Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

, . 9.

(, )
1.1. , ,
. ,
-
.

,
, . 1

.
. :
(1)
,
, (. .
,
:
);
(2) ,
(. .
oe).
(1), . .
,
2 .
, , . .
, , . .
.

, (. )
.


, . ,
, ,
.
. (. HANSEN B. Das slavische Modalauxiliar (Semantik und
Gramatikalisierung im Russichen, Polnischen, Serbischen, Kroatischen und Altkirchenslavischen).
Mnchen, 2001, S. 6-11), Otzky slovansk syntaxe III (Brno 1973)
Modality in Slavonic Languages. New Perspectives (Regensburg 2005).
2
PALMER F. R.: Mood and Modality. Cambridge, 2001.
301

. . ...

(2), . . ,
, .


,

. 3
1.2.

posse debere,
.

, .
, , ,
,
, , ,
- , , ,
.

mssen (.
museti) drfen ( drbiti).

( , );
. 4
3



. ,
. (VON
WRIGHT G. H. Deontic Logic. Mind 60, 1951, 1-15; in: Logical Studies. London 1957, 58-74; VON
WRIGHT G. H. An Essay in Deontic Logic and the General Theory of Action. Acta Philosophica
Fennica, XXI. Amsterdam 1968.).

(LYONS J. Semantics I/II. Cambridge 1977), root modality
(COATES J. The Semantics of the Modal Auxiliaries. London 1983), agent-oriented modality
(BYBEE J., R. PERKINS, W. PAGLIUCA. The Evolution of Grammar. Tense, Aspect, and Modality in
the Languages of the World. Chicago 1994) participant-oriented modality (van der Auwera
1999).
4
HANSEN B. The German Modal Verbs mssen and the Slavonic Languages - The Reconstruction
of a Success Story. In: Scando-Slavica, 46, 2000, S. 77-92. a
. (PORK J. Modalverben im
Tschechischen und Deutschen. In: Havrnek B., R. Fischer (eds.): Deutsch-tschechische
Beziehungen im Bereich der Sprache und Kultur. [Abhandlungen der schsischen Akademie der
Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Philologisch-historische Klasse 59]. Berlin, 1968, S. 97-101.), .
(ANDER J. K typologickmu studiu slovansk vty: zklad srovnn. In: Pospil, I.
Zelenka, M. (eds.): esk slavistika 2003. esk pednky pro XIII. mezinrodn kongres slavist,
Ljubljana 15. - 21.8. 2003. Praha, 2003, 24) . (HANSEN B. Das slavische
Modalauxiliar...).
302

, . 9.


,
,
, . . ,
, .
,
- .
2.1. , ,
,
, . . .
-
.
.
,

, , in statu nascendi (
).

: ,
( ).


.
, e
:
, .
, . .
, , . .
, , .

- .
2.2.
:
(1) . (Euch 67b, 21-22)
(2) .
.
(Cloz 2a, 12)
- , ,
-
.
,
-:
303

. . ...

(3) (Supr 13, 15)


(4) . (Zogr L 22, 7)

.
. ,
, .
.
:
(5) . (Zogr J 3,7)
(6) y (Supr 106, 5-7)
2.3.
(,
), . . , .
,
:
(7) . (Zogr Mc
8,31)
(8) . . .
.
' (Zogr L 24,44)


( : 10):
(9) (Zogr L 12,50)
(10) . .
. (Zogr L 2,49)
2.4.

. ,
(verba dicendi)
,
, . , ,
,
. 5
,
:
5


(BYBEE J., R. PERKINS, W. PAGLIUCA. The Evolution of
Grammar. Tense, Aspect, and Modality in the Languages of the World. Chicago, 1994, 244).
304

, . 9.

(11) . (Mar Mt 16,27)


(12) . .
. (Zogr Mt 5, 20)
(13) . .
( ) (K VIII/ 78, 4-7)
(14) . .
(K XII/ 96, 5-8)
(15) () . .
. (M XI/ 157, 3-5)

,
, .

universale:
(16) w (Mar Mt 2,13)
(17) . . . s .
(K II/ 62, 15-19)

,
,
, .6 ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
. , ,
- ,
.7 ,

praesens praeteritum. , ,

.
, .
2.5.
, .
6

. WITTGENSTEIN L. Tractatus logico-philosophicus. London, 1922; in L. Wittgenstein:


Schriften. Frankfurt am Main 1960, 46, . 5.1361; , 79, . 6.36311.
7
,
(LYONS J. Semantics
I/II. Cambridge 1977, II, 823, 824; PALMER F. R. Mood and Modality..., p. 104-106; KURYOWICZ
J. The evolution of grammatical categories. Esquisses linguistiques 2. Internationale Bibliothek fr
Allgemeine Linguistik 37. Mnchen 1975, S. 38-54).
305

. . ...


, ,
:
(18) . .
(Zogr L 13,14)
(19) .
. .
. (K XVIII/ 114, 31-36)
o
() ,

: , ,
():
(20) .
. . . (K XVI/ 106, 4-8).
,
(
),
, :
- ( ? ?),
( ?):
(21) (Zogr Mt 12,10)
(22) (Mar Mt 22,17; As Mt 22,17
)
2.6. , , ,
.
, -

posse debere.
.
(nec),
. .
(p), , ,
() (nec p):
(23) .
. . .
(Cloz 2 a, 39-40/ 2
b, 1-5)
(24) . [=
] (Zogr L 11,42)
306

, . 9.


(nec p), . . () :
(25) (Zogr Mt 27, 6)
(26) . . (Zogr
Mt 12,2)
(27) . (K
V/ 68, 26-28)
(28) (Ap Christ 1 Kor 11,7).

(, , nec p pos p).

;
(nec p
pos p). negative raising (-
).
2.7.
, :
(29) s . .
(En 2a,15-16/ 1 C 6,12-13).
,

, ,
,
: , o
, . . ,
( ), , o
.
3.1.

,
. , ,
,

,
. ,


: , , ,
, . ,
(, , , , )
-
.
307

. . ...

;

:
(30) .
(Zogr J 4, 3-4).
3.2. ,
, , ,
, , . , . .
( ),
, (
) , , ,
:
(31) . .
(K XII/ 94, 29-31)
(32) . . (Zogr L 9,
40)

. : 116
,
16 , ;
. 13

:
(33)
(Supr 298, 11-12).
3.3.
, , , .
/ , , ,
( , . . , ), 8
( 36):
(34) (Zogr L 14, 18)
(35) . . (Zogr Mt 14,
16)
(36) . (Zogr
L 23, 17).
4.1.
,
8

: nec p pos p ( , . .
).
308

, . 9.

, ,
, . .
. 9
, .
,
a
.
.
,
, , , ,

:
:
(37) . (Supr 445,
3).
4.2.
+
.
, .

.

.
:
= , , :
(38) . .
(K V/ 69, 1-3).
5.1.

.

, , ,
, , ;
: .
(
) ( )
.
, ,
.
9


; ,
.
309

. . ...

( ) + + .

; ,
mihi est
. ,
, mihi est,
habere ( *imti ),
,
10 .
5.2.
,
,
, (. 40:
)
(. 41: ). ,
,
(. 43: ).

.

: ,
, . o (, , )
.
11 .


. ,

.
.
5.3. +
.
,
,
:
10

HOLVOET A. Modal construction with be and the infinitive in Slavonic and Baltic. Zeitschrift
fr Slavistik 48, 2003, 4, 465-480.
11
MRZEK R. Datel'nyj pad v staroslavjanskom jazyke. In: Issledovanija po sintaksisu
staroslavjanskogo jazyka. Praha 1963, 225-261; MRZEK R. K dativno-infinitivnym konstrukcijam v
staroslavjanskom jazyke. In: Sbornk prac Filosofick fakulty Brnnsk university A 11, 1963,
107-126; MRZEK R. Sredstva vyraenija modal'nosti v drevnem i sovremennom bolgarskom
jazyke. In: Istorieski razvoj na blgarskija ezik. Sofija 1983, 105-110.
310

, . 9.

(39) .
(Supr 149, 5-6)
(40) .
(Supr 124, 18-20)
(41) (Supr 376, 1)
(42) (Supr 28, 3-4)
(43) . ()()
() . (M VIII/ 150, 5-9).
,
();

(. 2.6.).
. . negative raising,
( 44:
e , . . ):
(44) (Supr 433, 12-13)
(45) ' .
(Supr 483, 14-15).

, . .
( 48) . ( 46, 47):
(46) .
. (Supr 89, 9-12)
(47) (Supr 405, 10-13)
(48) . (Supr 91, 20).

,
49 (
, , , ,
, ) 50 (, . . ,
, e , , ):
(49) . (Euch 25a, 16-17)
(50) . . (Zogr Mc 10, 40).

,
( 51) , . .
( 52) ( 53, 54):
(51) .
(Supr 51, 2)
311

. . ...

(52) . .
. ()
(K XVII/ 112, 3-8)
(53) . (Supr 131, 20-21)
(54) () . ()() .
. (M XIII/ 158, 16-19).
5.4. ,
Codex
Suprasliensis
(29
);

(4), Euchologium
Sinaiticum (3) (3). Codex Suprasliensis
:
29 8
.
, ,
: (44) jAll j oujk estin uJmin ajnelein - ; (47)
oujde ga;r e[stin eJtevran povlin euJrein - ;
(50)
oujk estin ejmo;n dounai - .

:
dei (, , ): dei sevbein - (. 42);
dei pavntwV ajpoqanein - (. 48)
crhv (, ): crhv oun fobeisqai - (. 39)
prevpei (, , ): soi; prevpei movnw pasa dovxa -
(. 49)
ouj dunatovn (): Oujde; ga;r dunato;n alloi ejndevixasqai (. 46)
oujc oion ejsti (, , ): jEpeidh;
ga;r oujc oiovn te hn ejiselqein - ... (. 45)
mevllein (): proevblepen ga;r mevllein esesqai touto -
(. 51).
5.5. mevllein +
+

. mevllein
(infinitivus futuri)
.
, ,

312

, . 9.

:
, :
= , ;
. . =
, ,
( ).
6.
,
.
,

.

:
ANDER, J.: K typologickmu studiu slovansk vty: zklad srovnn. In: Pospil, I.
Zelenka, M. (eds.): esk slavistika 2003. esk pednky pro XIII. mezinrodn
kongres slavist, Ljubljana 15.- 21.8. 2003. Praha 2003, 17-25.
BESTERS-DILGER, J.: Modanos v poskom i russkom jazykach. Istorieskoje razvitije
vyraenija neobchodimosti i vozmonosti kak rezutat vne- i meslavjanskogo
vlijanija. Wiener Slavistisches Jahrbuch, Band 43, 1997, 17-31.
BYBEE, J. PERKINS, R. PAGLIUCA, W.: The Evolution of Grammar. Tense, Aspect, and
Modality in the Languages of the World. Chicago 1994.
COATES, J.: The Semantics of the Modal Auxiliaries. London 1983.
EJKA, M.: Polarita kladu a zporu. In: Mluvnice etiny (3), Skladba, kap. E 2, 260-278.
Praha 1987.
DHMANN, K.: Die sprachliche Darstellung der Modalfunktoren. In: Albert Menne
Gerhard Frey (Eds.): Logik und Sprache (Exempla Logica, Band I). Bern - Mnchen
1974, 57-91.
HANSEN, B.: The German Modal Verbs mssen and the Slavonic Languages - The
Reconstruction of a Success Story. In: Scando-Slavica 46, 2000, 77-92.
HANSEN, B.: Das slavische Modalauxiliar (Semantik und Gramatikalisierung im
Russichen, Polnischen, Serbischen, Kroatischen und Altkirchenslavischen). Mnchen
2001.
HANSEN, B. Karlk, P. (eds.): Modality in Slavonic Languages. New Perspectives.
Mnchen 2005.
HERODES, St.: Modalitn adverbia v staroslovntin. In: Otzky slovansk syntaxe III.
Brno 1973, 307-313.
HOLVOET, A.: Modal construction with be and the infinitive in Slavonic and Baltic.
Zeitschrift fr Slavistik 48, 2003, 4, 465-480.
IVANOVA MIREVA, D.: Razvoj na bdete vreme v blgarskija ezik ot X do XVIII vek.
Sofija 1962.
KKOV, H.: Vvoj opisnho futura v jazycch slovanskch, zvlt v rutin. Praha
1960.
313

. . ...

KURYOWICZ, J.: The evolution of grammatical categories. Esquisses linguistiques 2.


Internationale Bibliothek fr Allgemeine Linguistik 37. Mnchen 1975, 38-54.
LYONS, J.: Semantics I/II. Cambridge 1977.
MRZEK, R.: Datel'nyj pad v staroslavjanskom jazyke. In: Issledovanija po sintaksisu
staroslavjanskogo jazyka. Praha 1963, 225-261.
MRZEK, R.: K dativno-infinitivnym konstrukcijam v staroslavjanskom jazyke. In:
Sbornk prac Filosofick fakulty Brnnsk university A 11, 1963, 107-126.
MRZEK, R.: Sredstva vyraenija modal'nosti v drevnem i sovremennom bolgarskom
jazyke. In: Istorieski razvoj na blgarskija ezik. Sofija 1983, 105-110.
PALMER, F. R.: Mood and Modality. Cambridge 2001.
PALLASOV, E.: Smantika monosti a nutnosti v staroslovntin. Slavia 60, 1991, 4050.
PALLASOV, E.: Staroslovnsk sloveso moti/vzmoti (funkce a vznam). Slavia 61,
1992,
383-394.
PORK, J.: Modalverben im Tschechischen und Deutschen. In: Havrnek, B. - Fischer, R.
(eds.): Deutsch-tschechische Beziehungen im Bereich der Sprache und Kultur.
[Abhandlungen der schsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig.
Philologisch-historische Klasse 59]. Berlin 1968, 97-101.
VAN DER AUWERA, J.: On the Semantic and Pragmatic Polyfunctionality of Modal Verbs.
In: K. Turner (ed.): The Semantics/Pragmatics Interface from Different Points of
View. Current Research in the Semantics/Pragmatics Interface, Vol. 1. Oxford 1999,
49-65.
VAN DER AUWERA, J. AMMANN, A. KINDT, S.: Modal Polyfunctionality and Standard
Average European. In: Klinge, A. Mller, H. H. (eds.): Modality. Studies in Form
and Function. London (in print), 295-322.
VEERKA, R.: Altkirchenslavische (altbulgarische) Syntax III. Freiburg i. Br. 1996.
WRIGHT, G. H.: Deontic Logic. Mind 60, 1951, 1-15; in: Logical Studies. London
1957, 58-74.
VON WRIGHT, G. H.: An Essay in Deontic Logic and the General Theory of Action. Acta
Philosophica Fennica, XXI. Amsterdam 1968.
WITTGENSTEIN, L.: Tractatus logico-philosophicus. London 1922; in L. Wittgenstein:
Schriften. Frankfurt am Main 1960.
AA, St.: Pehled dosavadnho stavu bdn o modalit slovansk vty. In: Otzky
slovansk syntaxe III. Sbornk symposia Modln vstavba vpovdi v slovanskch
jazycch (Brno 2730. z 1971). Brno 1973, 15-21.
VON

:
As - Evangeliarium Assemani. Codex Vaticanus 3. Slavicus glagoliticus II. (Ed.: J. Kurz,
Prag 1955).
Cloz - Glagolita Clozianus. Staroslovnsk hlaholsk sbornk tridentsk a innsbruck.
(Ed.: A. Dostl, Praha 1959).
En - Eninski apostol. Starobgarski pametnik ot XI v. (Ed. K. Mirev, Chr. Kodov, Sofija
1965).

314

, . 9.

Euch - Euchologium Sinaiticum II. Starocerkvenoslovanski glagolski spomenik. (Ed. R.


Nahtigal, Ljubljana 1942).
Mar - Quattuor evangeliorum versionis paloslovenic codex Marianus glagoliticus.
(Ed. V. Jagi, Berolini - Sanktpeterburg 1883).
Sav - Savvina Kniga. (Ed. V. epkin, Sankpeterburg 1903).
Sin - Sinajskaja Psaltyr. Glagolieskij pamjatnik XI vka. (Ed. S. Severjanov, Petrograd
1922).
Supr - Supraslski ili Retkov Sbornik I, II. (Ed. J. Zaimov, M. Capaldo, Sofija 1982,
1983).
Zogr - Zografskoe Evangelie. Quattuor Evangeliorum Codex glagoliticus olim
Zographensis nunc Petropolitanus. (Ed. V. Jagi. Berolini 1879).
K, M - itije Konstantina, itije Mefodija. (In: Magn Moravi fontes historici II.
Brno 1967, 57-115, 134-163).

SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION OF MODAL EXPRESSIONS


IN OLD CHURCH SLAVONIC TEXTS
va Palasova
(Summary)
The Old Church Slavonic has a specific position among the other Slavonic
languages. It is the earliest Slavonic language recorded in written form. Recently it turns
out that it plays very important part in testifying the continuous development of the
Slavonic languages in the general framework of inquiry into the processes of
grammaticalization. The Old Church Slavonic texts in particular make it possible to
observe these processes in statu nascendi. Formation of Slavonic modal expressions of
possibility, necessity and will can serve as very typical examples. Semantic analysis
reveals one general characteristic feature of modal expressions, viz. their oscillation
between a typical grammatical category on the one hand and different lexical units on
the other.

315

Оценить