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El kola naizmenicne struje

,
.
a(t)

: ,
.
t
(1)

a(t) = a = Amsin(t+a),
Am -
;
- ,
[/];
a- ( ,
, .. t = 0) [].
t+a , .
a(t) .
,
, f [=1/]
T=1/f [] =2 f =2 /T. t+a = 2(t+aT/2)/T.
. 1.


,
i = Imsin(t+i) ; u = Umsin(t+u) ; e = Emsin(t+e) .
,
.
,
i , u e .

m (Im, Um, Em).
1

..
.
.
r i.
- T, i,

.
I ,
T . ,
i = Imsin(t+i) :

(2)
,
..

. (2),
.

(3)
.
.

.
t1 t2

.
,
.
:
2

(4)
.

(5)
.


50 [],
t=5 , , 2,0 [] ?


.
,
.
,
. ,
a(t) = Amsin(t+a) Am,
. ,
t = 0 a (. 2 ) )).

,
, ,
.
,
. ,
, t = 0, .. ,
.
3


,
(. 2 )). Am

:
1. - Am = p + jq

p = ReA q = ImA (
, i ,
j);
2. - Am = Am(cos a+jsin a)
Am
a p= Amcos a q= Amsin a ;
3. - Am = Am e

j a


cos a+jsin a = e j a ;

4. - Am = Am a


.

, .
1.

Am = p + jq

Am = p + jq

Am=Am(cosa+jsina)

Am = Am

p= Amcos a

p= Amco

q= Amsin a

q= Amsin

Am = A
Am =Am(cosa+jsina)

a=

Am = Am
Am = Am e j a

a=a

Am . ,
,
4

A , ,
.
, ,
,
.

a(t)
A
.
, .
,
.

.
,
: , ..
.
2.

a(t)=Amsin( t+ a)

A=p+jq=Ae ja

C a(t)= Amsin( t+ a)

C A=C(p+jq)=C Ae ja

b(t)=a1(t)+a2(t)

B=A1+A2=
=(p1+p2)+j(q1+q2)

b(t)=a1(t)a2(t)

B=A1 A2=
=(p1 p2)+j(q1 q2)

b(t)=a1(t) a2(t)

b(t)=[a(t)]n

B=An= Ane jna

B=j A= Ae j( a+ /2)

,
, - .

.
.

.

.

.

,
, - .
.

j
.
90
.


, .
. 2,
, .

. ,
,
.
1, j , -1 -j .
A
3.
E A

ej0

Ae j

ej /2

Ae j( + /2)

-1

ej

Ae j( )

-j

e j /2

Ae j( /2)

, ,

.
, ,
, . ,

.
, .
.
,

u = ir = i/g i = u/r = ug ,

(1)

u i - , r = 1/g g = 1/r - ,
.
,
, l
s , r = l/s.
[] , g [].
r ir = Imsin(t+i).
(1)
(2)

ur = rir = rImsin(t+i) = Umsin(t+u) .


,


i =
u ,
Um =
rIm.
,

(2)
. 1 ).
8


.

,
U = rI I = U/r = gU .
(2)
(3)
. 1)
.
, ,
.
.

1
[],

u=100sin(500t-6/8) []
1,0 [].


, ,
, ..
.
,
eL,

(4)
.
,
,

,
9

(5)

xL= L ,

,

.
,

,
Um=xLIm ,
u = i
+ /2 /2, ..
90 . , (5),
. 2 ).

UL=xLIL
IL=UL/xL=bLIL, bL=1/xL .
, ..
, ,
,
.
,
. 2 ).
(5) :

(6)
,
ZL=jxL=xLe j /2 - .
(6) . 2 ).
(6)

(7)
,
YL=1/ZL=1/jxL= jbL =bLe j /2 - .
2
10

L=100
[] t=0, i=2,0sin(1000t-5/6) ?

, q
u, .. q = Cu . C

. [] .
,
: -, - (10-6, 10-9 10-12 ).
dt
dq , du=dq/C
dq=Cdu . ,
. ,
, .. i=dq/dt,

(8)
.
u =
Umsin(t+u). (8)

(9)
.
bC= C [1/=]
. Im=bCUm ,
i = u + /2 . ,
90 . ,
. 3 ).


,



I=bCU UC=IC/bC=xCIC ,
xC=1/bC
.

11


.
(8)

(10)
.
(8) ,
, . ,
,
, .
, , ,
, , ,
. 3 ).

(. 3 ))

(11)
,
YC=jbC=bCe j /2 - .

(12)
,
ZC=1/YC=1/jbC= jxC = xCe j /2 - .
3
,
u=140sin(2500t-6/8)

L C
.
. ,

.
12

,
, ,
.

r, L C (. 1 )).

i ,
u.

(1)
.
i = Imsin(t+i). (1) :

(2)
.
, (2)
u . (1)
.

(3)
.
(3) .
,
.
.
13

(3) . 1 ).
U .
rI I ,
.. r .
jxLI I 90.
j xLI ,
. jxI 90 , ..
j .
Z = r+j(xL xC) = r+jx = Ze j (3),
, . r
, x = xL xC -
. (3) ,

(4)
,
Z
Z=U/I
.


,
= arctg(X/R). ,

. (4) ,
,
- .
,

(5)

.
u . 1
) (5) -

14

(6)

.
(3)

(7)

Z=r+jxL jxC=Zr+ZL+ZC
(. 1 )).
, ..
Z
U I .
i 1/I.

(8)
.
Y .
,
, .

, - .
(R G) (X B)
,
.

(9)
.
15


;


;

.

L' []
, R = 100 , L = 100 ,
u = 25sin(1000t-31) []


.

.

Z=R+jX. Z

RX.

16

R=const, X=var. Z
R=const (. 2). X = 0
Z , ..
.
X() , Z
/2.
, Z
.
X() , Z
.
, < X < +
/2
< < + /2.

R=var

(. 3 ))

(. 3 ))
X , ,
+ /2 <
<0 /2 < < 0.
2


.,
.

17

, ,
.
.

, .
.


U I (. 4),

Z
Y

. ,
,
, Z /2 < < + /2.
= /2, = + /2 = 0.
.
90 ,
. ,

. ,
.
, 90 .
, ,
,
.

, ,
,
.
.
1.
1.

18

= /2

Z=j L=jXL

0 < < /2

Z = R+jXL

=0

Z=R

0 > > /2

Z = R jXC

= /2

Z = j/( C) = jXC


.
.
(
),
,
.

,
, .

3

,
u=100sin(1000t-32),
i=10sin(1000t+13)?
19

1 - -
- .
.
,
.
,
, . ,
-, I2R U2/R, I U -
, R -
.
.
,
.
, .
,
.
,
(L C).
(9)
. 5 )

(10)

. 5 ) -

20

(11)

(10) (11) ,

, .

.
.

, .., ,
,
,
.

.
,
,
, .
.

,
. ,
, .. .

, /
.
.
.
.

.
, ,
21

,
.
.


-
.

, , ,
. 1 ),
0 > R > .
R
L, .. u = uR+uL = Ri + Ldi/dt
U = UR + UL = RI + j LI = RI + jXLI.

(1)

(1) ,

UR UL , ..
I,
(R XL), UL
90 - j;
UR UL U .

, ,
U (. 1 )).
(1) R UR UL U
. ,
, ,
. UR
UL 90 , 180 , .. ,
22

U. ,
UR , UL U ,
UR
R.
,
-
, .
UR UL I ,
UR
. I, (1),
UR , UL U R jXL.
, I.
R , ..
jXL.
U/XL j
90 (. 1 )).
I.
, R = 0 90
U/XL. R .
.
,
-
.

0 < < .



I


U=const

> B > + ,

G
.



, I=GU,
I=jBU, .. ,
, , ..
23

U, I 90 - j.
I = I+ I, ,
U G,
(. 2 )) .
< | I| < + I I ,
,
U . I

I U I.


,
.


. 3.

, ..

, ,
,
.
.
I5 , . 3. I5
C2, b c . Ubc=UC2.
90 , , Ubc
I5 ,
.. .
b c C2 , r
L. -
,
L r. I4 rL . 3 90 ,
Ubc
, . I4
. r
24

I4, L - I4 90,
Ur UL Ubc. Ur UL,
,
Ubc I4. , I4
, Ur, - UL.
b I3 = I4 + I5,
I4 I5 I3,
R . 3. UR = Uab,
, , ,
I3.
Uac Uac
= Uab+ Ubc = U. , U
Uab Ubc . 3. Uac= U1. ,
C1 Uac 90 ,
Uac .
a I1 = I2 + I3.
I1 I2 I3.
u ,

dq, dA = udq. , i = dq/dt. dA =
ui dt, , , ..

(1)
,
u i - .
, (1),
,
.
, T , ,
, ..

(2)
.
u=Umsin t Imsin(t- ),

25

(3)

.. . cos
.
,
I U,
.
UI. 90
.
, ,
- .
, .. ,
.
- .. " cos ",
cos .
(3)
I U
(4)

P = UI cos = U(I cos ) = UI = I(U cos ) = IU .


,
I=U/R U=IR ,
(4)
P = I2R = U2/R .

(5)

P
[].

(3)

(6)

26

,
UIcos
.
cos = 1 ( = 0) , .. ,
(7)
, . 1 ).


. ,
.
cos = 0 ( = /2) , ..
(8)
,
. 1 ) ). (8) ,
,
27

. , (p > 0)

, (p < 0)
. ,
,

.
1 > cos > 0 ( 1< | | < /2)

(8)

. 1 ),
(p > 0), ,

. p
,
P . ,

.

rLC (. 2).

u=ur+uL+uC .



u=Umsint
Imsin(t- ).


ur=
rImsin(t- ),
uL= LImsin(t- + /2) = xLImsin(t- + /2), uC= Imsin(t- - /2)/( C) = xCImsin(t- -
/2). (9),
ui=uri+uLi+uCi

(9)

(10)

28

(10)
.
.
P = UIcos .
,

Q = UIsin . .
,
.
, ..
.


(11)

Q = UI sin = U(I sin ) = UI = I(U sin ) = IU .


,
> 0 < 0 .
(10)
P, Q S = UI

(12)

S . (12)
,
,
.
,
, .. , (cos = 0).

.

,

(13)

P = UI = I2R = UI = U2/R = U2G ;


Q = UI = I2X = UI = U2/X = U2B ;
29

S = UI = I2Z = U2/Z = U2Y.



(14)
,

S - ,

- .






( (4)
(11)),

(. 3 )
)).


U

(. 3 )). (. 3 )),
I.
, ,
, [],
, - [], - []

P = UIcos

, .

. 4

,
30

W, V A - ,
.
.
, ,
. ,
.
.
.
.

.

,
.


Z Y (. 1).

.
,


.
,

Y = 1/Z ; J = E/Z ; E = J/Y,

(1)


.
.

31

.,
R = 10 , L = 10 ,
= 100sin(1000t + 73) []


. , .

,
.
,
(. 2).

(2)
.
,

,
.
(3) -

(4)
.
,
I=E/Zs .
32

(5)
.

, (5)
,

(6)
.
(2) (6)
(7)

.
(6) (7)
,
,
.

,
0 < < ,

. 3.



.


,
,
.

,
,
,
.


.

33

(6) (7) ,
. ,

. .
> 1.0
, - .

(8)

(9)
.
0 < < , (8) (9) | | > /2,
, ,
. ,
,
.

s .. /2, | | > /2
,
.
, (8) (9)
,

0 < < 2cos

(10)
(11)
.

, (10) (11),
,
( ) .
. , ,
, .. 2cos = 1/(2cos). = 3 /2.
34

.
,
.
,
(6) (7)
(12)
.
(12) . d
/d . ,
= 1.0 . (7),

- = , ..
, 45 .
(12) = 1.0 -

(13)
.
(13) ,
1/4, .
s ,
= s = /2. , Zs+Z= 0
(. (2)).
- ,
.

:


; ,

s ( =0);

,
- ,

;

35

| s| > /2, ,

;

| s| > 3 /2, ,

;


| s|.
2

C = 10 [],
R = 10 , L = 10 ,
= 100sin(1000t) []

,
.




.




.

36

I U
(. 1).
U I (. 1 )), ,
U=Ucos , -
, , U
,
(1)

,
i - .
, U ,
Usin U ,
U U (. 1 )).

(2)

.
j (2)
U I U + U = U.
U U U, (1) (2)

(3)

.
(3)

(4)
.
(4) Z,

i. Zej e j i=Zej( u i+ i)= Ze j u
u , ..
U.
(3) (4),
U
37

(5)

,
.. U ,
,
I
. , U ,
,
.

R X,
. 1 ).
,
,
()
.

.

.
U UU ZRX (. 1 ))
.

1

u=100sin(1000t-56) [],
i=10sin(1000t-11) []?

I U
(. 1 )). I=Icos ,
- I=Isin . , I
,
I . (6)
(7)

38

j I 90
, I + I = I .

(8)

.
(8) U -

(9)
.
, , I, I I
(8), U
, (9).


(10)

.
,
, , ()
G B
(. 1 )).
I II YGB (. 1 ))
. ,

, .. .
,
:

()

( RX);
()
,
( G-B);

, -
, .. , ,
39

2

i=2sin(314t-169) [],
u=100sin(314t+124) []?


- .
,

(.
1)

(1)


,

.
i=Imsint, ,

,
(1)

40

(2
)

, ,
R, L C ,

(3)
.
(3) ,
, ,
- . ,

, - .

. ,
.
,
.
,
.

(4)
,

41

E e - , ..

, ,
.
, , ,

(5)
.
Z
, xL
xC .
X, L-C L',
xL' X .

(6)
,
L C - ,
(3). X<0 , ,

(7)
.
,
,
, (3),
(4), (6) (7). ,
,
. (
) ( )
.
- ,
,
.

1
42


, R = 10 , L1 = 50 , L2 = 60 ,
i = 3sin(1000t + 73) [] ?


.

(. 2)

,
.

, .. ,
e1 e2
a b,
uab= e1 uab= e2 ,
e1 = e2.
,
,

,
.

(8)


,
. u Umsin t.

43

(9)

(9) , ,
R , L C ,

(10)

,
,
- .
R L
, . C - ,
.

,

(11)

44

.. ,

J, .

(12)
.
bL
bC , B
. , L-C
C', B. ,
L'.
L' C'

(13)
.
, ,
, ,
,
. ( )
.
, (3) (10)
. ,
. ,
40 60
100 . ,
( (6), (7) (13))
.

[/]
,
R = 10 , L = 20 , C1 = 20 , C2 = 30 ?
45


. , ,
.

Im[Z]=0 Im[Y]=0, Z Y
. ,

.

:

;
.

, ,
.
Im[Z]=0 -
.
, .
:

;
.



, ..
.
.
, ,
, .
,
.

().
.

46

.
1 ).

(1)
.
(1)

(2)
.
,
R xL = L xC = 1/
( C) . (2),
- L, C , .

(3)
.
, (3) ,
, ..

L C ;
C L ;

L C.

.
.

Z , . Z

R (. 1 )).
Z Z = Z = Zmin = R , = 0 , ..
.

, . 2.
xC , xL 0 , 90
(. 1 )). - xL ,
47

xC 0 , 90 . xL xC
0 .
.
, , ..
u = const, i=Imsin t.

(4)
.
, (4)

(5)
,

(6)
,

- ,
.
,

;

;

( )

.

/R = Q,
, D=1/Q - . ,

.

48

.
.

.
(5) ,
U=RI0

(7)
,
=I/I0, k=Uk/U, = / 0 - ,
, I0,
U 0 .

(7) (8) ,


.
Q=2
. 3 ()
() .
. 3 A(), B() C()

,
. A()=L()
B()=C() ,

, (9)
49

(10)
Q Amax = Bmax Q, 1 1.0 2 1.0.

L( ) ( )
,
Q2 < 1/2 ,

.


1,0.


,
,
. 4.
, .
. 5 . 4
. ,


.
,
,


,
D=1/Q = 2 1.


. (1)

50

(11)
.
,
.

.
6.


90 , +90 ,

.
( )
.


, , ..
. (5)
, .
UR = RI = const.
,

(12)
.
(12)
Q= /R .

,

(13)
.
L( ) ( ) , ( ) =1.0
, L( ) ( ) = 0.
51

,
.
..

L( )=A( ), ( )=B( ) ( )=( )


Q=2 . 7 () ()
.
( )=( ) , 1
, D=1/Q= 2


(. 6).

,
:


, ..

,
;

;


R, L C (. 8)).

52

(14)

, ,

(15)
.

Y ,
G=1/R ,
(. 8 )).
,
, .
90 0 90
.

U

(16)
.
U0,

(17)
,

- .
(17), ,
53

R. Q= /G ,
D=1/Q - .
,
.

.
.
U ,
I,

(18)
.
, U0 = I/G . I=U0G. (16) (18),
,
.

(18)

.
(18) (7) (8)
,
. , . 3
(18) : A()= (); B()= L() C()= R()= ( ).
, L R
.
(14)


54

.. ,
.

,
.
- I0=U/R=UG. (16) ,
.

(19)
.
, ,

(20)
.
(19) (20) (12) (13)
. , . 7 C( )=A( ), L( )=B( ) R( )= ( )=C( ).

,
,
:


, ..

,
;
;


(. 10).

55

Y1=G1+jB1; Y2=G2+jB1 ,

Y = Y1 + Y2= G1+G2+j(B1+B2) .
:

(23) ,

,
-

(21)
,

)),

- (. 8

- .

(21) , R1
R2 ,
. ,
.
R1 = R2, = 0, .. ,
(. 8 )).
, R1 = R2 = .
(21) (0/0)
.
56


.
90
.. ,
(. 11
)). ,
, - . I
I1 I2 ,
U.
, . 11 ), R
= R1 = R2 = (. 11
)), .. , I1 I2 U/R. abcd
, 1 + 2 = /2 . ,
1 2 90 ,

. ,
I1 I2 ,
, U/R. ,
,
.

,
.
,
.
, .
57


;

, ;

( );

( ).

, .. (
,
..) .

, . 1 ).

.

(1)

(1)

,
.


: Z1 = j L1; Z21 = R1; Z22 = j/( C); Z3 =
R2; Z41 = R3; Z42 = j L2; Z1 = R4 .

. 1 ).
58

.
Z2 = R1 j/( C) Z4 = R3+j L2, R1-C R3-L2
,
, -
. , . 1 ).
,
.
,
, .

, ,
, .. , , ,
.

(2)

, , ,

(3)

59

(4)

,
. , , e = 100sin(1000t-27 ) ; R1 = 20 ; R2 = 15 ; R3
= 30 ; R4 = 25 ; L1 = 10 ; L2 = 50 ; C = 50 .
Z1 = j10 ; Z2 = 20 j20 ; Z3 = 15 ; Z4 = 30+j50 ;
Z5 = 25 ; Em = 100e j27 .
(2) : I1m = 5.96e j40.4 ; I2m = 3.67e j16 ;
I3m = 3.03e j70.5 ; I4m = 1.02e j112.7 ; I5m = 2.38e j53.7 .
.
, ,
: i1 = 4.67sin(1000t 67.4 ) ; i2 =
2.87sin(1000t 43 ) ; i3 = 2.37sin(1000t 97 ) ; i4 = 0.8sin(1000t 139 ) ; i5 =
1.86sin(1000t 80 ) .

60

a c . 1 ),
. . 1 )
2 ). Z4 Z5 Z45= Z4 Z5/( Z4+ Z5)=18.7+j5.65 ; Z45 Z3 Z345=
Z45+ Z3=33.7+j5.65 ; Z345 Z2 Z2345= Z345 Z2/( Z345+ Z2)=16.3 j6.1 (. 2 )-)),
,
Z1-Z2345-E.
. 2 ) I1m = Em/(Z1+Z2345)=100e j27/(16.3+j3.9) = 5.96e j40.4 .
, I1m
. Uacm= I1m Z2345=103.8e j61
uac = 103.8sin(1000t 61 ) .
,
a c .

.

,
,

. -
.

(.
1 )),
.
,

,
.
(.
1)) ,
(
)


.
(. 1)

,
.
.
, .
61

.
, .
,
,
2 /m , m - .

,

(1)


.
,

.
.
,
(1).
, ,
.
,

.
(2)

Za = Zb = Zc .
,
(1) (2).

.

,
(1).
.
.
62

, ,
. . 1 ) XYZ,
- ABC. ,
.


.
,
,
.


(. 2 )).
,

,

.

.

. 2 ).

.
,
. , ,
,
- .
(eA, EA, EA, eB, EB, EB, eC, EC,
EC), (uA, UA, UA, uB, UB, UB, uC, UC, UC)
(iA, IA, IA, iB, IB, IB, iC, IC, IC) .
(UAB, UAB, UBC, UAC, UCA, UCA) .


. 1 )
uAB = uAN + uNB = uAN uBN = uA uB

UAB = UA UB ; UBC = UB UC ;

(3)

UCA = UC UA .

63


(. 3).
.

(U = UA = UB =UC), 60 .

(U = UAB = UBC =UCA)
.
(3) ,
. ,
( UCA . 3). ,
.
(3) - UAB + UBC + UCA = UA
UB + UB UC + UC UA = 0.
,
, ,
.
,
,

.
a, b c (. 2
))
IA = Iab Ica ; IB = Ibc Iab ; IC = Ica Ibc .

(4)

IA = IB = IC = I Iab = Ibc = Ica = I,


,
, .
. ,
,
(4).

64

(. 4)).



UA = Ua ,
UB = Ub UC = Uc., IA
= Ia , IB = Ib IC = Ic.



Ia = UA/Za ; Ib = UB/Zb
Ic = UC/Zc.

(5)






.
IN =Ia +Ib +Ic .
(5) (6) , Za = Zb = Zc= Z,
IN =Ia +Ib +Ic= UA/Za+UB/Zb+UC/Zc = (UA+UB+UC)/Z = 0, ..
UA+UB+UC=0. ,
.
,
.
, ..
- (127/220 , 220/380 ..).
,
, .. , .

120 . I =
U/Z.

. 4 ) ).

65

(6)





Ia+Ib+Ic =0.



.

,


. 5 ).



. 5
).

Ya=1/Za, Yb=1/Zb, Yc=1/Zc - .


UnN




. .
5 )

66

UnN = UA Ua = UB Ub = UC Uc.

(8)

Ua = UA UnN ; Ub = UB UnN ; Uc = UC UnN .



Ia = Ua/Za ; Ib = Ub/Zb ; Ic = Uc/Zc.

(9)


. 6. (. 6 ))
.
(. 6 ))
.
UAB UBC UCA .
UA UB UC Ua Ub Uc..



-.
,

,

,

(.
7 )).




Uab= UAB ; Ubc =UBC ; Uca
= UCA.


Iab = Uab/Zab ; Ibc =
Ubc/Zbc ;
Ica = Uca/Zca,
67


IA = Iab Ica ; IB = Ibc Iab ; IC = Ica Ibc .

(10)


. . 7 )
. ,
.
. 7 ) .
ab , bc ca .
, Iab
Uab; Ibc , Ica 90
. (10)
IA, IB IC.

,
.

P = Pa + Pb + Pc = UaIacos a + UbIbcos b + UcIccos c =
2

(11)

=Ia Ra + Ib Rb + Ic Rc ,

Q = Qa + Qb + Qc = UaIasin a + UbIbsin b + UcIcsin c =

(12)

=Ia2Xa + Ib2Xb + Ic2Xc .


,

P = Pab + Pbc + Pca = UabIabcos ab + UbcIbccos bc + UcaIcacos ca =


2

(13)

=Iab Rab + Ibc Rbc + Ica Rca ,


Q = Qab + Qbc + Qca = UabIabsin ab + UbcIbcsin bc + UcaIcasin ca =
2

(14)

=Iab Xab + Ibc Xbc + Ica Xca .



68

(15)

.
,
.
,

(16)

(17)

(16) (17) ,

.
,
.
, ,
.

, ,
, .

. ,

.
69

,
F( t) , ..
, ,

F(t) = A0 + A1sin(t+ 1) + A2sin(2t+ 2) + + Aksin(kt+ k)+ =
A0 + B1sint + B2sin2t + + Bksinkt+
(1)
+ C1cost + C2cos2t + + Ckcoskt + =
A0+a1+a2+ + ak+ ,

A0
. A1sin(t+ 1) F(t)
( ). Aksin(kt+ k)
k

.

k , .. ,
..
(1) ,


- Bksinkt
Ckcoskt.
Bk Ck

.


,

. ,


,
. ,
,
70

,
. Ak k
,
Bk Ck - .
,
(. 1). .1
u(t)=10+20sin(500t /6)+5sin(1500t+ /4)+7sin(2500t+2 /3).
t = . F( ), 2 ,
F( ) = A0 + B1sin + B2sin2 + + Bksink +
+ C1cos + C2cos2 + + Ckcosk + =
= A0 + A1sin( +1) + A2sin(2 +2) + + Aksin(k +k)+ .

(2)
.

, ,
, .
,
.



(2).


.


, ,
.. .

,

,
,


.
71

(. 2 )), .. ,
F() = F( +) F()+F( +)=0,
. ,

F()+F( +)=A0 + A1sin( +1) + A2sin(2 +2) + + Aksin(k +k)++ A0 A1sin(
+1) + A2sin(2 +2) + + Aksin(k +k)+=0 ,
, .. k sin(k +k ) = sin(k ).

A0 + A2sin( +1) + A4sin(2 +2) + + A2ksin(2k +k)+=0,
.
(. 2 ))
F() = F( ) F() +F( )=0. ,

F( ) +F( )= A0 + B1sin + B2sin2 + + Bksink +
+ C1cos + C2cos2 + + Ckcosk ++
+ A0 B1sin B2sin2 Bksink +
+ C1cos + C2cos2 + + Ckcosk +=
=2( A0 +C1cos + C2cos2 + + Ckcosk +)=0 ,
,
.
. 2 ) ,
, .. F( ) = F( ),
.


,
.
I

.
,
72

i= I0 + I1sin( + 1) + I2sin(2 + 2) + + Iksin(k + k)+ ,

(3)

,

.
,

(4)

P
.

.
, ,

73

p q ,

(5)

(5) ,

.


S = UI,
P/(UI) cos.


, I
U. P.
,
, ,

,
. ,

.
(5) ,
,
.

.


74

Q = U1I1sin 1 + U2I2sin 2 + + UkIksin k +


,
,
, ..


, .. ,
,
.

, , ..
:

( );

;

.
. 3,
u(t)=10+20sin(1000t 30 )
+5sin(3000t+45 ) , R = 20 , C = 50
L = 5 .

,

.
. k-

,
xL1 = 1L= 5 xC1 = 1/( 1C) = 20 -
.
. xL0 = 0,
xC0 = ,
,
.
k-
75

.
k = 0, 1, 3,
Z0 = 20 ; Z1 = 10 j5 ; Z3
= 2+j9 . ,
.
- I0 = U0/Z0 = 10/20 = 0.5 ; I1 = U1/Z1 = 20e j30 /
(10 j5) = 1.78e j3.4 ; I3 = U3/Z3 = 5e j45 /(2+j9) = 0.54e j32.4 .


i = 0.5+1.78sin(1000t 3.4 )+0.54sin(1000t 32.4 ) .

,
,
. , ..
, .
kf ,
kA kd.

, , ..

.
kf 1.11.
76


kA = Um/U 1.414.

, .. kd = U1/U.
,
.
,
, 5%.
12.

.
.
.

, .
.

, . 1.



,
.


,


0.


, ,
.. s.
, .
,
. .
,

.
,
.

77

, ,
.
,
( iF . 2), ,
,
.


,
,

,

.

,
.

. (. 2), ..
,
.
, , ..
.
, ,
.
.
, .
-, IF2r, IF , r - ,
. , .


(. 2). .
,
.

l, h d (. 3)
l.

B
dx,
x .
78

h >> d, , x,
x = 2xhB, , dx - Ex = 4kf fx max = 8kf
fhxBm2, kf - . dx , ,

( d) ,
,
- . ,
PF ,

(1)

(1) , (
)

d;
f;

( ) Bm.

,
.
,

.

,
.
,

WH` = Bmn ,
- , , Bm -
n - , .
0.1< Bm <1.0 n = 1.6, 0.1 > Bm 1.0< Bm <1.6 n = 2.
, , ,

79

PH = WH`fV = fBmnV .

(2)


, .. PFe = PF + PH. ,
Bm, ,
, " "
PFe = ( f+ f2)Bm2V

(3)

PF
PH . 4.

, , ,

.

, ..
,
.

,
,
.


. B(H)
(i),
, = BS i = H/w.
u =
Umcos t,

. , (i) (. 5).

80

(i)
i ab,
.
i(t) .
. i1 (. 5) , ,
,
. , ..
.
, ,
.
i, i( )
(t), ,
, u(t) (. 6).

81

. 6 ,
.
,
.


, .

, , ..
u = Umcos t; = msin t; i = Imcos( t ) .
i u ,
cos =PFe/(UI),
, .. u = d /dt.

i Imsin tsin = Imcos tcos .

i2 2iImsin tsin + Im2sin2 tsin2 = Im2cos2 tcos2


, Im2sin2 tcos2 , , sin t = / m,

.
.
,
(i) ,
.

82

(i)
. 7 ) ).
,
,
. ,
. (i)
. ,
(i)
.
(i) .
(i)
.



.
=msin t,
e = d/dt
90 , u0 = e - .

I .
83

x0 = U0/I L0 =
x0/ (. 8 )).


I, 90 .

- I = PFe/U0 ; r = U0/I .
,
cos = sin = PFe/(U0I0) ,
= /2 , .. .
, x0 L0
I0 .
. 8 ).
r
.
, , .. s,
.
, .
r ur = ri0,
i0.
uLs = Lsdi/dt ULs = jxsI0 i0 90 ,
xs
Ls. ,
84

, ,
,
.


. 8 ). r ,
r0 - . Ls
s, L0 - 0.
, . 8 rI0 jxsI0
, ..
U.

85