Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 41

,

, ,
,
.

, .
.

, ,

,

.
,
, .

, ,
.
,

1.

. 1.

. 2.

2. -

,
.
, - , ,
.
0,4 500
220/380 50-60 .
6

, ,
,
, .
,

.. ,

,

,
.

3. .
.
3.1.1.
=

t
t

100% =

t 1 + t 2
t 1 + t 2 + t

100% =

20 + 30
100% = 31,25%
20 + 30 + 110

= 40%
3.1.2.
D =

n1 120
=
= 1: 2
n 2
80

3.1.3.
:
3.1.4. :
: 1 =

2
n1 2 120
=
= 12,566
60
60

: 2 =

2 n 2 2 80
=
= 8,378
60
60

3.1.5. i- :
: P
1 =

1 103 = 1200 12,566 10 3 = 15,08

: P
2 =

2 103 = 1200 8,378 103 =10,053

3.1.6. :

1
12,566 103
= 0,95 + (1 0,95)
=1
: 1 = 0 + (1 0 )
max
12,566 103
2
8,378 103

+
(1

=
0,95
+
(1

0,95)

= 0,983
: 2
0
0
max
12,566 103

3.1.7. :
2

P1 max
P2 max
t 2

t 1 +
1
2

P =
=
1 t 1 + 2 t 2
2

15,08 103 12,566 103


10,053 103 12,566 10 3

20
+

30
12,566 10 3
8,378 10 3

=
= 15,156
1 20 + 0,983 30

3.1.8.
= 40% :

P = P

= 15,156

31%
= 13,396
40%

3.1.9. :
P =

P k 13,396 1,3
=
= 17,953 ,

0,97

k = 1,3 -

= 0,97 - nmax
,
:
1

U,

P,

n,
/

,
%
8

cos

I/I

Mmax/
M

J, 2

()
180 M6

380

18,5

975

89

0,8

6,7

2,5

2,8

0,185

3.2.1. :
i =

n
975
=
= 8,125
n 2 120

2. :
i. = 7,1

2
i 1

1,25

3,15

1,6
2

2,5

1,12

1,8
1,4

2,8
2,24

8
6,3

4,5
3,55

5,6

3.2.2. :
n1 = n1 i. = 120 7,1 = 852
n 2 = n 2 i. = 80 7,1 = 568

3.2.3. :
1 =

max
1200
=
= 174, 241
i
7,1 0,97

2 = 1 = 174, 241

3.2.4. :
n0 =

60 f
60 50
1
=
= 1000
p
3

0 =

n
1000
0
=
= 104,71
9.55 9.55

4.
,
.
4.1.
9



f1,
U1.
,
U1 f1 .
. 3.
:

).

).

).

. 3.

U 1 f 1 = const

, . 4 ,
. R1

.

.
Danfoss,
, VLT 3032.
3 -
VLT 3032.

,
,

,
,

380
50/60/87/100
0
0 120 0-500;

10


,
,
cos

,
,

1 , %

,
,

0,1 - 3600
(
)
3
380 10%
50 (60)
0.9 (1.0)
0.96 100%
2











250 , 2
RS-485

IP00 (IP20, IP21, IP54)
-10 +40
-30 +70
22
44
160
80
950 306 296

4.2.
4.2.1



: (IGBT),
. IGBT (BJT)
:
IGBT , ,
;

11

IGBT
(BJT) ,
15 .

()
().
IGBT [2, .80]:

I c.max

P. k1 k2 18,5 103 1,3 1,2


=
=
= 88,89 A ,
.. U .
0,89 380

P , ; k1 =1,2-1,5
,
. k1 =1,3 ; k2 = 1,11,2
. k2 = 1,2 ;
IGBT ()
I c I c max .

IGBT- (IPM) Mitsubishi Electric CM100RL-12NF,
100 600 [4] ( ).
IGBT [2]
PSS= I
I =
D=

I c.max
k1

1 D
1 0,95
U e( sat ) + = 68,38 2,2 +
= 33,968,
8 3
8 3
88,89
=
= 68,38 A ;
1,3

0,95 ;
T
U e( sat ) = 2,2
IGBT

.
IGBT

PSW

I U cc tc.on + tc.off f sw
=

=
2
2
1

12

68,38 513 ( 0,12 + 0,3 ) 10 6 5000


=

= 8,3,
2
2
= 0,12 106
1

tc.on

IGBT ;

tc.off = 0,3 106

IGBT ;
U cc = k. U . = 1,35 U . = 1,35 380 = 513

IGBT, ( ,
);
k. = 1,35 ;

fsw , ( ), 5000 15
000 ; f sw = 5000 .
IGBT
PQ = PSS + PSW = 33,968 + 8,3 = 42, 268 .

1 D
1 0,95
PDS = I e U ec + = 68,38 2 +
= 30,88 ,
8 3
8 3
I e = I cp ,A;
U ec = 2
I e ,B.

1
1
PDR = I rr U cc trr f sw = 68,38 513 0,12 106 5000 = 2,631,
8
8
I rr , ( I rrp= I rr ); t
, , trr = 0,12

PD = PDS + PDR = 30,88 + 2, 631 = 33,511.
IGBT
PT = PQ + PD = 42, 268 + 33,511 = 75,779.
13

paca
,
,
IGBT .

4.2.2
,
IGBT FWD,
.
[2]
I c.max
88,89

U . + nPT
380 + 6 75,779
2
2

I dm =
=
= 47, 445 A,
Ud
513
n = 6 ;
U d = U
cc = 513


I vm = kcc I dm = 1, 045 47, 445 = 49,58 ,
kcc = 1,045 .
:
U vm = k. 2 U . k. kc + U = 1,15 2 380 1,35 1,1 + 150 = 1067,7
k. = 1,15 ;
kc = 1,1 ;
U = 150

.
.
, 3-

RM30TC-24,-2

MITSUBISHI

( ).

14

ELECTRIC

[4]


I I
47, 445
PDV = mv kcs U j + Ron dm dm = 6 0,577 1
= 109,5 ,
k
k
1,5

1
1
kcs = 0,577 ;
Ron

;
U j ,

I
50 U j + Ron dm 1 ;
k1

mv = 6 .

4.2.3

,
.
.
,
.
- ,
, .
[5]
P = I d Ed = 47, 445 513 = 24,339 .
,

U =

0,17 P
,
f Wc

U , %;
f , ;
Wc , , .
0,17 P 0,17 24339
=
= 0,7 .
Wc =
U f
1, 4 5000

15

C U d2
, , , Wc =
.
2
2 Wc 2 0, 7
=
= 5,3 .
C =
U d2
5132
[6]:
15-5-1600 -5,5 1 .

5.

5.1.



,

,
.

,
, ,
, ,
, .


,
.
- , .13.

16

. 4. .
-
, 4.
4
P

UH

18500

380

39,4

975

0,89

cos

ki =

0,8

I
I

6,7

kmax =

k =

2,8

2,5

0,185

I0 =

I112 [ p I1 (1 s ) /(1 p s )]2


,
1 [ p (1 s ) /(1 p s )]2

S =

n0
n
n0

1000 975
= 0,025 -
1000

P
18500

I =
=
= 39, 4
1 3 U cos 3 220 0,8 0,89
1

I
1 =


0, 75 18500
=
= 29,976
3 U cos 3 220 0, 788 0,89

p* = P P = 0,75 .
17


,
.
, :
,
10-15%
. ,

.

p* = 0,75

, ..
0,75

p* = 0,75

,


, . 5.
os = 0,985cos , .. os = 0,788

. 5.

cos 0,75 cos


1 SH 2
1 0,025 2
)
29,9762 (39, 4 0,75
)
1 S H
1 0, 75 0,025
=
= 9, 223
1 SH 2
1 0,025 2
1 (0, 75
)
1 (
)
1 S H
1 0, 75 0, 025

I1 2 ( I
1
I
0 =

18

,
:
s = s

(k )2 -[1-2s (k -1)]
=
1- 2 s ( k -1)

(2,8 + 22 [1 2 0, 025 1 (2,8 1)])


= 0, 025
= 0,149
1 2 0, 025 1 (2,8 1)
R

1
= C R ' - 0,6 2,5,
1
2

=1.

1 = 1 + (

I0
9, 223
) = 1+
= 1, 017 ;
2 kiI1
2 6, 7 39, 4

m
U12 (1 s )
1 0, 025
A1 =
= 3 220 2
=1, 343
2 C1 k P
2
1, 017 2,8
18500
,

'
R
2 =

A1
1,343
=
= 0,171
( + 1/ s )C1
1
1 + 0,149 1, 017


'
R1 = C1 R
1 = 0,174
2 = 1, 017 0,171

X H :

1 2
= (1 sk2 ) 2 =
1 = 6, 625 .
2
0,149

X
R=
H

'
2

= 6, 625 1, 017 0,171 = 1,156

,
19

,
'
X 2H
=

0,58X KH 0, 58 1,156
=
= 0, 629
C1
1, 017



X 1 = 0, 42 X
1,156 = 0, 485
= 0, 42

1, R '2 , R1 X

sK =

C1R2'
R +X
2
1

2
KH

1, 017 0,171

0,1712 + 1,1562

= 0,149 .

E1 ,
,
E1 = (U1 cos 1 R1I1 ) 2 + (U 1 sin 1 + X 1 I1 ) 2 =
=

( 220 0,89 0,174 39, 4 )

+ ( 220 0, 6 0, 485 39, 4 ) = 203,368


2


X
H =

E1 203,368
=
= 22, 048
I0
9, 223

,
.
,

20

U1 j

'
I2 =

2
2'
'
,

R2 2 2 R1R2
R1 + s + XKH f1 +
sX H f1

U 1 j - ;

f1 =

f1 j

f 1H

- .


= 0 (1 s )

.
,

, ,


I1 j ( s ) = I 2 + I '2 ( s ) + 2I I ' ( s ) sin ( s ) ,
0 2j
0 2j
2

f1 j U1 j
I 0,

I0 j =
sin 2 ( s ) :

U1 j

R12 + X1 + X

21

f 21*

sin 2 ( s ) =

R2'
R1 + s

2
2 .
+ X f 1*

S = ( 2 2) ,

f1 = 1 ,


(. . 6), 5
5

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

I2,

I1,

195,
7
202,
034

193,4
57
199,7
81

189,4
79
195,8
05

181,1
11
187,4
42

157,3
43
163,6
92

53,41
2
60,00
8

150,22
5
156,58
1

196,31
7
202,63
9

203,68
6
210,00
4

205,32

205,6
7
211,9
87

211,63
7

. 6.


22

M=

3U12jR2'
' 2 ' 2
s X 2 f 2 + R + R2 + R1R2
0 j j KH 1 1
s j s j X H f1

M =

2 0 j R1 +

(R

2
1

R
+ X 2 f1*2 ) 1 +

X f1*2

2
1

3 2202
2

0,1742
2
2
2

2 104.72 0,174 + ( 0,174 + 1,156 1 ) 1 +

22,048 12

2 f 2 3.14 50
1

0 j =
U1 j

3U12j

= 104.72

= 515,899

- ;

- .
2

sKj = R2'

2
R1
0,174
1 +

1 +
X

H f1 = 0,171
22, 048 1 = 0,149
2
R12 + X KH
f12
0,1742 +1,1562 12

(+) ,
, (-) .

:
(s) =
R

2 ( 1 + s )
s s
+ + 2 s
s s

0,174

1
a = R ' = 0,171 = 0,819 - ,
2
;

23

6
= f (M ) , 6.

180 197,9 221,2

10

20

30

6
250,1 286,4 334, 395, 469,1 515, 450 350 1,5
8
4
33
2
6
40

50

60

70

80

90

96

99

104,
7

. 7.
5.2.




U1* = const

f1* = var .

, ,

.

.

24

,
.

U1*
= const .
f1*

U1
250
220
200
150
3

100

50

10

20

f1
30

40

50

60

. 8. - : 1 -
U1

f12 = const;

2 - U1

U1

f12 = const;

f1 =const


n1 = n1 i = 120 7,1 = 852 /,
n2 = n2 i = 80 7,1 = 568 /.


1 =

n
852
1
=
= 89, 215
9,55 9,55


2 =

n
568
2
=
= 59, 476
9,55 9,55


:
=

2 M k
2 516, 207
=
= 67,526
0 S k 104,71 0,149

25

, = const
.

= 0 = 1 :
= 01 1 =

1 174, 241

=
= 2,58

67,526

:
01 = 1 + = 89, 215 + 2,58 = 91,795


f
1 =

p 01 3 91,795
=
= 43,851
2
2 3,14

U1*
= const
f1*

U1 220
=
= 4, 4 = const
f1
50

:
U1 = 4, 4 f1 = 4, 4 43,851 = 192,944


= 0 = 2 :
= 02 2 =

2 174,241

=
= 2,58

67,526

:
02 = 2 + = 59, 476 + 2,58 = 62,056

:
f
2 =

p 02 3 62,056
=
= 29,645
2
2 3,14

:
U 2 = 4, 4 f 2 = 4, 4 29,645 = 130, 438


1 = 2 =


1200
=
= 174,241 H
i 7,1 0,97


M
=

18500
=
= 181, 206
102,094

26

(.

.8),

7.
7
1,

181,7
9

,/
0
2, 106,7
6
,/
89,21
5

207,7
5
12,85
7
129,4
2
63,95
1

-233,67

-280,46

-326,76

-392,95

-22,96

-36,737

-46,839

-57,86

177,24

239,26

281,32

-26,698

11,797

-505,15

-376,53

-174,241

-77,137

-85,412

-89,215

341,33

466,36

401,76

174,241

24,214

47,187

54,017

59,476

. 9.

U1*
= const
f1*


f13 = 43,851 ,
7.
7
27

1,
-155,23 -136,24 -130,04 -125,15 -120,61
-115

181,79
,/
0
17,45
33,981
40,41
45,921 51,431
59,476
(1) (2) I 2' = f ( )
I1 = f ( ) , 8,9;
8,9,10,11.
8
I21,
f
1 = 43,851

,/

35,085

91,832 88,856

67,637

109,4

131,61

85,633 79,847

168

74,887 53,397

177,92

182,45

30,17

9
I11,
,/
f
1 = 43,851

9,224

22,87
1

44,31
7

70,59
4

101,6

128,9
6

153,0
6

176,3

190,07

91,83
2

90,17
9

88,27
8

85,71
6

81,91
3

77,03
6

69,68

51,90
9

10
I22,
f
1 = 29,645

,/

25,21

53,441

91,85

117,42

141,65

155,91

174,19

62,082

59,959

57,276

52,527

47,777

40,121

31,628

11
I12,
,/
f
1 = 29,645

9,224

27,96
5

47,53

79,15
9

110,0
4

144

156,9
1

171,9
6

181,59

62,08
2

59,95
9

58,17
1

54,81
8

50,34
7

41,74
2

35,65
1

21,96
1

28

10 - I1 = f ( )

U1*
= const
f1*

11 - I1 = f ( )

U1*
= const
f1*

6.
=2

6.1.
:
29

d
M MC = J
dt

:
t =
J

25

; t =

= 1, 2 0,185 + 2 = 0,718
J = k J
+ 2
i
7,1

- .

;
k -
J
2 - ;
=0,185
J
25
=

- ;
18500
M
=
= 176,678
- ;
=
0 104,71
M = 2 M
= 2 167,678 = 353,357

1 = 89, 215 /
2 = 59, 476 /
J 1
0,718 89,215
t1 =
=
= 0,109 ;
+ 1 353,357 + 174,241
J ( 2 1 ) 0,718 (89,215 59,476)
t 2 =
=
= 0,089 ;
1
353,357 174, 241
J
0,718 59,476
t = 2 =
= 0,073 ;
+ 1 353,357 + 174,241

9,10 .

30

12

13
6.2.

f=43,851 , ..
1 = 89,215 / .

, 11.

14 -
J1 = 1,2 J = 1,2 0,185 = 0,222 2 , - ;
J
25
J 2 =
= 2 = 0,496 2 ,- ;
2
i
7,1


,- ;
:

M M c1 353,357 174,241
=
=
= 249,465
J1 + J 2
0,222 + 0,496

12 :
c12 = 1000

31

12 =

c12 ( J1 + J 2 )
1000 (0,222 + 0,496)
=
= 80,75
.
J1 J 2
0,222 0,496

T12 :
2 2 3,14
T12 =
=
= 0,078 c .
12
80,75
1 = f (t ), 2 = f (t ) M12 = f (t )
J + M 1
0,496 249,465 + 174,241
1 = t + 2
sin(12 t ) = 249,465 t +
sin(80,75 t ) ;
J1 12
0,222 80,75
J + M 1
0,356 249,465 + 174,241
2 = t 2
sin(12 t ) = 249,465 t
sin(80,75 t )
J1 12
0,222 80,75
M 12 = ( 1 J 2 + M 1 ) (1 cos(12 t )) = (0,222 249,465 + 174,241) (1 cos(80,75 t )) ;
1 = f (t ), 2 = f (t ) M12 = f (t )
15, 16.

15- 1 = f (t ), 2 = f (t ) = f (t ) (
).

32

16- M12 = f (t ) .

7.

17.

33

17 -
-

7.1.

2 U1
=
U .

k =

2 220
= 31,027 .
10

U . - .
U . =10

T =

1
f

1
= 2 104 .
5000

:
-
-

L1 = L1 + L
= 0,003852 + 0,1=0,103852

L2 = L2 + L
= 0,005193 + 0,1=0,105193


=1

L2
L1 L2

= 1

0.12
= 0,085 ,
0,103852 0,105193


L2
0,12
2 2 =0,174 + 0,171
R = R1 + R
= 0,329
L2
0,1051932

L1 0.085 0.104
=
= 0.017 ,
R
0.514
L
0.105
T2 = 2 =
= 0.352 c ,
R2 0.298

T =


1
1
J = 1.2 J + J
= 1, 2 0,14 + 45
= 0,524

2
i
11, 252

8. = f (t ) , M = f (t )

, .
f=43,851 , ..

M
174,241
1 =

1 = 89,215 /

.
34

18 = f (t ) , M = f (t )
f=29,645
, ..

M
174,241
2 =

2 = 59,476 /

35

19 = f (t ) , M = f (t )

9.

P = P (

1
1
1) = 18500 (
1) = 2286
H
0,89


36

PV. = M (0 H ) (1 +

R1
0,174
) = 176,678 (104,72 102,09) (1 +
) = 582,938
0,171
R2

PC. = P PV . = 2286 582,938 = 1703,062

a=

PC.
PV.

1703,062
582,938

= 2,922


:
( )
A2 = M C C tC = 174, 241 89, 215 20 = 310898 , [ ]
C , tC
.

2

89, 215
PH ( C ) 2 tC = 1703,062
20 = 2,6 104 [ ].

H
102,09


U1

I 2 =
( R1 +

R2 2
) + ( X K )2
SC

192,944
= 109,52
0,171 2
2
(0,174 +
) + (1,156)
0,148

[A],

AV =3 [ I 0 2 R1 + ( I2 )2R(

R 1 + t 2 )] C


=1+

AV

2 I 0 X K
2 9, 223 1,156
= 1+
= 1,111
U1
192,944

5
= 3 [9,2232 0,174 + 109,522 (1,111 0,174 + 0,171)] 20 = 2,631 10
[ .


A1 = A2 + AC + AV = 310898 + 2,6 104 + 2,631 105 = 6 105 [ ].

:
( )
A2 = M C C tC = 174, 241 59, 476 30 = 310895 , [ ]
37

C , tC
.

2

59, 476
4
PH ( C )2 tC = 1703,062
30 = 1,734 10 [ ].
H
102,09


U1

I 2 =
( R1 +

130,438
= 101, 208
0,171 2
2
(0,174 +
) + (1,156)
0,432

R2 2
) + ( X K )2
SC

[A],

AV =3 [ I 0 2 R1 + ( I2 )2R(

R 1 + t 2 )] C


= 1+

AV

2 I 0 X K
2 14, 4 1,76
= 1+
= 1,163
U2
202,91

5
= 3 [9, 2232 0,174 + (101,208) 2 (1,163 0,174 + 0,171)] 30 = 3,455 10
[ .


A1 = A2 + AC + AV = 31,0895 + 1,734 10 4 + 3, 455 105 = 6,564 105 [ ].

A = 3[ I ( X + X
A =7,598 10 .
i =1

) + ( I 2i ) 2 ( X 1 + X 2 )] tc.i

n ;


() ...

A 100% = 457560 100% = 68, 2%.


670800
A
A ;
A ;
=

()
cos =

( A1 ) + ( Ap )
2

670800
6708002 + 7853002

10.

= 0,649


38



, .
IGBT (VT1-VT6),
, , ,
VT7.
,
IGBT
VD. 19.

20
.
-
,

,
,
.
VT1-VT6,
VT7 . ,
, VT7 ,

.
19,
VD1-VD6 ,
.

18.

39

21-
.
:
1. ;
2. ;
3. ;
4. ;
5. ;
6. ;
7. ;
8. ;
9. .
11.


.
- ().

: Intel, Texas Instruments .

Texas Instruments, DSP
.
TMS320F2812:
40

150 ;
1,81,9 , 3,3 /
Flash;
JTAG;
1616 3232 , 1616 (multiply accumulate,
, );
Flash- 128 16;
ROM- 16 16 ;
SARAM (static asynchronous random access memory,
), L0 L1 4 16, H0 8
16, 0 1 1 16;
1 16 OTP ( );
( F2812);
PLL;
;
;
3 ;
128- , Flash/ROM/OTP
SARAM ;
32- ;
;
SPI, 2SCI, eCAN, McBSP;
12- , 16 , 80 /12,5
MSPS;
56 (GPIO);
(IDLE, STANDBY, HALT);
179 BGA, 128/176 LQFP;
41

: 40+125 ;


QF
. ABB
MS450-40 SST1SAM450000R1005 :
( , )
, (. .20)
TVS-.

22
TVS-
,
, .
12. , ,

,
.
.

, .

300 , - 100-250 .
42

,
,
. ,
( ) , ,
.

36
.
(, , ).
, , ,
.

.
.

.
, , , ,
, - .
, :
, ,
,
,
. ,

.

43




.
,
.

.
, ()

, ..
,
. ,
.


.

,
.

, -

.
.

, .

,
.
.
,
.
44


.
:
1. .., .. :
. : - , 2008. 218 .
2. : 4. .4.
/ .. .
(. . .. ). 8- ., . . .: ,
2002. 696 .
3. .., .., ..
- : . :
- , 20011. 476 .
4. .. : . 2- .
. . .: , 1998. 704 .: .
5. .., .. :
. .: , 2005. 304 .: .
6. .., .. :
- . : - , 2005. 120 .
7. .. :
. .: , 1986. 416 .

45

Оценить