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.. . 2002.

118

10.............................................................................................................119
2.7. ...............................................................................................................119
2.8. .................................................................................................................120
2.9. ().............................................121
2.10. ........................................................................................................123

11.............................................................................................................126
3. .................................................................126
3.1. ..............................................................................................................126

12.............................................................................................................133
3.2. .................133

13............................................................................................................146
3.4. ................................146

14.............................................................................................................152
3.5.
............................................................................................................152
4.5.1. .............................................................................152
4.5.4. - r......................156

15.............................................................................................................158
3.6. ................................................158
3.6.1.
[()]...................................................................................................................................158
3.6.2.
[()]................................................................................................................161

.. . 2002.

119
10

2.7.
, , ,
, ,
, , ...
,

.
, ,
,
, pn
, ,
.
pn
.

.
R [o/] :

(2.103)
T - PN , -
R - ,
, .

,
. . 2.29
.

.. . 2002.

120

. 2.29. :
1,2- , R = (100-200) /,
3- , R = 1-10/.

2.8.

pn

+ (U + U )

(R )

R
U

( )

U + U
U
U
U + U

( )

. 2.30. :
(),
R.

.. . 2002.

121



.
, pn
,
. 2.30.

,
.
,

.


:
Rd=U/I ( );

U,

= U/(TU)%.

2.9. ()
- ( . vary
capacitance - )
,

.. . 2002.

122

,
,

. pn ,
.. .

R
R

C
( )

( )

( )

. 2.31.
. 2.31 , R
pn
, C pn , rs
p n .
,
.
,
. 2.31. :
1
r R 22C2 + rs + R jCR 2
jC
Z = rs +
= s
1
rsR 2C2 + 1
R+
jC
.

(2.103)

,
, Q. ,
. (2.103) :
.

Q=

ImZ
.

ReZ

CR 2
rsR 22C2 + rs + R

(2.104)

.. . 2002.

123

rs (2.104) rs , :
Q=

CR
rsR2C2 +1

(2.105)

. 2.32
( )
. 2.32 ,
(2.105) R=107 , rs = 10 C=10 1 C=30
2.
(
) ,
(. .. 2.5), .
2.10.
P N ( ),

.
pn , p n , ..
p, n .
. 2.32
, - . ,
,

).

.. . 2002.

124

,
.

I
I /I m
5

4
1
0 ,5

1 ,0

U ,

2
. 2.32. .

2.33


. 2.30.
( 2 3) ( 5).
(.2 . 2.30 2.31)

.
,

p (.2 . 2.30 2.31).

.. . 2002.

125

. 2.33. ,
.
(.4 . 2.32)
n
p , . .
4 . 2.33,
.


(. 5 . 2.32 . 2.33), pn
.

)
.

.. . 2002.

126

11

3.
3.1.
-
, pn .
. 3.1, .
. 3.1 : ,
. . ,


, ..
.

. 3.1. pnp npn


p n
,
, pnp

.. . 2002.

127

p , npn

n .

.
,
, ,

3.2.


( pnp )
( npn )
. ,

.

(a )

( )
+ E

+
E

. 3.2. , : ()
; ()
, .

.. . 2002.

128

,
. , () ,
,
() , .. .



.
. 3.3 pnp npn
,
. 32.

+ E

()

+
E

( )

. 3.3. pnp () npn ()


: ,
.

.. . 2002.

129

. . 3.3.
p-n-p
1. ,

( , ) 2,
, .
n-p-n
1 . 3.3 .

( ) 2 . 3.3,
.
. . 3.3,
,
1,
, 2.

, .
,
, ,
.

( pnp ):
I =Ip+In=Ip,
Ip
=
Ip +In

(3.1)


.
,
( > 0,99).
,
:

.. . 2002.

Ip =p

130
(3.2)


.
.

,
Lp>>W.
( >
0,98).

I ( - ,
- ), ,
(4_1) (4_2) :
I =+Io,

(3.3)

- ,
,

(. 51, 52),
,
.

, :
= M,

(3.4)

M = I/Ip - ,
, .

, ..
.

.. . 2002.

131

npn (3.1) (3.4),


.
,
:
I = I + I,
I = I + I.

(3.5)

I = I - I = I - I = I(1 - ) - I.

(3.6)

I :



: I0, U0,

I0, U0,

.

, . 3.4 : I0, U0.

,
,
, . 3.4,

:
- ,
- - (

).

.. . 2002.

132

. 3.4.

.

:
I(t) = I0 + I(t), U(t) = U0 + U(t);
I(t) = I0 + I(t), U(t) = U0 + U(t);
I(t) = I0 + I(t), U(t) = U0 + U(t).

, (3.5), (3.6)
. . :
Ki = i/i = , Ki = i/i = ./(1- .), Ki = i/i = 1/(1-)

= Ki = ./(1- .). Ki = 1/(1-)= +1.
< 1 , , 0,98 - 0,99,
>> 1 49 - 99.
.

.. . 2002.

133
12

3.2.
.
. 3.5 .
I1=f1(U), I2=f2(U)
. NI1
, (U > 0,
U < 0), ,
(U > 0, U < 0). II2
, (U < 0, U > 0),
.

I2

N 1

I1 = f1 (U

I2 = f2 (U

. 3.5. pnp
. 3.5 :
I = I1 I I 2 ;

(3.7)

I = N I1 I 2 ,
U

I
I
UT
UT
N = , I = , I1 = I 0 (e 1), I1 = I 0 (e 1).
I
I

(3.8)

.. . 2002.

134

(4.8) (4.7)
J(U,U) J(U,U)
:
I = I 0 (e

U
UT

I = N I 0 (e

1) I I 0 (e
U
UT

U
UT

1) I 0 (e

U
UT

1),

(3.9)

1).


. 55.
,

,
(. 55).

A B

D
U

. 3.6.
.
, , (W<<Lp)

.. . 2002.

135


. (. . ):
U
UT

pn = pn (0) = pn0e

U
UT

(3.10)

, pn = pn (W ) = pn0e


:
pn
p
| x =0 , J J p = J p (W ) = qD p n | x =W ,
x
x
(3.11)
pn (0)
pn (W )
= U T ln[
], U = U T ln[
]
pn 0
pn 0

J J p = J p (0) = qD p
U

(. . 3.6),
. U > 0, U < 0,
(4_10) pn(0) > pn0, pn(W)<pn0. , |U| >> |
UT|, pn(W) 0. . A
. 3.7.
U (3.10) pn(0)
(3.11)

( )
pn(0) .
(. B . C . 3.6),

U > 0 U 0,
(3.10) pn(0) > pn0, pn(W) pn0. . B U > 0 U = 0,
pn(0) > pn0

pn(W) = 0. . C

( U) ,

, .. (3.11)
0. . C U > 0 U > 0,
pn(0) > pn0

pn(W) > pn0. . . B

.. . 2002.

. B

. A
pn
p n0
W
0
. D
p
p

136

pn
p n0

x
W
0
. C

pn

n0

p n0
W

. 3.7.
( . . 55)
(.D . 3.7),


.
U 0 U < 0,
(4_10) pn(0) pn0, pn(W) 0. . D U < 0 U < 0 (|U| >> |UT|),
pn(0) < pn0

pn(W) = 0. .D

. 3.6 , ..
.
,
.

.

, ,

.. . 2002.

137

, ,
,

,
.

.
,

(. . 3.8).

P
N
P

U
U

. 3.8.

U , U
, U = -U, ..
, . . 57
U = U + U, ..

. I.
I = I - I = I(1-), .. (+1) , ,

.

.. . 2002.

138

C
B

C
B

D
0


0

. 3.9.

. 58

( 3.6) . ,
, ..
U. . : U. = U - U < 0,
U > 0, U > 0 U > U.
, I* 0,
I = 0, (+1) , I 0, I = 0.
(
).
4.3.

, ,
,
.

.. . 2002.

139


,
.

. 3.10.
.
.

1, I1

2, I2

a)
U

1, I1

2, I2

)
. 3.10. :
) , )
(. 3.10) U1, I1 U2, I2.

.
r - .
,
,
:
U1 = f1(I1,I2), U2 = f2(I1,I2)

(3.12)

.. . 2002.

dU1 =

U 1
U 1
dI1 +
dI 2,
I 1
I 2

140
(3.13)

U 2
U 2
dU 2 =
dI1 +
dI 2
I 1
I 2

, (3.13)
:
u1 = r11i1 + r12i 2,
u2 = r21i1 + r22i 2

(3.14)

.
,
,
( . . 3.9 ), ..
U(), U() I(), I().

,
.
, , ..

.

, (3.14):
r11 = u1/i1 - , i2 = 0,
.. ;
r22 = u2/i2 - , i1 = 0,
.. ;
r12 = u1/i2 - , i1 = 0, ..
;
r21 = u2/i1 - , i 2 =
0, .. ;

.. . 2002.

141

(r-

). r- .

r21i1 r12i2,
,

(4_61) . 3.11.

a)

r 11

r22

u 1, i1

r 12 i2

r21 i1

i1
r

u 2, i2
u 2, i2

u 1, i1
r

i1
r

r*

u 2, i2

u 1, i1
r

. 3.11. : ) -
, ) - ,
) -
. 3.11 ,
, .
, ,
. . 60
-
. ,

r -
, r-
, r -

, -
(Ki).

.. . 2002.

142

. , ,
r
. . 60
,
Ki = =/(1-) r* r/ .
,
r .
. 3.11 . 3.11 ( . 3.11)
.
* : r
.
50
(4_61) . 50.
u1 = (r + r )i1 + ri 2,

(3.15)

u2 = (r + r )i1 + (r + r )i 2

(3.14) (3.15)
:
r + r = r11, r = r12, r + r = r21, r + r = r22;
r = r12, r = r11 r12, r = r22 r12, =

r21 r12
r22 r12

(3.16)

. 3.11
. 3.11.
r-
,

,
,

.. . 2002.

143

.
g -
,


:
I1 = f1(U 1, U 2), I2 = f2(U 1, U 2)

(3.17)


:
dI1 =

I 1
I
dU1 + 1 dU 2,
U 1
U 2

(3.18)

I
I
dI 2 = 2 dU1 + 2 dU 2
U 1
U 2

(4_65) :
i1 = g11u1 + g12u2,

(3.19)

i 2 = g21u1 + g22u2



g- ,
.

, ..

.
, (3.14):
g11=i1/u1 - , u2 = 0 ,
g22=i2/u2 - , u1 = 0 ,
g21=i2/u1 - , u 2 = 0 ,

.. . 2002.

144

g12=i1/u2 - , u 1 = 0 .
,
g- . 3.12.
R g- ,

,
,
,
.

a)
u 1, i1

)
g 11

g 12u 2

g 21u 1

22

u 2, i2

u 1, i1

11

h 12u 2

h 21i1

h 22 u 2, i2

. 3.12. :
) g - , ) h -
h -
r g
, .
,

(
),

).
,
,

.. . 2002.

145


:
U1 = f1(I 1, U 2), I2 = f2(I 1, U 2)

(3.20)


:
dU1 =
dI 2 =

U 1
U 1
dU1 +
dU 2,
I 1
U 2

I 2
I
dU1 + 2 dU 2
I 1
U 2

(3.21)

(3.18) :
u1 = h11i1 + h12u2,
i 2 = h21i1 + h22u2

(3.22)



,
h- ,
, (
).
, (3.22):
h11=u1/i1 - , u2 = 0 ,
h22=i2/u2 - , i 1 = 0 ,
h21=i2/i1 - , u2 = 0 ( h21=,
h21=),
h12=u1/u2 - ,

i1 = 0 - .

,
h- . 61.

.. . 2002.

146

h- ,
.
, r g ,
h .

, .
r, g, h
Z, Y, H .
13
3.4.
.
, -


. ,
pn (. 2.3).

, ..
,

.
pnp .

. :
J = Jp + Jn,
J = Jp+Jn

(3.23)

:
Jp Jp,

.. . 2002.

147

Jn,
Jp Jn,
Jn,
(3.23) J J.
.
,
() x = 0,

x = w, .. w .
(.
3.1.3) :
p
p
2p
=
+D p
t
p
x2

(3.24)

p/t = 0
(3.24) :
2p

p
L 2p

= 0,

(3.25)

L p = D pp

:
U
UT

p = p(0) = pn (0) pn0 = pn0(e

1),

U
UT

p = p(w) = pn (w) pn0 = pn0 (e

(3.26)

1)

(3.25)
+ Lp :

p(x) = Ae

x
Lp

x
Lp

+ Be

(3.27)

(3.27) (3.26)
A B:
p = A + B,

p = Ae

w
Lp

w
Lp

+ Be

(3.28)

.. . 2002.

148

, :
p 1
w

Lp
Lp
p e pe p
A=
=
,
w
1
1
2sh( )
w
w
Lp
L
L
e p e p

1 p
w

w
e Lp p
Lp
p pe

B=
=
w
1
1
2sh( )
w
w
Lp
e L p eL p

(3.29)

B (3.28) :

psh(
p(x) =

wx
x
) + psh(
)
Lp
Lp
w
sh(
)
Lp

(3.30)

(3.30)
:
J p (x) = qD p

p
=
x

qD p [pch(

wx
x
) pch(
)]
Lp
Lp

(3.31)

Lp

, x = 0 , ,
x = w .
w
) p ]
Lp
qD p p
p
=
[

]
w
w
w
Lp
L psh(
)
th(
) sh(
)
Lp
Lp
Lp

qD p [pch(
J p = J p (0) =

qD p [p pch(
J p = J p (w) =

L psh(

w
)
Lp

w
)]
Lp

qD p
Lp

(3.32)

p
p
[

]
w
w
sh(
) th(
)
Lp
Lp

(3.33)

(x < 0). p n-
. ,
Ln ,
,
pn (51):

.. . 2002.

149

n(x) = n(0)eLn ,
U
UT

n = n(0) = np0(e
U

(3.34)

1)

n(x) = np0(e U T 1)eLn = neLn

:
J n = qD n

qD n
n
|x=0 =
n
x
Ln

(3.35)

(x > w). p n-
. ,

Ln ,
, pn (51):

n(x) = n(0)e

xw
Ln ,
U

(3.36)

n = n(w) = np0(e U T 1)
U
UT

n(x) = np0(e

1)e

xw
Ln

= ne

xw
Ln


x = w::
J n = qD n

qDn
n
|x=w =
n
x
Ln

(3.37)


.
(4_77) (4_80) :
J = J p + J n =

qD pp
qD pp
qD n n
+

w
w ,
L n
L pth(
)
L psh(
)
Lp
Lp
U

p = pn0(e U T

U
UT

1), n = np0 (e

(4_81) (4_82) :

(3.38)
U
UT

1), p = pn0 (e

1)

(3.39)

.. . 2002.
U

qD p pn0

150
U

qD p pn0
qD n nn0
J =[
+
](e U T 1)
(e U T 1)
w
w
L n
L pth(
)
L psh(
)
Lp
Lp

(3.40)

(3.33) (3.37) :
J = J p + J n =

qD pp

qD pp
qD n n
[
+
]
w
w
L n
,
L psh(
) L pth(
)
Lp
Lp

(3.41)

(4_80) p,p,n :
U

qD p pn0
qD p pn0
qDn np0
=
(e U T 1) [
+
](e U T 1)
w
w
L n
L psh(
)
L pth(
)
Lp
Lp

(3.42)

(4_83), (4_85) :
U
UT

J = a11(e

U
UT

1) a12(e

1),
U
UT

J = a11(e

U
UT

J = a21(e

U
UT

1) a12(e

U
UT

1) a22(e

1),

(4_86)

1)

(4_86) :
a11 = (

a12 =

qD ppn0
qD n np0
+
),
w
L n
L pth(
)
Lp

qD p pn0
,
w
L psh(
)
Lp

qD ppn0
a21 =
,
w
L psh(
)
Lp

(4_87)

qD p pn0
qD n np0
a22 = [
+
]
w
L n
L pth(
)
Lp

,
, . (4_87)
(eU/U-1) .

.. . 2002.
U
UT

(e

J =

151

J
a
1) = + 12 (e U T 1),
a11 a11
U
UT

a21
a a
J + ( 12 21 a22)(e
a11
a11

(4_88)
1)

(. 4_9):
U
UT

J = N J + J 0(e

1)

(4_89)

(4_88) (4_89)
N J0
:
N =

a21
a a
, J 0 = 12 21 a22
a11
a11

(4_90)
(4_87) (e U/U-1)
(4_87)

, : I i0.
,
: ,
(4_90)
- , 1 2. :
I =

a12
a a
, J 0 = 12 21 a11
a22
a22

(4_91)

aik
, , (4_90) (4_91)
,

. (4_7)

.
, .. p
p , (4_87) a11 = a22, a12 = a21.
N=I.

.. . 2002.

152
14

3.5.
.
4.5.1. .

(4_90) :
N =

a21
=
a11

qD p pn
=
qD ppn0
qD nnp0
w
L pth(
)[
+
]
w
Lp
L n
L pth(
)
Lp

(4_92)

1
1
*
w
D n L
ch(
) [1+ n p0 p th( w )]
Lp
D ppn0L n
Lp

(4_92)
,
.
= , ,
- -
:
=

1
1 w 2
1 (
) ,
w
2 Lp
ch(
)
Lp

=
[1+

1
D n np0L p
D p pn0L n

th(

w
)]
Lp

nw
pL p

(4_93)

, w/Lp

.62 .62. ,
,
,
,
.
w/Lp<<1 Si Ge,

.. . 2002.

153

200

1 .0

100

0 .5

0
)

w /L p
)

0 .0 2

0 .0 4 w /L p

. 62 ()
( ~ 1)

.

.
,
,
, ..
.
, ,
, (4_93)
-
Ki, ,
. . 62. Ki
,
,
.

.. . 2002.

154

(4_93)
.


Ki.

n = n + n ( pnp ), n -

.
(4_93)
, .

. 63.
(
) .

1 .0

1 .0

0 .5

0 .5

0
)

. 63
() ()
4.5.2. ( )

.. . 2002.

155

J (J)
,
.

: J

J(+1).


,
.
J
(4_91):
J 0 = a22

a12a21
a22

, , ..
, : a 12 = a21,
a11 = a22. ,
, pp>>nn
pn>>np, a11 a22
.
a11 = a22

qD p pn
w
L pth(
)
Lp

(4_94)

J a12=a21 (4_87) a11 = a22 (4_94) :


J 0 =

qD p pn0
L pth(

w
)
Lp

q2D 2p p2n0L pth(

L 2psh2 (

w
)
Lp

w
)D p pn0
Lp

qD p pn0(ch2 (
=
L psh(

w
) 1)
Lp

w
w
)ch(
)
Lp
Lp

qD p pn0
L pth(

w
)
Lp

w/Lp << 1, th(w/Lp) ~ w/Lp J :


J 0

qD ppn0
w
Lp
Lp

(4_95)

J a11 = a22 (. 4_94)


J.

.. . 2002.

156

(4_95)
, ,
.
4.5.3. - r
r
.
( ).
(U>0 U<0)
:
U
U

J J 0(e

U
U

1) J 0e

J 0 a11 =

qD p
pnL pth(

(4_96)

w
)
Lp

(4_96) :
U U T (lnJ ln J 0 ),
r

U U T
=
J
J

(4_97)

4.5.4. - r

pn

w (U

1)

w (U

x
dl

.. . 2002.

157

. 64 ,

(U2>U1).


.
,

.
:
r =

U
1 J (J ) w
;
=
=
=
J
J
r U
U
w U

(4_98)


(. .

):

dw(U) = - dl(U)

(4_99)

,
(

:
l(U )

2 0U
,
qN d

qN d 2 0
0
w
l
1
=
=
=
U
U
2 2 0U qN d
2qN d

(4_100)


(4_98). .
= [1

1 w2
],
2 L2
p

(4_101)

w
=
w L 2p

(4_101) (4_100) (4_98)


:
1 w
w 0
=
J = 2
r w J
L p 2qN d

J
U

(4_102)

.. . 2002.

158

:
r =

L 2p 2qN d
w 0

(4_103)

( U)
( ), ..
(

). .

(4_103)

a)

I(I )

. 65. r
(U2>U1, I2>I1)
15

3.6. .
3.6.1.
[()].

.. . 2002.

159

.
:
p
p
2p
=
+Dp
t
t
x2

(4_104)

u(t)<<U(t):
U 0+u( t )
UT

P(x0 ) = pn0(e

U0
UT

1) = pn0(e

u( t )
UT

1) = P(x0 )p(x0,t),

u(t)
u(t)
p(xo ,t) = pn0(1+
1) = pn0
UT
UT

(4_105)

,
u = U0eit

(4_104) p = p0 eit. p/t p


(4_104) :
ip0eit =
2p
x2

p it
2p it
e +Dp
e ,
p
x2

p(1+ ip )
L 2p

= 0,

(4_106)

1/(1+p) 2p, ,
(4_106)
:
2p
2

p
2p

=0

(4_107)

(4_107)

,
L2p L2p/(1+ip)1/2.
,
:
=

1
1
1

=
,
2
2
2
w
w (1+ i p )
(1/ 2)(w2L 2p )
w
ch 2
1+
(1+ 2 )[1+
]i p
p
2L 2
2L
1+ (1/ 2)(w2L 2 )
p

0
1+ (1 0 )i p

(4_108)

.. . 2002.

160

, (1-0) ~ (1- 0)

:
()

0
1
=
1+ (1 0 )i p 1+ i

(4_109)

= (1-0) p ~(1-0) p. = 1/ .
:
() =

0
=
1+ i

1+ i

() = * =

1+
= arctg(

(4_110)

2
2

,
. (4_110) ,

2 ,
.

:
1

(1 0 ) = p (1
1+

w2
2L 2p

)=

pw2
2L 2p (1+

w2
L 2p

pw2
2L 2p

w2
2D 2p

(4_111)

:
=

1 2D p
= 2

(4_112)


. ,
,
.

.. . 2002.

161

3.6.2.
[()].


, .
() (4_109):
0
1+ i
0
0
( )
() =
=
=
=
(4_113)
0

1 ()
1 0 + i
1
1= 0(1+ i
)
1+ i
1

0=0/(1- 0), ~ (1-0) p, =1/p


(4_113) :
() =

0
=
1+ ip

() =

0
1+ ip

1+ i

(4_114)

= arctg
( )
0

(4_114)
(4_110), p (+1)
, (+1) , ..
.

. 66.

, ,

, ,
.

.. . 2002.

162

,
100

10

0 .1

1 .0

1 0 .0

. 66
- - .