proponents of the "relativistic" or conventional theory wish us to believe. And this is
by no means surprising. For the moral attitudes of a people that is supported by religion
need always aim at preserving and promoting the sanity and vitality of the community
and its individuals, since otherwise this community is bound to perish. A people that
were to honor falsehood, defamation, fraud, and murder would be unable, indeed, to
subsist for very long.

When confronted with a specific case, however, it is no easy task to determine clearly
what is desirable and what should be eschewed, just as we find it difficult to decide what
exactly it is that makes good painting or good music. It is something that may be felt
intuitively more easily than rationally comprehended. Likewise, the great moral teachers
of humanity were, in a way, artistic geniuses in the art of living. In addition to the most
elementary precepts directly motivated by the preservation of life and the sparing of
unnecessary suffering, there are others to which, although they are apparently not quite
commensurable to the basic precepts, we nevertheless attach considerable importance.
Should truth, for instance, be sought unconditionally even where its attainment and its
accessibility to all would entail heavy sacrifices in toil and happiness? There are many
such questions which, from a rational vantage point, cannot easily be answered or cannot
be answered at all. Yet, I do not think that the so-called "relativistic" viewpoint is correct,
not even when dealing with the more subtle moral decisions.

When considering the actual living conditions of presentday civilized humanity from the
standpoint of even the most elementary religious commands, one is bound to experience
a feeling of deep and painful disappointment at what one sees. For while religion
prescribes brotherly love in the relations among the individuals and groups, the actual
spectacle more resembles a battlefield than an orchestra. Everywhere, in economic as
well as in political life, the guiding principle is one of ruthless striving for success at the
expense of one's fellow men. This competitive spirit prevails even in school and,
destroying all feelings of human fraternity and cooperation, conceives of achievement not

as derived from the love for productive and thoughtful work, but as springing from
personal ambition and fear of rejection.

There are pessimists who hold that such a state of affairs is necessarily inherent in human
nature; it is those who propound such views that are the enemies of true religion, for they
imply thereby that religious teachings are utopian ideals and unsuited to afford guidance
in human affairs. The study of the social patterns in certain so-called primitive cultures,
however, seems to have made it sufficiently evident that such a defeatist view is wholly
unwarranted. Whoever is concerned with this problem, a crucial one in the study of
religion as such, is advised to read the description of the Pueblo Indians in Ruth
Benedict's book, Patterns of Culture. Under the hardest living conditions, this tribe has
apparently accomplished the difficult task of delivering its people from the scourge of
competitive spirit and of fostering in it a temperate, cooperative conduct of life, free of
external pressure and without any curtailment of happiness.

The interpretation of religion, as here advanced, implies a dependence of science on the

religious attitude, a relation which, in our predominantly materialistic age, is only too
easily overlooked. While it is true that scientific results are entirely independent from
religious or moral considerations, those individuals to whom we owe the great creative
achievements of science were all of them imbued with the truly religious conviction that
this universe of ours is something perfect and susceptible to the rational striving for
knowledge. If this conviction had not been a strongly emotional one and if those
searching for knowledge had not been inspired by Spinoza's Amor Dei Intellectualis, they
wouid hardly have been capable of that untiring devotion which alone enables man to
attain his greatest achievements.

Copyright © Albert Einstein 1948

A response to a greeting sent by the Liberal Ministers' Club of New York City. Published
in The Christian Register, June, 1948. Published in Ideas and Opinions, Crown
Publishers, Inc., New York, 1954.

Source: www.ecolibris.com

Comprehension tasks

1. Find Albert Einstein’s definition of ‘science’ and ‘religion”.

2. Make the report about A. Einstein’s life and discoveries
3. Summarize the main ideas of the text

Vocabulary work

Task 1 Translate the given set-expressions, retell the situation where they are
mentioned in the text
To give rise to considerable dispute
To define smth
To set up goals
To reach conclusions
To remain beyond some reach
To come into conflict
To arise from
To deal with
To influence smth
To avoid a conflict
To aim at
By no means
To attain importance/great achievements
To entail sacrifices
To overlook smth
To preserve and promote the