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4. .

4.1. .

. y = f ( x) ,
[a, b]
z = f ( x, y ) , D
OXY. D .
, , D .
, D, (D) y = i (x)

x = j (y). , , .
D D. D D
:

D = D ( D ) .
, (x, y) D

(x,y).
D D1, D2, , Dn, (.1):
1) Di D;
2) Di ;
3) ( Di) Di , .. Di.

D
Dn
D2

D1

D3

d(D2)
x

. 1. D .

Di (M, N)
M N Di. ,
. .
:
{1, 3/2, 5/3, 7/4, , (2n 1)/n, }.
, an = (2n 1)/ n 2, , .. lim an = 2 .
n

2 . :

max an = 2 .
nN

2n 1
= 2,
n
nN

sup an = sup

nN

"sup" "supremum" ("").


:

sup f ( a ) = b

aA

, a A f (a) , b,
> 0 a A, f (a)
, b . , f (a)
b, , ,
.
Di :

d ( Di ) =

sup

M , N Di

(M , N ) .

dT T d(Di):

dT = max d ( Di ) .
1 i n

, 2.
Di Pi (i, i),
:

ST =

f (i ,i ) | Di | ,

(1)

i =1

f (x,y) D.
, , .
. (1)
dT,
T, Pi Di,
f (x,y) D:
n

ST = lim f (i ,i ) | Di | .
f ( x, y )dD = dlim
d 0
0
D

i =1

(2)

. , , :

f ( x, y )dxdy ,
D

(2).
, , . :
1. D f (x,y) D D,

f ( x, y )dD

.
D OXY f (x,y) .4.1. 3

R (" "), z = f (x,y), OXY, , Z, (D) D (. 2).


D Di ( , , ,

Y). Vi , Di. , V
Vi:

V=

Vi .

(3)

i =1

Mi

Pi

Di

. 2. .
dT ,
Di
, f (x,y) i (i, i) . ( "", ..
, , OXY).
Di,
f (i,i).

Vi f (i ,i ) | Di | .
(3)
:
n

V = Vi f (i ,i ) | Di | .
i =1

(4)

i =1

(4) f (x,y) D. (4) ,


dT. :

V = lim

f (i ,i ) | Di | = f ( x, y )dD .

dT 0 i =1

10

(5)

, ,

f (x,y) D , D z = f (x, y).


, ,
:

:
n. D ,

dD =| D | ,
D

D D.
, ST =

| Di | = | D | = const .

i =1

| D | = | D | , ( ).
dD = dlim
0
D

o. :

( Af ( x, y ) + Bg ( x, y )) dD = A f ( x, y ) dD + B g ( x, y ) dD ,
D

A B , f g
D .

p. D D1 D2, f (x, y)

D,

f ( x, y )dD = f ( x, y )dD + f ( x, y )dD .


D

D1

D2

11

q. f (x, y) g (x, y) D
f (x, y) g (x, y) (, ) D,

f ( x, y )dD g ( x, y )dD .
D

1.

f ( x, y ) dD f ( x, y ) dD .
D

2. m f (x, y) M (, ) D ,

m | D | f ( x, y ) dD M | D | .
D

24 .

r. .

.
( )
, , .
3,
3.

.3. . .3. .

12

. D (x,y) D D .
( x, y ) D , :

f ( x, y )dD = f ( x, y ) | D | .

(6)

. . (o, o) D B (1, 1) D ,

m = min f ( x, y ) = f ( xo , yo ) M = max f ( x, y ) = f ( x1, y1 ) . D , B.


:

x(to ) = xo ,
x(t1 ) = x1 ,
x = x (t ),
t

t
,
t
,

[
]

o 1
y = y (t ),
y (t1 ) = y1.
y (to ) = yo ,
F(t) = f (x(t), y(t)) ( ) [to, t1] m

M. , m
M , (m < C < M), c t [to, t1], F(t) = C.
2 4:

m | D | f ( x, y ) dD M | D | ,
D

1
f ( x, y ) dD M .
| D |
D

C=

1
f ( x, y ) dD .
| D |
D

(7)

t,

C = F (tc ) = f ( x (tc ), y (tc )) = f ( x, y ) ,


13

(8)

x = x (tc ), y = y (tc ) .
(7) (8) (6). C = f ( x, y ) f (x,y) D.

4. 2. .
OXY D, x = a

x = b y = 1(), = 2(), 1, 2
[a, b], 1 () 2 (), (. 4). . f ( x, y ) , D .

Y
y= 2 ( x )

d
x= 1 ( y )

x = 2 ( y )

c
y= 1 ( x )
a

.4.
.

.5.
.

x [a, b]

F ( x) =

2 ( x)

f ( x, y )dy .

(1)

1 ( x )

14

F(x) ,
, [a, b]. F(x) [a, b]:
b

2 ( x )

I D = F ( x)dx = dx
a

f ( x, y ) dy .

(2)

1 ( x )

D ,

y = c, y = d x = 1(), = 2(), (. 5), 1 2 [c, d], 1() 2(y). .


f ( x, y ) , (2), x y:
d

2 ( y)

= dy
ID
c

f ( x, y )dx .

(3)

1( y )

1.

x3

2
dx ( x + xy ) dy .

. 6. :
x3

x3

x3

3
2 x

x
2
2
2
( x + xy ) dy = x dy + x y dy = x y x + x 2
x
x
x
3

7
5
x 6
x3
2
3 x
= x ( x x) + ( x x ) = x x +
.

2
2
2

, x.
:

15

x 7 x3
1504
x

x
+

dx
=
.

2
2
3

1
5

.
Y

Y
x = sin y

y=x

/2
y=x

/4

x = cos y
0

. 6. 1.

.7. 2.

2.

/4

cos y

sin y

dy ( x + y ) dx .

(. .7):
/4

cos y

cos y

/4

x2

dy
x
y
dx
dy
y
x
+
=

+
=
(
)

2
0
sin y
0

sin y
/ 4

2 3
cos 2 y sin 2 y
=
+ y ( cos y sin y ) dy =
.

2
4
4

0
, (2) (3) x y, ,
. :

16

1. D ( ) -

x = a, x = b, y = 1 (), = 2 (), 1, 2 [a, b] 1() 2(), f ( x, y ) D D. D


:
b

2 ( x )

f ( x, y )dxdy = dx f ( x, y )dy,
D

(4)

1 ( x )

.
1. a < c < b. :
b

2 ( x)

1 ( x )

2 ( x)

1 ( x )

2 ( x)

dx f ( x, y ) dy = dx f ( x, y ) dy + dx f ( x, y ) dy .

(5)

1 ( x )

F(x), (1).
2. 1, 2 [a, b], -

1() () 2(), f ( x, y ) D .
b

2 ( x)

1 ( x)

( x)

2 ( x)

dx f ( x, y )dy = dx f ( x, y )dy + dx f ( x, y )dy .

1 ( x )

(6)

( x)

, x
( x, y ) f ( x, y ) .
x :
h( x )

f ( x, y ) dy = ( x, h( x )) ( x, g ( x )) .

(7)

g ( x)

(7) (6).

17

(6) =
b

= dx ( ( x, 2 ( x )) ( x,1 ( x ))) = ( x, 2 ( x ))dx ( x,1 ( x ))dx ;


(6) =
b

= dx( ( x, ( x)) ( x, 1 ( x))) + dx( ( x, 2 ( x)) ( x, ( x))) =


b

= ( x, ( x))dx ( x, 1 ( x)) dx + ( x, 2 ( x)) dx ( x, ( x))dx =


= (6).
3. ( ). -

( x, y ) D , :
b

2 ( x)

1 ( x )

I D = dx

f ( x, y )dy = f ( x, y ) | D | ,

|D| D.

( 5).
1.
1. D Di

, : = q, (q = 1, 2, , A+1), = c1 < c2 <<


< cA < cA+1 = b, : y = j(x), ( j = 1, 2, , k +1), 1(x) = 1(x) < 2(x) <
< < k(x) < k+1(x) = 2(x) (. 8). D n, (n = A k), ,
.

18

y= 2 ( x) = k +1 ( x)
Y

Dn

y= k (x)

y= 2 ( x)
y= 1 ( x)
D1

D2

a=co c1

c2

y= 1 ( x) =o(x)

cA cA+1=b

.8. 1.

1 2 , D
:

ID =

k cq +1

j +1 ( x )

I Di = dx

i =1

q =1 j =1 cq

f ( x, y ) dy .

j ( x)

3 ( xi , yi ) D i , I Di = f ( xi , yi ) | Di | . ,

ID =

I Di =

i =1

f ( xi , yi ) | Di | = ST .

(8)

i =1

(8) ST

f ( x, y )dxdy .

Di,

19

lim ST = f ( x, y )dxdy .

d T 0

, ID , ,
b

2 ( x)

1 ( x )

S = I D = dx f ( x, y )dy .
f ( x, y )dxdy = dlim
0 T
D

.

f (x,y) 0. ,

f ( x, y )dxdy

U,

. 2 . 9. , S()
U = = const, ,
, :
b

V = S ( x )dx .
a

U = (. 9). D, z, , y D z = f (,y), ( , , : (, 1()), (, 2()) Y ).

S ( xo ) =

2 ( xo )

1 ( xo )

f ( xo , y )dy .

,
b

2 ( x)

1 ( x )

f ( x, y )dxdy =| U | = S ( x )dx = dx f ( x, y )dy .


D

.
20

Z
D

z = f (xo,y)

S(xo)

xo

2 ( xo ) Y

0
A

1 ( xo )

2 ( xo ) Y

X
.9. :
) U ; ) .

:
2. D (. 5) -

, 1, :
d

2 ( x)

f ( x, y )dxdy = dx f ( x, y )dy .

(9)

1( x )

3. :

I=

4 x 2

dx

f ( x, y )dy +

dx

2 4 x 2

f ( x, y )dy .

D
(.10). 1 I
:

I = f ( x, y )dxdy . y = 2 4 x 2 ,
D

21

(, ) x 2 + ( y 2)2 = 4 . y = 4 x 2 , (, )
x 2 + y 2 = 4 . ,
( y 2)2 = y 2 , = 1. x 2 + y 2 = 4 , x = 3 .

x 2 + ( y 2)2 = 4

2
1

D
2

x +y = 4
2

.10. 3.

. (, ), ,

x = 4 ( y 2)2 ,

x = 4 y2 .
, D , 2 I
1

I = f ( x, y )dx = dy
D

4 ( y 2 )

4 y 2

22

f ( x, y )dx .

4. :

2 2
4 4
(54 x y + 150 x y ) dxdy ,
D

D = 1, y = x , y = x (.11).
3

Y
1

y=x

y= x

.11. 4.

,
1

x3

x
1

2 2
4 4
( 54 x y + 150 x y ) dxdy = dx ( 54 x y + 150 x y ) dy =
2 2

4 4

= dx 18 x 2 y 3 + 30 x 4 y 5
0

)
x

( (

))

) (

= 18 x11 + x7 / 2 + 30 x19 + x13 / 2 dx = 11.


0

5.

12 ye

6 xy

dxdy , D

: y = ln 3, y = ln 4, x = 1/6, x = 1/3 (.12).


Y
ln 4
D
ln 3
X
1/6

1/3

.12. 5.

23

D 2- ,

12 ye

6 xy

ln 4

1/ 3

1/ 6

ln 4

ln 3
1/ 3

ln 3

1/ 6

dxdy =

= 12

6 xy
dy 12 ye dx =

ydy e

6 xy

ln 4

ln 4
e6 xy 1/ 3
dx = 12 ydy
= 2 e2 y e y dy = 5.
6 y 1/ 6
ln 3
ln 3

(9)

1/ 3

ln 4

1/ 6

ln 3

6 xy
dx 12e ydy , ..

D 1- , .
. , , -


x y, . , , .
.
6. ,

x 2 + y 2 = 12 , x 6 = y 2 , 0 (.13).

Y
2

x + y =12
6

X
0

.13. 6.

24

1 D
6

12 y 2

y2 / 6

| D |= dxdy = dy
D

dx =

2
2

12 y y / 6 dy = 3 + 2.
6

7. , z + y = 1/2,

z = 0, x = 17 2 y , x = 2 2 y (.14).
,
Z.
( > 0) x = 17 2 y x = 2 2 y .
, z + y = 1/2.

z + y = 1/2
X

Z
1/2
17
0

x = 17 2 y

x = 2 2y
1/2
Y
.14. 7.

. 4.1 (. 14):

V = (1/ 2 y ) dxdy =
D

1/ 2

17 2 y

1/ 2

2 2y

dy (1/ 2 y ) dx = (1/ 2 y ) 15 2 y dy = 1.

25

4. 3. .
Y D, (
. 4.1) L = (D). ,
(, ) Y (u,v):

= (u,v),

y = (u,v),

(1)

(u, v) (). , , , :

, 1().
, (1) D, ()
(D) D.

( )

f ( x, y ) C D , .. ,
D.
1.

f ( x, y )dxdy

f ( x, y ) dxdy = f ( (u, v), (u, v)) J dud v ,


D

(2)

| J | , ,

(u , v)
u
J = J (u , v) =
(u , v)
u

(u , v)
v
.
(u , v)
v

26

(3)

. (,) Y.

(1) P'(u, v)

O'UV c (u, v) , = (u,v), y = (u,v).


(u,v) .
1, 2,, n ,
OU OV (. 15), .. u = uo=
= const v = vo = const . Y { = (uo,v), y = (uo,v)}, (v ) { =
= (u, vo) , y = (u, vo)}, (u ), D

D1, D2, Dn. i (, , Di), (, D), .. ( D).

P2
vi+1

vi
O'

P1

P3
Di

P4

U
ui

ui+1

.15. 1.

i,
: u = ui, u = ui+1 = ui + u, v = vi, v = vi+1 = vi + v. , , : (ui,vi),
(ui, vi+v), (ui+u, vi+v), (ui+u, vi). (1) -

27

Di, 1(1,1), 2(2,2), 3(3,3), 4(4,4).


(u, v) O'UV ,

|i| i i = u v ( ).
F(u, v) = f ((u, v), (u, v)).
D,
(i, i) (. .4.1) Di ((ui, vi), (ui, vi)) ( 1 . 15).
:
n

i =1

i =1

ST f (i ,i ) | Di | = F (ui ,vi ) | Di | .

(4)

(4) , .. ,
. u v
.
, 1234
, .. ,
u v du dv.
1234 P1P2 P1P4 :

P1P2 = { x2 x1 , y2 y1 , 0} =

= { (ui , vi + v) ( ui , vi ) , ( ui , vi + v ) ( ui , vi ) , 0}
{ v ( ui , vi ) v, v ( ui , vi ) v, 0} ;

P1P 4 = { x4 x1 , y4 y1 , 0} =

= { (ui + u , vi ) ( ui , vi ) , ( ui + u , vi ) ( ui , vi ) , 0}
{u ( ui , vi ) u , u ( ui , vi ) u , 0}.

28

, .. Y. P1P2 P1P4
:

e1

e2

P1P4 P1P2 = u (ui , vi )u u ( ui , vi ) u


v ( ui , vi ) v v ( ui , vi ) v
= e3

e3
0 =
0

u ( ui , vi ) u ( ui , vi )
u v =
v ( ui , vi ) v ( ui , vi )
= J ( ui , vi ) u v e3 ,

J(ui,vi) (3).
, i, Di, :

| Di | P1P4 P1P2 = J ( ui , vi ) u v = J (ui , vi ) | i | .

(5)

(5) (4),
n

ST = F (ui ,vi ) J ( ui , vi ) | i | .

(6)

i =1

(6)
F(u,v) J(u,v) .
(6) :

F (u, v) J ( u, v ) dud v = f ( (u , v), (u, v)) J dud v ,

(4)

f ( x, y ) dxdy .
D

, (2), .

29

.
1 ? , . ,

x = r cos , y = r sin

(7)

2 k , O (0,0) .
(r, ) ,
{0 < 2 , r > 0}, (x, y) D, (0,0) (. 16), , (2) .
(7) (3):

J=

x / r x /
y / r y /

cos

r sin

sin

r cos

= r cos2 + r sin 2 = r ,

(2)
:

f ( x, y )dxdy = f (r cos , r sin ) r drd .

(8)

X
O

r
.16. , (8).

30

1. ,

x 2 + y 2 4 y = 0 , x 2 + y 2 8 y = 0 , = 0 , y = x / 3 (.17).
2

(y 4) + x = 16

(y 2) + x = 4

y=

x
3

X
.17. 1.

(7), , : r = 4sin , r = 8sin , = /2

= / 6. ( tg =

y
1
=
).
x
3

S = dxdy = rdrd =

/2

8sin

/ 2 2 8sin
r

d r dr = 2
/6
/6
4sin

4sin

d =

/2
1
= 48 sin 2 d = 4 + 3 3.
2
/6

2. ,
2

: 1 ( /16) + 3, x 0, y x /4,
5

= x /y (. 18).
D

m = dxdy .
D

31

Y
2

x
+ y2 = 3
16

y = x/4
X

x2
+ y2 = 1
16
.18. 2.

x2
a2

y2

+ 2 = 1,
b

, ,
:

x = a r cos ,

y = b r sin .

(9)

J=

x / r x / a cos
=
y / r y / b sin

ar sin
= abr .
br cos

(2) :

f ( x, y )dxdy = ab f (ar cos , br sin ) r drd .

a = 4, b = 1;
2

: 1 r 3; y /x = (b/a) tg = 1/4, .. = /4; = /2.


/2

m = ab r drd = 16

/4

/2

= 16

r cos
5

r sin

cos d 3 dr

3
5
/ 4 sin 1 r

= 16

32

r dr =
1

/2

= 4.
4sin 4 / 4 2r 2 1

4. 4. .
1

f C (R ) z = f (x, y)

R3. , - = ().
,
. , .
.
, XIX . ,
.
h R ( , , 2 Rh ) ,
, .

(. 19):
1) h m
, . .
n ,
. , , . , :
2

R 2 4 m
.

S . = 2 R h +
4 n 2
2

33

.19. .
2

2) m/n , .. m , n . S. 2Rh .
2

m/n (
, .. n m), S. .
, ,
. ,
, ?
, . OZ.
2

, , m/n OZ, ..
.
. D OXY. (D) ()
34

( .4.1). D - , D1, D2, Dn.


Di i (i,i).
i i (i, i, f (i,i)).
i z f (x,y) = 0.
i,
Di (.20).

z = f ( x, y )

Mi

i
Y
Di

Pi

Di = i cos .

Di

.20. .
35

T =

| i | , | i|

i =1

i, (, ,
Di) , .. dT 0.
F(x,y,z) = z f (x,y) = 0 i:

F F F f f
,
,
grad F =
= , , 1 .
x y z x y
n :
2

f f
gradf = + + 1 .
x y
, ( < / 2 ), OZ:
grad f
n=
= ( cos , cos , cos ) ,
grad f

cos =

( f x )

( )

+ f y

+1

Di i OXY, Di = i cos , (. 20).

T = i =

| Di |
1
=
| Di |
cos
cos
dT 0
dxdy
= 1 + f x2 + f y 2 dxdy.

dT 0 D cos
D

, , z = f (x,y)
:

| |= 1 + f x 2 + f y 2 dxdy ,

(1)

D OXY.

36

, (u, v) :

= (u,v), y = (u,v), z = (u,v),


:

| |= G F 2 dud v ,

(2)

E = u 2 + u 2 + u 2 , G = v 2 + v 2 + v 2 , F = u v + u v + u v
.
2

1. x + y + z = a ,
2

x + y = b , b a (. 21).
Y
1,
Y, .

1
x2 + y 2 = b2

x2 + y2 + z 2 = a2

.21. 1.

37

y
, z y =
.
2
2
2
2
2
2
a x y
a x y

z = a 2 x 2 y 2 z x =

(1),

| |= 2 | 1 |= 2 1 + ( z x )2 + ( z y ) dxdy =
2

x
= 2 1 +
a2 x2 y2
D

= 2a
D

dxdy
a2 x2 y2


y
+
a2 x2 y 2

= 2a

rdr

= 4 a a a 2 b 2 .
2
2

0 a r

dxdy =

D Y, ..
b , Y
2

x + y = b .
.
. , D 1 -

, ,
, (. . 16). , 1 . D (0,0), , 0.
2. (. 22),

x = r cos , y = r sin , z = b , 0 < r a, 0 < 2.

38

.22. .

xr = cos , x = r sin , yr = sin , y = r cos , zr = 0, z = b ,


(2):

E = cos 2 + sin 2 = 1,
G = r 2 sin 2 + r 2 cos 2 + b 2 = r 2 + b 2 ,
F = r cos sin + r sin cos + 0 b = 0.

= 1 r + b

) 0 drd = 0 d 0

r 2 + b 2 dr =

2
2

a
+
a
+
b
2
2
2
= a a + b + b ln
b

( r=0

=2 . 1).

39

4.5. .
, : .
:
. D , {Dn} -

( . 4.1), D , . D =

Dn

n =1

D1 D2

Dn . , , f (x,y) D.

f ( x, y )dxdy

f ( x, y )dxdy

n .

Dn

, , {Dn}.
. D , f (x,y)

D.

, D.
f (x,y) :

f ( x, y )dxdy = lim
f ( x, y )dxdy ,
0
D

D \

40

. (, D \ , D,
).
.
, ,
, , .
1. I =

dxdy
2

(1 + x + y )

. Dn
2

n, .. Dn ={ + n }. D1 D2 D3 Dn R Dn R

n . , Dn
I:

In =

dxdy

(1 + x2 + y 2 ) =

Dn

Dn

d (1 + 2 )

0 (1 +

d d
=
(1+ 2 )

1;
,

lim I n =
n
1 , > 1.

41

d (1 + 2 )
0

1 ,

1
= 1 1 + n 2

ln
1
,
n

1;

= 1.

, 1 I , > 1

, ,
,
:

2. : I = e x dx.
0

D OXY.

x2 y 2

dxdy = dx e

x2 y 2

dy = e

x2

dx e

y2

x2
dy = e dx = I 2 .

:
2

I = e

x2 y 2

/2

dxdy = rdr
=

re
20

r 2

d e r =

dr =

e
2 20

I = e x dx =
0

42

r 2

dr =

r 2

4.
1.

:
1 2 x +1

f ( x, y ) dxdy ?

2.

x2

2
2
1 + x + y dxdy

4
4
1 + x + y dxdy , G : 0 x 1 , 0 y 1 ?
G

3.

, G : 1
x 1, 1 y 1,

m n
x y dxdy

m n .
4.
5.

dx f (x, y )dy = dy f (x, y )dx .

, :
a

dx f ( y ) dy = (a y) f ( y) dy .

6.

f ( x, y )dxdy , G
G

: a x b , c y d, f (x, y) = Fxy(x, y) .
7.

, , G : a x b , c y d ,

b
d

.
=

f
(
x
)
g
(
y
)
dxdy
f
(
x
)
dx
g
(
y
)
dy

G
a
c

43

f (x, y) G :

8.

) f ( x, y ) =

sin 3 x sin 3 y
8

cos y
2x+y

) f (x, y) = x e

, G : 0 x / 4 , 0 y /4;

, G : 1 x 1, 1 y 1;

) f (x, y) = x 2 y, G (1,0), (1,1), (3,1) .


9.

dxdy

x2 + y 4

1 + sin x + cos y

4.
:
5 + 3+ 2 y y 2

1.

dy

dy

x+4

4. dy

f ( x, y )dx .

2 y y 2

5 y 5

dx f ( x, y )dy .

5 2

x 2 5

8.

4 x

f ( x, y )dx .

y 5

1 y 2 1

2 y y2

6. dy

x2 5

52

4 x

dy f ( x, y )dx .

7.

y 2 +1

dx f ( x, y )dy + dx f ( x, y )dy .

4 y 2

43

5.

2.

5 3+ 2 y y 2

3.

f ( x, y )dx .

x+4

f ( x, y )dx .

2 x +3

2 x +3

2 x

dx f ( x, y )dy + dx f (x, y ) dy .

:
1

9. dx f x 2 + y 2 dy .

0 0
44

10.

dx

3
3
x2
2
4

63 29

14 x x 2

dx

11.

0
2a

12.

3
x2
2

3 9 x 2

4 ax x 2

dx
0

2 ax x

f x 2 + y 2 dy .

f x 2 + y 2 dy .

f x 2 + y 2 dy +

4a

4ax x 2

2a

dx

f x 2 + y 2 dy .

:
13.

(2 x y ) dxdy , G (1,2), (3,2), (0,1)


G

14.

(3x + 2 y ) dxdy , G ,
G

y = x2/2 y = 2 x .
15. xy dxdy , G ,
G

x2 + y2 = ax, x2+ y2 = 2ax y = 0, y 0, a 0.


16.

2
2 x y dxdy , G ,

y 2 = ax, x2 + y2 = 2ax, y = 0, y > 0, a > 0.


:
17.

x2 + y2
e
dxdy , G ,
G

: x + y = 1 x + y = 4.

45

18.

dxdy

9 x y

, G ,
2

x + y = 9 y = 0 y = x.
19.

dxdy

4 x y

, G , -

: x + y = 4 (x 1) + y = 1 OY.
20.

2
2
x + y dxdy , G

(x 1) + y = 1, (x 2) + y = 4 y = x.
21.

(2 x + y )dxdy dxdy , G x2 + y2 = 4 3x = y2.

x2 + y2

, :
22. r = a (1 cos ).
23. x = 4 y, 2x = y, y = 0.
24. xy = 1, x = 7 y.

x
, y = x 3.
25. x 2 + y 2 = 2 x , x 2 + y 2 = 4 x , y =
3

x2 y2
+
4 , y 0, y x 3 .
26. 1
25 9
27. y = 4 x 2 , y = 2 4 x 2 .
2

28. x + y = 36, x = y, y = 0, x > 0.


, :
29. y = x , y = x, z = 0, x + z = 4 .
2

30. x + y = 4, x = y, z = 0, z = 3x .
2

31. x + y = 6y, z = 0, z = 9 x .

46

32. x 2 + y 2 = 4 y, x 2 + y 2 = 6 y, z = 0, z =

x2 + y 2 .

1, 2:
2

33. 1: x + z = y , 2: y = 2x.
2

34. 1: z = x y , 2: x + y = 1.
2

2 2

35. 1: z = x + y , 2: (x + y ) = 4 (x y ).
2

36. 1: z = x + y , 2: x + y = 4.

47