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Ca-pyp

200s

551.:629.|0(075.8)
oa o.. AaoLIHa Tropoo. . - C.: . P'
205.- 28 c.

ISBN 5-8813-137-1
B B ooTBeTTB llpopao 1pa <Aaoa Mopoo>>JIByoB paoTpI oIloBI aBavl,opal{a oToB B pa,a}r.
o aa' a Ta) yTypa .o TI opaa Bo,yII{ooBapaTpoB aopI a oJI
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apal 1"ra, BaIlIe opallae opoooo o paxqao aa, paMoTprI {ToM HoBI HopaTBI
paeTpytox THyIo T}IOT opo opoo'oyHToB'
roo o oToB.
prI{aaH yIrToB poTopoox IrTTyoB
opax ayoB yIrBpTToB, yla ayoB oBIIIIII aa' ).paToB TIx ).rI' a Tal(r Too Tpoo oTaBa palalro aa BBC.
..Aronautial
Th
Mtrology'' by o.G. Bogtkin inluds topis onntd
with th aerodami and dynami of airrafts and hlioptrs, ivil aviation funtining organization, and atmospheri ondition influn on airraft flying paramts.
Th priipals and ordr of ivil aviation mtorlogial supply is dsribd, taking into
aount th nw thnial rgulations. Appliation of som nw thnial mans, inluding omputers, for riving and prossing of mtoroloal information and
also for aviatin wathr forasting is disussd.
Th tt-book is intndd for studnts studying mtrology at univrsity lvl
and for advand ourss. It will b usful for studnts of aviation shools. It may b
also usd by forasters of irport wathr srvis, by pilots and by som airprts
staff.
Pemt:

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(1.3)

o o B ypaBIi papIBo: cd I||lcclod,


npoodlo pe o Itu mouuZo nomol, mb Iluu|I nomoIt.
Ta opao, yTaI{oBtIo' o oult eu oommmem
opom nomo, u oopom'
JIrt
o epeo:
pep,ooploHeoeo ooHoloHl
o <ota>,
paH,o appy
H pay.E t He o oopoeeBoAopoBoH|
o epe p6eK
paa.
pae
Bypy
a}4epy
BoIHa pe paa 6y
HaepaoBHea pyaoBe o oHe ]vro
ae <opB>.
,Toay apHyy e6 B aHHe Ha yxe a pooBe.B oHoeHpoo.oopao pHa'pya olp)aK paoBo e
pac(o Bo|ep e py
pe ygaeopo.Cer<yr
He e,a a yBeKopoaa pya aooe. ppo
p o6eaHp|al4oea.
pHHa6e
aaI aT! o HaoIlT p o o' o a a
pIlaaea eiUIToB.TopoooB. /,ya apoIlay
o yoo po prpI' oo}II pBr.}loy BIIII'oyT oaaT y) or pTBIlI. MoT t, a oo rT' oa Ta
cappI oMoaT oT ,oTaoHoo}HIpoI o.^B
oTa aTopI'a oToy Taa o.aotl ooaa
B.rI.
l0

p (ao) epy. ! oe Too aoa Bp


p. 1.1. pya Bo (o opo), o Sr } Sz, a roBaTrHo, V' 1
V2 B caoBBIr oTo yBr opoT oI\,{o}GIo
ToO B To y.
ar' TaTor .aB}I}Ia )poB poo Il t) e ot
TaToo aBI{a )oBI{BTopoo ,), .e. p, > p,.
o aoa apoIIaM oo aBIIra ypoBII oo poBooo a.IBa.IcvB
ai cmmLcozo deu (p) - aopoo aBeH}Ia BIoT oTa Ta aIBaoo copoc|v'ozo l7Inopl'
oopt aIBaT ee duluu]'4du*t oopI pae pt12.
B ao B.eao}Iepy o)I(oaaT .yopao:

o +p|/, = onst.
^2

(1.4)

o oaalT' To o opocmu omol oommmm Lu


mmu de, u oopom.
pa py oBoT o6c .r poI' pBoe opaoaI apoax Ia pI aoTa yrM
BTe BpToTa.
1.2. pIll BoIlItttoBlI oltlo I
p pIIIaTBopo o BoIloBII oo I' BB .Ba
apoIrarx IIoHTiop.a pIa yo aTa pIa.
Xopdo Kpll aIBaT opo po, o.I pto aI o po pIa. ol amu plt () alaT ).o 'y
xopo pIa apa opoT Boyloo IIoToa (pc' |.2).
o o Mo)eT r ooI (l > 0), oTpaIIr ( < 0) pa:Tcyro ( = 0).

Fc. 1.2.oaapa.
Paop Ba rla oea pIa Bo,ylIoToo.
IIep c: o: 0 (p. 1.3). poo, o IIBoIIoTo
e opoT V ae p. po pIa aoTa Tp. a,
p (BTpe) pIoM aoTa poxo.T .ylo. Bo.ytI o
oea pIo pxy c|Ll.eeo' To p. pIo oTo (paoT). C.oao' oTo aoBT II]p' p To o aoy py
yBBa.
ooy
opoT
oToa yl\,lI{IaeT, a aB
p aT pIa.aBrH Bo.ya . oll' I\{B BoyrI{I{o
oTo. a oa a p. 1.3 ooaa aoM (+).
Boyrl oTo' oarorrl ptolo oBpxHoT pIa' T opoc V". oo } pya B.o' o opoc Bo.ytoo oToa lra Bpx opo pIa re,M opoT I{BoMyIroooToa (V"> |0,
ll

a a JIOa pBa' or,IIoa Br To' Il po, or.IUIIo


To' a BO.}TII oTo I Ta I{papIBIII. oaJIIlo' a
p opoTIo pIa aBI{r Boya Q) e IlIr' aBI{
IlBoI\{yIoo oToa '< p).a oa a pyII ooaa ao ((-)).
V'p
+

P. l.3. oapra
ooop r= 0.
aor opao paoTpM Ty aT BoyIoo oToa' oopa oTraT I{)KHIOI0oBpxoT pIa. H oop pBI{IBIIIIpayl,
o)I(op r y aaT,,IToV", V'p"< p. Talot opo, a r oBrploT pa opoT oar y ol' l B I{BoMyIe{ooTo' a.aBII Bot$D{a- MIII.a <py>>,apc.
1.3 a oa ooaa IIaoN{(e)).
Tp a oTao paBT .B opoT oa: a p II) opxoT pIa. pro T TI po' a
o
aTa paB llyIo, To I{BIIBaToI{,To V": V", a p":
P".
oaI{o' p oa pIa Bo.yItIIoToo.aBI{ a a
px, Ta I{a r oBrpxoT pIa I{III'rM .aBIIB I{Bo).IHIIOoTo. oao p oIlaoo opo oa
).I{IIIII
aBeIJBpxy cIJ Irpoxo.T a o.y Ty By' a oToN{ypaBo1oa cI4 aBifl,'
yrox a BpIl) II)I0 oBrpoT pIa Tpoo po , p aa IIy.
p ao oa (:0) a pIo aorTa .rTBoBaTToo
ca R, oTopa BoaT a T BerIeuIa.e]F{
a p/Irpo
pla apaBa opol{Tao. B To ya nodt u oIrum' u cJ|1om mum.
Bmopo : r > 0 . 1.4). Pay' oopI pBItIyT
I{)I{'B p I{ r oTaIoT oT Too To poTaI{I a. a
BHo pc. |.4,a p por pIa, a pBo )Ia' oaT
oa oBIIIIIIoo.aBIl, oTopa ooaa ao *>. CopoT oToa
a pIo (") or opoT IrBo).IHoo oToa (V), a aBIr a.
oBaTIlo' III aBeIJ BoI\-{yIlI{oo oToa
pIo'
<
p).a
a a p. 1.4 ooaa ao <->. Atly apTHy I
'
oyll I]p aa yo oa o. pIoMI V" } V p" < p. oa
)rIIIaBetlo.pIo Ta)Itooaa ao ((-)).
ao (TpI{o) I{aI{aT,o.a I paBa opo-f oa
a p x oBpIloT pIa. pc. 1.4 o, o V"} Vn, a ceoBaTHo,' 1 Pn'or roo aBeLl
a px oBp-

t2

oTx pIa Ta' oar


T raT .ylo

IIao]\,I ->. HI
BIBO,I.

pay e oBo-

+-

oToop r> 0.
P. l.4. oa pIJIa
Bo-prx, Ta a,aBJIII I{a r' oBpIIoT pIa ol, M IIa
px, ToIIaaBe y orl, M Bpxy.
Bo-opr, p y aTa 0 ) 0 oa paoTtsyta
,aBlI7 Ha BpIo )ItIo opxoT pIa R' oopa IrapBa H B ap (p. 1.4) alae. noIro poduluo uo. opoaa
oTaBa To I aaeT yo araec ooII|'4 npomuuJ, a BpTaIIa oTaBJUIIoa - o Y araec nodlo

uo.
oyro apoalytocII' oTaBMoI{oop.T
o
popya:

( 1 . s)
(1.6)
(1.'7)
.{e' - ol oo apo,aMoI' oo I
oooo opoTBH ooTBTTBHo'S - oa pIa B a}I'pl,tz opoo llaop.
Tul opol, oI7ullolod u o,t .^4I
ol
nodulm L|v|om
od, u o mum. domo, d mozo mot ]||omm,!Ir...od,
ut duzmu, omopI oneutom o ||uoom,Momlopuomo u!u,u Jt ..'cttr4om
pu plt, omopo onum pt|I copm omu ezo
p u u nopHom.
oplTo ol{Tpy Bo.yIo y.a xapaTpyT o apoaM aTBo , opr paBo oTorrlrIo oo I oooy opoTBIrIo p o.Iro{ To y aTa:
Y
17

ct,

(1.8)

^L

l3

Apoare I oTI pIa aoea B eo


aB oT ya aTa. aoT olo yaaBBaIoT pII.
aHo p.TBB B paoB.
o epeo:
o B a p o H a M e K e o B aH P o po o
Hy/ooptaoo Mo.
apopoHa1\4eKo
_ eHpaFto
pylooey11:I9
oo Hya apoHal
Bo. B popH
BHy,a B ao
HarypaHy
B
aoea
oe6oo
X o oMT
oea.
oea
pB|
fla
opo
Boya.
oo
oa
py6 oo
Ty-154, o
ao
oporo
at
,aloo, He aM|oBpe4HH|
oKoo
opo}o
py6

o
ooK
N,t

60
ooo
eo o6ya a py6 a}4epoM
Bo oopyH.
oeH
o
o
To}4,
opoooee
o
oBop
yt
He
/.
1000
o o Moo,MeMeal4
ot,oa HPtl
BooeBeo
aa Moto Hyr,Me}oB
ya
vo6t
l-tA,
ta pa 6o6
H|.
HeoBp)H
oaa
py6t,
e
y
H|e
apoA"l

LIa pc.1.5 oaaa aBo oToB c |4 oT ya a"IavI


po pIa.
I\4TpHoo

), o yaatr.
P. 1.5.aooeB
a o |1pc. 1.5, a oMHa a (]) MT To B ao
Ia p IIeolIIoopaTjlItoM yr aTa g.p yBr 0 opo oeTa
I{T 1,caaa uo.pu".i' IIo Iroy aoy' a aTr
ya
aTa ocyBeII
p
zrr
oeo JII a.
p ooa^a\
o
po
o
IIaaT
),1\,IeII]aT.
aT a)\{a'o
*o.
mKu
pumueu4
,{'rr oII'BIBaT
Zo.fu|
po 'oTaT ayMa,
:
:
oa
r
0,8_1,2.
a
.a*
aMorToB 15_20. ,
BPMII}II
.o I p 0' ) 0^poT T, To a oI yax aTa po.
xo.T pIB oToa oBpxoT pIa Iloe BID(po0paoBaI{.
o epeo:
B aerepa aaHoy|eopoyao ot' Bopalyt'l ya poeeo Hoopa o oHpe o60
opeeey
oy
ye
B|
ya
aa
a a' p atooH|
p yBeeH
a a o e opoBe
HapyyHa o a|.
o
y a H B e e, a p e 6oe yBeH0 BooHl
o6
p
Ha6ae
apHa
oxoa
Ha
Ba.
a 6yaHaHopolga
aH aoeaooo Boyxa.oa Moo a|Bo,o H p ax 06- opo.
HoapHo>>
HKoa<<oe
oaX,
14

ao oa ooBoo opoTBe (..) o ya aTa


Ta p.TaBaIIapc.1'.5. oo paa B.o,To II p a yax
aa o ,II paB IIy. Mao ar ou
ooo opoTll ar.arT IIa aTa' o yy aTaIt yo o r.
pao xapapo, aTo pl\{eo Ha paT, BlIe
aBoT oeoB J oT ya aTa. a aoT' prTaBIIa pau' ola I{BaIlnopI pl l]v'o]Im. 1.6). aq
To a po ooTBTTB)rloTIIaIt '\rIpoPAIroM y aTa.

l H

P. 1.6. opa IJIa aoa.

Pao ao apaTplrI To opI pIa.


o mu o nodlo uI aoTc a p ojlpI
opol{aooro. fl opIIIpo pIa (Io: l2o.
o)Ito oo mu, omopo4 t,l]mu]|4Iaelu (.,
"'"),
p.T' e op poB aaTI{yI' apar}To pTao
oc' ! oBr}Ilxpo pIa0."*'':0-1o.
! opr uzodezo mu ('") ao poBT aaT}Iy op pIa HaaIIaoop.aT. Toa aa e ooBTTBoBaT "".[ oBpIx po pIa ,'" : 6-8".
pumuvu zo mu (*o) opeTc poB.rl{ aao
op' apulro opoa o.
oxa apTIra aro.a Ip BooB o I
BrpToTa(p' |.1). ar.aoaTI{ytoBTa BrpToTa p Bor BpaH oarT' a pIo aorTa, o.eHy y R. Bpaa oTaBIoa To I Y ypaT BpToT B Boyx' a opo}ITzUIa
prrr.
oarT BpToTyopolrTzIo
15

Plc.1.7.Boo
oo
rv Doa.
o epeo:
ploHHoBeH
oeHo|y 1oa poea/o ooplxB|
ooo poa, pHo|pao'oao M poe|oea
pooHaeooee. o aae ex oB Boy|xryo. oo
Hoo oBopo6 ytB|x
opoexp o6H,o pa|xBpaae,lH|x poea/BoHaxp pa6oe eyeoa Bepoa,Ho,
oy aoHlMeaaM,oB B o <<oKoIi4n>
p yeH
Hae'o oHo|pooapt
HH|xpo6e aa},t-eeopooa.
oH|' yee<ooe>
eaa},t.
aaeoaBo|
1.3. o o )tI}IaoTBoya
B apoa Bo).x paapBaT a oII]y py, ooy,
oBop o ro )aocT' opaylBalo' o aTI Boyxa T Bo
o p Me}I.aB'T'e.r,I)ooT. Cruocmb od aIarT N{e}Ieo oToT (Ap), poxo.e p r
.aBIt (). CoaT}Io' pa )I1\,IoTpaBIIa plp. o.e ooTTIoIIIepaBTIro poTo opT. ar ypaB oo.o
)I(aT,I

o a.I

P: PRT

(t.e)

p + p: (p + Ap)rRZ.

(1.10)

Tp BITM orI{o BIpalll pye opr.eM epy


)o. To o

oP
l
tp = oRTn'
p RT

(1.11)

ao (1.11) apapyT )aoT Bo.yxa. o pao Io


l paBo B o lae, JI p Bee:aBeHvIrpaTypa Boyxa oTaaJIa r o, .e. p oTpo poe. p.BI{
Bo,yxa' oaroo aMoT' poI }aTvI paIp aTaToo
lpoeI' To oo xy paT oTyByT. Tao po zlIBaec dumu|un apaTye oBIIIIIITIIpaTypI
tlp c}a.I ollxt p pacLllpeIt. r}rl TpaTypIpIUITTBytoIIr}o oToT Bo.y)G.
! oa aoT p aalaeco poer el{III' p
oTepo' B |,4 paa (^tr:,l,),,e'

16

_ I
|,4.28,7T 400T.

Ap_ 1
p RT

(1.12)

oro.a Bo' o )aoT Bo.ya aBT Too oT o TpaTypI: r BIII1TpaTypa Bo.ya' T IIIIIo )MaoT.
pp )aoT Boyxa MoHo TaT opom a, Ta a
o opoTI Bya oaloT opoT papoTpall B poTpaTB aIx g ae oTHoT.
ao opoT ya () oT III aBe, oToT op.JUITopyo
(1.13)
2 : p l p.
oa B o.IlBIpa)IlaHe plp (7.|2), or opyy. op.opoT Bya B Boyx

2: 4T, : 2o J T .

(1.14)

Bya - BIIILIa' opaa )l(aoT.


ot opoT Bya, T }IIII(aoT, aopo. p o roo paT}p Bo.yx oa,a o }Ip}ToTIo IIoToy Tp )Ta

opao,

opoT

aeT.
CI,raoT Bo.yxa aBvIcpIT Too oT opoT a (xapapT
p6t), IIo oT opoT oTa. opoT oTa pBoT yrI{Io (MaMoT Boya. C.oarI{o, )I(aeoT po poopollaJla
opoT B}a, .' ao opo orTa V opao poopollzua
paTpyT oToI]Ire V/. o oorell ilIBa" uco] Mrll, JTIuo:

=L.

(1.1
s)

p a.rrra M ooo M po )IMaMoT Bo.]Ka.


rI MII,I oT}loT I{HaTJII' .oBaTJIo' Bo.yx o}GIo TaT I{e)laN4I paaTpBaT a e)aM}. )IoT. B ao
oToo a paJIaIoT },To BlI Bo}. :

a o
) a o

0 < < 0'5,


0 ,5 < M <0,8,

o o o By o Bo 0 ,8 < < 1,2,


BpxByoBo l,2 < M < 5,0,
> 5,0.
pByoBo
B p, ar B TH oeT Bo apoa
aol{a 1\{To oooT. oao B .aI{oy.{Ir I a To o..
p oTaaBBaT y.
o epeo:
CopaBa ayI ooa a pae|pe papaaoaay) o oeo apoa.Copetloe|
po}4,paH|Pl
|! = 2,0, a aoe|oeo ala ooppye <3M>.Ho o
He pee' B aoeeBpB Po(oo CA) opapaoapoe|aoo,oop|ey a eTpa 6lpBy,.e. o oporN4=
6,0. aoe|ooopo!

1.4. OeaIIe T p paItI opoT oT


BI{o' o ar Boy]I{lI (o-t IlIl,1 aBe oToT) papopaT B Boyx TpI{o Bo B TopoIII B
ByoBIx pux BoIl' T.. o opoT Bya. B orx ya
y yTaoBT' a papoal{T B)r*oBo BoyIIIr u'*oi6"p"
oTI{oTI{oToI{a Tx Bol\,{ye- aoTa. Paop "Ip Boo)I{Ica oa.
|' opom omu IrIJ|4oZo
Il'uopocmu a (V .. n).Ta a
y aoT a BT TooM Bya' To o Br opoxt.aTBoIloBI BoyI' papoTpaIor o opoTIo Bya. ar
Boyxa' axo p.ToI\{, .o o.xoa Ta llaar aoTBoBaT ooIII.Iyoo oo. B pyar Taoo ao
Bo.)IIapa oaIBaT a r (o.ooBo> a. Bo1
aBllo' ax-o oo oa pr},{T(ao). po aoa Bp.pooT p paBTo oIIIo opoTBe;glkI
pr.I.
o epeo:
fla peoa,oa o ooo aep| oBop o-o/ oae ByoB|eBoHl/oop|oo o ryeHoB o opoy. o opoo, o poaBaXo o HaHoopo, opo<<>>/
ooMyo
Bex B yopoHoo6taoep.
A o1 opoo ,Hpea a aa.poop epypo
yHBepee e B aopv|v|l
Ha oopo ooo 20 ' Cry a
<aep>a po17 o poaa.
epe poeopoo poo,
eo eppye oy,B Mry. CryelM HayUJHa
Ja ry ) , o ryeHt p6yp. Bopo: o pae ytlrreK
poeopa: ryeHl [t,| IteH eepg a <aepKe> o e
aytop te aee?
oe: o,y paHaopoBya (3a0 /) opoppopHeHpaoBo(300 000 /),o o)e,o ryelM ytary a
tvll{oH
pJe,e ryeH ep6ype.
2' opom omu ]|4a opomu t, o u (V < ).
p peo opoT oTa, r opoT B)ra' aola
MTIX opo oa TaoBT pao opoT Bya. a opo
orTa I{alBaTpumueco opom V"p, a ooTBTTByIor o M
- pT o1\{ (M-):

l/..M*" =l<1.
l

(1.16)

Ba M*o a oT Too' aoo aora MrTIIa po oTa pIa pBIIIIaT opoT ora. oIlor o or
pToo'
To aTyaT p)M II]aHoo oa. o a, To IIapy oByoBI ByoBI eIoT BpByoBIr TI opoT
oa. C.oaI{o' a p oBpI{oT po jipIa 9BJUIT
oa TI BpByoBI opoce orx pap (p. l.8).

l8

P. 1.8. Pa rooo aaep cIIIao oa.

o po pIa' oTo .o T Ty opoT To


nt.aBII' To a po pIa, T.. o aTopoT. Iro paoI{I (BpIBaT) B oaT oBIlllIloo
pr)I(I{I Bo.}x BpByoBo
IIoToa a pIo aoTa po TopMoT. B
.aB,I oMylIroo
oao,

pyTaTe Boa

l|lmlrbl lo omu

aMIa

BpxByo-

Byrooy (.p. 1.8).

orTa HaTo prBIlIIaT pT;rTo' To TI{I


T.l. o]ylo paIlo .aB)roT T Maylo TrBoT'
e.o o aa' paoaarT o ooBo aT pIa. o
p yBre opoT oTa BpByoBa ol{a a rpI{r opxoT
pIa paIprT. Aaoa oa o)I(T oBT Ha Ir) oBpHoT. a yIoTI (,BaIoT)) Haa., a x TBI{oT yBBaT

opoT

ao

(p. 1.9).

P. 1.9 apapa ap.IrJ{aB p yBeJIIl opoT:


4 - pIl a yotl, _ l,nrpat paprIr .a.

Ta pao, oa pIap opoT oJITa'o opoT


Bya' apaTpHo BooB}Ir TIII BByoBIx oI{ aoB yoTIItI.Ha 1"raax' aTI BpB).oBo o, I]oBTooIITo pap' FIa ar yIIoT,I opoT oToa peo (o'M)
yIrIaT' a aBeIITa] peo (o) BeIIBaeTc.Po yrryoaloT )I(aT aT
I opoT Tr yBIte aP.e],j,
oBop' Ila a yoTII,I
opao
yBrI{
o
oToT.
T..
oyxa'
yoB,l Toa
tIopzUIHI
Q!
o1xa
poo.T <<Zlot,I
dp>>.!
),
oToy
10_5
(ppo
JIa
.aBtl a aTaa IIoTIIIUIor
ro.
rT
ao'
y Bo,}xa'pooo p
.(oao.ro paprl{r' oBIor a ){aTa' aTIx ol{o MTIII BpByoBIopoT, o oTyTTB a ao yoTHe}IpBo.aBo oBrpxoT pIa.o, Bo o,
.T ppacp.to
l9

ooaT Bot{oBooTrIloo opoTBrI{'IpI (oyxa)


B o.
' opocm omu pll copomu (V = ).B To {ar o
rpeelaT ao ) opoT)' a oaBarMI M oye (p.
1 .10).
yol BoI' o.aBaMIo B paIrl orIII Bpr' aJIa.IBaT o.a a pyylo' B pyTaTe o p To Boa oa BoIIa
oy. Boytt oo p:B. poo To oo or Ha B
aT: pr.poo oTo e Boyr, a poo _ Boyle. Teo Bo.
a T oyr Toy aa' a po BoIIIaTo HaIaIoTnp-ltlJv'
lo.l'1|\omeu.

IlIi tt|I

fl=
+

fiE'{*t{
{.+fi]

Fr

P. 1.l0. po ao yIIoJI.

Ta opao, p opo ora, pao opoT Bya' Teo B.a axo.p oa poo aa yotl' .. ao oaT oBIIIltIoo aBe.o poT e ory, r Bo BTopo
JI{a' opoTBto pI (oyxa) B oTe. p opoT oa' pao
opoT Bya, oTaT Ma)\4aoe oooo opoTBH c'
p pxByoBIx opox oTa o or}I oIIo )\,III]aeT' }Io B paBIIo oaT or a, xapaTeplrIx JUI opT
opo. ooy pDaII' H BoeIe aNIoTIe aIoTo opoTI' paBo opo Bya. o aro .eI{e' lpe.
4' opocm omu oe opomu (V > ). c opoT
.B)I{Ta peBIIIraTopoT Bya' To o Boyle (o) y.
oo Bo}IIBIaI{IxI\,tBoyle. ITIIo, B .aI
oeT Bp To axoT B Toe (pc' 1.1l), o yrry aa oo ro B Toe 1. a o p Boa BoyJI pollla y' paBlllil,a To ,pal V.
fl' yI Toy l{:ra.To Io o 2. 3a o p BoJIa poIIIa
y B 2, aeo - y 2V. loo Tp eyHIToy aa To Io B
ou 3, Bo a To BprM poIIIayI B , a eo - 3V.
20

j.>

+,i,
#ii
{ft-4,
!

P. l.l 1. oo ao yIloI{eI{.
Ta

opao, oaIBaeT' To Be BoJIoBI BoyIIlJI' oTopI o(aoo), rpee opo By' I{axo.T ByTp
oM
a
I{oTopoo oya' pto oopoo BIIeTc aoT. o oy aIBaIo
olrcI ou.
pae
BoyIe}I y p oo

oo

BoI' oopy utIBaIo oU| cao4 n]Iomu.


pc' 1.11 o, To yo aJloa oo BoIII aBT o a ..

(1.17)

oure o M, oIIa BoyI yt.


oooIo BIr Boyxa o BrpByoo opoTI BT
opaoa aoB yoI{,I - oBpxo, a oopIx po BopaTaT
.aB}I oToT oyxa. opxoT aa yoTI{'I epll.
yJUIpa apaBHro aao oToa' o ao ao aIBaeTc np|lJv, a a oBpxoT aJIoI{a- To oct]v|. po, oo a
yoIr papopaT Bo B TopoI o e BTpa TpaTypI' oTopa NIeHeTopoT By' a oBaTro' opoT .B),I
BoJII{I. r roo oppyro' oo oaBaIT' o Ba .oo.o o oBpI{o.
B x a' oa B opatlo a Boylxoo poTpaTBa .aBeII oIlo oyaT oIlI ppa, o T I\{To B
aa yoTII, Botla Ta aIBaa dp o]ll.
pl BoIIoBIIJI yapIx BoII aop I\{oy r ar
paoopaIM: paar (yapI) poa' patlI BpII' oeT aora o
BpxByoBo opoIo T..
B o o oo, ap Bor aa pIpl, .r. aoopaI HeH apapoB oToII,I Bo.)D(a'a rIa paoT ae:il'
a oo pe.e rrarTpee BoyIIIIxMa. o pe IIaIIaTo opoT V,aa oTtlo ppo)a or1o
ByoByI Bo}Iy. ooy IIa oTopo paToIl oT ToHa yapo oI I oTBo IIIIM((xJloo))'o oyar II pa.a ae,
.B) Bo.yxa. o.ao . oee oaoT lo a Me Ta o Bp oTa npm nepeo a BrpxByoy opoT
oTa' o.aBaT aIyapIBoI'a BIoax 10 000 .

2l

o epeo:
o 6eo6o
apaBoH'ooo eM'ao BeoKa|T
BopHPtae
tvt
ooa <<xoo>>.
Eoe Ha B|oe5000 o opo, po, o 6l00AaeH poeyapoot(Ap) y 3M ot"l
r]a o15 /..p o 6looeH ooHlaK,oHrya oa|Ba
opo peHH|
oa ory poo pa'
H HeoopoBpPtep . E e a o opoaopo
)|(HH|t
yeHHa B|oe10-000, o 6looe
aeea poyapoo|y er"t
a 6pl.
o 6 f, y opa
op)a
a yaIao BIIe' a ppopalr yapo BIIIoro oaIBa vo oTo aopI. o, B pBy op' oToT BepTaoy pap.Io TpaTypI Bpa. B t II }Ia H opo y.apo BoIIIBT BaoT Boyxa' r.ae
a oa.oB.
po yapo BoJIIII,a oII pe.TaBHIIa p. 1.11, or l .o
o oBpo oo oTpoo aop. B peao aope o
pBT B aBoT oT pap TpaypI BTpa ro.
Ta a oop TrpaTypa Bo.yxa roo otlaT' To )rBtl BIOTIyIIraT opoT ppoTpaIIII BoI. po BoI
p]\{ooo TaIIOBT BoyI. aoy pB poa
IIpBo.TcBail'c ro pl BTep aarollot BTp.
Coplo oB.Ilo, To B aTop a opoT papopaHeap.
o or papee TepaTypI BTpa y o.oBprM. CyT Ta T B , To I{Bp TrpaypI Boyxa poop oaJUIIoT pI oJII{I' a aopa pToT oyoa orI
xapaTp poa yapo BoHI a T H'I oo)I(aMoTa B poTpaTBr p TrHo yo. o. ooTTBo o)eT
BIBaTpo yBr aBeII(avo) B HeoTopIx Toax o oBpI{oTp poo).rrpoa oHI.
t umm!
B puune, ee ob dozo louo zoopumb o tolpodutuu, o
poduu poI opom, poduu pmomo u m.d. dlo c J\\oZoll,t dozoopuuc o mo.44,mo onpot podutuu
d,tplcampum moo np.MeHum dt uluoo emopozuo ct. omo oe demIrozo uoruInu o|poo
uu dm. Ecu omum oo t'am oe, mo odpoo uo!I|o |Hooutvu no poduu. H lu zd, Hl zod uut',tu lLu mc u 'C. pou pmu podul.|v'ul
(M.: Boudm, 1962).

22

aa2
otloBr

OIITP

2.1. OoI

BOIIII CoB

MIITI oIITpyI{I{ a}IoeoB BepToeToB

BoB TaT}IIx aapaToB Bo Br p o{ aor


aI\{oTI BpToI. TpoaI{,I, pe.BJIeI aoTa BpTorTa pa)'ao' aa, ar Tpalr p.JIJIIT Hpa
T116 o.IIoT pa,ax aoToB BpToTo Poo pa.
papoTpaIIII

BpTorTI ,ol{I T a,aIII TIII apaTpT'


Ta' a opo' ,JIOT po.oToT oTa' MaMaIIa BIoyouoT
ypaBroT p
oTa orTa' xopoylo
BpToTI

pTBo aoTI
,oI{I
aIIoT IIoTa. a paopTl{o
T xopoIII ol{o oaaTev\ a a p.TBo pBo aa aor'

poB - oBa o.Ir.oTaToI oop B oT.


oaa aoIIeTa vI BpTorTa oBI1"rr oox
IIIII oopa l7accpoB _ poa IIpoTBopBIe, Ta a yrBT a oo yy,IIIr pyx. AaoIx
IIIII o. xapaTpT
IIppoB oxtHo pBT Mo)TBo. Happ, yBT 'aIIoT oJITa
BoyIIIHoo a (BC) oo Too a yBIII{,I a eo opy aaca
ToBa' B.TB o yIIIaT oeIra pBoa apya.
ooy BO,)III ya poTp}toT .JI BIOII opIlI{I aBC oaIBaT x Ta I{aIBae.a. oIo BI4r IIa TI apaTpT
rop BI{eIIIx op
oTIIII
oaT
oTopo
a ooIIoBa' o
paIlootl.
Ba}Ioo
OT.III aT BC x
a pIrzUIIIo or aorToB oT BpTorToB' B oHHeo
Tpy o)Ho BI,T oIl T oIIoBI eMTI 3)t, pl]lo
( epmomo - Itu um), |utcu, ul maoa u onpu (moo
tomo).
Paop
.
I{,I a)a'

}I{ae OIIoBIII rI{ToB oIITpy BoyIIII{Ix yoB.


(opy) aoTa BpToTa y>T . paeaa}poB, pya oopyoa'
! yIlIIr oooo
ro

opoTBII paMpI rola ,oI{I l r\' a op ro}a.oHa r oao. opxo


a aT ao. op
oBaoil vl pooo
a opoo I{JI oT r po,
pl
T
-86
aoT
ya.
Ta,
app'

apyJIIII

6,08 o 59,54 . aa T roa, ,u*"'po'


aroa oop ay, aIBae ope't. Bol Brp aoToB a
Bro paoaaloT a oo oBepIloT ra, a Ha l{roTopIx Tax
aooB - B ro I{r a. ro aoTa aTo IBaT oHoT)
pTrH' Ta a oo.o II.rTroT aa vI TIaca)poB Ita oIx BIoTax.
roey aoJIToB pT pI, opH' IIIa' IIo.a IIoBa
yTaoBa. oo, uo I) aoTa e ory apy. ooy
TpoBa' pBMI rox<a aoToB' BoT IIpoIIoT
.tlp IIaJIo a, aoy apo.Ila}ToT oTp}T(

oy opoTBHIo, BoooT y.ooo paII a)I(a' accapo' pya oopyoa'l' a Ta },y yaTa proTa.
ro BpToTa' a ro aoTa' p,tIalII . pieII B aa' aa)IpoB, oopyoalr pya. oly BpToTa
pIUIT IJIacc)paI Ba py apaTI. Tpeoa, pBJUII ro<a BrpToJIToB' aHzUIoI{Ioa' p.BI
roea aI\{orToB.
po. pIo o.aeTo.rylo y, oo,ylo oTa, oBaT opI{y) yT aoTa aTo oyT .pur oo yTaIIoB' TOBI ao, Iac, oopyoa T.!,. o oo,
aoo xopolo poTpoBao pIo, aB TIIIapaTT aoTa.
pry aoTa p/BTMlloo paHIx poa. oorNI x BIoT .ylo: pIo oo oa,a III\{JI}II
ooBII\{opoBrlll\{ p oT aao opoTIo; oJ/ pIa ,o}a ooBTBoa poaHINI yTByIo op pooT
oa o1 oao oTa' pIo.o)l(o r poIM B oToBr, ,IIIBI yol B yaTa.
oyIo pIa opaylo apa ora. apa pTaBJUIo ey ao, a ora BIoeT ToB aJIIoBoo aa. Ha
IlpIo yTaI{aBBaIoTpy pea (poI) IITI MrxaIIa pIa
(, apIJI' pepI T.,.),oTopI y,aT yBH o.Mo r pIa IIa Taa BTa IIoa,aoTa.
Ireulu um. Hy BIIT BpTorTa a]\{Il'lr y IIe Too pIo,o
(y paTBIIoo ,Ba). B aMoT oT aJIoIIa T
ylo BTa pToT oeT .Ba Bp' IJ.aa,'B TopoI' oHaT II)aT o paI ya opoIITy' tIIIo.BoBrT B
Bo.).,a Ta oBopaBaT Bopy BpTuro o. HoopI ]\{aTpaT BpToToo opTa oopa a) Taa (To aMoTIIa> ypa
BIIIIooTara' a IIT Hpa, (\{pTBaeT>>,
a a aIBalo.
Hy BIr BpTora oaa o.Il BarIGIIo. B yva
oTaa BaTrJI B oTr o oeT oaBaT o.eIlyro y' Bpaa o
. aaleo BoyIIIoooToa. Caopa lle)eo a (a.
opoa) oBoeT BpToeTy oBpIIIaT apy ( aparl)
y lloay p paoalo .BaT.
oyuI lrr).Ieo BIITa opayo oaT eTaIIpII BTa
Bay .Ba. oo oa BI{Ta o)l(T r pra.rI (o yx
o o).
Iu. Ia pIlaao peBIIB o apo,poy. B aoT oT oTo apopo]\{oB IIIa oopyy oa' I}a, oaBa IJIa)I<e
ya. a BpToTa orT r rI{I{oB B
ao.
otTa oBpMI{IaoToB o BTaIac
p
paec ro pIo. Ha opoTIIIx aorTa BpToTax
IIIa, a paBo, 6pae' o.ao B or. BpI\IB B BopaTaI{ opo oa BpToToB y x To) Ta yTaa.BaTyparo24

c InaII. Boylr ca c yparo Inacc 1\{IoTHIIIooo opoTBr, o T)l(r oHr o oTpy.


uo vmo' oa yTalroBa pIlaItaa . o.a oxo.o B oT . BpTooB coBa yTaoBa, oMo opoTzro, oarT o.Mylo y.
aaoo oo yaor p.BJUIeTcp'oa, ooBI{I1\{ oTopIx BIoT: o rTI apapT BC, }Ia)oT B paoe, BytlT (ooo yopoBaT p Ha oBp.
)' lpI a.lray, oao B oapo oTI{oIIItl,
poToTa oy<al T.,.
oa yTaIIoBa aoTa BpToTa BaT aal
BaT' a Ta] p T ypo, o.talo eo pay I\{

T.

nepu. op aT a{oTyyouoT, )IpaBoT


6aacpoy. oI.ro op paaT B BoToo a a.
oo ooT o.BIlIx o.BIx poa opxo.
Ho.xI oBpIloT yaT oa paBoBec (aapo)
yoo. p oTJIo oBxtI{IoBpoT oaroT apo.a cI oMrTI' BIor a paBIIoBe yI]paBIl oTo.
pooa apoa, yoBoT ypaBMoT .oTaIoTopoTaI opII' a yTBa 6aacpoa, yoBoT ypa.
oT oaT BpTaHIMopr. p T opoTaIIoo opr' lelapy BloTI, IlaIBaTc aaTopo' a BpTaIIoo opII,I')/Iopy apaBIl' - (pc.2.|).

Pc.2-1. o ,opaoa:
1 _ , 2 _ p aaB,.3_ caop,4 _ p IcoI.
Cxo.o BIIIIIIIx op opl 14 pIa' a Ta o.TBo l{apyo I{a
T oBpIloT aoTa pBo.T Toy' To aa rToB opII
pIa oaIBaT o,HI. ooy olrTpy
opIrIUI ao r oTaT oT ol{py

pIa.

oor xI aoTo BpToToB MI paoTp B r.yx apapaax To aBI.


2.2. coI

x}II ItIoToB

B aoTI o)I{o pa.T a oTHI pyI B aBoT oT poTpyTBI


paoB. oot
Ta pa BIoT: ca

25

o paoor

pIB, Io)a' T paoo}H oep,T


I]7accvl, o, T paooIl BaT.
o uy pIB aoTI o.paJUI a urulI7l u I|4oIrowII7I.
a - To aoT .By pIJI' paIIoo)I(rI o.o IIa.py

(a o x Ilo.a aIBaIoT apo>). B pata


aBa B IIaTor
BpeJI yaTpyeT Too o. T Taoo aoeTa - o a A-2' HI\{oTp IIa p, pyTB p. pyM Ta aoJIToB' a IIr oy IIIpooo papoTp aIIeII -a oroo oooo opoTBe.
Mooa
p.TaB oo aoT o.II pIo. Taa a ao.
ToB B aTo Bp BrT ooo.
oBoT
xa olloaa
yHIIIT oo opoTBII aoTa' yTaoBT.BaT
a pIr, a
aN{o pIo ooBaT a ToB}II a.
o paoo)l(}IIo pIJIa ooo
ra

ooal{I o.pu.IoT a uo|,ll, toonlt u pednt (pc.2.2). a.a oIITpy eT Bo pyITBa }I.oTaT o paBIIIrIo ,py xa.

Pllc. 2.2. Paool pa oI1oo a:


fl - oa' O _ BIooa' d _ peall'

o y roa aoTI o.pa.rJU{T


a odot, dol u IJ||om
mun meplo>.
ooa aa aMoToB B palro aa - ooro)I.
rolI, oTopIr I{yt BooBoo opeJl, IlaIBaITooa. oep B To yl{a op}BaT By aa, aoTI aoo Ta
IIaIBaIoTyao.rr. Cao ora aIBaIoT (ITaI pIo>. ro B To rar aMT BoIIpoBaa B pIo oll.oa
ao pIo. B paao aaPoc B aoTI ooro)IlI.
o y paIIoo)I{orprl{ aI\,IoJITI
T a Tp oIIoBI pyrII: |topJ|4l|]\'
omot]|l pnoo)rue onpu, npdut pnoo?rHu]|lo|lpu (com mun Kml) u oml l4om1unl (mIo ploD.
Be xr paooIl oepewr^
pMIr Ha paT' oIlao aor papoTpallIrr paao aBavl o{ pI T
op.
o y IJlaccL|aoTI T a Tp pyI: onmt, zudpocloemt u uuu.
26

|Jfac yoyIrIx aoTo rr oI{I, II]\,r yl ( p). oIo Inaca Ta aoToB BIIUIITTpoopHI. p To .B oopI paMaIoT o pI' a o.y - ooo a
roa. .{ yl oooo opoTBg IIIa eaIT yparoa B oTpy],lac pyaTpBaeTcaeoe Ia.
NII'
poaoToB IoT aI o oaB:r;;zl
oa
IIa Boy. roaoI, oopy,oaHIypa oIM IIIa, oTopIr o}"ToBpIIIaT oa.y a a Bo/y' Ta rr;a!l' arRaIoT a.
o .ry a aoTIparIoT a odo-, d-, mp-, mIpe.'
Lmu- u ouduzamt,a o Ty a - nop\ae, mpoL|moIeu pmHe.
Brop Ta yTaIIoB.BaTa aMoTaBT o x a. o
Moyt r paIII a paJII aT aoTa: l pl' noo ploJ|,
rc u ere. ooa aaaaIarT B ToM' To yxto Ta
paI\{T.BaTHa aoT, .rol II I{apyIT I{y?IrIeapo.I{ar opr pIa rt. Ha o aoTax /BaTrJIaoT IIa
ooo a x. Taoe paoo}I(r .Ba r p p.
MyITB p..pyM r ID( pIIIr IIa aoT. B ao.|, |Ip
paII a ca HaTIIoIIaT ypoB IIIya B aa)IqpoM aoHr. B T, p Tao paoo) BaTepxoc crIP,aTBoToByIo va r}a)a ,oBaTIIo, yT)ltT e'
po oo' y.IIIT oa ypaBe .BaTeM ar
aoTa' To o)eT pBT yo)I{ro o xrMI o/ oa
oao oT'
2.3. OoI et BrpTooB
B ao Bp,I Bo Mllox oTpaJUIoa BrpToTl IIoyTJUI
peIIII,UIptBIIIx a.a.Bpo ox(T BpT'ro o.aT ocaT, BT B Bo.}x' JI,Iro y ol, ztJIHoo.oToBIlIx oaoIlI lloao. Bpo oo, poBo,oa.' o.I{aTpy rx aapo, oBIlII aI' poT o a IlaI{opaTo oyaT a yo To oopo oo.
apoaT BpToTIo}Glo o aI\4IptIlIM lrpaa' o.}Iao Ta aa oa opaa p) Bro pI{aI{I
opyTBIIl oTII,I o.Iloo TIIa BrpToTa oT .pyoo. ooy o6ao aT) oTpy BrpToTa oo Ta BeT1 ,
ao pao TaIoT aaI BepToToB o oy orcavl (a) paTBI{oo oMTa lrylro BTa.
Par oeT yo BTa TpT oBpyl rol BpToa B TopoHy, poBooo)IGly BpaI{Io BIITa. oooBoo BpToTa ToT OMI{ToI{py o BoToBoo (pyoo) BITa,a paTBIIIoeIITIIrylx BI{TOBooBToBoo BpTorTa )aBIroBrIIIBaIoT a
T Bpa Tx BTOB B poTBoooIlI TopoIII T..
o oy o}IapaTBoo oTa }Iryo BTa paaT
IIIToIloBI{I BpToo . 2.3): oToBa xBoToBI pyBI BI{TO' B).'(BToBa ooa' B).xBToBa po.oa, ByxBToBa

27

opa'

(kI oa)
IIooBI{ToBa' paTB}rILI P,a.Ie't/.
Ba.

I{a o-

aTx Iryo

P 2.. Cr poro:
4 _ oItoToBa,I a pyl Bo' - oo a,
6 _ }xBoBa pooa a' z _ ByxBoa ollpra xa'
d, e _ poI pBI Ba oa.

doumo J|4l
pIrHmo4(pc.2.' 4) poxrea.I. pBI 1910 . oa P,?TC
ao papopaI{I{oa B Po' Ta
B p}T paa. o I T p,.oToB:oToTa ol{py
TI }.paBII,opoll] TI xapaTpL7 paBTI{o HroIIIa TooT. CaI papoTpaItI BpToTaTo pyI Bto BpToTIoTpy .. : -4,-6, -8 p.
Bpmom coo ]|4t(p.2., ro a o.o o .BaoIlaoBl ryx BI{Ta' oopIr paooellI a o.o o py a pyo oTopI o.aoBo opor BpaaT B paHI TopoI. Tao paoo)e}Ie BTOB poTBoooxtllo HapaBI{ BpaI pBoT ypaBoBIIIBaIo paTBI{Ix oIlToB. porTI oTaIoT oT pyx
paBTo oI aapaN\ pooo B ypaJl. aI ppoTpaeI{I BpToTa o pytI BtoT BpToTI oTpy
H.. aoa - BrTIlIr y a a py pr a>.
flumo podo ,||lpt|lolfl(c. 2', ) poaaT yTaoBy ltBy I{yIx BToB a oa roa o o pooo o (a).
BpI ao I oa.aroxpo poo yooIo' a Ta)r
aTI{opoI{oTIo' toT r*rl rox<,oopl yoIro oJoBaT.pa aalpoB pa. Hy BI{TITax BpToToB
BpaaIoT oaoBo aoo B purIrITopoI. o ao r B ar
TpaH oyJI.oTaToHoIllpooe papopaI{oJo oI1TBpToTapo -24 A.C. oa.
pmom ffc.2.' e) l .Ba yI
!umoa onpl J|,|l
BTa' pzl}lIxo oa roa' .( p'I Iry BTOB p28

l zlJII a:ol sll pIJI. Ta BpToTtI rrlr Bo oJIyIo


a Bo.yIIro.IeI(aI rpoo po a r o.B.
B Po o ao x o.aI ylllo yaTpytoT po B12 oy .. ll po -22 <<Bpr>)oIITpy
H.. aoa.
Mozoumol J'lepmoema al{pyT papaoT pBo
pyo ao 70-100 T Ha paToe |00_200 . oa yreByloT oo
HIr porTI Ta BpToJIToB. fl po T)Ix pyoB
poTIIe ryr oTaT BoyIIIIIoyyII' oTa)y e BpToJIT'.p)a.
B epmomI c pmutu duzaml'|u uu conJ|ou,cTaHaBIIBaIM
(pc. 2., d, e), pI tlo o
a oaTx yo P,]gITa
(a.y), o.ao ypT .B IIa oll oaT I{yIo BIITa _ IIr
al\{a)oTa IDeepa aaa.
2.4. poo Il ae)I(tIoTaooB Bpoeo
Tpoa )oHoT ae)IHo, ao\BoT oao
pao B o ace B po IIJIyaTa. B o a B a
aoeTa (yI, apaI' ppr, popool ..) ITIBaTapyy
pao aoo o.. a T apy o)o BIoT par
aoTa a poIlo. o pooTIo ollar ooo oTpy
aoeTa BopIIMaT, papyIa' BI{IIIII apy. oTBrHI{o
poIIoT op.rTc co, p oTB oTopo papyra xo r
oIIa TUI oopy(rI{I,IJI.
o.rr .aHIIIJI paTa papyalx apyo a aorT ro
oT.JIHI
TrI ya opI\4IpooT' o oTopI poBra aa'I aMoo. Hapy paIBaT {rTo IIaaHI{,IaoTa, ro o.
gTo MaI MazUIo opor oa. o opa poI{oT aoTI
ptB.JUIIoTI{a p JIaa:
1) cc - aeBpIII{IaMoeTI, IIa oopIx opa oro
BIo}lT ypr BIIIIooa(a;
2) - opaIlo aBpIr aMoTI;a T aoTax p
BIo ,.yp BIIIIo IIoTaa yTB}roT opal{r o prpya]'{;
3) B * HraI{rBptItIIaMoTI; H orio TJIIaor(pa
I
B aMoTI pa)'ao aa), Ha oTopIx p.rpIarT BIoJIypr BIIIIooTaa.
! paa oIITpy a poIIoT Ipalo aore Ilapy'
oTopI oy BoIIIIyT p ya.a.opy aoTa ,o)IGIa
r Too pouo, o .oTaToo }To, .. ooo oTBoo opa oT Hapyo.
Tpoa oaToo aoT' pooT x(To BIaT B
ce:
oTyTB papyIalox l{apff Tax oTpy p
eclpaTI apyo;

29

oTytTB

oBpx(rII

JITa oT Be: yTaoT

papleg

HTa opy

aTpzUIa p

oBTopIx

ao-

HaII

apyo;
- oTytTB oTaToHI opa'
prIIIax oyTMIr al;', IIp rcTBIL aTaot{Ix Hapyo TMpaTyp;
- .oTaToyI ToT Be oBpxoT aorTa.
yoBTopT p ao
Be pIIIe poaoxfi{I
ar oTp.
paBvITk| aBvlavll4 Baa rppIBo opo a e
cop
Ta a aa Bo.yIlroo y.}Ia yITBo BT IIa
aI olrTpy)
o Tx
Aaor

xapaTpT
poa

poIIoT a,)oT p.BIoTc Bp-

ToTa.

o epeo:
aoeo
ot6op6a e]al
Bo oeBeooeeo

a HaIaoeaHa o paMlvlB|aBaa
ypoaaepao:
pe paMp py6e.o BpeMo |ooeHMHoo.T, a oo
yao yMeH
aBaoHHoa6o Hoo$peoHoy 3 paoHaaopog
Ha pe,oopyloo eooy,
ayaoeapy Ha opa.lo!
oHo6to yp aoo6.pa,B o paooeB 06o0po.
aee 6|o.

30

aa 3
ooBI IIAM
BPTOTOB

IIOTA AMoToB

3.1. opoar oeTa}IoTa


a,I B Be;I aN{oTa op,JUIrT B}Io apaHr
flr aoTa IIoToIlIlo o IIe IIapaB opo-

opoT.

TIo IIzBIBaeTc mo u111u]v|.


a
BTIIo, To .JUI pooo
.Bx oxoo
paBIIoB B }Ia)aBeHvI, p.yp}Io TpaTop B}K9H, a
oTo}ITBa opoT _ paBI{oBr o arTop B)el. CaTo, .JUI yTaIIoBBIIIo B)e aoTa paoByla
BIIIIIII
, 5 a IIo' .o)IG{a r paBa lry.
moutaul
ZopuomIrt |xomo4 aIBaT paBl{oepo BI{r aoeTa o poo
opoI{TaJIo arop.
Cxa c)
yrox

I{a aoT B opollTao

P. 3. 1. C , y

oTe, oaaa a p. 3.1.

a ao B oollo

IIoe.

Ha opoTao aoT yro .yloe cl: G _ aa


aoTa' P - ra.BaT' I_ otvaca - ooo opoe.
! aIeo aaaoxto TaT' o B I' TByIor Ha aoT' po)rI B oIro Tor - Irp T.
Toa ypaBIIH B) ea TT aoeTa o)o aaT B B oI{poo TI:

Y= G,

(.1)

X: P.

(.2)

pa (3.1) a yoB poo Bl('l aoa'


ypaBII (.2) - oToIITBa opoT.
B poae oIIro IrTpyloc NIHvIMaJ|o
opoTIo' oopo
oo BIoII,ITorT I{a a.al{Ho roe. Taa opoT L|alBaeTcnomp6o copomIo aopuoHml||ozo |lma (V*). o opyy
oo IIIY, To BIpa)e (3.1) N{oGIoaaT Har:
oV'

Y: G= .'S
,2 .

(.)

PIa To paBBo oToTo (4'), o{:

3r

2G

(3.4)

"rSP
par (3.4) o' o opz opoT opoT.UIIIoo IIoTa
aBckIT oT ya aTa, BIOTI oeTa aN{oTa BJII{I G/S, oopyro a
alo do zpo a po.
a o or opyI, .n yeraeTc |np
).BJII{ ya
aTa oTa
IlM).Ma p 0 : '*o. oao oTI BIOI{,IIOT tI a
pTx yax aTaIl, a Ha Ta I{aIBaI donmu,tt zl am, oopI y MIIIIIe pec}rx.

Parl(3.1)a ).paBe(3.2),oy.r

PX
G.Y

11
YlX

(.5)

ooaT Ty BraTe,oxoyro.JUI opolrzIIloo oTa


(opyro y), a P'n,To oa ypaBa
o - G_
,,"
B o o opo azlJIlo oo)I(aTa
IBaeTc pInozalo mzo ooaa Po""n.

(3.6)
BaTJI a-

rpar (.6) BIlo, To Ta BaeJUI oIl r r I\{aI


aoTa pa, ao,aeoe aTBo aoTa' o oTopo I

y, oop [. opyy (1'8)].

o epeo:
oH poa H opya(3.6) ooepeaBaH|eBopo|oeopoeH.oa ppaa|Ba
HeoeaHHa poBo,
pHeee a
popoBaHe/
aMoea/o HaapaeplBoyHooya a ao
: ya|aeo pyooeo'opooea,oo a]aa
|oaoea.Ha eplxopa oo laeoaoHo.ol aaopylop Beaoe o M aHlt, BaBaB oHoopypoa,p]po
opel4y atoea(G) opy ea,.e. apoaeoeao('
A o e, oyopyy (3.6), opeeeeo6o aoo Moe aee. teBae,o Hpo6e H BoHa, eo.l
<<TopoB>>,
H_ Haae
.e' a aa|p}4epoB
eeooaaHH
aoeMo)oeH,06l ooay)e eBae'|F |]ooo
Moey)H| Holeae.o o peaHt
oxo po6ee,Ho oJ|yae poepoaHaoe o6o ay Haoopo. A e ae
poaopya- py (3.6).
3.2. Haop BIoI aoTo}I. o o oToa
o aN{oa BJUIT o.tIM BoB Bt aopa IoTI.
odlot ttem nptouo duu l]Iomp c omoo
Copm' o y TpaTop )e aoa opollao
IooTaIBaTzo]v|node u ooem 0.
Ha p. 3.2 oaa xa , 5x a aoT p o/.
2

Prrc. 2. Ca 'ya aop o,rr.


a B pBo }Iar (p opoIIT:UIo o)' pao B I'
.Byloe I{a aoT' o .B)ro' o,IIa oopI oBa.aT pooo oI aoTa' a pyajl - pH.yJIJIpa. o aoa Mxa p
poIrroN{ B)HI c oToIro opoT .o){o r pao
' TBy a o o,o, a o pyo o.
CoaHo' ypaBIIrI{ B}I(I{vtTa TT a{ora o)o
aaT B .yroeB,:

)/: G os 0,
P: X+ G sin 0.

(.7)
(.8)

pa ('7) (3.8) pTaBJI,IIoT poIylo TMy a


.B}lIaMoa p o.r.
! ca o.ea aoTa, a p opollaoM oT, pIUITo'
To yo4 }y BTopo I T BeTopo opoT paB y.
aaa ypae (.7) (3.8) o, To o.:acn p o.e
IIIIIoo I opoTJltloo IIoa' a Tra BaTne o)a
r or ooBoo opoTBrHLUl a BIty G sin 0. y vy ooaaT AP ralo utmo.4m?u. C.oaeo,

A=Gsin0.

(.9)

pc. .2 o, To sin 0 : V, lV, re V, - epaj[IIraopoT oa


aoTa. oa aII sin 0 BIparII(3.9), ope Vn:

r. r^P
G

(.10)

Ta a yBII BIoTIro T yIIIIIaeT,To ).l\{HII]aec BrpTaIla opoT. oI BpzUIaopoT, Tl MIII


BpMIl py aorTy aopa a.ao BIoTI. o BepTzla opo' a I{l yo oa IIpTaBraoI ep.
Ha pare o,cponod,tomboal Bp,I' oTopo aTpaBarT
a aoTa aopa aao BIoTI.[ opIlIx aMoJIToBpa)ao aBalzlBpTzrIlUIopoTt TaBJUIT,TN{rTpoBB yIIy.
o epeo:
Eo,o oeHHleo|,oo6eo tpe6e, l eHo
e ao|pao' a, L977 . <tePoy opooHo,
yaHola poo
>>
aolpoo pop opooHo,
JJ

-266 (o6lBapp6eM-25). Ha o l"toalv|oee


Apoo oHa |ory12 000 a 58,6 I o ,o
|a
oo aoa6l oe 200 |. toa, atoopooPtHo
ep B|ol
aoa6poa 5 !
a yalzulo BIIII, IIoeoN{IIa BIoTy l oTeIIo
yIIIIa Ha opeIro to TaoBT paBI ylo, a JI,oBa.
o' Ila To ) BIoT BpirjIIIaopocT oTa Ta pa IIyIo'
Broa oTa' a oopo V:0, aIBarT meopmuul | cmum.
u,t) no mootc lJv|o
Ha ro TopeToo oToa vl-a oTyTTB ra T oT
paT eBoI\{o' a a II yTpaT l apyIIIIr pa
oTa. ooy' poe TopToo oToa' BBro oT npmuoZ nomol ctJ'om.Ha o oo aoeT T oxo.l
oaoo oeTa ro . CaIo' o paTe ooo aoeTa _ To Ta BIoTa' a oTopo aaI{a BpaJIHaopoT oMa
paIra JI paTB}IIx a,Ioo5 /, a . ope3I aoeTo _ 0,5 /.
,{ oprI aoToB paIla B BIST )y TopT pT IIoToo peIIIIa200-500 .
o epeo:
ooy HaHH|x
yx oooaoea,B oHoaaoope o
- aHotoe, a oopo a]vro]o)el1oeBoM
|tooe
ooi
Byx
o opoaH|oe peHo]"t20o, aeo|"|Ilooe - aao
BIoe,a oopylo oeoe oH,oye oo ry Bae,o
Heplopao.oeo ooo,a po, paeooa 500-1000 , a
ooo |epeooa 15-20 |.]v|.a, a o e aoeH]e
266, oopoo paeooo ooo 20 000 , yaHoBeH poo pop
ooplpae 37 650 .
B|o|,
3.3. apoBIIr aoTa
po tI aoea oToo opoIo IIzBIBaeT
|Ullupolut.PaccopI\{ apoBalre a{oTa cIIa, o.a o'Ha cplapaBl{a Hy' .. P: 0.
Cxa , .eTBy a aoeT p apoBavl' peTaBIIa a
pc. ..

P. 3.3. Cxa , yIo

a aor p IIapoaI{.

p P:

0 ypav B>e
Tpa leT aoa yy T B:

= G os 0,

(3.11)

= G sin 0.

('l^2)

epoe ),paBl{r o I xapapyeT yoB pMoo


B)erI,a BTopoe _ yoBe ooIITBa opo o paop.
Pa epor ypaBlre TeMI(3.11) a BTopo (.|2)' To.a o).tl

Y
Gos0
l
-=,lK =__tgu-- ^
"
X
GsinO
tgO

( 3 . 1 )

o.a
I

0 = arts:.
"K

(3.14)

CoarHo' ]r{I{aIyo alrpoBall,t ye p azUItIo


apo}rao arB aoa . o.ao .e' ola:l, BarI{e pyo. pc. ' B.II'To

+=t$0=
Hnn

K lrLno=Hnn.

(3.1
s)

o. ypaBIIeIIe JUI aoT aI{poBaH,BIpa)eI{oep BIoTy aIIpoBa,I apoaMeo aeBo aN{oa' BIIec o
BDIII' Be.o B To]' o apoBae aoa yo o (o ya, oopr I paapa) I{a paT Boo}o oo Bx Iax:
p paBI' o caIro BIJIIoIIIBaX l.4p BIIry(o
oTaoBe aee B oeT, T.. Toa' oa a Mo BoaT aapHa cTalt.
B oe yae oap DI(a oa I{M.eooo) Tpy o aapilo oao Ba. pI Bopo .eTepa o.
apy ara: <<Bara
roa?>. .{.rp paIIIBa o o e roo.
ITBa. ol oTe oapa Bo/yoo yI{a ' BIlo' a
aoeTa (a oao' o , p a IvIIIpI{aT pIIII{'I{a
ao apo.po B p.ea oaMoT o .zUIHoTapoBaI{,I o){o
apaBT ToT aoeT .JUIoa.
o epe
Heop Ha yeByypy,o6tyoapo B ereHo
o yBfuoH ao oo H a. aroapaaaooa|Ba
Plop ae, opoy a ay e , tvlo)el, He o p,
oo oeoo, a o H oy,oo)Ha <<el4>>
o peaoa'
p o pooop peH 1_2 yl, 6oaoep |o|,o -o
H oeHoopBae
|pya o a o oapa,o o Hpy - ,ly.
3.4. al Ba oaI a}looB
Hao oTBBeIIIIIyllaa oa oo Bo.yIoo ya BJUIIoT BT oa.a. t T .. pooB' oBpe}re B..
oa, olI azUI' .Io l ol lI|em
em cezdl or,nom
_ npum, nocd - onl.

35

HaaI yao oeTa BJIeTcT. Bemo aIBaT yopo .B aoa oT azula paea o aopa BIoIl0 . B
aoJITaoTo .yxaoB (p. 3.4): pa, oTpIB' paol{ o.ol\,l.

ti

]lt:!{.a

?.

;_j

i
E\
E
ttr'l

E
q
rJ

rfu7

l--Pc. 3.4.araaoa.
_
Pa aluoa To yopHoe B)r o o ee, eoxoo

aopa opoT' p oTopo poxo oal op. aa


opoT eoaoo o)IBa aoa o aIBarT copocmo ompI
(l/*).
Pao oo e yopr poloeT aJII
o
oea o tol 10 .
Pao oT llaaa paa o aopa BIoTI 10 aral emo
ducmu L"'n.o"",, apacTor oT Haaa pae
o opIa _ duo peza
(Lo*a). !a paea, rrTeo, op.JI oxoylo
JIIIFIy
","'"ooa.oo ooI (B). oor apapTa BeTa B)T
a paa aoa opoT o opIBa.
B o opIBa aoTa eo orIIa ca TaIIoBT pao eo a (: . Coao.

Y = G= "n"' sp

(3.l 6)

oa
(3.l 7)
Ipa (,|7) BII.' To JUI
).eIIlI{opoT oIBa ooMo .o Boo)I(oo pra )rBT , o'. o oTa ooBa
Ta HaIBaoil .tvteuluupI, oopa oBoeT yBeT a eT
oT oIvlllo r.
oote BI xaHaI4I4pIa _
umu, lp:u u npdptu

(p.3.5).

Illumo pTaBJI oo oTJIoIoyIo opx}IoT' oopa y.


pal{o oo)ell pIa a oBpI{o pIJIa
. 3.5,a).
p ooell Ta B a oaT oa papflel{Jl' a p
.aBrr OBIIIIaT.B ppapr opo oa a
epx x<e opo pIa poo yBrIIr -'To pBoT
).BeIl oeI{o r p o e opo
B)'I aN{oa.
pto - oToIoa a a. Ipo pIa (p.3.5,
. IIp
oToII apIoB eT po
pIa'p I\{Ilr po
6

poxo.T TaM opao, To opoT oa oBpxFIoT pIa yBBaeTcBpy yrIaT I{y BTB Too yBaT .

P. 3.5 oor I aa pIa:


4 _ To' _ apro,6 _ pIlpIo.
pdpo IIp.TaBT oo oIxo
pIo' paoo)eI{o I{a oTopo pa,ToFo4,|4oT l{oa oIIoBIIoo pIa
. 3'5, ). e poe p.pIa oTypo IIoa pIa oytl oTo pao,lT ( yla)
aIIpaBJUIT .o px oBpIIoT pIa. a Too opoT oToa
Bpy pIa B,eBaeT a r.TB _ yBeBaT oMHa ckla.
B p.rJIIIIII B.I xal{a
pIa B aTo N{p yBrBaIT ooBo ooB.
oToy aa,l pIa a oBIfiIo
oyT Too IIa BT p oa.

yy oo paIlIx BoB Mrxaa


III yp MI paaTpaT y.

ptJla' o.I{ao B a-

oIo Ha aoTax paao


aBa IITI Maa pIa
oJIyrT B o' To oBoT ).eIIIT ooT oTpIBa pN{pIIo

a 100 /.

o epeo:
CitoHeaoeay o (aopa)H oM ee/oya Bo p|o,
oo aaoaoo eo6ly,a pl BtpHy' Ha ee ,
pao, He ea. A o p oao, ' o}4opHa p|o/o lo)e
pao. pa6e ay pHy:a pla<<oaa>)
ya-o aa
<<aHya>>
B, epa p|a<yxaa>ep/ Ha plBo B NlH v1
opoH|
oBepHHo
HeoHo,
|p|r
oPlyp X |p p|
aProe ' oatae,o eplaxooMa oy oMaHpoylllooya oe6oo o poo <<Bly>)
,ap| pp|.
Ta o <|p>
p|al4oap oHa oyloHoe 6o.
apar TaoM oTa aoTa BeTcoa,a. odo aBaT aMr.Hor .Br aoTa BIoTI 15 o oo oTaoB a
. oay aN{oTaMoo pa.THa T TaoB(p. 3.6): Huu'
|plItutue,depuau, polumupolue u npo.
.7

if

l,y

**- t ,- ._- - .

r. !u, .

,_"',*!xk,'
;,_
}i:H::?i,:
;T;;;i*"""'"..
4 _ apaoae.5 _ poi.

oa P.IIITByT )r a'oTa II]o}Ia


oTa ao. lla oa.y. C
aMoTa IIIOIIa oTa o apIpyTy IraI{aT
pp-

o a 200-250 oT apopoaoa.Ha Io o"o,o 400

.,p-

"u'o,.',
/oa c}aTc' BoT B a.y. o a oa. aIBaT
ctluucu] no zucde (zud - mpmopu cu!u
lJv'oml pmuo
noomu l otloI| mn od nod).

olo aoToB p'.ao


aa yo llaoa aI opoTaIlo ooT oTBe 2"40'3o00'. Tao .aao yoB yalIoB' co yo OTM IJII{I BpaIx
opo
r
aoTa, poB paoI a coyxoa
a op py.
Bra 15 a ypoB' B a.o,""u"
p oa.r a'oTa TaT ollo Taa IIe. Too l\{oIITa
aIIa oIIIIo oa.a
aoa. Cyro
Ta oa.Il - IplItulue (p. 3.6). Ha o a
TpaTopJI oTa pxo aoI{o
opol{TayIo rior
).IIIIII BpTao opo. BrpaBa
aaBarT a BIo
ooo 1 . o OyBJUIT yT yBe,I
Ta aTa, To pBo.T
yBIIo oTa oI{o r
c 7/'e]flInIropoT oTa.
o ooI{aI{LUI aa BIPaBHBaHII aorT
o lvIT oopr aa
opoT . oe
B IIorT.
coilBoT
a ao BIpaBBaIIuI e arl tdp|,tlllll,
opr oxo
aeIIIo yt{Ir'l
opoT
oTa. o .oa 6TI{I
yBII ya aTakl' To pBo,{T' a
IIa Tar BIpaBI{Ba,I'
)/Bt oTa
} I\{I{IIII opoT oTa V lp coxpaHeHuIpaBIITa Y: G' flanee, p B a'oTa B po
Taa BI/rp)Ba,I o..
I!II{, a oTI{I{o ).I{IIIae TaIIOBT
I]] aI ao. CaoT I{aIIaT npltamupolm 'lo aa
B.
aorTa o oo or a}I,I
!
o oJII{o oao
}IaIBaT npozo, aoTa. po B ao aa
BI9I{,IT a oIIoBIx
(y) oa (oa) Iac' a aT poxoT
oTIII{or oyalr ooBoo oa Topl\{oxtI{.
oor
xapaTpTa
oa. aoTa BI,T du npoza,
nocdo dumu u nodo oDom.
npoz l]v|om !u
pu""oIll'
oTopo poo^T aoT o
B o To aaII.o oo "'o
oTaI{oB.

38

ocdo dumu _ paGTo}r o opoTITa' oTopo poxo.


aI\{oTp oa. oIvITaIIpoTa BIoTI 15 o oo oTaIIoB a

B.

odo opom ("") _ To l\{Maaopo oaIroo pI{ aMoTa. a oa.oo opo o)IGlo op.T paBIlTBa Y = G B oI{ Taa Iep)BaHuI.
Ta IlaIBar BJII41
o oylo oyl x{y aMoTo ee, To oa.oIla opoT
IiIIIopoT B oII BIpaBIIBa,IpMpo a 5Yo. Coao,

(3.I 8)
! oprIIIx aoTo oaoa opoT paa 2oo25o /.r. p
ao opoT aoTI oro oaouo ao IoT
oaToo
yro
'JtIIypoa. ! ee yN{HIIIo).T I\{oIopN{oa I{a
ora' Bo.y]IIIeTopoa (opoI aparoI), pBp (
IrapaBeII,IT BaT aoTa a opao) pyr pr/TBa Topo)r,I. p T p.TB olqpaaeT NI|4Hpo
aoTa ppo
2-2,5 paa. po Too, a oBpIIIIIx aoeTax ,I yIII9IIIII'I
III
poa oa.oI{o .a Ha Tae floa, a Ha Tae BlTa' oyIT peTBa Meaa Ia. o, To p BIy
Ta
(apra p.pl<a)
yBJIBaIo orI{TI i.u*" aoa.
p e,.oI{Ta y agylvIoHIIIaToa.oIla opoT' a p
yB II eBaTaII]r opoT p p.
Bpor :aNIKIloa a{oTa paapBal.r yo aapo aoepI, T.. B'I oJIoII apaTo a''pI IIa apa.
TpI oTa aoJITo IIr yEITIao.oy BLH]ro
y o eylo pa.e .aIloo r.
o epeo:
Hooteo oBoypaH|
oploH|
y.
B 90- o|Ha a.lpHa -poa<a>>.
H BaB
opooo oepa,oaHo]
a oHo o, }oppy
<<Ml
o oBoy>.B o oeaoeTy-154 poBoaapyoay..
e oa ee oe oy pHy/ oe oa|oaHpaKa)a
<<po
peep 1|4> a]v|oea 6yao l4|erlo op|Baexgo
( a T-754 paooHt
ooo aC-|4'
| peo e tapo). oe,o ope
payBeeHHl
ao Booo o.
E oo opoHoypoo, eeHe Ha Be apopoa,H|Ba
A (oeoeopooe ypoo). oo oo eoXaBo]v|a
p6opo,oop|eyaHaBB|o
BoB. poplpyopopo6
aoeaa pa|yaaBo-oaoo
oo|oeo oa.E opo po6eaaoeoa|a
oe aao,o opo B, epeop oory, aBooHaoeH pe apooBaea, oopy
oaae o. Coe o pB ry ey, Ho Bo eo oH _ a opo po6eaoeapao y.
oxray, ao Tpyo oao BeToa,a aN{oa a ayy
aBaIIoa. oo opa IaB o 300 . ot aN{oTp ao a B o oTa}IoBT' op B ayTI TUIIIITpoI,
oTopI oro oo)e (yToIlI)> yy. p a aoTa

39

T poI y po.aloT a ooo' a aMolT' aofl a oay'


BIyae xooo ac IIpr oap ara ((BIpaIa ouly)) (o oo)yl I{a Ty, oo opo ooa ,oTaIoT yIIaBIurr B I{o po). C oolo Too pa (oIlI) ao
oTa}IaBBaa ao opoo B.
3.5. PeI oeTa BpToToB
apa o paIIIx pra oeTo BpToToB To ptr y
o)e o opoTo.
o BpoTa aaT ooBaII ora pzIx peMoB .BDIrI4:pue no mo ode, pmuul nodel a lcom ompoolo ucHu' ?opuoml plaolt opomu ode uu 17
emo noo, 6op com no lJlot|ompmopuu.
Peu ( ypoa) poeTa oyrBJlT JUI peB,l o
a oro paToI{ o apopoy (apr,rep' o TotI a TapT II c
oo a poo
Ta oa. I{a o}Iy). Pyrr BrpTooB pz}:}pIIIaeT
o
aro
ra
o
po oBpxltoT.
oBrpxo (oae) pypoIry
or
Bp
v1vIIIra oTaBa oTa
opao,
IIIIII4
JIT
a al.
Bm p.TaBoo IryTaoBBIII yoproe B) BpTo.
eTa oT eTa apa o aopa BIoTITaapoo peIITT(1'5 25 ).
Put',tuIru _ aoe xapaTepI pe, p oopo BpToJI
pl\{a o}IoTeHo e, a BcT a op.o BIoe. o pe IoT p a)I(OMB poBp paa I{TpoB' paB1IoT TIIIIypaBIr py )I(IIeoBa)Ix apraoB M Bpoa. P Bvcekpye BpoT a BIoTe Ivlre 10 (ae eo
a BIoT ooo 3 ). Ha o x<eBIoT o opooBaa B T ypaBeIBIoT pee (oe) BepToTa o opoTro o l0
/. Ce pJIIlr BrpToTa p)a BceIIpoBoT Ba Tpoo BepTao' poB Bepa BrpTzro opolo ,|4,2 lc.
Bem no.pmomol'| BeTcoIIoBI ooo BTa. B ao
T oT paepa BTI{o oa.' oypa BIoTI opy}Ix
o)
Bpa
BeT
Boyxa'
opoT

apaBe
pIUITB, eepayI
r roIle o paIlIM paeTopM. Cao aBIIo: p ao BeT
oea a BrpToa BoIIaeT Too a paor lryo BTa.
Bm no-IJ|4omoJ\|
BIrIoeTcB Tol\{ {ae' e roa a
T Iryo BIITa oaToI{a B3a o-BpTooy -a ppy BpToTa. p Tao paa BpoTa yG{a oaoHa oa o 80_100 . o opIBa BpToT BIp)IqBaIo a BIoT ooo
0,5 o BIoa }Ia opoT 50_60 /u, a aT poo)aloT paoll aBIII
aopo IoI.
opuomt pzo pmom u op oml _ aBrpalor aI
loo ooa BTa BpToTa. Pao BepToeTa poBo. o ao aoo parTop aaBa a BIo 30-50 ' a a poo)aeT
aop BIoTI.oaaoo Ioa ora.
opuomt nom pmom o poo roo opoTIo
_ oT }IyeBoo zUIoBooo.
40

oo
TaI{oBBIIIo oporllloo oeTa paa opolr'LIII poIII aBpI BpToTa (pao, Topo' Bpa)l(' BoMpa, a), BIolII 'l opo^ vlpl () apaevI |Ip
BIo oTa, aBpI B BpTzIo oo (p I1II'o
poae), a Ta poTpaTtstlI a}IBpI (pa' oo paBopoT ...).
nuom!l.

npomozo
oTo
pa
ypr
ypa corclroao |Iuom!l' oTopI o.e BpM Tzl BIotI
Ha BpToa o opTBIM pJIaI{I ' oTIIoT HTpoBa, Ta aIBaa oa>)' p.
nod Ta IIoJIyT oIIJI IIyTaI{oBBIIII4,
loell
BIBO II[ap)IoB ,vbeIv BpoTa: )tI o aJloo paop,
p.rr

aaHpoia:lI (rpara), opoTzUIHo TopoI{ (pa),


pyIre
oaoo ro' BpTaIItIo Il}Dl, p, rpo
a lra Toy.
oa<a BepToTa oT poo.Tc no-pmomlroJ (paaue
oporo) n
oTyIIaTJItIoo BLUI), o-l''tomo,|4 ( oyao
p tll]e Llv'oplHu zo um.
oa. o-BrpToT}Ioy - To lloaa BrpToTa otr yoBI,UIx.
p.
BpToT aT B x }ra, o.a o aM-o
o-aooMy
a H (aBtly)) I{a. To oa.' a a p aoBpaIr yo BTa oaa oyTBT

B aapI

Tya.

4\

4
ACA
APoPooB

BOIIII
PI{.AIIO

oB
ABA

4.1. aa a}IoeToB BepoeToB


IIa.BrorpyI
B oyrI{I
ya (aoeI BepToTI).

- pa)ar BoIII.ooyl pyy oTaBJUIIoTpI{TalBC.


B Po, Ta r a B pyx Tpaax' paalra aBa,IIoJIyTaBvIac pBo aapoB, aa>a,pya oTI; . BIOI{zHI
(o
pao
oa

IrTpa
oa
l{apooo
oIIIx
oT,Ix
xoa, )oTTBa' oxpaI oB ..); oaall o oMo }Iar poB. caH.IapHIxrpop; poB.rl{ .
pTaIII lrayilo-oBaTx pao, a Tae {I, yTypI{o-poBTTIIIx opTBIII pop.il; l poB.IIooBoaaTIIIpao oaaIuUlo1\{otpvl cvIrx .x.
TpaopI aMoTI pBoT Ilaa)rpo, oTy paI pyI'
a oToy x tlo,pa.)TIIa aa)pr pyoBr. ao o.II ToT
BC ox(r r aa)p' pyoBI oTaeT p To Too
oopyoa' Ha pyoBIx BC oy Ioo oopyoalle' orBa oI y.oa aca)rgp. Ha x aorTax yBrIII papI pyoIx oToB' )T aIIIe pyoBI Bep, p.TBa N{xaa.BIoIDIopyo-papyoI pao.
BoytI y.a aIloo IIaa,I BIoII,IIOTpztI aa
Irapo,oo
oBa oTaIoT oT paI{opTIIIxBC UIIII oo.Ji
pyoBa' a B oTlIlI {a oto oT ToBIx ao.
r BoyIIIIIIya pr.}IaaI or TrxII oTpoB.avI aorToBo.IIIoI.UIOTOB.
pa'a Bo,yIM y.aM Poc Ta)T BC, aI{Ir B
oapr p pa'al{IxBoyIIII y. Po. o ar.
BC oyapr pTp oyapo yI pa.ao a,avl( A) BI.aTB.TrTBoo o ppa yoToBp o ooT Boytlloo yIIa oTa. p a Bo,yIIIHooy,a yapr pTp y IIpBaBaeTc oyapTBr pTpaor ooItaBaTIa, oopI IIaI{oTa BC.
ooaaI aa oToT a] aar y al oylI{oo ya T Too aoa BpToJIe, poo op, pHa.)IIoT oil' o aaoa a oyapTBa. Ha orx aoTax
BTo aa a r pIopara paIla Ba. Ha oylI y. o-aapo yI, po oIIoaBaTeI
a' p.Iraa}IIII
IIaoB, IIaoT opa paIroo pTa o).l\{a.
o epeo:
B aoeMpaaHoaapoHloep.o HoMpoeH
pyH|M
paHaaHHa peaoe(a oo pIpxy,Ha pyo]- y)
Ha eo 6opry. ple pl Holepooa aloa
t a p|^oJleyeeo opoBtop. Bo ooy Ho oBop,o pee Moe/a ao-o
<poBeoyp 4219>>
- ae o).
op (peoot\4:
ee oHo o6o80: oH e e (o y) a]o| Bpo|Mory
y paaxopaa.a pa, o
6t a y BoeHH|X,
.,,

poBoay?ote,oe poo. a xoooope (a )


_
- aoeoel.Ha
Po oaroepa,a eBa
Ha Boe_ ao
"p,.o,.,
y
HapoHo
pego
o

paBa:
a
ao
apopoe
_
|4ViBea? o eaaB oHo.
ro aao B.ao,IIooBo .{o ppoloaBex aMoTax TpaI{I
Ca aBaoalil
aBaoaH'I.
o.a
eo
<tApo), Ta a CCCP ra
aI pzl:lIIIaa,raIII
r
oyt
IIoo' ooy a r aoToB
Par ao.paIIoy.
papaIIIBaT
4
BaIIrI..a aoTI T oal{
oo Io.
o' To , BIoIl paooparx a.a paaca agapaI{Ix TtIoB. B
Po T B Bo paop(H BoyI[I ya
pIlaa.
o apyT o ylo
B utl-l,tomu m mllo at Bo[lll}IIN{ya pBaBaIoT JIaI:
- nept xa - BeTa aa o 75 T .,L'IaMorToB o 10
BpToToB;
- mopo t - BTa aa 3G-75 .JIIIaMoo 5-10 T ' BpoToB;
- mpmu lcc - BIIa aa 10_30 ,JIaoJITo 2-5 BpToToB:
- mpm c _ BTa l\{aa o 10 aMoeoB kI o 2 T I|
BpTooB.
Too aoTI A ao o IJIIIOToeTa o.paeIoT
LIa]'4azucmp1.HIdue ('ao orTa o 6000 II),
^4?ucmpIJxl
pdu (i"o IIoa 2500-6000 l<l),,tzucmp]lbtuu ('ao
.,oo"'u 1000-2500 ) aoeT| Jt4mlrtodt uu (.ao ora

o 1000).
pyr)r{o-oao.rr
ay,aoaooopyyloT
B oyrlrI
paM' IT BII}r)I{IISoBrI{ aI lpoIIaBao}IIo. po
Too' I{a aoTax BpToTax yTaaBBaIo ponoBIr a' a I{a BrpToTax - r , *o"'yp""' o. Tae I{a Brx Bo,yIIIIxyax o2a IT

aapaTypa JUIppa aparTpoB oTa, paoTI aBaoo


>).
<<.repI
(a
arar
a)a
poBopoB

o epeo:
pe. Ho aeo He Be
IuJa
eBHo,
>),
Haa<p|
o o epl, eoo
UJap,
a
ope
e
/
o
>
."u19', uio ""p''i
poB
opaHeooBa.o ypoe a opaor'o p 60.-Ho
yHe
Ha
oyo
eoBpo.
uJap,
o
BHyp
op,paHa
yHoBela, a aNro|Be aKoB axo Brp
<<HyH|
eax>>
ypoHaa,
oB>>
<a>>
a o6paooxpa.Aaparypa<pH|
Ha 6eoyaHHyery. H
pe apep|o.a|BaTh
ry pyapap31- y|oa paepo MHy|.CoBa H o, B < e pHo > B e a a a | apatep t o x p a r H y
MCP (Haerappaapapo)
a' yyaear.4a
xpaHo 95 apapooe. o peIBa
oAoBpHo
oo
Hoy ey/oopa oo6a pe.
e. Cealaaa po|HHo
yaHaa
He Tooa BoAyt\,lo)<Ho
My
ry
a,
ppoa144 apaepal
Hx ryax, Ho Ha opaX,B oea a a aooe.
apap o}IoBIx ToB aoToB BepToToB' oJIyI B
aTor Bpr B pa'ao aa' pBIII a. 4.1 4.2.
4

Tu4 l
AMoToB
ooB HI APATPT
P AA lI o ABAI|I4 P o I4I4
T ao

Ta
apaIa

-86

206

Bga aa,
aa
poo.eIto'

-62
160

Ty- I54

Ty- I 34

94

44

A-24
21

l8

o l 86

o 164

72
|'2
830
260
225

otlTo aca)Do

350

paoo'

41 5

25

ppra
oo,l,/v

920
280

870

300

900
2'70

240

240

20

Copo opla,

oaoua opo'
ll/

pavr ooo'
.aooa,
.{a paa'

fla poa,

1 1 0 0 0 I 2000
5800
10000
t920
2000
800
I 000

1 1800 I r 800
2900
4000
l 900
1215
'7r0
850

.42
52
1
la

Bga aa.

48

120
rtn

3,r

470
180

820
215

550
t'75

t'70

180

160

8900
2000
600

9000
2000
900
700

I 1000
510
550
520

550

aa Dlroo.o' T
oo aaDoB

-8
4.O

1.6

6'

0;7
1.4
200

0.4
0;7

aaa oo:
ool

ao.

ooIIeI oa'
opa oDo. N,t/
.IIao oa. M

T Doa

-6
42.5
t2 .0

I J.J

250
810

12.0

z8

640

4,1

ll-4

7.

r50
6s0

30

Tu4.2

BPToTOB
otIoBIII APAPT
PI(AIIo ABAII P o c p
TeaapaKepa

-40
t4

-2
1S

o;7

7-8

0.5
0,8
205
590

a-26

.2
1.0
6-'7
t.4
140
410

BoyrI ya, xapTp oTopIx pBItI B Ta. 4'| 4.2, epBoTprpo 85o/oacca>poB pyo. Ha ey T aoeTaNI BpToTa y) oToB pye (-96, T-204, T-2|4 .,.). o.ao, Boy
poIIIIIr}roTa oToBa BIyaT
ox(iUII{Io,aIa aBvlaolflJF,a
B
oe a oBI aorToB o' a II)DIoT. ooy pI(.ao
Po .oTaToIropooTor Bpr peT ooBaTaP.auI
TapI aoTIIIapo. Tx .aIr IIoBIx aN{oeToB BpToToB yy pBI yr B IIoBo )IH.
4.2. acc

popollroB

podpolo aIBaT eHI Bo.I yaTo, zUIo oop.oaI BTa' oca., paIr oy,Ba Bo.yII y.oB.a Po ooo 3000 popooB' p oTopIx rT a pyl
apo,poI' Ta, a oBo (Ca-epyp), peBo, ,.oo.oBo
ByoBo (oa), ooo (apyp), ToaBo (HoBopc)
.pye' Ta oB rroI. CaMI aI{e apo)oI p.TaB
44

oo oy' a pa oTopo ToT apa, oopyoal xopot ao,


a p.o o.-.BaaMoTa BpToTa.
B apopoI pa}'ao aBa apoBaI. aa,I poBr.Irao ylo paa.
l. o dnopomu B. o y Irpay apopol opa.eJlT a apo.poI yTBtlI{I opI B, apo.poI pro
B, poapo.pol' a Ta IlrI .oBIapo)oMI. oay, oII,ITToT pa eeapo.poooopaI{o - B Ta o'ITlIo.
o epeo:
Bo pe Beo oeool py oe He H ppoppH|
lo oo pyHoBlapopoMo..( yvey 0060pyHa ea|eaBpl'tHoyHoeop|,oopoeooo ot
6ooepl4la
aH. a|Bl
o, oya
6paBl, oHeHo'HaHo
Heyy0060pya.Cea pyHoB|
apopooBye H oao,o B HHH|X
yax,ooooop|x
paHla popo]vt|,
oHMooHaHya a6op, eal
ax ax
oo.
2, o pmp uoolu. B aoT oT apaTpa ooBaI]JI apopoI o.pa.IoT
a oTotIIlI BpII}II'.Blloo pyoyToIloo .TB.
oor apo.poIoyro.c paor a aBapyoo.Ilo, BprIrI - Too ao-To op.}loBp o.a (p BIoIl oxor pao, .oBIapopoI ...).
Ha apopoa .IIBoo aBavl BIo,ITorTI Too B
BTo Bp },To' a a apopoax pyoyooo .TB - B TIl
Bx y[o.
3. o muoo.l|| rraulo. oy pHay apo.poIo.pa,IoTI{a paoBI po.poI aIloo aIlaI{ (ao,
rI apopoI . BIoaBaoI{Ix pao).
Tpaor apo.poI pI{aaI .JI BIot{,IBTa flo,aI4
p oTax o ap]pyy. aor apo.poIo}ToT aBaoHIlI
aBoa flp BIoIIIIITaTIxoToB. l popoI praarI BIIOII,IoToB B TIx rax p ooToBr oo. aI apo.pol\{IoyrTc BIO}IpaI{Ix aBaoIx pao (o oo xoa .ooxpaIIIo ..).
4. o pnoort,l u ucnouroLrnl?!Llru
npu no]lm o odul mpcI. B o ){aapopoI opa.r }Ia al, po)I(yToI' apopoMIBITa' HaIla aaI.
aoI apo.poN{oIIprr,IrT .oae' avaopa (aapep)'
Hap,tp, ao-o a} poo aBaplp"
BIoI{'IT
oT o roy appyly' To .JIToo aa ar apopoo a yeT apo.po yoo' Ta a B To opo' a )BT' B To opor y IIJIaTT apIIJIaTy.o a)a,oTo apo.po zlIBaTaor.
pooHI apo.poI- To Ta apo.poI'Ha oTopI BoyIIIIIo
y.o oBpIIIaT po}Toylo oa.y p BIoIlI{ aIIx poB,

(oaa)-Hoop (oaa)I{apMp' -p-app


Hoopa BI
apypa
apo.poI
p. B ao y{ae
poyoI.
,( oo ) prpa apopo Ca-pypa BeTapo.poMo
BIeTa' a apopo pya _ apopoo aIlae. B Ia o a-o pa poBT oay p Bootlo (a oo.a'TIle pHI T..),To )a)y apaHr ( la) onp.T po apo,po .oa' apMrp' a. B To ){aapopo .
l y. BII'ITIaaHIapo.poo\,{.
5. o tom d po| .||4op. oy I{ay zrpo.poIopBJUIIo IIa opI paBI. opl apopo _ i}popoM' paoo)I(rr*Ira
To eprIII po oToTeHIpBIIIIeoe 500
B pa.y 25 o apopoa' a TaI apo.po'paooelrI a lo 1000
o a ypoIr op. oaI{Iz}popoIoToT paBI.
o epeo:
p o aapopoMAep (pao oooCo, o6epeeepa a oe po Hl4e op|,pepopoalvl/
oo op) oo opH|]
oo aopaB|luae
o B|oe6o 500 aa e eHo.oaoH
'q,
ea pry op.
. B ucul,tocmu om dut B u nocoomu noptmu. flo
ToMy pay apo,poI T a JIaI: , , B, ' , E u nodote
odu. Ta' apopo JIaa..4ol y B }Ie2500
o BT aMoToBo o ao os 200 .
4.3. CoaIe aT apo.po}r
Ha o apopor paoi aa Mo)o BIT .B oI:
rTy) yleo-rxry.
mo orr oT|Io1TTa aT TeppTop apopoa' oTopa aIITa
ooo aaHo B, pyI opox(a (P.{), o o BC,
orBI oot ooa oao. eo o oTIIo TaI(
BoyIIIo poTpaTBo' pIalo apopoy. o oBo' Ilo
oFI ooT Ta oa a apo,po, Moy axoT aoI
Bo.y]Iro popaTBo pao apopoa. oa BooI eM apopoa pTaBIIaa p. 4.|.
cueo-muo o oTHoT TeppTop, a oopo pareIII IIaI1r, oaro paoy aaqB ToM e N{Topooea ya.
Paop oTaB o or o opoo (. p. 4.1). Beooa.oHUIIlooa 1 paa lI BTa oa BC. CaoT o oa.o ooor B pyoo aoTa. ooo B oo o
o.o Tp py)I.opo)(2, 3' 4). C pyo .opo tlMoT oa.a
Ira apuulJlyroB py)}Toopoxry 5, uao ztIBayeppolro.
Byrt y.a, oTopIr o ao-o p a Bp t{
oyTc I]rpBo aa)o pya, paMaIoT IIa or . !
yaX III1p oa
e eoao oToB p IIIIITaTIx
ToB B Tr oTpoavl Ha apo.poax oopy.yro oBI I]o46

oI oaI{oT
oI

oaIIoT

T, a oTopo
T OIII r.oDI(o

7, 8, 6ooa I]ooa oao


9 aaca B I0. o aaHa B
pTaBT
o ooor
I{T ax pTTB, oaall BoyIIIIIoo y.IIa B
BIBaT oo pOIIITB.

J+

JP|{

Pl{

Pc 4.1. Cxa apopoa(apa):


.{ - oaIlo-'r y, PC - paooaoaa oa, P _
6llil poo paoapp,.(P _ poo
poaprp; 1 _ B, 2' 3, 4 _ P' 5 _ ppo, _ oa B, 7, 8 _ oeIeool oaoc, 9 _ ooa ooa oao, 10 _ aaa B.
Boylo
popaTBo' pIar apo.poy' paHo a B BpTaIto, Ta B opoTaHo ooT. B BpTuIIlo oo o.yI]IIIo popalrTBo .T Ha uJr (. IoI 6100 B TaapTIII yoP,,) p - BIIII BIOTI 6100 .
B opoo
nodod,

IIooT

odI!I u odl

BoyIIIo poTpalrTBo
opudopt,

ot

T Ha mopI
orcdlu, mpcI, Jv||nrrl

odu,Ie ulluu u dpzu ot'


Boyla

paa

pTaBr

oo op.op ( xoe - yy)


oToI p.aI{ae . oaoo
BIO'I
oTo oyIIII ca. aa Bo.yII{a Tpaa erT Bo o|pal{,I o BIOT IpIJe oa pTBaM aa' ypaB,I BoIl|pt{a Bo.ytIIHIx Tpa' a paBo'
,y]IIIM .BIl apopoa.
Bo.yIIIo poTpalrB,

paBa 10 , o.ao B oT,IIIx Jlyax (a oaa p )IoIITTzIJIIx oTax, a Ta] . oToB BpByoIx aorTo) oa oT IT

yBao 20 .

r Bo,yIIII HvI (MB) To Ta Bo.yIIII )aI' oTopI yTaaBBaIoT.


aoT MB oIIro Too B I{ Bo.yIIo
poTpaIrTB. o oBl oyIrTa' praIlTpylo
eTII}.Io pao", InpIra B yTaaBBaeTTaa
, a Bo.yIIIx )a (10 ).

o-mIrul o apopoa a p. 4.I pr.TaBIra oal{.Ho.p ylrTo (I(, oTya poBo.I ypaBIr BO,yIIII B; yTa, .r p:lrHI aBaoI{Ie yI (PC, PM, IIP);
ytlTo' . paoo)ItI TII y,'l (aap), I]yHToM' B oTopoM a>a pBoo (apoo). Ha p. 4.1 oaI ToJIo ooBI{Ir
oI0I a apopo. B .TJIttoT apo.po - opHo Iloopo-

xoT

47

pro p,p!ilIT,paoa B oTopo ( oro paoa, o .a poTo


Bt o apo.po)y zUIlIa.
appoM * a opy,oBaHI r Bo.I{I{aTo, To apoopT - oII oopyl, p,aHaIIIII pa oTpaB Bo.yIIxoB oyal{ Bo.yIHIx pBoo. ,{ Tx B apoopTy T apo.po' apoBoa py I{aMIeoopy)I(
oopyoBar.
BopoI paIIJ{ Topooo yI B apoopTy yy opoo paoprI B oe.yx JIaBa.
4.4. opoalle BoyIIII{IyoB popooB
IIaBaoIIIIIIVIpopa Tr}IaM
aBvIavI Bgtc
aor o)tlIx aa p oya
a
(B),
Boo)I(IIo
oTopoe
dueu.
Tpyo
ott
npu
y,y. a aaa o rryl - opall, IIJIaI{poBaHe or
oao.BDIr'I BC a r B Bo.JD(r..( pr Box a.a {IITpz yta rT oBpI!{IrI{Irp.TBa B.(, oopIr BaoTByIoT
poIIr.raoTIM TraM a opao oBoJUIITB aBToaTpoBaIIIlo JI pyIlo prI\{ prIIIaT BopoI eoao oToB.
H o pe I{ pTy IIa oI{oy gII,I Bopoa (o oIII oII oo yp), oTaHoB a oHoBIIIx pHa oopy.oaI{ apopooB BoyIIIIxyoB pTBa IIaBIa.
oo

o epeo:
Ha
Ha Ho>>
B pe ol ( Bea, o aBaoo-oo<<aHoBa
p6opo 6|0,,opH.
paeHaHaaoHHl
il]vroa
<Hyp|(y>.
Cy e aKaB
a a|BaeMy
poBao ooB
HeBea 6a apa po
HoeHHo]vl
y. a B Hot'l
o oH
oeo. el ep opeHpoBy e a, e paoo)eo apopo]'4,
Ha.
p6o
Bea
o
eoaoee
Co
opao.
orya eyl4
po poa oeo,e opee l(yp Ha paooeyoBoooBB
o Hyopory ( o pe o|poBooo B eBHoeBpe),HaXo Bo(a, H)a'l e Bo opo o 6a eeoopoo
aH, aroaa e HaBa.Haory aH a ap, ep pe 6e
pya pB|BK eHo aooyoBoBpaHa o apo. a
e
<eeHo>'
ooH|
pBay eo Ha|aa
fla oe oBH
pB>oaaooHHpoI1
eo]vl.
o)]eoBo <<ee3o
Pduomuu pdcm luzluu (lduomulume nodu) p'TaBJUIlooo a pa.oTa, paoTa B paIII
pa a paIII aToTa, a Ta pa.oaI TI oa.. Ha
pduoopy B a pya p.TB .aBLIap.Taea mo.1|4muecuJI
Irapa.
yIBaT
oaa'
oIt{oo
B
oT
(AP),
oTopI,
oT
o4nIo]'|
II Ir IIa rBp' a a paoTIoy paoTa. pepa xI\{apaoTI
pa,oTx pTB pTaB}Iaa pc. 4.2.

48

l
(-l

.-;:;,
'u{
i t

1P

.lP

pTaBa.
Pc.4'2. ppaapaolpa.o
Ha py o}ao aUIo B o. {aTo JIa,IIt)tI,I.
Ha pao 1 oT IIaUIa B a apo.po oopyy l,tl tIpBo.Ho
pa.oapp (PM)' a a paTolll 4 N{ - .zIpoo paoapp
(I]PI. aI pBo (a paocTa:lzl }IiBIBaIo a apo.po) pTaBJUIToo paoTaI{I{),oTopa rpr op.ItI(v or)
IITrpBiUII Bpt{ pr.aT p Bo fIoIBI.olo To ,ByI aru
Mop. aI appoB (a x .rlp: .Ba o.Iloo vI ,ac pyoo opa B,
I{o o.HoBppaoaroT ToJ]o.BapBoa o,l{ooTopa) eT Bo oIBo oro paouyl aToTy. rlr a BC aoar pa.,rooMaaTpo
a aToT paoI P, To I ye N{Tyloy apTIry par
B o }.r{a,oa BC ao.T o B.aJIIII P, a AP
T1\{I.
a)aBrIIa o (a paoaryro TaIIIo, pc. 4.2), a o.a P Tpa AP apaJla BrrpaBo (or a paoaroyr a). p poI{ op.TBIlo lra pBoo T IIo{aT ,ooTtloByoBo c.r(po ppIBTro). Ta opao, Ttl Bra IIaT IIT,
o.ao aoTIlpogra a.P.
o paa IIJIoTpoBaHao BoyI}Io yo o)Ilo r a
pBo.IM paocTaII,I a ol]pro BIoT' a ppoa AP
aToTI paoI aHo pBo.a I{a aToTy paoI ro pBo.a poxo,T a o opoTor Bp. ooy B TBTJIOT B orTr poo.T.y.
o aT, a ypo y yo TT'ol r pao P,
pBooN{ poolrTpo aT or poo.aPM. Hao IIa..a1\{
poBaB BIoTy BC, a Ta prJIIoB AP a aToTy paol P (axa
), T HaT' a po a.o TrT'.rol oaaT a PM, a
Ta o ItaaJIaB oa 1000 , oa.p BC.oJDIr ar aoTa
aiulo B r py aMlIIr opTpI.
C.oaIlo' paoTII p.TBa r;.aB|a axa
Ta oa) oBoJUITa}y Boyoo y.a o.o aay B
a paToH' paHor 1 . lar T opIlTpec Bao. Ta.
opao' p B.o 1 o pa,oTrxl{ TN{aoa.
a oaoT oTa.
Pduoouobr pdm tll?||uu uu pduoouoll um,\,ll
odu (P) pTaBI oo B ao o Be paooaol{yl
allto ppllo Taoo l ypoBa' a rTopo paooaop (P).
49

opyoa BeTcpaoa a oIvII]To.ooI{TJII{oo


yla. oal.rooo oa' oTopylo oy<a.,ITpa
pr. eTpo P aoT .la paa o aI: I,.aToppyoBoo
_ BIoTa(B). Cxaro oa aopa
oopa (I,o) .{aop.zUIoT
pTaBIa p. 4.3 ( BTJIHoTpaI PC rl o, a
BIBeaT lryI{a opa).
oTopo BTJI III4HLI
t)

}rl

P,tc.
4.3' aopr
lPC:
pyoBoooopa, _ tlaop((ilo_Ioa)).
- |u.l|aop
oTopa ooTBTTBy oIIIII'
pe pa o poo.T puIr;,a
axoT Top
oTopI
aoIIoMy }y, B aJIoI{IIIeJII{' )Iqy
(oylo
o
p.aJU{T
a
ya)
oao oa.. oea oT
cl
(oporl
px).
opollTulIrylo
rp
oo opoTylo BeT4o
axo,{T
p.
4.3,
,
To
aoeT
ozao
a'aT
Ta'
,
a
a pa oa
pae ooIloo ypa' .Trp PC o pao raT oay BC,
.ror ToT (floplry BBo).
Ha aop (ao_BIo)) poBe.I opoIITzIIa.
oTTa
(a oBpxlro) aoHa rvl- TccaaII. HalB
o aoeTa Ba a opoTa BpTzra pTa (paI rpx). JI orTa o aorTa llaxo aM, oaallo a p. 4., , o aMoT
rroT a oa.y BIIIIyTaoo I' oa.p BC o1^raeo
Tpa PC oay a ore epIlo )I(rIIe.
Ta opao, .p PC, pe oo oa paa, aBo a]uor Ira oaKy. o o eTep oppeTpyT yp oa aoea' a o
kIB - BIoTy oeTa. Tay oppIo oo poBo. a.B p{IIo' a
B aBToMaTeolvIpe)' tlo }Ia oJI )IaTr I{)tI(ppo BIoI 30 M y.aeII,Io Hazla B, paBoo 300 ) eT o}II B
ypaB a ce, Ta a oa Byaa oa TaID(BIo pacco
p oa. oaIBaT To popo.
o epeo:
o B|oa,a ,loepy
E l a poaA. <ApoopD>,
ee a. P6o pape6y poopoa o a a}4or
oe 6o00 pe.Be npeya aa
Haeo,
eol aoe axo Ha oaye a|.
ay <aeoep>>,
yap6oae
e otepa6ory apyetxeepo.Haa eepKa
BoyHoo
e lvleHpe.H popoMaPo eHleBHo
H,Ho y oorp| Ho6o <po p6o|>.
mue cucml noadu (o) Boao oop.oa
apoopoB IIoBoe oBTo pa,oTexrro pa.ooaolro TaM o oa.y BeT BC I{oIo' a ae oao
yoB o apop oMy.
pe.Br Bo.y[lIH]
50

a a pr.TaB oo o Tpx o paIloo


BTa pao IITeHBIIoT' oTopI oBoIoT oy ar aoTa
opT ToIIoo Topo oor pal{ B, pylIx
'opo)It ar oo B.
o epeo:
B aaBaoHH|
HarBex pyooaxaao/ooTa ao eHo
oaapopo.oo o, oay,ot6l o paH|
ae eailoHa }DHo.
M|pBqeooooH|e
oHeoHaHooo6opyo
' a, oBa B, pelarpol o aH'
oeBe<yoel>
6eo oHMeoo ea. Ta oH]vl
6oo a
oHaB HaB (al,oopleoy'l oBe,peTtllo
o6o e|e
B|l,oop|eopoo| t<6l
;loea xopoo aMeoe|o oeep).TopteoooloABeH|
o paHooBoB,a pye)H|e
opo)_ al4aHo.o opa B o ao pBoao Kypye(oa)paooH|
oHpooBea.
A p paeee a apopoe<<MH>
o 7 opo_
o oe pBoep (7 oepo_ paoe,paHoe B, paoe o opa ooIo aeopoa). oa e o Krcre'l
aoo oo opolB.
Ha apoloax paxqao avIaBa Io}UITN{appoBa B
peTTB (a, aTI, akl ..) oyloT ooo rylo o TI oa.: ozu lto umHcuIromu () -
axo.a a oay ByaIlo o popa ozlru loo umeuomu
(oB) - JUIaoa a oa.y p o o)IlIx ooIx yoBJIx. Ca oB ra Tpe aTop: oB-1, oBI4-2B-'
aa rpIIIx T1\{(o oB) p,TaBJUIoo o' oo o pI4' oTopI yTaaBJIBaIoT o oo
:,1||
B y Topo PM, BeToBI opolrToB _ py o
paoo)eIx ,py o pya o, paMIII pI1ypo oo
paToIIx oT Topa. B o TeI yTa:B a op.JIIlI{Ix
aBBaIoTf B ooTBTTB opIlIII paBa Ta opao, voI aI aoeTa' ao,o a oa,,pvl oxo BoT T o l,oTaToo opoo B,III oozIoTy opT ol{y o/xoa B oo(II ao B.
o epo:
B o.epe Hoo oopo eBoHo oa.pH paot
o etly.p oaHa appoeB <Xopoy>>
ooyea|Bae
Ha Beoltao Bpooa.3 a eoerclppye epqa'l aa'y oop|xooHaoaaa aHHot"t
apopoe. B py)e BHo
pHBopoo ol4,o oo6HoHopoepo oooeoal
z!lo.
ov|g Ha o apopol4B <<oy>>
ooy'o eoe
lv|ope
Ha I"|H|e
opHp|,
a poo BK<<B>>
aaMoo eBoHoyo6pa.Be oe poo, oHo o oaHy)HaoHa
poHao |ooea/opo oea Bpereeeo.r
po6elo e o oHa peHl, BoHa
oaHoe
B|a.4olooep ololyaa.
pHI BIIIIaBaor ppI I oBoIoT y.
IlIo pI]]aTaaoao oeToB.

5l

aa 5

ACAI4

OPAIIA

oToB

5.1. au oToBpa,Ilo a
yoB pax{ao aBavIIapytT B aBoet Bo.)IIrrIx
oT oT aar, co oTpoBaHvI aoToBoH' paona,
BIoTIolTa' o-pavx yJIo' BpeM yo Topoo-

rxyo.

B aoT oT Haaell oTIo.paJIIoT}Ia mpnopml . pBo aa}poB, po' oTI aaa; nomI d tnou
luluoHtpom - p ooBa paao aBa B oT.JIHIx
opaJUI apooo xoTBa, a Ta .JUIoaa M.I{co oo I{aHI poB caapIpop; - I|olll ypaHToB y1aTaBaoI{I yIx aBe.ei1' mpupool - :r
TppoB poBp a oo oTaBa; I4modueu -
Ia paoatx (oaIx) paTop BII,I BC o.o
ypaBe Nl, papaoT Blrpe popa To oI Too oTaBa' a Ta} poBp l\,{To.oo.oToB Too oTaBa;
aylIIII oBal' uclxIuedomu (aI) - . poB e:u:
_
tnml jUI ITa B vIX oop.oa; om _ .JUIpoBp,
aTpo pa/oTxllx pTB, a Ta poBep B oT paoTI
paIx TM Bo.yIoo y,a, oTopI oy l popelll Ha
e; nepzoobt - II po B; de.ocmpuol1ltt - oaa
-
aBaoltl{o x; nouoo-nmI7l tlpuo.ncmbI
poB.}Ioa kI oaarl oo a)I(a' aapa patIIM
yaM, Tp e, a Ta B Ix TxIx .
o yo opoa aooo oI opaeT
a uUIl nom no npuoplw. o Ta yaI Toa' o.a
oo)r BC o rToaoe 9IIpJUITa1 Byao o
TTBlIoy opoTy IIaeIIIopeTpa. o o popa - To
Tao orT' Bo Bp oopoo oo)el{e aoTa o MToao,r
opIoT a) oIIoT|o aT}Io o oTa)IM aBaortI popa.
o Daoy ro oeI opa,JUlIoTa poopol||e, BIop IIoTax o TpaaM
l{I B pao apopoa; mpol, BIoJI}II
TIM BoyIIIHI IIJI; nodq oTopI BIotIIo B oax
aBaoIIIlIx paoT; ]|4ppmo-mpol' BIoIIeIeo yTaHoBeIIoMy
apIpyty TpaI aTo o Tpa oo orTe.
o r oTI opaeJUIIIIa oTI npdo 4ulIcom
_ o 200 a po Boo oBpxlroTIo t!t.||4tl
tom _ o 200
o 1000 IIa peo{ Boo oBpxl{oT|o;l pdu om - oT
1000 o 4000 Ha }?oBlre op; o1t,tuom _ o 4000 o 12 000
a ypoBIIe op JI o Tpooayl noml mpmop" _ rr 12 000
BIITpooIIayI.
o o-opa yo oeTI IIopa.JII{a oI
pa
d puo u orumo Imom (oel pBIIIIeI{JI
52

pBII[aIoT200 500 ooTBTT);d zopo Imomo (oI


pa oe 500 a paTo}l 25 o aprpa);
pBIIII,I
d nmo emom|no; d oulvtuodttvtnpompcm^4u opt po pozo u to!ozot,pu. o T .rH o
aa oI{ pyro.
o p yo oTI op'}.Ta dt, ole ]|4|ute. !eB aBaTT Bpr'I oT Boxoa.o axoa oa' a I{oIoIIpo.oT ao.a oIIa .o o Boxoa. oro.a oIlTIlo' ao orT yT
oTT .IrBIro,a ao - l{ooy. oT IlaI{aT, a aal{BaeTco) (.,raoopo), o ao oT aIBaT rrlaI.
o opoo yo oTlo.pa.
H |Iom po.
ml oJrl mopoozuc|t o ( CM)' olr
Topoo oB oTIIoT Ta yoB, |Ip|4 oTopI opoBMT Il pBIII]a2000 () BIoTa paTaa.aI{oT
r oao o 200 p o oTB ao
4 ao (3 ao). oal B pI.y]po) yaarrI p, Ta
a p Topooo ovI aa orTBo oav 1aIBaT Ba B oTaTa' a a.
roo o rooo Boyoo y.a, B ax r yox o poBoc' orl{ r opaoal{ TaM opao, ol Ia oeea eoaom,. pepom u olao.luIromodu,ttnpoo.
5.2. Opaa oToB p}I(o aa
opaa oToB - To o I\{pop,pooI a M
p.aar .JUI aIIpoBaII'I paoI ypaB TIIIM
o.parlrNI aa Bo.)IIIyoB. opaa orToB BIoaT B ylr oIIBI{Ipop.Ii I7aHI4poBaoeToB' ooToBy oeTaM' BIoIltIoToB' }]paBoT paop oToB.
fapoa o oyIrTBT oTBTTB pTBI'
TryIM opaTBI{IaIIa paol ypa' ppT lopa A. B ao-o p yoBo aIIpoBa oToB Moto paTa oopoor' yooe TyI. fiozopouo alrupolu |IpoBo.Ta 10 y o. ooo ec paa.B)l(Il Bo.yI}IIxyo, a TaI( oopor a paol B I{Tpax ao.o opakI l{apo.oo oa. oopT Too o paa B)
BO.yIIII
yoB' To To paa (orlt oopoIro)), Ta a II
oro Ba paa B o.: THo I{a II aoopo. moo npolu
oyITBT a y .o HarI{I{oo BpH BITa BC. oo ){TIBaT
payro oaoy B apoopTy (au ap)I(aI{Ix
po, paoBI o.
TI, o oTopI BT}Iapal{' ..). Te nupoau BaI7o BIoIIIIMTax oToB' oTopI r a}IIa) p yoo al{po(apo-aaTeI, aHTapI p.).
BaIvIkI
ar oToB oTaBIoT B TI o,paH p,aT B
.pyr yl .oTaB Bo.oo orpaTBoo a}Ia,oopl
Be.o}IoBa .BIoHIIoITo.o. Mp aoo aa
paT a AMC (aa Topoorylo Ta)' pay), oTopa paoora a ToM ) apo.po.
)J

ro epeo:
eo,B Haa}I e, a ooa Jley toeepaa
o oao
o epop6| paaHoB, a <pat>>
ol4lopHoe. E o H a, o eeoyeeo o epo
6oaaoopoe ee(paBeyloye<<polH>>,
BoyHxryo), a <yoK>
aa' yBaa atffie.,tylo
6oyrya}o_ yoHoaHpoae,
y o oe Heoe pep ye Hpoa.o opo
a ( o Heo, e <o>>)
oaeaa oeo H eyy oBoeop6eBopeeHHo
peaaar.loMeeopooeoty
B|o.
oex aapoBaH|
o.oo oa .oa p/llloa ( prIIIrBy) aoy
oTy. B a, Bo B oTaB aa' raBMo oT aaeo
o)IoT oITa o paoTI, oaI po oooBy poBpy o.
ToBIloT orTy. oooa oTy opaT a npdpumlo
npednom.
pdpumIrl nodomo poBoT aay Il BIa.oa roaT ytl aa Ha oT; oop ooToBy oyIra, oxo.o BIoIIIIJIorTa; tIIe ooo x oTpoBaH,I;
op.o aoTB oB ala oorx )Ia B oeTr. peap). ooToBy aIaT oTpo oToBIIoT a)a BIotl)
oTa.
p aT orTax o Tpa rII4IIp ao IotIH o.oo Too ) Ba aBaotII pao pBapa o.oToa ox(T poBoT B IIeoIlo oTa a)a.
o epeo:
oay, eye a o ot"t,o Ho pBapaoooaHe poo oBe. oy e p|.Bo-eptx,eol a oaae o oo
o oyopa (e e poa:paaaBa pea
o6o paop|.|yey, a e pao aBI4a_ <oyllJ|eBoo, oop e, y pay o a o ott o Ploy poe
>>),
aa. Bo-optx,peaee6, o aoe e o appyry yap|lt
(Hoop).a aaoo (Ca-eepyp)-ooBo(aepyp)-Toao
y H B|ao)l(Hopoe peBapeyooo|rya ooo,
e aoe Haxoe yoo?
pednom nodzomo rIPoBoT oN{apo BC Bea p aII\{oeToI\{ {o opo apoaBaoo Topoo
oao. poa oooa aaT }Ir o. a a ,o BIIIeTa,a B oMyollIx zlpoopTa - oI{Ta plD(oa a)a a oaIlop y. B po poeTTIoooo oall.4p BC oa
.ooT Tpy o oToBIIoT aa poxo poo oooB; oyllT opaIo o TI{o ooIlo BC; oo apo.pooB BITa' oa. aaHIx; {T Meropooey oaoy a
apopo BIeTa' o ap]pyty aoy) oeTa' a u}popozBIIaeII aaIx apopoax; poBepT paBoT IIITypMaoo parTa .pyx
aIx' oxo.r. BIo,IoTa; op/JITop}II ec
a p BoIIoBeH aapoil oao; pT pIII o BooHoT BIrTa o){T.TepopapIllllr a BIeT.
54

o epeo:
o o o]vl,o paa^a_ o paHoploep,opo6y
pa,a Ha pa B|peoeHaoooa.poo,vo
a o-6ypoeyoHo
ao pe]
popo.Cpay o o
aleHa aHBo1ot\4.opep a paoa]oea
_ a pyo opyo6aaa,a lao oo
oBo,6oppoo
aapoB,oaHpBC otpae eepyoyapapeeHa pooee oea,rypHyoHeoy opao B,a opoo oya
a AMC opo ooe. o B oaoHa oe or t
papeH|
H,o o-6y pHH|
B|eHoB)oaeHo a paplllHeHa o,opao opo oo. Ha
Be ea a)yy)eHpMepHoa. 3a o p paoapoop |aa yeBaapBaoeoolvl,o 6a |py,
pyo apy,
oHapoB|'pyx oa,oypapeHeH oe' opa o B opao ooe.a poe_ peoeHaoooBaoHa. Coe a)ooB| poo)eoea.Bo a ( pepoa) e
|
Ha aoe.
Bro oo poBo/To o){r oal{.po aa
Trpoo p:BpIIIeHuIHa BIT.B oT BrTa o oa BITeIIo oJDIr BIoI{,ITB ooTTTB poa HaaeII,{ o
poBoTBy orToB a)aoi aa Po (HII A).
pae oa aJIIoaT B oyeT oToIIoo oTpoJI
pypoBaII,I poa BIOHH,IoToB Io o.p)III,I yTaoBIIIIoo op.a B)elvlBC a apopo B BoyIIIo poTpa. HopTBIIo ypaBrII Bo.y[rIM.BIIpoBoT .IITpo
yI B.. a a)ITpo aprIIJIrT ol{a (pao) oTBTTBoT.e. oo
T, B oopo oy]TBJUI B[ a pIIr .IIoI{aavI,
oI{ IIa)M BoyII{oo y}Ia pyoBoT Too o.II up, oopr
oTBaT a oaoT oToB yIIpaBr Bo.yIHIB o
oII.
aa,Tpa BIo oar .a)a BC. B ).llar
o ypoI oao oa oa.p BoyIIIIroo y.a T paBo
paT aoToTIIIpIIIII Q oarHI .oJlao o o .eTpy, oopr .ar orT pyoBoT oToM.
oa oTBI{}IoT a.oo .Tpa yoa TIIBIIoT)
oToB B o apo.poa' a Tal( HaJI TxIl p.TB B[. PaMoTp op'o pol Tpo yI B pyllo apoopTy p BI aoT.
o oToBIloT aoTa BITy (a aa)IpI IIa Box Tax' Tpa oTolll oT aoTa, Bp Io aoTa aprl) yIIpaBrH
T ao ep a ce dunmp pu, B aay oTopoo Bxo.T oBT aoT oT ToII (ppoa) o pyo opx<' o oTopo o aMoe y IpyBaT I{a B. Ha py opon poxoT rp.aa
ypaBIII4JI
aMoTo oT .Tpapy,I eTpy TapTa.
o epeo:
oaHo
BflvppyH,K BAHo eo oH|oeHHo
|{,oBeaeoo a e BoyHleya, oop|oo ory . o
<<t>>
- Bepxete Ko}4aoeep o axoa H|ao

55

opooop o popoNl, B epooyHa'oya op|B


aHoaJH paoaHe.a paBo,o eoBoBoo,a oopo
BpxyapeHoeao Haa pyo1'4
Ho1'1
|:<eo opo5-10
y a Ho>.Hoaooyeay pHy'o apopo}4y
/v <<o)>
aH
M(6tpepyapeeo),a a e o e opo}4eeHo
B)eap paop|Bo 70 . }o pe!oo6eHo B oe|'oa aoao)DH pyeoopo (P). BepHa
Pfl o6toHe pB|ae30 , a eoaeo,olp|e
oo aoeaMpo
o 20 aoopoH|aBHy <pao>.oapeyBay}orya
- He oae.
,[unmp cmpm' xo. opTo oylo oaoB, .arT
papIlII{}ra ay a ( Ire ayl), a BIpyBae
a B a BIoI{I{BTa. B pe ToT )I(.TppapeIaT
papIIIaT oa.y a apopoe Bx Bo.yIIrIxy.oB. o a B
rTrp Tapa p.aTypaBe BTBIIIMaoTo ducnmp p2, B aaoTopoo BoT ypaBe aoToM a pyy.
py a apo.pooB a otu aIIoaT pl,Ioyo . 5.1).
aro oo TopoHI poyoa BJUIT B. o BTa aorT
BIoH,l oeT o po o.oT Toe 1, oopa BeTTo pBoo paBopoa ( opoa! - Too JI o Il poT). oIro
o ao-o ar opp (.o, , opo ...) B pao irpopoa'
p oxo eTy pBoo p:rBopoTa o 'IeT yp orTa a 90o (totI,ITpt paopo) opHo BpeM )o, prypI apaIl B. Tao IIoT pooarT .o o.eTa Ty BTopoo
pBBopoTa' .T I{oBa IUI yp oTa a 90o oao B y ) Toporry' To I{a pBo paBopoTr. C ypo, opaI oaooy (oy),
aoT BIoIlTo .o Ta TpTo p:BBopoTa' I4IIO pil} 'IT
yp a 90o .ae Ty BpToo plBopoa. pao BpToo paBopoTa apaB oTa pa a 90o, ozrIBaTa oaoIlo (o, Ho a op) yp p po.o}IloTa To
apaBe po a B. Bo aa ypa B IIJIar (. p. 5.1) aIa pyo. TIpe paBopoa BIotUIIoTBBo' To py I{ZBIBaT
BIM'a ecv|BpaBo - To paBI.py. a apo.poo r6r oeTaIIa pyy yTaaBaTczUIIloy.

P 5.l' Cxea ya a apo.poMo:


_ ep _ pal py; ,/,2 3 4 _ Tapoo' Bopoo' pTo
'
' '
Bpoo
a3opooooeTBo.

56

B aa.ry.Tpa pya Bxo ypaBH BC a pyy, Ta a oBpIIIIltlo oaIlo' ToI a'I aro JI axo, a locay aMoT oJIoTIoIIIoIlpy IIa zrpopoMo (o p' To rpoI{ - opoo), a <a> 5 aMoTI, oe oaIIoT a pyy _ aaa
.Tpapya.
p lxo oHI pya ypaBeII aMoo p.aT dunmup
odod. oa oTBeo 'IITpa o.xo.a IIaIIaT oT paIII
pya aaI{BarT a BIII pa paoa popoa (100-150 ). B
o o p o.oa apaBeT Bo.yIo yIIo vI a yyr
Tpay' a Ty BoyIIIyIo I{) (B), o y,oy appyry.
p pe aoeTa r pa oI o.o.arTrp oxo.a paT ypaB BC Tepy paooo IITpa o TI
oopI oyITT
opaa BoyIIIoo BDI{ ( opB)'
o
pa

o
apIpyy.
Ha
py opaa
ypaBHe aoeo
yT
orr(e.
C opB! I oTaIIoB
a oxoa Tpra o)Ila ,rTpo ytr r' To B
r a a} axo ToT oTpro oeTa' B oTopo aIvIoTapaT BIoTy .JIBIoa a aaI{I{Iro ola' II:ytctl}aeTc oa. o
I{aT' To B oIIe oxo.a Be Bo.yIIrIy.a oyT ao'T a paIx
ypax' a paIx BIoTax' pIvtT BIoTI oToIlo 1\{T.aaa
,Tpa o,o._ 'aTIIyGryI oMalr.y y)oy aMory B I{yHorBp
aI o eoao IIoToB o o oTBTTBeIIIIoT.
Brr r paop rra pea ypaBIIlI BC p BeTaoTa.
p axo IIa oa.y rp.aa yIIpaBrIIJ{poo. opao op..
Paop oeo pryT BoII op,Ilyror _ oBIIIIypo oao oeToB, a Ta)I(oBIIIIeoT aTa paoI
a)I aBap.pw|T'I.
ap aa poBoT paop orTa oe BIoIl oTIIoo
a B aBaprpTvl' A paop oToB PoxoT II pe)I( o.tloo
aari7'
pil}a ]\{.Ha paop IIoToB .aT oI{a BIoIIeII'IBox oao aI I{ollf arl(a (a<a), oa paor Bx IIzlIx
yl, B To Topooo ytr, aIoT aan po.
II.a o y{IIIrIo aTBa o paoTI, o poaT TIIIx
poIB pIo M.
o epeco:
_ epopPa6op oo' ooplpoBopyoBoBoaBapp
Ho py
oo
l

oa,
pBa
ey
pElHoe.
Ap
ooe Hlyr, otvle HaaHAMC. Meoy,6yoy e
pBa pa6op oeoBoo B o r.|a, po p|yeo
p6opa po e 6to axapeaa paory oy6l.fla oa oo.
t AC y poBa pa6ope oo, o6lyve oH
yHaoeoBapep'
Popaoooea/ooplpooolHpopa6,1{eBo oo6eo. pao,y aooaa' ooptMHooBpee Bee, Bo
pa. tpat oaB, a yBepl,ap}oHoa H Ha.
pyl'lJ.
Hy, app'oe oa apyBHaoeHa oy oapBC
a6o. B 6to opoo>.}o e pa6op oea. o
]vloaa: <<Pea,
A l...( oly-o o6o.B toHopaHo.
ee p}4ep:<<P6a,

5',7

o|ya)>'flo pyopKB
o, eBHHo,He oxoT,Ho o
o/ laMoo e e 6yHaa/oopoyya oa|Bl
B Kax
oelo
KMa ooo
e. po6ooeoo
paaHoaayeoaoHoepeHoeHl4e.
5.3. pyryp IlTe}Ir opal{a}r
Bo.ylx IIoo .B)I(eII
oeo oToB BC Po o aeToo a.aB oI{ 90-x o
pollloo To,I TzlJIo)o.o yBvIBaTc.paraloT oBI BoyIxIII TpaI' TpoT oBI zlpol]opTI,paTT THBIIOT Bo.yIIIoo
Br IIo y)e y]TByIor apIpya. o5raT Bo paBTr BoTB}IaaBa'oopa II Bo,TB oTaB oyp y;I paa}Io aa (C A). o oBo' Boyxe TBT (0IIo)), yITBoBaBIIIapalrrrlr a B.( paJla yoBTBop poBaIIJ{o oaI{o oylIroo'BH.
o oTJITBo Bo poIo oaII xG.oBIIo opaa IIo yI)aBIIIo BoylIIHI .B)I(. Ta ra o.aa
Ba Ta yIIpaBrII Bo.)IIIrI
B)e (C B.)' oTopa B aTo Bp IIaIBarT o o opalla BoylIroo .B (C opB.
oor y aJIIoaI B ryto: aIIpoBa Bo.yIIIoo'BDI{' oop.I{poBalle oToB aBI7aB B.OTB'
IIIIop.TBIloypaBIr BO.)IIIrII\{
BDI(I\{'a Ta) ollTpo a o. a.alrl{oo p)a oo ara Bo,yIIIIyo, ooo
l00-ooo opaIIIIoo.
opaaoo C opB oToT aoo Tpa () C opB.{, oopl BIIeTcTpaI opao' p.IIaIIarHIJI pIIIIIyaaIx aa a TppTopPoc' al Iilp oTo pa)laoo BorIIoo TopoB. par.a op C opB prIaT ylo
ooBIII a,a!I:o IIJIapoBaII'oop.lIpoBa oIITpoJIBI{,l
(B)
BC B.oBo BoyIIIIMTpaa TIM Bo.yIIIrIIrrNI
pryJlpoalr
pypl{oT
BoIIooB;
B JI,I o oao
MB;
yIIrI oTooB ).tlTol\{poyrro ooo BoytIII pac
yllaTr B o,oToB TprIroo TI{oo paa,I BII BC; oTpo a o oaoT ypBI\{.B,IBoyII]IIIy.oB'
BIotl'lx TpIlIpI; oaoBa BoIlIlI Topol\{ B
BopooB, BaIIIx oJIoBar peTB pa.oTrxlloo oIz
zlpopooB pyx B.oTB oue oaoT oToB BC A.
B ppoplul TpaIrI ee ypaBI{ Bo'ytIIHIBII pza a oIII' a a.a ol{a - a paoI. Bo a a.o oI aa) ao.T oar (paoI) r B _ C opB (P C opBfl). oa
pao Taoo Tpa BtoT oo o oTBTBeI{oTa roaoT
ypt{oT Bo.)IIIroo.Br,I.oal paot TpI opB.{, a
ar TP, oToT paaoo oIll{oo rTopoB. paa
Top oHzUIoo Tpa C opB[ BI}IT.yro aa:apoBae oop.Irpoa o op.a BIIIo oToB B oII oTBrTTBIIIIoT;papaoy yBpII },ToI{ooaa oToB; oaoBae

58

BoIII1\{
Topo C opB rTI p)oB oToB o Tpaa B;
or orToB BC, yrox B paca, p.
Pal Irp C B pIIzBI{a pIIIIIaa Hopr.TBHIroo yIIpaBII,IB}H Boy]Ix yoB B B.OTBB paax oI
oTBTBrIIo,r.paa Top P opB pIIIT e.y ooBI a.a:opTBIIo ypaBII BlI{ BC o Tpaa MB;
olpo a BIoIIa)a B yTaoBI{I{oopa oToB.
oIo paov MTa .x(ypIx .TpoB paaoo Boroo
TopoB rooo pa C opBfl axoT o,o oaT' B BopoI'
BaIIIII ypaBr Bo.}IIrI.Bx, peIaIT N|Ip oM
oTaT a.p). ooT oBIT a oa, Ta 17
pypIIoT oToB.
o epeo:
oo opaBHoB peyaHooo6e,o He yHo BoH
oeryo eopHo,y peHpo
o eoy,H B|3IB
Bo-pl/oAH ee (
oo o oopt4y.
oo Ba oBeae pao epeaoala 6op eo oyHoo
rya) oapyoo oe 6 ypa 6eoaooeToHa oopoBpeBoyHooB)H,a
Bo-opt, HoHoBp,oa HHHo
Nro)^{.
y oHoo pooeBoMoHo
aoe-o BpM
paBo,yMHae,
ooxy(oa),oaBB a pyoo pa6ory oHe oBHo. xo
aHe ppje't|oae K orya.Ha a B,o H ypo
B olHe.
6ooooB,Ho<<paHoo>>
o op.o ypaBrII Bo.yIIII.BrIIl\{y oT anaapc.5.2.

-16

i's',

l' ( JE,l

'j
-l
JL t JB
P l' }5,1

sl. t '"E
P E y

:
Plc. 5.2. opoy opaa ypar o.yIIlIB}(ItM:
_rpaa oll oTcTBIlIloT y oIlM C opB;
_rpaa oll BBIlIlo My or.I{ P C opB..
pol'

To

alrpyT

BIIIo}lrT

oT

apo.poa'

pao-

o)Hoo 1- paor oIII.1,a apopo' paoor 3- pao o.


I 2. o BJITaaoTa' aopa BIoTI p BIII pae
oI o.xo.a apopoa BIeTa o yaaIo .Tpa o.o.a oalr.p
Bo.yIooy.a BIBaTo pao Tpo PI{ C opB[ 1-o paoa oI 1. o yTa}IoBao B oal{p BC oJIa,IBaT.T59

py o.oa' o B Tpo PI_{yaoBa. o Too


)IpaB BC poT o Tpa o.xoa apopoMa BITa
vpy PI{
C opB!
1-o paoa po oI. oopyT paBoT yIpaB
T Bo}.IxIyo Trp C opB or 1.
p o aoa or _ pae M).y l- 3- paoa r
1 - poxoT p.aa ypaBIr a (aoo) o
up PI{
C opB! 1-o paoa .Tpy PI{ C opB 3-o paoa. peava y"pu"eLIoyITBrT a:LIIoIlopa ypaBH oT
Tpa o.oa
.IITpyPI{ C opB l-o paoa. op BIoIlToo oTa
oa rr oyTBT.TpBoo oaoo Tpa.
p or To poxoT epeaa ypaBI.oT
Tpa P
C opB! 3-o paa or 1 TpyPI{ C op -o pao o"",2. B
ToM ylla p.aT Too I{op/TBI{oypaB' I{o oIITpo
a BIOIIIipx(Ma II0T oT .Tepa P C opBfl 1-o paoa
Tpy P C opB 2-ro paoa. !p P opB 3-o poa oI 2
ypaBT aoo .o rp.a yllpaBvl B
.Tpy o.lo.a apopoMa IIoa.
o epeo:
6o.p,o6paa oHpyoytJJoo
rya/ pooopoo
aloep oo rya. 3e Be poo. A o oap'oyHoo
yHa'
peoap
epor,
Halaotooo Hoo yH
ypaBeH
.Tpa
(apep,<<Poa>>,
<<Coo>>
e poe - <yoo,oxo>).
a
yHPlypaBeo|BH|e
pya toaoeHH aoaxpo-

B.

5.4. Irropoalle oToB


o |uoupoue]l nomo oMarT BpTaIIo' po.oIlo
ooo pap,oToI{eBo.)IIIyoB B Bo.yIIIoMpoTpaTBr lra yaoBIe I{TpBzlI'eea oao BoyIIIIIoo
B)K1I'
HopI IIIopoBa,I oTo oyI a exrM Boo)oTI\{MprIr,I apaMrTpoB oTa' Ta BooI{oT Ta (aooTa) BIpBa aar p)IoTa. co Too pIlTI .yIe paBa IeooBaII'I.
Bpmuo utoupolHu.p oa yo o 0
o 179o oprI{IyIO IIIOI{I
oToB: 900, 1500, 2|00, 2700, 300, 900, 4500,

5100,5700,600,6900,7500,8100,9100,l0 100,11 |oo,|2 100,14 100 ...


T..p2000. p a ypoMo 180.o359"yTaoBI
.ylo
tIIoIlI
oToB:1200,1800,2400,000, 600,42oo,4800,5400,6000,6600,
.7200,7800,8600,
9600,10600,11600,1100,15 l00 ... T..p2000.
o epeco:
eotoeoBo 0 o 179o taeH|l4,
o 180 o 359" _ eH|M.
o loeo oHHo(9, |5, 2t .. eoH|eeHl,
a |2, 78,24 '. _ et)'
Ho peopyo. Hopa noeo ep6ypa Moy ("apuune
)eH
pepHo150o)oe e|-i|e/
a Mol eepyp(apee30o)

_ eHl.

60

podoo oupou. B aBo oT yoB oa (yar o popa' .HeBIIo oo ..) p oTr a o.HoIIroII
paToII r).y aoTa oT oaT oo par N,IMaI{o
c o 2 o 30 oo oT l pao paTo, oTopo aoT peooeBaea epo tI 10 oeTa.
oooe uteoupou. fIo paBa oooo IIIeopoBa'I paoe o o.}IBo.)IIIxTpa o}o r e 50 . p
oTe B Tpa ooo paToH e).y aoTa' B oo
poTBoooIx apaB,l' o)I(Ho r r 10 .
p roa (app, p He) pe ttx{HoIroIIa Mo)o poBo. B To }ar' JI Ila IlrM IIIo}Iro pa.ro
To pee llloa }ITpyx Bo.yIIIIxy.o 20-30 .
p pevlBoyIIII Tpa a oIIo [Ieoe o.I{o Bo.yIIrI
y.oB .oDI(o po oy p Tpa B ToT MoT' oa pyoe B
ao o o To I{a pao o 20 o 30 vIHa Tao paToI{'
oTopo aMo pooBaTa po. Mee 15 oTa.
ooro paBa oooo pooI{oo IoIIpoBaIrI{,IoHI B
oorx paBa oTa lra.TeppTop Po (o) Haatl o
y BIt B paao aaPocc ( A).
5.5. Ool oeToBo)I(.II
Caooo)ll' Bo).Iaaa' a aya ).lIaT TopIo
paTy eoaoo oTpoBa BC B BoyIIIoM poTpal{. poo lJv|omoodeuollaT o1\{IIec Kaa aaoI yl B,(, apaBIIIx a oTooe a I\,IToI{ao'I{
eTaI oalx oo or oT o aaoy MapIpyy'
a Ta pI B yIIT Haae IIa aao Io B yTaoBIto
Bp. o paa BTa o. Ca po: I|omoodumo dmu u|ltJtcu tte4l, omopl |loom ezd Hm,
zd loem odum lrmo pJ|l u Iu]wpco]' u c o opom ]'|do mm, mo noncm d molg) doe p4.
or aaII a oT, a BC poo o.oToBy oTy'
oopa BJIa poay a apT l\{aplpyIa oeTa, oTaB pr.BapToo lllypaoo paTa oTa eI p. .pyx popT. oe Ba a)' o TII p.TBa' IBOT orT oI
apopo BITa, aT a a'aylo Tpay (app) oa B oll appyla - B olry apo.poa oa.
Too aMoToBo)H aB.I o TooT BIIIoIIIpBapTJI}IIxpaToB o. p)a oJIa: ypa' opoT BIoTl.
o, oyII a(M B paTax' apyIIIHr pr)a oTa oy
IIpBT aTtloy oToIt}I aoa o apIpya or
oa Bo Bpe pxoa BC a apopo oa. or BoBpeHo
oapy paBT or' a .oItoTotlo oleTBJUI
B oT olrpo y' T.. BT opI{poBy. oy TII
pTBa]\,I,oxoo po. Bo Bp oTa op.T a.ro I\{Toaxo Boo aoJla BoT' To }I)Do,Hr B

61

aBaoIlI{I

p) oTa - B yp, opoT BIoTy. oy


aoToBoI{' oyT Too opoyr aIlapaTypy' Ho aI{I{I
arIx paoxllx
p.TB oTpo' paTI oTopIx oaIBaIoT B
I]orT ).ITBIrIry oo.
CopI
T pTBa a,{oToBoI{,I o xapaTpy po opa
p
ec eTc a Ip pyIII: Zomu|l, paouomuue, mpoo|uu momucue. Te prTBa aNIoToBo)rqI{'I oy r aooIlIM aBTooNIIM.
AoI
pTBa pyro aJIIroo IIaIloo oopyoBaIl vI
pM'II B oTa roo .aHoT. a pTBa oTIIoT oTrx, aTpo}IoMr
a paoTexll
p.TB aoToBo). I{aBTooN{I pTBa oHoT B oIloBo aoT}II paoTHe p.Ba, oTopI oyt r ooBaIII Too B oJI
paI{I aeHIM ypoa.
p
pTB aI\{oToBotI,I ooBal{ Ha
e ox
pI{ piBIIIx apaTpoB e
o e. ox
pr.a B o pyM p.TBa pN{rI{IoT B a),oM orT.
BIp)Ba a.aoo HaBaoI{I{oo pea. pooa ypoa
aI aapr orTBa oTxllx
pr.TB, a)oT aBTooIIOT BJUIIOT aBII\{ oToTa
o pyI p.TB aoToBo' To oBorT IIIpoo pHT x a Brx Ta B ooT p.TBa ooBlloo aa. oaTa roTopIx oTxx
p.TB
aMoToBoI{'I o)I{o oTI{ paBIrJIIIo I{BIoy ToIloT aBaoIIIx p r aBoT oT poeoo aN{oTo paTolul, a Ta) oaIrIlI{I BoMo)IGIoT oJIoBaII |Ip oT B oxttlIx l\,ITropoo[Ir[D( yoB,Ix. o
pr.TBa aoToBoIl,I
oTTIoT
aTI{I oaI, pooIIlI
IIaBaIII{OI trIoTa)Ilr popr,
.{TaoHI poMaTI{Ir oMaI' )4)oBIr TI' y:BaJI oylo
opoT' apo.lI{r
BIoTopI' TpMoTpI apy)oo Bo.yxa' aBaIuIoHIrH,IaTopI' pzUII TeI' xaee aI ,p.
Paox
p.TBa aooBo)ellll
pIrIT B ooBIloM
p o)lc{Ix Teopoox
yoB' Ta a oI{ oBoIT pIIIaT o.
T B ooBI a.a aoToBo).rI{'I .oTaToIlo sl paT ToIIor. aap

BIoo oo aBToaTavI p roopI papBa HaIIMI p oa.r aN{oToB B O)III MyoBx.


Paoxe
p.TBa aMooBoII
MIT Bo II.oaT. B pBylo op oTIIoT opaI{a
.zlJII{oT ec, ooo p orTax IIa N{aIx BIoTa, aBMoT ToIIOT p oT paTo I\{.y BC ao a, a a oBpIIoT TTBHIII yTBI{III pa.ooa. paoxu prTBa aoToBoxt.I4 oToT yopIII paoIl
l\{I, aI{opIe TI' arIl aoTIII paooaTopI' .o.oTIl
Topoorx

epoB

pT
TlI, pa.oBIoToMpI' o.oI TI
I{aIlI aorI oopyoa p.
p
eilc aTpollox
pTB aoToBoI{
ooBa
IIa pI{ paI apaTpo r T. AoooT aB-

62

oT ToIloT pI{ oT aoT oTa o,aIT BooxtoT IIIpooo pLIeIl aTpollor


pTB B paI
yoB'Ix IIoTa.
.oaa To pyI pB yT oT}IT opao
(o)oT) x pMIr np oTyTB B.oT r BT paBTea o)tloT paol I{M B yoB Tro aoTa.
aootl
peTBaM aoToBo,I oTIloT aorTIII TaI{TI,TpooaI, aTpoo opTpI .p.
oxe
p.TBa aoToBoIl
pTaB oo Ha-

HI opol To BTa. a pya p.TB pMIr,IT aI opao oto p oTa B o)I{I Topoo
yoB o.aItlI BrToBIx op}ITpo. CpaTo
ora ao
pBa Toy' To BrToTxII
pTBa oTIIoT p.TBa BooaToo aaIlll'
ox
p.Ba caoToBo}Iul oToT BT9BI aI a' BrToBo yIro-ToBo
oopyoa
B BC' BToBo
oopyoa ao.pooB pa' a Ta ptIr poTrr
pTBa.

B oo oaoo To}too orTa o apIpyT, pao apopoa'


a Ta p BT oa )ltT p ooo ooBaH B
Io TrIIx p.TB aoToBo. - a aeIx. Ta ooTOBI.
5.6. Oor

II)eepo-IIITypIl{Ir

paeToB

oTa

lpo-ITypa
pa oeTa BIot{T a Io
opT oyro }Iy ap]pya, BpM oTa o appyTy' aa Too
BpII B aBoT oT poox{THoT oa allaca ToBa a a-

oT' Bp Boo.a aoa oa

... PaT oTa o.paT a

pr.Baprr ooaTr.
pdpumtpm no poBo.lIITypaHo
){TaBTpa o T aIao <ro poJla.). a paatr oToB (p
BITaBC), ryp oprTpoBoo opr/JUITpoorTIIoToTa
o apIpyy oTBo ToBa' oxooe BIoIl oa. PyTaTIpeBapToo paTa aIBa)T B ar )ypa'
om t p em om poBo.T rop.TBHIlo rp. BIToM I{a ooBr.aI o BTp TI\{rpaTypBoya oo aop
(a ro ), oyI a opooo Ta B apoopTy
(A - aBaoI{I{a Topooa TaLUI, paalla). BIo
ooaTr pav oTa' IIIT}paI{}"TOHTpBapTr paT' oopl r ea apall.
oa JIa\4ap]pyla paTor Bpr oTa op/JUIT
a ).I\{a
paco Bp }y ooBIlI Toa apIpya (appo BIlTa'
xr ytllt apl]Ipya' poxtyloIlI yrrTI Mappyla' oI yT
appyra, apopooa).
B pya I(IIpo-IIITypaoopaTa op,IoT a.oo
pooo rlaTa apIp}"Ia .DpoaBaoI{Ie xapaTpT oTa
(roa, opoT' yp), a Ta) paxo ToBa a To ya oTBo
oTaB[Io ToB a opy Boyllllroo ya.
6

B pa.rr BpyHyIo lllTypa BIoIITa 445 rp oeTo


aI{oT x peyJITaTra a IIITypaII opooo )yp.ra' o eBylo
ooBy. B payro oJIoBIIy op;ypaa,aI aIIoT B oT paBBaT parTI{I. CopIo oBIIo' To o ToIloT parToB '
ao aBltor' oT ToIIoT Topooo Ilopa o aueo
o).aMooo. aB.|paBJIIloTrpo-Iyp]r{ax paToB.
B 90-x o.o poIIIoo orT B p apoopToB TpaIII Ia
BBa B rTB AoapoBa}Ia Ta IIITyMaI{oo o}I
papaoTaa oTpy,a PM oB]\{o po
oToB (AlIIo),
Ira{IIIx opaa paaor4 aBa.
a a oBoJUIT' oy pooTr .aI{Io pap rooTrl{zra B Booo aTorpr' o).IlI B pyaT paa B
poe Po' BIoT I{}I{pIlo.IIIT)apaI pp.
I{o .JUI1000 oyrI Tpa. p Ty Try' I\{o)oII oo oBIT poBo,ToT Tpy,a TI{oo oTaBa oBooT IIITypaa oT oBoo o)IIIx paoT, IIo o).tITaTItI oo . oI{oM ACIIIO BoIIaeT -a Too, To tloy Ty T]vIy'
Mo)o oTaToIIo lo oa paIrI BapaHTI oTa apoopTa
BITao apoopTa Haae (paIr IeoI oTa a oo pa
14Ha paIx aax) Ipa oT:UIIiIpe ]\{apIpyIIoeTa.
Cyyra a ra, oItoBI oopo lll papaoar C.B. CooIII B epr 60-x ooB poIoo ToeTl,aeTooo oIIo ooo 10 pe.
o epeo:
.'
oa.Bo-plx,ooeAo BaoTp HepeHl
C oae},t|
C'B. Cooa a HayHooepH Moe o o, o BM ooB|.
pa oea, BIaoypy pa)epo-rypMa
oatvrooHo
a.
o
op,aaB,o e BM erypl4aa
paHo
aoo

a rypa pave oa, o oH, rypa, topaBo Bo ypay.


pe o
epe o Atljo a aa B oIHyyaal BIoHa
paa].C al rypa oe oo o ypay H - oo He | 1 .

Bo.oplx,ey Ao papao(PMy, a oa M) epoaaHo


oH
ea Mopoooo
xoeaBAMo - aBoMapoBaHHa
Papa6oaao aoo3.Ho a ao a oe <<ryprHo>'
e a, o HHeACMO 6oe ooeye pae|l'lo aaa.
yIKy,
oo e Bryo y BeoepBo:o a- o a|Be
eMyepeeHoBa.
B-p,B uJrypaHepIB paaAo 6t loet ao
(B A), oopl Ho B }4oBB
B|eo
eHpe pao aBavl,
ta opooo apooa. B xoy opa paeog o)^]aB
o B A. o oo (eB p ol"|pa
poeep(), paooeHHol
opat
oo) epeaop M B A ooa
oe>.B I eo6xoaopaalBaaoa
006 <<)<aHoo
e a ery, a H a , eHa B a a I'are ry ry 3 B
yol-lleoa. Ceva,
o opa>>
A. Bo o <<]vral
y aBHoa po,eBHHo,
H yBye.

64

otpoe

onpoc'

pde

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1 l.
|2.
13.
14.

Hao ooBllylo IqIIIIHBoloBeI oo r.


aa I{a aIBa apoI{a arBo aoa?
o ao IIoJIpa pIa aora?
o ao apapT aopI aBcIopo ya?
o aoe uo Ma?
aa opo Ioa :BIBa p.ro?
Ha ao BIo aoeI o} eaT o pByoo oporo?
Ho ooBI rI opy aooB BooB.
aa paIra ).y oo paoaao a Ba.re'
aa Ioa IIaIa ooo aoa?
Hao oIloIIIe TaI Ba oall aoTa.
JI ax oy eI xaa pra aoea?
ao B oa aoea IIaj}IBarc apoa?
Ho ppIr a oo oTplBa oaoIr opo oBpeI
aoeoB.
15' o a )aa raupy aoI oeI paao aBIa|I?
l6. flo a Iraa Jlapy apo,po pa)I(al{o a:al?
|,7' aa paa .y apo.pool\4 apoopo?
l8. Hoe oIloBI oaI{I a ilpo.Poa.
l9. Ha a oIloIII a. oyIIIor poTpaBo pao apopoa?
20' a ooI I oao}II oy a apopoax?
21 . o aBJUI tla o roo ao IIIlBIloT (oB o)?

65

Pae 2. BnH APAEPOB A]UtoEPl


HA APAPI oEA Bo3ylllHlx yoB
aaI a!
B po pa.ra I oaoNIvIBa ooBaN{apo.a'
opaa .lpo I B pa).ao aa' Ta oa. Bo.yIIyoB Io .py TpIII Ba. Tp I
IIaT,oy aoJITTaT' oT o oro, r r.
B o par a I a _ <o aBaoo op>. B oyrx aax MI paoTp' a B,IIoTapaMTpIaopI IIa apapI oTa BoyIIIoo y.a, paa), . eo B aBaoIIIx poI{oa oo.IyaIBaTTa IIkla eTopooa BI{a.
a 6
BI4[I

TMIIPATPI

I II^B IIIiUI

IIA oTI BOIIIIII oB


6.1. CaapTII

apa

IIaIIaIIe

B apapI opI IIaTo ItIoT B popaI{TB Bp. ,{TBIIo, p poBo.TB a


a o Iap apoBaI TeIIpaTypI Bo.yxa y o 50o Ta .o 85o opoa, a aopI{o ,aB - o 890 o 1080 a.
Ta pa,I a Topoox
BII pBoT Toy,
To Ta}IoBT }IBOOIII pMo paBIrH pryTaToB pilIII Ia T' ooo aBao}Io, oopI poBoT B paI{I yoBx.
.{ oo or T pyTaTI o)IG{o Io paBaT, BBr.IIo oI{T
mdpma
mopa.
aapTl{a aToepa pr.TaBe oo opHI aIII.UI MTopoo
BH y a BIoa' oTopI
paoa,
pI{'ITI Bo BM p oTopI I{ aBT Ir oT op.roo
oT BpII o.a' oT Bpr yTo.
B ao BpM ar TpaII pH,ITa TaIIapTIIa aopa (CA81), oopa

ooTBTTByT

BIT opIIIM

,ylrapoo.

Ba

aopl
,{aI aapo
HooJITIlx aro ooTBTTBy-

T Try rpoy a rrlpoTr ppo 45".


Ha pa ao lllpoo papoTpare pMr}II{ oy
yro apaeTpIaapo aopr:
_ aopo .aBy JI(p.:760 MN{pT. . : 1013,2a);
- TI!{paT)a
Boya y r (r" :ts oC : 288 );
- yopI{ oooo IIaelI4(g : 9 ,80665^/ c.);
- IlIIoTIloTBoyxa y (p: |,2255 rlc');
_ oTocTIIaBaoTBo.yxaa B BIoTa(R :0);
- BTp Bex BIoTa- u]mu;
- BpTUII paT TrpaT)PIB o 11 (y9-11:0,65 I{/l00 );
- BpTaJIIpT TpaTypIB o l l-20 l (Y'' zo:0);
- TI\{paTypax< p paopl (T+o : -56,5 oC: 2|6,5
: onst);
66

_ opoT Bafa = 2o,o5 f5


1/1,re T - TrpaTypaoyxa ()].
aopoo aBrI{ ro B aH.apTI{oaope o
r .o BIoTI 11 poo,T o aoy oTpoIIo aopI (paypa Boya roo yIae o oMy aoy T: To-, a BIIII,
.o BIoTI20 _ o aoy oTpeo aoepI (: onst).
B a. 6.1 pIII IIaI{ Tp oI{oBIlI aTpoB aapo
aoepr oT o BIoTI20 .
APAM'TPI
Broa,

r IIpaypa Bo.IIyxa

2
288.l 5
284.90
28t,65
275.1 5

0
500
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
0 000
2 000
4 000
6 000
8 000
20 000
ory

TAII.APTI{O ATpIOPI
(opar ar)

1 5 .0

r 1.8
8 ,5
2.0

268.65

45

262. 1 s
255.65
249.15
242,65
26.|5
229.65
22 ' |5
6.5
Z 6.5
2 .5
6,5
z 6.5

-l

t .0

-17.s
-24.0
-30.5

-7.0
-{1 5

-50.0
_5'5
-56.5
- 56 s
- 56 5

-56.5

AoDo
a

.IIaIt
I\{ p. .

|0 | . 2
954.6
898.8

795,0
'70t.1
616.4
540.2
4 7t .8
410,6
356.0
307.4
264.4

193.3
141.0
102,9
75.0
54.8

5
760,0
716.0
6'74.1
596.

52s.9
462.

405.2
53'9
308.0
267.0
20.6
198.3
145.0
105,8
77.2
56.3
4t.l

Tu6.1

Copo
y,
6

40'
338.4
36.4

2.5
2 8 . 6
24.6

20.5
316,4

|2'
308.1
303.8
299.s

29s
295
295
295
295

apaN{eIpI aaprro

aopr, o)llo yIIIHo pIIIaT ptBzlIIHIr oo paBIII\{ pryJITaToB IIITa

poBp roo TII' ooo aaI.loro.

JI.II BopoI'

6.2. B lle

TepaTypI

apoproo

.aBIl
BIoTolvIp a

IIa oaII

poea

pII,I BIoTI' a oop eTT Bo).I{or y,IIo, I{ aa


a otT ozaT a pr B. [o'
r al\{orT
TT opoIITaIIo (p. 6.l), o o ao BIoT oTa o a BIoTax
oTa o)Ho oop?
poTa'

. 6.1. opIo BIoI oa aoa.

67

a o pylra' oHo oBopT o ro oTa (Hn"'),


aoto BIo oa (H^.) - IoT oa a. ypoBHM op' a TaI( o
OIIOTJIII I oTa (f1".") - BIoTe oa oTI{oTo apopoa
BITa (oa)

JI oToTHo TaapTIIoo aBeLl y .


oTa oT oprT
ooIo paoTxl{x
pTB' IIooIo apopoo
BIoTorpa. p ooBa
pa.oBIoTorpa opJUIT],Lc.|]fl]1.aBIoTa oTa (H"-). p paor
Broa

popa

ooB}I a rpIl BpMIl poxo(ItJl paoBoopacco


oT paTa' yTaI{oBIIoo a opy aoTa, .o oBpIIoT

opao.

Paorool\,IpI oaT
BIo)o ToIIoT p, x oaaII BT oT Topoox
yo opoT oTa. o.ao ooBaT pa/oBIoTopI p orTax TpyIIo' ooo a pro
TTIoT' Ta a B ToM {a oaa BIoTopa yyr (pIaT) o
opoIo MIIII,I BIoTI pa.
Oor To.o l\{pI{,I BIoTI B oT .eTc pove
MTo., o).
aoopoT
I{ aopo
.aBIl
roo.

l oBa, T B oT p I{ BIoTy oTa' a aB IIa BIOT oTa vI' B,en'B IIoaa,I BIoopa oxor IIopaB'
op.e BIoTy oTa. ooa
I a apa (Ioopa) paypyeT B .IIax BIoTI rr yo TaI{apTI{o aopI.
xa app.roo
BIoTopa p.TaBI{a a pc. 6'2.

paJIHa

f-

Plc. 6.2' paa a pIraBo')IIoo


aet(),
apopooBIoopa(E yzaroyro opo (-B):
1 _ ooo aBeI7;2
_ pyopoo;
- p aoo aBrII;3
y' - I1pa,rpa;
_ paoraM
5 _ ,ra lo; 6_ o.ajlIIIzra.aBII;7,8
apopooBloopa;9_ apo-al{po;10 - aayaar opo; 1 l, I2 _
paotrxa yaaJUIoyIo opo; 13 _ aopecl<a
opoa;
C _ aaaaB; -.aa apa B.{.
BIoop
cTaaBBaT B a aoTa a popo
.o. Ta
a .aBI{ B ar oT yITBIIo oTaT oT .aBeII Bo).xa a
ypoB oTa' o pop p oo aIloo
yopoBo.a oIUIrT
pMlro Bo)rIHoo aB'I (B), oopr eT oTBrpT .JI B
68

aT{opo(p. 6.2).TIByTaHaBBa TaM opao, or aoJITIl


olIBa a)ao B Ira Bo.yIroo. p o yIIIIIaT
apo.aor, aB oT opoT oTa aoa, a B!
Ta o paIIoo)l(II,I.
a yalao BIIII,IIIaa apooo BIoTorpa pa.}pyT
pT}Io yoB,l Ta,apo aopI (CA). p oT B po aep THa BIoTa oTa oT l pao. Boal
or ]\,loyt r polmpuI'l],tu,kImJ1||pmplJ|t,t.
pompuc ot,u yTpaT p B opaB a .aBII
yT yTaoB o.r IaI BIoTopa B ooTBTTByIo oJIo}. p BTo aoTa JIoT p oo paepl 4 caaBBaT
Tp popa a yBor eII. p o y BIoTIo a 5 ooBTTBT a aBI{ IIa o.B)l(ra , pao .aB Bo.ya
a ypoBH B. B ar BIoTop ye oaIBaT omoumltlo
om _ BIoTy' oToTIlo apo.poa BITa.
ol BI,p)BaTB oeT BIoTy IIIoI{a'rT IIo oT,l
oao BIoTIoa Ila oBDI{o ra yao aB 760
p. T. B arTB o.oo IIaIIjI oTa BIOTIIIIoa oTI{oTo aBrll IIa ypoB Mop B yoB'l A. Ta.ealoT Br a, HaxoeB Bo.y.

o epeo:
yaoo Haepe oeooHo oBHoae B|oopa
aopHooaBH,oopoy aa AC' 06lo oH oo H aB|o|>>.
op
, a pooHa loopeyaapHa <<o
He HoaMep
Ha Ho, l{oe poBp,paBl-to
B|ooMpa
aeHe.fl oo oe yaoBpoa HoHo oao oo
ypoH B. E
ae popa HaeHaoepooaBH,pBH||oo
Haale'yaHoey AMC, aBeHH oBHoe too3a,o aBHe
oa pp6opa o3lBa<<Ho>>/
opa B MolvlH,
aepeHopaB||o.
| e oo aeaHo oye oBoy:Bo BpeMoea<<aa>>
ooepaBeo p paa: ept-yaHaBBa Ho |olpe B|eo;opo yaHaBBo oBoa aee760
o aopa 6oao|o|
p. l-. pe - ep oaoyaHaBBaaHeHa ypoH B popoa
oolvlop.
oa.B oaoBpMoH Ha loor"tp
Ha opoAepa:<Bto?>oapeoaoa Mo)o, poo,<500 o BaeyaBe>.B po
: <6000 o aHapry)>
H noBHoae yHoHo
ya H B|oollp
aBH760 , a o Bopo_
aBHeHa ypoHB apopoaoa.
p o }T{Ty oa T tIoa yTaI{aBBaT a pop
aBII lra 1poBll B appoa I]oa,.
C. o aoepl{o .aBHB Tpax pTyTlroo oa a
ypoBl{ B oaTo paloT a p aoTa B Bo. ooI, oao I{a aBaTopooo a. F,c AMC, a oopo poBo p aopoo .B}I'paoo)rlla BIIII |1LDe
ypo B' o.aBr pBo. }poB}IIo<pao TapTa) BTIIoooI, a o ar pBo.T rToaaJI TpI pT}"TIroo
oa. o B opIr aBelra ypoBr B oy BTcp69

o eTIx porrITB poIo Il. Happ, r a op aoTa pr.ao ,aBH o a 5 p.T. B Topoy yB, o
BIoa o apopoy BIoTopy p axo I{a oay y alta pMeprro a 50 ' To B oI rTropoox yoBx Mo)T p.
B TooBrro aoTa aI oaM.
o epeo:
ypo B oaBeH|^
- opaa oaHapoepap pt1||
<pa6oeo
apa>B

p
Hy
apo}4pa
B|o

B ex yax' oa
oe ao
ape>>.
pele2 . 3 He paHooBopeHHoo <(pa6oe!
hloepo,
eoo
Ha
paooH
B|e
pyoo
lae I(,o oH ope B
a p o oMypo opayHa pBe ypog B oHe y)o
_ oaHo;
apolvt
(ple]eHee2 ), a p oe pooooH|]vl
oo aBeH
p.

epa
'

6oe
B
5
M

oo
]ilepHe
aH
Ha op aoe, aoo Ha oay, a peolo Hot'lypoeB o Be eoo.lo6l.oao o.l 5 p. . Bpeapa peo.
HHooa Haaeo6aHa ... 10 p. . fleo B o, o p oe
paepyaHegooo'a o <750>
<<750>>
ae3Hae<<755>>
<760> oaoHo eKo.A o y) o6a 100 },tpoBIol}ro
oeHoo.
Tepmp oulu BoIIa a T oJIoIIIl pIIe TpaTy:
pI o oT .o aal{o BIoTI oa o Ta.apItoo Itarl{. Hae o oI paTIBa lTypallo' Ho o aIII (eopooe) .aIo paprrll TrrpaTyI Bo.yxa BIoo. Pa poBo, o opy
7 _7
"- .cu

-
,
.T p'a

(6.1)

,4p = 0,5(To + T,); To T' - TrpaTpa y r I{a ilIro oTa ooTBTTBo.

B p, opalr,l oToHIry BIoTy ora' aoT rTT o ao-o opoT.l' a o oap' pa BIoa oTe eT o apoeTpeoy BIoTopy. ).tIIBaToTJIoe pe elupaTypI
o o Ta}I.apTooaII,l, To oI B oIIpeII BIoTI oa oyt
oTaBT 8-I o/o,a To ye oTaToo I{oo.
Bom od u npuu' t./||oodul np)o menpmpI od
eJuu t \om),omopt oom mo]|1ocm.
6.3. Be }IepaTypI .aBrIIIt
a oaall ya BoyIIIo opoT
(Bo.{ ope:g;vlopo BIIlUl aoTa oTItoTIro Bo,yxa
_
odHo
pop
e:UII
I)
oT
opo
am
yl]]o
opocmu. p o TBI.UIo}IoBa a ptl |4HaNIrooaB (opoToo aopa q) - paoT ey oJIItIp aTlIeNIpc aBIIM Boyxa B o.
po aT) yza BoyIIIo poT' a apopoo
pH Boy}Ioo .aBII(IB, pc. 6.2). B .aBIoTorpa BII.T
'
yI aMpy B! .lp oTBpT' opao B Topoy oToa' oa.aT oIIo .aBr (pJ. o TpyopoBoy To aBrII ep.a B ooT
70

al{olvlpo opokl 13' epe oor oepT'l 2 caecylo apy


B.( paeTc cTaToe aBHr ("'u.). o aBe aoap aIo BTopoo opooa yTaaBBa B pTo opy popa.
o. .l\{pzo Ilaoo TaToo .aBeII poo
.eop aoTpeo opo I3, oTopa p oo paToIloo
xa]\aI], ]2 epaT Tpa yaaTr oyro opoT'
Ta opaoM, TaTo aBTIe(pqr) - o aB a BIoT
oa, o oo.aBe (p") ore TaToo a BeIIy opooo
aopa q:
Q

=(Pn-

P rr^ r)

' 90 qV2 nn
= O--,

(6.2)

e _ oT poopollao; ph,- oToT Bo.yxaI{a BIo


o; Vun- I4cTkrHIa
opo oeTa.
epao opo (paT)) py IIIIUIy'o ao pp
y oaIaT opoT oa. oao Ty oa poMa: a ao
BIoTr ((Bo))oToT, a To IIa' To p .o o opoT oTa
a paIx BIoTax y. <o)) opoT. o Iay yaaJUI Bo.yIo opo paypyloT oToTeJIo oTo Bo,yxa y B aapTIx yoB (po'
p ToM yaaT opo oa)I(T Ta aIBa)r)
"').
popyro opo ("p). oaarlpopa o)o opT o opy:

(6.3)
Ta a oaa pop aBT ToJIo oT IIaII opoToo aopa
(q), o a oI{oBaBIpa)(6.2) (6.) Mo)IGIoaa Ipaxre(6'4):
(6.4)
Pn,qYz"n = Po,nVznp o.eo BIpa) poTo ao.T vIcTH:aopoT oTa B
aBoT oT oaa yaa Boyl]]o opo:

*=n"oE

(6.s)

B aoe Bp a Bo.yIIIx yax o).IoT II )raaT opocT' a opoaI ).aaT opoT' Ta IlziIBaICl. p.
opl T .B p' a l oy. Toa pa oaIBaeT popyr
opoT oTa' a ToHa TDa - Tyto opo oTa' o oo B
ra TaIIapToo papell TrrpaypI Boyxa roo. B peaIlIx yoB,l opoT ora, pelra o oo p' ox(eT oTa o ao opo oTaa 10-l5 Yo.Be opa p op.r
opoT oTa B oaa C BBo.T op.e II]T)aIIo MsTopoo .aI{IM,oyIlI oT I{oTa.
oT ypaB oToI{I4(p: pRZ), o e pa aoBT oIITI' oMy eeoya poHopy TMpaTypy Boyxa aopI{o aB B Tepax oee aBIa|4vl.
o epeo:
p oee pxByo|xMoeo paope Hoa oe oy
oH epeHaapHa. pea e, o oe e H B|oe20 000 o

7l

opoooo 2000 /, a p6opHaopooo aMoea,opeeao oo pe Ca, oaT Ha opo 6oe 600 /. Be eo B opoHoaope HouJoo|.loBoya a o B|oe.A o o pa oo popa ye o6aeHooa H BepxByoyopooea'
.4. B T}repaTypr ,aBeII
a aoll{ apaTpT Bo.yuIIIIxo
ooI apoa apaTpT BoyIIIIx yoB rr paoTpI B TpT aB Too ya, pI\{ o pIIJI irpo.Ila' a Hl opoo. ea po o.oT o poe pyo
Topo}II.
o (. ay 3), o aoT Mo)T TeT opol{irHo B o yar, eQIIv!o}Ia a paBIIa o ae' .. )/: G. C,oaIto, co vI
opyr oo I'
Y = G = " ,S ,

(6.6)

opa opo opoIITrIIoo oeTa ye paa


r/_
'

2G

(6.7)

"rSP
a .o By or lpa<e, opa opo opotlTaoo oTa yIBaTc B To yae' e a BIoT oea
yeBae Te)^IIIIaToToT Boya (yeIa .aBelre
opee op
oy
o,ITIIo'
paypa). Ta opao, TaoB
oya.
TeIlepaTypi
e
pooa
o opoT .,on"'u o)e e oo
yBBaeoJIa
yBe
IoI
tpa (6.7) B.o' To
opHa opoT opoTzrIloo oea' Ta a BIoo yeIIIaeT oI{oT Bo.yxa. po Too' or.Ileo BIpa)e B.I{o'To yBeII TepaTypI pBo Ta)I( yBJII opeo opo.
, o BpITrIIpaTypla opyro opoT oa oap.
porpHpyr BIpa)e (6.7). Toa o}I
..oIp

^v

=L,n op ^ T,
2'
T

(6.8)

A_ oTIIo epaTypI Boya oT Ta}IapI{ooaeII.


Too a T oTJIo TpaT)pI Bo.yxa oT Taap oa
opo oTa o)(TH I{a 100 l/ oe, o opell y)r
.o IIITypaa, a Ieeoylr.
6.5. B eepaypr .aBe
Ha ry.Bae po. oBa
o py o/aJI T aBaoIII .BaTr oparJUIIoTc a
umle' o.a y Bpa}I BoyIHoo BIIa' pmuI' B oopIx a BoItaT a T TeH aoB paBoo oa Bae'
opoaI - mpoumole (TB)' B oopD( otloa Ta oaT
'72

Bo.yIItIBtIToM' a ppllo 8_|2 % ((.oaBJUI)a ,I poyToB opal{.


Bore opI[eBI .BaTyTaaBBanroTca aoTax oIo opoT oeTa (200_500 /v), a TaI(I{a Bepoax. TypooBIe BaTeII HaIl7|4Bo pIueeHe' B otlool\{' a aoax o opoTIo
orTa 500_800 l/, a paTBI ypopeaBtlI (TP _ a a oByoBIx, a a BpxByoBIx aoax.
Haora a T' oTopylo MoT pzul BaTJI a ao BIoT p aM.Lo p) o paol' H.lIBaTpnolzlo mzo
ooaa Po.
Paoaaa Ta TP.( IIao p oprJUIT aBeHkIe
Tpaypo oya a BIo oTa. a ao yeT pIla
paor .a' xa oopoo pe.TaeIIa a pc. 6..
TlJ

Ptlc.6.3.p"a
aypopaoo
aaolloo
BaJUI:
1 - opry;2 - o<oaop;
3 _ oPop;4 - aepaopalrlr;
J _ o.rol
aapa;6 _ pa;7 - paooo.
AopI o, oTyIaIoI TP.{ p oTe aoa o opocTIo I/, )aeT B Bo.yxoaope aee ypoopop. Car, a
oBaTo' apeI oyx o.a B apy opa' B oTopylo oTya oBo (aaooe oo JIJIpraTBI{Ix aoo _ epo).
opaoaIecp opa ToBa aI paaro p paTBIlo oIIo BITra Hapy. Copo cee ao C IIaTrIIo IIpBIIIIa opo oeTa alvIoTa V, a cue ro BoI{arT paB. a. Ta opao, B ,BaTpoo ]vlee oJIBa BvDelflLzloB.
exa' a oIIoBa Tpreo aoa Ho, BeTIIo' To y I pa IvlIlIooBa >,.e. o ylae o)I(o
aaT:

Podt:d(mV)=mdV+Ydm.

(6.e)

p dt = | . To.a aT BIpa)eH(6.9) y a oa
Too paoaara Ta Po, a pao - (m dV + V dm). ! alo r{a
ox(o aa:

r,=9*{-r1+9-c'

(6.10)

G"o., G" - acca oyxa ToIIBa' poo.e p aT a eylly;


_
8. yopIr oooo a.eII.
Ta a aa Bo.yxa' poo p BaTr' aTeo oru
al ToBa' opa B Ba To } Bp' To BopI aaI B
l

paBo aT ypaB (6.10) o}(o pI{p.Toa B ooaTo B


o{1\,I

G
" " o . ( _V) .
Po =
-o

(6.11)

oo BIpa B.t{o'To a.BaTe aBT o aI Bopoxo ep Ho B .Iry BpeII, a oBaT}lo, oT pa'ya'


TypI aH. p o Ha oTo}Io BIoT Ta BaTeII a.cT
Too oT TpaTypI (oTe yaB oo).
Bo o,a pHa, o B po}Ioax oo.I aBayaIBar Tepaypa Boyxa.
o epeo:
oa po|aae(. p. 6.3) oooo|a a a|Bay
opayaepy.}a aepa paooHaa ryp6o )D
ooeooorye oa ae. Toa orya ]"loo,o
pepoHa eBep'yery .o pPt
oBoeo,
yBee
oe oy Beal4o, ae paopeHHoo
opo oea ( olx aMooB).ooo Ha op}(Hopee
He- ooopao(oaoBa.Ta, p BKeopaapac(o epoaB
ae oa Betpo e4opoye eyy B|Bepo o|,a B
ry'
B epo poopae. Bo o oe ooHeHy
oop o p.aE89-T8II!'e,yT B By' o B aBa a Bo
oyTc BaTII:To paxo oBa: aoBo opr.
oo pcod monu () oaIBaT' oo ToBa paoyeT Boylo y.o a a oTa. aoo paxo aBcL1TToo o paypI
Boyxa' o IIoTocT kt opo oTa (oopo a). ep
aoo paxo z/ B prIIIrl oTaBJIT . aoea T-754 pMpl{o

7000/,T-I4_ 3500/ -62pl-86- 9000-10000/.

ttompo pcod monu (*) oaIaT, ao oTBo ToBa


eoxo.o BoyIIIIroy yy JUI Too, ol poeTT 1 . peTc
oM)oBI pao ollBa z/t aBI7cklTIl Too o TerpaTypI'
oHoT Boyxa opoT oTa' o oT opoT IIapaBIIBpa
apaJIeII,I IIoT (o o lo I oTaIIoB ). yT'
To opoT IIaIIIaTpilIx aoToB paBHa 800-900 /, o oMeT.
Hx 5-i0 /.
poI paxo ToBaoTaBT.JUI
aoo oToI pao.I ToBa BaI My oo oooIlIIIe

C 1: V,

(6.r2)

eY-opoToa.
eop oo o)o orr aBIvIoT aveoo aooo pa.
xoa ToJIBa(, ) o a.ro paypI Bo.yxa a IoTe oa (Z6).
a aoT BI .yM opao:

= E
Ch,
"o'*tr.
'74

(6.1)

oo BIpa)I(HBIIS, To p pxo. o I T' B oT o aBToN{ooo TpaopTa' aoBo pao. ToBa IIa BoyI}Io
TpaIIopT yBBaT, o yBr oaBrT 5-6'.
po aoBoo oTpoBoo pao.oB oBa, I{oa B ag.av|coyT Tao oTe, a dt pacod monuI (o), oopl oaIBarT, ao oTBo ToBa oxo.o o aLII1 . p
y,Ipao |z monua/z mzuf, laIlaTpzrI aoToB
o pBe p: o,4 - 0,6. oao y,IIIpaxo ToBa B ((oeaBaolro BI{o))' To Hy)o rzulTa-Topooa' oToy o
I{I\{I oe oBop N{.

6.6. B TeepaTypI aBIt


IIa Be oay BOyIIII y.oB
p BTo aN{oT BIpyJIBaeT a BTTIyIOooy' oTaIIaBJIBaeT,a
aTrN{, oJryB pilprIrIle .{Tpa TapTa' IIaI{aTp o BfI. Cao
BrT To,a' oa p pa o opoT TaT paBIIa opo opIBa' T..

(6.14)
ovo' To pa B oHr op T oTIIoT Bo.).xap, To Ir ,I TpaTypr vI aBel:ul'pBo )\{rIrIIIIlIoIlIIoTIIoT, yBBaT opoT oTpIBa. o, Bo op,' yBBaT y
paa aoTa. .{ open.I paa B Ix yoBx oIIo
BooJIoBaTpyo

Lp'

--

Lp*,"u

'

(6.1
s)

^,

e Lpa,6- aa .I{apaa aoTa' Lpu,.u_ a para ao.


p0,
-ooToIIIHs aTo TaI{eTa B Ta,apTIxyoB'a A=
po,
"u
apo oTIIoTBo,yxa y r.
por paI oaIBaIoT' To yBII TepaypI Bo,).a a lo
pBoT yBIIIo IIIpaa Ha |o, a yBrII aTopoo aB|o pBoT yMIiIII .Ipaa a2o/o.
)III7]Fla
Aorrr poI poxoT | IIp oa,BC. Ta, p I{
T[,IpaypIBo.yxa yHe aBeH(yr oTHo) oaoz opoT aooB yBJItIBaT' a r,oBaTJIo' yBJIlIuIBaeT NIIIa
poa. ayro ,Iry poa aMorTa p JIIo payp o)o
opJITo opy
=
+ 0'003 1r),
Lnpo,
E Lnoo6'.u(0,95

(6.16)

o., Lnpoa,
_
e t - TMpaT}a Boya'
Lnpo,"u aeca TaII.apIla
a pora ooTBTTBHo.
To r TpaTypI Boya a 3o N{erT oa.otlyl
aoo'
opoT a 1 r/v, To ooTBTTByT IlIlIo aI aoTa a 250-300 .

'75

o epeo:
- Po ( e oo Po) popo|, oop|p loMeparyp oyaHB|oH
|| e, H oly_ ,lo opoaB. pxo.
pHoB|e|l{oeoBHa epHe HoHoep, o aHe H a
apo' eMparypaoyaoH
o e,p oop|xoe|pap|.
- HoaryHHa aeX aPreHax
oHoaaopo <<a
a|y>):
B
ax yoxo eo p oHaoBor
a6ye 6oe pa6ea
aoea?,v||4ie 6o a pea aoe p oHaooeparyp-
opoya oBe Bopo|.
KoHH,lo?
.7. Be T}IaTypI I{ aBII
a opoo.oT oToo
O opoI{oT oTo aoToB MI oBop a
ra. Ta I I IIo,ITI.ITeopToo, paToo' .I{aoo ooo oToa. al - IIooTpT, o>rta1Ta, pul
Ty aBy. H r paMoTp oo BIII'IH)rrpaypl aBeLIkIHa T
xapaTrpT.
Copto oBHo' o yBII oToT Bo,ya po/T yBrI{Io T .BaTlII) a r.oBaTIIo, )rBr oToa aoeTa.
Ba a.roo oToa BC o I opJI}Ia o yr
opy:
Hno',=H,o''"^_ (760 -P",o)10 _ ("",o- nn,"u)80,
(6.11)
e Hno',E, Hno,,a- BIoa oToa aorTa aaB cTaHapTHIxyox ooTBTBIlo;Po'- aoe .aBBo.yxay JI,I\{N{
pT. T.;
4pnn,6 Tnn, - avca TaIr.apTHaTpaTypa TpooayI ooTBT"u
TBo.
o.a o.BIpa}r aIBaIoT Hoo :ae,ope o
py oToo aoTa' a o oTJIoIIrII oT Tal{apoo a. B
To }{aBIparII (6.17) parT B.:
Hno': Hno,,q- Hno,,.u: o'- 760)10 - ("* - n.,
(6.1s)
"")80.
Aapy opyy (6.18), o yT B ToI\{'o oBIIIII{.aBII y ol{)e TepaypI a BIo oTa ( o, o pBoT
yBI oToT Bo.yxa' a roBaT}Io' ae) ro
TM p!aNl.,-a oTopI oToo aoa N{oTr rr Ta.apToo IIa. o t opyl B.I{o'To B'Ir TeepaTypI I{a eIIr oToa aMoTa pMpl{o I{a op.o orrr, B ap.
IIoo aBI| rNI. oy opr oToa aN{oTa IIo.a
oyloTc 1po opyo
Hno,:

T.,

(6.1e)

.r - o.I, aBcvlo a aoTa ozBIBaIov, a oo


TpoB tIToToo p rIrII TpaTypIa 1'"; T- oTJIoIIrII
TrpaT}I Boyxa oT Ta.apTl{ooa a BIoTIIoToaaoTa.
oT N{rpTB l/zpd paBIi T-|4 (40), Ty-154 _
(-55), -62 - (-100) -86 _ (-10).
'76

o ooHoT op.tl oToa BpByoBIx aMoToB.


a o' BII]oI{ToI a BpxByoo opoT a BIoTa
10 000 aprro (o o I oBop B pBo pa }"la). ooy aoT aaa a.oByoBo p)I apa BIoTy 10 000-ll 000 ,
aTeM T B opo}ITaI{ooT paoT aoT o pxyoo
opoT Too o Too IloBa pBo.TaoT a pexM aopa BIor. oy p paorra Bo apoIla aTBa' aoT
|IoIIaa oa arx BIOT, apaT a,a). BIOT
oTa (pc.6.4).

P. 6.4.TpaopoaBpxB).oBo
aoa
p oa ooo.
Copro oB.Ito' To TpaToepl aMoT Ba aep BIoTy
10 000-1 1 000 (Ioy paoa), a a o oToo y.eoarBaTBH' B
ooBo''Too papeeTpaT)IBoyxa B o oT BIOTIpaoa.o ooa (p. 6.5).

TI
l

20

P. 6.5. op
ooaBpooo
aoa.
Ha p. 6.5 peI Tp BooIx BapaI{Tapap.'ITpaTypI Bo.yxa B o oT BIOTIpaoHa.o oToa. Ho, To B IIpBo
cYlae, p oTopoM TMaTypa Boya po.o)aToaT (oo
Boyxa yrHIIIaT I{I{' B
'BJ/x,pyx cIaX),oToo aoTa
y aI BIo. Coatlo' MoIIo B or oT BIoTIpaol{a aoa o ro oToa a Tayto BIoTy' a oop rpaTypa e apaTpoBaT o TpaTypHI yoB aopa BIOTIBo To o.
y.r, To paoll poBoTIla BIoTa 10 000-11 000 , a oToo
aN{oToo 20 000 , o ao <po> roo oT ),D{tT
BIoTa oBrpHo 100 a (o oo 16 ). a BIoTa oa r Tr' To IIopa o TpaT),a ypoB l00 a B.aT B .aI{IxTrpaTyplroBTpoBoo o.poBaIIapr. oy I l\,{o)N{
IIoTpoT pa a-

'7'7

o Iol ooJla aoa o paTypI Boyxa a poBII 100 a


oo opoT paoa. opa Taoo paa IIpB apc.6.6'
! +1=2. O
2t

2
/9
/E
o,,?n

ooaaoao epaypI
Pll. 6.6.paao
a )oBIll00 a ooopopaoa.
ooae oeII pao .ooJIIITrIo e ge pyeT.
o.ao xoeo l aop BaIIIBIuaIIe, aaeI TaT' BoT a apapyloN{
olvI MOIIT. .{o B o, o tI o a
'oyTaI\{'
paoy oalI o lvlTopooeoy oe.rrIo aBavI, eilII BrHT B oao operT ooo alvIoea. .{ea o - aT ax(BaT (ooB)o o>>.Ta yto To ea?! e-a, oray,
IIyo. r BotI' To BJI c>o, oopa ,o)IGIaoa oayo paoy paaoil aa, o ao Bopo .areII o)e
Boa. o' To y)o aT' a To pBapTo (o .
p B pay Tropooroo o) oa Tl\{pao pyoBoBo aBappP' IIaIT I\{ooBaTc' oaaT o IIpyITBa p py eToa ope.I.ooa oyllT paprIrIre pyoBoTBa I{a eo ooBae. arr aBaoIIo pyoBoBo
o a o Ia' To To' a oop' x poI' o BaIIIa oBrT B ToM
ya o)ic{a r ooa - r zr B' To B BaIII ax.
o epo:
oo a, o pao alr{oeapoo a ypoe pooayI, ooy o|o pBay oa Bloy, eeparypy pooayl. B
peo }l oBeepo (oeeepo).flo ot4,o ae pox
B|oapooay|o)|pBHa 9 , 13 . oo Ha x |oaoe
pao}|Hoa e 6ye1 a a B epo yae BC ye oo paoo
6oo
aoopo- 6oooo6oooopoBea paHeo
B|oe paoyertolHoooBa. Bo opo ya aoe Ha oByoo}|
pet.,te
ye oe oo apaBlory paoa oe paoyetlJolHoo
H BloepooB. ooy p 6ope B|o|paoHaHHo <<pB|a>
oay|, o |oe,a oopoB ,loe o 10,0 o 11,5 aet'tHaa
el4parypa.}r lo6ye oo poaaoea.
oB pooayo6ee/ o o pfla<<pBaHHo>>
, oa oo-oo aa ea rpaoepe (oe 50-x oo pooo
e), a oe|a|ooHeo1 py6 lt4HyryHaxoH paoo |oaoo6oee. o e ooepe. o p}4ea
ex op pooayo.eyoo,pooayaBe
H ooe|-lpy
oPl, e y rypyeo y x}DBMo' B
aep)al"t
oHx ox, llo oHo e ol, oaH| oeoB, oy, l|ae.
a, p oe B o pooay|ee oHo yBe.EtpA Ba a Boe
78

6t
oaeoeo, a l- He a oooe,o pa1'4y
oote6o BepHpaa apBaeo,.lo,.. pooay.
yee o _ pMopTe e6y. a oee/o BIBepooay.
6.8. popo.rr {BeppTopor poo
TDIepaTypIBoya y e a BIoTa
6.8. 1. p oz o3 |u'| u' o m .un p mpl o d
.{ pooa MIo paTypI Bo.ya a paTe oT ooBaT r p, N{TooB prMoB' oTopI poIII B T}I IIo (a }Io.a .ToB ) paBylo popy B paHI poa Pocc. a rTo.a o)l(o oT yrorr.
Mmod .. p. o, pa ooT opr o oopaa
oo o)I(e TMepaTypI )rtlTo oao BTpa (p. 6.7 6.8).

rzt

/-

l.'-

::-'"

it

Pc. 6.7. Hoopaa lIollpr ooo o)paypr


o aIar 13

P. 6 8 Hoopaa

oprIl llooo olte Tpa}pI


o aI a 19 .

79

o oTa,IBaT IIaH
o opoTaJlo
B ox tloNlopaax
(auo) paypI To poI a | 19 1 a o BepTao o tlvl aoIIo 6IIH TpaTyI p oao . Haor
arII opoT BTpa.
IBaIoT poItoTor
oH}r}I,I TIIpaTypI (AQ y)o oT ooo
tlotloo
oyII
[
I{aII TrpaTypI To poI O.IIJIT o Bp:t o t|vl' ooTBrTyto

I{aI opoT

poIIopoBaI{IIoy

uIo o opT
^T.
! orry^rIl ooo
y BoooBa

o)rII

TI]rpaTypI

BTpa' a aT o BrpTIIp :aIvIoao

opy
T66n.: mtT,

|e m - oT' ).ItTIBaIo orTBo BIoTy oao B ItoIIor


Bp (poo) oI]pr,JUIIoco.ooTI{oy pay I{a p. 6.8.
Bo.}xa N{oIto
B Iliry TrpaTypy
Ta B ooaTIto
op. e'} opao:
T.^n: T _ mT3

Ll,Tfl: Tp - mT19.

(6.20)

A.C. ep IIpo) a poTI opyI opr.r HaI{opaTyI p Iro Tlio'oo. opyt IT B.:

T-'": TB - 0,5(TB_ Tu) _ 6


T.u, = Ttg- 0,5(Z,n- T o tn)- 4,

(6.2r)

e T Z,i _ Tpa;Twa TrMIIpaTypa To poI a ooTBrTByI po.


B p To poI{oa TpaTpI' po)IIIpr, oI{
poTo, I{o T o.a TooT' oTopa.JIarT o IIe oII yoIN{IIa paTr. oIo Irpoo oo.Ia }Io oeII r oo 17 eTIIoo Bpr [B opyax (6.20) (6.2|) - Bp TIIO]'a o aT' To 19 o
oTaBT y o3.IIo.CoaIIo, IIooBa opo a opy
(6.20) (6.2|) a par poaTIro.CpaB,BoTpa lly)Iro oT.
TT, To T } .oTaTo (TpaaIT) v| pe T,IpoI{oa IIzrIloTpTypI.
Memod M.E. pd. .. p po) Br opyI jI poIloa
IIaI{opaypI, oTopI o{,oTaoI{o IIIpoor papoTpa.
Il. pa opya eT

T',": T.^*"-m,

(6.22)

Z'u*" _ aUIa (aIoaac) TpaTypa Bo.yxa, /z - oIilIrI{T, {TIBai| poo oao' a py (6.20)' - arya
yTo}Ioo xoa TrpaTypI rITo BpMH oa oparoo oo)eIJ yTa, oTopoo aT poIlo' aIllkl.ty'ayooo oa
TpaTypIa pIIIeTyI yt.
Copto oBIlo' To' oo B,opyII (6.22), o}GIo
o I{ oprT aUI}IyIo Tl\{rpaypy Bo.yxa. a poypa aToo poTa' To TpyT a-o oIr.
Bopa opya .. p.aT B:
80

.] r-

(6.2)
T.r"= ll5 (2Ttn+ Ts1* T61* Zrsnp"o
").),
TrrpaTypI Bo.yxaa p.IIITByIopo o rTo BpIr.

o epeo:
eHoBpeHaBH
( e oo oH) Ha}o
parypBo}<a
opoa
oteparypaBoy

eyp
er
Hpp,
ep
FteH|
oB.4'
pBHa-10 oC,o Fiapopoyoo,o Koopooo eHpaopoae 6oee 15 M,o)e
_18 oC. oo,peuJaoaHyaay opHooyH,}Doo63aeHo
pog HaeH
a o ylie' oyHpeyBa aBMonooB
MHH6 oo yHa, oa poHo| oo yHKa6yy Mey oPl Holro-
pB|Bao.
a t or{eo-a
o poHo BoeolyHa.
opt Muco. Mxo
TypI poa opya:

polloa IlI\{aI{opa-

T'""= Tz,-2,

(6.24)

e Tzt - TpaTypa To poIa po 21 ;z - orT'OJI{I{I{I


yI oopa.
optt npuo. ypoI po)rI I{oo oII

opyI olrp.eIIo aMzUIo Tpal.


opyt IoT B,:

* so)- AZ"""
Z""' : 0,5(Z"u*"

(6.2s)

(6.26)
T'u*": 0,5(7}"*+ Zso)* AZ"u*",
+ Zso),
a T'u*.T'""+ so)- T'^"A7l"*": T'u*"-0,5(7n|."''
.AL = 0'5(7n{."u*"

II

paTypI a yt,,

ea v T*MH- TrpaTypI pIyI yTo.

npuJv|IL'Ilt a odo u
Mmod npozt]oa J|ultJtl,|o mnpmpl,
JI pooa Hl\,{ao epaTypI BoM ru. Ha o A
yxa B po. oJIyT opN{a

7""*,o:1,5Zs,

(6.27)

yTaHoBIrHI yl]rl aLlaIaoTBoo pa aIo.Tg5()-TpaTpa Bo.ya a ypoBr 850 a B po Bepo oH'poBaHI{JI.

1,5 - ouT'
l,

Mmod
B ye

|Ipl|J'Itrt m.
||pozl|t ,Muu^ao menpmpl,
oyrT
TpaTypI
opya
.JUIpooa aJIo

T,"": Trz- [0,5(Z- Tdn)+ Bf,

(6.28)

r Tp T n- TpaTypa Tl\4paTypaTo poI a 12 oo Bp.


H; B - o. B po op o Bap c N|ao IJI BI.C B :
TtIoB : ' a B oTaIIIrI p TpaTyp Bo.yxa BIII -15
6, apTpaTyp I{e -l5 "C B : 8.
IIo n p ||'p I od
6.8. 2. IIp o z o lt{c]|l
.{. ox oa apo.}IooxoTBa poHo aMao TrpaTypI Bo.ya Ta)I(p.TaBTaTI p. ..aolIar .Byx
To.oBtlpoI{oa aMao TpaTpl Bo.ya.
8l

o poozuco duzp't. Ha para aI\{zI{yIoT]\{epaTypy


aIII Bo op.Io o aI eMepaTypl{o-BrTpoBoo opoBa uTN{opI (o apooo apae) a ypr}I}I po. To eIo oT
xoIloo poB a po TpaTa poBo.T o aII aBe
_
y eJI l epo oa yxa' a B xooItI epo B.DIIa aaaTa'
opa, poxoa p Toy pH' ya)T aaylo epaypy Boya . 6.9).
Haat BIqTI,oT oopIx poBo ca 9IIIa}I(a aaoaTa'
prTaBeBTa.6.2.

Tau.2

otII BIOTI (l\,t) oPtII{


MAI4MAIIo TEPATPI (o o.. oo)

aD
pl

ap

Ap
a

Hao a

0,4
0,4
0,7
1 ,0
1 ,5
2,0

o a

Mc

Haao ea

0,4
0,4
1 ,0
1 ,5
2,0

t5

Ay

2,0

Cp

l\

Hop

1\

.(p

1,0
0,4
0,4

op

o ea

2,0
t5

1,0
0,'7
0,4
0,4

00
_4n

P. 6.9. pp pooa ao aypI oya.


oao
.{ ea Bk:Ai
ooBaT opyo

IIa aaJII{yIo Mpayy

T'^*"=Tgi mT,

.yrT Bo-

(6.29\

_ pao )y luaMaIlo
fle Z9 - TIIpaTypa B po oII'poBaH{'
^T
B po oIIpoBalII; m
TpaTypo
e
TI!{paTyPop eoao
aIIzUIoo
(ope
oaHo
oT' yIITIBaIo B|1vrc
paTyaIro
poHoe
To]\{y'a oprJlr oeHT m p
pI IIo eToy pa a p. 6.8).

82

yaaoo B
B x 1^rax,o,a a po paa II ypoBll'
poa. 6.2, aroa H;epTpaT}?I, To y}, aaa yT
B
B.y,
T
o.o paI o HBp. f[p o oxo,o
paoo)HTo olll o ooT pHI Bp|4I1I1ItBp'
papyllaTc' X
HI o o oBpxtloT, a rT popBa lp
I{r 'yTpIIMaTBo BIIa.
p. 6.9. Ha o
pp poIroaazUIIlopaTypI oaal{Ha
(pa) II,I
a
Ta
.yT'
IIr
p"",",n" o "up, )lTIBaT
IIa
paooHa
a
Bp'
IIpopBoM'
y papyrIla BI{I
JI".p","
ypoBl{'
oToTopoo
oI{oo
aBI1II
yp 810 a, ao,TIIl II'
,yToprTaMaIIyr TpaT}py Bo.yxa.
o
opalaoT .aIloo Toa pooa MaaIIo TpaT}pI
o%.ooI
90-95
.aI JI,oBa,oTaToo BIoa oTaB
oaoT.
o p poo BoIIaIoT -a paBoo pooa
BoTrpayp
Ta, aI]I llprp (p. 6.9) p paBI{TI{oI{BIoo
oC, a p
2
ee
p oao
,yxa aaJIIIaTpaT}pa oTaB
.C.
13
oao
I{o
olIto
Bopot pooa oao yy paoTprI II(.
TrpaTyo nolnupuu]\| oplt, p poo aao
N,{JIaoIo BIBaIOT Tpa.a.
oa aIt T Tpa,. Ha ppTop I{aIII TpaI apMyI:

Z""*"=T7oo+2

(6.30)

Z"u*.:?5o+14.

(6.31)

opya(6.30)raoTaToopapopallIlI{aIoBoo
, uao p, a opya (6.3 1) - poo aT Po.
6.8.3. pozo mnepamp| od II l'Ico|n
'yT
p opooo oe aBa B pooax oo.I
Ta.apTlrooT
ee
oTJIOII
Il4
BIoTa
a
yzLIBaT TrpaTypy Bo.yxa
a Bo IIoyIoT
;o ."uu",*.
! pooa To TpaTypI 116T
poIlo
.aoo. p po
}I6TM Too poTo aIT
.o
poHoa
.
BoJIII

,
5
o
|2 BIST, oopo .aTpoIlo TpaTypI,
B.a (o.r a)
opaB.ao. po Too' B paopI(Ir II]PLofITa
ypoBIIx.
I{I poo TpaTypI BTpa a paIrIx
paIx
o a-o purra TrpaTypy Bo.yxa a
ypoBllx y)o oprT ToI{r' To o)IGtoBoooBa opya:
Ts5g: 1,806(H1oo- 11*ro),

(6.2)

- ,oo),
T7gg: |,4\'(Hsoo

(6.)

T5ng: ,690(H3oo- /1'oo).

(6.4)
83

B o.It opya Tepaypa Bo.yxa yaa}Ia a, a


BIoaoBpxo _ B .apa.
ooa opya (6'2)_{6.34), p' yoo, oll poI.
oao y. or aTltIlvl <apy) pyTaTo pea'
B opye (6.2) o l,8 o 1,806, opye (6.3) _
o 1,0 o |,04|, a opy (6.34) _ 0,7 eo 0,690. p o
tIoT oyaeT Boo)HoT ro, e ao-o leo ex ( y) o pyaTI paTa. o ooTBo ye rT B
y B aa, paoaro B oa paTopoIlIx BppaopoIx poooB ooI.
6.8.4, pzo o,|opoo
aopoo aIBac o)It TpaT)I Boya o opaIII ae epo HoIo p oo)ro Tepaype . aopo Il aBeTBI yTotIIM o.o Teepaypl (AQ ooo 3o, P aBrTBo-pa.aao}lIr, ).To}II oo TrpaTypI l0-l5.
oIl}IIr yoIrI xoo TpaTypI _ o 5 o lOoC'
H o o, To aopo ao oaI JUI oo oTa pyx oa l{po.I{ooo.
po TaT' o e 2| o THoyBpr}IT1< 0" T,11/oQ,
p tlo e IIl' To }IoI ey o)a aopo. r Tepa}pa To poI B 21 ore2 ",o aopo aopoTI{I.
! pooa aopooB o)o BoooBaT otl .Byx rooB.
Mmod Muo. xo}I peo)r op. rpoTlloT BoHoB,I aopoa o pay, paeHoy a p' 6.l0.

%
t00

EO
3.
a

I
G
a

E
s

Aom

|2u
l'oJ*IIo

P.6.l 0. paxoaop
olto
aopooB.
Ha o pa o opoltao o ooI }Iar,I aolo
BaI{oT Bo.ya ( p. .), a o BpTao _ BpoI{o BoHoBeIr aopoo. HaoIe II ooTBy aoroo ao o.
yxa B I l 2| Too peII. ooe aIrI pao pyo
BIIBae.A o IIplTepeell o oytleo epoo BoIloBr aopooB _ e aNIapoa aa.
84

l i t' (
,' i J ' t

'{
y{
.i]1I

-0

-----.]----J-_

P. 6' 1 1. pai pou"

o.'p""o.*'' BpoIloT aopooB.

Mod poo. pa, p'o)Ilr poyoI' Ta)l I]oBoT opT BoMotIoT BoIIoBIt,I aopooB B BpoTHoTo op. Ia
To pa (p. 6.1 1) o opol{Tao o oTJIa,IBarT paoT TrpaT}p B |3 2| o T}Ioy BpM' a o BrpTao - TpaT}pa Bopaylo BpoTIIoT Bo.ya B 21 . I I{aJIOIIIII IIil oaIBaIoT
IIIIOBII aopooB.
oo'a T pao Ta} t{ MoxtT BIBaT ax yoT.
o epeo:
o e Mory py t!
paHIBo6pa BHH,yga| a, poyo y
DoHo BoHHoHaopoo peo) e apaoB pa|x oeo
o
Ha Bopo, 6ye aopoo H. oHao, a y Meo, peHe opoa
eoHopa.
ope6e
pHa
aopoo'
y
oeH
,n,e
o, ye
A o
e o6a aopa pyt.4Hooo papao l4eo pooa alopoo.
pHM
HoTy
''

apHaBHo
opM,
a, e poHo Hy)Ho a
peH? o pay |eoa o p HBoMoHo a' a Ha pae
popoyoa B oM ya Jly oaB oo oHy HHlo Haoy H.

pooo
p
pay
pHaBHlM
y
e
yBaaMl
a,
yBye.
oHool BepoHoo op}4'

85

aa7

BTPA tlA IIOTI BoIIltIl oB


B'IL'.LE,
7.1. B BTpa rr yTBy opoT .aIIoToea
B aop a Bx BIoTa T BTp. o oorI y aoy BTep p'TaB oo pooe B)tI. p au BTpa aIIpaB .BI{ aMoTa oTlloo ro oBpxoT e oBaaT
pooo ro aoa,T.. Bp Iroum aorT oo ypa' a ToT
ao TT. o' To paT Ba aoT TT ((tIMI{o)Io
oo>, rpac o oBopoTa ao aBI4c.IoT BaIloo paoo)evlIaaBII oa apaB BTpa' a Ta o opo oTa opoT
BTpa. y BoyIIIoo la, rTBHIlo, .o BITa eoxo
IIaT,a ypo ao opoTIo IIylIo T' ToI,BIJIoeT
B oe pe.UlIloo Bpa' poBe oay B aaHl{o Bp a Hy)IIoM apopo.
B aa' BaI a IIaIBaeIp.BapTIIIIxTypaII
paTo' BIoIUIa) aoTa (olo rypa) o xo.llI aIII: appyl BIoTa oa' BpeN{BIa paTo BpM IIoa' HapaBH opoT BeTpa Ira IIIoHe orTa. udum, ltet umme, u |np aLlluolrHtnporot nozod uonmu llem e pomo
m' l d d.
a,a peBapTI{oo lllTypal{oo paa oN{oaTprIIIT ltluzauot p?o]lu copom {pllc.1 '|).

opo.
p1o
Pc' 7.1.Haaor
Huzuot mpzou opome ocmm mpu mop :
- mop oduto opomu V - op, ozBIBaIo, a rpac () aoT B Ilo.BI{o Bo/).x. o Bop HapaB B.o
po.ooo aoa;
- emop opomu mp U - op, oaIBaIoapae opoT Bpa B o (pao), .r axoT aoT;
_ emop nmeo copocmu W - op' oaIBaIoo (oe)
pIe aorTa oTHoTeHo o, BoeB oylro opoT opoT BTpa. l oBa' yTBa opoT pr.Taoo
Bopy yy oyto opoT opo BTpa.
86

.{ oo ol aBaoI oII opo l <pao.r))' B


To TpyoIt lry}o Ta)I{ ooa ox.I yt. Ta
}.aBT:
- p ,|,tom1,,- yo M'y IlapaB}I a Bp pooo oro
aoTa (opo oyto opo);
* nmeo
Zo - yo ry apaBI{IIa Bp BTopo
opoT'
- Zo ocI q - yo y BTopa yto o opoT.
o o oTTIBaToT Bopa oyto opoT BpaBo (ro, o
aoBo ) BBo (yoo' poTB ao p) oaIBaT'
aoo ro apaBI{ .B)l(I{aoTa o. . BTpa.
CopIo oB.I{o'To yo oa paBel{

q=(r-y;

(7.1)

- 2o lpa'xu mp, Itu |lpomo np|rL|mp - o ty


I{apaBIrr a Bp apaBrll BeTopa BrTpa (IIapaB' oTya
y p);
- ?o mp s - yo N{'yBTopo BTpa Bopo o opoT.
o oraT oT BrTopa yo opoT.o BTopa BTpa o aoBo
Tpr }UITo 0 .o 360o.
o.I{yo' o oTopo yrT aaT, o oopt }I Bo.TB aBaoIII pyoIr opo. o poo 2o mp - yo xt.y
BTopo oylo opoT BTopoM BTpa. o orBaTo ao
Tpr of opa oyl opoT oT MHT 0 o 360.. o y Ba Ira paT aavlvIprpaBTIlo p,o.
r llaBaooo Tp}.oa opoe p oTr a{oTa
oyT yITBo IUIT B.TB oIrr poTpal{To Bpo IIBT BTpa oro poTrII}IoT N{Ilox l!{appyloB.
popaIrTBI{Iro BprIIIlo oT BTpa ooo Ba)}I
oyro IIBa. Tao ytIT oo oyTBT, allapy IIr
ooBHIx JITBaBaolloo pyoJla opo.
laaile oTaoB o opoo a aI{zIToo Tp}oIIa.
pooTp BTI{o,To B a.oTpyo oTollIH TopoI
Hyy poBo)I(aloya BaoToI{It
(op o).
B ar Ia (. p. 7.1) oo aII,a:

U
S mq

.U

v
sln

sl n Q : - s l n t.

('7.2)
(.7.)

poaapy lloe.r BIpaee. (7.) o, To o aMoJITa


aBT oT opo IIoTa' opoT BTpa ya BeTpa. ! pooTI paToB
aa,opTIo Be.tpa U: 100 r/, opoTIo oTa (vyr-.ry e aBI) V:1000 / BoM aI }IaIaIlIl,I yoB BTpa.
Ta, p :0o (oyI p) sin s: 0, oaIto' sin tp:0, ..
p Tpoo oyt{o BTp Haoo oa aoTa )'a . AaoIIa

87

apTIIa aIo.aLI |p s : 180o (p.rl p). aaI o


aoa ypa y aI.aT p Tpoo ooo pe ( = 90
270"). B o r{a o oo opTo opy (1 '4), a a IIp :
90" l80" sin o aoroo BIl paBr Ire:

Q = arsin (tul|'

(7.4)

[rlpI IIaM a opoT BeTpa opoT oTa oooIII (UII): 0,1, a .oBaTtIo'yo IIoa q = 6". BIpa)e(7.4) o'
o r ot ooTI{oIIItl(UlV), ro aoa. B a. 7.| pB.IIIIIa}IyoB lloa aoTa p pao opoT oT paIII opoT BTpa.
Tuu7']
tIAtI oB oA CAOTA (9o)
B ABCIIIOI{ oT oPT oTA oPoT BPA
U./
V, J
T BC
200
100
50
l
q 5
9.s
5
.0
600
-l8
14,0
7.0
3 .5
900
-62
'0
1 .5
3.0
2000
T-144
a.7.1 .o' aoo t o)l(Tr aoTa ,ar
p olo opo oa. Ta o opa o Bp IIITypMay B oeT H oo.
o epeo:
oo p 1oe-18 eeoo |oHHeoooeo o l4pllJpyry
t pooet at
Moa_AapKa(. Mooea).o.rre,
yo oea - a |t4oo}4 apoopa ayry (o oBBHt
eay)o oepAapl.E 6l aoeo B|a6pa yp oo
HMooAe KaoB6t e ytaeep, o p oe oepe Aapr-18 oKoHl o appy Ha 800 . }oy aoery po.
o t ee oopaa ee Ao aHooeaBoaHpeoo
ep. eo,o HaA op, H Ha ye a a .ooy
apuJpyaa poopee
o)l(Ho
aBoo po)eHoC|/|
o eoooee Boyx ( o ety ott4oaea Hael4|y6t),opeeHapaee opopa Boeo6olopaBB yp oea.
Be oery y)|(Hoe o eopy o opo W, o6t a to,
o)l(Ha ao )^]aeoaoo oHo a HapaBHe opo epa U
6pa }|yyBoyyo
oe B r o opoTto' oo Topo}II' opo
I{apaBeBTpa _ po. pc. 7. 1 ,o, o

W=V+U=osQ+../os.

('7.s)

Bo po l _ o opyo oT ooBaTroo I]]T}pMa.


Ho o <roT) IIITypa oTaB op yo tloa. B o
o (oy.a ya TT ao) rypa B,a xopo]o aT' ' yaB a
Toa BTp o ap]pyty, poo op.rT yo BTpa. Ta o xoo I . oIa ypa BIpa (7.5) yo oa. !'a o
.ylo opao. pa BIparr (7 '2) roo pyo Be
B Ba.pa.To.a oy
o a oo BIpa)oBr.eN{
88

V sinp: Usin r;
V2 sin2 q =(J2 stn2.
fla, BI{B,vo sin2p+ os2Q : I, lBIpax(H os poy:
I l 2 ( |_ c o s 2 Q ) = U 2 s i n 2 ;
12 _rl2os2,q=(J2 sinz ;
V 2 c o s ,,p : V 2 _ ( J 2 s i n 2 ;

osp=
Tp B ool{aTIlo

-U - srn-r.

B oIIo aaT' To

pF=JIr, _[J2 sin2e * Uos s.

(1.6)

a p allir pyl (7.4), aac ao aI a


BTpas:0 , 180, 90 2 7 0 " .
opyI B.Ho' To p oyI{ol\{p ( = 0o) }a opoT TaoBT or oylo Ha BrHy opoT epa (|4l: r/ + (D, pr B
aHI{oM{a aoo Hoa aoJIrTa II ar.a. Cpoo p.rI p ( : 180") )\{IIIaT
yTByI opoT a By opoT epa (I4l:
:V- LD, aj oa aorTa ).pa' a Tpoo ooo ep ( =90
270o) e Too II opoT oeTa' o BIIBaTMar o'
o pa o.py, To Ha opoT I{apaB'I BTpa IIo
apIpyy o {T B) xI yJIoBr BIoII oTlloo
aa BIBo'aaoa B y aI{a.
opa o BrTp a ypoBII oTa oyrT Il Too IIITypal{x pToB, Ilo BBo.aB aBToaT aBaoI{I ypoa
opol BM.
o epeo:
B oeeJrypao) oeHoppaBee opopa.a
Boo oryaey1'4
opo.opeo ap eoooeHe
aoa,
- ao-op (3_5 ) e
JrypHpo oapa<oay>>
HH Blory,H yp' H opooa.oa (. p' 7.I) epopeHHoe peaooe 6t 6t oaa,pooM,
oI.|
Bopaoyo
opo(o np ), Ho BMooo oH oa|Be
B oHe Bopao
opo.Ty o Mo oa(a ry oy opo ape rypa)oo
oa Bepol4.a o6po,a Ba Beopaopo,pooopepe
- opo HapaHe
Bepa. rypa B oeeopeHapaeH opo Bepa.
o oaaoarypaHao AC oo6aeHoyBp o
r'4appyry
oea.CopoBpa,oopya rypM,o)t(Ho
Bepa.3e
Ha<oBoHI
a>e. C apeHeBepaeo o6o HeooHa.
HapaB.o oM, o rypaHayeBy ee Ha|aoaaoHHoe
eHeBepa ( oya ye, a ya o). ooy Hoa ryp]aHB]o<<Hao>>
eeopoooo
HapaBHpa (oya y) y|a<Bo>>
(ya o).
apaeH
Bpa,yHHoeHool'1
B poHo'oaeo oo. o aa
uJrypa,e 6oee eMa 0o, o oaa
rypaaIoHoBep BHop89

peB Bo poo. e rypHoo6ae t",t


HapaBeHeBep,oopoe oaTo poooopepHoH 180o,o B oM )]aerypMaHyyHoaa
Bopo,o ao Bepe pe: Meopooo|/||4
alv1aoHHo?
olo o
aoo Bopoae po6Pt|
HapaBel
BpapllooeHpoo.
B ope paplapHHo
Ho|el4|opeeH
epa ( He oo epa) oe,oop|eooy|Ba
HopeHHo nea popoo a opo, HapaeHe
epa.
flao (Z) poTo (7) oa o)o opT) cIIBTI paoaar aa ToBa a aMoT (G,), a Ta o ol\{Tpol aoBo pao. 1. o o)Ito aT o opya:

T :G '

r:L,

(7.'7)

o Ta)' o aoo oMrTpol


(p arr pa) ).y oo ooToIIIIl:

paxoI

ToBa BaIII

(7.8)

I4/

po Too' poTI or pay.Il oBoIOT yBp)aT, To


BpJIoTa aoo pao. ToBa II aBT oT BTpa' a ,aItoToTa
oMTpor pao, ToBa o Be)a aBcT..{o' r Ha caoT aIIa ToBa IIa Tp aa oeTa' To p o B aoT MoT
Tp aa axo.T B Boyx, ao r paTor oH II po. A oor pao. ToBa oT BTpa aBT. o opour B,II oro
BIpa,I (7.8) - oyrI BrTp yIrIIIaTopor paxo. ToI]Ba' a
r, aoopo, ).BBarT.
laaie opoy oI{TBwI:eBeTpa a aJII{oToTa.
pu mu oMTpoBl pao ToBa .aoT oTa o I
paTaIo pya (7.9):

on= 2, Ln"
l /'

G, -G '
|, : |, T,

,o,o

ch

(7.e)

ap luuump- o pya(7.10)

_ s--.
''
t=L=G, |, =IrT.
"
|4/

oToIe LlLn,To

- , ' o - |I / _
Lo
k
|/

_U,

"1*;

(7.10)

lvIIo{M

(I:14,:J'

. (J 2
L-7sln-

.U
" + -co sr

(7.1
r)

+ Uos ).

Ta opao, aUIIIa aoT oa' oTopa ara p


oyIIroN{p (r:0")'
opT BIpDI(I{(.7.12)' a ]\{I\{JILIa
a.
o (p BTpo BTp s : 180.) _ BIpa)eI{(7.13):

90

=|+.

(7.r2)

=t -! .
r

(./.1)

o epeo:
B aa yBye HKoo o ao oea: eXHeKa,1aHo
_ paoe' oopoe ao poaeT o oo lpao oBa; MaMaHa
tao - poH/ oopoe ao poae a paoM/ o B o oBtx 6ax oa 7_t0o/o o v1 HaBaoHHa aHo - paoHe, oopoe
aMo l,loe po, pe oe oa y Heo oBHI6aax oo o.
a ao oBo o, oopoo oHo lo 6l xB oe o aaHoo popol4. eo, o paa aBa loH oe|oo a
HaBaoHyaHo.
e o o Ho oea/ B aaav1yeBye oHe paya e
Glo _ o aoe paoH, oeeB o oopoo BoyHoe yHo o)i(BpHy H
apopo}4BIe' Py e aoa y eH ooH|ao oa, oHaHpHo>>.
o 6oee oHoe o)eHe oo opoa H BlBae a)e B pypy <<o
Te 6oee, ) o oHe a6o ao pI"lee BoHHo aav|,
7.2.Blltl

BTpa IIa BeT oay

Cao BTaeT vI cavlTc Ba poTB BTpa. payaT o oIBaT' To oaa poTB BTpa - oTa' a BoT BT?! oao . B
BII opyy o.o r:
Ilaao paIlo. laaile

Y:r'SPV'
'2

(7.14)

oIo TaT' o o opy - opo I]oJITaaoa. .(


BIOIIl\{ox paToB To paBBo, o a ao .r To I{ oB
a. B:a V - I{ opoT oTa aorTa' a opoT oa oBrpxIloT aoTa Bo.yIIIIoToo' .e. V : V"-,u + U p Bpo BTpr
V: I/"''u - U rryl oyTIIo BTp. ,oao' BTa p BTpI{oM BTp'
aoT ,oTIlT opoT oTpIBa p I{IIIopo oTBIroo ,B.
),I

V"*:

Vo*- U.

(7.1
s)

o oaT, To aoT o)rT BTT o opoo B p


B y o yHIIIT Hapaa. Aaoa apTa y. ara.I tlp oae aoTa. p IIoa oyI Bpo' aoopo, yBBaT a a paa, Ta apoa aoeTa.
.(aa OTBIII{oIl BIIBTpa a BT oa.y aoTa.
BIlo, To opoT paBlloyoprHoo .BxtII V paa V:
: at, e 4 - yopIre, a t - Bp. C.oaHo,/: V/. po Too' yT
s : Ptz:l2 tz.
p paBlloyopoN{ B>opaB
Ta a p pa aoJIrT o B oBpIIIaTpaBoyopIlor .Bxt' BooyMaoa , o oopI MI Too To oBop.a,
aoT BT Toa' oa p pa oll .OTI{TopoT oIa o.o.

9l

CoaIlo,
|1pll Lut|lu Bp paa aoTa la paa yy oBTTBI{O paBIII

,
,
-vot
.pa.0i'"p'o_
J

-v'o *

(7.16)

)i
-.J

J * yopr}I aoa.
p uuu mpolo mpa o opoTro (/ p paa 'Iapaa aoa yy opT IIoo .py BIpa}:

, * ' u = T, L p u'=,
a oTIIoIIIIl Bp

.I paa

To pya(7.18):

tp*
tp,o

'

('7.1',7)

p I]IT ||p Bp oo

|J

Lp^'

Vo'-

L,*'o

op.-

(7.18)

a o o.o IpaL||4, BprM paa aoTa, a


paa B aTJIo aBcToT BTpa. poo)I(T' o opoT BTpI{ooBrTpa paBa 10 /, a opoT oTpIBa aoTa 250 ll (70
/), p Tax yoB Bp paa aoT yI{IIITo paBI{I o
IIITBIMyoBll a 14 Yo, a .Hapaa - a 26 o/o.He ){TIBaTB Bpa a BT oay, yoo' .
o epeo:
Ha apa|
aolp p6eao B ppo35-45 .
e yeHeH
BpMpa6aGloeaooo Boy,a a o p
opoepa 10 / oao ooo 10 . flpyoe o - a paaal4oa.
E p tlleoHa paa 1000 I.4,o p BpHoBep opo10 / pea
opao740 , a p ao oyHoBpe_ yB
o 1260. Eo,
yl'lHllJH
H|pa6 oHyooo, Bo e yBHepMpoa
Bpp|opBe HpH|
oBl4.
Aaoo oto oHT B Bpoo BTpa a IIy Bp
poa aoTa p oa. .{a poa aoTa ).IIIIIaTa T
tl)I(IIoao.r opoT I{a BI{y opoT BTpIIoo Bpa.
a r paoTp oo B}I BTpIIoo olryToo BTpa Ira
BT oa.y aoTa.oao ooo ep ( mp ozo npu
.L|o)!oploum d omIlou mul| opaol, mo oda u u dem cmpoo nonm uu cmp, dpza - mpozo oo) Ta) oalBaT IIpTol' a IIo.a oIIaI{ooe a aoT.
H .aa opooT apoIraNIv:,oll,ITIIo' o oo BTp oae.c, TprMyI paBptly ao ooM poTB BrTpa.
o epeo:
pae,yaeta'aoe,eo BooBoopH 6ooo .
ep. He oe B oM, o lpyoBoooooepea{oaHaeo
o,e pyeo a.ooyaBeH,oaa6ootBepo/
xoroo a tvto6ye o, M B epH.CoeHo/
oa oMH, oopl 6y paopBa
atoHoolpoBep. )e ye
92

o ooeTBo, o pe |4BTo B oH paea pe o al4oea o


eo B yMHtll, o aHoB oHH|M,o y pytHo B|epa Hap pa6a aoa p ooo ep, ooHo o Bep oaoHo
l .

p oae aoap HoMooo Bpe eoXpHHapaBHe


ypoM,oypy Haae.
B)Haoea oaoH|
, aK oBop, Be oHo.oao p ooope, opooopoo
oyo,
pyypB ao apyoH pa,
y H|
popo <opoypot>,
.{.oo oapaH oHeHo
e H oaoH|
ypo, <HetHo)'|(o
H Bp>.Cl6ooo Bp Hoaoe, p3ya
o eo yeBaopooalaeHapaHHo
pa o oaoHoyypy (.
pc' 7'I)' Taa oaooHoo)Ha H oHpHap, I1,
HoHa eM.pee6, vo H apopooaoHoo o B
pooHoaHHo-p
y (.{),a oooBepa p HpaBeHo
fl eo ooe. B ol ya,6op Bpoypo, 6y
<poHa aHefl>.p Ba/ae,o y , Hxo
B o1aH/
ao o aoapH|X
oy Blta.
Aopy po poo
B, oo|ee| 6yoMl,Ieo ya (!, yBB
<<]t4eoHHa
poaHa>
e po Ha HX.
oaa p oo BTp oo)I{T ot, T' Br.TB Itoo oa aoTa.HeoI rrT BTpa oT pBT pIo B. Cao, a p BT,p ooo BTpr oBpxtHBoro paBopaBaloo pIIo otlToB.
! o oao oToB.JUIa)oo Ta aoTa yTaHaBBaIoTpro .oyTIa opoT ooo pa (o
ooo oTaB), opo o}.TooBrTpa a)opoT BTpoo
BTpa. Ha MaTpaI aoTI oyT BTaT caTcp ooo
BTp .o 15 / Ira y(y B o 5-8 l a opyr B. ! x aoToB opo ooo BTpa .oxa pBlIIIaT10 /.
! oyo
BTpa opaevIo r: aT Br TI aMorToB o}"BTaT p oyo Bpr' opoT oTopoo }Ir pIIIia 5 /. B p
To opallr oI{,ITo' Ta a p o}"To BTp aTo yBeBaT
Hapaa aN{oTa' HIB poo Mo)l(TIl BaTT lIJl BrTa.
Cy} o|pal{I{r oToB o opoT BTpoo BTpa oT
Boo. oo orTBa ToB aN{oToBoTaBT 25-o /. BopBI, ao p a apo.po ra pa po. Bo-opr, p Tao
Bp IraI a paal{o aa II .o BToB oao - l
oxpaHT T}Iy Ha . a pa oparII,I o BTpIroMy
Bpy aIoaT B To, To BrTrp ao l' B, ra opIBTI' pM I{IIopoT a.oTaToo aT) uy.
o rpo ( .r rox y) opoT BTpa o)rT oa o
|-12 o 25-0 . Ta I{I{op(rcT BTpa pBo.T prM tI,Io I [. opy Q ,|4)], To o.aoBo oao a p BT'
Ta p oa..
opa.re orToB o BTpy paIx ToB aoToB )DI{o aT
ITa Troyx<r,Ta a p pBIlIIr pHo oyTI
opo BrTpa BT oa.aaoToB aI]paIoT.Ta opao, p
IvlTopooroo ooB ooo ){TIaT
B opoT apaBHBTpa a ao Ba oa.Bo.yIIIIx
yoB.
9

Bom od npuua ozo, mo uauoHlrI npo?ol nozool uonmu tIam npa;lu u opom mp l J|Ilu,ma u l lomq,
7.3. pyl

TII poaBaoHo

It

Bpa a apaTpI ,BI4 BC ao ).ITBIIo p


Be
orx opoTx Bpa' ooIIHo B oaT pyIx v (CT).
Cmpo meu - To pIIo Boyxa B B yoo TrIIll orM

opoT, oI.ro px porop rue op oIo


TpooayI. MaalIra opoT a (30 o) aIo.aTHa vr
CT. rr opoT BrTpa B oaT yoo Tr'l oIo oa 510 /a 1 r,r rr 10 o a 100 B opoIIUIIIoMIIapaB.
CpyI TH opa1o B oax HaoIIIeo JtrIr TIIIx
xoo'Ix BOyIIII{IMa, .r o.aITIIaTIr opoTaIIIr paTI aBeul TpaypI' oToy o B.a Ba}II IIaapI
BISTI poaI oHa. ooy IIaoIIIr oI{TpaIrN{paTypI B oa aTopI pbo aroa B xooylo ooBI{y oa,

To B oT po. TpyHIr TII ao aTBI.


CyIe TII'I o.parIo Ha mponocepl mpmocpt. B
BoI op TpoopIr CT LIa emponuctt, cmponuu u
amopu|1ltl.
Bmponucu T IUIIoTBo ooell B aBoT oT M}Ir
ooII aoepI poo. o CT, a paBo' paoorlla B o
Boy' ar Bo a I-2 IIxt TpoIIoIIayI. Ipa pyoo TII
9TaBJIT 700-1300 , BpTzla,I oIIoT 6-10 ,r, a opollTura
poT}tIHoT.oTaT ro TI opoB. oa yr
Tr oy ooIBaT o ruap.
mponuu T a,aro o B IIIpoTo oce 2515o .I.,
a eToM a IIIpoTa 545" .. o x CT axoT a Blo ooo 12 .
Cypoaue pyI Te o eBI youII o paBIIIo
BIITpo. llpa oTaBJUITB peIrI\{1500 , a pTaJIIIa
MoIIoT 8-12 . ooo IIaTrIr opoT BeTpa B ypo,Ix CT
apoaIIIIra ogei(o 650 r/) Tx oao (o 750 l/).
mopu,le T, B oT o yIx py BoB' IoT
BoToor aIIpaBr. o aaIo a BIoTax o 20 IIoa r
oaToI{o xopolo ylIHI. CpaoT pa .yT aaT' To T
Ta a oTI
yt T[I'I oa He o TpyIoT aBIIavII.o,
paalro, oo aa I{a Tx BIoTax aT paBTJIo peo.
mpmocepe T Moy aaT a Bx IIIpoa' o B.a
paoorlla BIIIIpooayI, a opoT Bpa a o py oIo }I
BIIIIaT200 /.
HaoHor aH TpyIx TPo poIIT. C o.o
TopoI' B oH pyrx aTo Boalo pTIr IIpoyBI oaa IITHBa TypyIIToT, a po _ r BTp B
o yoo TII aTHo I{,IyBylo opo aMoTa.
a yIloT oTaT B oHoBoM I{a xoo,o (uov) Topoe yoo .fee, e parIITI Tl\{paTypI rTpa
94

ra aTo
TIt ca ypyo
r. Ha o yoo
yaBoToJIy'
BpTaI

p. p oTe a B]oTax'
- a
yI
JI.TB,
'
aL<
aTa)
pa oyl BIBT aoT a apT
(poBaBae>>
aoTa.
pIB oToa
o B oI{ CT poxo,T poTB BTpa' To yBa opoT po
yHIIIaT, a ec o Bpy - BopaTaT. p oTr a oIr paTo'I
oIIo ooBaT TpyHI T JUI opaIl BprI{ oT ,o
yI{Ta aaI{'I -I1| yBIl ,aHoT orTa.
B ao Bp }.ITByI6T To.I, oTopI oBoIoT o .aI o
apIrrpyl, o oToo BTpa B paolr oToB p.oT aBIorr
pol,ly aMoT pTT B yT aa'I II. arlr aaTo Bp, v! arIII paxo.o ToBa. B aaor BIIII B.TTByT
o oro apoaBaoHo aII pyI T o ItHoT pooTo opa o paoo o CT opoT BTpa IIa I{
oTa TpaTop,BIl

aoTa.

o epeo:

B 1941 . - epB| o Bo oeeo ol _ py e a


o ep' .o oa o pHa opaHo, e yo BoMoHI
MaHBpoB p yxo o oH poBHa, l HauJ aa apeHo. oo1'4y oa, oo Ho He Ha o pytx H, 6o6appo e Ha
p a B|oa 1000-1500 . o HaeH 6oooo yap BoBpaa oo H B|oaX7000_9000 . Pa l ep: B a}4opHa llJpo poaa
Bep|aaoo HapaeH, a Beep Ha B|o8000 Hee, Ha B|o 1000 .
a py|H ( poBo a opo ooaB HaoHorvl
o oee H|ep) ee 40. o| pooo Ba.
7 .4. fIo*le

o BBaTrro{

Bpe

Bep B oT B.a Tpoo BpIrI ollyl. [ o


yIITa BII BTpa Iooo apaBIr,I I{a [},Ty opoT oJIyrT
yol BBaTI BrTp.
urymI mp - To paTI BTp' oTopI apaBtl Bo
Bropa yo opoT' oTor o B oTopI oaIBaT a oT Tao BI{r, a aT BTp. C.oao, o opee1, BBaHTIII BTrp BJUIT paoTIo ).y ytBo opoTI
II/ otlo opoTIo |/, T.e.

a: W- V.

(1.re)

oo ooTIIollII{ JI.yT' o BBaI{TIiI BTp - apa B.


a oTopo a; oT aa paoT o.y yo Boyrrro
orrr Bo.yII{o
},Ba opoT

o ooT'
opoT:
(pc. 7.2, a), aTI BTp BT fIoyTIII. )It yBa o- BTpI (oToT lIIr Bo.Io (p. 7.2, ), To BBZISTI{IBTrp
a'

paI).

BTpa ypoaT oIIy Bt,|Bpa


oT BBarToo
plIIH

oa
a 6JIT aoTa
JIoo pa a.I1.aoHIa.a' BBoylx}lIx pBoo. ooo HaBIotIN{

aHI aIIpoBa
paca
BTpa p oTaB
BBaHlIoo
Il ooBa
B

95

.IIBII aooB o o.yI)aa' p oeH BooHoo BpI{


pIT aoTa B yrrT aHa' p o oo.Moo . oTa
aaca ToBa T..II.

>o

tr.J< o

P..7'2. pIoBBttIlooBpa:
t_>0, 6- o l < 0 .
p pau aBaoIIIlI apapoB oI}Io B I\{ap]py paBaIoT
a p. rIaToB' . a.oo ){aTa opIoT BBaIiI{I BTp' a aT
op.IoT BBaTI BTp o B Tpae. a BBZUII{IIOO Bpa
o apIpyy OBOJUIT oT Be BTpa a.aHoT pooToT oTa. ox{arHI, B o.Ir Bp p poBI{ p,BapTI IIITypaHx paToB BBaI{TI BTpo Ta oJIoBaT HTI{o px(, Ba-Tp TT aa'.
7.5. OoIIoT

BII

BeTpa IIa o BepToTa

Ha o BpToTa BTp oaIBaT B pH ao r Blvle' a a


rT IIoTopI oooT Too BH, e

oT aoTa. o.ao

eII oTopIx' opooo


o prH' r a.}(Ho oT oaoT oToB rTBI1oT aTa BpToToB.
Bo. BTpa a BepToT' axo.l a ToI{e' pBo..IT' B pByro
op.' BoIloBIo ora o yrr BTOB. Ta, otl aIIIBapToBaIlIx oa

yo

BTa

BpToa

M-8

p opo

BTpa

|520

/ oBpIaIo oalr,l aIrlryo 30-50 . lopoo


BTp o}T
BIBaT aopoBoo BpaIIIIl oaTr, ot1r oTopIx, oBpIIIa axoBor
.B), oy aT y,apI IIo xBoToBo a, o r.
Be

BTpa Tax( aIBaTc

Ia ac BIJIIo .BT.
BTp, IIapaB}Il apy
Tpy oB'
BIxo,x ooBI op. Bp paIBaT aoBy Tpy' ao

Haot

BIl

oaIBae

apaIa

B Bo.yxoaop

ooByT

BoI{oBIl

oM}

BaT.
Bp, yror o opoTlo 20-25 /, o }IaToo o poyT
oaT ylo BIITa' To p x BpaH BoarT oIIaoT y.apa r
Too o xBoToBo a, Ho o p a roxa.
p p pyIr aa yBoT BpToTa I{B, oo
p pe apaTpa . Bx BpToTo -a
paoo)
I{Tpa aI Tpa BpaII IrypyIro pox<. !
oBpoT
poTo
o BTa oTHoTo
ao oaIl\{ .e.BTp Ba. flo B ToIu, To oIIaT IIyx B-

T,I

Iraprl{Io

paBHTHo

BIooo

ToB BpToToB BpaaT

o aoo

BrpToTa opoT o
96

Tp. o a' To p .BII


Bo.ylI oToo oaT Ba op

yl\{o Byx opoTr: .BIr oaT B)e aoo BpToa. Copo oa BoyHI oToo oaT paBa paBa paoT Tx )
opoTr. CoaHo' o.Ha a BpToTa Ba aBoo or.

paBa, T. . BpToTa B o orrTpro yr ao) oto opo.IBaIo o Ba apa. ) p To aa ,e-

Tp Ba' To oaoT opoIBa] BpToTa aTJII{o yBBaT.


Tx
poI BTa' oTa' aBaFI oa. BpToTa p

.oTaToo o BTp BJUIIT Ba o)IlIM. oa o, op o, poI


TxtI opoa,l
BpToeTa' a Ir MTopoooo
o
o oJIeToB. ooy
Ha B pyx aTa tsH BTpa a
oT BpToToB oTaaBBaT y.
7.6. C

BTpa BlI

a BT oay

p opoBaLI aorTa B opeo


o o oBpxI{oT o a o)H T opaIo
I{ Too o opoT HapaB}I BTpa' o o Bol\{o)Ix p Mr
Tx apaMTpoB BrTpa
B.o paTop /B. CaT rpa ar r o aopI B To opoTo Bp' To opalrr aa IoTI' opoT oTa
pMToT
BaT ootoT Ty BoBpI{I{o papoaT a
o)I/al{o IvtIII{ BTpa. o
opa
o po cel0 vr
ocaeg BTpa B p yar r o aBI pIl rTIx po-

r.
apapopopaoMrlIBoTBrTpa BzT,B
B1pa

- II apaB | copoT BTpa B poTpaBe' BJIIa Boo o. BoyII]I oTo. Crr .l Bgtpa oTo oaI
oo.ll.
NI aBL7aI\IBJIIiIIUI
C BTpa op.a BTopa paoT BrTopoB BTpa' rpa B B]/x Toax poTpaTBa, oTopa opaaT I{Ha opoT,
Ta apaB BTpa p p o o.o o pyo. B aoT oT Baoo paoo}'I paMaTpBaIx Tor B poTpaB paa opoaI, B epvlarB BTpa.
B pa apo.PoN{aopollTar BTpa l\{o}oopr.To pyTaTa o.}IopMIIoo pe apa},'.TpoBBTpa B paIx Toa
apopoa (y paIx TopoB B, a Tooa.r B pyx Toa'
yTaoBI{IaT pa). aoo paTor' oTopoo l\{pTopoTuII/B B)a' - To paToI{' paBllo 600 .
Bpal pa p apaTrpyT rH BTopa BTpa BIoo. o o I op o opy

t ^u' l

'^^ z
11 = '

(7.20)

e U:
|U' - U"| - oy opo paoT BrTopoB BTpa Ira pxM
ypoB U.' le ypoBlr U", lc; ,Z - oHa paaTpBaroo o' .
. Coatlo, p BpTaoo /BaBTpa BT
_., oao. paTx N{Topoorooo oToB
a p palBaloT. o Toto 30 }aIa / a 30 .

97

100 , a B )yapoIlIx
.B BTpa oprJUIIoT B o oo
payp BTpaIoTc kI pr .I{I p.o)^,ITax apyo
NII/ T..). B BepTzroo Ba
I B Bpa (yJIt, /,
oToy paT
Bpa a orT HaHoo oa' e opoTaJlItoo'
Bp l oBI yeII BpB o,a o aoo
oa

aI BoB Bpa.

o epeo:
Bepal BpaHa apopoeo)oopee,e MepHapaa apopo?!
He opoepa a paH|B|oax.A paIe|o|
o
r'tea>>'
Bo poyaaaa Bepa oo Ha <<oae|
Ha plaAaH, '. Ho. oHoopo|,Bepa _ BeHeoHo'
o, o a6eaA B, He oaHo6ye Ha6aB opoe o H,
po.C pyo opoH|,Be a, a|,Ha oop|
a)e Ha Hao
yaHoBH|
a Bepa,aao Bpa, ooMyoaa popoB
pae a Be popoayey poHea pepeHBl.
ea opH(epe)o pa. ootvlyao epa a apopooaoeapoHopy.
e He opee}o,
e oaII .B pa JUIoa? o I{a oT Bopo IlaM IIoo)T p. 7.3.

---_2

B l
.7
BpaJIIloo a Ba a e Ioy:
Pp' '3. pp BI1l,1
1 - oaaea, 2 _ .IIa Tpaop BC'

peooxt' To p oar aIoarT Tpoo p.rI Bp' opo oTopoo oI a o BIoo ypoBr. oa. poTI:
B a oroo paToI{. I{o, To ToI\{ra, ao.
a ((Bpx ypoBl{e))' . an.arT BeTep opoTI U", 'r ye apaT ( o oaaT) oa aoT aa TI{oooI. o
arT.JUI Too' oI (GI poax)iT). oao, oaa p tI a
I{}IIypoBH' .r opo BTpa U < L(, yleIIIa oo opoT
BeTpa, o opoT oTaI,IaMoa BoyII]IoToo' a oBaTo,
oeI{a a aorTa (. apapa 7.2)'B pyTa Too o,rNIaca
Ila l{)tl ypoB H ypzlBoBrIIIBarT aoJIT' olt (poBzlBaT))- TT
paTlro TpaTop. B o {a oa.a aoTa Booa B cao IIaaJIooI, k7a)e,oIrauraB, o BMa oao.
p aorTa aIo.aTeoo HaapTHa. e p aope loI oa.a B oy o oo BTproo BTpa. o a' o
oeHa a aMorTa BIoo yBBa rp, eN{ Too xoT
eT, TpaTop,I oTa aoa oaIBaT BIIIIepacIloi:., p }IIBa BrTpa ao oT oa IIa apTr yI aTa.B or
98

op,' To pBo/T pIBy oToa (. pa 1), arlaIo aN{oTaa


pIo BoMooll{y ToIroBIo BC .
opoT B)a roo I{ yBBaeTc, a )\{HIIIaeT,
o apTa 'IrT a opayto. Ha, To ootITeI orI{'I B ao
{a IIy}I.
o epeo:
p poepey eoBexHopoa
a pae oay]
oeHa <<oHo>>
B o yae, }4ooyoetB a pao
100-200 r't o a oo|.B otxyoae.H 6ye oop o poepxHopoBH,
pea6e, o o6looe p aoe Ha oyo a-opHa<poay>.
Tp oH o
pHao o6y/ a,o HopaHo
e ey oMl
pa. a BlyTe'o e, oH a, o ]v|p
B Bpa Ha
popoepaKeooo?
o o I{TeI{BoT,B BTpa o.pa.rTa ar, yJ!{pIII, JII oII I. pp TBOT .BoB BTpa pB.IIIB a.,7.2.
Tu7.2
PTP

o a
Brpa
(ar)

IITIICBIIOT

.IIBOB

B a yparlr
oyllll y'o

CaI

Hao

pl

ao

CI

CyeI pyI{o

o t

oao

BTPA
BpI pa, a
30 ; opoalB Bpa'
a 600

0-2
24
4-6
>

oopoT
oT poa

ael BpT l JIIIIx BoB BrTpa yeTBI{o aBoperll


.aIIIx o BT oT oIII paaTpBaMoo
yB
popaTBIlo.BpeIloo
araa op.IrrIIJI

o, p
pBo.T aHIIro a BpuUI}Ioo Ba BrTpa.
B r 30-poo
o aopI oopeo
HIx oI{
I BoB Tpa IIeBa (ooo o/o), oao p aloIIlI I{a MaT oUIc B],JJ:I
Bpa' pBIIIIaIoe 20 /c a 30 . Ta p IIII Brpa, I{oI{ro' p.TaBJU{IoT oaI{oT . BTa aoJITa' oa oa a N{aJII po aI IoTa. 1"r' To aa oIIOBI oBprrI
aoToB pa)ao' aa paB.a 50-200 T' To TaoBT OI{,ITI{I' o ao aMoT oaa IlaTIIo p' oTo.
p pIIy Ipoy III opoT ro.BD}I,I. o a, o
oaB B oIIy o o (aoo) pa, ao ao-o BpI\{JIy
TT o opoTIo' p. 1\{ oa MT oe BIaTJITBa
Ta. o p aIIa.IBaI{pUIpa aMoTa a a BeTc oaI. B p axo. I{a o.y y aoa (IIaI{a)) opoT
H'I paBl{a 5 lc, a B opoHa
ooT To pe a a}.y
cyl{y aMoT poeTaT ooo 70 .
B opoTaIloo
Ba Tpa I{a orT aN{oa Tal( oao'
Ta, )Iar poo r Bpoo pa y. aroa
<opaIBaI{)) aMoTa' a p o oa aoT y, <paJIBaT)).

99

o .lI}1 .BIroB Bepa aoeT o)eT ITIBaT BoIo


Too B BpTaHoI"I
IUIooT'Ho MlI paBBx(eI4.
B o plly Too' To .B BTpa oToT oaI{IJUI
aBaIII4aopI]ll BlI, opa o oTopIx B orpaTBo op.r
p.aTa}aN{BoytI]HIxyoB .JUIo oao oeToB.
Bom d Zo l1Lllllpozol ecm uopllu o cduz mp.
H pae o AC oyT poIroa BoB BTp oT . C. a (yepI Ft|)yata
poI{o o.a' oa o tloo oao pa apo.poa o.aaIa :
e. |1J|I4
- aopr porrt, ooo xooI porrr BTopoo po.a;
- oI p aBvIr{ Bo -.o}. o au o ;
- a.ep)Balor
e o (p c op);
_opo-.oIIIII ooBIr BTpI' a Ta
( opIx paoo);
_ oTpoo pl pyr TeI{I.L
(opy).
B p.reIIIr B oy pBo.T oHoBIIIo III
.BoB BeTpa' B T oTI rTIBaT IIoT B Bo poo.
7.7. popo.rr BpTopoI{I poo
BTpa .BoB BTpa
B aaoIx pooax oo,I yaIBarT apaBe opoT
pa y M, I{apaBJI opoT BTpa a BIoTax' a TaI(opa o
pyr Teex (apa BTpa, opoT BTp a o py ToIIa
pyoo e).
7.7.1. pozo npIlu mp
o poo IITpeII I]] IIIoo a opa apo.Hoo
xoa. Bpou, IITp o .JI ol: pl BTp - o poxa.a oo.' a ror - To To apa. Cpeo oTHoIIIH HapaeI BTpa eT oo aBaI4k|.
po apaelr Bpa aeT zUIcTa, o o.
o. o a' To oT' otIB poI{opoBaB IIoToe oo)eII B oII oTBTTBIIoT' op peoa.alor apaB BTpa.
pv ao aTo B pooa oo.I aIIpaBe Bpa yaIBaT q
Bo pya'
Too B IITpa aBaIktapaB BTpa ).aIBaT B .rTax
pa.yoB. o yo JUI Too' ol po pa}ao' aa o
orT BTpy (oy) ooyt oTaByI opoT ea..{eo
B To' To . o ao IpBT oa aMoToB T
oa a o ooo, Ta IIo BTplIoy (oyoy) py' p
poo apae}I BTpa a) o auoy Bpy a aBaoIII
Topoox Ta,I (AMC) opT ooa oTaBIoa rT.
pa. oI.ro o a ooro paa, pe.TaBt{oo
Ha pc.7.4.
opo oprIl ooo oTaBIo opo BTpa }ra pc.7.4 ,oaa a. Ta, p opoT pa 13 lc e .y apaBe Tpa lrapBtl B 40. ooa oaBJUIIozrooT pa paa 8 /.
Too aBaI :lToB-TopoooB IITpey apa
Tpa a BIoTax. o ao (pa a) p paTopoI po100

oax oo.I poo I{apaBII Bpa aMJIIOT o .aoo. B p


To ,oyTMo ,aT o]x oIIIo.
B T, pyI{Ir pooT
TpI papaaIBaloT poI{o
Pyar T paTo
rToa.
JIIII
paIlI
Brpa a
}poB,lx
p.aT B

oI{o

Bpa
opto B Be apT TpaT}pI
B p}ax Ta
opo,
B o opMa.
oTpT, II'a
.r)
(.o
TpaT)I'
i2
pooo
IloTa oaIBaIoT apTI paTopo.rt
oBpI{oT.

apaB,l opoT BTpa Ir oIIoBIx oap

lu

lr=J0 /r

90
If

12

|0

o.

IU

l.K.aI

.7
ooo oa pa
Plc. .4. Hooaa .opr.Ir
o copo epa LI p <yItpaBI]BTpa paB.

o epo:

- y l.4eB Byl o B Hepx o6eeH aBav1HapaBHe Bepa y


M yKa|BaeoHoeHoHHoo epaHa' a He MaHHoo(paHy y
Hl,4BaM o6H B oe)' A o e, e HapaBH B oaoH|
yp op no ol4y' .. o aHHoy epHy? oe
oHH oaoHo oo, a BTp no poo 6ooo, o oHa po|'
HH| opeH/ aa oaBa Bpa Haa: oyHa
oBa/ aPt ypo ao Be? Ha apopoax ry poBpea |4l v1l||!v|
6ey pe qlley o6pao: Bo Boa, oop|e p Ha py apopoPt|,HapaeHe Bpa yalBae oHoeo HHoo l'lpaHa, Ha Bo popoe HapaBH Bpa a aeT oHoHoMaHHoopaHa;
- Ha MHotvlJape B HpH|eo, B oop| p Bea N4eoHo
o )e HapaBH:Ha BpHo]vlo a y )|Bp|,a a Ho - Ba
BpH|e.

t01

7.7.2. pozo oPoma empa I|a


H o B To' o orTBo op6ee TpyT Too
I BTpoM. o,ao Baa I paoTp Ba To.a,oTopIr oBoJIT poIropoBaT p ro opoT.
Mmod .. p. pr .oeIIpa ffl.7.5.), oo)
oTopoo o opoTaJlHoy paTy aBIl,I B 3aBo oT BpMI{
o.a BpMII yTo o)o opT o)aylo opoT Bpa'
rI.! !7;L}v5t

Pc. 7 .5. pa ao opo Bp


o opoooparlra a.eIJ.
Bmopo mod oIloa opoT BTpa y r pr.o}e o.. oaI. o Toy Mo.y poI{yT op.JUIT opoT rTpa o oy-

pvo opy

U: k,

('7.2r)

e U _ opo BTpa' lc; k - oyIIpo, par k:2,5


Bpo-aI7aa EP; (pp) _ apopa I{II' rfIal3 1 BTa
o aoroo a o po aro.
a opya a BoIl yoBTBopTIIIpyTaTI,oo B o
xooIloo poa.
oar ToI poI{oa oTIloT pooy IIoo BeTpa WI
IIIBaJIa,To r o.o To ' Ta a o op.I IBa To po BIlaI{oyeH Tpa oar rltttI\{o apaBI{,I.

r02

f !]l

.7
Pll,c. .6. pa poa aaIlIx opIBoB epa
y Il p poa.

mp npu Zpoa no poozuo duzpt'


poo J|lcuJv|Lxoz
BTpa p poa o apooo apa
MaMiUII{oo
pooa
fl
oTyIIaT ylo opaoM. o poopoBaHoo aI{ aI\{ao paTypI Bo.yxa y (pc.1 .6) y)o oII,ITpay o BaHo
a|4aaTeo ypoBli 600 a Ila To ypoBII ryT opT ,III
^T,
paBlry pzrIIoT ry TMrpaTypo a BaoiI' aWIaaTe Ha pBo paa.aa opoT Bpa p ToM op.TBIpax(II

Ur *"=2 tT,

('7.22)

eU - opoTBTpa'lc; T - B ayax.
o epeo:
yaaet
vae,a eyeooeoo6paB BHMaHe,
BHHo BH4ey060, HeB|Bo. pooBeeopoo
By.Bo atoy pp.pe <<BopoHHy>
<<agyto>>
|I1
oo/o I"t|poHopyee}4prypyBoyXy e] oy Be1l+Y
25, 30o. Bpoe6l o paooe ( a, po).oao, o opopoepa,o B epgoyay Ha o (7'22) aHeepoHopoa
y ooo 16 t4f,a Bo Bopolvl- 30 /. E ep opo15 / <oolppaHo>.A eo-ol oB poHoo opo30 / _ o yDe<<oe
>>,
a poBa|N4ey
H|
Ha 5o. o Mopooe
]eparypI
060'
.. o A'' Co pox<jl rToy pooa IBaoB
aaoBprI{oTIo 3-6 v p o.ao paBT MoI{o ryIBo oaoT. Ha p. 7 '7 paBIl x pa poI{oa IBaa.

103

I]eIIo

700

Pl,lc. 7 .,7.p r ope Booo IIIIUIa.

Ha pa o opoao o oTo)IIo ylvrapoe IIaI{ opo Bepa (/) a ypoBl{e eo oBepo, 850, 700 500 a, a o Bpo o - Be:rIla oIloT rleBo.orr(eBoo oaa (a). B
IIo paa paa po a Be ol: < IIIBaJIa)) <r.l>.

o xo.IM aIlI aa oa oaa B ol{y ((II!L))'o opo BeTpa p


IlIBae o)I(o yto}I o pay' peaBeIroy a p. 7.8'
uac ht/

40r

P. 7.8. op,e aao

opo Bepa P IlIaJI.

pozo
copocmu mp npu zpo o)I(e l a ee o. Meoo.^4cu4lo
Too
)DIlo
o aI{I ypeo otlpoBa IIo Tfl
payp Boyxa a ypoBx 850 600 a opeeITBey6?.(opo e
I{ao.eHo:r:}aa p. 1 .9)' a ar o o BeEIr oolo p. 7. l0
ope aIvIaJIyopoT pa.
1 04

.r1.5 tl.!0 ii'!4

lt,I0

t :.J!t

.''

t I iii1-i;i;i.-'i'::

n !?.L*!{.;,o

.7
P. '9 ' pa opIBlr'

lf
Plc.7.|0. pa .I!'Iop.ltll aaJIIto opo Bgpa p o.

,{ pooa BTpa aII IIpaTypIa ypoBI{'Ix 850 600 a epy' aIIIx )rlpel{o oIr.poBaIIaTopI.
npedeu opomu nopto pl. op opoT opIBoB
BTpa y o)IGIopoBo. IIo oypo opy
U rc p : U " p * 0 ,5 U " p ,

(7.23)

' U"p_ cpeHopoT BTpa.


orT 0,5, TTBeHHo' opJUIToopo aoo yIITa.
pozo mpa 14uno dtJv|o p t po T-850. o o,
oBoT IIpoI{opoBaT opoT Brpa y 1\{ aaoBpelroTIo ,o
Ira pc.,7.|1. ,
}o' ,{ pooa oyT pa, pr,TaBrI{I{I
o BpTao o oTora pooTa opoT Bpa a ypoBl{e AT850, a o opoIITa - o)aaopoT BrTpa y M.
oH eHiI e y.
ooa .aHIIIpao .ooJIIITHI
Ee odu mod pozo Copomu mp u o dHl]\l o emp I|t
po 850 z npdo B.M. poo peFUIT AMC <pa>. o

105

To }toTo-TTTo To. patzula HoT AC


<pa>
B.M. .(yxaoa. a ooBy p BTp IIa ap AT-850, a p y op.ro a (a.7.) ){TooTo oao. aao.
BpeN{IIoTpooa - o |2 .

t0
80
t+

/l$

t2

y'.n**rrl

Pc..7.|1' par pooaopoTBpay IlI


o aIo BrplraypoBlr850 a.
B,ra oa 6paT aBoT oT oTo
cTa.!paoa apo.po]\{apa ale : 1 o ya, r ooBpI{o BIoJITT yoB,I: 1) a paol aa,o p a
JIo; 2) opo o e or 30 /; ) oa TMpaypI a
yoBe 850 a o poa pBIIIIaT6 " C/1000 .
oP..EII' oPoT
BTPA M
o AHHII\{ o BTPE IIA POBII 850 a
56,

Il/

Tu7'3

Bp y , lnl

= 1 ,0

=0,7

= 0,5

40

l0-14

6l-:70

t5-19

10-14

5-9

7 1-80

20-24

15-19

l0-14

81-90

25-29

20-24

l 0 -1 4

91- 100

30-35

25-29

l 5 -1 9

5-9

ali,t

BIo,IrT xoT I oo yoB, o :


0,7, a oopoo
ylo Ma = 0,5.
npdum opom mp eIJlu o pom o)o ar o pay, pTaBI{oy a p. 7.12. Ha ToIl{ pcyl{r o opoao o
oTo}rI{IaIl,I opol{TaHoo paIITa aB (a/100 )' a o
BpzUIo - aaa opoT pa (). Ceo I{aJIoIIIII apapyT opo poa (/u).

106

V? = 6o "./"

o,8

(,6

2,

1!if ., zOaAn
/oo l<1

Pllc. 7.|2. pal opell


opopa opoa.
ooa aIIIIIpao ooJII{Ix oII e Tpeye.
Heoo eoIIr IvIToIpoIroa opo a)aBHpUIBTpa o|l.oaToo IIIpoor papoTpaelle aao vlp paoa
pao epa.

afz
20
ft5

/2

I
4
+

fr. /6 2o 2q

ap,

Pc.7.|3. plUIopr,e
opopa'
per
paoaxpaopa.
H ceep JUI opreell opoT BTpa oJIyIoT pa (p. 7.13).
o opotraHo o }Ia pa oJIa.IBaTBIIa p, - pirIlo aeit aopoo aBII Byx yTax o ooy' a o Bpao o
_ BeJItIy
2 - pao aeH aev'B Byx yl{ax o opzr ooy. HaoIIIr IluIooTTTBy) poI{opyeI IIae,I opoT
Bpa. l, o)t(aellIo, vI-apa po e aII pave Bea
p pooe opo BrTpa (<o. .y)) aIIIr ox e )e a. oIIao a)r ao, a pI BJUI.'pBI o, .arT BoIl yoBeBopeIIIpyaTI.
H ze popozo pl op.rII}UIopoT apaBJI BeTpa
oylr IIIpoo papopar o aev (o aBTopy paaaa
rp-o T'. Bopoa). o pay, peaBIloy a p.
7 '|4, , opeeT IlaPaBIl BTpa, a o p. 7.I4, _ opo BeTpa.
B oox {ax o o oJIaIBaITo.Il T BJIIII. o opoaJIIto o oox(el{a BrIl& L' - paHo .a y e' BTa oe.e oo apTI oo.I' B l]yax ooo a, a o BpTa-

r07

o o - Bra Z. - pao a B )rTaAaa . ooa Tx yTo p B.a T I{a oeBI apax ooI, B
yIrI }IaxoT ppo a o.aoBol\{ paToIl oT paopa. o
pa}IoT aBII (o .r apaBro apveoo pa.eHTa) opeT opoT ltapaB BTpa.
s)a

/;

f ,9. ra

.t

I ,eP1
62
to

tr

Ptlc',7.|4. pa opapaB() opo ( epa


paop.
T paa Ta py .ooHTItIx oIIooa
llil.
o .oTaToIIo poo Ba l emod npozol ocollIl\{ ,aI{INILI
pomu mpa npu Lul npedoe Hoouup.
pooa BIIeTc Ba

T = T'u*"- T^'

('r.24)

AZ - Bra, a oopy) oII)arT TpaTypa Bo.ya p B;


T.u*"_ pooToe aIl aa:ro TelvrpaypIo.ya; Tu- aell TpaypI' JUI ope oopo y)ro oT ypoB ora
(a a apooro apaMI a yp po) oyT o Ba)o aaa o I{ar aBeHy JI.
l !,|i

''

,ol

Pc' 7 .|5. pa opr, opo pa p IIIBaJI'


oyt Hoope.

108

a pc. 1 .|5, oprJllae IIo BIIT pay, p,TaBI{oy


BTpa.
opoT
rT
o epeo:
opo
poHool
y,BaH|x
XoeoaoBHa y Hpe|
Bepay Pl.
aoe o poo 6t
eptya oo HaBaooepH|,
Hoo}t.pae6, vo B|poHopoBBep, y B oyo,o
oaopopa, paH30 /. o ao yae epByoeppxopey.Co B ooyoy?Hy, ovo)/o, o o a HeBpHl
Bao]vl'
poHoaoy He ogpoM.a vo 6y <<aa>>
peyTa
o He o6pa MaHae Ha HBepo|
]o|,
pogepeH|e
poHo'poo B aXo.lya( o ae oop)yo oeMeoo,a a BMaHo
oga poHoa6oe oBoBeHl
a lHH
ooo|'B o ya,)<ep BpHoPlpoHo,
pypo6 oaoBHooIox opee.
|yeBoepeMHHo
e o pelyva poollJ aopo}4 po. B 1994 pe pogocpl o6po o. epyBpel oa|
p' B oaoHoopaoHo-poHooo
Hpo1opoool
pa Bxoo o6e opotvlap ex o o e BaM op
poHoaproo|H po opHoBH,a e poBeeeeopooe
yeHo.3a6al
ay
C pa6oo|pa
ae eaopoa.
opry'
o
apyoy
opBoBaH
poge
pooeBo pe
o o1,o B
B BpMy apa oo' TeparypaBoyxaHePl
po p'.6aa
o| oae 6la 22oe6a peex2-26" a, a e-tparypa
24". l1a epte opeHoata Bpopo2_5 l' xoo ypoo'o Nl opBHoBaH
o apyHol4yopry eaeH6oee lep.
ep apo epo napyooH 'rlpexB y,epopo
y,
oBoH|
Bpa' oa oaapao 3 /. Be o poHoy..Qool]vrI,
xrl B| ery apa' oopoHaxoo
opeI.
oBoH|
ax pax o ep, o y6a, t'1|al4popo pa. A B M
apa o B H6l.... t pooto Bep|ta H HaaB
oaa6p, ooplee <aB>
oy, epy xy6. Bo e Ho|l4
yae
500_1000 o Heo.T po
H
y
H
Pto

eo

/ pea
e|peoo
opeoao apyHoPtyopry/ B oop|xBMoaaHpoBaHH|x
yooppo6lo eo Be. Bo o HaHe Ha H ylaH|
ool'
7.7.3. pozo copoca emp Il 'cotftll
Copureo oBo' To poHo BTpa IIa BIoTa papaaraeTc' B
ooBIIo' Too B IrTpax aBa. o.ao -a }IoTaTa BprII a
papaoy poI{oa (paoa B apoopy a AMC oIo oII apa), oT aTo BIIry)rqaT poo BrTpa .aI{oo. B oo.o aopr p opoTx pa o 30 / To.oyTo. Ta opao, aI apI ap.ro oopa TaoBT a r IlpooTrM o IIo{I{ ylox apT' T.. o oo opa.
po Too' o o y( oBopo BIIII'B paopflrll HoTa Br.a
e poIloTe apTI TMpaTypI BrTpa paIIIx ypoBl{, papaaHI IM ToaNfu7..IN|aTzUIao)o ooBa B.a
Ta pao pIIIT poy poI{oa opo BeTpa a BIoax.

109

r Bpy h-o-oaoT potlopoBaT BrTp oo.o aop


oToH (r oo orrT), To o)IGIo BooJIoBaTTo.oN{.C.
o..{ pooa opoT Brpa rp c llHa p.orrJlapa
o oTopoo oTJIa.IBagr
alra opo
@c. 7.|6), o opo}rul,.lIto
_
- opo BTpa a
(
re
ptoT
Uz),
(),
o
BpTaro
o
a

BTpa
a papaTot{ 1000 O o pooa poB oToa. Harore IIr,
BTpa.
opoT
ya)y Ba pooTo a
i20
I^?

Il
20
2 ?r1
2iO

.7
Pc. |6. Hooaar ooa opoBrpaa BIoaa 24
(ooy.C. o).
oa poa B pa Topooroo o aBkIavIvI
.evl.|4BoI{arT p HoooT ope apaTpI yo
Bo' To a pay pyIroo Tr,I pMar BIoa, }ra oTopo B Booo aTop (rr5000 ) opoT BrTpa pBIra30 lc, a ceaToB paao aBa TpyT ToJIo BIoTa o pyoo TI{JI,
I{o azUII{aopoT Bpa a o Tpy' a aI( Toa pyoo
TII,I'T.. BIoTa o H} BpI{ paII.
i rlt

rr

66

3n

+0

o0 r,/s

Pc' 7 .|.7 opeapoyoo( oy . Ppa)

110

B aa IIoBoJtTpIaT rTo . Ppa, oopI po)Ifl o


.a}IIMolrpoBa aopI B poBoI{o ara Tpo pa, o
opoTzlJlo o oTopoo oTJIaIBaTopoT Bepa' a o BrpTao
_ BIoTa@.1.|7).
oBpr}Io oeB.o pe.oo)re . Ppa: Ta a opa'I o apae opoT BTpa o.o aoep B paop)
oa T pa Be.a Too a oIIoBIIIxoapex oBpxoT, o oBpIIIo oaIlo' oI ypoBII azuloo BTpa
oaa o oepIoto. . opeeJl Bx llapa]\{epoyoo Tre . Pp po)IJI a pa (pc. 1 .|7) aeT o, B oTopIx
opa o opo Br1pa' o..ITT To oTpa pIx il.
p.re oeII oe )oBo a Bpxy' a IIy o aaIII
ae opoT BTpa. ,{,,poB or}I op' poIIIIIBepxy IIy' o I,D(IIpH,I,l\{IoIlvl BIoT o pyoo It, a.
aIryl opoT Brpa a ov\ a BlIa A1 yaxre a oJIo ToIIy
yoo I4' IIo )Io BpxI{Io pI{y c.Ip|I.
o epeo:
fl pooa apapo rpyoo ee Ptoo e 6o yp Bo
pory. Be t B apaep|py opeee oo o BytoeHop],
opoaHHapxy |^|'ooy oo ea. o aHt}4
poeeltlt
opo
He a pa (pc. 7.I7) oo e|peo aoHaetvt
Bpa,a oapHooe epy Hy poopeo epeeeH.
Mt o,.o e al peya.paa, oa pxopo eoo
oe oeBoo opeeeHo|pyooee:l{oa
6pe o aeeP|opo Bepa o 30 / p eo cela p - o opoBepa
lo pa ee30 / p eo oea.fl opeeeaaF|oo
ypoH aaooBepaoaoo eIpoe.

1ll

aa 8

BI4[I AToPI{o TPIITIIOT


IIA oTI BO.IIIIII .oB
8.1. pI pya aTopl

Cpe Topoox euil', oaIBalok| BLtHkIea oTI Bo.y[IIrIxyoB' o. ao oaI BJUImocp mpmocm, BIIBaIoaHHBII om aoToB, o oopo oaT pro prrll BC epTaJo oo. oaa, ooo
- BJIII paBTo peoe. T e ee' Blaoe oaar
cvl:1a'
aoTa B oy IITrBo ypyeo l\,lo)l pYo epIx
Ix poIIIrB.B c ep oTaI\{ AMC To o)IIa
aaa aoa poI{oa aopo ypyrroT orra ao.
o. Tpyo poIloa yyy or IIopIIIoT repaTyp.
I{o-BTpoBoo oIIpoBa. ool{y oT y,oBTBopoo aTBa
aopr
)oIIooB o)o Too IIyt ooo oa .IIa
oroo IrTa aopr pooB.
Aoepa pa Ba ao. ypyo oTotIIg. coo pvo ypya BoyIIIIx BJI Boae B
aope oI{paTIB IIoe BTpa TIIpaTypI.PaIe poeI opo.
aIoT oTpaTI. oor a poea y 6IIT:
_
-mpeu od|aoeo nomot o nopI|om J|4u a Be o.
oe;
III Bep:UIIpIITI BTpa B II)Ire,I
zopJwu;
- doptl odt meeu
_ o duo o e zp u p luI cmo no dcmue no epoc mu, To BIIBaTpl\eylo oe ;
-npocc| ooopo|t, p oTopIx BIJIT IIJIO oIIIIa IIeT xapaTep oe epaTypI BTpa;
mpodul',tueculvIul-ulodcmu odut J||lcc pau||I]v|u
opoTaJIIe
pmpumulJv|lt' a pa oTopIx oII pro BIpa}I(tII
pa.TITepaypI BTpa;
_luue upcuol co' a oTopI oyT Botla paBI,ITaoIIIe BoI' pe p oIIpIx yoBx yoo.
wI|I
oI Moy oBaT oIIoBpIIo aIM cvIIIIB,a
oIo
ypytlTo
laau
p
aTMoepI.
ypyaIo
oar
Bo BIIMa pIIN{aIoTe IIpIrIe BoIIHoB|{II,a ooHoTI4 paBTI.
p o BIJUIIopozpuvctgo (eaI*lyo) yprrrocT> mpu (oleyro) ypyrrro c dul',tueat ypyoT.
pooua mvpmom B y opoT Bepa o.
pxlloT e' IIIpoxoBaoT o oBepxo, a ar BaIIoo pa.
oo(II aIIpaB BTpa apa pa. Boyr' BoI{aIoe a T poBrroTe el\{o opoT' pBo opaoallI ttIx Boo.x }Ixo oTooB' oopIe BIIBaIOoay BC.
Touc (,omua\ w eoc opayT a epaBlropoo apBa oBepxo|4 I|4p aB ooHoo Boya a TyIo
oTaloyto oBpxoT.
112

.ul,tuc mpvmocm BoaT aop B ox' e aro.aIoTor BpTaJItII opoTUII c F,BTpa TpaTypI.
B peya x aop pa.oB BTpa TpaTypI opayT BTaoIlI paBaoI{Ho-.BoBIrBOI{I,oTopI p ope.IIIlIx yoBx oy TrpT ouT' papyIaT rpoT B ypyr BxpIJI'
oe eoo araa'
r ox pal{ pBa poa mpemomu coo e
(T). o ao aave oe oao oToB B opooo oTHoIlII{.TFI ae oar IIaBakfuI
ypyIIoT'
Ta a Bea oaIBaT ao .JUIIIDa. o TH oaT T)4).
yo ooo aop B oll oHBeTBIIo HoT' a
TaI(eypyoT B tIpTIx oaa. r oBa' a ypyeToT,
oTopy ax( r )eT.
o epeo:
He, o e ppo <6oo0epea>eo, e ay, o oaHp
opa opo o oa <<yopoo>>
JrypBao ea o oa. o oo ro6p aaHHy|ory Ba H yp, e ae aoo' Mo e B},rBa
ea opae Blory/ opo yp oea.
oe eaooa oaHpoe opoy 6oppoo|
aey
oe' A ep peBeee y apHy: ooa, aoe e Ha aBoo, ol4aHp opoo H BoXx,t aeooe,a ao Bpy oaa B oHy TH. o }DHoe? Bo-plx,H)Doy-o o
ay. Bo-oplx,H)HoB|lo
aoo oooe oo ypaBe
a 6 appoBaB|He
ryyt op|Bo'Ha o ope6ye e oe
10 , o p oBpee|X
opoxoeaa o pelr aroepoe2,5 , aap| ax(ye a poyBoa,o aoe ryp6yeHooo ea.
B ao BpM I{T )oo TopTeoo oaII,I H. Tpyo B
reII TH yyJUIIo l{.oTao a.aIII o ypyIloT I{oo a. BotIoBII TH ooo aop oyoo
Tpoae' a B opIx paoa - oppa np]/ra.
flarI aorrllIl aTpzra oBoT yoHT TropI TH, a pIIITpoey o ToI{oo poIloa.
.oBaTJIIlo,
Ta opao, aop I{a paJIIrIxypoBII oToo yTByIo
ypyI Bxp paIroo araa. xp paBBaIoT' aIoT, paT' Bce o-paoN{y oaIBaIoT BvI],lea ao, poa
pr }Ix.
o epeo:
oy,o a)Aoy Ba, yaaelae,pooB H xo
6t p Bapay..Qa,a, l4yo6toeyly.a o1 oa aa oooBa aa ap<<ol4>),
Ha oBpHoa |a o y|pBoya.o B aoN4eoBeyylpe aoo o ye
pMpa_ HoHe 3He.A o ep p,oy,o Baa a o rypy oepa. e aoo papao6paye ope opo
Bxp- HoH Ha,Ho o Bp1o
He ooMeH
rypyoooH
aoept,o oaaHeBoea oe aoea.
oao. oo or aopI ypyTIr Bxp tra oTay aoTa, x papI .oI I opMI paMpa Bo.ytIx

yoB. Ta, apl!{p, aoBHo' o a /oByoBI aoTI ozBIBaIoT


BII'IeBI{p paI{pa o tlox ToB.o tIoJI oTIl poB' a
a BpByoBI aoI_ o eox oII ,oIloJIx TIpoB.
o pyI Bp a r BoBa)TaoT o oTo. p a.
oT }t ITIBa oTa, BeT 0Too oBpIIIaTllaor eHer BI6TIoTa. Ha o ypyIrI Bxp aoJITa I{r peapyT' ooJly o}t pzoo aa Bao ot{pyloT. po Too,
coBpI a T BIq/ITIpirMpI' ByIIIJII{}ay
IIpoTo e yBae peapoBa a Bxp.
ooy a T ]fr:epI
opao B'{vIeypyI Bxpe a oeT aorTa o)o paBT
o IIa aBoaIIII{r o opo opo. .(,re oI y Bor
paT oyla. He oyruaT oll x ll]poxoaTo opIT
opo (oo o-paIloy IIITTIIIIIIy aoo a aa pzoo
aBa), a pe.oBa o.oB yoB IIa paoIlx, olpIx
paMpaM aBToN{o,yyr oe aTpy,Jtey.
8.2. B ypyelrIlr a
Bo.yIIIoy.o. oaa aoToB
_
oe aoeTa ypy aope opoBox(aT ao
T
ona
ype,
Ix
Tpa
oBIl Ilaope}tIx
aMorTa yoBI oa oTIIoHo IITpa TrT. Ceoao,
ypyo pBo apye paBIIoBcI' yrox a BC,
o .eII TaoBT o4et' fIp o:
-utr|Irmc BIoTa' yp opoT oa;
_dtam yo.ro yllparoT BC, a ae oop oTa;
-rm
o oTIlIxapao yo BC.
o epeo:
BIo,Kyp opo
o, o p oe rypyeo aop ]"rHe
aoa HapyuJaeooea, a a|(eyxyae yoo, ypalt,to
op oea, oay, o6e pe6ye' o oe|xapeaoB_ rJo
poo- a alaeoyoaepaog(oe<<yao>o6eayax).Ba, e |ea|4 pY.
plepM Hoo,aepao
a oet ey Maopa Be oe p|a,oa pxoo_ o6e B palooo.
, o p|oo a-o pHa<<I,>
}o poxov|-a oaa aoea ryp$yey olly. A ep peaB
ee, o a Ho ooa Kyo poBoo, oopl B}4pay noae. o
illpxoea? Bt aaee6ee Bpx BHo e op, oa poBooa e oae. flaey aaolo p|oltlGloea poBo )De
oo? flo opa p|eo, eBeo, He oo, Ho yo a, a
oopo p|open, ryp$yeoeae <oe epo eo>. Bo ooy pe
yHoeHH|
poPlerpee B ea ylaoe oBeplopoepe
a pooopy.} oeBe 6eoao oeo.
Ha oa orraa oaI{a T, To .a o ypyo B69)IGIIIIaTHIpo aoTa BBpx BII oT pao paeTop oea. po BBp oyT pBT oy, o BC oa)rT a
apecx yax aTa' .ro aoer oao p BeT aoa, o po
BC oy pB TotIoBr o JI BoHo IloBrploTlo'
To oaoBo ol]ao a p Be' Ta p oa,.
11,4

o oa opT ppyo ppaI{.


pzpa () - oor o.o r ar orIIT p (Y)
ooce opoTaIloooTa(Yg),.e'

n =-.
Yo

(8.1)

oT' To B opolrTaI{o oT o.a PIapala a


aoTa (Yo: G), a a oBeIIa BHa paBa p oTJIoI{[l oT Too ptlo (Y: Yo + An, To oI{o aIIaT

Yn+Y

Y
,,Z-

:-

GGGG

Yn
^Y

.^Y
G

(8.2)

o. opyI Bo' To B opoTaIlo o ppya n :


l. Bo x ) oTaI ylla prpya ope.T B}{IIo.o y.oo p poB.I{paJIIlIx paoB' oTo oBaT IISIII
Ha (aII)o TpoT)): oll pIII opTII ppy n, a ppatI p|py
n : n _ |.
(8.)
BrTo' o roa a, B To acca aoTa, rI{ o I paBI poBr MaI Ta I{a yop.
ay'.aoTa ooa epe m, a yopIl' oTopo o)laeT aoT p oT ypyro ap' - pjr' To ppaH py
aoa y pa}ro
-mJ

-J

mgc

(8.4)

o a, To ppa rppy aoTa BeTcpapo


o l\{pTB o yopIIII oooo ae]rlvl-B oJI (.).
pvl BooBrI{JI yopI{7 o oy r o. C o.o opor' To BMIIIaTTBO
a B yTIpaBI{aN{oToNI,a po . ypyoo opIBa a BC.
Paop B BpTzrIrooopIBa IIa aoT raTga
Ta B ypaBII. poo)I' To IIa aoT' e opoTao pro V, oeilTBoBa BpTaI opI . 8.1).

P. 8.1. B Brp.I{oo opIa IIa o aoa.

Toa o.I{a
a aMorTapaBa,oo.BlI
opIBa
qP!'
Y -="
Lloj'
t

(8.s)

a or o. opIBa

Y+ Y= (, * '*.

(8.6)
115

!elo, oMoTpeT a paylo a BIpDe (8.5), To TaIIoBT oB.IlI' To Il oT}IoTBoyxa (p),


opoT oTa (V),
",
IIJIoapIa (5) e He oy' a ]uo)
oo orT oo l ,,'.o [Ipa,alvraT,raTuI kLTIBa,o V }}
, olo aca(. p. 1.5):
c.'
c.u = - - 2 t a ..
(8.7)
oL
B o.I\{Ipa
apapyrT pyIly 1opo) Iu" oa
oI{Ta oo I' a Ba A - er ya aTa.
Bo aTaT' To TaeIII MzUIIxyoB paBIII a )iTa' oo aaT (. p. 8.1):

tg(A)=!'=

6o.

(8.8)

Tep, BIpa),I(8.6) Ie BIpI(e (8.5) oaB Be


ae oe x ypa, I oyll

6y =" \SP',,
aY
2

(8.e)

o.ao Ipa}e (8'9) II ooaTeJlo. eo TaIIoBT oBIII, o a apaeTpoB aBT ppa oeo ctll, a IIa
yto IIa, oT o aB ppa pepy' ! Too yT oere BIpa)re pirT G. To oJIy:

Y
^..-

, n-VU ,'

^rl =- =GJD
a- 2 G

c.,

Nt=*U,.1/_+.
'
OO"

. ('

(8.10)
(8.11)

Aaa BIp) (8'1l) ooJUIrT aT BIBo' o epepya' oopylo ITIBaao' aB o Ta aMoa' IoTI opo o oJIeTa vI opo paJloo opIBa. CeoaIIo' ,Ba paIIIx a{oTa'
BIOIUII0 oe a oo BIoTe oaoBo opoIo, p Bpe
o T )I(e opIBo IIlIBa paHylo ppyy (payro oay).
o epeco:
peeHooorleeoB|paev|Holo p aao loe opo oea ( apep|a)Be e o ea) opeee6oa
e HoH}Dooo a opo BepHoooplBa U, A opo
Bepa|
oplBoBe o o, opoepaHlx
oo. Ceoao,
e,l t4|ay1t4
paMoopoopoa
Bepa|e
o, o pooo6oa
aooB poe 6l oo' oe, oo poo epaHl
oo B oeBpeaoB, o poHoa6o pxoooBapy eo.
1l

ppya B oT o)T pT ByaI{o (o oy,l aa), apoTpa _ popa, pyr BIty opefl,
arpopaa _ popa, IIe Too pyro' o aIBaIo BJIIIy yopI{JI aN{oTa.a, IlaII'I yopI{JI aoTa oa). Aapy BpTayIo opoIITaIIyIo oTaB.aIT B <<.rpr
r opIBa, o)l(o oprT TH}Io apaB o ypyI{Too
Bxp.
B ooeT , paBa Ao, |Al ( 0,5, o oaa oTTIoT
ao. ooTByIoT BrpTaI opIBIo 10 /. p 0,5 < |Ar| < l,0
oaa TaeT yp, a BepTrIeopIBI p o oTaBIoT
10-15 . B x yra' o.a |Ar| > 1,0, oaa pyacL7IIaI{
ooTByIoT BpTaIe opIBI o 15 /.
p ao aoTa IIa oa.y' oa -a ).IIIIII{,I
opoT aIIpo,aBC o yo.roT ypaBoT yxy,IIIIo paBr opoIITaHIl\{
orTo' a eoa o.ra ca o.a a T ooBa IITO xaa pIa' eppya o * 0,3 py a
caa' oaa * 0,3 o * 0,4 _ a yN{pI:aI
BIIII+o,4 - a I{a.
p ao oa oyaloT aTI To aoeTa aa
oaBaII pIa I{a I{pIo IIaTeo I\{eIIeBIOTIoeT.
P oTa opaIUIrT. aapI a (ooo aapr) p
o oa ITIBaT epTIII oyI{, xoa o ao
aTpyHeT.
p ylp orra aro.aloT p BpaBaHvI orIr
po BC, pl aTo opoBoaro orM IipeaM. Pxt oTa
IIayIIIaeT o BIOT o ypy. p or oTpaTe}IIx p|pyax
(po ) oyaT IIBoI\{oT'a p oo}ItTIx(po epx) o pa py. p ypeo a IIapI{Ip.MTI IIaHaIoT l\{aT' xo)II o aMoT o)I(TBIBaTe TpaBI.
B o ooo pTeIIyI pMIUI]VI.
p o oa rIoT It{Tooe JIIII pre po aoeTa' oTopIr opoBo)aloT or ppya. P IIoTa apyIIIaT' a ooBae aBTooa pa apy.o. xyIac k1
paBoT BC, .ro oeT peT BoIItIoBeIIIo rao cTa Ha
opy aoTa. p o oa aax(pI oy oT.JUIToT re
aBcaT a pIr,lx Ilo p)MaT paN{. Ho.I{r aa){pa paB oB.Il,I opy B (pTyTI pM, paoo)II a p o a oo T)lx pr.MToB' yo ..) o)I(TpBrT IIo{rIrIo pHI TpaB lllo.
TypyoT' BIIBaIoa,I ay aoeoB' I{a aJI.I}ID( BIoTa
BTpraT o.aoBo aTo. Ta, o aIM TaT yaIIoBo' To B
o 0-1 oBTopo orall oTaBe 25o/o,I{a BIoTax 1- ol{a ppo paa |0Yo, a B o 6-11 oBTopo orrra BoB yBrlIBaT
o |5Yo. Ha otr BIoTaB o 11-16 oBTopro ora yl!{lIIaTc o 5-8o/o,a p paop (l 16 ) TaHoBTl 5olo.
Tao pap.IreypyToT aop IIpyIIo o
r. Hr ol\{eTpoBlo o.BpHypy a T o.o-

It't

po.o Ho oBpoT.

oToy

oBopeoT

oaII

B II I{a.

oa.
opxoT
I{atlo III,
a .oTaToo orrr paIrI BTpa' BaIIIr o
T' I tI aIBaT p oTax B peIl ooep.

B o 1_6 r B,'rIUI o.alo


B tl)e
yI

o'

Bepx poopa ypypoBaa p a eT or o,opo.o o Bpa TpaTypIB ToM oe.


ao yovo papoBaa paopa (ooo p),
I{o a x )oBllx oaa eTo' p BopIIaT a}I(r
a oe T y.apIo oBpHoT Bo.yoo yHa. Tao Bop'ITe
oa pap oyoo or opoT oTa IIa T I.
oTa ' oeB.Ilo' BoooTIo aBoopaoo yB}I ya aTa .o
pToo p zlIazUIIlIBpaI opIBax.
olo oBTopMo ora yTByT oI{Tr cmpe.4omomlt' o opo oMaT paToe' oTopoe y)ro poT JI Too'
oI BTpTT o. ytia orra. o arl oal II Bpx poopI yTaoIlo' To Jl BTp oH ya oarrlr o
TItBo )DIIo porT peplro 3500 l,r, /JUIBTpr yper*ro r
ro orao _ 9000 ' JUI BTp o. ){a .o jI oII
o oa _ ooo 23 000 . o o JI t\{Iroo?
C o TopotlI, BTparo oa Bpo. r eaa' o
pyo opoIII _ a Ba oTa or aapo opao Bo.yI}Ioe
yIro o TaT o)o oIIaT B oy o or o oTa. A o yte oo!
opaoa aoTIIIxa pepyo oBoJIa yTaIroB p.I{r
papI ypyIx oI{. o ar H.. ya .' .ro, 80% ypy,,
p
Ix o (yaT) B apreep:il}Mpo 100100x1
p yB BIoTIoeTa pa:}pIypyIx oll yl\{eIIlaIT.
C,oaIIo' B ypyo, o r BIIBaIo orray aooB'
aop yTByT ova (I' <I>), ypyToe oTo oTopI ooo BIBaToa BC ro HTIIBoT)I4'oaae aoTa
B Tae oa Bao p,ITTlIoyJIMI,IIIa)e pI{,ITIII{
oB.

fr
t
p oBC oa yo:
Ptc.8.2'B aapopaa
4 - tIpIBaypya oa; 6 _ ppIaypy.Uloa;
6 - o.Irou (po) aoea

118

Aa ace ppyo oBo yaoBT BpI\{yITBoBa


ypyIo. o B.H. apay,o Bpoo 0,5 .o50

p}I oTaBT 4-6 .


o oey apaTpy ypyI oI oy I
B.oB: p.
pIBIlI yyI oI{I, pplBTI oI OTI{I po a,{oTa.
B a apopaap
orT B vp T oI oaal{ ap.8.2.
B p oop ao aTo TpaIoT IIpplBI{l pyr
oI{I, a paop
oT'III To (po) aoTa.
Bpmom B aTo r Tl, 1\,IaorT' oBpxt oTa. B paI yoB ap ypToT ppya BpToTa' a paBo, Ilr pBIIarT yaTaoy.
! o T }r aTopI yo ppy BpToTa -8 |,5-2,o paa rIrIII,
aoTa -24. aoo I{ap}II{}DI ),T]paBMoT BpToTa Ir poxo.T

?) o
yoHT, p

a, o Ta oTpoBa p To IlaTo
I{TBo ypyTltoT oIIoBI yoB oIl'I oTpoBa'I
oBIIII oaoT
orToB BpToToB B
BI.pBa por.oBaoo
aaoa po IIOJITa. Happ,

BpToTa -8, pooBar.aao


opo I]oTa oa 150-

\75 /.

opoo CoBBoIlIloB oa BC y paoTpI{II{)It.


8.3. Cppa

ypyTlloT p o

a yarao BIIII,poy TH 1^rarTB TopTo Tao aII a B Tpa a pyo. B pyTaT aaa aTpaoB ooIltII rTIlI pIlToB' poB.IrlrlH.. yo,
r papaoaa .ra o TH, [apaTpI oopo ao oTaIoToT aparTpoB o.rTH, papaoao oTpaI{IaBTopa.
papI oooTH - paoT pra oaa B
opyal ooo oTo. po Too' oo TH ooT
ylo a.: aopl T' B oTopIx paa TH,
IoT o)IBepaIlIpo Bra TepaTypI aTpyIUIIoT
Trop.r aapooB coil paBT. aToy Bp}I
Moo TaT yTaI{oBtII,To pya'l Bo}1IIIoo
rroToa B oT.ItIx ayTt oax BeTTBM poTa aTy.tsyTpr BOJ]}I
B pyTaT .po.tlao youoT Bo)xoo oToa o .Bo Bpa (a arao yo a - oa). p op/IrlxyoB papIl TpaTypI BTpa BoIlI aop,
oTopIx II]pTo (l*o), .o}IIlaaa c,aTa aT
JJ.a
pap}TIaT pxoT B pyo o oo araa. Tao
BI{oro ara a oBpxoT paa ap. Happ,
JI paIroT TrpaTyp a oBpo paapaa 5 oC' opa paHo
opoT pa l0 /, p TpaTypa a oBpI{oT pzra-50 oC, a
BpTiUIIlIpaT TpaTypIY : 0,5 oC/100 ' To .lrprI{I{I
yo l-o: 1400 .
o Topoo yo paa T]F, oBo
yTaHoBT xaaTpT o Bpa }l TpaTypI,oTopI roc 6a119

opTI{I.JIBoHoBtITypyHTHo tloo a. B pBylo


op, oT}Io Ha}lI BpTiUII{Ir opoTaIII pa.III
Bepa, OIII p}{ }{tIBepTaoo pa'TaepaTypIBooaT oIIt aIt opoTaI par}IToB epay'yxa,
pI p. pyx xpapT. oro aeII a opaoBa TI oaIBarT apaep ox pooB' oyoa oTpaTI B oe
BTpa eMpaTypI.
8.4. TypyIIoT B oa
aoo' o a Be ypoBHJIx B aTop oaa oaax BTprarT IIaToa' p oaHo . o TrHo.
oopoT oa B oaax paI op oaoBa vraBcT oT
Happ,
.rex pI{ BooB oaoT Too oo a.
B oaHo Te As-Ns, opoBae oopo poxoT p PaBIIo
aI BpaIx oa (apl B eyII), oBopo oTa
_ roTaBe \Yo, a B oaax BpT'roo pit3T (pI o
T TpoB B yIIy) oBTopoT oTaII a l00%.
B a. 8.1 pI{I.aIIIro oBTopoT oTa aoToB B oaax paIx op, oyI{IC.M. po.

oBToPMoT (%)oAI{ AMoToB


B oAA

PAJIII tII

oDa oao

St' S
51

Ns-As

30

Tuu8]

Ci' Cs' C

Cu' Cu ong' Cb

29

95

o
opI

40

p oee B ooopaIlIx oaax o IIeItBo oaa p.o


pBIIIIaTypy). a Bo To ca6a oaa. Haot rpepy.
p or B oTooplrI oaax aIo.aIoTy Bepxe paI oaoT' ooo To yae' ecklT oaa oaoBI o IIOT1IoT.
B oaa BepTaI{oo paBT oaa aTeHo rB}I,
B oaa oTIx op. Byp roopaIlIx oao aaT BpaJItII l _ opollTale) ypyIII opIBI. oplI (Bp) l paBIITHooIrI paI\{rpI(yp {BIx oaoB - o rox oB rTpoB' a ByTp yrBo.,o)e3IxoaoB -,o 1000 ), o
a p 1Io Tae paMpI Bxp opl\{I paMpa aoeoB
BIIBa TBH). ora BC.

P. 8.3. B,acll arpopaa o B (Ilt oao>>.

120

BSII' oTopoe oyJlo B


Tpor
oToB oapya
paa
TIITpaTyp aBa <oaa y THI oaoB). ro ao' To
Ip BIxoBLIST a aTlto yBrBaT p Bxo B oaoT

, [I(p. 8.3).
o o)o o .ytoopao. a I{o,Ta
Mar Boyxa' oTopIp
aBao}looBaIIpopoopoaI{a
BT c
Ho IIpoo,T. oToy o.a aoT Bxo.T B oao, To B .BaTr
ao
yBI

poT
a.
o
Bo.yo oa.alT oaI
B
p
poxo.
.BaT
ap)'
Bo.o
l (oy, o.tlpoBaI

e
T.
o
yBrIII
.y BpII' a oBaTo'
I, a TB, - poo a.BaJUI BIIBaT ).BI{ o.rIro 1
oa BBp. p ro oaoT aIoaT opaT1ra apTa.
paoTprI
poo yoB'I oToB B oaa paJIHIx op y
B lloyto JIaBax.
8.5. TypIITIIoT

B TpyIII Teerl

ooro yprlla vI cvI.


oaa aoTo B BpxI{ TpoIorpr'
cpa, oII{o Baa l JI ).tIBo-o)IqBo oa '
rBo-.o)BI oaa pyp)It.aT a o BooIlIx TIIil.Ec
To oaa B oacT
oT oa'aII'I B oy IITI{BII9 ypyTltoT'
TpyI T aTo BoaT p IIo II.
oTaIoT II IIa o
oa
OIII ao TrIIBo
oIo
opoT
TpyIroo T' a a o pp' B oax poo II}I
aTopI, ooa BIBaT oay BC, au"u. p Typya
roa Il Bo B oI{ Tpyoo TI{. a pao' IIa o oao
oaI
poTrIII ((ooIx) o BTpaIoT paBIIJIo opoT
oI JIHo ypTo.
o)I(T
r r.oBaIIlI ora, To oT B pyIro TH
oo'
o
I]poTaT a ooo' Ta opoBo(Tc I{o oao.
roIo
orT B oIIo To x( pao Ha oIIo To }I(r IIISoII p
a B
oao'
oT otlpoBo)aT
po)I(yo BpII B o.o rla
o oo IrpopaIITBIIHo
pyo _ poxoT ooo. To oBopT
B oa TpyHIx TrI{.
oI{ TypyToT
po '".,u""o
Hao aTo ypHa ||1a oaa BaT a xooIlo
Topor Tpyoo TI{ Hoo tI o o Ha
(oo)
Topoll BIIII oc py. Tao pape.Ir
To (aI{o)
pzlJl BpaHIx
TypyTI o B TpyIII TH,Ix oyoo
B oaT pyI T opo}ITzrI{Ix |pa,lIToB BrTpa, aIoax
To IIa ooo TopoII Tpyoo tt,1 paIITI BTpa
. TaoBo'
oIa Ila opMplro 1,5 paa or, IIa To' a oBTopoT
0o.
o ToLTopoax Tpy oTaBJrT ooTBTTBro 40
opoT Bpa a o Tpy oBToproT oa op .r
yoB
paTaT' Ta a B Tx JI{a o.aT or aopTI{I
oIx BrpTtUII |pa.HToB opoT BTpa. oao, o
uo,""*"o""
B ooyoa
.IIaIIIM .. , oaa B oaT pyIrIx TII
BII6T
olo

BTpa.
opoT
l{oBIIoM opoIIaI{I paTa
o oToy oooBo B.
,Ba TIIa opoTaHI .BoB BTpa: .B

12r

C. o ooy BoaT p paBTo oto ce1(oa) pa B apa}loToa' Irapp, B T Tpyoo T, a ooBo .B - p aTo oa BrTpa B aIIpaBII' pIIy.
JlpIIo oTo.
a aIzUIo BII]I,B oaT pyIx e oaa oro aro.a p tlo . Io Too paBa oTaB)T ca,
o.a oaa BI o pyI Te. oaa TpyIrIx e p.
TaBI oo ooI opoo BIpa)I pL' ITIlyI Ilapir.
o HapaBtlIOooa. B x yrirx TypyroT' BIIBaIa oTa' p:lBTa ot TIIIH' p oao . p, r ITp MIUITBeIII B oaoB' T }Ir B IIx piBa Typylltlo.
Cyo r o)l(T oT, III4yoT BIore oeoo aaII, ]M.a)e aT Boo)IoT o aal{o pa. .{BT}IO'p ooBa oytl{oo pyoo TeII yeIIIaeT Bp,I
oea o apIpyy ooT ToIIJIO' a JII{ BpIrI BTp po,I
opaTTI pyaTa.
orao B)ea oo jII{o ratt p o allpae oa
Ba e)'ITa ollaa. ooo oaa BTpa oo JIHo orra a
BIoTax, lt paTtloy oToy aoeT yoBo r1paBJUIM9T5 BC yrIea, a zlaaoBoo)I(D(opoT orTa yoB aTa
orpa}I.
ooy p oyTa Too oTaBa pe BIT9 o ox(II oBeT o a)a opaIo o paoorll Tpyttoo TrIa, opoT Bpa a o py o ypyIIToT' BaIIIx T III\{.
Bom d zo uluot |\pozol nozodt )tc uopu o mpmomu u mpl mIru'l, om d 2o Jv'l u npozoupJv|.
8.6. oppaea

TypyIITIIo

Mxaa ypyJIoT' IIBaIoa opopaeylo oTay,


aBT o poBo o oBpoT' opo Bpa Baoo oo) aPaBe BeTpa apaB xpa. pvo ypya
BoyIIIIroo oToa B o Ia BeTc op yoBo B opa}to oe aopI. HpoIIoT pea oyoalo oBr Boyle, aMJIya oTopIx )rBaT B eyoBo ooe. oyIeH p papyI opo.aloT TypyIITIIIeoIII.
o epeo:
Xoe o/a papyeHeol{yeopo)aeryyl oH|.BoepB|,yBye poo l{etaeoeoHeHe oaBooo oopa. o HoaoK_ oo oaoHoo.lo)Hoe.Bo-optx,B|Be BeI^'
ooHae,
yoe
ep

op

a
o
oa
a
aoo
a o
pepHoao e poe poo
pat'te.
eooaHyB|x
o a|pl4eppop papyFlBoye'}o o oaael,
oeo aop.
Boyre' BoIIae a llpoBoTe eo oBpoT' aTo
IloT BoIIoo xapap' pozr B BIIlIa o Bo.yxa. r
ealoT o oTo aT)D( yo po)lBalo o BIo' B
122

pTTB'I (po pa),


4-5 pa pBIIaIox B]oTy opopavoo
II paToL1|4X 10-20 pa otx' BIoTa pTTB. B p
Tao ypyBo o)I(T paBBaT I\{oaIa6a ypo.
TlloT oT aroa Il Too oaa, Ho p oao .
Cao C.M. llIpy, o)o BI.T rTIp a oalr op BoyIIIIM oToo.

ept mun omu (p. 8.4, ) apaTpy ar BTpo y BplIlI xpa. B }[Ia l,7 Toa a t{I, pyToT'
oT},TTByrT.
BIIBa oay BC, pau

l*i

_--.=.t---

--1 - - . - - - . - - - - . . .

Jt:.#-

-r

P. 8.4. Cyypa

oyIIIIloo ooa a. opa.

Bmopo u omu (pc. 8.4, Boo)I{p opoT BTpa y pIIIIIIpa, pa 5-:7 lc' Ha apo opo xpa ar.a
o.oT oToa azlJII{or Il Toa' a a opo
Topolr - o Bp opoHTUIoor (pop), parpI oTopoo' o
.oBaH, o1 oTaT ox oTIl
.aIlvtpt{TlJIIIIx
TpoB.
Tpmu mun omu (pc. 8.4, ) xapaTpy ooI{I yBM opoT BTpa ro, oTopa y BpIIIIpa pBIIIIarT8-10 /.
a coB oaIBaIoT aopTI BoI{I{BI{ o.BTpro opoI poTopoB' oor (oTpIBaT>o xpa pt{oTo
Boyllloy oToy. Ha oo poopoB BoIIaT Ta oBTpIIIIxBoI{,
aT).alo o p ae o xpa, p oTopIx N{oy Bo}IaT
opaHI
oaa.
fIp mpmo]l mu omu op Bo.yItIM oToo (p. 8.4, z) eTrp yBaT.o BITI'ppo 1,5 paa pBIIaIoroy opoo
xpa, a aT p oaBaT.B o }{aa xpo aro.ao
c||IaypocT' BaTaoapIIIr Bp' oTo B oTopIx BpaaloT B paI{IapaBH.
paa apTHa Bo}loB pIlTIIIx o p oa
pa Bo.y[IIIIoToo (o C.. lpy) pr.TaBraa p. 8.5.
[ opaoBal{'I IIo,BTpI{Ixo ao aopwITH| pI opI oo poTIIHo.oI opI pl oto poTIIHoT oytut oTo aTo oa , yHIIIaT aI
opar oToa. p pt{o p ypya'l Bo.yoo ooa or a BoTI o oTolllro apaBIo oToa yaax xp-

|2

Ta, Ta a B Tx eYlaX

(B Bo.).x) BII{})}I o.HaT BBpx p-

BaBaT opI pT, a I{ oTraT o.

//.*
--. -_ _ * t *

.l
fi

fi

Js l.

P. 8.5.apapa
yyI
o a.opal\{.
1_ caa,2- lpra, 6_ caoaa.
!a o.BTIIHIBoIl aBT oT opoT BTpa TIl Tro yToBoT oToa. o opoT BIII aIo.aITcTlpkt paB}ITItoao BTp oIo rpo yoo.
Copo BpTaJIIxTooB B BoIIa Ira opa BIoTo 50G-l000 oTaBT 2- /c, a a. o BIon4opa - 15 / .a) oe. azlI opoT BpTzLIIIxTooB oTaIT Ha ypoBl{e, paBl{o BIOT
pa. C loo o yIIIaIoT..{ oo B aoIIIyIo oaoT
xo To, Ta a o BC, oa B JIII1xo.
p.TaBIoT
oTo' Ba yBarT BoBp apa oayl BIoTy oTa.
oa Boo)I{oT paBT'I opopao TypyT}Io, eoxo.o {TIBaT .ylo :
1. IIoTex yoB. . ooo BIII\{aeyeT yT Bopoy pe vI Ilpoxo),Ir aopI pooB' oTopIe
BIIBatop IIII'IB paprrIl TrI\{paTypI Bpa BIoTo.
2' ale pyIx . or ,B BTpa, aaroec a
pp pyo TIII.UI'ooyto or ypya BoyIIIIIoo oToa.
3. oo pra ToT. a po' opIe paoI oToT
pa oT,IIIxBpIIrH xpo. Boy, oTopI oaT ao
pIUITTB B oT.eoT' IIp aoTB oT yITBI{I{oT
oyro apy IIoToa.
4. CoI ottI I{rjI. B yl oo.y paaooe Ixoa)I(BaBo,yxa ooy opaoallIo Bp ol' a oBaI{o, paB.II o.BrTpIII Bo. po oo' B aro pao
IoT roIII Il oBopeoT BoJIoBlx . o ,al
epxoa, a o.BpIIIJIoI{a p BIoTo o 1000 opI
BoI oBJUIIoB Tr Bo o.a' a a o BIo pI xpa ao aTo BTpaT o.
124

8.7. CoIl

yoBIr IlTIlBIIo ypyeTlloT

Aa aTpztJIoBoToB oaaB[Ix oay aoToB oBo


yTaoBT o pallI oo aoptx o
ux pooB pypoBaT oTopI paBa IIpI{'I
a paT. p o aBI{oBtIa Io oparo Ha ooHoT 6apoo o Ha BIoT oTa' a Ta] raHa pa oToB aopIx pooB, oaIx o cpI TI{, a xapaTp a.B,
xo.oT 1p ax'ooToTooB.
Ta a o.oHaoil c Mxty oa BC oT oJIoII e )rIIIrTByrT' To ooaTIlo y}.r o Boo)l(oT BoHHoBeHIzo}T I oro Too ytM o a oTx' Ta
TaTT apapT. p o oaTo yo yITIBaT ooo .rex pooB' poo. B a.o olrpTo Ia.
oa apaTpa ap.roo o p a oBoo BIBT IUIT ToB IIoT Tyail,, aoe aopIIIx , BoI{HoBII,Ioa aMoToB (p. 8.6).

z)

Ta
ppI{I
8.6.
Pap.;;;ffiT}ffffi-"
P.
- apuo o' B1pa)I(oyo Ioo oo,

_ IoI
JIoIl',

aor,

T'"H":;H}i:;'IJIoBa

pl ap.roo o apaTpyT a yo roo oI' B oTopo oo BIT or JIoII. oI ao


o oa B To ){aHaoT olo B oaT o paxooT o.oT o (ooo) (p. 8.6, ). Copo BTpa B oIIa
oa 9TaBJUITooo 100-l50 /u, a pr.r aII'I opoTaI{I
(ooIx) .BoBBrTpa, a paBo' pBIIIIaIo15_2 / a 100 . B o.
aT xo.oT o paa oI ao BpoTlloTro oa
paooa ropTBrIII{o oT prHo IIxoo.Iloo poa,o o
oI. B oa xo.MoT o poaaT ypa oaa, a
oaTI7pao.oT o - Ha oaa.

r25

o aI .. o, p po BIpDI{Iloxo.o oToa' Ho Bp HaTJIHoil{B r.pa BpoTI{oBpr o


oao oBIIa.
Bopo ap.roo o apapyT BIoTIIIJIoo .
8.6, .p o T o a) Io .BeoIlI' B oTopI oaa Bpar aoe aTo.
B p o, axo Ioo a oa, oaa' a paBo' ypea; opo pa 100-120 l, aa }IHaTJIa
ooT o. Bopa oa oa paoaaT B p aT JIoa oa o pao.o o orx opoTzrI
BoB BTpa. Copo a 100-150 /, a opoTaIB a oTIII yaTa Moyt pBI[IaT 50 / a 100 l. Ha po oTo ap o olt ooBTTBy rr op JIoa palo
y {aT IIIpo 100-200 a oo.I Bepe. TIIoo poo.
eo oa .eo}l(TpBIIIIaTyl!{Pryo.
Tp uepr r apoo IIo' B oTopIx oaa aa.
ao ao, BIpDI(Ioo (pc.8.6, , z).
Tp T xapaTepyT T, To oaa a.a p
a oI' eoo IIpaBr o oa paxo,o o. oalla M)I(T.oa ypo TBo. ooe ora BpoT.
oT BoIIIloBtI,I a p yye or. Copo BeTpa e
oIo pBIIIIa100 /, a oor B pa HeIraI.
epI apveoo o Ta' BIpa(r oo, o oa oTa paoo)t(Ila loo a oIII B oa xoo o.
Copo oor c,vlklBpa Ta }(e' a B pI.yylal' o.
TaJUIT80_100 5_10 / a l00 t. o BoT oaa e o.
r ao.
I apuoo o BIpa BIoI p . 8.6, d).
B a o}o BI B oI oa. o.a o paoo)a B p, a pa- roo va p. Bpo Bp orrao
roo a p BIIIIe' B pr. a. Copo pa otIlo HIIaTeHa po pBIIIIaT40_60 /. oI B BTpa B oac
BIoTt{oo p, a paBo, paBI 10-15 / a 100 . rrBIIoT
a B T ol{a ypHa aa, xo tlo.a p o tlo
(o 100 /u) oTa c:ruIIIa
oaa.
pattl{Ie a p. 8. xeI TtIIx t{oT ya, p
oTopI aloa oaa, paT oaoBI a patlIx BIoTax
a B poop, Ta B aop.
oo yaaIrIx xr.ooTI pIIaaM yTBoBaIt,I olt
oa BIoT:
1. oo.I poI 1-o 2-o poo I{a po ap. opMo oa a xoo.Ix poa aorrra o paBHIo .pyM aToepI poa. oaa a oo.IIIxpoax aro.arT B Tx
).tla' oa o ao IpaI I1IIoa opar pa.TTpaTypI o pao o Hr 2 " ga 100 , a opoar pa.T
opoT BTpa_ 20 / a 100 .
126

JI
T7^lpo po oJIIo' BaHI pooplrI
opoTaIII
Io

T
pyHI
|pa.IIpaopr
TI opoT a o 20 l a 100 ' a opoTaHI pa.HTr T2'

paTypIoee2 oC a 100 .
pyITr.oaa TpaTpl
3. BroopopIr

M oTaI{' Bao o pyl T}IM' BJUIIoTopoT BTpa


6oe25 /' pI pael{T opoT pa o 10 / a 1 rTI' opoar paIIT opoT a >5 lc a 100 H apaBr BTpa roo o a 15o a 1 BIoTI.
4. pp JIoa, o)a, p. p a.r Tx op ap.roo o oBToproT oJITa aollla. cII orT aorTa pooT l B:Tp)raaIx apv opao' o oxo.o
ooHo TIIIaTIISytITIBaT pIra BotIHoBrI{}rTypyIlToT' BIraro oa BC. Ho aopTl{I yoB BotlIIoBItJI
oa BaIII yo o)a' oTopIr poo}alo y.
a oa B aoII,IIo ora oTaIoT I{aTeI{opr}.
p p I{TpaIro ac BIoTI JIooB BC oao
B)arT oBoo po. Hao ua opa o oa o)Ito
o{T oT a, rox oTIa pp JIoIIo. Aa
oaa. To a aao Ioo-aa,o pp oIIoB yt{aB oa B p.I{ 1,5 paa t' lta BoTotIo po-ooo pp"". B",,n.a BpoTI{oT BoI{oB a a loo-aa pp
yyrox olloB p a.B ooa o.oT o.
Cpatlo BIo5roBTopoT oa a pp aIITJIoa ooHo p o)o o Te' To' oao apy' B Tx apx pa B HopTBo ro py oT pya oy Haxo.T
TII pao opo. B pyaTr paBoplroo
Bo.)rIIrI
ypyoo o BTpa BoIIaro ypyrTIII oI' Iloa,a B oTopI
aMoT IIBarT oay.
5. Ha oao a BIoToTa.aoo' o oBToproT
oa aoToB p Ira oaoT I{a IIIor oTa B ItoJIo
pa oI,r p oao .
6. A xoo,a,p oopo ao aTo aIoae.coaa BC.
7. aIror yr Ba a rrlrollr orTa o pyTaTa 'Byx
o.I{ o.poBa opI B Tpry pao. aoo' To
a pp cvIHBTpa pJ{TIIIIopoT BTpa a 10 /
,70o/o
yaB' a ckl pToee a 6 , o oaa aro.a ppo
p Br.ccell BrTpa a2 lc o a 6 , To oBTopoTo.
TaII oTaBT ooo,7 5o/o.
p ao BTp IIa BIoToTa ( 15 /) oaa oIHo BTpaT B oa orx orx BoB BTpa a JIoIIo opo Tpylx .
rlpac a pBIIIiI BIIIIxrI I{oToo IIooeH vI p.
e .aIII'rlor B pafop{tl{ IIoTa' o)I(Ho oHT Boo)ItI{oTBoI{oBI{ooTaIf B a,aIIopao.

t21

8.8. paopoI BpTopoIII poo


aoepo rypytlo
Coplo oBo' o ooBIIrf' oxa1, eI oTM poI{ooB ao p o yp yrio BeT aBvla.
ro epeo:
oa B paK4Ke teeopooeKoo oeee oeoB Bo1ae oyypooa rya. pae e o oIl Bo Bpe oA]a
'I
ya epe Beo| o1op eKl o p oee o I''aplpry B o1oe 9-11
ye aa't a rypyeoa. o ope o oep)a Be aaao
Bepo. o eK B oBeparBae o po ryeo o Be o4 a o6e
6oaa? Xpt Bonpo. Be,1eo B o o t't al eeooDl, |tpot]o1pyerypeoe oaoe aMopL a oaa G]Iqoea - o pea oNHoo aoea a rypyeoe ooe aoept pooapoBabee e ae
o o, o ara ooBa ataa - ol4oa aBa,qeo. o Be a, o eo BIIo|"|t4
pqp oleo peab Bo 1aa o ao oBe e ot. ,Qa pq e
a7opl pa1l eooB pooaa aoepo rypyeo polloat4poBae
ryyeo, a 6oay. Too B nooHee BpeIq' IlotapaBa ot ft,otqyapoe aatap |qla a oBop,|. ooy Bce rloyaeq, IIo BaMoIycoacIo
_ l7o eKoo 14t4o|Ioo o B. Maooy: I|blo1opI'| ryyeoo
_
pa1I'leBaeq 6oaa, ol4 oBop 6oaKa bl opa7yeBae ryp$yeo.
a ypyoT' a ao I ypoe oa BoIIzUIa'opeeIIeTB ooBo BpTtlJIIlI opoTirIII pa}ITa Bepa
TpaypI. ooy poo oa aorToB BoT' B pBylo op' pooy o BeJI o.
Cyyro rToI aIloa pooa oa aoo yoBlto
o)Kllo pa a B pyI. po lpye oo Tae MTo'Ipooa' B oIIoBy oTopIx oo)r Ilocr.- a:Ilapix ap ooI apT ap.ro Toopa' a o Bopo pye - eTo.I'oopI Bo BIeHIo pzlI aaTpT apaeTpoB, opeeJUIIo
TypyToe ooIle aopI.
8.8. 1. Cuonmaecu eod npozl'otl
o c epo fi mpmo cm u
Cy oTr TooB poIloa aoepo ypyeoT' BItaro olay aoToB, aJIIoaTB oeo auulr pI{Ix
ap ooI apT ap.reo Toopa paIx ypoBIIe' a oTopI BIJlIoT rIaT Bo.yIIIIxTr aoIIIe BPooTIo oaII.
orir aat oBojIT opT xapaTep oao B IIpeyto pao, :grae
poatx paoB x TBI{o. C ooI
BIoTIxap opJIT oooT p.roo IIo' opoT BTpa a
BIOToa' apaTp a. BpeII oToa.
TaI aa,aI oJIrToB aoTo oBo BIBT oooT aopIx o pooB, p oTopIx HaIo.ar oaa,
a Ta]e oppoBa roTopI poIIoTe paBa. p aa
aBo BaH opo Ira xapaTp apveoo o a BIoTe oTa'
a aI( Ia Ha|4 paoe oa aopI poo, oarx o,
pylx e ..
t28

a yaIao BIIII'oHoao ao oa oT oToo oo) II yIByT, oao .oBal{e xapaTrpa apvoo


o p ora aoeToB oBoo BIBTTIIIoa, B oTopIx
}ITHBa ypyoT BTpac ao aTo. Bpl ao Ira I BIotltI .. o. B aru o aBopI oTBep
pBIe BIBo.I'o{IIl .' o.
yo .oBa B To apaBr poBrl H.. yo,
H.. flaroBI po pyx aBTopo.
oor tloTe pa oa aoeToB o)HI BIIII.
B .oo orr(HoToo oT' o' o aI .. e oHoBI{I
pTp BotIIIoB oa BJUIIoTBepTurI opoHTtLI
Bea.
H.. laloB . aI{oa poIloa oa aoeTo poyT
oaB apI oT}IoTooopa (oT 300/500, oT 200/500 oT
200/00) oI yte o (op) oo)TBT oIIa oa.
po oo, H.. .{aloI papaoa oTe o oII Boo)1lo oIIoBr oa B Bpoo ope. o o o,poo oa <payl{ o aBaoIIo opo>>.
8.8.2. auKo-cmamacmaecue emodt npoaltol
m o c ep o mp emo cmu
or rr o o. pooa oa aMoToB B aTBIII, oToy paril epec p.TaTaIIo
poIlo oa aoeToB yt o.oBpIloo ).llrTa o oTBI ppB. ooy p To oDIII oaBT aIII Tpaypo-BTpoBoo o.poBa aopI' Ta a B paopent IIoTa a
AC Pyo opa poo e. ooI poBo.T yr
oTIa aTTx )y oBItI pTrp\oo.
aopl a|Ia oyT orra.
oor p o-TaTo o,r pooa ypro (
}I Too ypyo) op. opooBIx IIa apapoB IIoN{o pao, oopa p aBo. B aToee BpJl TaX aBce yTaoBI{o oTaToo oo roTopIe
Ir|4 I paoTpM.
o epeo:
eo, o ope ryyoe ooHaop| opeee Jlo
Pao (to Ri), vtoPapo, Booepe,op'lo pye
o

Ri=9- t a

1l

, ( \,'

'

\d z )
e g - yopeeo6oooae; _ peeeprypaco d4, Y - yoapeparyp;Y _ patptpa
6eepaH|
pryp o d dUldz _ Bplpa Bop pa. Topee
rypyeooa a6a e Jlox aoepl,e Ri < 1. e <eop>>
oBop,o oa o dz ox(HapB|a
500 . A <6eoyl{o-

t29

y>>
H AMC opo papeH
parypl Bpa oooaopepe 500 ? eo-o paooae,e 3a 300 e. E p|Ba o Pvpoao aHH|MoHpoB,
o o Mor oa .',40o/o|
Aopy x po B BpooHeHa Ri pxooBpaB
parypHaHo 1/4o 10, .e. paHaoaBa 400, 4000o/o!
Bo ooy
NrHo
Kpprypyo(ppB'fl. Peoa,pep.T. Mae,pep .C. yooo p,),oHoy oop|oaBo Papo,He H
peoo
plH.
Pao .Ba rTo.a aoa pooa oa aN{orToB o a}II TpaTypo-BTpooo otIpoBaII aopl, oTopI :aII714
pI\{IIe B pa o oToB: zpuu emod u mod oJ||nel
pumpue. B ooy pa.roo To.aaoa poIroa oa oox(I{o IIp.oo)l(II'o ypyToT' BIIBaIoa oay aMoToB,
oyoa Too BpaI |pa.rIITa opoT Brpa, apael{
Bpa TpaTypIBo.yxa.
paoo MTo.a poIloa ,aJIIoarT ryloe. po BepzIIepo.l opoT, a)aBrI Tpa paypIBo.).xa, To JUI a)I(oo oo yilaTa po BepTaJIIrIpa}ITtI ooTBTTByIID( N{eTropoo BJI yyr apaToBaT aJloo
paapBaN{oo )raTa po pap.,l opoao o. e
III yo aJloa r)I(.y o)orIII pBI opol{,lJlo ol,
orrIeBpT:UIIIIpa ao Topooo BI.
B ae pTpeB p ao pooe oa oyT oIUIT pI4Tx a BpTzUIIx|pa.Ilo. o pyTaTa pI\,lI{TaJD(.oal a pT HaIl,I BpztI paToB
(a l ror) pIUITI r.ylo IIarHI: .JUIopoT qTa _ 10 ,r/,
apaBIl,I Bpa _ |5" v ll IvlpaTyl_ 7" .
oa BI.r o oa aorTo Bo.T ToMy, To o oTpoeIIIlvIpo BTPa TrpaTypI Boyxa . aoo oo
IaTa ope.JUIeTyo IIaJIoa BepTaJIoo po opoTao
o paBaeTc pT aI{rM.
.{. yoBa parToB o)I{o a opaT aITa, uo . Bx Tpx
BII pT o aoa oI(T o,aoBI.C o rIo' poBoo rpa aIa o BepTa JUI BIoI oo Tpx BrIl
(app, opoT pa) o opoa, ooo opa ara.rr Byx py B aM opao, oI opy' ooTBrTBy 10 / a o opoT Be)a' ooBTBoBzUIoTpo a o apaBtl
BTpa paBI 15", a Ha o TpaT}I- oTro,pal7 ".
o Too a a BpTzUIoo papr.eeIBrTpa TMpaTypI
Bo.}4(a.yT aeT Ty, aJIoII oopo ye ooBTTBoBaT pTM aeI{,IBepaIII pa.ToB (o o<o .aT pao op: a zUIo a yl rpaI araa ao
o oTpo BpaI po pap,rr,epa paypI).
Tp poo oa aN{oeTo Br.rT paBI{Io aJloa TaI{apTrx T aol{a eyoo yllaTa po. o o1TBT Ta ){(opao' a op.el{ yovo aa I]ooIo apooo .a|paMI rI pt opeel{ xapaTpa aB a
130

oBtlo ape AT.700 oT 500/1000. oao B oe oT apooo apaI\,IIB .ao Iar (apap youoT)) opJUI oTI{o.aoo BepTaoo po.
Ha <yoBoT)) ooo BpTaI poeil ec
pHao yTBoBa ypyI{TI{oT' aopo . BoI{tIoBH,I
oa. t ao-y o <eyovBo) oapylae o BpUIIIIIVIpo .Byx BII' To To )DT yaaM a olyto poIIoT orrra.
pep paoo IvIeTo.apoHoa o.a pB a p. 8.7. B
aBIvfoToT BpTaIx paeToB opoT BTpa }Ia pc.8.7 o)I{oBI.T.Ba o IIoBIIIIro ypTI{oT: epl paoaaT a BIox 8,1_9,0 ' a BTopo - a loTax 10,.7-|1,4 . B ao oT BepTaIlI paoB apaB pa o oBIIo ypyo paooxe Ia BIoTax ||,0-12,0 . B o 1l,0-l 1,4 aae oa a.
oIe Bpoo oa, a a o/I{oBpeello BIoIIIT,,a
pIlaa <Iyo.rBo). Cy o papeero repaypI oya
too, -a BrpTzltlIx paelrToB repaTypI B pB.Ilo pI\{rpe
oa aroa.
lt !n
14 ^i.
!

:;{

':.

oPooaoaaoeoB.
P' 8'7' pa.r
ooo oo}ITBo paoo Toa - BIoa oepaTBIIo. o
oopao ooBaT B ).a' o.a oxoo orIT apTy Brpaoo papr.Il oB IIoIro ypyo oa.
aoeoB lI Bx Io B op.o pao. pa.Ie o aIIoa poIloa orra aorToB o yT a oBoJUIpor a BpTaJItIIIupaprIr Bx xapap' oTopIe BxoT o Papolla. ore IreppIBI{oxapapT pap.eIaoll oa aoTo JUrBe BIo yTpaT lloao ooB pooa oa,
oIIoBaIx IIa opr a Ri.
o.ao p paro o pooa oa aoToB oBrpIeo
{IBaT opoIITaI pa.TI TpaT)pI Bpa' o BIIo
o B peyTaTIpoopoBal{'l.

131

! pI{ oo)o BTpe ypyI oa a a.aItolvtIIIoouoopaI{o ooa pyo To._ To.oa pTp. O aroaT B .ye. o aI TrpaTypllo-TpoBoo
o.poBalr opI IIIT pTpB ypyo: opoT BTpa pa opoT BTpa - 10 r'la 1 ; opolr.
25 lc o; BpTiLIIrrI
- 5 a 100 ; pTIJIIIIcr lrapaBpa.T
opo
BTpa
r
rvlBTpa 15o 1 ; par pa.elr TpaypI Boyxa _,7" a
1 ; opoat pa.tlTTepaTypIBoya - 2" a l00 . ra a
BIoT oTa oIroBpHo BIoIUIIoT e ex ror ppB' To
.yTyaIa ora.
p op o orra aMoToB eo.oorllea ppB
oo. par apIp}"orTa IIa )ra o 300-400 (2_3 a
apTax apuo oopa), p a yJoBI To yIITI' B oTopIx
poBo.TepayIlo-BpoBo oII.poBa aopI, .. Te yIlI'
.aI oTopIx arI a apTy. ae o ,aIl\{opoBalr paccT|BaIoT BpT.UIIII opoIIT.lJIIr pa,TI TepaTypI Bpa JUI a.
)oo ytlaTa TpaI }Ia ]eo oTa oIIBae opoT BTpa Ira aao to. B ao o a apaeTpoB' aII,I oopIx BIIIIaIT
p, aeTpoHo oa aN{ooBa aaHo {aT. opopa TepaTypI Bpa oprJUIIoTco pm ap.reo ozlJIIIIe
opa, lxtaI II]oy oTa, a BrpTaJIIIIe|pa.TI- o pm^l
apo oopa' .y oTopIl\{I{ao.IIIo.
8.8.3. Hecmdpte emodt npozlto
o c ep o tp m o m a
a.apTI eToaM pooa aopo pyT}IoT' BIIa oay aoeToB' a oTerI MTo.I,oTopI o).ll
lllpooo papoall Ha paT' oIlao a o e' o o.xo.y pItIIlIo aa' p.aBT ope.erl p. a ToaN{Mo)I(o
oTeT ylor.
pozo mpuo mpvmocmu no poozuco duep,t'v.
Tp.ra ypyeo o apooeo apaM poIlopyeT
oI{ poTo. Ha epeylorM IIa )oBI{ (reo oa) opeJUITB.
vIaT,paa paIroT TI\,Ipaypa ao aaae po paTa. c 'T }IIII IIyJUI' To pa oraa r oIlopy'
ec T oT TepBar o 0 o 3o, To l]pooax yztIBaTcaa
oaa, e T ___6", To yaIBaT ypa oaa a rc AZ o'
r 6o - cII:aoaa. AopI eToa p.aaloTooBa o Too
.o ypoIr 400 a (ppo 7,2 ). o .oaoo I{Tpo op.
C oo opoI' a a BIoTa' o' Brtla A?npaTrIlo
p.o Iae ot o, a c pyo TopoI' aoeI paalro aa
oIo BIoHIoToI I{a BIoTax 9000-11 000 , T.e. a ypoBII 00-200
. ooy BBe.eo aBopaM opaer BIoTI pIIII,IToa..
aT o paT or' xoT a o e o.xo. pIII aa
pooa Tpo ypyoT oe payI, or poo o.
yl. ooaan a o AC.
12

Dozo mpmom zo|tpo. H oo a]popoo a


!a Boo, o Br Topo opy;oo BIoM opa (o o
To. aBTopy paaaa oT AMC .A. ooapa), JUI pooa
oa aorToB oyloTpyTaTIa. a opoTIo BTpa Ira
B. a B opoT pa oT B pr.rax o 5 .o 8 /, o
polloa B.a yaIBaT }T\4paypyoT, a opoT BTpa
or 12 l, To a ypyo. B poTo' ro, oTo
paT B.aopaB.IBaT.
et odu lmod npozo omu npu,toto. fl poo
oa ot{o ooBaTpa, p.o)I{a p. 8.8, a. o
opol{Tao o oTaIBaT aaHa opoT Ba y ' Ha
BoBIIIIoTB pao apo.poa' a o BpTao o - paI{o ( aoro BI{e)opo BTpa a BoBIIIIocT
a B. Ha p1r
BI.III
oI ao (6o ') ypo o ypyo (2.3).
"
TypyoT )H o aopI oo oprT o pay a p. 8.8' . Ha o p o opollTao o oToIIaaUIIIa opoT BTpa a B (U'u*" , l), a o BrpTao - opoIITir'TI paT TrpaTypl a ypoB 850 a (',,o,./100 ). ooBa
oo paa o p'
|}!r.

r-', | t l, /

' l *i
:"'lI 6"
ul
{i_

i 1 --i

i:

a1

P 8 8. pa pooao proor:
.l _ o llprIaI; - o ar o p a B
opoaopaIrTr
TMpaypI
a ypoB850 a.
p.rI
BIIII ToI poIloa aopo
ypyoT'
BIlro oay aoTo' Ir pTH.ytoT a pIBalo}ro
oHoTy
opa o.a}ro p. oa BIIIIpaoTpI Tr To,IpooypyToT'
a aop
oTopI o o ep IIaIII paTo p. r, a ao o oTo a AC.
poHoa oa aoToB y. aaT paTa BpTzUIIlI pa.IIToB
TpaTypI B)a' oT Ta paTI oo l a poo o
yllIIII. Ca a Bo oyT oT
To poI{o.
vt MTI poHoa' ooBaIlI a pyTaTa aIx ar a

apopo.Too To,a'oaB a AC yyr o ep oopyoBal| oarIII oIoTplto ' a polla AC


y y o
o yBpt{o ooBaT, Mo)Ho )'aT <oroo aa)) B paT
Topoooo
o pax{,arro aa.

IJJ

9
BI4[I oAo Tkl oPAIItIo
BoC ttA oTI
9.1. Oo B]uoT a oIlotlre aropl,
ope o2I(oTl{Troyo oToB
poe paB.oBpeoil aa oo B aToee Bp BIotUI oI oaa, a oaa, o oaa, B yl!{aax .. r
oBaM' raIJIaaBa cTaa a cenozodo. oao oa aa pxo r B apoopTy ).aT,oa peTvlT yeTT oT (Goo.l>>aoT. Coepeo oBo, To a)r pye oe, v
p xopoIe (poo) oo TaT poTo' a p oo (oo) oo
oeTI aTro oo)llo. oa p oe oo ooe orI
BI0IUIaIIoB HrBoo)o'
o epo:
-aaa aaeoBeooa.ooa,eeeo,aKa.
|Baae-o opea B|oHeeoeo, o ea o oo B Hepax 6onao aapo aa. He yeBye eHoopaope o
apee oeo B B oxo ooo, o B oe|eet{lo, o p eoo le e o peao aoe Be p roo ooe,
a looey aay p HeBoooo ooIyoBIvlpoBe
oya apopoe- ooe opoy o aeeH|x
yo aaypye.
Corro oTpoa aoea oaa JI p oxo Bo
aJIIoa B To' o' Bo-pBl, oyTByrT B.aaoptlTpoBa
yxyIIIa oBIBoT aI aorTa. B-optx, oTpoa.
I{ o)o BIotl ToJIo o popa. B-pr' p o, oaax
oIIe oxo B.MoT a, e p oe e oao' BoI{ae
claypyoT' o Bo.)lIIIIxyoB' py oaIII BII oo.I' a Ta) BoI\{o)I(IIpa) BeTIe .I' oopIr
oelr aTpyIIIooeT.
o epeo:
HaaleBJpyFloopoaoaB o6aax oe B|a. 3e, a oop, oo. a pxoo o6a, o Bl
1t,to
ae, o B ax yolox oe p|aaeo aoa ea BeH, a
T-|54 o Beo ooo 30 . A ep peee6e, o I ee (6e) o
oe pP, t BaM e Haoo, oo orlB pyry}o,o ool"tyae B
appe eo, a pyolYt_ o. ep , o o Beo BI<<o
e> o6ee eotp'y eT]a e ooo, y Ba B appe, ]'4aeppoBa opo, o o yBy 6 HaeHoyBepeee,e,l y o o xo oop, oee opoa Bo.
Mpa p oee o6ax oao yepe.o |^Ba,
yaaeleae, pxoo,oo, B, o opoa y roo
<<oB|e
yHoooeeoa a|et4le
o6l>.}o o Hae oyeelxpao,oo6l yot-tep ]paryp .. e
AoeepHeaxoopo, e ae o ]'looe <<Beote
o6t>>.
HaapHaHa6ae Ha apopoep oeao eoe pe}4ryo' fl o6eeoao oe B apopoe BKapoopl. p opee|
yoBo BKeoopoeopaoepa
ooA|x
| 4

_<BeoBo06>>,
a y aoHaoyeHe,o p M <<Ba
ooa)>.
ooe
o oo 6a, oaaB aXyoBo 6lapoo
ooo.
Hooo pyopH
BoHa
Mt ay)oopo
BH|
|'
oM, o p o 6txyJloBxHa MoeeBe BKet6p|eo
(et oe pooo pal- Ha oHeeo),poot
t
paHooBea,a p aoe Ha oay_ pr.a Bv|e|
o oo, p
oe o6a, oop|M epeHyoo paBaB o Be,
oaBeHala peeooo.a |MaoHI.4llJ
ay Ha6a He|M
opHpa,Ho o e (t)Hya<Hetll>.

popape|p axoe Ha oay BIK


B apoHaBaoH|e
oH
oo, o6lyyy,looopa a6taoea.B B|BpoB
oe appeylaa ool4ao.olllyl,oop|a poa'oo
oHy }{eoeBeIo l o6Hooe oHae, HoBooee oy epMoeeyoBBop
oe 6o|8o.
Ho aoeHe Bappa,
ooyeo]yoaBy ppelKa
p oaaollHIe
oH,
o ae 6eoo oeo.
oa paox )ypurax.eyp}Ioo oTa a A]vIC o)o Bpe ayro a:

^6000. .
8-:-:-10
a ia T II To o, a opa'l o oo.r, oTopyt a)I(
paBa Boyxa. epa pa (8) ooTByT o oao' ocel(10) - BoT, TJI lo yaIBaeT IIa BIoTy p pa.
r oa.roT' a aeaT - I{a BIoTy palrI. papBaT pBIIIIyro BIIIIe a' To o)rtl: oao 8 oTaI{ToB, BIoTa
p paI 000 , aI - 4000 ' B.Mo 10 . Ta
oo.a BeTcpoo roo a aNIoToBp,al{co aa.
[aaie p B aN{aTo aIII4ckIyp o. o. Toa :

^6000
8----10.
400
ooa JIa aTIlo otl' Ta a Toa oao yBa
2000 o 5600 ' a BIoTa paI{Ioao otla 4000 .o 400
. o.ao B ooTBTTB ).ITByI paBa Taa oo.a BJUIT IIpa}Io aa poo. r oMTr (o Io B po pa r), o oTa B oIII Mopoo yoB oTI{oT Ta oeTI, oTopI poBoTc rIp BIo palrI oao
200 Il} () p BMT 2000 III. or orTI oT}IoT IIorTa B poTI ToyoBx. Ta To p BIoTr par oao, pa 400 , ooa BIoIloToBpoTa, pae Bc a rIoT paBo TaTp ao oo.
Hy a ep aae yp B IlaaT oH llo:

6000.^
40

^lU.
-

135

Bo p ooa ..IaBo or, UIo arr , .a I{r Ha ax{o}Iapo.po,o}TpoBT BT ' ooo, oa.y p ao oo.
o. oJI B alr{I{aT,
oa1' pa IaI{T.
eIl
ao
oToB B aBa yTaaBBaIoTc -fuIuu,(
,M4loaodt, oTopI y.oI{ .yro apapa o aBI.
9.2.N4YI ooI
Muutt oodt - o p, ooaaro pI IIooI{I
coB, p oTopIx papIIIaTBIOToTI o,oToBoy oapy BoylIloo y.a' yaTpoBaT Boyo yHo ooBaT apopo. BTa oa.. y ooI opr.T Too By BI{a - roo paI oao (Ioo p]f.TpI)
BoTIo (oro a B). Paa xqy roo paI{I
oao roo rIplTpIIII.U,a Ta}(r y BoTIo BoI I{a B a, yalar TaTr, aII oI{TIIayT oxt.
! o}I'I oao pepoT oToB yTaaBBaT
.yr yI ooI: M). apopoa' Bo).I[IIoo y,a, oallpa BoyII]IIooya .,aaBaoIII pao (p. 9. 1).
14rgll

N 5 !1t}|r ! r1.'; 3 L1t!ldul


f 9$.l-i.l&I/l:
d.,}.d/Ji

is!|

iflD'Ji{tJ

P. 9. l. Ca o IlyMoBoo,I aBaII.
Mu-lvt oodpo,t aBT o opaoo
lloo'l apo.poN,{a
eo oopyBanvl Tra oa..
Muultvt podpo,t d m - o I{zUII{o .oyTIr a
B.l\,{oT a B (o) p oxooT
- BIOI r t,a%p oTopI papIIIaT BIotIT BeT a BoyIIII{o
r oao (Bo)'
y.}I .alro Ta. B.o a B (.ao oT a B) - aMaI{o paTo' B p.rax oTopoo oT BC, axoo
I{a oBo
III1B, oT BrT appoBy opIT oLl, opal{Balor
B ooaar r oBy I{Io.
Muulrll podpo d nodu - aJIIIo .oyTI I{aHII B.oT a B
I6

(o)

ror pIITvI peIII (BIo)'

p oTo-

pIx papeaT

BIOJIII'IToa.y IIa Bo.yo y.r al{I{oo Ta. BIoTa


pIJTkL pIII (BP) - yTaoBIIIa oTI{oTI{a BIoTa' Ha oTopo
oxII r aa aHBp yoa a opo py B )rlla' .o.oT)'I
o roI oapo

Boylrroo ya r yTaoBrII oxol


oTaT oprTpa
poo}H axoa I{a oa.y' a Ta oo)I(eIIr Bo.yII{oo y.a B popaIITBr apaTpI o B)Il,I oearo oao oa. BP oTTIBaT oT ypoB oyar

poa B. opo B - To aaorlaTa B, ooproooBaT oa BoyIIro y,a. BIoy t|pHTpIIIH aTo oTo)'TBT loo r paHI oao. o o TTBII9' Ta
a Too o BIxoa oaloT T I\{oyTaIIoBT yar
oTaT oprllpa.

o e oeH Hepecq o Bao:


plltlJopeBy tvlHtyoB
oo|/
a Ba pepo.
e Heoo,
a ptBMoyr oaaeoool.{o|l.
Ho,
oo opo|/o He oBe a - Hx Hy)Hooo Ba, pyo opoH|/
opeeeooHo3l Haao poBoyoo, MH
opypoB|H PrepBa.
Muu.,t,tpodpo,t mpupoo d m - MIUIIIo .oyTIr{IaII BNII a B (o) p oxooT * BIoTI
x< {I oao, p oopIx papIaT BIoT BT ppoBoIIIx oTa lra BoyIIIoM y .aIloo Ta.
Muul,l podpo,t mpI|upoo d ocdu - MIlI!{aI{ooyTI a B|{oc IIa B (o) BP (Bo), p oToprx
paprIar BI0I{,IToa.y a TpI{poBoIx oTa IIa Bo.yIo y,II .aIloo a.
o epeo:
Myoo|o6loalBa
eyt"l
opao:apMep,100 x 1000.
}o , o 6oal e oay aoe PropoBp B|o
o6aoHe MeHee100 BPlo
eH1000 '
Bl o opaBHaHa o, o B t]vryax
oaaoeoBea
a B Hlyax
ryppye B|.||,
BB|oae p|o6ao
ya|Bae<<p
eoxoo>.}o Hoa' B y p Bee
H)oHooo BIp
paep6ed ao,eoao/
Hy)Ho
ooyao B. Bo ooy ea Bea opaHeo o.opaHeeo B|oeo6op B6teoooa/oa oe aao ooaapo1'4
opH|l4
BpHM BIo
yBHHl]t4
peB.Hy a p oa,BHHo/
o6ooy|Ba
o6 el.
e oAo Bax{oeooo. p opee.4v|l
B K Meopooex yoIoH
oe (po|v1olx), opeeHtvlHyaooloaoHooHooMHa: B|olpa|o6ao,
B|nl4o|/|,
Bopo e p o oya<aBo]vrae>
(. pc' 4'2)'
Mutl'l,ttt oduozo d oyI IlzUIM aTBo :UIo aaoo aapaTypI,r a opy BC.
Muutl odozo da d m - zUIo oyTIr aH,{ B.I\{oTIIa B, ooJIIo oao poBoT BT a Bo.yI.
HoM yII .aIloo Ta.

11

Muul, od1ozo dl d nodu _ zlJItIo .oyTIe aea B BP' ooIo oao poBo oa.y
H BkI|v|oT
IIa Boyl'oyH aHoo Ta.
Muu,t,ttoduo odtuozo d oyoI opeT
Iro o.IIoToBoa.
Muull oldup odulozo d d m - MIIIUIo oyToe a BoT a B' p oTopo oa.py papula BIoI{TBT a BoyIIIo y.r aoo Ta.
Muul otdup odozo cd d nodu _ IIzUIIro.oIIyTMI a BMST a B BP (Bo), p oTopI oa}Ipy
papIIIaeTBIoIlToa.y Ha Boylo cy aoo Ta.
Muut otdup odtuozo d d nom no nprul]|luuloZo |om u oot npqul]||u]lbozo nom - zlo oyTIr
Ita BoT BIoTI l{I{ paI{I oao, p oopI oaIpy papIIIaT BIO,ITByaI oTI }Ia Bo.yII{oy .aIloo
TIIa.
p o paBa ByUIIIoo oTa (B) olT' TBIto' oyTBJUI ByuUIo. oo,l oB' p oTopIx Boo)Ho BIoItH
oJIoB o B o oor paBa ByzUID(oToB paI{'ITrpoBaI
(opl) Haa o IIpoBo.TByoToB paal{oi aa Pocopro' oeT B tD( yoBIUIx o}T
(H A). e .oyI\,{r}ITo
oToB.
ByaJIIID(
paBa
oTy
o
ooIM
r orrIl
Ha-IHo
oyI H
Mu'tt), ud uuuot Dom
papIaTc BIoopIx
p
paI{I
oaoB,
B.oT BIoTI )
wII
(yarx
ojIToB
pa
paB
pM
otl aBaoHIx
pao.
o popa), yaoIIIx .aoo a
C ro oe oao }Io oToB B o)IIIx
opoo yoBx yTaaBBaIoT a HaIBaImezopupoIo. yI T a p aTop:
|alu ]|4uI1uI'|]|4I
bI ulttt]vtJ||,
_ nepl mZopu - BIoTa r paI oao 60 , o a

B - 800:

- mopl mZopu - BIoTa HI{ paI oao 60 ' o


eH 30 ' oT IIa B _ e 800 , o r I{400 ;
_ mpem m^opu _ BIoTa H)IGre paI oao I{ 30 , .oT a B _ M 400 . yl TpT aop IpyapBaIoT Tp paoB.oT pao T o)tto. y aerop I.
pyaTpBa Bo }Ia B e M 200 , aTrop III-B - Hr M
50 , a aTop III-C vloT I{a B or l paa 0 (yro) .
o epeo:
B Po, a o 1p, e Hoo apopoo,Ha oop|xo6eeeoaa oop HMyeo epo aopIo. PooooByx eoB
o|o opoaeop,a Bo o aeoppH
006I
apopo]vto,
oop apoopa pe: oo,
o aoeeBpe pao|
oop|
Mo6l pHaaoel
(epo).
ApopooB'
H-op MoBa
o aop-B I-C l4poa .
oo|.a BHo,a e epeopMao |.|Ptya
Too oe o oaHoyaHo.
loHe

oa
a
HI
138

HaoB, oopyopapoB
opeHp|
oyBaeM|e
a
oay.Ta a p aoAea oKyoaHpa)apoo BlepBe

o6o
txo
6y
o6o
B|ol
o
B
ato
o
H)t(H/ o
HHpao6aoB, Ha oHa pHorpaoo HaaaB, elr |ll.l

oaHo.
paoHo B t{oel
oe lxoao oaa p a1o Ha oyeyoooopeHpoa, yBA B, oepy lo Ha ooHlyp (p eo6xoo).
yMopooea,pooHee peB aaB' Ha
A HHo Bpe](pepooaogo Be nog al4oeo).oao
opooyoBpaopao,oopoe poea
paHloaoIe
oo o )e Bpo ae HH,
ao|
opol Hopo|e
a eogaHo, paHyBlory, oopo oeH yBB. o,
oo|A pHlxo aMoo'
pal{|e
Hl"tyl4l
Bo oepe,oyoBBae
y,oB' oa.poB Bo'yIlIIx yoB B.oB
.{ apopoMoB' BO.)III{I
aBaolrIx pao oyT aIlaBBaT opalreI ( yI!) o
opoT Bpa.
B ao opeo Ia, y o T JI oalla' ra {TIBaIT
odlltllozo d|l u ]v\uupodpo,t, J,|utl|lJvt4
p ya oo.l: .b|uu.l/'J|4
IpaeTc lruTp
yI!{oB

lX

d,
odozo
i ondup

BoyIIIoo
ly
1000,
100
apo.po
My
ou. Happ,

Ha mo,u aTiI
To
mom
1500,
80
x
B
oapa
yI{a 50 500, a My

1500.

100

y)
oo
p
or ox{eeT IIa mm apopo
a o, B tlyax oToHIIo pyaTpBalo ae BIOTI
I{}IG{paI oaoB Bo, pryI . oaoo BIoIllI
Too oo oTa.
9.3..ao BItlvIo e Bo
o paIrIx aopoB
o BoT _ To o o)Ito a){Ilor apaB' ooBo
aa oTopoo BeTJIr.oBaI{aooptlor pTrIroo Bop14c..
TI,UIpaIlooparx TTBII}II yTBIII oo aI.I,IaTa
rUIItIxor B pa}IIx aTopIIIxyJIoBx.
oao o.)oIle Ira op)IGIr oIUIT ((.{oT)a a o.I{o
Ba}IIfu]Ix JIaBaw| Tropoo olU{TI.
Budullocm _ To pTeo BopTr oeo, oyoBI{o yeTBoBI{r poTl 868I pa )y peTal\{ oo. B.,(a zroBI{o) Hto
oT apaTpy .zlJIHoT
opooo oHvI aBa
p
Bo).
Bo (a oplo
oTopy oItlo aIBaIoTB.B.oT'
IIpyIo oo uUIoIo
TM TpIlo.
ooBaT
Ta]
y
oTI. B ,al I
pao'
oTopoo B.I
azIo
o, uduomb }LINIaT
IIo' ToopI{TpI
ToBl

ooaloT oBrIIIr or I{
BpaJla
,
paBIIo
350
pror aIIoIIar BoT
B
oopIx
Bo
.oT oe}I po oTaT 200 . aa
opoox BIIX r pBIIaTox TpoB, oIlao IIo
oo}ro TpT aBaIo.
Bv|vI|{oT
Ta opall e:-JLa
B ooB poBa Ho A B pa.aoi7aao.
yI B xapaTrpc BoT y IIoBpxHoT JI: coTBflPJoudu-

|9

4om, o oTopo oBopo BIIIIe' udu'Jom BIIII, o. oTopo oaT pao' a oTopo JIOTBoylul{oo y' I{ao/loa oo B, alrI B.tMappoBy BTo-oa.ooooI
o, ooaalo oypI oeBy tI.
Bo aB o papoB opr proB' oBrItI{oT' BTa
poT oa p.Ta, a Ta popao aopl.
aopt
oro poBIoT B oBoyoT' oyoa or xapaTp BoT B peaIllx oB'Ix.
or papI p.Ta .oIIIl ot oTpoTI p aroaTe.Hopaa oToTa p oBea - 1 yoa MHyTa' T.. pap a MIIIII1/150 paoHI.oIIo' To oB a oo o BopI{a. o.ao B oTIx ).a opoTa oBoo pr ra I{aTo or. Happ, poBoa' porTpyec
o
a, t a paoIl, prBIIIIaM150 aMTpoB. H
,
I{aIo' oy a poxo.T.
opa p.Ta ar BrT a B.o. oI pro opHrrI pa (a, aTI, pyr ..) B.I ).[IIII, I parao pa ().
B.o aBT Ta oT oBHoT. B eaIII yoBx
oBIlo (peI B TI{)yyr o I{a
o oa
..) oI TaoBT epaI. B oe Bp yo B aBIvloT
o paI yo or aro. .oTyIIIa.ar.
o epeo:
a yato
Ble,l4oaBe ooo pooa o6a,o
o ea. Bo Be BpPleHa oe pHa ||e
pooHI
aa| oyopa. A o l Hoae Bpeopol 6eo
opHooMe. o Ba p, Ba eo. }o ee He oo
pao|/Ho oo, o6t yae, e,l op|.|ot
oe p|, poe
oop,a rypo, o o opeypaeryo ea poloaoo
HyaHaProopolo6p1o'
B ao- p BoT aBT o aroaTJUI'ooy B ooTBrTTB
Ho A prr y araJUI oppIl olo r pao l,0 a oa aa, araTo.4pa B o. oJDIlpoBpTBo prllr y oyTa.
oao, B.MoT oa oxoo, ol oBeIeoT
o oa ra IIlIlIopIIIIor, ot y
oo
oo I poI opa.
ooaT poI opa pe , a po
oa oa
ooBTTBI{I{o
p Bq Bg6,To. op.eHpoIloo oTpaTa oyI\{BIpa)r

(e.l)
ovo, To poTI oaT Mo)l(rT MeI{'IT o y o .}II.
Ma poI opa, oopr p.BaeT oBr a' aIaT nopooI ompcmo mumbllom ooaa . .(r e1 40

tlIx yoB : 0,02, a IloI t,: 0,6-,7. B x o aT oToB p op.eIlBp|N|oT


B I{Tpax a.aICAQ yaoBa
/B}IIxyo r : 0,05.
B.o TooB a (p aIvIaaa,) B T}Io
p yo pTaBT aoToT o)Hyro poy Teop B|4I\{oT.Coao .. Paopy, B.oTToHoo ToI{a BTa (aa
MoI{oTIo 60 B) MoIIo pBT B Topoo5rr.ZUIIIoTB.o. .aI{IpTaBIlI a. 9.1.
Tu9 1
TAA PBoA Bo T BTOBI OPIITPO B
(AMA NIotIoTIo 60 BT) B METoPooI
AIIOT
B,IMoT (M) B TMIIO BP}l To
Bpe
yo

aoe o oa BrTa,

2, 0

)5

Ho

't 5

Cypn'

, 6

2, 1
6,0

4,0

{U

2,8
1 0 ,0

4,6
19. 0

>20,0

<

50

7,0

6,0
10,0

J,0
140

8,0
20,0

Brpa JUIpoToo oTpaTa, pBIIo IIII'paBBo.


oT popavo oept. B paIx yoB'I por oTpaT
I{I]]'N{op.r o op (9. 1). !BTIlo, y aaT oTo T ao-To paTor' a oBaT}Io' co|l aopl, oop oyt poT. a po y aT oT paHoo ooIllloo o aopt BTa. po ap
.IToo o ooa up B, To poT oa y BopHaT
aroar a (B + 0), a poT oa - a (8o6 +
B)' Toa paI
por oIITpaT ' y paBII

(e.2)
o c, o 1 < , oy B Topooll poI B],JII,
oTopIr ooyroT yB po o arpI' yl\,IIaIoT
BI.IOT. BevI|I
oToT oa., .aI' MT' rrr yp
.. B'I oToB B pilIlIx BeIUI' yyIIIaIox B.oT, ,
paoTpIrI).
o epeo:
oAa a MHe ae ryry o)Hoaa ao opo:e 1 /v, Ho oHoMyaeo Mopo,B pyo- ooa oa HBHo
o o, B pet'l- elot, o ae,oya,B ao]vl
yvae y aPlaoao? oa,H BaltlJptoBe, o
aa nox B|4o-
6y p opo. eo o B e. o aoa
aaa,o oopooJeBe/paeao Bo e opoH|,
.. oapo oepl.e 6o B o( ye a6aaX a,e 6oe
6ye poo]o a]vloepo
eeo.
|/ oaeHo,
a o
yoBBopoHHBHo
oaoBaaHaoHaoB(1 /),a aoee
a p,.lHH|
BoBoaoBy opo,o axyaMoae ye
ap opo'

t41

9.4. Meopooa

oeTa BlvIoT

p pooo o aBavII oaB HTpryeT


H Too Topooa .oT' tlo' p) Beo' nom udu]ocm.
Bo B oT - To p.or paToII' a oopo]l{ opa aoTa e peal o a opya o e. oTa B.o
aBckIT oIIoBI{o oT.By apo: oToH r pI yo oopa. r oy' To oIl aop .oTaToIIooTotl' o ao
po, o oopo aBT B.oT B o' BeTcoToIIr aTopI.
oI Ha e B Boyx oT B.T ar aoTa pe oTe IIo.pzrI ya. B aoT oT Too paaloT oo apaTepT B.oT (pc. 9.2): Bo BpTuUIa S", , B{oT
BpTazrpx S"' plop3ouula oT BIoT orTa S., aJIoa BoT &* BoT a B, oaoI{zrB.oTSn*.

Pc. 9.2.app
o'oyIltI
popooeo
o
oo.
Bepmu udul"tocmb _ To To aaJIIIo paoe B BpTzUIo apaBe|v!v!,
oopoo BIrI ooalo }IOBIIIor.
oBrI{I - tIoI. BpaIIa Bo BII aTo oTo)BIeT
roo x paI oao' Bp' l\{ )oBIIe' oTopoo ((JUI
poaTBaeTc>>.
Bpaa .1\{oTBBp ppaBHBaT paToII)' a oTopo oT aHI aoeTa B. paIe ol, paootIIII a (oa, BoyIII}IIya' axoe a o BIo
fIUoHax oeTa ..).
op uo m u dutom XapaTepyT yoB oapy par oo IIa BIoT oTa. a .oT' a BpT:rHa,I'oeBaeT o Byao.
Ho udulom paB paToII' IIa oTopo B.t{I ar eTo aoTa paIr ol Ha e. a cT, a Be peI.y' l\{o)r I opra ByaJIo o opoT oeTa Bp
orTa o lpaoo optlTpa. HaI{ylo B/o ar op,IoT
Byao.
ooo To p Bx xapaTpT Bo allar nodo
udtu'.lom, o. oTopo oa po oIo paToIIe B.o
1n
taL

oT aI pJIa. c|w:>ert'a oTopoM p yxyIllrro B'I\{OT


JUIO aoTa otT }Ia opooBo BoI]p,I oapy,T JI ootI.UItIIxo.
aT aao B -aBay y azLIIIx
o - o}I BIooil ao HBItor zLIIII]oa.oI{Ix
(oB, o) - B aTJIop ooyt y/IlIIo o oT p ao a oa.y.e B, o paJItIBoB (o),
yBptlo (pBIBaT) ztIopTpa. ooy zUHI oa9III o o o)eT oap1or o yo' pBlIIIaIoI yo r-ra.I.BopoI BoT oB (o) ,ro a B opoo papaoaI ..
PaIropo. o o I oBoplllr B pBoM pi.1..ra.
oaoa B.Mo oT I opa .y opao. o
oor oTa: <ooy Bly) *.Tp oa.a pa oa.ooo oaTopa op.JUIya aoTa oT l{aaa B. o paTo o}IIo oTo)BT oao B,oTIo.paa, Tpoo oop' oyIIIIoe
Ta opao IlaH S'* paBo Too .aoToB ooo Ta.
B paoTpIIlIIe BIIexapaTpT B.oT e op.eITa
oaro.aT py Too ae opooo
AMC.
.aoT BoT S"' opa' B p' Ty tly)a. B pa
o oeTo aTo pxoT TaBa T, To oaoa
Topooa BoT aTHo oTaT py oT pya. Ha p.
9.3 peIII pMpI paI cTar4,o.a ,s( S* Sno") S*.
fle}Io' oT aI aoTa BIIkITB oo o BI.
xoa oaoB (. p. 9., ). oy p oaa oaoa BMoT B.ay. opaa p ro B.o y .

:tP-fi

4f;1*-t:i-

pa
y'pBo
P' 9.3.opoo're
B.o:
)yooo opooo
4 _ S.,o"< S"i _ Sno"> S".
opaa apTrra a.a t7p {aIra apo.po oI\{I{oo
oo Tyaa. oaro.ae.B.ao cTa(. p. 9., ya)T
B.oT 1I 1000 , a oT a}rI aoTa y. xoporo B.TB
IiaIopepI.
o epeo:
a o, Haa Motopooa AMC opoHo
HapeHa Ioa Hae(pepHo1,5 ). ooy(p. 9.3, )
yHa apopoeo10 , o p B|oo6ao 100 oaoHaBt"to
1 , a6a pa3Ha1 . B o yae6ye yrpa,o Bro
AC, o lo10 . o p? paloa, o o6a oop<HapaH||a>.Bo ooytoaB yo oyaaaooeeopoo.
apopoeoM|(tooo 2 ) (tooo 10 ) ryaH, o a AMC
oeo ya)y 1'1o 1000 . Ho lo a)e ooa)Hoooa
( pao pl)ooo6 M, ooyp aoll ryaH e Boya6y pe-

143

pHo B B Het{H|opHpl B. o y e a6ae oy paoBop Ha paH||a.


pIpI oBoT .aT BIBo o To, To B y
Topolloo
.oTaToIto o)ta.
aoTIo BoT
B.oT aBT oT BIoTI TpyTypI ooao
l,

pt
oaoo
oaoa

aopI a ol{o {a a.I )Il' a Ta oT


apap B.
BeTo- oop
po TaT' To p IoT aI oao 300 r oa p o roo oaoa.oIla Bo MllI rTopooo,
popao

.Sno" S" pa

oBa.aT.

o epeo:

oop o oex oopexxapaepB opy<ae.


ya.Bo.ptx,oeHKpBo
o py,HeH paao By pHlx
o6toee o)HoyBypo]'l H apopoe p oe}4ot"|
rye. Koe
ao-o ooe.Be a6a
aoeoe BHo,a Be ao a 6t <<aa,>
y-154 axoHa |oe5 o M.paa, oo o6to yB'y)o
po a. Bo-optx, p opo o oyB oao e Hoa
HopaooeoeoHe,e oHo a pa o
l{oHe B' B o <<Boo)>
ypy eeo aroe'Apa aopa x po (a eep y'( a y) . B.
BepaH|
aay:opopoaH|e
3aoooBpe ry p|-|y
y|oo)eoHa,p oop|poXoe oe,papa6oaaopM pop]l"ly,
oopa oo o eH oa B ao o llJpo|
Bpe BoHoooll4a apaeeHopeoo)Ho
BoHoeaeeo]oHo
H oe, HaoH/poaHpoa
e o,leHo eppop|4Po,vl.,
pzro yTaoBIlo' o oa.oa Bo aBT oT opoT oTa aMoTa' or Ta opoT' T I{IIIooHa B To o)l(o o aooa (p) pl ',IoT.
oa. leo B o' o B oT p axo.a oay IIo tI (fipBIBaT)
oy-o oprTlloy optlpy. eo a r ((o >, oBMo.
Toy oa opoT IIorTa .ooJIIITo).IvIHIIIae
.{ opII:oaouo BoT o opa o ]eTeopooeo rlrTo opoT apoa aorTa o.. oar p.o)ea
opya

Sno" = S' (_

(e.3)

M-),

e - ol oToI{,I B, oa vI HaJIvIoal'oB (op


araI-D;- _ o Maxa p aI{poBaI{ aorTa.
oa paHI yo e,IIoTo 0,85 o 0,55
(a.9.2)'
9,2
Tu
BII
IIAE.II OIITA P PAOM ootl
oT IIA oAoB
otIA B ABlvloT
Coo B o
Cyxa B, o _ paa,oaoB
Mopa B, o - paa' oa.
Ha BfI a ra. o _ . oaoB r
Ha B a a, o _ . oa.

t44

0,85
o75

0,65

opyl (9.3) o' To p ((oxx)) ooIx yoB,lx paBo oto oa.oI{aBoTt o)T oTaBT o 30o/o
B.Il{oTMTropooo. o o t opy o oTpoT pa
aBoT S'o" o S' BaT B olIrpaTo paT. o,
To aorToB paIM opoT aHpo,arroytlI pa yy paIIIM. o eo oprI{ oaoI{o oT .aTxopoIII pyTaTIp.oTaToo o.opo/oN{oyH aopI .o aTJIIlo

BIoTI.

o epeo:
oeo6l oaoHa By oMH.Bo-nptx,o6paeHMaH,
o Ha opoH|x
aBopax
Ha peH|x
yaaexpaHx opoH|
eHoao opa.}o aHo pepHBo.o opory yee poe a-o pepoBa <l>>.
He poeyBa' yaael ,p ee Ha BeoeeI4|4
a pye oe aHlapapoe
|Bey,oo6eHHo,e oHa aHaHe oH pyo_ epto6 6ye
t{Hylo
a Pl .

Bo.oplx, Hooo o oaooBMo.flo o, o aJal"teeopooay6a He oBeae a ooHy BPro, eeBeHHo'e He


poHopye.a poe 6l ae a <<ooa
o>>?
Be , Ho
Bo]H
o o1,o l - 16,oopaoeeaea oHae ooa
yeHo|o
Bo aa,o aoBoeB|4/
o o a poa.
B a xo pa oTMeTT' To zlJlTI-eTeopoopIoT poopyT Too Mopooy aJIoTo. aIloBr B Mnqy Teopooeo B,IOT 1T}IIaI{
BoT Boo)tlo eoxo' Ta a To oBoTeTHoy poN{y oTaBy JtyIII oBaT oo'I{IyoB,I p BT oa. Bo.yIIr yoB IIp oTr a zulIx pJIo MZIIBIoTax.
9.5. MeeopooIle yoB oeToB
oaa par op
9.5.1. co noemo oucmoopt oa
o. xapapIx o aopI BJUI HaIIpIe ooBo .ToT. Bor aep BoaIoT a pallax pzla aopo Bo/yxa p:BI e oa (app' B oa TpapIx epc, a aopl poax ..); B.B oa
Bo.o opopax pT; -a Taoapo.BIII.UI Bo['<apa p pII. B aoT oT oIITpaTa apaTpT IIa oBpI{oT pa.a o.yII{Ixa' BIOTI xapaTpa opopaex prT, par opo BOyI]]IIIoooB .. BoIlI B aMop l\{oyTI\{TpaIry ytlop.ooT lloI{aoBr xapap.
B oa orloo .ToT ( paIx {aTax o) opayro
Boo. Irxo. B)I(eIIJIBo.yxa. B oa Boxox <
p.oaToo alo Boy(a ooTBeTyr paTyp oppy oao.
ooy BoJII{oBa.THoT pay aTB}IoT'opyro
oaa rpyl paI{IopI.p o .y oTTT o oo-

t45

TBo' To BB.y NfooIx p BoJIoBo TtloT BooBI .B}I(ItoIr papopa}rI B aMop' oToy BoHoopat oaa
aroar BI\{aao. Ba B oTr _ oro BII. o.
oopaI oaa oI{oT: )tl pyr - oTI oTo{BI oaa, B pI{py - BIoo-).eBIr B BrpIIr pye _ pTI
oTopIr BI pTo-yr oao.
oucmt o. oaa a Bo oppyr B IIo.IItBpoHo o, oa Bo.),x .oTaT B }Ir aI'I. Cor p:BopBaIroo{.BIeoaa - ao lI oaa. rl paa oTa,
paBo' I{a BIOT100-00 , }Io Mo)eT oyaT o 50 , a B oT,JIIx
).ax - o o opxoT. oopoT BIoTI lpaI
oao o 100 M coaBTB ooI po 2Yo, r epo 8o/o,a
p.I{ea o. 2|o/o. oa oaoT BIoTo e paI o l50
aae' ooBeTTBo' 7, 65 ,70Yo (o aI }{aIxaro apoopy Byoo).
Cpyypa paI oTIx oao ooo o)I(a' To Bao oooI{X paoa' H paa oao Il oBaaeT
yoBe oavl, a IaxoTHeoo BIIII Too )POBI{,I' Ta a .
opaoa oTTo <o> re paI{I oxo,o, oI o.
.poBao or oJIBo Bo.oo apa' vo py oxae
Bo.ya yT It) To poI.
Toa oTI oao a Bro II pBIII]a600 ' apap p pal oTIx oao a paBIIo oro oIo aeT BoMo).
o yT o BIo pal oao' ra pxr paa poBIIz'
To I{,Ipa x oaoB or lta. BpxIUI paIa M
ypI <y)) xapaTp, oo oa a o poo opxo
px paI oao aaro MoI ylIBI oaa, To )IG{,Ipa oTo oaoT' a pao' tr 300 .
ore oaa orTB ).arB ar}II. a MT pap
o 1-2 o 20-22 (peoa.aloT a parpo 4-6 ). Bo.o oao
p Ir TpaypIo -l5 10 oC yBeBa 0,06 .o 0,3 /.
p oao epayp Bo.yxa aa aroa oe,
aoe TBo p epx a a.
B B oTI oaax aBcT o x BII)iTpe TyypI IUIT B IIaTHIxp.ax.Hao ao o oao oraT BoT 100-300 . B oe IIoTIIIoaax BoT' TTBHo' )D.
Typeo B aax oro ca6a, p oT B Ilx oaa I.
a ao oyTBy oB. p o oT B o.
o oao Iuox( ar.a Tpa aMoTa.
orx oao epo BIaaIoT oa. B B, opo x
)I{o t{tlIx pI{' oTopIr aTo yxaroT B.oT c.
o)IGlTyoBII oToB o oa.
oumo-I o, oa BoaT B pyTaT BooBI
lll ypyoo oa' a Ta BTB papytll oI
).BIx yBo-.o'tIoao. Hao ao oo-).BIoaa
t46

p. oao ltrrc{o pa. B xooI po o.a oaa BTpaIoT a' B TI. Ha paI{o THoTto ooa T a,BTBIIoo oxa)rll Boyxa a o){BI oaa opay
B pyTaTr ap'l yBoBrpoTto
rr ooIlo o.alor
a}Io oBpxIIoT oBI aloo Heoo opoBa B yoB Typy-

aIaT

T1\{ pora114 .ooToB


opaoBa
,TtIo.
{rBIx oao HaIryI poJI paT TpaT}pIe IIBp.
yoB'l oTo-)lBI oaa a Bo IBaIo
o M
To oBeI{o ,a Boo)I(B aIIToax'

aIo.aT
ByTpaoBI

IIToo

oa.

Ha xTo

opo
Bo

BoItoBa

Be

oto
yax

yoBJI oToB B Tx oail(.


Ho y.T o MTooox
o.IIaoBo aTo IBIT
paT
oaa o
Coo-BIe
IIIaI{IIIMq1|IvI aIII. Moyt BIa,aT aI oa..
oaa - aIII' oa II BIpaT B.a oTo-yBI
aaloT pae p.o.
oT TreaTypI Boyxa BooT x oaoB oT
B aT
p o BIo paTypax
B p,a o 0,06 o 0,20 /,. BlIIo'
Bo.yxa BooT oao orrr. p oax B oaax o)I(T aroaBvI|IoT B IIx SI{'IT 30 .o 300 . BpaTc ao oe'
oaoB, a paBo' II prBIIIIaT T L a ooT oTo-IBIx
ox oT lvITpoB.
aTo' ToN{
oaa. oaa BTpaToTaToIIo
Bob-uete
x o)l(o yBrT a' I\{o. Cp Toa (paa oo)
Tx oaoB oI.o pBIIIIarT IIoJIx oTe TpoB. Broo-1rr
oaa oy r a arIII, Ta IaIII prpo oHaoBo aTo, oII po ooT Too pzroB a. raIx BIoo_ aI
lBIx oaoB oyT BIaaT oa. (o - ca6i, ' a ro
oaoB
oT BoIIoT
5
,
a
.o). Cp pap aIIJI B oar ooo
I JITy eIUIT o 0,07 0,13 /..
p o B BIoo-IeBI oaa BrJIa BpoTIIoT oe paB Tx oaa aa yI!{pIIz'
I{o HTI{Bo. TyIITTIoT

llo oa B oaa, a paBJIo, IBa. epa


oa oaa BaIII o pyaIIHa orraa Boo)III JIIII B Tx Iax'
oaax oIEIo IIr pBIIIIar
}II Ttvl. BtloT B BIoo-y{BI
oToy

80-100.

epume o. epr aa _ aI BIo aa oopI.


Broa x I{)tIpaIII B pII IIIpoTa o)T oTa 11 , B poax - |,7_20 '
Toa epI oaoB oT oT olt oTII poB o o oTpoB, Ho oIo x BpTaa MooT tl IIpBIIaT
800-1000 . Too oaa, BaI{III aTopr porraM, oyT MT
ToIIy B oo oTpoB. o ypy poI{Io pTI oaa
BJUII0T

puUIJI'

BoIIoT

H pBIIIIaT

oTI

TIIiI

,or /3. B.oT B x oaax oT oT oTI{ poB .o eo op. TypyJI}IToT B pTIx oaa IIaa' oTyTTBy oBM. AaoI{ apap oa aoJIToB.Too B T JI{ax'

r4'7

o.a pI o]aa oppoBa B o TpyIx Te:,oaa


o)T l lpo a o. B 1"ra .oo oTa B prx oaax a,la e IIp.TaBTop.Ir)roaoT pa aN{oToB.
9.5.2. co nomo coucmoopt o
ooopat oaa oT1IoT oTo-.o)eBI,BIoo-oTIr rpTo-oTI oaa _ THI oaa, BoI{aIo a aToepl poa. ooy aTBIIoT aoprx poo lra. paI
peoa yTBo oaoBa' To yITBIro paI poTpaTBIIIapaTpT o oao.
oumo-dodteo - o aoe ' a oBaTIIo' Haoe oaI . aBakIoaa. Bloa x t paHI o)rT oa 200-300 a) oyaT }I' o.a o. ooBIrI o oToolo oao a,ar paopBaI{o-.o)BIe WPI paopBal{ooTI oaa. BIoa p paI oao aBI4ckIToT eoa' Ta
poa, oTo oaoB tIIpoTIra oe oa o 4 o
8 o. Haoa Toa oTo-.o)rx oaoB oTMaT Io, po II:aTBoo aopoo poa. opoaIIa poTo x oao o oT oTH.o ro I oTpoB (o poao opo).
Byp Tpotl oTo..o)'erx oaoB .oTaToIIoo)o' o.ao, oIl aTo To IIIHIIIoaa, oToI]Ie a' poxJla)'Ix a pTao. oTo-.oBIx oao BIa.aoa. oo)Irloo xapaTrpa. Bo.o x oao o o 0,6 o l,3 /3, o
oyoarT pay) THBo oe,l aoo. Hao oIlI oTI B o}Ia poxa),Illloo 'o),' aro.aeTc ckI:ooI{. TypyoT B oTo-orBI oaax, a paBo, pBIIae ayro, oToy orraa aoToB p oT o oao aroaec pa p.o. p oM oeT B oTo-.o)I{eBIxoaa oTaT JITpa aoToB.
Btoo-oumI o o Iy By o}ITpy.o oTT oT oo.o)BI, o.Ilao.y II r yITB}IopaJle. flo B o' To
B oT oT oTo-oBIx oao Ioo-oTIx pa oa Ia.aoa (oo o o)rT r ar ). Bo ooy
a) oITr oara, p) M aaT opy oao B BII oo.I' oBaT IIaeoa.oB po a.: oa. T - oTo-oBIe oaa, oaoB HT - a oaa BIoo.or. Toa
BIoo.ot ao Peo prBIIIIaT1000 , a ID( Bo.oT,a paBo'
o 1,0 /.
p oee B Tx oaax o}T aa ypIlo (po oe)
oe, ypyToT oa aMorToB Boo}I(a ooo oa cpHI TIl, oopa o IITttBoT rr BIIIIaTyptIFIy'
a BMo oaax oaBT' a paBo, 50-200 .
pucmo.oumt o oTItoT oaa Bpxlro pca' )IGI,I
paa paoo}(r}raBIIIIypoBIUI 6,0 . C.oaro, T oaa IoT p1 48

TzuIJIyro TpyTypy' oII MzUIyto Bo.oT paBHTrJIIIo olyto


ToJIIy (o 1 l). Brorr oTa B TaI.D(oaax or.ro poxr
at-ro oor*r. B p la(' a opaoBa o oao
BaI{o aoprI porro, p oT o){tTaro,a ao o,.
r (p oro opoT oa) aa oarra. B.o B pTooTI oaa oIo It pBIIIIa1,0 , a p po.o}ITJIooTB
oao Booa p,IaN{oToB.
oll TI.D(
9.5.3. cu nomo o pmubllozo pam.fl
oaa pTaHoo paBT oTI{oT ).tleBl' ol IBl
yI{Bo-.oroaa.
t o, oaa xopo oo,I))'aro,a a Bo B
r po oa. Broa |paI{I x oao oro oTaBT
600-1200 ' a BpTaIIHaooT II pBIIIIarTox oTtI rTpoB'
o, a paBJIo' aIIIr oaa paro aII 1-20 BoIIoTIo
0,1-0'4 /. BoT B Tx oaax a Bo II pBIIIIarT100 , oa
BIa,a,a oIt oTyTByT. oar IIaBa x a,aT Too ypIIHa I4aypyoT, oTopa oT BIBaTylpIlyto ylo ay. Boo. To a oaax r pBIIIIaT5-,7 l. B o yBI oaa aTI{IxaTpy,IIll aoToBo)' oTpoBaaN{oToBII pr.TaBJUIT.
o epeo:
yelo6a Ha aolr H papo oaHo aBav|.
Hoopo, o6aa ao pBearioBeH<opaI06o6' e B a}4oaMBl4oH|y| yeBo-oele
ao>>'
o ye|eoaa aepHepe xaaeea/ Ba.41l-iyoBo,
opt.
oppy 6oe o|aa
o6a.B p
oo HepHoeooo/BaHHoe yB|l
oa BeB|
l]Jpoa3MoyBleoa paKHoaHe Ha6a,
o ygtll,o oHoa,o paBeHa, paooaHo.
Moe I o6 p.TaBJUIoo BTopy, o oaylo' a. paBT ).rIBIx oao. Ht paHa oo ro oao
ao oTaT oT He |palrI IBIx oao, a BoT Bp'l paa I#IT yBro. B px IIIpoTax BIoTa px paIII
Moo.Io oaoT o)T,oTaT 4-5 o, a opoItTJIa
- 10-15 .
poT)I(I{I{o
o ype yyp Moo-rIBI oaa - arI oaa
paI{Iparpa a. p oaTrIIIx TpaTypax Bo.yxa a'
TTBIIO' IIpoxJIa'rI' p oJITr o aT oaa BoMoo
yprllo IIooe. Bo.o oaa oT o 0,3 o 1,7
/. Ta a T oaa atlI, To oa.oB Moo-}.tIBI oao
BIa.aT' aoryl oaoT .JIoToB p.TaBIoTBpTaI
Boxo.I B)i(II,I'opoT oTpIx oT 'oTa 20_0 l, I{xo B)rIo opo 5-10 . oI B oo-{rBIx oaax
ooI{ e IIaTo po roopooTI BooxtI{oTIo Tpr^ papo aoTa Ha aoT. ooy

r49

x
papHtlo aoI,l B otII yeBI oaa np|l,|m, a oo.
opoBo.apoopaMTpoBaIIIxpaTo}Ix.
o-dolde o-I B)T ((aITpaIIIIM> IroTa Bx
ToB Bo.yIIxyoB. Bpaa oIoT T oaoB oII ora.
200-500
H paa rBo.o)'Bo oaoT olIlo oxarT o
l\{orBpTaa
CoaeI{o'
TpooayI.
' a Bepx aTo .oTaT
10
pBIIIIa
o)T
IIIpoTa
B
p
HoT {Bo-o)'BI oao a)
BpTyopor}II

I
l. B oa Bopy o lraIo.a}oT
oaa
a}IIB). oo aT yTaoBJIIIl aTo' o BtlyTp
_
opo,o
o
To
}Io.
ylrBytoT Boo. o, a o pa
50 30 /, ooeTTBtto' a apoBaI{a .IJIIII aoo-

aopaTop rppya B oa pBIIII:UIa29.


Hao oao IIoToB BIIeTcp.tI'IaT oaa' r pe opoaIro oIo BpaII,I - (IIBzUIoo opyrT (pyi|c BaJI>>
IBUIa.
BI BopoTol\{), oTopI oIo BT peBTIIo <{aToo))
o epeo:
<Haoo>>
lllaa.
epeBeHoM
aotBopo, eBo,
o
Haa
o6aa
o
pPl
o
yBaaM|
ae,
e6,
pae
o opo;; 30 / (o, y po, 100 /). Tao oo, eeBeo,
o3epoepeaeBepxy H poa|eMa|Boyxa.Boyx oo o 3e]..lo
<<aoB|
opo>
B

3aKpyBae
Bo
o
y
eya
.

o
,
ei

at{oeBy
o)D(,
.op,,o"'uni'o o.,}oi.i6fi,,, oyBepy
KyBo-o)Boo

oe
Haae
oop|
Bepo'
olloaoo |
eo
o6aa,o pBo poy/HoBeaoMy,ye pa' eeH
.e. ao]"lyaoeyBy.
HapaBH'
opoau poIllloT xopoIo paBTIx IBo-o}BI oaoB oI BpTao ooT oTaB IIoo.ToB JIo.
TpoB. aa BrpTila opozrIlur portIIIoT oaoB'
opeor I IIryopoIlIII BpT:UIIS.Be B oa eo
aoToB'
oay
IIy

or
JIHy
TItoTx' oyoal
IITB6 o|4e vI BepoTIIoT Tpa aoTa JIaT
Boo)o oeTa B )rBo-o)I(BI oaax. o B IeBo-.o)BIx
oaT
oaax mzopueu npeu. oao JI Bo.yIoo yI{a
peyJITa

o'
],jrovI'I1
oa'
Its oo p IroT B yeBo-.oBo
ro Tpy oxoT oaa a oaIx paToll'lx' yaoBtlrtIx
(IaaBHr o poBo.TBy oeTo).
9.. oea B paIlIII l}ITopooIl
Be' yy.Ia B.Mo
oor Teopoo BIIJI, yxyIIIa B.o' yp y.
yeT oTIrT oa.' Iue' TyaI{I'II aIe
B.I.
o IIopanJUITa yIoI oIIoB}II
otte odu' o oa pr. Bo oIIIo pooIIa
)Teo. oox<I oa, a paBo' oIIoBpeI{o aIo.aT
oro oa.. oa BIaaIoT poHTaIx oTo-oBI

150

ra opoo a. o.a (o po B oJIo.oaoB B B.,o),'


t po oa) ootl{I oa BIaaIoT BIoo-oTI oaoB.
uet odu. o oa. yovI Bo.ylIxa xoo.IIIx
poo, BIaaIo {Bo-.o.BI oao B B. BBoo o
cea, o pytlI, opoo a pa,a.oIo T oa paToBpI{}IIr po Io HTB}IOTIo.
Mopo uu dte pum]II. oa BIa.aIoT JIoTItIxJIoTI oao (I pTaI- p Ho epayp). P Ta oa. BIa.aIoT oo-){BIx oaoB, opaoaLxc B youo oyto a.
o ope paIoT ylo B.Ioa.oB.
Mopo - oIIopo.IIIoa., ooe oIoo oTBa r
II 0,5 . eoT oaoB ,25 l1 a
ar .aTpo1\{
opoT flaeIa oIHo pBIIae 2 / c.
o B o}Iopo oa,oB oa .a Booxoo yl!{rpoo
oo o., o oTo oaoT' a Ta)I( yx.Io I\{oT. o.a p BIa.r I!{opo B.1\{oTo}T yIIIIIT .o
1000 eI{.
.od - oa' oTo a .aTpo0,5-,7,0 . CopoT aggla.o oTaBT 4_8 /. B.o B o}'oT yxy,II]T
B.o, oJIeTB ol{e proxo 4000 (p o 2000 ). p yy.I]IIrI4JI
o.. aIII
Boo)HoT)
BOHHOBH,I
oa
a)qHHoo.o)
yrp}tHoo.
Bo
z - oa B B pcTzroB a II)Io. p paTypr'
rao 0 "C, r payro o papa o 100 . CopoT a.
tI )I(oo 5 /.
o B o Iloaa oaIl -a yxy,II{I{oBN]roT(oa
1000-2000 ) oooT ylpIrl{oo o.
Mopt 2 - ocaw\ BIa.aIoB B. tI)I(IIo' poxJIa.IIt a JI TaI.D(Hr)o. opI opay To.a' oa y ToC.
paTypa Boyxa aaJI y BII]I0
p o B oII opoo IIa oIIoBI{yIo oaoT TaB yy.I{aeo 1000 M .
IrIIaBoT' oTopa o)I(T.oTaT
e pn _ oa. B B. .t{Ix IIG{Ix(IapoB) .apo
o 15 . pya opay B pyTaT apall poaIIIx ae
Bo,I op Ilo. Cra pytla - B paToBprl{Iro. BoT B oT yy.IaTc o 40 2000 , a opoT llaer: pyI

oTaBrT |0-2 lc'


pd - oa. B B, .IIIaT rapoopao opr ao 250 (araacYlakl BIa,r paa aMTpo .o 300 ). Copo
BIaI{paa B aBoT oT o aTpa orT ,lT o 10 o 50 /.
pyl pa. p.TaBToyro oaIIoT II aa' Ta a o)ItTBIBaT paIo yoB Bo.yIoo y.a, apytIIT aItI T... B B B.oB oa.oB' oTopI BIa.aT IrBo-.o.BI
oaoB, aIo.aTypIra cayp o.

l5l

o epo:
o]H.o o6 ap pa 4/3 f, a oHoa oage
0,8 /,o pBeHooB|epepa(ppa|300 ) oyae,o
aoey o aM
a paa B pepo 1100 , .e. 6olllopa]vraI
oopoB)>'
a H oo l4y. paBeBopa o o]vl'
paoM<<He
paa
Ho B Hpopo3aapoa
o ao pa BepaHep[Ko,
l"lo 2200 !
Mem aIBaT pro ra Bpo, oopI pBoT poy
yxyIIIH BMoT. o yo opaoa e I\{oy r ol
oN{.
Ho J|4mp.TaBJUIrToo epo BTpo ea' o.ItTooc oBpx}IoT IIoo opoBa ( T). p o I{ o.I{MaTIta ,oaToo oIyro BIoTy (Il oBoo poTa), a .zroTBocT
oH al\{eo ).MHIIIaST.oBa eT aIae Ba p paBIITHo o Brpe (oe 1 /c) yo II)I{OMopoB.
oeo - pro IIra BTpol\{opBIIo IIa IIoBepxoTIo . Ioo BT paIIoBoTIo oBo . p o IISI
oBrpo II e oIIaT BIIII 1 ( a aIo), oIlao
Ta]r aTrIIo aTpy.IlT l]oay aorToB. ,{o To' To oo
((TT) p B |4 :lIaeT
eTa Boo)IGloT yoBo B,rTIlooy.
- BIa.IIIIra p o BrTp. p o BoMo}I(r
'^4m
o. pIro a oBpxI{oT M. p o TJI BoT
o)I(T)/xyIIIao 500-1000 , a oa peBIIaeTHro rToB
eTpoB.
Crr BTp B ol\{IIJIrr oxo B'{1\,loIo'oTopI aaT B
TJI' raT ToT B oaoB o oaI{INIlJI aBaIry{'Cyr TaIo r
, o p JUI' ooIlo po'oJDTJIHIx,a:1gpopoax oy BoaT I{)1IIaoI' tIIo aTpyIIT' a I{o.aa ao-To po JIIoarT paoT aBaII4.
Tlt u duv|u. Tyar .I opyro B pryJIaT o,ral{
BoIIoo apa B IIropTBIrI{oro oT I\{I{ooBpoTvI'I| a T
B3BIIIIiHIXB Bo'ye poyI(ToB oI{a Bo.IIoo apa B'MOT ).I\{IIIaT .o I{arlr 1000 , To ao BJIIIurIBaeTyN{aIIo.p
B,oT 1000 o, o II 10 , Tao B I{ulIBarT.Io.
B aoT oT r yxyIIrr B.Mo T).aI oy r a.
r (oT 50O-l000 ), ypI{I (o 200-500 ), l (.
50-200 ) o JII (o r 50 ). paIro
"'oi'"
< 2 ), (A =
ooT (A) yaI o.paJIIoa oI (^h
=
>
(A
).
:2-Io )' p (A 10-100 ) BIo
100
Coao ,TByIo avIa|1,TyMaI' BoI{aIo B oI{opoopayl
o BoyIo a, ooT BIIyTpaoBI' a TyI\{aIII,
_
oH aToepIx poo, poaI TyaIIa.
B aoT oT pIr opaoa yaIII apyIoT a yN{aIIIcapevI'TyaI oax(I{ TyI\{aIIII.
B aTIIo
! aa oIloBa oaIIoT T},N{aIioBaJIa
aaTy pBoT aT}{aoB
Boo
B
llx.
B.oT
)rxyIIIII
152

pITIo apoopoB o oo.I yoB. Haotylo oao. aBa pTaBJUI aBeTBI T).aI' a aor pooJDT}IIo
Bpee' Io aoulylo BpTay oo ooHI BoI{y B oe Bp yo.
tt pu. lI yp prTaBIo oo rpro HI BTpo oluo aI (I o) yo r ea. B rr p
yxy,IIIH B,o o)e I o eo o epo .
yp opayo ro a. tlI paBIIIlI paoa' oao tloa
I\,Ioyaroa B yIpII}IIIIIpoTax, ooo p aylllo oo.
o epeo:
HepayaoaeeHop o1y,o e tt6yp
poax( eepToo6a', paoeHp-Mapa).
Boa B BpI
H eepe paooe a6a, pya oo BoaaB'oe oo
o o <pa>poea ae oe/ a <paBa>oaoH
pHeee ep 20 . o Bpe ey ooHyo B a poa6y
( ye e) tle6yp.
opoaa poT)}IIIoTo Ir yp' a paBo' e
peBIIaoJIx oTeI{ oepoB' a epTaIHaMooT aBT
o opo Bpa, Il ypya || cpaTa aopr oT oT eox TpoB o I{eox oII poB.
ooa oao II (aIx) yp aBaI4aJIaT B
oxo B.o' IIOM Bp o ypyeo B IlM o
aopI, o ooo oao p BeT oar BO.yIIII
yoB' a a)Itp BIoIlI{oeTo I{a MaIx pr.JII{oaI BIoax.
M. o araro o)iee Boyxa BIIIHIMaTa I' Ia ap. B or {a .oT Bo e o)T ).I\,rIaT o oTrH I\{TpoB'o oro e rae III 1000-2000 . a ao
aae B Io)IIIIIIx paoa, a Ta] a oI opoa pI4
youo paa aopI. ooa oaoT JII aBIa
_ }IaTeI{oyxyIIIr}Ir B.oT.
o epeo:
B apo eo2002 oa a pooppop Po to oe looeH|xoapoB.Mao oo, o eooeeop alp6o oteo
o Moo C-eepypo
6lo apeooa, o Ha opoa oa a,o 6yaoHee6lo la.B o6ox opoaxavlo |.
1'lo,l"lo}o(yaao 200 14, Be apopo|ooBooapo}a yoo
oaaap|l-t
Bea oa X oeoB'
9.7. o oToB B o aepl poo
B oaIr TI ao paBTI B o aoepl poo.
ooy coB oToB B oe aopI poo Bea oI{er, Br
poaI paoB. Pao
poar oaI Tr o
opoo, oTapa raT To ( aBaoHIlI yJIoI{o)).
Tn pom. TI po oavyt Ty, ooyl aporrao oao' oTopa opay B o Bo.y a eo yIIop.oeI{oooa, opoaI oao, ppylo B xoo.IoN,I

153

Boyx o, ooB}II}{oaI{I aBo r.TB Bloo BaxIoT


TypyToT.
HapoaI o;ral a T oopayr op, .yIIaJIoy poao opo. B aoT oT aTBHo po{a Ta B
po T o oar a otIloit, Ipajor, vo
B aTo p oprT TpyTypo o BirI.. C
pM po r poa BpTiUIi ooT oaoo
aBa yBBaeT' a BIoTa I{ pIII oao oI{aT. ooy aT aprar oaoB oTaBJUIIoTBIoo-JIoTI oo.o'BIoaa. oo-,orB oao BIa,aToa oooo
xapaTpa. xpa o TaBJUITppo 400, a To - 300 l. opoI{aJI poToT oaoB Bo II porra oeT.oTaT 2000-

2500 '

o epeo:
oepoo
e|
oapHaoli|oaooo paHeH
aK HaaaaB oaaxHe)Ha
poo.o oM,ooopaoaa

o l'ta(a aeo p3eo


a,a aeo t"r.
o yneap
ap
ao papy)HaH
poa,e Me
apH
Bo ooya eape
Bea o epo,oeo er.
ol po| oaoB Ha eoM poe eol pepHo Ha 100 PlHe, M
o.
300_400
Car TpyIrIe yoB JUI oToB o.aloT B oI{ lpo
I\,IoT po poa. o o TTBtIIlo' Ta . To oI
xapaTrpllI aoe oaa, aa, oTopI IoT alyt pTaIty oItoT. B o )I( oII aro.ac aoee JIIII po.o)T}IIr oa' aTI{o yxy.III}Ia B.oT. l aoee
aTo IBaT }ITBII o,He poI. por, a BI IIa )rya
IIoopoo,I{a TIIII pax B ooBIIo aaro
)' To .eT o. ,ooTl aopo, oyoBBalo
llpyIlo pao aBvIa.
opr ao oaToIIo xopoo paBToo oo poa BpHoIITo

JIIIa pyTypa

p oaal{a apc'

9.4.

trd

P' 9'4. Cxaoaoroopoa.


Xood poml. a IIo' oo.IlI poI o.pa.IoT IIa
po.a:
xoJIo.Ipot poo po.a xoo.}lIpoI Bopoo po.a.
.Ba
Xoodt pom npoo pod o .eo xryl po. B.o
opoT poa aro,ar Boxo B)Il Troo Bo.ya,
t54

pBo.III opMpoBa oo-.o)BIx BIoo-oTI oao,


oopIe op.TBHHopI}oT poao opxo.
B xoo.r Do.Ta oao oxoa a oavyro TrMy Too
oTpa)I( (p. 9.5).
poa vI BeTca l ee pzrIlvI
ll til.l

jg,

,r--"]J*'*t

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i**:**$'*o].ou'o*liq\t$1l+=1
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P{:3opt]orrri.|!.:aL\e;i
loolttctl

;ti:ll
9.;r..t.lt1,'j7'F.

P. 9.5.Caoaoloooopoapoopoa.
B ao {a yoBIr,I oToB IIa ooIlo poe azroI{IyJIo, ar.alo B a xte oaax Too poa. Paa aJIIoaT B To' To TIl{paTypaB oaax ooIroo poa oIo eoo Il)'
B oaax Teoo poa, o Il TBI{o -a r
oIroT x aoB' oIIa oa.oB' B To poJIa).HI,)DI(,
M I{a TIIo po. [IIpa or ooI{Ix oaoB }Ia ooI{o po
ppo paBlra 150_200 M' a BIoTa r aIII oao y peo
|4|I|4I4
poa a Bo oe B pe.a 100_200 . Toa (epzula oo) poao oa lta oo.o po, a pao'
Bea oo eIII' r a To.
a apa aro.aT oM. B epe poTa' alaIo paBo or o opoT Boxoe.B)r}I, oppyro
}IBo-o)Iqeroaa' oopIe }Ip.o IoaIT Boo)Ilo orToB.
Cy o a \'ooa' a Ta] o aoI.aI, oaa
MrI poBy TpyTyp' aBy oT aN{ BOyIIII{IoTooB B oI{
poa.
B p va poTa ylIBo-.o.BIroa Moy p:rBBaT o
TpooayI. -a o ypyoT' tlo oa, Itoo
o. oooT BTp poo o B BITea)M oa
or.TBM orTI B or poa aoo o)}II'To o pxovITpaa o r op, oa po po.

t55

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++ia

EtKo!!lr9

SH
||'.

o r, d

'i)/).'f.

+g,',oti.9p*l40-.r111l,.-*;;--.-t-=*
!!, t|g o'?g}t\5*-4'-

**;gr,
Plc.9,6. xa oao ooo poa Bopoo po.a.

Xoodt pom mop?o pod - Io y po. B o oo


poa (p. 9.6) o px ua poao oBpoT poxoT
Irxo. .B) o.yxa' ooy r o.yx oTTyIIaT r,
aTyarT xoo.III.p a poa oBpxltoT HaJIoa
pyo, r Boyx TBo BITeTBao a.Baloo oo.oo Bo.yxa.
B Taoo poa oaa oppyro B oIIoBoM oo B IIrp a pa' a e poa a pao IIoBpIIoTro oaa
oyTTByT' a o poxoelrI po JILI:
poa aTyaeT poIIr.
B epo p. e, poa aalo BIoo-oTIe
BIoo-yilre oaa, oTopIx oy IaaToa.. IJJpa oIlI Tx
oa.oB oTaBrT oo.oB orTpoB. opoaa poT)I{o oaoB Bo poa N{o)Tr paa 1500-2000 ' a IIIpga ceil
poao oao B p}I IIIpoTa (pypo po poa), a pao' H pBIIIIarT15G_200 .
B po xapaTp oao po oTaT oT IIo. B pyTaT }ITI{o oI{Br pe ua poa oaloT oI yBo-or oaa |poa' ooo B T }^{ax' o.a Boy I{eyo. ao opayl p IIIBz}JII.
BooroT BoHItoB
IIIBUIOB or' ot paI{o TpaT} oo oo.Iloo
Boya. paTypa Boyxa o oylo a ooo 30o C, a
xooo _ ooo 20" , To BpoToT oI{tIoB}IIIIBJIao BIoa.
p v poaIIIx |po, oTopI o, B yBo-o
oa orTI aTop aptlI.

156

pom ouu. a poo oJII o ayaT ooTo


o er 6oee xool Bo.yx' o ope.JUITT poa o. c to a JIoa aaT rI{ ooI Boyx' e B
o p ac, o paye pom ouu no mu mno\o pom
(pc.9.7, ). B ao ).a oBrpxoT TeIIoo poa oTa ao
o oepxoTIo' a IIoBpxI{oT ooIloo poa oTpIBae oT
praeT BBpx o oBepo Too poa. oa BBrp, oBepxo xooI{oo poa oTI{o BITIijITI oyx, po o
BpIre papyae, uoT paTae. Ha. P oro o Ty eoo pgT a Bo a B xoo.I epo oa.
5,
f)

.4.:
rJ.r:ae
. ( L . 1j . 4: a 1 t /

..

c: Jv t
__:+

..\-.-r-=;:-.}|

+.fr
*\Jr

" -\' -t.1.


; ;{ : -.-'4 :+'t\:r t

'J

|lt rllli
+. ?dJ i

Pllc.9..7. CoaorpoooJIo y oo(a)


o Iryoooo(o.
a apa poo oTarT B yr{a' e B TIoByIo a oIra BTopa o ooI Boy. C ra Baa Too oBpoT oooo poa, oBpIloT )l( io poa prN{eaT B Booo aope. p o oppy pom oJluuno mun oodozo
pom (pc. 9.7, ' Taoil po a P ae Bo a r
epo. oa, ooy B ToT po oal{a a aTep oyarT ooTo oe xoo.r oy.
o ooB oaax a poax oI aBcToT BI{a oao. B ollax (0JIIX oro> aorylo oaoT. oToB pTaBJlf,IoT Il oaa, oa. oa B.o' a B olle (oo.Ix oIo- oaa pTaoo paBT, ooo rrrBo-o)BIe TI{B>>
I BII' |poa pao.
9.8. oaoltlll

rI a oTo

Bo pe ooB a orx BIox a aoeTa oa oaIIIr JIeI' oopIe HaIBaIoToduItl^4tldu. o aa


BaHo NI IIIIBNII4r^
BooB. Cl opayt t57

TB oll'ra Booo apa' BIeoop opalr BIooaopIIoo aBao}Ioo T9IUIBa loo apall aII. p opa 1
ToBaB pa yaBT ppllo 11 aopo Bo.yxa'opay
ooo 12 IxoI aoB' op1ax ppt{o 1,4 ooo apa. o
BoI{o ap aTjIIlo oBI[IaT Baoorpa opytaoo Bo.yxa.
p opItllIx aTopI yoB,Ix, a N{HoTo'a' o.a oTIIoTIlzl
Ba)oT opy)ro Bo}xa a 10070, .ooIloIroTyBI B
ap o}(ToBrT oTIloTIIytBao o p.JIo'
aTopy o
I{aTyIIaTorl{a ' a aorTo opay oaur .
Iu o""ouu" x p.TaBI{o yo opaoBalr o(A.. pa, .T. MaB, .. oa.aollIx .oBOTTB}IIIIM
p.) apyr)IG{I{rI papaoTallI tIpI poI{opoBa o,eaoHrrI,oBo .ar pa,oo.poBal{aTMopI. o. o.. oar Ia yaoBa B <yBpeII oparl{ oltIo
aolroo r,a a aoo BoIo epo oaoT.

a.
o
,
10
aN{I{o,To .a aoTo oxpaT I\{IIg
III 6 I{a ypoBII BooB;LceaIIpa oao II opayeTc
paTraT. r a aMoToM oxpalreT oJIr 10 , To IIa o
ypoBe rpTa oao JI opayTc, vlJIv|yIIoTII,IT.
o epeo:
oaH|eeI aoao6paBHaH
pt oaole
pHalle BXopoPlAeapyPl
oal
a
a
Ho,
BoeH|e
B poHoeoB.
HeooMo
Ko.oaHaoeHa
<<Ha
H oIe o yHoepoM
CoepooeBHo,o Hae,
xo.
/
|
ea. B aetlpo
peeAM> He aeaBp]yeBoBH
pea

000
900111
|ox
H
i*", pu,y*'". Bya Hg6ooao
pHoi! 10 H. Ha e loax*l aoeot.4opaoBaftiJIe. aoe
Be H, e o,o
o poeeB1oBMya HeoBoa,<pepy>>
.
10
ee
o Ha,o aoolyae BpeoxpaHeHo.le
o6at
oHeHaoHHI

BaHo
0600,
HepHo
oo
e
eaMa aMoa.B pHo6ae o yeHoeoao,a oop|MoHoJle o Koopoyo)o poHopoBaooy. A6opy po qHopo oaooyejo poopoHo3por.looyo Bpet"|rypx oooB,oyB c(oHoHopoo HaeHa 06al4 o)eao6ale.
l eo. Bo eooppooo, o e].,t
I, oat ale oxpaeoee 10 . epteo6a - pBeeoo poHa 6y yo.}o a' o o peHoH poa ooo 600
pao
' a o 3o;l oaKo- ooo 00 . E popoeHpoa
paoeoeo).
30 /,o pepop 10 B ae]vl
i. oottlq oxpaeeee 10 . }o oa, o 6ae 10
oao op Bo H 6ye'
. oat o1 eae o eoBoty a eBep. }o oaae, o a Bloa
Haa)Hleoo, o3aeo, 1eeBpe a aHoooxooaH pgo peH|oo|He po.po},teoo, o opolH
e oHoy 06 HeBopooxB aoeppoeoB.oa
poeo.
aop|x
opoMee ogopo 600HBo
4. oBepea CopoHaoa l4lqeepale o Beeo1abrc pot.o
KaK
oaae'o B oH a Meotep, ryp6yeHo
_
6oaa.
Ha
a6a
y
eBe

158

A o oo BH]vtaeHo
oPtopea oale a aoo.
pH epeenpoHoex
pHoB ]'4oh|o
poo'
.(aopoae BIo' a oopI Boo)I(o opaoa .a' oylTBJUIT oolIo apooo apal\{I' a oTopy aeI opeTI.aIIIpaoollpoBa.
ooy oT oeTa pa,oo.poiao IIpaToo p;I
aIx poo.T rloopoe Bp' B }I oTopoo ooI{e aopI
l\{o)e' poo oBop' oxoo Io l ).tIIBa r.l oBa' o oIloo aoTpoBa:,4pa oaoIlI eoB oxo.a IIpooTa pBa paa TpaypI' oTopa' eTeTIIHo' ylITIBaT .I{ay pooB, poxo B
pe pooep l aop.
o e oe HepeHolHo oe Ba(o.,
ta!B peyaxy<Aaoal4eopoo>)
aeoo,e]B oMaH'yeoaeaayyoo
opa opa,or.|eo ooMP. }o e yao.Ha o e
Bo pHl'Bo-epl,o peoeoHo, o oo Ha oe H6oooeB
AMC AM|-]yeyeaaprypa pop|, oooop|
MohloHpoaop C MP. Bo-opIx,6et ooBH
yoo paooaoo
opaB eeopooeoo
oee
aBal.
eopooaoHoopo6o oe| ye6lax <<Cyoa
o>>
<Paoooateeopoo>>,
6poax oepa, 6oe,
o o ypa yeBy ye, Ha a eeoopaHltvl.
B-p,
otoxo peHaa pxpaopoHoo
poHopoBaH
ooBaee o opaoe yvee <<Ceppopo|e
poHo|
ool>>,
oopt o He xoe ypoa. ooy, opoo ae,
ooo3r'|e po6t{loHoo y6 o <<Aaoo
eeopoo>>
ao' o6l e oH B a H)DHo,o pae epe' <<po1llypoil>
<<Paooaoa
e p ye6a: <Coa eeopoo|>>,
eopoo>
<Ceppaopo|e
poHo|
ool>>.
9.9. AoI poIIo3 o oao
opalreo o
Broa PaI oao - axra xapaTepTa' ope.eIoa TIl o)o oo.I. ooy oo' To potlo e
palrI oao ooo oxo. pv, ae OTBTTBIII
BIIeTcpoIro oao ro 300 <.o.ao o . BTp.
aIoT ar Tpyo p papao pooa. .(eo B To' o )Ir pa oao, o oa oTIx op (a To aI e
oaa), a paBo' BIpa)I{aIIoTaToo To. ooy BIoTa
paI oao, peI{IIa ooBpllo paIx oax ooo apo.poa, o)I(eTl pao. B pyTaT poBreIIIx oBa yao.
o, To p }{aeBBIoI oo (o 200 ), pI a paToH 500 , Moy oTa py oT pya I{a 0-50%.
Coo TpyTypI pI oao aBco BIoTI
o IIo aopo (apapT oyllro ar, pea eTtIoT' IlaoaoB ...)pB Toy, To B aTor Bpe y oIIIo oTBo To.oB.aIloa pooa BITI |paI oao,

159

,oBot{opy.o aoy-o II oT.aT p.oTH. ooBal{


oo oo I\Io.apooa BIOTIe paI oaoB Boo)I(Ho
Too o Tao poBp To.aa To aTpzr.
p poo BIoTI paI oao oo I{oTroo
MTo.aporl{.y ooBaT p B BIor ao
TIlpaypo oa TpaTypo o poI y e' x poIIoT arII' opoT Bpa y r py xapaTpTa. H)I(e
yy pB,IoHoBItI ToI poIloa BIoTIII{IIIpaI oaIroT, oyrI a paJIIlIx AC AMI{ B p.BI{Ix poax Po.
9.9.1. Ilpozo a o oaI'ocm
B ooB otIoB}IIpyoBo. oyN{rHTa o Mopooroy oIo paao aBa B aBaoI{IepooI ooI
BIoaT ylga opa o oaIIoT: oBo oao,
II o.tl opopa, a a)l( BIoTa > pxe paII. ory'
a o.l\,ITeoy)r
oT
IIe
T ]!{opooro opa
eyT

(tlyTo)
Topoo
p:rBT
pooT. Hapo aBaIo II.BIBaIT
paTopoIx poI{ooB ooI.
CpaoT pa.' eyT aaT' To Too aBaIo IITpryT
oaIroT. oo oaoB, a .oBaTIIo' oTBo orIx aoB' I{TpyT r.oB' TypToB' Io opooo opaa ?H
I{ox pyx. opa oaoT Brx TpyT }IaTo IIIII'a BoT
BIoTa I{ BpII paHI IITpyT Too aBalo.
a y<ro aao BIIIII' zUI oaoT aTpy.IIT,a oa .aT IlBooxII IIorT BoyIIIoo y}Ia. oa (a oao)
opaI{IIIrooT BJUITTI\{M}ToooI, dTopI op.nolodI' ooy Bo B BpIIa poIloy BIoTIr paeT ]\|uuJ\||
I oaoT IloT AC oTIIo oToT or pIIo.
o epeo:
poHoaHoo6Ho,o, a
E Ba, ae,HepypoM|
F|
paH|
B|
al4,o pe|Bto|
,
]oe
eparypy
eay
epa6|oao, o oop|oop a o Hx,e pe yeHJlo.
,lo,B eparyp50-x oo a HyoHopao6ao B|oo
)Hepa|00 He, B 80-e ol HoaMa HlBao6aHoe 200 , a ea o oaa paHeeee 100 ]"|.B Ao? ooo|.B 50-e oA|loHo6l0
|BeB pao.B B o Ht"ry]"to
B|oeoao 200 e, op
oay
poB
o|
o
oM'
oo l4a
oy B e pPtea y o6aHo pHt{aoaa e 00 . K 80- oa
a e o6 a pHa.oap ao B|oo6aoB e Ha)^{,
aaHoH200 . oee oo, Hao poBoByoeoBpaqao
(H A) filnHo, o oea oleoy,loB oe|
Po|/|
v||^
p B|oHpag|oao200 . Hy p o py6 poo.
e. Teep Ho ear{ ea, a HaMy poopoBaoaHo
100 eee'
BlooHepaH|
ooo oott u oucm oo. B aooB oo pa.a oBa
<opr orTBa) yilao aar a r opao op. .{o
To HoT I{a paT opy oao zd, a oTBo oaB ToI\,{'
1 60

oB |lomu czda poopytoT IloT To.o.Bo ooy B aooB Ta paTaBHI (popI)).


Ia pao oo)I(Ir apo.poa' Bp o.a Bp yTo' a Tae oTryto Tya, opa orTBo oaoT paT B.a poopyT IIoT TooM. oay, B.
I{Ira, oa oe e ypBaeT HoIl eTo pooa
oBa oao, BeTcra, ar Topoo o oToB apooMy (AC). .{o To' To AC oo poBo.TToo B ToI\{{a' o.a oeTBo oao prBII[aT p oTaToB (4 ao). Bo ooy I pyoBo. oa aBaperlpT' oTBao a poB. apooo' o.r poBaTIIo o.(oT pooy oa oao. ae o poI pooo orTBa ooT Botta) eTo p poo Bl{y)ao oo
oao (a eo a AC ol o raT B eTII p).
.{ paoa Mor M.. pxoo po) paTl{r o IIpoIIoa
oIIBTBIlo oaocTvl Ha I\{oII atUII{oo paB o aIM
ytprIro TepaTypIIo-BTpoBoo opoBa aopI.
H po TaII paeTa o opy (9.4) opJlT o
paa aopr:

(e.4)

D"o + (t - y"p)'

AZo - pao TMIIpayp y MaIt{lJIIIo(poo) eepaypo


B po opoBal{; R"o - pI{rr IIaII ooTIIo aro ( %)
or oT JI (ep paIII po p) o 3000 (700 a); y"o p BepTzIIIIpa TrMpaTypI Bo.yxa (. C/100 ) o l
o; D", - pe To poI B o oT o 200 , y MJI
loC < D"P < 4 ", oT o 500 B .pyI{x caX. .arx o pap.IIea To poI IlT' o Mo)o BoooBa aIIIII o
I TpaTypITo poI y o oBpxoT.

.)

40

g]

Eo

ro

P. 9.8' ao oa oo ao
o ouapaa.
aI{p " oo paa, p.TaBHtIoo a
o aoy
p. 9.8, opT oTBo Bypaoo oBTBHo oao
oIIT aMzUIIloo paB. {oI o ooBa-

pao py.

l6l

o epeo:
pH' H aPlo}4e, opeeeoe poo. oao
B peo],4
H)aoeey Ie By Ba o6oa. Bo-plx,Bo Bex <<lx>
}4o(ov
ooy

oaHa.
a
e

6ax,
o oaoopeo
) pa opyl oBoopeoeBoo6aoB aax. Boopri,e, oy(9.4) op[ a paoey aeoplepa"
npoopyo ao-6oa/ a H aKtaHo,
ryp oxu
",""n"p'rypo,
opeoeoo6aHo.
o pyHa o a to)t(o
..a"" o6pao
o6ao
oeoB A, Mo)lMo6a,HaopaHHo oeBy
BoMoH|'
a
oeI
aa
oopoo
Ho poHopoBa,
o
opaa poBrpa pe paa, peooo a p. 9.8,
oaaa' To o oIo ooBaT IIoopIx pyx paoo' o.ao
pyTaI pooa y HaTrI{o )..IIII,JI BoooBaT po
a ((Bor)) II.
poe opyI (9.4) pooa oBa oBBI{o oao
MoIIo TaI(eBoooaT ylo opya :

(e.s)
(e.6)

_ oJa oIIBTBo-I{yToBoo o o aIII )r[pI{o oll'e


^h a; Z356,T,so 4y, so_ TepaypI Boya a ypoB 850 , opoBal{'
aIe, ooeTTBI{I{o'a o aalry1' Ha Ba)o IIa yxo
aa6aTal'poo. p Toy Ma]\{ztHo(pooo) Tparypo Bo.ya y M.
pozo lom u zpuut o6o. oray, Too Ba e
tloo.I- IIloao T)^{aIII- ol Bro aBT o TIIIXyopapaoTal{o oel{
. ooy eTooB poIloa ooo .pyoo Be:Fi
oy B
oopI
IIpI,
JI
oo. Pao ooBIIIe I!{rTo.I
oToBIT
proB
paIII peol{a Po. o Tx
oy}aJIIIo
oxo,
TaTT' a oToy' oJIy aIoIlI
)Ia
B
o
py
a.
a TaTT aBMo o BoeMy
pyTaTIpoopoBa yy aTIIo {I' e p ooBa}I
(Grapylo) pBeIIIx II) paoB opy.
Moo ToJIo yBpIIoIo oBop o paBo .ro oo
p pIIIe ,ao aak a BoT aM p IIaIoe

o7 r (GaIII)).

,( op eIBI9TI r paIII oa

Tpae oyll e.y opyI:


opya oa:

opya pp:
raopya:

r62

aojIIIIe papo.

H=24(100-R),

(e.7)

H: r22(T- Tio,

(e.8)

_ m.
H: |22(T- T)o

(e.e)

Bo x opyax H _ BIoTa palrI oao, NI T _ paTypa Bo,ya y ' "; Tl _ TpaTypa To poI y eM' "C; - ooTa Bao' o/o;m - ' ylITIBa a oaoB.
p opo m = 8, p py ,a.
oa.oBm:50 m:0 p oTyTB
oaoB ( o ra oraT opya epp).
po pBe}IIBIIIIopy, yeTy Moo py, oTopI
MT oprToo aBTopa, rI. o.ao a II oaaBBaT ye, Ta a B I{ ooe e)aT Te ) aI apaeTpI' a oTalocT opyI oo oTM. r oB' oaIII opyI
oJI{I{IB peyTa opao o2o pa a.e.
o epeo:
Ha pl B e oeH noHo,a H popoe,e Bea poo
pyreHate
a6eH looe patoao,}Doopee
B|oryooo oype
opya.Ha o e, eeoHa
popooo a H o. Ho oa a},roe Bepo|oo|
paoe apopoaa yaeo o a 100_200, o Hoypooe loryoo paoe oeo.K pao, paoa ooa6aeo'Ha oop|B|oao6o e epe.B x ya }DopyaaHH|e
Bleoype
opyt.Hapep,e
Ha Ploa3ep oo r4eprypyBoyxa eMeparypy o pol,
oyaeHeeepryp,paoe 2o, o, Bot'tB
opyy eppe,
?"loooppooHo' o B ol4 paoe Ioao6o oa oe peeax200-250 . Bo o )D|
opyt.
pozo tomt ue ouut oocmu no modv E..ozoo.
lal o a.ro pape Bo.yxa y e Z pooT IIaeJIx epaTypI To pocl T,1 ooBal ,. ooo p oTpoIIpaa poHoa o oao . 9.9).

Pllc. 9.9.pa.tpoo3aBIoI
epItI
oao
(o oy.. ooo).
Ha pa o Bpzro o oTJIaIBaTTeepapa oa T, a
o opotlo _ po}Ioa Tpaypa To pocl T,6 Haor
pa.IoToa poaar oaoB yaaIrIx po. o
P,]lI
eTo.eoopao pMT p Ho roe oTo oTaoBe .oTaotloopoo BIpao pI{oBOyIIIIa. o-

r63

I JII po pooa o Toy MToy 9 , ao, p oo.oT IIooIo Toa .. ooBo oo papaaTI3aT poIIoI aaoBpIIHOTIOo |2 .
o).I ,oI]orTrIlI pTp poIloa Iro o.. ApaoB
aoT. rr a.BIII }I,I TIIpaTypI Bo.yxa prBIIIIaIoT 4"11,2
a T) a.BI{
, To p aB Ta }IaI,aeT oH oao'
oo.a - 6BIIII}I. aBTB}II }I,l TpaTypI oIII JI
paBHI 6"112 , To p a.B Ta T To opaoBal{ po oIlx(II oao, a p aB oo.a _ OBII]IH JI paTra}Ir oaoB. opaB.IBaoT Tx poooB ,JUIP oarT B pe 70-80%. Ha
oI{oB To.a .. ooBo papaoTaI y ooI IIpoIIoa oaoT' p.Topa oopIx BJUI)T py apaTpI.
Ta, apP, pooa BIOTI I{l paI oao
12 olo po,oBa pa, pTaBIrIlI a p' 9.10.

.-.{
f_

dl

a po .o

6-lF ,'r.rlT

fl

.f*

flo-t .l
-i

rf

f-

tr

ilf

"

-l!{tf..',t

P. 9.10. pa pooa o BII


It'l paIIlooaoB'
Ha pae o BpTaIII o oTJIa.IaT a,BrBI{oe OBIIIIII
paTypI y Il{ (T,- I) a po poHoa' aJIoIlI l:I7 {TIBaIOT
ar BTpa y ' a aIIr BIoTI < paI
IIpoIIoToe
o.
oao oTIBa o opol{ao
Hrr Tp BpIzlJIIrD( IIIaJI oBoJIT Ir Bre eaTypI IIa
oC, opa BIoTy oa.ro. pa Iaa oJIyT p IIarD( T <-5

_ rI p I T ,> 0 o C .
p - 5 " <T < 0 " T p
, oe BooIoT BoIIoB oaoT BIoTo 300 )
po.MoIIo ooBa pa, peTaB}Ira p. 9.11.
o opollTao o oTo)a aua pTypa Boyxa
oI{ T. Pay T, a lo BpTao o - Ba o)I(.aI\{oo
or. Toa
a
paa
BI
oa,
II
Br
paIIIII
T
To B poIlo B
<oaa>,
oaa
oy
T

T
ar
xoIII
II
oa.T
ec
yaIBaT
lrylo
oao
).aIBaToyTB
)
.y
x oao.

t64

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I

i1
{:
|,

o:

cIai .18

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P. 9.11. pa ,JIpooa oao Ioo300


|1|'ID
p ara o.
oozo

tcom u puut o6omu no emodv M,


papaoaI To.I pot{oa I{)H paI oCopya
A
ao, otIoBaIII IIa aIIIx o a,Ix r,I TpaypI
To poI. T oI B.HI ooBaI
paoB' pr.TaBtlIx
I I a p. 9.| 2 9'| .

Ptlc' 9.|2. pa I ooa BIoIxt paIoao


o poo ar pypl eepaypIo pocl T 6
Pyo
9.|2 oollrT oeII BIoTy IGI paI{I oao
o
poo
ItaII TIupaTypl T. TpaTypI To pc| T,6
a pc. 9.7 _ N{ee BIOI oa.o B aBI\{oT oT a/BTx e-

r Teepayp| TpaypI
o poI A4. aar*rrpa aIoT
^T
yoBTBopeJIIIIe
peyJIaI
p pooe oaoTa po o 6 o 12 .

165

Io
P.9.l3. pao
oao.
I]paI
oe aTo a }Ix()lo pay oaoB pIIaT ypoBr
oella, opeeeJl oopoo Mo)I(o BoooBaT apooo apaI\,IMo.
Broy I{ paI oaoT o}o o o oaoy xa.
paTpy ooI oTo-TaTTr eToo. TaoBrlto' To
pr}Ix IIIpoT pooil' a Po p oa.ax Ir' yxyIIIa
B.M9T o 4 , IoTa lpaI oao oIHo H peBIIIIaeT
100-200 M; p BoT |,54p BIoTaoao oe B pax
60_100 NI'aflp oT IIee l,5 _ 30_60 .
poo oomu u 400 t pop. B pae MeTeopoooo oe oeToB paop . oeII BoIo oao
400 N{oyT opya (9.,7)
^sl

^P

LPi

- 1 P0 ,

(e.7)

i=l

epo - aoepoe aBIIe B yI{ pooa (paop), oe oeBo apTI ooI; pi _ aopo aB B yax' oTTox oT paopa a rBp' Io' BoTo arla, Ha 150 ' Toe o ) oJIo
apI ooI' .{ paopa To IIyTI e, Aaa, a A
ooTBTBHo.
pao apopoa aIoaT oao BIoo 400 vIH)e
o paa oaIBarT, LITo Ap ( 0, o aiIl 3-6 yT o).a oItI{r oaHo. B ).tli' o.a Ap > 0, oa.ro y oBIIIIa.
o a<q o e oe epeo:
e,|e,o a eooplpy|{axHa ox He
Booo,yBaae|
aopo.eo
oa|aeBeHa o. }o ao e o 36|/|Bof
o1,o p pooe BloIHpaHIo6aoBHa aot'tapopoe6e o
ey Ha6aoaHo
opoox
p,np Bot'|Hae
a oHo
opeeeHotot.B po o)Holo ooee o|Ba

r66

pe. M pee]t4
Ba oo .toto pJeHl, }Dpo pa
o HH|
aeH Boe (ae)apopol4_ o Baa pa6oa.
mepe mq zpu d npozo uo oocmu' npdouet .. npuo (p. 9. 14). o ooe o aeHM l\{papl T6,
Tepa)I To por ' B azUIpaTop epeoa opeT Boo)o BoIIoB oaoT BIoTo o l00 . oa aaopee}IoT IIp ooBa aoo To.a6-9 .

'r.:
< iiir

I
t.

...; o .
L
f

Pltc'9.|4. pa3.A. CapIroiltt


pooaoaotooo100'
onpede o,torcocmunpod uo oocmu mvl
>ale 6 po AIxaae oy pa, pBe/er a p. 9.15. o opoao o Too paa oJIa.IBaeIlaee
apeo e Axaae (p), o Bpao _ paIla BIo
oBrpIoT 850 a Axaa Tal o aI oo oII.poBa.
aopI (A.
rl Jr;

..q

P.9.'5.*i::ffi
;y".*:xJJ,::;#r*T##o
o o MeTor aBopy paulzraoT AC Arxaa o.M. CpIIIa.

Heoo oopaI, ooy IrpeIrIi,l',emod npoao comt


u zputl oo ucom p (p. 9.16). xoI aHI pooa BIoTI oao BJUI)Too avee' a poo.

t6'7

T Be]. a Ba BJUI)Tapa ee p
paTypIo poI y r (T _ T,).B ao o xoIIIx
.aIIIpoopy BIoa paI{I oao II po o 6-9 .
Ha epo-oo paI' B apoopy p, IIpoHoa oaIro
ro 300 k7 He Ha po o 6 oyeT pa, peo)er
pllc' 9.|7. o opoTao o oTJIa.IBae epaypI
To poI y ' a o BepTUI_ Ta e BIIa' BIIIIIa o a MpaypI To poI )It ooo o.aIx paypoBTpoBoo ol{poBa aopI ( apoopy p e Bo apooa aI{' oToy po aI1\{otl.poBa H yy). oa o oao a pye alllpxoBaa.
jl F rfJ,.* {
!.1

+,:

I
P. 9. l6. pa oIroaIoroao, oye ap.

J
l r^
tsf

s.
E

ti

0t2

T
t.6;u

Pc. 9.17. a r pooa oao 300 ,


oyel apoopy p.

o o eTo.aBTopy paaura oT AC p .B. Aea.


,\ ucnoot|lu zpuo u op*t, npudet moJ'pde, oopo moum u d dozo podpo no dt du mo74
nm u |||u I|u oommmu oppmul.
1 68

B ao o B.eo)o a' o oa dm nolrIcamc, u:


- T Boor BI{)I<9H
Boy,
_ T aB Too Boyxa rra oo.Hy oTaIOyI
oBpxlro,
- poxo,T yBIle Ba)oT oyxa,
_ poxo. aII aBevl,
_ poo p aoepoo
poa.
dm nItmc,tl:
_ T tlxo .B Bo.yxa,
_ aae r BTp y e'
- a.aT aB ooa B II)I{eo aoepr,
- aa po aBel'
_ poo, yarHe aoprx
poo o yTa pooa vIpaIBaH poalx pa.oB.
OpIo pyo p.TaBe^
kI I\{pIIeI9TI e par oaoB I{)Ilo pca' !o o' To, oo opoI' )t(IIpaa oa oIlylo yTypy. oa pa oo o ep.
o o oo oT eoo o)iTIIr o oo oTp "p""ao BMOT. oo a oaa p.IIITy ooaI o,
oopr oparTc Ha B aT . 9. l 8).

P.9.l8. Cayyp elpal{Ioao:


l _ ypooa;
2 - tllpalraoo;
3 _ pxpaaooaoo
co;|-2- ol;2_3 - pxor
o.
oaMI4 cTaHoBeIIo' o )l( pal{a oao roo 200
IvIIIeB Ter 3-5 o)I(TrT BoIo BIoTy ppllo ga 50Yo.
C po TopoI' pyTaI p BIoI e paI oao
)eTBHo aBT o ooa rpH,I. Ta, apep' a )HIoIo
pay oao pHaT BIoy' a oopo a.a oTp opolrTa B o JI oTep epTzUIIlo o' To pull{a B o BISTI
ll paI oao p.He ye oa 120 . p ope
BIOTIl paI oao ooI rpTrJUI BIoTI oao (Bo)
pryaTI ozl:lIBaTaBIIIII{I
po a 70 M o pBIo ypoBM oTp opoTa. a ola ).BBarT rp BI9TIoaIloT Iapo}fIIoTI
oo oTaBJUI80 B JI{a, oa (Iap-o TyaT))' 100 B oT' a py' o (fl]ap-o pI).
oo Hp,IToe po poHo I oBa .oa3
}IoTa T}IoyoaBy Ta ;tIBaao ne. o o o oir ooopao oaoT' a.ac ra BIoTax 50_250 .
a a a.aoo o B BpIlIx paoa. oa oavyto
169

ey o)IGIoalrpoBa ooIo Bo (PBo-2) a oIy IIyIo


oao. lt-rlt Ha' a paBo, oapyBaT.oavyro ey oI{o op.Ira) opa BoyIIItIoo y.a. o.a oao .
aroa.Ico o.
oaIo' o.oBpooa oao }IIoa rT. Ca oparT' o r opaoa xor p aI{Ix IloT yoB'I BotlttoBll oao IlI'a .oBal H.. ooa It otl
ooJI B pIII}I o a.a. oa o)o Too yBpoI aa'
o oaa rl{a opay p oTaToo ilepc
TepaTypI B I{ o aopt, BTp y o opoTro 5_8 /, oro
e TpaTypI To poI y TrpaTyp Boyxa y 15oC .
BpoI, BaIt}II poHoo oao rrI{I BJUIIoTpeTo
aro oBa.
poo tom pe zptuut oo. Broa p paI oaoB I{aTo tll B,I a oaoT oToB o paBIIe BIoo e paI oao. oao BpTaa I\{ooT oaIx
oe oaIBaT yITBoe IIr a yoB BIoIl,I oIloo aa.
flao pollo IoTI p paI oao oTaoIIo
eIl TotloT o)T I .a Too p aII91opa oT a oylIx y,oB' Ilaxo B Bo)D(.B I ToI polloa
oBoJUIIoToy oo po aIIe IoTI p paHI
oao, oTopo Be-a .ooaT B opao pa.
p o B o poeTa a ao poo
ep paI{I oao Bo.T' a paBo, allay apooo
/apaI.Bpx palla oao oa a o )1poIt'IIa oopo
poxoT po ao yI!{HIIIoTl{oo Bao oya. Ha apooo apa ToT ypoel{ o)l(o op.T o yarIo
po o poI o po pavIIto poy oTJIorIo BBo
po eo Ba)IGtoT.
po oIIT BIoy p palrI oao o)o o.aIII
o p BpTirI{ooo p:rI{Ixoarx T. fl pa.
rx paoo P A.. apaoBI o).eIII .aI o ToI{ oao
paIlI op'. ar pBIrI a.9'.
po Too, . opr BIoTI epe paI oao o)o
ooBaT p pe opy. Ta, apIt{p' .JUIpaTa BIoTI
px paIII oTo-ytlr oao potly pya

H "= 2(H ,+100 ) ,

(e.8)

e Hn- BIoTa t paI oao, .


.{ paa BIoTI px paHI oao a TrI poa oo
ooBaT opy

H": Ll|O+ |,

(e.e)

BpI{ palra oao, ; Z - IIIpa oI oaoB Ha HIlo


)IaT poa, .
e H'_

t70

Tau9 3

P. IIAII BPTAIIO MooT


PAI oAtII M
op oao
CoI oo-yI

Tor oao.

0,5-0,'7

Cocl coo-oeI o B oM KIop

z-3

Coo.1rI )rBo-.o)BI

2-3

Coo-oBIr

pa:}IaII poo

Broo-oI oo_o)l(BI a aBlllx pox


o a paIBax poa

Brcoo-l
rro-ol
pl

2_

5-8
t-2
l-3
o 9-l l
o l-3

pt To.Ipooa BIoTl Bepxlr paIII ooT oTapyTaToB po}IoTot{o poI He Tpyr tloo Bp JUIO{I{I.IJI
po3aI. o.ao IlI{aTo(o paBII tI pae oa.ro)
BIoTIBpII palrI oaoB a oaoT ooB IIoBo)T
B]/tr{]flI}
elo ooBaT x B pa Topoooo otl aBakl.
9. 9.2. pozo n',t||IIo
B o o Ho oao' BIoTa oopo I{Tepe ToJIo aBaIO' ,a' o)I(a)' e paoTlroB BIOTIIIa aTII, y pooa yMaI{oB opTeer4 HaTeo oIe. Bo-prx, To Br BI paopa'
aHa oT aBa oa )l(rJleo.opo)IctI'IIIuop a To, o o.a
y o pa, Bpo r ya MIIIaT oDI(. Bo-oprx, o
TpoTe' oopI yaII' ooIro I' opaIIBa BoIvIotto
poB,I poTeo-oTa)IGII paoT. B.pe, TyI!{aHO:BIBT Ilo IIaTBo BorTB a aoyBB tlo Io paIl\{ a.
a.
otIT' To TyIvIao aIBa Tao eTopooeo BrH' p oTopo a T oa Booo apa B II)r oe aTopI
MoT ).MI{IIIaTo IIa 1000 , o TaoBTc oB,HII\{'
o poI B aToep aaa oI pBeT oMy' To Bo'yx y JI
aT aII. a oIIa IIaa o,a o}Ioo apa
yxyIII Bv]vloc.I'pBo.r BotIoBI{Io yN{aa. pooB' p.
Bo BoIlI{oBIIIoTyMaI{a oJIo. oor |IvI BJUIIOpa_
aol{Ilo BIxoaBa Bo.yxa' a .TB BoItoBekle pduoo
aT
po' p oopo
o
IaoT
Bopl
uoo7o m]a.
a
IIoaIoyIo
IIoTyIIaT
xooIlylo
aaT
TIII Ba)I{I Bo.y
Botlo ap
Boy
oxaraT'
oBpoT
oBpIIo. Ha. oo.o
m]v|l.
pyTaTe
dmul
B
opayeTc
aHa o.poBaT'
,75o/o
avrca
Tyao'
o oo
po Tya}IoB' oTopI oTaBJUIIoT
(yaI
p IIaTIIIxoTpaTIII
Ia I Iuopotll m,|Illl
Tepaypax Boya), pomaI I||)||b.,a ae mJHl ucnpu u
luu. pI BoHI{oBH|4TvIx ytlrao oTaoI{o opoIIIo BTI{I ypa o opoo.

t'7r

B artotl

o yxy.III B.o TyMaIII IIo.pa'IoT

(o200-500 ), r
a aIr(lto500-1000 ), pI
(o50-200 rt) u I(MH50 ). o pTaI{o olo

(A

yaI o,p:B.rJUIIoTa oIr (^H < 2 ),-

Yerc(2 < N! < 10 ), p(10 <

< 100 ) BIo(^H > 100 ).

^H IIIII BMoT B Tya oIIIr


Copto oB.Ho' To l
aBI{o BoTB oII oalBaT }Ia
o
o BpTaHa oo'
paI{I oa l{apo.Hoo xoa' or III a oT Tyaa.
TepaTyp: TII.
poo T}T{aI{a Bo,T' B pHtI' pooy.By
(Z'), aIro TrMpaTypI Boya (T',") x
paTyp] yaopaoBaH,l
orIBaT
paBeI{Io. B }Ia' o.a TrpaTypa yaoopaoBa,l
BIuIr aIto TrpaT}pI' B pooa ooI y}o yaIBaT T},I\{a.

C.oao'

Tr>. T*""--->=

(e.10)

o epeo:
oo6ee,o Bo pBo Bp}4
oatB Haaaxlo poeHyo
B )Boe06 r"taH
poeBe.
ryMaHapoollJoopoHo-paHopHoe
|oaBH| oy' MtH opaa.'.a a a
o1ooH|
ryaH oHoHHa,o ae oaopaHee.Ha op.oetoe Boe06 MuJ/o|yl eol rya oe ooBMo.
pory, ny.,n 600|ea lyy oo Bo MaH.B pye 6yBo,a atoaleoBa po3oo<0600ooBeHe>)
BaHotvl
e|'
pozo pduuo mo. Pa.aol ya opaye a. yr p oao ao BTp B pyTaTr ox), Boyxa'
TpaTypI T)'rN{aoo0paoBa.
o.a o TpaTypa TaI{oTIJ]tD|<e
yoB,l
Hao aTo aopIII
BotIoB paaoI
TyaIIoB o,aloT B aIrTJIoIIa' IlD(oTpoa' apx peI{x eoBa' pr} aBIIIpao gToM_ B flo o)Iloo 'aBII oI apve pa.{eTM.
Pa,aoI ya orTB IarB BolIaT pvI InTe v[{
ao BTp o opoTIo 3 /. ! opao,a:glTyaa aopo
ao yBJIr opoT Ba BIoTo. Ta yoBlr oyro Typyo Ilrpoy poyToB oea oT rMI{o oBpxoT BBpx
o..paIBo BBIIIIIHSoToI{ B pI\{Iloo Boyxa. B poe pr eIIlBaToa o Tyalra }JIBac. cll Bo.yx oBpIIIII9 oB}rrr' To po a oyo Too oypl{I I]poa' yMalr orT II BoIIIly.
Bpa ooT pa|4a||ol{IxT).MaoB oIo Il pBIIIIarT
o.IH200_300 . Pa.oI ya, a paBo, opay B p1\{I{o
BpoIIIIo o.
Ta opao, p poo paaol{Ix TyaIIoB oooo }{TIBaT po.oToToI{oo BIxoa)Ba, xapaTp oauoo opoBa
(poo), opoT apa3r Bpa (poo), xoHI ar TepaT}pI Ba}oT Bo.).xa'xapaTp paIo BoyIo aI.
1 12

papaoao lloo (a .JUIpoHoa


.o-po}IoTa
o oao) pauIx MTooBpo}IoaTyaoB. Tao ooopa
To.oBoyoo t{ Too BaoTto pao oe Boo)HoT
BooB Tyaa' o yleo aBoTtoTyaoB x oB oT TIx y. Ta a o poI{ozLIIoparypI I oBop y pa[I' To ooBo BI{a.y yI{o pooy TpaTypI yaoopaoBa.H a pa ao paypo
ao o)I(oT paB'UIeT.
lozo mvlo llo llnod H.B. empo. H.B. po po opT TMpaTypy yaoopzoBa'I o opy
:

T,t- T,t,

(e.l1)

re T - TrpaTypa To poI B po, axoy oIra; AZ7 - Bo.


ox(Ho ol{)I(tl TpaTyp]To poI B T tlo oT aaoo poa ,o MorIITa opaoBa aIIa.
Ba 'T1 aBcTB oIloBo oT TrpaTypI To pol xo.r
o opJUITco a. 9.4.

Tu
9.4

Ta,o
T6"C

P.lI IIAH A7 1\{oT oT TMPATPI


TOII PoI B ot{t po
-11 + 10
20+ 11
l 0+0
-1=-10
-21 + -30
)s
t ,6
t,4
2 ,0

Pllc' 9.19.pa,lIpooa
yaao oyH.B. o:
aaooo
I _ l,ttl
I,2 _ aooyIr'3 - ooyaa.
a .o opyl (9. l l) ar' op.epaTypy Tyaoopoall }I oTaB oroo a. T ' a pae aTo
.alo po: p ooTeIx HaH Z7 oT Too a}I BI.
aro 1 o, p opaTt{I}Ia,I2 ". o Too' po p.JIo pa . opeTrpaTypt taoopaoBa (p. 9. 19). Ha
o pa o opolrTao o oo;I{ Tpaypa To poI' a o
I l

BrpTao - {paTypa opa oBaiITyMaHa rpaTypa opao a


op.T
.I(Z,). poI{IlI a pa IIaJI9IIIL|vI9BSJUIT
oyt BJII{y.
pa.r o, po a oo)I(TIpryTaTI p oopoocT Bo.yIIIoaI' o.a a Baoo.epalrr B,IT aprll
o.Talo tIoBpIIoT oa.
o epeo:
eeparyp|
pop oo/oIo HaH
oay, 6|0t'!|a
6e apaa,

6
ea
poro
}o
pay.
v||^
o1H
o Do|Bl
Ba
yopa.oao, pa Be-ayeH.fl eo?! }o pa oe e
a-opyt"too.o, o6lp Haoeeeparypyaoo$paoBH
.-6y, o ao

y
ope:
pay
o
oy
ryl4aH'
6o oo to
HeHHo.
oo ooHyHoo HaeH,| oe paa,]vre
1 ooBeyore yaHa, o !4e)qy
Ha o oa. Be oH l H|^
2_3 - ana6 y]pH|
1-2 cooeye|a' o My l1|t,1|^
1H1t'1.4
o
HH3 -l yMaH.a o6paot, ]oyH.B. poMotto
y]vlaH
Heo o po o p o Ba ry M a H , o B o B e ' o o H Ba) o .
|eooeHHoBoHoBe
apopoMx,)^]|Ba
poe oo, a oTop|x
oHyH.Ta pep,
ry}4aj,Ha paH'B. eo |H .zpooe
opoaBaa.B ex
ao
B
Kt
o
B
6
opol
B
ot
e,lao .HpopoB.
o Bapapopop]4)>,
a HapaBeeBepaaoe, o l1r4
oa <<aKa
Jl)^'|ax,
e'l apopo,yMaHMoeoHyrp oe BooTMpayp,M t{epaya a Be loHa apopopxoro oeBeHHo/
p ryaoopaoH.
y]vl paAoeoeBop oHGl'Koop| poBopyBoHoHe
oop,
o6pao
poHoe
p
AM
Ha
ryaa,
a. Bo ooyHol(y
flepoeBK
H)DHoHaa ot'topop Baa, oo Ha ee oeH,B KKyopoHy o
a )Deoo pea,o aoHpaa(epo,opo,pe
|]v|'
<<|MoBo>>)
opeeeparypyryaoo6poBa.
pozo mao no modv .B' upu.,{oavo BIoyto oIIpBMT To .B.
,BaeoT optl I\{paTypITylaoopaoBa
p. 9.20. y a
pa. poxa I{oopaa, p/TaBea
MopaI\{yyoBlro oo pa.rT a B aT o yrBoo aI4 AZ o
BpTaJIIIoil oc.
o r acT oopal\{I' oy avr IIaejI TI\{rpa_ oTypI oTIIoTIIoBaoT Bo,)D(a'opT BI{a AZr
xo.o oIIt{ TpaTypI , oTeI{ Bo.yo I{aI,I. o
- ooIrTrI{o oBp aT IIoMopaI oprT IIa
^T2
Tyal{a opeIro
BoI{IloBH,l
oo.I\{or
paTypr,

II)I(SIIg
TeI{BIIOT.
Coao,

orr

oIIlDi

TpaypI'

I{oo.,oe

BIIJI/aa ope,ro IloT, y pao

T,: T1* Tz,


TpaypaTyal{oopaoBaIII
a oTIo,a

T,= T _ T'.

.JUI BoIII{o-

(e.r2)
(e.13)

opo ooBa I{oopao oaa a p. 9.20 .ooIITrJII


otl r yr.
\7 4

.tr, t
5

+
5
6

l
AZ.
.B. pa,'I
op
Pc.9'20.Hoopaa
o opaTT BMa IIa BpxII a To oopaI. .o
B ToIu' o pBIr H>poBIrI a py' ooTBrTTBytT pa Bo}IHOBII,Iaoo, yN(prIroo I4IIIIoo yMalta' .r. ooBTTByIoT .oT 1000, 500 kL200 . oTo Ha ao apopo BMrTo Ta.apoTopI yy ooTBTTBoBaT Ix It oI{o poB py II]ts.I4,
yaM' yTaoBrIM a BaIII apo,po (app, B,oT 800
400 ). Ta opao, l y II Too poIlopoBaT Tylll, o poIlopoBa yl!{a ao I{TBo' oopa a-o epe BT Ha eTJIIIoT BaIIIeo aBappv|Tvl' a I paBBa NI pyplx
MooB poI{oa Tyl!{aa' oTopI oBoIoT poopoBaT BoT
B Ix'
poe epI{I{ITooB poI{oa paaol{Ix )rMaIIoB.oaTo.
o lpoo papoTpae oytl Tae MToI A.C. 3pa, .('H. apBa' opaTBIr To.IpoHoa pa,aoI yMaoB p.
ro pooa paaolloo yaa B }IaTo p aBT
oT aeTBa poIloa oao' B)a' IIao paypI Boyxa
{a TI o-opa vex yoB paoa.
pozo dmut mvo. A.r ya e.y o).aT B
To {ar' o.a o pooy IIoTroo ooe yTByT oBI4Jl
. aB Teoo Ba)}Ioo Bo.yxa a xooylo oay oBpxIIoT. ylar oy aro.a rooe Bp yo. A'ore
TyIvIaIIIBoalo' a paBo, o I1 B pexoI OIII o.a p
aeTo oT.
p poo a.BBI },laoB y {IBa p y(
r}oI oII TyMaa, a,TBIeH TepaTypI o poI B
pIIo o' Boo)oT )I( oao .o oBrpxllo ' a Ta oa) Bo.yxa B poe I{ooo p.aolrHoo BIxoaBaH.
o yoB BoHoB a.BTBITyao BIT:

t'75

-.T TNlpaTypI To poI y JI ,oIt r ol (p


Do> " T).aII'a paBo' BoaT);
- opoT Bpa y .oHa I r 8 / (p le opov,epc papytlle yaa).
T BTpa pooT papyIIIH po
.{ pooa a.BTBIx TyMaoB ox{o BoooBa HoJI
N,IrTo.a. or

Hx .yt.

Pc. 9.2|. pa poIloa a.BBIloo yaa (o .B. oro).

Mmod .B. oeo. .B' oro IIpoIIoa aBTBIloo Tyalra


p'o)Ipa, p.TaBIrta pc.9.2|. o pao o I{a pa oTJIa.IBarpoIIoTo aee opoT BTpa I{a BIOTrpa, a
o opoHzrI{oo _ opoHzulr ael{ paypr, opr opeJUITIIo apTa ooI. Pao, a oBaTo' TrpaTypy Boyxa
B IIapaBJIII'oTapMTT Bo apT oo.Ioo.o op.JUIT
yx yHIt pooa. C oIro Too paa o)l(Ho poHopoBaT a,Brr Tya aaopIIItoTIo 9 .
oa, ooBTTBya oI{Ia}II{I'oalT r po a
pa, To B poo oo.I yT yaIBaT TyI!{aIl'a r BIIII_ yMaII
He poopyT.
Memod H.B. mpo. H p. 9.22 rlpecaBIl or pa
H.B. po pooa aBTBoo T).a' oopI )ITIBaTopoar parT payt, o poI B I{aaJIeTpaTop
poIroTo ae opoT Bra y . o o a paa
, ocpot{I o xoIIIM .aIII'oa},T B oaT Tyl\{aa' To B po}Io r.yT yaIBaT Tya. o. MoI{o yIo ooaT a paT p aaopI{I{opoIloa.o9 .
o epeo:
H Ba oexpyKa
ov,yaeta,o6pae BHl4aHe
(9'2t 9'22)' pope M oBa.
oop'o/ oBHo'
p' 9.22 e oo o p. 9'21, oo
ooBHa)>
BAelo <<HH
a oala,Ho aopol4toalpeBeHHoo
epBpHroo<BBepHoa>>.
t76

l-|p. 9.2I, e.B. oeHo,a agopopyoo l'1o- H.B. epo.H


ye oopo pop.o Hx 6|pB|,Ho, o)ay,B Bopaoapy
Ha Apya ao 6|06l ta.

x.z

i.0

J.4Drls0r.t

Ptlc. 9.22. orr a .pooa aBrIlooylr{aa


(o oy H.B. o).
A.A. IIIapa po)a pa, oTopI IIoIIIdpuo.
BoT oprT BoooT BotlIIoBII T).l\,IaI{ao aBBIII I{I{]\{TpaTypI To poI y 1\{ Ha ypoBlr 850 a. oa
oarT I{) oIIIo
pe TIIepaTyp T T, 1 rMlro oBrpoT
ypoBr
850 (pc. 9.2),
III1I{
|vIIIvt :vDeypllo
aIII a
To B I]poIIo yT yaIBaT Tylua. o o .aeT opoI pryTaTI
Mmod

..

p po poI{oa o 9 .

Tyaa
Pc. 9.2. pa .,pooa a,Itoo
(o oy A.A apo).
Bo}IoB Tylv{alra o)Ho op.T Ta( o .oTaToHo oIy oTBy paoB oopa' poIII paI aBTopa' o.ao To y) BIxo.T a pa aIIIo {a.
(ooH'lo)
ToT To.I poI{oa a.BTBIIIx T).I\{aoB B
Hoo
a),I lx^pcppt{Ix paoa. Ta To.oB Ta roo'
Boo<oT

l7'7

oyT B ao-o pMopo polt oT a aBaa o ao.


p pMop. o o .A. roBo' To.Haeape .p'
,( ope Bpr pacce: a.BTBIx TyaIIoB oxoo
a ylre:
- a.BTBI{ITyl!{aIpacBalo oe ppa aB Ta
(opoa pa);
aBTB}IIT).aItI paBaloc rlpk| pa.aol{oM aprB Tyalra
o ooa oa (or.rI poT Te}fepaypI);
a.BIIITyaIrI paBaloTc pI4 p,aoo oxa)I(H|||4^raa (paoo ott Trrpa}l p paI Tylaa a T
pa'aoIloo BIoa)BaII a eTB - papyl]]e Bp paccee yaa). oao p To y(e xopor poo oao a I{o;
_ yIl poo BTpa.o 8 / o, o pBo paIo
TyaIIa pe 1_6 u;
_ parIlr aBrTBIIIx )\{aoBIIpoo}T p yI\(IIIIITelvIepaypI o poI a eT oeca ca Booo apa a oBpxoT oBI JI ea (la.e poI);
_ paeHIea'BeTBIxT)aoBpooT p BIaIIoaoB.
Pae a.BeTBoo yI\4aao) pooT ro Bp yTo'
o.ao' a Bo To poxo. p 3-5 oe Booa oJIa. oa
paBaIoT Bo Bopo oo H\ a o a)e o.
ocIo )\,IaIII
pozo mo unpeu u pom mo. Ha o.o oBrpx.
IIoTIo' TepaTypa oopo IIaTJIto BIIII Tpa}I opy(aloeo
Boyxa (T'_ Tz 10 "), ) olloeo Ba)I(oTBoyxa R>10% BoHaT m tttI uc n p Hu
TyaI cape opaylo oIo a. oTpII op B TIy JIooB a xootlI poa' I{o oII oy BoHy y oIlTrIIToB a Ba)IGIo oo r aooeI paoa. Hae BeTt Po pao, e o ao BoaIoT T).aIIIcapevl _ rpo
oepi ooo oyopoa. Heapao o ZLIIB TPa.
oo aop oaloT o}I aopI yoB JI BoIIoBlI
TyIaHoB vlcape.

Pplc. 9.24. pa .rPooa yaoB cflape.

178

ap,I o(o Booo3a pao, p.flrr pooa TyN,Ia}IoB


TpaTypa
oIlo Ha p. 9.24. ec o opoI{TaJIoo oTJIa,IBaT
oT}toIITeHa
Bo.}xa, ,BIDyto ylll Ha Mop' a o BrpTao o
BatIIoTToo Boyxa.E,c Toa, ooTBTBya apaTpaM Bo}'lo
al' oIIa.aTB oaT 1, o yaa oaT I{ r.yT, a oac ] ]
rI 1] 1,To .yTox{,aTypI yTo TyaII ooTBTTBo.
ToT po oT orl{ poTo. o xoo.I Bo.}x
oBpIro TI1!, a. Bo.o, paT}lo To oBpoTIo, Ipo
oTaT aIrH. Ta poI Ha}o.aIoTIIr Too Mo a apo ' ooo o, I{apa opa yIII.
T l\{opI\{,
paT Tp a poo pom| m]Ilro.a pa,
aIoI TrI
pol TyaI opayloT p. IIo
oo.I{IMpoTa B oo}.) oJIoBpoa Ia UIoo,BI{I
y o.a. ooo pI{o opaoaI,r T TyI\{aIloBBT apr a11r.ox( opo' oTopo y e Il, eM OJIIIIpa}IoT TpaTyp Ira Brpxr pa poo epc y I{o oBpxI{oT
(T^n' - D'
I BotIoB poTaIII TyMaIIoB aJIIoaT B
y. oa.oB (o JI Mopo) laaro o Too
Boyxa oaaT a Io B ToT pao, . IIaxoT xooI Bo.yx.
o Ip apIo, Bo.yx .oTaT aIH,I, opay
B rlax' o.a HapoaI ya. oIo T TyaIII BoHa)T

a TaoIIapI po1/00,
I{
pBIIIIaT
opoT
o paIro
oIo.
BOIIaIT
a
Tax yI\{aIrI
p por poTaI TyN{aI{oBoT To.o ooo
oT' To JUIoB;I Tyal{a )DIlo, ToI o,oBprMIIo BIOIUI
JI.y yoB:
- TpaTwa Ha Bpe pa poao epc.o]a IT
oC;
o 0
- paoT TrpaTyp I{a BpxI{ pa 1g.epcvl y .oIIa
o
l ot e IPIpaBa ;
_ TpaTyITo poI B oooM Bo.y y BIt ooC;
I oaoB e o pBIIaT2
opoT BTpa y M B oJloo Boyx .oJI(Har ote 6/c'
Bp opaoa paceI7Tyaa o)o opT o opoT
M,l aTI\,IopHoopoTa, a oBaTro' o opoT r'l
opayrT BoB' To popoaoo Tya}Ia. poaI ya
poxo.Il

o
0,5-1,0
rp
oII{o
poa.
xoT To
B ar TpaTyp . poIloa poTaIlIx TyMaI{oB p.aaT
ooBaT pIIaI{TIIytoy to, oTopa N,ITB :
L : T""" - To - (-/'78.1 Do,,*o,* o,6,7Do,

( e. 1 4 )

^on),
Bo,yx.
poI
xoooM
B
To
TrpaTypI
.Do, o- T
p paTax oyl{aT' To Z ) 0, B poIro ryrT }.aIBaT
L < 0, To Tyaa oa .yT'B epo, o paBT)N,{a.
BoT pa. 1to oTT' To o op, oa pooT Ta r
119

y. oo }T(o\rToBaI
BIeo rxo, oa oT
Tx Ta otultTB Boe II TaItyT opolllM ooaTI\{po:UIHIB, oH po paTIBaT a To' To plvIaI{TIy"n a aTo pe.
looo . o BpIl pacelvIpoalx Ty]!{aoB Iloxoo yTIBa M IloTo oaoB' xapaTepa a.B, ypyI{Tltoo oa oaIlo TIII pa BoIlItoB
TyN{anoB.
poeo mo llpu omouo mnpmp od. p x
TMpaTyax Bo.ya (-30" ) }Ia apo.poa B arI{I yllTax
oy opaota T).aI' oTopI olo aIBa) opoI II e.IM. yt Bot{aIoT a rT I'II,Ioooo aopoo
Bo.yJ(a Trl Ba)I Bo}xo BIoIx ooI aoB. p opI yoB IIIH Bo.y'( o) o oTotIlI aI,
To IIBaeToI{aIo yaro Bo.IIooapa.
o yl{aa eT o)ru.a B IIaI yTa p pztBT aTJIoIla eo oTpoa' B oTopo oaloT coBkl JI aTo JII{oo
BIxoa)I(BaBoya.
p ao BeTp LIa:BepcB pl\{Ilo o poyTI opaI4 ToBa II paBaIoT o oIo IIJIoa.. ooTeHa Ba)I(I{o B opy)alo Boyx BIIIIHeoopoo pToo .ao .
rpaypI IIaII, To BoIIaT pIe Boya o oTItoIe o .y'
apoIIIIIea BoI aluep)T lpo paTy' To pBo opaoBIIIOr.I{ooyl!(aa.
pea epaTypa aI Boya T* p aBeI:lI
y eo
oBpoT 1000 a opeelleTc e.ylot |aeI'IMooTeo
a)oT (o oor) oe):

,R. % ...
oC ...
,

100 90 60
0
-29 _33 _6 -9

p paT)4)e ) -39 "C apoIIIIeBIaJI BoI apaloT eaBo oT Ba)Ho Boyxa poorlalo paT a eT Ba aopoo
Boya Ba po.yToB opa,l ToBa. ooy p TIvIepaT)Pet(
_9 " aae Too o TyN{aIr.
epaTypa opIIoo oyxa BIIIIe po, To a
Bo.I apa B cBkI IroIerM oToTIIo Bo.IapIo.
o poT pIIIo aII opaoaLI TIvraa.
B .JI Pooa luopoIrIx Ty]\{aoB oyT I{oTo.
TaT . o o aBopy paa.ra ep-IloT AC
.. apoa. B oT Tya, rlp oTopIx BoaIoT
opoIrIeT).aI,oTeI oo IIsrTpy. ! a<o pyI B aBo o ao (olaeo) paTypI Bo.yxa o roy
pay o)o op.T aoe BrpoToe aee B.oT' a eoBaTeIIo' poopoBaT Boox(Ho BoIIHoBr Ty]\,Iaa.
Bopor, aIe oprl\{BI\{oc, paN{oTpI}I.

180

o epeo:
oo BoHoo apa, oryaeo opy, alv| o oa
a oaeoooBa.a, p o|<a
(op)1 ppoooa (aa)
aopyoryae2t60 BoHooapa, 105 ea, 62 po,+58 ypooy, 60 oa.p or,teparypa
o6poryaa pe6yeoe aopypHeHo6ooooeaooo ap. p ax
ryaryH Mo)eoHyr B o,.leea o ao' a a}o
p poeHa apopoeaoo6oopaopa.oaoo peypHy:o B e aHa14-|4
ooy, HeryH.
B ooptxpox 1poopyooer.lparypyBo(a,o o Bpo a, o Jl eprypaoyH)opeeeHHoo
( aoo
apopoaoo)Ha,o rya o6aeoy.
9,9.3. pozo aduocm
ooeo udu.lt,tomu da u m,tl.Bo .Iax Tylllaax
eIUIT B HaTIII pe.avI aBvIcToT orTBa paepoB BBIIIIII{Ia' ao.x H oa, T.. o Boo ylaa. .rl
pooT' o TyNlaI{ooT a o.}IoopaMpa payo r,To BI1.oTB Tyluae Mo)I(Hoop.To opy
S' = 2,.I\ar/q,

(e.1
5)

e r _ pa:,.Ia' c1'q _ BooT la, /.


opyr B.o' o p oaoo BoIIoT BoT y r
p HaJI a eIIIeo paIvIepa.
opyy (9.l5) oTaB
p IIaII paca ae B Tyl\,Ia'paBlro 5.l0{ , To o BIpa)e
p B.

S" = 11,5/q.

(e.16)

aoo' o M BIIIIazula IvIepaypaTo poI BepoM


or o)eH I{oIo p oaII poo o Bo.).a'
Te MeI{IIIeB.MOTB yN{a}Iep po paBI yoBx. roo
o)o pyoBo.TBoa p IIpoIIo Bo B TyaIIa oxael{, ooo B paaotIIII a.BTBIIo-paaoIlIT)\4aax.
.( pooa B.]r{oB T).]\,IaIl
MoIlo BoooBaT e oo o.
ypo opyo:

S,:601q-o's,

(e.r'7)

e q - BoI{oT Tyl\{aa' /,. Hy a Bo}IoT Tyalra Mo)o' B Bo) oep'


op o po opy:

q = '|o4 Q), + 7,2.Io1(T) +o,|4,

(e.18)

r Z' - Tepaypa ylaoopaoBa, oC.


Coaeo' op.eBTMpaPy TyNla'oopoa, a oo poo yl!{aa Boo)I(e,o .ByI!!o.
opya, oTaToo poo o.
p.ToT B T).a. o.ao e .TBrr oo opl,t
B'oT B.IMax T).aa'
B paIx yoBx .MoT B yt'{ar o)T aTro oTa
o o BI' oopy I o{' oy ToT o o poIrol8l

a. paIloyoeI, o.Ho TopotlI, ToIto Mpe poIIoa TMepaTypl paTypI To poI' a pyo _ ox]vl{ToM TIx ooo pao poo.x pooB. Be o' o
p BIa.Too .ox BoyIIIIIaNlacca.oIIoIIo yBJIa}eTc'a
r.oBaTIlo' Bo y. eIII o, oopy I yaIBa pooe. aoopo' JI BIaJIapoa, To aoepI o ao-o oeBo
Ba' oBaTo, aa Bo y or o, a oopyl
I paTIBuUIB poo. Ta )r poox aoep po.
oB lvlrx ooeo ooJl rx oaIIIx eil ooI
oae .JIa'oo oa'
pearT pa pe l\dell BIvIoTB TyaII
roo. B a.r pJII yallax' a oo oavo,
BooT )rBBaT BIoTo oaT Mal\{:UIIxa 6
ep pIrI. a ey BIpa)II(9.I5), opoIITulJI,lB.4o
B T yaa oJDIIa IIIaT o lvlpr yBeIr,I BIoI. B To ) pooT IIrIIao yIiIIII{ BoT, Ta a
yBeIv1BIoTIlleoo yBBarT parp a.
B pa,raoo TyaII ao IUIozl BoT aro,a B aMoN{
Il)lel\{o Bo.yxa.
B yaa oxa'el{;l IIUI}Ia
B.Mo.o)taaa (op) B N{oeBooa oa, .. B To p' o/apa}pa o.ya
JIa. oao pa BTI{o' To ). repaypI o oTIIoIIIIo oTy Boxoa oJIIIa (azBIBa)) a 12 , ooy kI NIIIyl{ BoT p(oT IIa To ) aoe BpIvI.B prx yoB,Ix |\||4IJ|4aa B.I\{oTo)eT o paI pIrM ala B po + 2-
oT IvIo}IeTaBoxoa oIIa.
o Booa oa o ep popeBaI{I,IJlBoyxa cIIeIBpa y oBpoT JI paao}Ir ya )paBaT yovo. o BT a
oo oa B.oT I{ e y1"I{Io.
Ceye I\{TB By' o B aTor Bpe pooa B.oT B
Tyl\,Iaaxae Beo oy IIIoT , ae-o
peollale pa' ooBaI{Ie a p a a a,o Ta'
.e. o.TaTTe oI pooa.
pozo uduomu od. opeo oB.o' To BMoT aBT oT IITIIBIIoT oao. e opa o BHoT .o)'
B.Mo l\{o)opaaT o opy
Vo= Vo(Io)u'",

(e.1e)

e Vo - B.oTBII oIIIoaoB; Io_ ecI{oT oao, /.r.


B ao Bp' o)l(uIII), oTr poIro oaoB par IIo.a.aeT' oToy yrT r B By' o ooI oa B pe. yxyIIIaT BMoT o 4_6 (po o |_2 ), a BeBI
oa - o |-2 (pa B.a,a oa a o IIJII]oTII JI
.ToBo).
p Ia a' a p Ia.tI ox(' Bo aTllo
yxy.]aT. yrr HxoTc B po ao o TBIIo\8 2

T eoa.a. o.ao kI p oa.a poI{o .oT a Bo papaaIa IIoTe Too.


Ct Bp BT ooTJttl aopo LIII|
BoT
p I{eoar.
ylyroe opryI opeI{JIoT p oa oaTtlo lTIBaIoT o I{TIIB}IOT apaep o.TJIa opxo. PaTIo opyao or xaaTp' oToy r r pBoT.
pozo uduomu m'nt u nt D tz. p po B.oT B eTx ooo }ITIaB. T TBIloT, aByI oT opo Tpa oo )Ioo opoa.
oa yxy.Illar BMT our T' r oBa MT
oo, Ta a p To ara oMo poa BIa.
a.
,( pooa e BoT B IIx ao To oyT }Io o. oto apo.aloT B BoToo a JIoa
p TOIUIIMpoo pooM o. Cre TJIoTaT I{a
){aTa poao oI, paoJlo)tlo xy yo JIoo BIo orpl aTJIoo.
oI papaoa rpoIlo BloT B TJIx Iry)o IIaUIapapaoa
poIro opoT rpa poHo IIBIIOToaa. B oerIx paoax
o oTaToo.JI}tIloypy al oGlo opoT p pa aBo BI,OToT opoT BTpa p tt,tooe o.
P.o pealoM BeII,a oToMy ooo PI.JIpoopoBavr' BeT itIBaa 17H
t e tvtz. locaoo a.)IGlI
TooB oIloa oo BII,Ioa sT. oo ToJo BJITop.eI
yoB}Ul' IIp oopIx Il)I(a,Ia o) opoa. Bo-pI, e Ip HaI )I(Hoo opoBa o aaloT oTI oaa, aalorc-o Bl\{Ie
opTpI oTyrcByl' To Tax yoB,lx eaIT poTIII oTpaTI
.a p paBJIIIoorlo popaIroT ao.pl. oeT ao oTaoBe aIBaIoT(florTo B IIIapr oT IIII-oa>. BI1M
TJIBaT B BHI paoa Po Aape.
Bo.opr, exa a o}T aroa rnp paBTIro x
epTypax Boyxa (_20 " ), o p (12 / o) oo BepcvIB pMItoM o.
o. pooa BoT p I{)Ito o .aIlI o TI]paT).p
Bo.yxa y opoT Bpa por H.. oor.
pvl nl u ncIr p yy,tll BoT orT r .o eox oTeII a) ToB Tpo. rr p oparo oro a
IoI paoa, oI{ao o.a oH BpairoTc ypHI{Ix IIIpoTa,
ooo B aytllBoe Bp. .a payi!{I{oo ppooooal{ Il oTIaITa)I(B paa Aa.
o epo:
ABopyx poK oa)| poeCa(aa)oeoB eee aa l a ye p loype o100 . oeoo oaBa eHe, a a yax opye y He.

183

A o oHoHepoea6.B yltxoax .teB.loHa


e a My, tGlB Bp|tlJpa& a eo, o|B oe 6I0reel. oao,
e aoHa l'.1
y o]rry& o BepHyoo o6eooapy Ha oy Ha e olo t.oryoa Ba,e B pt.,l
6topo aK,lo_ pyHoaa'Hoao r,la a>rq
pa.
opoarI{a po;HoT oI{ IIIJII ypr' aBo' pBIIIIaIloJIo oT I:LrIopoB' a IlD(BrpTaJIHa oIIoT aBI4cLI oT opoT Bpa, Tr ypy,a aopI paaI4 oeT o
eoJlx TpoB ,o oJx oTH Mgpo. oope{oT IJIIyp
eT opoIo BIpaHl yourt o: B paBIrD(paoax o a Bo
ara c |2 o 15 v, a p.lopl{Ix paoa - c |4 o 18 oo Bee.
ny oBTopoT IIIJI}II
yp ourrc Ha o}Ior pJI.
B p' potlo II{Iyp o pooy Iroo BTpa
y.ro oTo xapaTpa o.Taloe oBrpoT.
rr yp o aa |IpI4 poo xoJIoI poo,
ooIro xooIx poo Topoo poa. ppoao y Bpa
oIo aIIoB aMI{IpMepo a 20 oT po poa,
p ooTByIoM oToII oTae oepoT vIIMa
BTp a 100-150 N{ BIIBaTaaa IIIBo oo, a aTrI IyIo
yp. a ooa ope.TBIIo p ao :klepo xapaTpy.
aoe JII{Ipvl, ooo a poe aa IBaI. a poo IJIIyp oo oaeBaloT ppaaloT.
rr yp o BoIIaT B oIropoo oyro a, x
y.lz' oa y oBpxlto oaloT or opozrI apee pa.eI{TI'oyoaloe JIHIBTpI' o ae eo ra a
p ep aJlottoB.
{ pooa BoT B IJIIIIyp paIrI poa TpoT pr pa aBI\{o oT oT opoT BeTpa I4lev:,I
opoIITaI{oo ap.reoo paea.,{ yeIIIoo IIpeII a pao eooo ooBa <o>rp aroe poT x oTIIo
.paJII{IxeoIIoB oa (xo 6l Nl Too xoo,I{ooeoa).
Cey B By' To o ooall ro yp oa Boae Il t. oga o yxyIIIa BMoT o 1000 N{r oxpaIUIT( oy) B Te l,0-1,5 yo. Bo ro I!{e
BpIt{ opavI aBT o apaTpa ocTaloe opIoT' opoT Bpa' TepaTypIBo.yxa pl\{eo paa aopl.
Aaoo opoIrI yl{aa' IIIa a o)I(T opaoa p
opIII{IxyoBx o BeTa aoa pyIIToBoo apopolvla opa,l tIoJIo ao.

1 84

10
otltl BoltII oB
o BLI|IIE IIA oTl
10.1. oeIle oao aBIl BeIIe ooI
eduJ|4:l,IBaT
oTo)l(Ha a oarx aTx aoToB
BpToJIToB'a Ta,{tIIa oBI yTaoBa BIIIIIIIID(
TaJUIuuloo
oopoap oeT oaa' TyN(ar opo ee. o o.
Ha B To Ia' JI B Boyx a IoTe oT Io peoaIe
a' a oBpIIoT Bo.yoo ya T oTpaTylo paT}p.
o.e - oo ao aopTI TeopoovIX B.
e, oT oTopoo B IIaTe p aBc|4Toao pypllo
oToB aoToB BpToTo. oe oee o)I(pBrT aBaoI{oy poIIIeTBro' Ha pypIII aBaHvI'rTpa - o Ao
o.opaTo po&a aBap paop}tI aoeoB -a kIp o.r B o}IIIl{Topoox yoB,I. ooy oBepIrl{o
oB.tlo' o poa oIl BoyI[HI yoB pBaT I{]aI{r
ezUIToB aoo pzloo po: o apoa o eTropoo
yaTa aBaollo x.
yure TIx aTB Bo,ylIIHIyoB p oT B oH orH aBvrc^I
o TBIIO o.' oa ooBIIIo a oBpxtIoT aoeTa a, opI .I{Ixoor TpyltypI a. B
peIrI{IpHI' B BoIo op.,BT oT Bo.o oaa,
aoo
oTo pa^}paor aT, MpaTypI Bo.ya TepaTyPI
oBrpoT aoa' opoT oa ooo oea oTeIx
a BoyIIIIIooc a.
oeIo aoToB IvIoypBeT eylo poeI:
opTBI{o o.a .a, }Ia rpaa Ha oBpoT aMoTa;
aMpaH a oaa .o). p oIIpoIIoBeI{ oBpoTI BoyIIII{ooy}Ia;
ca BoIIoo apa a oBpo aoa.
e, yo pa oIo o oToo IIe BIIBao.
oa Tx aT aroa Too p.oaToo or ooTI ax I!{pTypIoBrpxoT aoeTa, o.a aTa yBaT
aaa paaBT, a aTeM'oBa apyt p TooBe IaoBpxtIoT BC e o.or.
6a Bo.Hooapa rT To B Te yllax' o.a ypyo oHoo apa B Boy IIpBI[IaT ypyo aI apa a,o o. o
poxo p opoI{oBt{ Booo apa (oa) oee oo.IM'
Bo.)D('aT aoTa (p lo I{)e aoea oI xoo.oo o.ya II p Bxo. aoa mepc). p o a oBpxoT aoTa opay pTaI.a' oTopI lpo aIoT.
ap poxa.III aJI Ha opoT aoa - ar
papopaI ca or o.

185

B py oo' a a oBpIro BC rIoT tLpo.IIaM yoB a aoJITa BO.yIIIIoToo. p o yBrBa.


T aa aoTa apyaT paBoB apo.Irax . oxyIIIaT oT}. Boya
H .a a BIIIII ax oaoplra
.a a aB .BaT' aI y}IIIIa o ooT Ty. ool
ga TJI ar aTrIIax yyIarT pa.oB' a ., paoac
orTa, o)ItT JIIOT .JUIa)I(a BooxtlloT Byao oppoB'
HpopI pI yoB .a o.rt opoT aoeTa
BpToTa x oa.ar B .BaT poTo To}IoBrIIr oBpIloT
Bo,yoo y.Ira o}ItT BIBaT ooy oT,}lIx apaToB yoB T
aI T po o poIIlTB vr|4poI lry. ooy I{o o a BeT o. oaI JUI orToB Topoox

oBp}IlI TII Bo)rIIIIx yo' BJIIoa BpByaorT


oBI aoJIrTI' Ta a p BTr oa.r roo BpByoBo
TT o paBIrTIIo ro oyoo opr.
[ ac, I]rTo oa Teopoo, Ba)IGIo IIaT' a o,o.I

He B,lT IIa oT' Ilaoo oo oao a opo. Hara a.ay o ItoT


a aJIIoaT B y Topoox
papaoe

pooa.

TooB
o
.aIIoa
ene
opo ca I]oBIII r.ylo pa.I ao aBI.
10.2. a
aroaI

eIII oo,

B oeT

oao, TpaTyoo
.a B oT aBT oT poTyTypI
pI Bo.}xa a InoH oTa pa IIorTa. o oy xapaTpy oToII a oyt r B. .a' opo e.
rar)
o I popaIII' aToBIM (oypopallI'

eI (pyoopar).
pop ed opaeT' paBo' p IIoT B oaax, oTox
Too proxa'HIx , fIo,oaa B o rpoxa.roo.o}' p TpaTypax oT IIy o _10"C. oaaT Ba TIIBI{o' pyBHo }Ia p.x poa pIa caaTopa' a ooBo
or aoTa Boy,(oaop. opyrilc e,a oTIIo paT oBpoT aoTa' aeT Tp.o. oro popar IIaTro aaT po }Irylx opo aoa N{aooa
o Tx op' oa Toa .a oa. p HaTIIo o ao
oTo .IIaTaIIOBToaI{I.
o epeo:
oay,aoy a, yaatae,pxooBeo a ata
a HalBaMIe
a aaa x. ao
ae paaHl
a. o
MooyBeHa Hry/ a Ho o aolpoapBa
a pa popaHl. eeo Ha e HaHopo, Ha opHoaoea.a opaoaoHoo pyooa paeoHaoa.fl)e oa Ha aaeHaHaea He, Ha poryp ]ooo|,ao <ep>
- a poo o p aary. Bo oaIa a a a,Bo e}4
Moee.
oaepopt

r 86

Mmot (nonpopvt, tultuat)ed oaT p oeT B .


uIaIIIx oaax, oo oroo oTBa x pyIx poxJIa)Ix ae' a TaI( .IxpTzroB }Ho. pyl aJI paalo ap3aT' a JI' TaJIBa aMoo' arpaloT e
paa. C ):IJII, IIpIa apaloe oo ,
Bepal B opayr oe oTo)eII oo IrpooBaTo opxxapaep aoeTa. Tao
oIo' po yxyIllalo apolavIee
.C
oTo)e BoIIaT a Beo p paP Boyxa o _6 o -10
BJIe ao TIM oaI Bo oe.
t (pnoop) ed BoIIaT BJIBe aIvIpaIIx a.
r p TpaType }e -10.. oeee aoo xapaTpa oro aa oaa, ooID( paI{eI{o oopo.{Ix x aIIe.
opayric eI opl ' Iloo paeT oBepxoT aoa. p pooItIlotvl oTe BevIe IlIIooT a olt o)T
peTaBT epeIry oaIto.
opo. opo prTaB oo eo pyIloepoe paeo oTo)e' opay p oeT oaax p TeIvrpaTypaoC. opo BoaeT p aepavlll aeJI B eI4IIoe _10
I paa. oa MT poI ]epoxoaTI , rpoIlo pvlItooo}l.
ar oBpIroT aMoa yBaT BoyIlIII\.r
e' eil pTaBJUIeT oo ell eop Ha' Boa B pyTaT ya BoItoo apa. p pa aorTa oH
o oTe oT o oBp}loT oro IIe oaT py,o IIoa. oao pTaB Too oTo?II a oTJIeH at, vo
oae opeI TpyIIoT p BylIIooop a Be _ p
ypaBIr aoeTo.
et ooII' BTpae B oTe' orr(o a)e apoBaT o op oo)e a IIa oBpxlroT oyIIII{oo ya. p laa HI oor o ToMy pI{ay o)lo BI.Tylo
.Ioeell:
npouo om]IoJlue d. o oeII ar eo aroaeTc oaax oro o.olo p MpaTyp Boyxa x(r 10 ".
oor a o op oBTopeT po (opy) o a BoyIIIoo
ya' a oopo oT e oTo. Tao , p)T a IIoBpo
oeH potto' o II or oaIt' Ta a oo yBBaeT aa aoTa
It oIl aa (ya) o apoale xapap.
- eoot d oedu. Tao oee aro.aeT To.a' oa a pe po Ia TMpaTypa Boyxa BIIe }IyJIpa.yo,
a a oao a pIa _ Hr y payo. oa ao . oeel aloaeTc oTe B pyoa}IIx oaax. a pveo
(ep) Tor pIa -a Bo ol papoB I{ yBaT pay apIIyT' paTea o oBpxoT pIJIa apaeT a oopo yuUIH
o p po. a Too (GapoTI .a) oB a ao .
p poM' opay lool o. o oee o6payeT oaax oro o.tIoTIop paType oya o _5 o _8 "'
Tao o.rI{,IoTaotlo oaII' T a' oo TopoI' oI{ paII.

187

TI{opoo.p}TIIaoBpoTaoTa'apyo-aJI.Ioapo.rray.
IUITop oar a aoeTa yyIIIaT o

o epeo:
B a , y aae t a ,o B p o Ho , p o o , H p,o a |a
Ha y e o o M B o a o H o B e p e H y o o y. p ao o o o H o,
o o
Ta
l4 oye.
pal{ aa' Ho oH y Ba , Bl o6ao
o? Be
B|e o y B a ooy o oHol'r. popa
oH.
Ba
oea
ep
a6a
ot
opao,
iu*',
poo: Iep
apaBl'4H
"..o
BHeaHo
Bep

o
oBpHy
HoopoHo
a-o
B|
Bpy
ao o
ee ay o BHypoHTa,o yep)<aoH B pya , o,
poXopoel
Aaote
HeBol"toHo'
pe
ao

oa
p aolnoo)H
aoopo
o6eea
Ha aMop eooBoBe o6eee.
oeoa
Blea1
e
o
ao6opou
i,u np"-u o6o <<oH
.'oay,ae poryaye H pye.
np
- tmuu ud oedu. o o.II,Iaro,a
B
ao
To1\{
p
a
HapoI
oJlax B IaI{Ixoaa oaax.
o.HeoaToo
I oBa ((TopaT B pzrI{ITopoI)). o ,
IlpoIIo y,p}BaoI{
oI{
oa l r ,a oa pr,I.yo,Ilo
Boya.
aaroo
T I{a oBpIIoT aoTa o ,).BarTIIoToo
10.3. BIIoT o.e e aBl}IoT
o po TpyTypI oo pe)Ia oeTa
IIa or BBoT oII umo,{' o ,vttle
o To aa
mu otdu. B ao o B' IIBO
oa B IIy BpII. oao,
,a'oTopa OTJIa.IBaeTc]f{aeIl
B oT Ta
BI To opoIo paBT IITBHO o.rII
oMaIoT
ooy B aBvlaI7vlI]oI{TBIIOTIOo.
,.'.p".".
""
a oBpIIoT BC y BpoIIy o a' oopl oTJIa,IBaT
prT B pax B MIIyy
II. o
[/].
(,1)II pBIuIaT
o TaT al, r o IITIIBIIO
TaT
(.
pI
o
0,5 /. ooaa ao oe,
yao
ooaa
,
1,0
o.Ir TrIlBIIoTI o 0,5 o
rT
o,r
Co
pa.
o (ry), ToJIo ByM BpTaJIIIIM
oa
.
1,5
BIIII
JIo
THBIIOToT 1,0 o t,5 ' a o
pTa.
BpaI
a orJI ooaro o , TpJI
o Ta aoo oe B arI{o p aBcvlT
(pBon)
a Too
a. I {a' oa oe IIoTa aoJIT
a oBp.a
o o 10 ! Copreo oB,o' o aol oJITBa
Mo.
aIrrBpIIoT
IloT aoTa )I(aT o oToo' uloT IIolTa'
IIo BaT.
aoa. y
Pao xaII or.a a IIa oBpoT
TMpaTypy' a B
TaT' To oBrpxoT aorTa MT oTpaIrylo
a,oyBIIIoBpxoTaoa'aMrpItyppoo. TpaI{oT. op' o ax pII aB|cTIITIIBHo
poo)It' To pI.IIoItIloBo I{Tap}ToBoylrrylo Tpy

188

o aoTa oTaT a T, a Bo.yIIrI oTo o opoTto oTa aoTa I{aaT a pIo (p. 10.1).

oaoa.
P l 0 l. opIlI]Bo
I{aIn p.oo}(I{, To B Bo,a' oI{yBIIla oB ooB
BpI{oT aMoTa' arpHrT' opJI' ao oJITo Bo.I oT oBpI{oT a .Hy BpM (. p. 10.1). a aa Bo.I(m") 6rc paBIIa

m": 1,Vw|,

(10.1)

Ayl - oa opoo }I,Ipy; 1'V - o py, opl


aaT oBpxo aoa B .Iry Bpelr; }t/ _ Bo.oT oaa; 1
(opa) - oTI{oTo.I.
opo (0IIIIII,I)' o{
m " : V w.

(10.2)

aa a (mn), oTo)l(IIIaa oBpoT aoTa o ((Bo.I))'


Mo)I(Tl opra o py
mn: lllpn,

(10.3)

A/1 - oa. oBpxoT pIa' a oop aMparT Boa aur


- o oTo)BIlIo.a( eBoT o o
y;
Toa^lJ
o ,a' a c ).}roxtTa oa, To o),1Io); p, oToT a.
pa ItoJI.l{opl o,,I{(IIIo y) ppaBIIB ay
Bo'I ay .a'o{

Vw: llp".

(10.4)

opyl (10.4) operM, oT ax apapoB aBcvITHBIloT


o 1.
. V w
(10.s)
Pn

^l
a .o (10.5), TBo oenvIaBI4co Ta aoTa
opoT o oJITa (ltl |/, ooeo), Bo,IloT oaa oo.
T oTaaIIo a.c BT tlp. BIII ll rry l _' 0, To oIa Ba y, alBa ollJ'|ouumo lm
op' BIpa

(10.6)
To.a B ooIIaTeJIoMB opya ol]pe To o.tII{p B.
189

(10.7)

, = L-.
-vw

P,
To
yBIl opoT oTa HB.o'
o.o BIpa)I'I
yBBaT.
To paBBo Ba' o
TtlBIloT o.Ii Ta
(<
BIIIBaT) HT
oo ,o Tao opoT olTa' oa B .o
HapB oBpItoT aoTa. IraprB oBpoT BoylxHoo
y.IIa BoHaT a T oy.apH oJIy Bo.yxa oBpxI{oTIo o)I(rT
oTaT orx Ira.
o epeo:
oa poea- peooB oH 40-x oo )(ea pe a3aKoHpylopa
e yoooapepa,a ppope 10 aBHoaa po6peooeH
o3oo6apepa.flo oM, o p 6oo opooeaHeKapeB
Haooe'o pa, oopoooo pe eaoea,
py
ax Bloepryp.po |pepo}4Kp|eB
B|epBa
aoB|xao. Boep
ae aoaea oee popoH|x
opypoaoopa6 B|poaHa oepop|.
p14e
oyoBle
Bry IlrToo IIaprBa oBpxlioT al\{orTao}I(oopT
o opyr

^r

= v' =t(!-)' ,
2000

\100/

(10.8)

e |/ - opoT oTa' /.
[aaie, yBa)I(aITa' p' y yT paBH II
apB p paI{IxopoTx oTa:
p opoT oTa 360 l/ (100 /) _ ppa opo IIoTa
BpToToB- IIT I{apBT:5 ";
,72
ltrJ/rl(200 lc) - pepa opoT oTa
p opoT orTa
MTIIIBo.yIIIIx]clffI
"C:
aI\{oJIToB
^T:20
/c) - opoT oTa oBpMHI{Ix
p opoT oTa 900 / (250
.C;
ao- AZ= 31
aTp}JIHI
p opoT oTa 1200 / (3a0 /) - opo Bya (M: 1) - AZ:
=610c;
p opoT ora 2400 l (680 /) _ BpxByoBa opoT

( = 2 )-T=2 4 0".

apeBa oBoT
HToo
pBrIIIx BIIII a
Aa
.aT BIBo.: p ot opoTx oTa oBpoT aoTa p Iorx paTypax apytoo Bo}xa o)T r Too TIUIo' IIo ope, II o ao o To.a pv I II o(.
}IapB' oppa yT aaT' To II
CpaocTvl
a B yo BoBoyx'
B
yxo
(10.8),
Too
aIo,aT
IIIII o opy
Ba
Boy
Bo
BJIaIlo
Il
poo.
.yx o}Il}I' TTBo'
a aBo.y'
B
yo
paa
r
B
MIII,
IIapBa ppHo
Too
.Ba
JIoIIaBa
70o
oT
prpo
pB ooBI oBpoT aoTa oTaBT
rx o aT.

190

Cplo orB.o' To oT Too apeBa' operoo


o
opy (l0.8), oaT ppo o.I{aTpT, I\{Ilo ToT I{apB yffio
).TIaTp poo o.. c TMpaTypa oBpxoT aMoa
rTo I{eTeoo apBa oTpaTIra)To B o ya o
Boo)Ilo' aec oo)Tea- oer ye.
oo pay)ll TaoBT o}I,II'o o.r opoTIx
aoToB Bol\{ox(o Too p oTaToo TI{paT}pax o.yxa.
B
o yTaoBo, To aoe TIIBII o. aroaT B pBa TrepaTyp Boya a Ieo oa o 0 o 10
".
oee B oaax Bao oTao. oaa. Hao oaHI B.a oa.oB ooBI{ o. BIoT poxaI(.el o. opo. o oeH,I B Tx Bax oa.o orT pBIIIIa l /. B oe' a paBo, araeTc'
Ta a yxo }rr yBaT oTooM Bo.yxa. o o)rT
To
oo p BIa.Iropoo a.
.(' e Bol\{oIlo BoI{I{oBe o.,I BC o IIIIBIlo oT oJDeH oT pape TpaTypI Ba(FIoT
Boa, IIaeooT o.o oao.
opopa paoa oTa Ta aJIaIBa o oTeaTo I{a Boo)IloT Boo o. o TBo: I{a aBpeI{o
opo B.aoaloT aropIlI yoB,l .BoII6BJI pa
oaoT yBe IITIIIiO oe.HeIl,a IIa o.BTpo
opo
_
coB.JUIpaa oaocT yfeIr HTHBH oI1IIII4o ppar.
10.4. MopooIle
yoBII oe

Iloe

o r xoo' yBaaMI v, or BI o paHo oTBT Ha Bopo: aa paa M,y TopooeM I{oT


co? o .e Be oTaToo poo oIIo, I{o.aoTBT Ha ToT
Bopo BIIBaapyI{. orre:
'mopoozucu cou _ o a oIIoII BeHvI'a uHonmuu
ou - To xapapTa Tx
Ilo yo' p oTopIx a}II{oBII ae. Be
aaIlo oTI{o II Too oI, o oy Topoooy
BeIo.
Mmopoozucu o||'t odu. oop o
oe,
oGIo III p oepy, To . o BoIloB oo.I yoBIMB)T I{a oTpao epaypI opx}to Bo.yIoo
ya ( "r ItTeoo apBa) ae B Boyxe oIIrIIpoaIIo a (oaa, oa).
uonmueu ou oedel. B epyl or IIy)o oeTT' To B o aoplx poo oe BC a a'
o
TBOT aTo or' tlp ByTpaoo oao.
Ha
TIrIx poax ee a araeTc B Teo o)D(
B TpBzreTeIIpaTypo -l0 o -20 o. aTBe
po, eTe B o
poa pox(BaloT B poaI apaTpcTpIII' p}Ia' Te Il-

191

TB o.IrIrrB o Troo poa. Ha xoolx poa, Ta )l('


a a TIII'o aIIl aroa B o Bo.yx..
o o aBT oT a xoo.oo pa. Ha xooI poax
epBoo po.a IITBI{T o., a paBo' tI pBIIIIaTypyro ( lla To po {o-o)I(.eaoao), a a xooIllx poTax Bopoo po.a TIrBtIoT or oIo cIIHa.Ha pora oJIIo,r oe. rll o araeTc B otl To oJIIo pao xoo..
oo poa. Tpapr o, B oTopo o BC o a
aTo, Ha Bx poa oTarT ppo o.}IaoBI:
o -5 o _20 oC.

p a.r pao oToB Blr)paoo oao o.


BC a Boo)I(o. o BIIoT aBcT o opr oao
Boo. ceil Bl{)t)aoo ooT a eo orrr aro.
aT B oTIx oaax }{Bo-oBIx oaa. B orx aax o
IITBo poa,aT yI\,IpIloo.ee, a B ro-oBIx ypro o o..
C o pJI BIoJIIIooB B yoB,l Boo)I{oo o.
JI aBa aorylo oaIro prTaBJI)T oTo-o)'BI oaa
p oax aTpaJIHI aoToB or oaa p oa pToo ao aa'
o epeo:
B oopax yeax o reeopoopaHoao,o 6o
oeo6eeeeap oee B yo-ooo6ao'Ho a6oy oao oo oK pH oeeepeaoooB|oaa. B ve eo? oa|Be,B oe poo. fleo,
HeHHo
o6eee B yBo-oe|
ox HeHo6oe,
oo-oelx.
oao paBa]vl
oeoBa pao,a oeoaBa.4
aeopapeeHoea yeo-oeoo6ao. Bo o)^{ae,
o
<<a|t\4
pauJH|pl"l> ooB oaa ,loo-o)ea, He yeBooea o6o.
10.5. ooIIHoT oe opoTIII aoToB .,
BrpoeoB
a yaIao BIIII,o oBp)l(eIIBe' a)e opoTI
BrpxByoBIr aor. [o B ToM' o p B axo.e a oay Hao <ypaN{oT) e o)I(r T o BpByoo opo. C ao opoT aoT TT JIIIIa BIoTa oe 10 000 ). ooy pocce,
apyIr pByoBIe BoIlIr aMoTI I{a Tae Ba oa oBep)IrI oe.ro. Co opoTI aoTa, oray' B poTo
oo. o oTMTT Too oIl or. Ta a T apB
oorx oorx a aoa paI, To p opr,IrI yoB
oeT BoHttyT Taa cTa, o.a TpaTypa ooo .ra pra y.eToJloeo, a ooo aT pIa- oTpaT. o' To
p Tot\{a ooo aT e.oTa,IBaT y., a a ooo oepx oTo}el{JIaBoo)tlo. e oec ,t'l Bol\{o)HoTBoItyT oro ooo opo oo a' oTopaaoee
oaI{a' o oopo I y) oBop.

192

Bpot o o.pI oIo' aoTI, x To xH aTI{o Tpy aTT o o.. o eop I{a To'
o yoB o aoToB BpoTo paT o.IIaoBI.

Bpol oy oea a p opoI{T.UIo' Ta p BpTzUIHo oT. p pozl:Io oT oToTJIo oIo opoTIo


B yox' aopllI
o., ol.lo oTaaeT IIa BTax,
oorx aTx BpToTa' ooo a aI' aTIIa' pI{ BoyIIItloo .aBr T.\' Bo p oTa oT}IoTIIo M-III opoT B p(a aopa BIoTI BpTaJIIIoo p BII o.ar
ToJIo BTI. p poxaHo

o)I(' opo, opoM po BIlToB


N,IoyI a py aT BepToTa.
Haolyto
oaoT I]p.TaB o. l{yo BTa, oTopo Boo)o p roo prM IIoTa BpToTa. o
oa
BTo.B oTaT IIaTl opa.
oaII'I oIIaT
Copo
oyIIII oToo e,lT B aTI p.rax: oT o yoo
a o oIIaT .o oTpao
B oII opaoo
ora.
o
p.aB oo oy B oo aT oa' B p.ax oopo oIIaT
.BT a. po Bp..

o.r'l BItToB p ooIrl{o oopoo .BTJUI aBT oT Ireo po .)ei oa p Bpaao .B)e' oT apaa' oTopoo .raI oaT' aTBa eo opao, a
Ta o MTopooelD(
aopo. Cp o.I{I.D(ao ).ITBI{I
Bo.oT oaa, pap oarx arJI TepaTypa Boya. o
o orr, u orre Boo oaa pyIlr a.
oC
p paT}p Boyxa -10
II)I( oaT I{yIo BIITa orTBa BpToo o.eI{BaT paT o II. p o oTyaTIIo opoT . oTaaT Bo oaT IIrpaBIIopo. Ta, B o
I{TI{BII o
opao
oa
BeJIa III Iloo
BopaTaT Bo oa. o p ya'oT ovt BI{a BI{o o.
I{ aaT .oBoJIo Ipo yBBa.
oa MpaTypa Boyxa BIIII oTopo peeo eIlI' oBI aT oaTe epeaT oeeaT' ooy
I{apB
TaIloBT ,oaToHI oo, oI rpaTypa
o a o

e ra ooro'
B pyaT oBeTIIoo oTB TrpaTypI Boya opo
ooa oTo)IttIa o JI oaT o T paI opl. Ha opy oTo)r aBJIII)TTa paI{I or poBoT oBpxoT oaT.
o paI aoTa BpToTI oee .rBTI .IlI' Ta a a oaTx BIIToB oTJIa.IBaeT
rp, a ooTx
aMoToB p oIrx e ooI yoB,I. oy oII aTo B
caX, oa B llpoI{oax oo.IyaIBaT y(p}Io o IIII'

BpToI

oToB

I{e oBpIIIaIT.

o. BpToTo ao BrpoTIIo p oTax B oax, B oI{


Ilpoxa}.Illloo .ox{'L| Ha' oTpITI Bo.I poTpaTBa]t,,{
p
TpaTypBo.yao 0 .o *10 oC. BIoTp TpaTyp
l9

Bo.yxa _2o " l' . I\{o)Topaoa Ha BIIyTp oepxoT


yoB oooap aI BrpoTa' B pyTa o IIo yxyI]]aloT
pa aTpy.ITBy;ra opeTpoBa.
o epeo:
Bo ox pyooBao yaBepoeoHaao,o y ryp6ooBlxpoo3o6HeaHap eparypeBoya+5o H)l(,pPr
B py op Haao6eaBxolypoaae(ooop). Toy e eo o6eHe. Bxoo ypoo, a|BBoy B
peyaa,ooyeHaeaeeHa aol4Bxoeoo ypoa.B
yeHae
eeyeHeH
-
Boyoa6opa
ae
e a oepo
parypa, oopa p r.{parypeoyxa +5o C oe a opaeo,a oBaeHo, oooBlBao6eHHe.
10.. CooI opI o.eee
o Bo,yIoo y,Ia orT llaoo oao, To paT IIa a)o aoTa BpToTa llp.yN{opIra oJIyT aavl pooTa a (oC). B ooI opI oIIIIMMoIIo pa.Th eoo pytl. oor IIx yloe.
Muu noco. o oo aJIIa B aIIoM aevl
opaoaIo .a ooBIx aTe aoTa' eo ooTr xBoToBoo
oIIpII. Coo prIUI aBIIo a IIopoIlIx aoax. o y aJIIoaT B ,y' B epeI{x poax pIa' xBoToBoo oIIpH,I
T.,.poJIaIBaIoTpI{oBIr poTTopI (po _ poBI rar), p
oTopI po. poyaT )I(aI Boyx. poopr aa)
ypoaT' oN{aT,' a oTtUIo aT BoyInIrI oTo' oopI
.yBaT. Hoao To poooIITeJIIIo r BT apyIIIIlr apo.IraLtxxapaTpT pIa oepIIIIp By poTrTopoB' a Ta xcaa o.
uo-u.uuu coo. o-r oo opr oee.
}I .a oBpxoTIo aoTa III4a
rM ooBa II )\,IIIIII
)rMIIIIITepaTypIapa BoI.
.{ yl I JI a Io aoTa BepToTa
ooBa p:BIIIr aTIe opIT'IB Br aoB, flacT k7Mao' a
a) BrTBa' r aBalo oo (apa, BaII' )pI ..), oao T p,TBaHe a[aroo a'
o epeo:
opo6ye,yaela,oBea ao Bopo:oopaMMoBpaK y)Hopooa, oo o6t opaBpHep oBpxHo?EJl
l a, y e6 oa peo,o oBHoHae/o Ha opy1 2 oepxo
p6ye ooo 2oo Kpa (o opa paxoa pa }4apapee aapa>al'tIoaBa,ooyoH paxoa).y y <aBaooo
ye Beo 100 p Ha 1 r'r2oepHo.Ho o Ty-154 oaB pepHo
lll 100 ! Bo
Mosye e BpeM<<G}>
opaH|
tboo 2, eo,lHo,
He oypooopapopaHeH.
ooyat006op6t o6HHM
or IIpr o{o aBaI{ aaeIx o oII
oBepoT o' o)I(alo TrpaTypy aepa o,r. Ta ).oT oJDtIIeT .oTaToo IIy rpaTypy. arpa' xo194

poIo MaBaT oBpoT'


opTT aopaoI

IT .OBII\{, Il BIIBaT oppoIo tI


opIT. Ta TpoBa oTBraIT pTI' r

pTa rpo .py oT.

laI oo oyT, B oIIoBIIoN{' .JUIaTI o o.e


BtlToB To at, oT Mo)T pIIT vI rIaTI oo
xoToBoo opI{,I. ar H.oTaT Too To.a aJIIoaT B To,
To' Bo-pBI' o oByT yTpa Too JI,a,oTopI yte opaoBaJI. Bo-oprx, ao.eTa TMa Taoo MT.oTaToo o)5rropyIo, opara o BpIr pyN{aTpBaT zl a opy BC aoo aaa )LIoT.Happ, Ira BpToTa -8 xoTI aoIITrJII rI IoT pao. pa
Ira opaIlop ooo I,5 l, a a oppoaoN{pr - 1,52, paa oIrre.
o epeo:
o|e, B oop|a Beo pep, a a6oeeeea )o/ oH opol Hoao,o oopo Be Ha, o apa He oop,a )De 6o He ye6x'fleo o, o Ha popoa
p ao oyH o poly(a, oe 6t,o o poy?!)a. B apooop,o Ha popoeH ooBa oa:apo
aoo.y-o, o e oyoyHo oeB oHy o6eee,a
pooo6eeeo
ee p,o GlotvlyoooeHHol4y
a)v
oo 6aooyoapao oe.
Tnoo (mepueu) noo. Too oo pI oee
ooBa I{a Tpo o aea. o oo B aTo BpN{JI
oy ao IIIpoo papoTpar. A ael{ Bo-To l{y)o
oBI paTypy oeax oBepIIoTe o au o 0 oC. C
o ro IIIpoo pH Bo.yIIro-ToBI
pooorTJII{I
poa, aro apB p.IIxpoo IIa xoToBoo opeIl>
oyoaopoB oTrJI,I pI aa. Boylo-oBI
MI oaTo!ro poTI, oHao oI{ IoT o yer IIroTao.
!o To' To o.BaTop urII{e p:By oa.aloTB BIo.or
oo' a (CyJUIIoT))o aoTy (,aea <<opoo) _ op oe), To B To yIa poxoT az op MoIloT la. ooy B o.IlBpN{JI or pI\,IIIaxo.TI)ooBIpooo.eTeJIIIIeTI, B oopI paoe aT BIIeTcoo)oBo, o. Paoaa o I{e)y oJUIoI{I o poya To,
o}I(rlo o IIapB oaro opoT yar a. .(
yIlI paxoa Itpop IpoTeIIJIoBa Ta paoa B l\{yo px(' o paBo .aTBor o. op oJI,I ar
Ta oyeTBJUIT eTp ooo. B a ar (a o .aJIo
oro ooIlo o) BMoI{TpoBaI{aToa poBooa, o oopo p
oxooT poyaT Tp o. p poo) Toa TJIo
IIapBaT a oro Ioo TpoJIT' aT, y a}a poaa poI' Bar orrM JIa ar.
o,tuupotcnoco. o oo aJIIarT B oBMr{o oJIo.
BaIIvIB )x' o}Ix BIIII.olao oro Ta r a. Ha oyl-

195

HIx y.ax o,Iroo Ta' a paBo' oyT Too ao-Iry o


oo opr o.
ot npu]|4t op odul, ocetlIr pI opt
yoaa ropoo
aIoaIoT B oHo
o
BkIiHa p.T o BoItI{oBIr oI{H p Boo)o

I{II,1pIIIpyIa po olTa' a Ta] B yB opoT oJITa.


o lIT yoBJI orTo aa1,To o)Igto apIpyt
BIOI
III{
fIp
oI{e.
BoMo)IG{oo
oy
Ta, T.l. or Topoo
orTa 31y lyT '|B7T aoB, !I HI4|4T Ta' ToI I{a BIOT
IIoTa ra oTJIz TrpaTypa Boya' IaoopoT, apaT BIoTy
_20 oC. o
Ta, ToI a IIIo oJITa TerpaTya Boyxa ozraJla H|lDe
lrapB,
aa yBrJI,l opoT oTa' To To pBzUIIII
oTop

.oBo,T oBpxoT

BC o ooxJl}rIx

TpaTyp.

ooe oo'Ill . aBa


10.7. oaoT
opa MII
ood - To aToB1iI popaIII ' oTopI p oIIpr.I{IrI
oo.Ix yoBx apaTarT I{a apo.poMI oTpoax, oe.IIIx opoax' BTI{o-oa,o1Io oo py}Ix.opo?ax, a aoTax, o
IIa ToII BI{r aapoB' a Ta]l Ira poBo,a1 IlkiI' c Tpop.a.
oIo 1-3 , pr,o 8-10 . Co a opaToula o .a
"o"'u"o'"' IIaBTpIIo opol B oTo. oro oo
yT pylTBIIIIo
. oTa IIp TepaTyp Boyxa oT 0 ,o -6 ", oTIIoTo Ba}(ocrla oo,a: po
c g5-Iooo/o opoT BTpa o 5_7 lc. Tr
oTopa apaTop1aBaa'
BIaaIoa

oxoo.Ila oTII
ya.
BoyIIIIx
aT I{a apo.potlI oIax
BIl' oTooo, - o.o oaHD( .JUIoToB opoox
BoI{aIT
oo,
p
aBav7.
po o)T prIlo oo)I(HT rTIIoT
p]\{y

a
apopoo
poN{I p ooToB Bo.yII{Ix yoB orTy,
Bo.yIoBpxI{oT
a
BIy aoeToB BpToToB. p oTo JIa
opIBaT
oo.

I{oo ya a JI BrT Taoo yIIa apeaT.


o
Ha B py}(I opo)I' To To aIIo yrIIIaT Tpr}I
a
oa
ula o o, To aTpyIU{T a pa, Ta po aoJITa. p
ory oJloy p ooBo BeTp oaT oaIio yJIoII,{ aoa

oT ylIloo apaBIII{,I .B)II BIaTIBaII'I o a p.I BI.


oodu - To BJI IIoo.I 1 oa)' oTopo aIo.T B x
pyIx
)rt\zl{x' oa o OTBM oJIIIoo Ta r a B'
Ta To aI\{oJIToB aaa TaIoT' a aTM p oxooa
'opoa
apal' opa a oBpI{oT o .a.
ooyro oaIIoT .JUIBTa oa. aoJIToB BpTorToB p.TaBII7T :la:r4rIIa yTB1IIII B <)) .a' opoo a aToBBaT,
ec BoI. B To ya Boa cII' aTyIr B paoTalo
po
oo
a
Bo,a
aIoT

.a}
oy BlBrT o Tpo' a e9 II
yIIpaBrN{I.
Topo)lIJI' o oBop, oo
Toopa oo.o I{a apopo oITBeTc xallr'
BI rM

\9 6

ooaN,{.

Muu noo oToT B pt{ IIeooL7cTeIIe'oopyo.


BaHIx IIaeooa. o oo yT B T )^{a' o.a
a Ha oBrpxoTI paBTIIoaa.
Too cnoo ooBa}I a o,B ToBoo oToa' opt pa.
aBrT e\ cBa opayylo Boy oTaT ,aB Topoy ooI
oo a. Too oTo oa paBI{IM.BaT'oltTpoBaI{I a raJlo MaIx. poo,TroT TroBI aI
aP.cToT TotII o .a' TeIIpaTypIBo.)D(a,opoT I{apaBrIt'I
BTpa' Tor aHI I]pIoT I{a )I(Tx apopoIlIx opIT
aTHo a aaoorx. p pao TMpaTypr Bo.yxa opoT
aII] rpa' TTBIIo' B.apa, Ilo Tao, .rl p
.B)I(I1
poxo. oTaoBr aIIItI] Io pplroo apBa oBrpxo B
papyIIII{.
o epeo:
paH|X
.oo 6fl otMaHH oaeaH|
H pyo aolae'oopto)o
pe yaHaBBa
Bo pa6oa,Ho <apeHHa N4oeT,
po o y HyaHaBBa
B eolxaHax.oeo, a pyoBep
>Beoy
Hpaa, oopypBaBaB yoB(eoaHa op.
o) <ae nooeB>>.
Xulucu oo opI ooo oyT va 1lpr.ypa popTe' a oo aBJIIlpaoao ,a. oT
oo opr ooo.aTxopoI pyTaTIp TrpaTyp Boyxa
o, a p o tlx TpaTypax oo MaoB.
o 0 ,o-8
10.8. papoI BppaTopoIII p
ore ooe.a
paT oyT tloo.oTaToo
fl pooa o.IrI1.a
poTIx Ix oooB. ooBIr II .ye:
Cuonmuu mod npozo. o o. aaT B o, To o
Io B paop oa MaTpaaM opIoTo' B oTopI aIo.arT oaIroT oTpaTJI}IITrMIIpaTypI Boyxa. Co
Boo)I(Io. op.To apooo ,apaM' a op.o opao a|paI Ba' ).Ba)ar a' .oTaToIIoxopolllo 3ao. .oooMo)Ilo r pa aaT' To Haor oaor o.
o, a

a.aT B o' . TMpaTypa Bo.}xa orT o 0 o -20


BoaII\{
I{ao
ypI{I{oo

oo
BoII}IoBrIl
T pa TpaTypo 0 .o -12 ".,{ar To.,oTaToopoT' Il
py aT}loo Bp IIa BIoI{paToB aeT xopol p.
TaTI.pyx o IIo ro ooBallto .aBaT}IroopaI{o.
Mmod od' o r po)I ITo .aIIIoII.poBa'I
opTBy xo n _ paTypy aI,I a.o o o opy

T,n : -8D -- -8(T - T,),

(10.e)

r91

r D - Tpa}pITo poI a ao-o ypoBr. oaIao' To Tpaypa HaItt ao .o BIII]TpaTypIopy)alo


Boya' To a o ypoB}r .yTo)taT o.e.
poo o o Toy To.y Ta .arT o1\{oapooo a|paI. o aI]\{opoBa oIaT, To pa o B aoM-o or )IpaB po paa' To B olvl o .y poopoa o.I{H.o polt{e.yooBa o To
pooa o B oo o BIoTI2000 .
B a ooTo opNIap poI{o oI{ oo
oJIoBaT .yloy) yaoBII). aBo. I{TpBa"eTepaTyp o 0 o _|2 " e To poI ole 2 ", B }ITepBre
paTyp oT -8 o -15 oC o pol oI 3 oC, a p TrpaT}pa Ir
-16 " To poI ole 4 o, To BpoTHoTIo o 80%
o.ee p Ta yoBx aIa e y.
Hy , TBIIHo' Ba)I(Io/opr HoTa p poo o.tI( oo o) Be.copa' ep.aBaMaIIa Io porTaIM a)a a)I(alvf'BrT axo a oay.
pozo ood. p oBopT o eToa poIloa oora, .yToTTT' o I{I{BIIoTooea opr. o o () oo)BIlIoc a: aI oo. (ool a e 5 ), ypI
(5-19 )' r (20-50 ) ov r (o 50 ).
o opaoa oo.a aBT o TpaTypI Bo.y,(a T eTa To pol (Z_ Ta), o Bo BprI{ popaB I{aaBr'I
opoT Tpa' oT oxaeII Boyxa B pe{I{oo' pa o
cocTo|oTaloe opo. HaoIIIee o yllaB opaoaIt ooa aro.a.Itlp paTyp Boyxa o 0 o -10 o, p p
o)eH TeMpaypI Bo.ya ooTBeTyIoIe aIl a o
poI y oBpxovI e,p oTopI oTae oo' BopaIo.
Boo pe)M oaIBaT oIo BII'I:Ia opaoae oo.a.
e ot opo Tpa p Po paBIIl yo' Tl\{TeBee oToe a. olo o)IGIoBIBT oIloBI apaBH eTpa' p oTopI B alro yIIT BepoTtto ooa o roa.
Bea Ta}I(po oxa)r,I a Boyxa B pIro o y oBpxIIo JI a BIo opaoa oao. B oaax Tyl!{aa o pBoT ypyeIo oarx I{ToB .o papoB a .o,(opo),
oae a p opoI{oB epeoao oBpxoTro opayT ooe,.
Coe poI' p oTopI oTeaeT oo' apaTpyIoT' B oIIoBIIo' a TJIoo Baoo Bo.yxa. o yo opaoBaIryrpTo BI.JUIpoal ypaor ooe. poar oo. oTMraT pr eIlvfpoo, Ha oo.Ix poa, B oe
poo o) a aooB)Ipoax.
oo ep Tr poo o IIaTHI opaTa TpaTypI Bo poao (o 10 oC a 500 ) peTaBJIaolyto
oaoT. B Too poa, Itoo JI BoIloBeIII4oo.a,xapaTpIM BeTco}I aI ao poao opoT B )I(198

aT paBTtIo oIa BpTaHa oHoT oao B o


.ra poa. Bep pal{a oao olo paoaaT Ha BIoTe,

TI\,IpaTypa
Boyxa IlI IlMIloo 0 oC, oao Tx oao Iaa oa. B B.llpoxaeI{oo .ol.
oooIo Ix poo, B o oTopIx ra r oo.,
B.eTx e.IIIlo .B)e (o 25 /). ora opoT .B(I{,I
poa, a p BIa.eI{poxa}.Iloo.o)I('ooy Ipoy
pepaIo oo.a.
p poxoell oooo pora oo. opa HaTrJIo p.
epoaIII o. oIo BaI oo.II porar rpBoo po.a'
oopI I\{aITo opoIo 1G-20 /.
Coa poo poaoo ooe.a' .ooeFlo y(o 1ITIBaT eye IIoTee pIla:
ooe BoIIaeT a aepIx poTax' opoT eIr oopIx yIt(IIIaeTc tI pBIIIIa30 /;
_ TeIlpaTypa Boyxa pe TII\4
poo oa -16
BIIII 2 oC. .po oo' oxoa ]f'iBepcvt
oep TepaTypI
p Tr To poI o 2 oC;
opaoa}o ooe.a p eI poo ooye aBe
Too Ba)Hoo Bo/yxa;
a xooo po ooe. Botla a Tex o yaax' oToI
paoo)I(r o p' y BpIIIIIIoI' a Tae p ao B xooa y aB Tea Ha ypoBl{e 850 a.
Bypaol oo Boa B oax aB ea a pp
aoIIapI aTJIoIIoB' a Ta a ro epp JIooB. A,I Ta p To BIpaIra a, p poao oJlor. oaI{IM yoBll opaoa B)pN{aoBoo ooea BI1]I(,T
a oTo oaoT, HaIIkIeaoo' o opox oaoB' a
Ta oTpaTJIIeMpaypI Boya y e.

fll.

rrt
I

,*l
,?d

i26

ftTI

lll

TE

--L.-.r- .l- .. I
tr
tIF

Pc. |0'2' pa pBpooBolo


ooea.

199

B aao BIllI oHoT uonmuo^4lmod pooa ooa. B opaTBHo pa tlpooa oo,a'por HoTroo
o.a' N,IooooBaT oTopI po.a' pr.o)HIB paIx poax Po. Ta, app' a pc. |.2 prTaB p
oo.aB BpoToo op. . o
or Boo)oT BoIHoBeI{
BpTa oTo)a paHoT ooHaIxBIoTypo 1000 850 a,
a o opoao o - BpoTtIoTBoHoBr,I ooa.
ooa pao aIoel{ y.
.
poo papoTpa a paT oy ro. pooa oo.a,
per}I P.A. yI. oya B TopT p.oI' aT' To aBop oB o..ooopaI'p,aoa p. 10.3.

.'-

I .1 -

at
I
t

/l..'r. Jt.ti

P. 10.3 Hoopaa P.A. ya op BoMo)tlo


Boo oo.a (a) o ro (:
l _ oa yl!{oo oora; II- oa aoo ooa.

o o aT oopaI B aBMoT oT TMpaT}I Boyxa y r a ypoB 850 a opeTBoooT BooBtl ooa.


oy T ) xo,Ie.aI,pa B paByro aT IIoN{opaI,
o TMepaTypBoya y BIOToTrpI _10 "C opM tITI{B}loToo.a.op.o paol lloopao oaa Ha py.
po oor.a oo paI epTo o pT Zoodu, o oTopo oaT .ylo y opy a' opaoBaBlllylo
IIa opIT.
o epeo:
oapao6Hpaa o o-ota,
Coe e pooaHo,
Hye}(yoool ooe,ooe,q_o eoo|,p oopo<oo)>|aae(oa B o/opo),l'4pe ep opHo.
ooea_ oe H ool,p oopo oepo(opoe)He
H p' looM p oHeMparyptHoBa a}4pHy o6pay
Hyopy.oeao,opooae?
Hao aprr7I4BooBtl ooJI.IBIoT I{o.
T poI' xpaTpylor a. Too Ba)l(oo Bo.ya.
200

o poo ooI o.a BIar oaoB (roI), a TMpaTypa


IIopxI{o y e 0 oC, o B oM ylae B pooax yT yaIBaToo.y.pa poI{oaooI prTaB a p' 10.4.

{i-l,T

fr..'fJr.i'iq.

iJ

;'

.t

P. l0.4. .JUl
pooa.o,,o,"o'u,,.
poI pa oyT B aB xoIIIxaHHI o eeaTyp Boya y .T o poI y e. o pa IIIrjI IIIpoo IIHe Ira P.
a yl r p:] oBopo BIIIIe' B ToI poIloa y <<paoa>
yI{III'ec papaoT ooB yy ).IITIBaTeTIe pa BoItoBe oaI aop,ITIII e oo.I.

201

a a 1l

BI4II Po IIIBAOB
A TtIoCT ABA
11.1. I' M IIIBaI
a oIII aBaI{ B

ooI

po - oo ap}Io BII MtloopaTI JITprpoo. poa Baa


pap. B B o, opoBoax
paBT oHI yBo-.o.BI oao. p poax aro.a TrI{BI{I BIIBI oa B B. .o)l{' paa, a o.a I{a. Cyxe pol
oa.oB y o oBpxI{oT la paBTIIo p.o.
pa BeTc o. Hao oaIx aBaII|l BIl oo.I.

oao p yoBra:
B oaax, oo BIBaT }T
TBo yTI{oTIo
oay ppy' pIIIIaIo p.JIo .oyTMI aIl;
oC;
HI Ha BIoTa' , TpaTypa Boya < 0
Boo)IG{oTIo op aoTa oH;
TBI BIIBI oa.aM.
Mpa
aTo opoBoaT

lBaa' lpa - r
pa,
BpTzr' t{o aTo oo.
Bp o), p
!a

oTIt
Ioro T opTa' pT.Ta TpoB }ra.opI\4
yTBoBaI{'I Mpa - oT o
oB a yt. poolrIloT
pol

}Iyt.o oJ] aoB. Cpv BoaIoT ppo IIp Ta } oT .Ia|4X, o pol' o,ao po}ropoBaT BooBH pa
aaa pa o)Ia.
ao IIoT yaBH. o epaHa
aTopo
lp - aMo papyl]ITrIlo
I]poT)I(oT o)ToTaT 12-15 ( rIx tllpoTax o 20 ), opo.I{Taa poTIIoT - oo ToB oMTpoB' a opoT .B)e Boya B Bxp rpa (o y .a - pa) .o.TaT a 200-

300/.

- po paToBpI{I{o yII BTa' opoBo)I(alo HII o lrapaBe.Hao.IIIIIa apoaa opoT BTpa p IIIBzr
paa 65 /. Copro oB.Ho' To IIIBJII' a p' pr,TaBJUIIoT
pBT
pII}T oaIIoT a;a, vI He ToJIo II aBa. Moro
lII

pv IIIBZUIoB. ppl
IIIBIUIoB y oBpoT.
aoT B oT BTpTT o pM' To aBarIIloHIlo polTBr Hrx<o. paa, oTa aopJITI I BT BTI T
paBItTI{ orryto BpoTHoT.
p poax ao aroaea l duz mp, oyoer a
tIo)I(TBo pMpoB papylllTroo,
aaT o. poo.]l:{ p

I BrpTaIlI oa, Ta oo ro.opoI{oTI B o BrTpa ylBo-o}Boo oaa.


ultte dodu - TTBrIt] TH poI. Cl ,o) oIl
oa trTt;B' Ta a p To apyIIIaT I{opaa paoa aBaoI ,B, auTo
TroT aBap.p i'

202

yxy,IaT B.oT' a Ta oJIorT

e-

pd a<ep.TaBJUITJIIoTy oaIloT oTo. p


Bp pa'o B orT -a apa pa o oBpoT aoTa oy Bo.
aT paIrIoBp)IqIIJI_ oT BTtl lra oBrpxoT .o papTa
ar aa)poo lol{a.
pvI{Ir BIIII .eHB p y{aB a.aro B o.
p o oT ooB,paoo y<I B)e ToaToBTpy ooHo TaHa oa BoI\{o)oTBoIIoB poI BpoToT Bp pao apo.poa III4IIa apIpy oJIa. H 1"rao
pH oaIx .JIooB eoo.Ipoa Tpa.,roIloToT a pBo
T.

Hoo.o Ta oTTT' To B Topoor aopo'


Ba}II po' aMI oaI oTo BIITmlop mpaBaoo pao raIM lllocm. o o.TBp)}Io
.oBaH'oTopI poBo. ar Tpa CA. Cey oTTT
o.o Ba)I{oooTBo: pyHI, a Hoa Boo)rc coB
BIooToB p po o.aI{r oo B pooBI oaa, o
6 Tx oao. eo o o p oe eoaI{oT
oToB Bo.T B pooBI oaa aTope apraeTc, a oxo. x
opoo yT I{a oTaToo oro oao pacc.o|,o I
y oBopT yT o)lt.
o epeo:
yeoo,yaaetae,pBKoopMpo,BaHH|
polvl.o oaoHoHepeHa'a Ha BI po
oaHo
o>o
opaBt'lHopa:
- Ha eHo ap a6 44 000 po r | 1800 po
B , a ayHrry Bepa100 o.
_ epBpo oaoHy lHyao ep,oopaorye Ha ]'lo oHa.Co p M.B. ooooaBeyo||o o6yo
Hep,Ho o, oae,yo.
_ eppooooo6aa paepoPl(10 10) loo(oo)5 ppo paBHHepoo6o6t,pooa poy Haa.Paa
eooy/a epo6a leHoM, o p6ott
ooaoB.
_ Bo<o{e
ooB poooo6 t'loyl.MopoTo 5G{0 /, a xo.
_
ooo200 ooo 100 /.
0_5 l'o, ooBeHHo'
- p poolo6oy M ory 6llla|o opopa
o 60 / (6oe230 /).
o6 papol(10 10) loo5 ao, vo
- 3a ol pooo]vl
o oo oHoeoMaoHapo100 , o 1000 o
5 . }o oBpl'lpHo15 000 Hoopo)|x
ep. a oa p B BoAyxeoo oHoltoa!
_ fl oo oto6aHa epol20 po po6papep pHy)Ho'ol <<oHya>
o6a
epHo 2 epa aa o>r1eo
e oot
1 000 000 (o!)pa.
_ po oaeH eoBea/Ho M|a ypoe|/o H yBePrpapoa
Ha MoH 6tpop6,ylapo. e, o l 6ox, oop,o y,
.Coe y>o e y|.
Bo>>.
oopapo'<<H
- pe ( eya),p Koopoo,l oaplpo, pae
Ha Koopoo Ba epHyaoH.
3, o oypaoH opa,

20

- B oBHBlo
I'4oeyeo oeolpoB.
lalKoa -aoo oB o poaaa
paory e
at
paHop.
- oa aapaaeHo BpHopHo
aoaTy-154 oae . . .2, 5 o l !
_ C poo BH oH oaH pa. pep|oopoo or 6l
oaoo
6o.Ha ppopPo al pylpa aa Pooooa' apoHaMaaoH|
paH 1800 . paBTeee, o Ha Ba
B|o|
5 apoB 6aa ooIo o o, Calpylpa
aa .a aa oeH|
pHoaa2200 '
11.2. Bl po TII oao aBa
poo oao a o e Il pooT Hoo cail, paalox I{TIlBoTIooB' aoo pyypo oao
Tp oTo. Ho papoTpaHI p.TaBIlo
paB.ILLpoI BeTc. ) IIa Tp cavl, ao oTopI o.aTptulo paHIeCoBI1.oToB.
|. H mdu pIm. a caLIaHae oT apo}Ir oaa aaBaT BIa.}IpBIx a .o. Caaa o oro
){Bo oao, oTopo oI{Hopappe.I B olIII{o {Bo.
H paa a oao e B p.ra800 - 1500 ' a BIl3-5 . Boo BpTaITo B oaax oy .oTaT|5_20 lc,
a xo.r To oI{ aI. a a paB.yBo-.ot.Boooaa Ha ollaa /oToB. B oa o)T a.a caa
yN{pI{a1pyoT ao jI }T\4pIro B olre opaTrIlIx TrpaTyp.
2. mdu peozo o. a poo aa aaT IvIoeTa
EIa pBI a .o''To BeTTByT o oBrlt pTUIoB
oa, aaBaTI{aao o papyxe' Ha Tor4Ta I{)IIHpaa oaa o)arT o 300-500 ' Bp palra oT.oTaBIoI 8-15 TpooayI.B px aa opay aa.
aa TIIBIiI BBI oa.' rTp pap.I'
BoMo) pa'. B oa Ba ca orlt ca ypyoT
tlo o. Boo To oa oy oTaT 50 /, aro o paoaa - 30 /. B p a ]Bo-oBo oaa
(o xy o .B)r) y opay (pylc a>>,IBJI
N{rp. Copto oBo' To B a. pooBo a ao
oaI{o.oToB' orI B Tax oa aTo aprI.
. Cmd plHl,|' a a paBI}|T
oaa pooaeT o aaa
o papyI]IIl'I .o oTa aopavl B oaa pyl.x op'. p ,
a paB, opa aa paI pyoB' or o BpTao otloT }I oIl oaI.JIorToB. BpI To B Tax
oaax apaBIa BBpx, Ta BlI' Iro x opoT r prra5 /.
B ao oao o)T a.a a6a pyoT ao o,II.

Cp pooTI{oT
H pooBoo oa oTBTppo
5 v. oao To IlI{o p. BI{a. ora B Tp TavIpa o204

JIaa oyT (yoxtT) B oH a' a To II]'a Ho.apooo oao


oT oxpaTc o 10 o.
B p paoa oaa ooT o Tpa.o ao or orx Tp apoB oT )It'yoaa
M}y oao l{apx{IloT poo o, pBI[IaIo poBI{yI lrap)l{lloT' BoaIoT o' oaoT oTopIx
aarao Bra.
oaaa.c L7a Bopoa Tpa oaa, opaoa paa
BoI{IloB o il,{III y., Ta a T BopoI aaTaB pyx
ypax.
PaopIIIr BIIII TapooBoo oaa Moy paBBuTclrro.}IaoBo B aBoT oT Baoop)I(aylo aI' olrpaTa TpaTyp B olr aopoo pa pa rTI{oT' a oTpo pox
r{Bo-.o)r oaa. oIo poI T a mpuaoI u ponl|lll.

(mot),
dmulu
BypaoBIpoIraorrIl1ut
opopucue.
Tnot zpot a o BoI{aloT B paITo apo or Bo
po ooBIl .. poI toT or paMpI raT HaTo opoTI (10-15 /). o.ao BIlyTpaoBI yBooxt.BIoaa ((pI{oT) MI{oo o, rpaa I . Bp
p ToBIx poa caI,Too tlp. ao po ara paToBpo o yrl{. Tpa}pI Boyxa y p Tax poa olo BIo (lt22-25 "C). TI poI Bo Bp oTao oo a oIllx papo.
dmut zpot BoaIoT or poo.,I xoo.}IIpoo
aax opoo yprl{oo Bo.yxa. pol oyT paBBaT I{x
TpaT}pax IT oulyto opoT I{,I. oa a.BTBI{Ipo
oro opoBaI.
pozpuu zpot BoaIoT Too B opax' o .a B oo eoT' o.a p apaB .B Bo.yIIIIxa o.
y yBrIIIoBpTaHITooB.
a zpt oodozo pom, mnoao
pare poI o,pa.IoT
oIouu.
u
pom pomo
pot oodo,r poe BoIlaIoT Ha.oBpxI{oTIo xoo.oo po".
a. poI oro paTI{yTIB.o IIpoa IoT lIIpIry 50-70
. Cp opoT pooI o}I oTaB 30-40 /, oao
o.a o}I oyT aT o opor 100 /. PapIBI M)It,yoTeI{I).Bo-.o).rBIoaa .oTalo 1'0-20 M' oToy oo a
poI oy oaa, II pyIa yTaoBIIIIIxtlop oao, oc.aoI{o oo. poI Ha oo.lx pax yBaIoT opo ooBr
oaBaIoT HoI.
po mol oom ar.a paBIrT}Io p.o. O BoIIaT p o.oo Bax{IlooBo.yxa.Ta yoB aI Bo BoaIoT p BIo P ooB po peroo op. yoaa a o}1po oT Ba MapoBaIrI,a .oBarBo-.ox{.I

20s

Ttto' ao oaaT B Taylo oao BIIao.fl opI{ Tooo)rrBo-oBI oaoB B o yrT ooBaTopToBI PC, a oo.a poI o Too Bpxy' BIo o BIII]
BrpI{ paI oao.
poI a To p yBaIoT oIo oaeBaIoT B I{B1IoBp. o oyoBHoT' To B HoHo Bp (o xoa oa) BpxH
ala){aTTo. B ppalra oao pTa <lapBaT>>
yTaTTpaTypaBpr paI oao oH)aT'To pBo.T
yBIr BpTaoo patlTaTMpaTypI oa, I]oB ey.
ToBo paa14 BoIIoBIoyBo-.o)rBooaoT BTo oTO-o),Bo.
po pom otouu oy Ha.aTB Ioo Bp },To, o,IIao a o IBaIoT a oJIo.I poTa o' a .oBaT}Io'Bo
BTopo ooBI. T poI paT o.a IBaT oIlIHI'
B oT x oxto.oTaToIloooo oo.
o epeo:
pBe
Xov, yaMle/pBee a pl4epa,BaHI
DooBooaHo.
oat aBopy po HaoM| oaHp a oea
epa>. oae,o
y-154 a,o B oe<opoHo
eH Mo). e oep/Ho ay' Bo o B pyapa opoHHo
|e pHaoHa MHa
oao.o er'4
yopHe,a oo yaHoBBtlJ
opoooo 50 /. Beop Kopooa
|ey poo BepaeF'.
ooo eBe]
pH|
| o"=W
V
E B|ooa Ha6aeBepopo25 l' o paopl"tea popye M:
HpaH|
)eH y poo paHo.

E e ye,o opooa a}4oep]popaa 900 / (250 /),


pHa
o a,HaooB H,pa Ha ot"l l.,loHo
oDoHaHo:

yrBpa,o p e o opo' aHoBoo/.orvly


DoHaHo.
poB,KoopoyoB eH|M
Bopo ya BaH e|]
poopry yoo aH-eep6yp.o y-154 p axoe Ha oay BHaHo
o aaaB. aoa oHyHooBH oHy HooBepHo
paaa,
o no pooa
)B.
oaHp
a
oa
aloa
a
,
a HoKoeo HopHoopePM o HaHy<Haey o>>'
a aoaHa oaytoyH|He 6|.

206

pao apopoa aa t o. Ha oo
fleo, B o BpeM B
, a Ha pyol- 2300 ..p a'a | paN4op
pa
8000
6ta
Br'1o
pM -aoaHa ol(y.
'op
oHoH|pH.oop|Mo6l Hapyopat
o o pHe ae
oyxotvt

o)t(.
ee
epa. oaaH B Ba
Moo pe oa
He
o
!-2o/o,
Ha
pMepHo
yBe
a Bae oHa
oea o BeHo oo|'
Bopa ' o, y ap o B p Xo p Ho a M o a o p e H o
oHae,
o, t <pa aMo l>. Taa AeBTHo
2,5
oaB
aoa
ogpo
paHo;eya B oyape ae
at
H
<tlJe
ot>
2,5
oH|
oo
,
70
! Ho a a],4oeB oKoo
a a peMe HeH aMoa.
., et\4
pe' Coyape }4oa,eeo lo opoaHo,
opo, aoe
noryao
aM
ooH
o
o pno"o' a
oHo .4||4yBeyMeHeH

po
}o
pe'
eeBeHo,
opo,
a yMHllJ
H oDo HH aoa' oo o o pHe oHa
HaHo.
p
y
oo a !_2o/o,vo
B pH, aepa. t Bepa B oHe yeBo-oeBoo o-6a.Ka.
(5
a
0 tot).
/
p
a
Hoo
o BoMo)Ho.r paoie" niu
y
Ho' o
Bea
10Yo.
o
Booo
t
o
oMHo
p o ytvlHH
pa
6t
Bpa
o
olt a oo p aKo BHBa
(o e .to).
a o Ba. Ho o o pa yBo-oBoo o6aa.
a'oo JlH op e HXHo aH o p e , H o eH H o o H l 4 o y o y
ao HaT o
po eTHoo po. o pe)t'ly oa H oay
70 o Bepa
poa
oo|
BHo
aa
PM
o

|,
o
5
.*opo.l-oo
oa oHy
}4oe
<<aHa>>.

1000 o opoHa. B o ya oaa


o), o
xo
H|e
(o
Ml

/
10
HXo oo, poo)t\4
B
oH
e epe
oa opo )eH aoa oaB 15 |, aro
.
400
ooo
Bo
5 , yB o BpM poe o opoa
B. oBo a a pt-ta BToHoBHo p oa aoa o
opeH
Bopoe
H
eH' B y6He 1'lIH Mo)e opoo oHaBa
eaHo
oa,
].1o)Ho
06
o
.,ry.
BpaHloo n| ao

paryp.

11.3. oI{II BtoHe oeToB


B oH pooBo IIoT
oo,I.
pa, yoo, o,o aI oaIx a.a],I
AM ooo
o paoa paalloit aa oTpy.I{a
aaoTo
BIolI
tIp,yoTptII{I
JUI
rpI,
o}rITBTBr
apya-o
HoI

II.

peoIo
ollIx IIpqIIITBi,l
ypaB
oJIeToB
BIIIeII

o
yygvIIIp opal{a,
Bo,yIIrIM .B.
II)]'i^]l4
paooB Tpal{l ppaa BIO}III oToB oaIBaT' To B p
pypHoT BoHap}.lII
oBa .TI{OT BII^|CoI{oBIro po
TaoBIIo
poIrTB.
(Ir p'oIo T}II
y[Ioo
pap
apHI
Ta), To B aN4OJITIoy o,BrpaT
p a'p yBr p a p o B o o T o eT a a o J I T o B B r po T peyT oT oToB paoooeBo
oT Too BeIIBae. lao
oII68 dI B TaTo oIl Topoo o
peaToB' To p,yaTpBaT ooBI pyoBo. oy}ITa,
MTpy rTlr}'ro p aoy.

201

ar B oT oJDI{ BaTJI}Io r.T a oToI{ aopI yJI9B,IM oa. oT oxo. o pooo ,TJIo 1 cplIx JIBBI oa,oB' oallp BoyII{oo y}Ia,oJI orT BooIIoT
prIrII a oxo. oI{I' ppg.6DI(I{IZUIoTa ptUIT ooTBTTByIr

opaa
o
I{Ilo oaoBa
JI
}.IIpaBIIJIBoyI]IIrI.BI]DI{9.
ox {eBI (,t) lB
oT
oapy<
B a ByzlIloo
o, papIIIarT oo

pooBIM.
Bo-,o'rBI oao, pIa
ooil yzraIII oaa
BooxGIo

Id( a yaIl r ee 10 l.
oaa BII IuD(.
IIo,
Ira a,ao BI6T' papIIIaT yarr orT
p BIoTa
oa.oB'
o oaM OJIT papIIIaT Too ., BHr oIrI
oea a po ToT yTBIII pIUITTBM /oD{GIa
e oaI{o BIoTI oTa (200 a paBIIo xoTo rToTIo
600 opo o). Pao oT BIoTI IIoTa o paII aa I{ .orHo I p To tI 200 . B ,la oa a oaa paTotI oT Bpe paHIII{I oaa loo orTa oDlo r 500 .
E a aorTr opoa P, To a)y pap[IaT ooT
15 o
oaa a aIIrvI II rrr
oI ).!IBI {Bo-o).BIr
oaoT oTrHI
paI 3aBT. pa poay
}'y palla aBpaTo
.
T'
B
o
pooBII\{ oaa oo
.
N{I{
50
o a pa opoo P
B {a, oa pTo BrT oaa B yoB,I Itoo
ax{ .oI{ opolo p.TaBT TII yyIlIH TIII apoIB,IL)

ax xapaTpBC.
Bxp' To Ta Bxp
oTa}oapyaTBpTurIIIe

aoT,oI{oo. Topoo' aBp, BaIIIII IBo-oo oaoIo' or ox IIa aTo H 30 o rx oBI paH.
p o B oHr poo.Tro Tar o)I oytIITBT
pI oaoT oTa a {a BTp IIIM .Bo BTpa' Tpr pap,a' o py BI{. or pe
Bex BI{ epI oao' oTopI o pII'{T a)I(' tlpyoTptII oaI B IaTaBtI o poBoTBy oToB Pyoo
o rTo yaTa Bo,yII{oocy.a .aoo Ta.
o epeo:
BaeleMo aoy epHyea: p o6e yeooBooo6aa paoHeo eo ooo p|o ByaHoyopeH
_
oHo6tpao 10 , a o aoeHoyoaopy 15 . oey p opeH
paoHo p6opyo pao60?otae3e Be epo..Qoo
o6toaop apoay-oB|oy aBllHe pepaHl
oao,oo oaHoa ao. paHyoaoye paepeHa
opaeo oopoooaoo
o6ea o6aHooo(a, paooaoHHoo
p opeeoH|oaa oo
ao pal.CeoaHo,
a p- e Ha.ooy p
PC paHaBea aB|tlJa'
ea ot
MpHoH|ooB oMoPC o6aa oa|a
p
ope
oaa

yeo-oe|e
Ha Mol. Bo ooy o6ea
Ha oepaoH,1'lp ByapaoHo H oolooKaopaH)DHo
Ho opepoB.
208

11.4. oBaIIe ar P ao poIro


ooBIx oaoB
Pa.oooI aro olo poBo.T o a
paTo o 30_40 M oT paoo) P, a oe a paTo11o 300 . B x oa o ooo TpyypI BpaI{oo opoTaHoo paoxa aTBeI{o opT opa oa p IIeoTopI OTBI xapaTrpT.
oapylHI p pa.ooaoIa. oaa B aBoT
oT oylBy e oor o.pa.Jla Tp pyI.
|. pdoonte ot u zpoo o pdo. oaa, B TopI
opaye p.apo 0,5 o, pI{ToI{IBIaTpaol.
BIoTa yo oTpIoTaB 3_4 , To arp opayo paa
olo MIIIII1,6-1,8 ' Tao a TaeT p aH, tI oTa o
oBepo. oaa, oTopI opay ooI pa, IraIBaIoT
zpdootJ|4u' r IryBa opMa paoo)t(a BIoTe |,5-2'0 ' To a oaa TaoBT pa.ooaIrI'Ta a pa oIo .oaT
o oBpxHoT' oaHI poI{aI o paoBIx oBIx oaoB I{aTHo oaloT py o pya. o oyloT a
paT opI{ xapaTep oa.ro.
2. poooat o u ut doud zpoo. pooar oaa oTo }rBo-.o)I(eBI
oaa B p.pooo,pooo oepoo ax. Paoxo l{yTpaoIx yBo-oeBIx oao poeBa oro |,0-2,5 u, a poarx ao - 3-6 v. apapa ooo
pa,oxa {Bo..o)I(Ix oaoB aJIIoa B oro po
poTfiI{o ( 13-15 B yIvIpIrI{IIIIpoa o 16_18 M B Tpoe), oTopa ao ra oropoTzrIxpipoB pa.oa.
. Hzpooo||IlomuIreo u uIru'B ooo To MoI
{BI }{Bo-o)BIaa, oTopI B po paBT.oTa
cTavllpooBoo oaa, o MoyT opoBoT TeBI Boo .B ,p aBToyToT o.
oo oaoB, BIaBIIIa ao-o po pMI{'1\{ooop.rT o y paoxa eo BIOT' oy TaTr aI' a
poo oaoB, po |paa oIIoBIBaT a ooBaIl pI{a pIl,I T B o paoxa oao. aaop.
oT poHoa o)I{rT oea o l o 12 v, oao a{III pyTaTI
orla p po pooa o 3 .r'
1 1.5. a

aoeToB

Copr opoTlrIr aoeTIp oTe oaa oTI p


B oa oaoB (ooo B a) oBp}HIopa)IrIoTp papa' pe oBTBl opl oao IIop.TBI{o
B
pao oparl( r oTaI.Copro oI{o' o aoepa oa.aTTpr oa. a a axo B Bo.yI' a orpoBaHo ar, aTI oa.oB, IqpaI a p. eIT
Tpap, o aoTIB oeT epy. pa aMo-

209

ToB ooy Tpr a oa, oa.oB,a T xapaTpTa aMoo aoTa p oTa.


p BoBa oaoB oaoB BaI aoBI oTo (a' pTar), opo' paepa, oI{Tpae e oMa' p ap'o aTr apffroT Tpoo o B
opTIIoT oaoB. .{ pa a yTBI{I Ta apaTpT aoTa' a oooT oTpy) aTepaI opITJI'T
opae apaTpI TaT TraT. P oTa aoTa
opaol
p)o
oTa'
,BaTr

opoT
BIoTo
T
yMI ToIIBo.
epa aoTa - o)IrI l{roopor po' Ta a B oT aorT ooBpt{opopTaT Tplap Tpe ro. Bp|IlaTpoo ap,a Ha aoTe aBT oT oTolI,I TooB' ap)alox papalol aoT.
oB aBIIIopao B pryTaTr Bao,Tpd,,u ia'oo'"
B aT oaoB oa.oB oBrpHoT aoTa Baoei7cTBacT ropeBIIIo ToBa aTpao BIxoIlo r.BaTr. oao oe.Ir pHo ao pI{paIoT, Ta a p opaIlo paoT
IUII.
.BaTr(ou oIIo opal{ ToBa) BoIIaIo To pa
Ha pa aoTa ylTBttor BIIg oaIBaT poTpyl{ypa oo. Happ, oJIIlIBo.oT ao, oIe o.
a pTztoB' a II }o Bo.I'Tr r Tp To, apaloIII ao. y ooo oaI Molo-{BI' {eBo-.o'BI
oTI oo-o)It'BIoaa. p TJI6II9T B Ioo-oTIx
pTo-oTI oaax Tae o}T poo caJITpa aoTa. orrea Tpa aoeToB aIo,rT oII{o B oaa
oo BpaJIIIo tIpoTfitIHoT.
Papd (cmu pd npomu .futom)pooT a T
poBo.oT op BIJIOHIXaoB' pIBa aT oaa oa.oB
oBepoT aoTa opooo papa. Paa B opoT apapapa
aoeTa oyoaT BI{y Tpoo apa' oTaBIro IIa aoT o o oa.
aMoT TakIB Boyto oaoT. C oo
piapa
ap (poBopyT) pap o B aMoTpei'
B
oTr
TopoIlI,
poo o ( aoap}I(roT
o.a
Tr
){a'
T .a)B
pyo TopoIII'
aIIpDI{IroT.
poBo
Ilr
a) B Bo.yxe r
oTa
pa }y
pooT
o)T
ToBo
aorTa
o oa p apaBr
o Bl\{
aa
ToBIIoo
opoBo
aI]paBoHI TorTo oTpITo
Ta
aorToB
o
I{a
oToy
BITaIoI oT.a oTBM.
pyMoTpIIa Ta aBToaToo aJI roa, a TxI{ aoTa o o apyBalla ToI{y B pBylo op. oa 'lI\{Ta6JIT.Ta (e poMI o.TpaITB9I{IaoTI p .oapaBr
B Bo,y.
o epeo:
Gloa(o o o.
3paHa oBepHo
poaoBpoo
oIeaa o ap apa,py - pap)a)o aoaepex<H
210

e' oB 6a o oo py6 oryaoa' a o peM


py_ e. B aae peye }8H,ooBo|oa 6a
oeneo ' C
erpeoea po(oo ) l'1o.o p
"epBoA oBeH
ap }la ao'a pv|p- o yMHJe
(ea).B o 6y ope, op oraHera aoeeo oa.
ee oo epoooo.epa aoa _ yoo,
oaHoeee, o }DHopoHopo.
oo a oe oyr - oy.
epHoe oale aBaBeoo|p
iqB py|:oaH|e
eH o|eoH|eBeH.B opyy,Ha Ha BrF,'eyeB1o epa, epaBoyllJ|x
yo opHooey
o6oy.B
peHle
eH o <eeo l>>
Ha a}4oe oal
oeo.B oepe o H oop l].lrHeo
60, e o poa,
rya ooo.Mt pBepopelo|BeH|4
_
aoeaoale, Ho e6o BHtaH
yMB.1.
oee' I1oa|a}o Ho (onot o)
paoy|
yo aep
poB Boy.p aae ay Poc e yeoeapyna/oopaH]aa
eoHMe eotl' Maepa eoa o pye
o
oo. Eo aa'.oBo
aoeyB|Bo|.
B 50o/oy"e no.e Ho o)Hoo6KoHa. 40% ollyaBaopt
ooe )D(a oo |^.4apar
o oee |0o/ooHa e y.
. Ba oBop, o 6oe op|epoo p C'a|4v|i
epBa- o e Moe
6t, opa _ B o o-o e, pe- oo, o e poo. Ha a,
o <<B
o1o-o e)>,
Bo o _ y >t<.t
epaar"looHo.
11.6. popl BeppaTopoI poo
po paa
I1.6.1. ocol tmodt npo?o 2po3
pozo zpo emo,tmuut. poo po MTooM aTI _ o, oa, al poo calil oyl eTo poIloa. o
ar TpaTypo-BoBoo oH/poBa'I a yp po IIo opaaIBaT
apooy apaM a oopo TpoT lipBylo oTo. a eo
(o o I oBop pa), pBa oo oztIBa'a opoar
o Boyxa (oa vaa) r,IT Bo TMpaT}py p IrH
BIOI. o Bx ocpoeil, a apoo
apae oaIBaT' To ypoBII oB BIIIIypoB oa a 4,5 o,
o o
paoy .yrT o.a poI' a .JIyTa y)o poI{opoBT
poy aM.
6 l pyIIvlo o o.
o epeo:
opoea apooe.. Bo-plx,6ye a,o oepoxo|e
o apaelyeee.
Bo.opt,o |Topooa po a|<ool,l|>ooy,
ooopapatepl
oHaeopoaoalBoya,o|4poaoooea.
B-pe,papyt]J
pooe
B po eppopo, yB|/ oy, o oH(2003.) o apopoMo 6aoyo|{poB
poo)eoo 300 o 500 , a o 6o. Bo
pXooy ope apaBeHeBoy|
oooB'a ooMe p. paoo

ory
6oe
oxo
opeH
apepo
o6oo1i
u',.6; +;
yo6o e'oHo,Heopyoo oaea'

211

poato zpo tto 'modv H.B. do. ! pooa po' BI{BI


oaoB .py , BaI{I paBT oo yvo }{Boox< oao, H.B. e.Ba p.o)a o aIIIlI yTpHHro o.poBa apI aTlBaT apaTpI oB' o oTopI op.JUIT Boo}ItoT BoHoBI{ x III HI oHBTBlx e. HaoB T apaTpI:
1. CyaprrI ulrr TpaT}pI To poI a ypoBI{,Ix 850, 700 500
a (xD, oC). o apaT oBHo yIITIBaT BIIII BoBI{,I xapaTp> 25 oC,
yT Boo)I( opaoa oaoT B o 850-500 a. cllZD
.at paTI I{ poBoT' Ta a p oo yxoT Bo.yxa B
rrx< ooB oopl
oB,I pBo paoaI yLIBooC'
o pa.rTBaT opo apaTp.
oBI oao. 2D <25
2. [e
aT).pI To poI y r a p pa po Bp a oT aaoo paBT oIlB (D", .C). Bclt Do
> 20 ", To }poB olra paoox{ a BIT o 2,5 , .oBaTHo' oa. yy.oTaT oBpxoT l' ar paTI I{
poBoT. p ao ror ypoBIUI oIIIIa' a .oBao' BIOT
|palrI ao, a o. o yt 1\{yIIT oI{oTIo ap.r. ypoBH oHrl{a paooxt l 2 .JUI BOIIHOB,I oI{B yTB1o aop,ITI{I yoB;I' To B oI\{ }rar ryT
op.T B OTZUII{IapaTpI.
3. Toa oI{BTBI{o-yovBoo
aTa

Too o yaTBoByT

o (HC)

(A11*n", a).

aa

oB

.o oIx BIT. ol
Toa H, orrr BoTHo opaoaI yBo-.oo oaoT' or BpoTIIo paBT pooo ToT (y. aT' To opJUIT ToIry H o apooo
apaM BI r

par).
4. po o.a (H*o,o, ). po o}Ia apaTpyT
p. ooI{ BIoTIr lpaIII {eBo-.o}o oao. op.eeypoBIUIoa TaIo poBoT I]o Dpooo.apaN{.
5. po oB (l1*o"", ). poe oHB oBoToprT pI{ oo)Ittlr BpIIIIr yBo-o.BI oao. Copro oBo' To r BII ToT ).poB, o olIII ,oI{Ir <pool>>
oaa.
6. Tepaa Boya Ha )oB oI{BrI{(4o"", "C). craoBo' To
l Ta TrpaTypa, or BpoTIJIBII poI.
7. pe BI{a oTJIoI{IlTpaTypl a po oToII (Z) o
TpaTypIa pBo paa (). o oTJIoHe(A7) pT
p

(11.1)
re T' Z_ pTypa a po oTo po paa, ooTBTTBIIo'a ).poBlt' paTIx 100 a, n- co I orB Too o
100 a, aaoT }poBII ol{ea o }?oBI{ oB.
212

Copluo oBo' To ot Al e oe TeI{yovBoT Bo.yxa'a e.oBaTo'T HTtlBe o)eT paBBaT OI{BI,I.


8. Cp pTaItaooT oBTBIx oaoB (^l1-o, ). a
Bra op.eTa paoT BI0T }poBH oI{B ypoB oa. orr Ta Ba, T o poI{o BotlIloBIl oItBTB}IIe, ore x TrB}lo.
o paTa paTa yirHllIx Bo apaeTpoB oB B ooT.
BTB a. l 1.i H.B. a pe,aaeToBaT BoooT BooBeI{ oBTIIr .
Tul l l
otIBTBtII
APAMTPI otIB ooTBTBIol
BIII1I (o H.B. eo)

2D
>2 5

Do

H*u"

> 20

<25
<20

< 16

<20

< 14

FI

- . o l l

*ou'

alf* o

nou"

ol

BJIe

H oa

>10 -l,5
>20 - l ,5

>6

<-2

>4

>5

>3

>8

>3
>3

> 6,5

>

> '7 5

< 14

>0

<1 6

- 10

>60100

-1 6

- 10

-l

o
o
o
o

l,5
1'0

>8

o -23
o_l0
<-2
<_2

l,5
l,0

>8

<_2

-4,5

CI r ot

> 5

I ox pol
I o' a poa
CI l o
ooo

po o To H.B. Bo oopaIaoT poIloa HaJIk7kI


TaBT80Yo, a x oTyTB- 89Yo'
eo H.B. eBo papaoa' a IloTopI py' a oI{oBr To.aat. fla I paoTp py To.I,B ooB oopI Ta
}T To aTI.
pozo zpo no mod u. eo JI poIloa po oyT oI}IoB oa py Toa.e (CA) yaoBl pIIa oyTB pol. B aoN{-o pao o aIII )rIpeIIo o1IpoBa}I BIoIUITxoT r o epe}IllIx I{)e paoB,
o B To pao poa e o)aT:
1) a roo ypoB}I B o 850_700 a T TpaTypI To poI
paB}IJI olII 13 .C;
2) yla ToB TepaypI o poI I{a ypoB 700 600 a
oI JI paBIIa 28 ";
3) aa a pax apuo oopa aBrJI yoo Boyxa a
ypoBx 850 700 a;
4) pal pall TrpaTypI B o 850-500 a pe r,t
III0,5 oCll00 ;
oC) paoar H)I(BIoTI 3600 .
5) ypo apa (T -- _|2
B o )Ia paBBalox oaoB oy BIa.aTToo aI eBIeoa.
r BIoJIHTrvIo,}Ipa
xt o .aIypHo oH.poBaHJI
oTyB poI, o B To pao poy .y yirIBaT B poIro ooI.

21

Bpoo Bot{oBJIpo o r o(o oplr ool) paa'


pTaBI{oo
Ha p. 1 l.1.

(.T6lfi,+(.),oo
P. l l.l. papooapoo oy.
Ha o pa o opolrTao o oTJIa.IBaTya o
.1
To poI a ypoBJI
60 Ia, a o Bp:r}Ioo - pzro paTyp IIa ypox 850 500 a. B IIoa.paa pa.ra.BypBINIHa p oac pao BpoTIIoTIo poI. po paol pao
ac' clai' oaall a py Tpa.
o epeo:
e, pap6alo o, peoa<<xpe
e>.fleo B oM/ o
poe,ooMytvlopoo6ye <paoa>
poa_ HepBHeo
y.
poHopoa
He Ha,a oyrBpot'o ppHoo )e aoe,
6t to-o Ha Be peoop:|pao oepeaoo,Ipao oeaoo eHa Hy. flpyoe eo, e,.l
e aoo6...opa|Beo
Be peoop:H |po oepeeaoo6, He Blpao oepeeaopaa o eHe.}o, deo, llJfa/ a a
o...3 opa|Baeo
pay}4H
y|
l eo|oeH opaB|Baeo
apa|.
B e olo|ll
oo peHoea6e:oope,oaya,Ha pep
Ha apMep|
oeo H.B. 6eeo.oay,8 B|a 1'4Hoo
oo'
o ]vteo
e <ap>oaH.B. eoa opleoe.
poeo zto o t'lmod Bmz. o. Baa oIIoBa a paT o
aI yTpI{IrooII.poBaJIaparTpa , oopl oIIprTo py:
:2Tg5g _ Zsoo- Dso- Do,

0|.2)

Z _ TepaTypa; D - TepaTypI To poI I{a ooTBTTBy ypoB.


pyTaT paa oa)T' o < 20, o po o),aT .y' 20 < 1 25, o yT o)aT opoBaHIpoI' ec 25 < <
30, o B poo .yT yaIBaT oTtIIpoI' y a a >
30 - pol oBMTo.
eo Baa.aT opo peyTaTIp poIlo po o ytlTy'
o oa..oIo tloT )po' JIyIIB.aIo.poBaa.N|opI, o TppTop (oI oTBIlo), po apy o
oa . [ Too aaa paTIBa)T HaHoT }Ia pTy a214

eH ff, a ae IIpoBoT oHp T .Il' HaI7ao aH,l


20. a oa aMzUI}lI
Too oTa pI]oTo
oToy a 12 B To pao, .oT oa oa(T' yT).aIBpot. [aI To.o{ oTaToo tl]oo papoTpaH o ppTo.
p Pocc. a oa , oopao yIoT JUIoo
).HTa.

o epeo:
pyo B eeopooeo
parypo|apaHeo opoy,aa
paPlyopoaH|l
poa oeH|Pr
po'oo oo poapo He a o6He.opoarc
po1l-o ae pol,oa poy
yale(a) o 6xat a oeHbepol_ o a po|/oa poyae oHa |pe
6x
a.
oa B paaIlI I{aI{ oea BBoT opaBa Ila
pBy pIoap. By opa l\{o)oBT a. II.2.
.l'tlt
I] 2

,R,

BIIA OIIPAB tIA PI,IBII PIII oAP


> 1000
< 250
I000-500
500-250

Zn

1 ,0

Zn

- 1 ,0

1,4
- l11

2,0
-)o

Ha, To op.oop.paapBt{Iap Ba' ).Ba)al

a'

BT.

CoprBy rTo Baa, H.. aB pr.o)r oJIoBa II


po}Ioa po apap l, oopI o yIBa papee Ba)o.
T o BIoa.o H.. aY
: Tso- Tsoo- (Dso+ D)g* D6gn+Dsoo).

( 11 . 3 )

ooal opy (l 1.3) o pyr. r,Io paTa oyaT' o 2 0, o poor yT yaIBaTpoy.


oozo zDo o lmod vcm. poo po IIo o.y aya ooBa
Ira opIl paoT (^I") )y TpaTypo yoo cape (T)
TpaTypo a ypo 500 a (Goo). a paoT ope.JUIT
o opy
T: Tu _ Tsoo.

(11.4)

oa B oyIlor a}IAZo. opaB: opaBy a pBy


oap (a o Baa) opaBy Ha oo"WI paxooT oap (opaa paBa +loC xoo ap -l" p x paoo).
Caa t a Zu, operT o pa, p.TaBIroya p.
||.2, oc oopoo BT Tpaypa Bo.yxa a ypoB 850 a pe. TpaTypITo poI I{aypoBlrx 850, 700 500 a.
poI .yTyaIBaTB poo B Tx ).tlax' o.a Tu> 0'
Ha poo aT Po opaIBaoTaIIpo o eTo.y
aya oa 82o,a oT}B-9|Yo,

215

n
t5

Pc 1|.2.paor
pypI
llyBoo
ap
.!. PIoB p.ox{op.JUITBoo)ItIloToI{o po o Tp aparTpa'
oopI paBHeo o ope.T IIo apooo
apa. T apapa
BIT: BIoTa BpIII}IyeBo-.oo oao (l1"),
au eepaTypI Bop(a a o BIT (f,,) o:a o oaa,
o px oa.,,,
oopo aro.aro oTpaTI Tpaypl (A.
"

lfu'**
|

.l0

-r

- J0

I -'o

P. l l.3 pa/T
ooa
po(oeoy
.{. Proa).
a.aT aopI oT yoB,
oopl PIIIeTOBoT}loT aIIe poal pa.oB' ooeo
xooI po"'o",

216

oa B BepIIII{I BoI, HTpuIHo ac oooo paBToo


JIoa' opoT To OJII' oxa ro ope oa' a
a ao|patlTo
o .BIl a po ap o>a oa
oo.a }Ia BIoTax' To B T yl{a yT yaIBaT poy.
BooloT

BotloBH

po op.T pay'

pTaB-

o y a p . 1l . 3.
Ha o pae o opoTao o oTJIaIBaT
TpaTypaBoa (T"), a o pTao - Ba (A. ooa pao Ir pTaBeTHa py,o' a opaB.IBaroTpooa oTaBT ooo
90o.
po p}IHIx BIIIe To.oBpoI{oa po' yrTByrT (Bo o)eTBo))paIII Mro.oB To, oTopI oT poaI
xapaTp' oToy I I{r y x paaTpBaT.
o epeo:
oa potoa, oa o pooy o|Hl
ox e
{te. .eHo,
o opoHoo paaapooeo
paeoyao,o aopHa Be ypoBHHep yovoropaeI.|at
t
oBaeHo,
H yo pBoHBe.A poa . B v e eo?
y p a
fleo o, o p eoooo}4(a
opoeHX apa|po|l oHo.oao ,t pByooHapo
e o e,a o epxpa|poaooH|,o oe oy'lHyoo, a JIeBet
- pol. ooy Hoaeeoo6pao6o HPtaeHooo aHayapooopat,o06oB e yax,oa H
oeypeHB o/o pot 6ye'
o p Hypl4aoBl
poaoaeBeae,o oeHoyeooeBooao epeapo ooa,o pHe6l e o.A
ve eo? oate, epeo
oyao6oBao-o<<oopoey6a>.ooyp ooe oy,.. a o Haepeoopo
aBoooo' a oBepo_ Hxo.o,o Booo pBo oopaoao6aorla Ho_ ee paa.
Bo oaeaH,o o6ao <B)epo Bepa>.Ha ao ee o
H eHeoaa, a po o HaBepoopol,peH oBepo
aoepoHeo6aao ooy,o Bpy.
11.6.2. Memodt npozl|ol zpd
H y<l oopT oo o To' o pa. BeTcoaI B ooI o y,o poopoa. opaoBa pa.oBIoao orTBe ).a a.aTc Ha aTBIIIX' to pI\4eaI.D(aopI
poax (a Ix poax o Ia po), pe - p BypaoBIx
pora. Brae pa.a a. pa ppTop aI Beo oTaeT B o p o.a B .BHIaI Too a poax' o }Ia o Hor ap.rx or B TI opax JIo}IoB. poe opaoaIIJI pa.a cBae.co oaa xooa p pop' B opIx
paoa p aopTtlIx oTx yoB'Ix a o BIa.aTB
ro Bpr yo.
{ pooa paa papa Pa y rJI oyT p pao.
apat, ooI .Bxo.a B pa' paTIBaIoTo po}IoT pBI paa oo aopI' oTpoIIIa Bp-

21'r

M,I aa,TOOpaBT olIBI4k|IIa orT poo.rH poTa pr }TITI]poIroa.


Ha pa .oTaToo IIIpoo papoTpaH o{JI oIIlII
pa .[. Poa' oopr oBoT Too poIropoBaTpoy' Ho
p.
aaT e t{THa.aT
o .aI opa ) c ppB aa ooTo opy)ro
| !2", o paT Ba .yTo}.aTBI{BS.o
Bo.ya
poy. ^T:
llloop poI{.yT op. ppBa oaa TpoT
pBylo TpaT oT ypoBIUI850 a.
o,a paTa po.a'cLI poa o.aTa oo.a a o poI{T10"C oHo poI{T'a paItoTTrepaTyp Bo.}II{l
' To poa yeT oao. p o, Trpa.pa xoo.o Bo.yIo aI ooJlo 10 oC o' To T o).aTJIBB .o. poy.
TpaTypaxooo oyto aI ooo 2o o, To .yT oaT o, pa. tllBaTor yI{ BTpa o 20-25 / o.
o epeo:
oa oHo Ha6aBeHooe Ha ye.Ta, apep/BeH|
oa p laAap...oM6. Haooy e H. poo t
cJlYaI
opoaapHa'o e pBo oy,
Bp B oe o ypoH,Ha oopo1vl
Ha paoHKo
.oaa> }4oap1'1
o a pHa<teaa
HepHo'
oe
aoe
BeH
Ho.
Mop
oMpoBp
aopyo o, o BpeaB
3aoteepaKa|Ba
ee oo <.yo>>.
paaBaMy pa.
pa>.oao 06 o11'4|
oee<<opoaHo

21.8

aa|2
BIJI1,LB,
PoToPoo
oB
CoCToI vI CATAIO APoPooB

12.l. IuTex aI p IaII'


Toe oo,oBa popo}toB
Ia, TpoTTo, oopyoBa apopooB poBoT }^ITo B apo, oopI y o.oaT a apo.po. App
TpoT a.To BpM' a o po.yaTa. Ha r paoI' TpoTo, op.oBa yaTa apo.poaaTpa.
BaT aTtIIp.TBa.ooy p pIIIHBopoa o To, . a
TpoT apo.po' oao yIBaT BooxtoTo ooBa B
paHIapo.o-xoIx poeTa poTax oopooo a.
Bo o.r p. I{aao TpoTTBa apo.poapBapTI r
yro a o aopoB oaIBa oBpIIII{oTTBIiI
oI.
p 1aH'.tporTTB oopy.oalr apo.pooB ap.y py o.Byto aopa aapBaT TopoJIo (av) oBlI.
pa Bo Ba ){TIBaT
ootl p Tax aoee aI Topoox BI{ aopl{IxB, a Trpaypa Bo.yxa' opo .a' BTp' oalo, oa' B.oT'
oor p. Hoo.oT yTa prIx e oyoa T'
To poe Hepo oa T B oy pBoT I{ oToIl Too o o.Ixy apo.poy.
o, BoIo o., o) aTo apy.IrT yoB yaav apopoa. Bo.e oo.Ix y I{a apo.po oo olyI\{o poBJUITa oBIx apo.poax' B ToM )I' .oBI a .poa.
po.poa. eeopoo yoB - pIIIa aop pooTHoT yaTaoI{oo po.a T apo.pooB.
p papaoT HpaJIIlooaa apo.poa olo oT ao
aolIrIxTopoox yo BTa oa aMoToB aao oBTopo(mooI))' oo)tl pay aBaB T paooxtll,l apo.po,{a.
B pyro op/)lTIBaooT (rr,rav) oI MTopoo B. oyTBJUIeTy ooBa'I zUIoppaoatrIx o e MTo Troo. HooI .aI'xapaTpylo ao yrBI
rTopoot{x ' o/aloT ooTBrTTByIoIxIrIaTepaBooB. flao pTaI{eo TopoooM p) poe ap.
,poa aeT aBaoo-Jlao oIIa (pa). T III]UI
oo.IytITIBaIoTB po yaTa apo.poaa ooBa aI,rvoo oaoo oTo,I oo.I. ,r o/IaT Topooex opaoB' oar paory aIroo apoopTa.

2t9

|2.2. B It Irpoloooe a oo a o Toe


yaa apoooB TTBIItllll,I yTBIM
opIlvt
yaaoI{o oTo apopooB paIMopITMBTooa.oIoo (B)' py)HI .opo) (P ToII aooB
(C) op oo ppo.llIx TxIIoo co.
oTIloT o-pa aopI, BoBpeeoT pypoT
poax MpopJITo p)aIo eo.o poo opo B, P C, o oro pyoo o aoTa TI\{oBpoTNL o oIlIo a.Ia pe.TB xaaI4uIexl{oo oylBa op)a apo/poo. HaoIII
BI4H, a
yaTaoHo
apopooB
oo
oaIBaT
poTopoo yoB.
Bo Tx IIa apopoI eTrTBeI yBI{lM
opIT oaoBo: orrr aBoT pooT opo
B' P C o poeTeopoox aopo' l I{eTo B,I}I.
Taa aBlvIoT xapaTptla .pyToBI oBIx apo.pooB. ya.
Taooe oToIl apopooB yTBeI opIT xoT B Mru ' IIo Ta, a.cTo p.a poTeopoox aopo. o
oo T ootlI B}IJI'oopI o rT o
aoeTa o eo ooo, P T.,., o oprrIo Bp,I'
o.oBaTIIoT' o opa pao o o..p(aIB paov
oTo a roo o oeIIIxy.
aaoo II]IyeT' To yaTaoo oTo u}po.pooB
aBcT B oI{oBo oT pooT oBpxoT THoo OJUI y(oo o o oBpoT. Paop aBoT Tx xapapT
eToo o oT .poeTopoox aopo. p To aeT' To
poHoT oepo pyIIoIx (>Ix) ol apo.poN{oB(o) op.eeT poI{oTIo yoToo pyIITa (a) G.}loo ooa. Ba o xapapy oooT pyI{oBIx (I, orx) B, P.{
C lplBaT kIHaM TaT apy p oyTo oeo (yI oe), oaro opao py' BrT oay aoTa.
po.ro pyTa I{a apo.po aBT oT roox, .poox' pol\,ITopoo oTopI pyx aopo. oo
ar oa pyTa, ro Ba)oT'oTIloT' I!{pa.waTe
yoI{. p poux paBIrIx yoB aor BI{ I{a poIIoT
pyIrToBI oBpxIIoT oara BaI{oT |pyTa' o oTo rpaTypa. apepI Teo BaI y oo B oBoyIlo IlaIBa oTopoo oaaT yaTaooo oToI{
pyIrToBIx apopooB.
po.ro opxoT pyToBIx apopoo oro rT o.oo o.,
ooTBTyI tl B Teelt oa BartlocT oToT pFITa.
Ta, p oo)l(TIx TepaTypa pyTa oBIllII{o Bao opoBo)IqaeTyMHIxH oToT ) a .B' - o)e poIIoT.
220

B xoI po o.a p opaI TepaTypax pyTa o


poHoT Ta oTaeT ooo: ol{a rTc B ooTBTTB oea Ba)oT popalo o. poo poo o
ot, BIIIIo Ba}GIoTpr aao porpa}I.
ool oaaTJI poxo.oT aoToB Ha pyHToBI apopo B
l,I rpo. oa - nlmuo|razu oI])a B oo.HIpo mou 'Mpozo o. oaaT aBcTo poI{oT
|PTa, oyTBI ooo aoo aI. oro ya o H pBIIIIae 4-5 ' oJIlapoo o p}'Ta }I.oI{aI r 15-20 .
yaaoHo oTo peHI apo.pooB (or) aBT oT
pot{oT IIa oTo}I,I o oBpxo. povoT .a' B BoIo op.'
BJIeTcoro y p.a xapapT .oo opoBa (TOJIII
.a' o TpaTypI oHo), ooo a (pI, ,r, opo.Tee}{ p.) Ilea Ha y (lol' IIJIoT,TpaTypI paB}Iop}IoT uUIa)' p po paBlx yoBJI poI{oT poo (opoo)
.aB |,2_|,5 paa Ie poHoT Mopoo oeoo a. Ho.I{aoBa
yaTaozul ToIla IIa. aoTo Ha o aX I Ha I)I(x.Toa
a aMoToB oI IIac.oDlIraI ppo B 1,3-1,5 paa
or, JUIaoToB a I}ax.
aaoo BIIII cTa:oB.Icotl,{TIIII\{'
ao Ba)or BIl oaIBaI porTropoo aopr }Ia oTo yaTa apo.poIvIoB TTBHIopI. aopl o.,p""-,oi
po po.o)TIloTyaTaol{Ix poo pyToBI apo.pooB.
o epeo:
E o Hpea o v1op He peHHaa.Copypoa
ee roHo
pMepHoJleyPlopao. B pao apopoa pyo|Ivl
nopleB|a
o.eo oe apopolvla<po>>.
Tpe6yoTH opo: ep aoe
Bpea o apopolloyroooot?
}a poapapoo. taxoao e p y <oaapopoMa>:paB oBy,rlo pe'epte
B oe oaop 6o HeHBHo
B poeIlooHotlJe
H|pl.,tpHo
ooHH|e,
a BpeapeHoaoao6ye aeo Meparyp| aHoBoyxa opoep.E 14|
paHopoHopyeoo
oaoB' o Hey ot4o)o
<paaH>
apopo,o, paHopol{opoBa eMparypy,BaHo eep, |o)eopeA,ep o peMapopo1t4
y o poH ya.B ppe o aa HepHo
opeHpooMopyoBlopo ee o 6eopo'Peeeo
aAaB aotaHo e pooeHHoaeH'
opo6y,yae e, p ry aay' a p He
o6ea,Ho B|aeo Hpy Hy)yp6ory.
B ao r T poropoore
oB,l B,IT
a oToI{ yaTaIo apo.poo yBeIlI opI. paa,
aaT' To apo.poI yTBI{I opIT oBplIIo aBT oT
poTopoox yo .
p Bo' p poTpoBa oTTB BTo oot y}lo To lpa .,IIr o apaBH eTa oa., I{o paTaT p.yoTpT Ta aIBayto TooByr aaar' .ror p

221

o orTB BlaBIxoaoB Io x THBoT B oaa <xo>. Ha Iry ooy yTBHI opIe' TTBHH'
BT oo.' pIu o B a o o)T t ao o
JIHI, a opoo yaat pytlT.
p roo oplT apopoM o BlIa&II'
ea B, Pfl MC
yxo TT. o ) p yTBo opIT BTtlo-oaoo
ooI oa arB oT oT a aTHoIt oa, pBMIx ocT pyoo B. Hy a p peaITpaTyp BIo TpaTypIpBoT yxyIIII aTBa o y oIItlITa a o oo oxo.oT cTpoT ooy ,oTaTo}Iooro .tII.Ha opt apo.po aB.oa r ooo 3000 ' a To or. 1"r' To ooHI p oBpIrI{oo ooI ToT ppo 20 000$, o TaoBT oTIB aylo ((oy> oo Tao TpoTo.o oTBo pa oBopT o To'
vo pa IaTrx pao p poTTB z}po.poay)o
o,o.To po paoTHo {IBaT B Boo)l(I arTI o
yaTa, B To |4ce .poopooe II}B pao apopoa.
12.3. B MTopooe y
a BoyII ya' paoo)I(tIIII
a
Ha oyrI y,a, ao. a ' oytoT Trpaypa Boyxa, BTp, oa, po oTo aopI' oo p. B
epaTypI Bo.yxa poBJUITaBHI opao p oH Il o}I
BIox ae'I TpaTypI.
p ov uo mjr|tpmpoda ylTBtIo oo)T yoB ooToB aBaoo T yaTa. oa p.:l*oT
pBapTHopopBaT .BaTaoTa o x aya B
Tpoo aHaHHoe Bp' p o Tepayp Bo.yxaopay
p.I o.aT B aBaotlo TJIB (po), o oolIUI o.o ay yaTa. p
ToBy aBaoo Tex}I JIyaTavI
TpaTypr aTpy paoa Ha opITo Boy aToB' oToB aoTI oTa. p o lcoo mtpmp od Ta oo}tITIIo.oToBa Tx yaa yoB paol epoo
Trxoo poaa aBaI]p|Ip.|7.
!tlo, TpaTypa
Bo.yxaB T ( y) 35 oC, To oBpoT aorTa a o}l apBaT
oC. Paoa B Ta yoBx' ypIo Ba' Haoo y.oBoTB
o 70-80
oTaBT.
p uo mp ooo paT pI o opar aBa'oo T I{a . o t BTp o) pBpy aoI,
ooy o)a I poB.IIa)( IIIBapToBa(pe). o ao
ooT yaTaIo Bo3.yIIxyoB.
du (ooo IaI)ro p oxo ,TetIoT aBa, T a oo}IT oooBy aooB BpToeToB oa. C e oTaa}o Ha oBptIoT aoTa' eoxo,o prBa.
'
pTo y,aT.poo BT a oI Bo,yIllIyax aTeo222

p aprarT' Ta a lI oa B oaoT' o.ayl poa)I(t{I


a' Haa Bo o.HH.ooylo ooT prTaBIoToTo)rH aoo Too .a (oa ypToo
a)-a oil{oT o y.aIr opxlloT BoyIoo y.a.
muct mpuL!Lv|o]lmo,oopa roaTc |Ip Tx'
oaa ItlI ypx, p pI{I{oo aeII,I Bo.yI{I
y.oB po. .Ilpyx aHIx popT oH oao paoI o o.ooBaoToB BpToToB a-avI.
ooed oTaarT a B ypII .Ta aorTa BpTorTa.
ya'
o
a aera p Hao o.,_ oaeo
p.BapToryoB BIyaBoyIIIooy'a B OJIT.
B aI yxr, oalo ooToBy aBaollo x
orTa' BaTeJIo.Ta I\{rTopoo yo a
apo.po.Ho.a paoI x y Topoora opa oTya I{ A AMI-{, paoo)Iloo Ha To )l( apo.por pezt:laH}Ioo Topoooo o aBIavI.
|2.4. aoo-}le oa
oBa }IeTopooeo oel{ B
a oao BIIII'. pI Ilo paTX aa y
pBapTr IT aBao}Io-JIaTx oooe po.poa
(paoa apopoa). Aaoo-JIa pet oxoo }IaT
.ra-Mopooa' a a JIaTe paTp BIoT
Topoox B oo opae' ll poI{opoBaI
eil oo.I ro Bp o.a. Ha aBaotlo-JlaTeoo oca |4paB .JIapopoa - oaHopo Teopoo y, paoo)o a apopo' IIpa HopTBI{I{o
yaT B Topooro o oToB oo apo.poa.
Aaoo-aTo oa BJIIa poB, o-eopaylo xapaTpy apopoa (paoa apopoMa), aaoIIo-MaTyto
xapaTepTy
po.poa vI o
To-Topoo co paol aBa a .aIIo apo.po. rr
ptlIx piB.oB aBaollo-aTeoo oa oBaT e.ylo BopoI.
pduoue o.rpT B. o aTpaa aro.i o aT Toa' aHI{IoTopIx ooBUIoTaBI{ oa.
aIa oo Topooo TalI, o}Io paoa
eTopooeo To p' a)I(o aBaollHo-ao
opa, aeTc p MTopoo BeI{ e oo.I'
oTopI y BII B oa, ale BrtlI aoo pe}UI
pyro .ooJll o.r.
Coao <HaaIo o MTopoooll{y oeeIo paao aa Poc>' a a)o aao opooo ca
(AMC)' ap py B.apao o o aBa' poBoT
.oBa}II4'BaI ye aaollo-JlaTr co
papo ooTBTTBy oa.

22

orlalI (pa) oJIyIT py! aavloo-aToo


at 5-x ar., pooBlllx
B allo apoopTy' a B
pao oToB. r po a r IUI T' To B To ),TIar oTaBT Bpr}ro oa.
- Ba)a
uuo-zozpu
pmepum!--po
podpo
a ocal{' oTopa o.p(T -y B|1II|4oppa.r
ooI{oT THoT IIa oppoae
co oo.I JIaTa a al{o apopo ( pao apopoa). B pBo.T B. o opavo ooFI ytlTa'

BI0T apo.poa a. ypoB op BrI{ aTlloo


JIoIIl. p Too' yaIBaIoT otloBI oooT
opy,a
TtIoT (Ioa poT)oT opI aBo.' I7aIIe oo, oB
..), p HaTy'I oI{ paytI (a, oa ra),
/aTI I{aTyeH opooB, .aTI yTaHoB oa )I{oo oBoo
opoBa. B o aT o,a\ oIlBaTBk7]g.e opopau
oo

Ila Topoo

ptM. p o ooo BIIa yT

T xapaTrpTa'

oTopI oaIBaIoT ar BHe a.T}IoT


aBa. o, pxt Bo' BoT' BIoTa paIII oao, oaHI BIl oo.I, MTor yIr BTpa T..
uuoo-l,!4mucl{ pInpumu podpo,l - oa (-

aa) aT oa. B e op<aT B.I{ o ooBI MTopoorx


Ba .e. oa
oao' oa' aopI
BHI4 - BoT' BTp' TpaT}pa' Ba}oT Bo.yxa' rr opoB,
yoB

IIoo.I pavo
TI{ o]oT p' Cop)a
ollvravl eTaJI oTaB opoHo oIIl y.r
IIa JIaToo)).

To aT
Aao-

oTrTT' To . aBaol{o-aTx
oa
o
.T,op
o oBToproT yo ooI pa.ro e oxto. a pa BJIIoaT ce.aIII o BpoTIIoT oao

a' tlo

Topoox

BH. Ta,'app'
. xapapoI{I o oToB oxo.r .aIr ooBprel{r
aro. BIoTI paI oao 20 II} BoT 2000
I\,IIll, a Tar yarB' oa o aro
pa,o' Taa ol\4a
T

xapapTa
I]oBorT oH BpoTIIoT oToB pIII Bo')IIIIIX
yoB p yTaHoBI{I . IlylvloB oo.I. oI
BpoToTIiI apaTepT
paTIBaIo B p.Ir |II NI aI{apl{oo ol{a,
a' aoo-
po.a yo.
oTopIr
aBaoIIo-JIaT
xapaTpT
.{ ao
p/TaBJUIT B B. pao' a6 aaToB.
uo muo -u]mL! l ap mpucmu
o.p)T ol|ae oTrx pooB ( ao
a), oyoalo
o
p}. B o pa. ofIall pr.TaBI{a opa
o paalo
oT poa, TpaTopx pux paai (oo aI{TJIoo), o aopIx poa T...
e mo-I|meopoozuCu ou. B o aT oa}I otloBo BIlt{ yo opa o aorr oIlI ao poTIx
rTopooe

. BIotl oToB po.o oa pooB yo. opo


a1

paMaT-

pBaIoT pI (opore ), yy,]aIo JI yy[Ia yoBJI orToB yaaI po BprII.


ooo BIlaII p To y.eT BIBIIIo Ho poo, oyBBax oaI oToB Tropoo .e,a
TaIo apaTpT aro.arx .
apoall}Io oTaBror aBaolIllo-aor oa alr oyJt{T' apapyl opooe yoB oToB Ha
ao apopoe. o oeTc NI paIrI pzrI{IMapo.pI ya' Ilo pe.aaIl JUI peI oo aa- o paoaHoo apoBaLI aBaoIII pao, , :IrI
oBaI\{, ,JUIoTaIloo ooBa avlaoo ex I{a apo.po yrTo{ JIaTx aopo. Aaoo-Mao oal{e o.ep) oo ooBI apaTpT. opTIlI epoIIpJIT' BaI{IIIe ){eTooo.HI yoB, oyrIo IIo TeyI IIoT apaJla' oTopI AC (AM pe.TapyoBoTy aBap rIpvITIl.

225

aa 13
ootlA oIvlo
BI'I-,11IE,
IIA .TtIoT ABA

PAA

13.1. oep)alt oolla aope


o BIIe IIa.II0T B
_ zIoTpoIlo
o peaBeT oo aJIyIo p aop. oo
BT xMBoI{ opoa TpaToo oo 03. oo
o
oHrIITpaJI

t
I
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o oHH. B ToM Bo.yxr
100
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ep-io
paaaeT paBTIIo N{rItIlo'Ho p OBIIII
ptlo)el{eo
B pyTB.Byo aoTa, xopa I4 TflI(Ix eTzuIoB
oBpoT
a
.'po"*o,' Ipo. oo ,yeT p:rJIII\{eToa
ax1 a,
e. a aorToB ToB. oo - oTaTollo tlo
yIIaBaI.
y( p ol{I{pawl |04o o aax TaHoB arTIII
ooo 21
B peoM oe Bo.ya oTo ooa IIa ol{}lI{o
28 /,. C uro oeo ooa
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"a
'*'/'.;
or' B pyx rpoax. Ha
ooa
o
yBeBae. B Tporo
ooHa HaTo IIIII.
pIra
Aapo oa o 9BIIiIIIII
Ita
I\{JI Tp'oo pxa
)'1I
oro IIaI{ NI
,o"
"*""'aToepl. o ooaT IIaTIraT ypaoToBoo
prBIII oB
ooo{tII{lI'op,opalulrB)I(BoaN,IIIoTBIIvIpav|'Ta
oTl.
a )il1ee B aaorle 25-20I{M ppyIa yJIrIroBI
B
ao
oll

ooa aT oolla op)IT paop.


opoToBooTeI{ opr.JUIrTTrpM p' oo oorl{
oB TpaBo oo paa pBoT apBal{ oolloo,p)a
. o.
20_25
oepl. ayl op}aIIJI oolla IIpxoT a BIOI
,7o_,75
ooll paT r aoae. Hy a
BIIIIS
ao ,oBa}t,II\,{'
IIIpoI' BpMII
op)al{ oolla B aoep aBT o opao
oa BIoI.
o0B aop Be.TBr opoTaIlof,o Bpaoo
paaoap
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o
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oa
a aro'a",." ."uu,i"ou"o
BJI
paoep
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opa
Ha
I{Ioox.r pea.
yop,oIlIloo oIoT Ta arK porI ypyoo oa
poepI
ao
poTaIloo Brpa}Ioo pIloa. o
ooa B
oIITpaIo
yMIrIIIa
iI yr ooBpMHIIo ).BJII|Ba
opeIlo pao.
B BaTopaHara BoT op)aH oolla aroa
' oT]aoylap,1,
o o, aora _ B BIox Ipoax BpIIoo
T eol xo a).1\{o.
p.IB aoT oT IIIpOTITa yrTBI{o paalo

MII o o,p}rIr ooa.


yr .aBo aI{aIoT
r B|1ooa a .ToTaB.aI
II1 oByoBI Tpa}ITo
yaoBo'

p apyIr {III.
000 , opopTHI aMoTI' BIoIIIoe IISJITIlta BIoTax 10 000-12
poaIBa.
r
Bl|:I
aoo
IIpa
)aII ooa B aop
BIa
(CTC)
poxoT
aora
TpalropTlroo
p o BpByoBoo
226

oTa 18 000-22 000 - BIoT oBIIIIHIII


op{aooa. p .
t opa ooa aTHo o Bpo oto oe
Ha H.
oopI aTpaI' oyI B oToTpoIr' a Ta}(
a opaI IXaH roBa. aao .oyTMa o oIr}IpaI.UI
ooa B
Bo.y paa 0,l.l0* aT a p l{ao) B T yo,lx
B 8 B yT. Ha ppx BIoTax CTC op)a
ooa B aop
pBIIIIaT
Ty opN{y 5-l0 pa. oao y aa)pe
aollI
aoTa oa.aT Too aT}I aT ooHa. p
oaT B
aoT' Bo.}D(
)a opope.o opaoo .aB,I'p o
B pyTae )aTo}r apBaeT'aHa aT oolla
papy[IaeT.
o al B.B. oa' rlp TpaTypBo.yxaB o
o oopa o
opopa I\{600 ay BpxByoBoo aN{oTa
oa.aeTppo 90Yo apoo ooa. p epaType BIIIIe600-650
o .,po'"aloeo ooa po aaT' a p Tpayp 750-850
oa TaIIoB oBe l{ao. ooI{a oIrpa ooa a
CTC a
aBc.IoT Trpaypt opaoo Boya, To op eT
opoTIo oa (eec pe). Ha px BepxByooo oTa
MrpaTyp
Boy 'rIHaI\Ba Irpplro 800 oeTpa ooa
oI{ aa. ,
)rI,I oI{IITpa oolla Byp CTC oaoo pea o)o
pl\,tI{TaI p,l. p .oTaToI{o etloT
oaa
oxoo oeBaT a CTC on"pu.,""o
opa o o.paIIooa B aope.
ooy pp pe oTa CTC pyMaTpBaeT
opoT'
aTro peBIIar opoT Bya' r I{eT
ap
aoTa opaHlloo o aorpoo Bo.ya. Bro
epaTypI papyIa oo yTH oaroT o oppopyt
o..
13.2. oea pakla
B}I I{a .eTIloT aBIIaI|4
oa paa(ovo yI{) - o opyyplla
paPIao)IGIoo oTaBa roo ep oo potlalo ooII.T. oa ox< poIBa BI aopy. o'o."*y'
paaIo (oo y) oto Pa ro a.B yIi pBIIo
Topo
oMo {' pvo oo {I{ polla
B aTopy poBoo ooo poTpallBa. ar
Too y.le _
poToI{I'aa{acl (pa e) aToI pa.py
IIToB oI
roo p. Bopoe oMor y _ pyTaT
vroakl
aooB aopl aoB aa pBoo oMoo
ylIrII,I.
o l^rr oep)rT Be BTI. B.IMHapI a
(por,
MoI' pol, ool p.).
B o oIlo TaT' To oecapaa
ooB aoToB
pa.ao aa, Bp ,JIBIOT' a oTopIx a
aN4oTIpDI(,ao aa' op.JUIeTrpBIM o yilItr
uIYrce' Boalo p pylllrlx xporpI BIIIIaXCoa.
Paop pao aI TooB.

227

I' puo o,\ruouHu.aao oo {t{ B o.I ayl'{a oo aHoT ooaT .oy prp}ro
15 p/,ooo 5 palo (1 pa:0,01 dr).
-a c poaro ooo pBoo yrJI oa ao
aB o palrpoBav|, oaBaoo opyo aoTa. p oa|4
ooIITIpBoo JI{I{ ao oo o, a oBo
Tro, }{o o yr (!pao}(aT) BeTB BTopI{oo yeJI.a Too.oa y BeBaeT'o pa p' BBa pa.
Pa Booxtoo oy aoTa oM ).It, ooTBTTB)r r IIpwI.p oaIIoT ooo oxor p
aIIpoBaII IIoToB o a Tpaa. pooHoT c
oTpyoo ooo opa apy opao oTaBT 400-500
.. oa oa oT zIaTx oex le a To BpM I\{o}T
pBIT150 p (1 p:0,01 d). C.oaiHo'pBo oo
Ylervle BeTcappo oyleBt{ To TIII oToB.
By oBa paHIy poo}I Too apepa.
2' oc.ueu u oHl c|ul|a.aa pa,aoIr oaIloT
p TI oTax oaT vLYjIJ,BoaI p pytlI
xpoopIx BIlIIax. PaaT pTBTor pJUIBTo oIII{Iorr yII (C).
p pBTo C pool{I IoT Hrp o 1 o 50 B, )yt o opo, opoTvl cBeTa' oTa a 10.40
. BopaQt B oa opIx aIITI o, paooll(Ilyro a
opo , C paBaIT It}alo Bo pr. ooT IIoToa poTooB paBa ooJlo 2'|06 ac/c'z, B To Bp a p oTyTB
BIIIIoa oTaBJUITB o1\{ro poTpaTB ppo 2 acvIl/...
p pTBTo C pooI IoT IIpIo o 10.o 500 MB. p
(Bopo}I) B
poooIrI BIIax Crre yaT yT IIJIZI:II
Hx aTI oM, o.aM oopayro oByly.JI apIIIIIx a. <<oaa>ao ztI.BI(yo opoTIo prpo 103 /. ToIIa yoB tl1\4r
oTaT 10o l. orro pAToo C ol

9TaBJUIT t09 al/c'cI2.-a y B aIITI{IxyTa zt:lIvII


e)alleoao or C oe po.oaB TeII Heo
lle )rTBoBaTaTJIHo9JIIII'M opo,BIIIao BIIIIIa.
aBvIavM'yT
oop o oao otlopala a,rTJIIIoc"I
oz paaa
oTlTT, To JI,I 'oByoBI aoToB paalloi'
olaptlal.
H
BIIaI{
Bo
lta1looo oaoT I{r p,TaB..,
18
000(CTC)
BIoTax
Ha
o p oTax BpByoBD(TpaopTIx aoo
20 000 o ro lIaT pI\{aTI p.oopo)tloT.
o epeo:
B o a6a H p oop, o oByo|aoeo tJ|l]opal(
oao peaB..QoB o]vt/o H
ao aBaKoapa1a
o|H
U-2, oopl|oH
aaA e oyooa]vro
oopDe
Bloao 24 000 . Aotaoe Ha Boopye llJxBBC. EreeHHo,o p oa aoooMoHorBo3Boopaa
H a yer{|ao60.
228

B aop .noa pa, oyea zLIIaTo waNI oeI o ye'.o IoTI 12 aTa H oaa .a}a a,aopoCTC' B o'l a)\4aoro ao oTo oooB Be.TBxpooepIx BIIII o)e opo.a BopI aTI BIox p. o oy poaT B
o aopI Iro.a.apyr a oBpxIIoT .
p oro oo oT ollHpa TopIx aT' Bx TB xpooepI BIIIIe' a BIoTa I8-2| oeT
pBII]IaTpe, eoaI oBa. ooo aa BpoTHoT BIoo opa aT B opr ax IIoo IIIapa p
aTIIIx x opIx cIkIX.oar oI paa B oJUIpIx
oax oy aa B epo B)D(-prx aoe pyIII BIIIIIIa
11- oo ao. B aopaIlo }IapaB I{TIBoT oBIIIIeoil'p aa o xpoo pIx BIIII altoB ae.
Ha ypItI IIIpoaM oaI{a paaI4Boo)a o.I{-Bapaa a 11 . Ha BIoTax o 12 oeTI oal p aI Ix xpooepl BIIax.
Bpooc oaoo o1"r a)a acca}Ilpo CTC oaoBa.
.{ aaxpo CTC, oBepIIIa oT pooobr 2_ , oa
oIl aa' ! a)a BrpoTIIoT o6le BopaaT e oe
Too o perBaa BIoTax 18_21 .
,{ poBpaeIlJt Bp.oo o.e ore p JIx o}IIxBIIIIax ooo ).I\{rTBIoTy ooB CTC p v.rTelo o 12 000 ae BpMIIoppaat oeTI.
.[ oeenvl eoao ooB CTC ox oo oIIIo a poopoBarwle oIIIIoo ooo {
Boo)I o paa. MeoI o.ooo poa poIloo papaaTIBaIoT
a ooB aTpo[Iox' paoID( yI.I aou ae. B p paaloT Tp Ba pooo C: oopovl
(pau) poo' oepaI poo paTopo.rt poo' oTopIe B Toee BpeM oI e oyT B ooI{aBTe' a
}I B aB. B ao y.repa papao a poI{ooB' pea v, B aBvlape|pw|T ooBal p oe}I aa rI
aaT y..
B ae pal{e papaoal a paBTeBeo ypoBII yBp)III
opI!{Ipa.aolro oaoT' oTopI op)aT oIIpTr oeTBeIIIe HaI{a o . ar BoyIII}IIxy.oB aa)poB ytlo
Bpeelr I{aoe o. TB ole. oeo, To al{o oJIT
(paaoa oaIIoT) oaaeT JIIo ar<-o Bpr'}IIx lI
opoB lo. o o.
ompol onPoc, pd 2
l.
2.
3.
4.

Hao ootlIeapaeTpIaapo aoepr.


a BtoIlpaTypa.aea oaaapovoo roopa?
a BIoepaypa aBeIla rroaayaaToyto opo?
a B.Ipaoo oa oyrop tllypa paa a BI{ paypa
.atla pooa?

229

5. Hapy aaor pott opo ao B o JIIITI.


6. oy aoe BeTa poBoT oa.y poB pa?
7. e oaI .aoeoB B a?
8. [a ollpre It}.N4aoo.I.
9. o a aopo aT o aoep?
l 0. aa pra )y Topooo oo .oro?
1l. o yoBll oToB oaax pt op.
12.o yoB IIoToB IIp pittlI Meopoo BtI' yy.alI o.
l3. o IIIIBII ooB a patlI aopt poa.
14. o aIBa o aoa?
l5. pevI.r BI r.ItIx oor, oTopI o a acB I]oJI.
16. B a e.a rpe rBlloc o?
17. a BIII4ITopoT IIoa a HBIIo o.?
18. a oor opr o. r a?
l 9. ar opoJlo BaH'IaIato poo r.o?
20. B aaT oaoT po IIIBJIo aall?
2l. a otlo oa rro-.o).o oao?
22, Ilaove oItoBIlI pIlI Tpa aooB.
23.a B .poeopooe yoB a oor yaTaIo itpo.
,poo?
ya' paoo(eI a e24.a llT eTeopoo.i yJIoB a o.)IIIII
e?
25.ao BIIIfuIea .ro aBaLIoaIBaT aopI ootl ocapaa?

20

PA3

EoPoo
oEoEH
oEoB
14
OPAIIA PAOTI
ABAOIIIII MToPooCx

OPAIIOB

14.1. He' a opIla aBoI{IIl


lllTopooe opaoB
a oeao BIlIt' p oT I{ BoyIIIIe ,aoytT BI{III.
He c,oB'oopI oyT o.a o.aBaTTy' oayl .oTo.
{ eaI{oo oTa oxo.o aT aue ooy yrue oToI{ r pI a apopo BIeTa, aplpy oTa :}po.por
oa.. CoaI{o, a)I o ox( oeaT B Topooo oHOIII}I.o p aoo aBvIaoIIHaIIpaTa.
Copeo oBe .o pyoBo,ro, oal{.Iloo Too oTaa, paoo ylt .B)tI pyx o)I(oI paao
aBa Toopooo opa, oxoo . BIoIl Bo.
o)rI{I a IIx oao, paBT oo 4mopoo1t|oe
onue no]lmo zptdo uuu.
opoo o pax(al{o aa opay PopoT P. opooo oe opayT o)rlrBT B
OOTBTTB <<oor o TopoooNl o paao
aBa,,, <<Haaeo MTropoooy ot plao
(Io A), <Hopa o.loT yaTa :rpopooB) (A)
aa>>
.py t{opMaTBIlIoyTaN{ y.apo yI paa
aBa|4( A) Popa. oTTBoT a ooT. arBo
BoeBpN{o Too o Il Popo.
oepat o}a PopoT' o)eTBJUIIo op.TBeHo Teopooo or paao aa B apoopTax
a).aoil aa (A), roT JIe.y: al aaor eopoo Tp (A),
oaI aBal{Tropoo HTI
(A)' aBaopoo I{TpI(A), aBareopooe Ta paar (A) I, II, L, IV papo' oepaTBIe pyIII (o)
aBaoIlI eTeopoo oTI (A). B .a y IlBIBa
x MTeopoo opaa Popoea. B opaTBo oToIIIII
Teopoor opalrI oH,IIoT oapa aBaot{}IIx opar.
a|vrecTaaHoB apoopoB o /BIo.
a y<eoBopo' aa aBI{a,I aaa opooex opao PopoeTa - oel{ pyoBoro Too oTaBa' a Ta'{t
yI )I(r p|X o)oTIx pa.ao aa ooo eopooo opa. B aBoT oT aa apo.poa'
aBooo o.pa.evI.
apyroo Ha e, oa BIoI
aBoI pao aHaaT opayT ooTBylo opaI
opa Po,poTa.
al aBaoHI{topo }ITp(A ao.T Mo B apoopTy Byoo, a o aI - B apoopTax floooo, IIIep-

2|

(A)
TBo IoBo. oal aBaoI Topoorr I{pI
opoo
aBl4aor
a
T Hoop aapo'
app' a llparpI (AM Bo }Io pyIrI apollopTax. Ta,
aar (Apa BJUIIoT:apoopT ynouo (Ca-pp)' apoopT
(HoToao
)' u,po,,op' o (apyp), apoop
p) p.
o epeo:

B a o B pe Po p a 6 o a e o 1 2A M ,350A , o o plx 35 N4eooo.


AM I papa 15 oHH|X
5o/o
B Po eMPopoay)t(ppHo50 t. oBe.
xaypogeH
eaog
Tao
o6poa.
e |e pHeeaHo
eaoB,
Po
e
o
olea.
aaoHo-oeoo
paKpHoo
x <Myu",uo,* papaoopooooo|, 6o 5000 eo.fl
<<MyH>>

r
paoBop
o
a
el.
6ea,
Bea
poBopo ooe- He
HoB>>
aH.opo6ya a paHe oo,y HaH Moy epB|oH
a t I\,t
o eo pa l B a Mo p o H o o B o o | a 1 01% _H o o yv l
pryp1roT o}Ioo .' o oao'
paoo)roT B6yIIIHIpeoo6 oepaTBI\palla oyI'
III IIa apopor' IIpxo,T pIIIaT }o aa..
_oyrTBJUITHop.TBor Topoho."*o o- oo A;
-oaT yaTaI opoJlo poopoB;
-IIpoBo po.}I{Ir.oBa;IIIlB oaT aBaotlo opo paTopoI{I poooB ooI;
_oaAMC-IVpapaoI]paTBHIpyIpoHoao oarx BII IIoo.I;
oI prpr evr5{N1k1
- I]poBpTIIoBIeMTO.Ipooa oaI{I i.l tlooI;
paor,ro pa)'ao aa, oaIx IIOTIa
-,,,u*o',n*
T paa aBaI{oI{o MTopoJIo, oToTHI1 BoyII]I{Ix JISI)
pI I{III

BIoJIII'I

BoIuD( oaoe;

-ol{Tpopoa paoy oIIpaTBI pytl A,


_poBoT aw|T pIIaT aTI o aBaoIIHo MeTopoo y
JITIloo ,rTpoo oTaBa aBap.np;
oTpy.a AMC;
-opaoBIBa poBo.T a|ITuI
BoytlIIII pa;
oytBaN{I
o

poBo,T
-opaIIoBIBaT
opar
(p
o,o)
}'paB BoytIII{IB-oa
II (B

opa o yao,TeIloT.

o e oe epHo| Ho oeH Bl(o:


yHaMHMo A, .e. Be'l
Moo 3 Too o epJlHHoo
Ta oaoHopo po oyHoB
oaHI
B|oHeH'
oHy paHoao BpeaB o]',lpye6a.Ceaoo
H ooeo.
opao
a
oa
a
a
ye-,
poaN4

aa
"
oop|e,H Ha B,
e y6a,oy al ooeM opeH,
o oeHa.
oTB.
opal opaI PopoTa' paooIIIII Ira apo.po'
aT:
-a BoBprMr}IoT aTBo opoooo o oJIrToB:

22

-a aBo HaIoH Ha apopo BorBpHo pr.a aHIx


Tx HaIe aHTpoBaHI paoTa A;
* a paBoT B.tlII Bce ropooo .oyTa;
-a paBoT op BoBpIloT tlp Tpa Ha
yI B;
-a o.p)I(a ropoox

pop

yTaoBo B pBI{o o-

ToH.
.. pr B pHHIx a.a pyro apoBaI
aJII' oBprtor To opy.uoBa' o paoI

.|..
a apopo'oaIopoopaoo)I(I{I
Aapp.,
loooopaa' ooptx oyBaT'poTaBT
H, BI..t III1 BI1 pTBa

cB ,rI p.a Topooo

o MP, PflB pyo


opa,oeTTpoTBo

Txtl' p.oTaBTat o oyaI Bo.).lllITpa


aaopHo Ba eI{ pacca ooB .oBoTJIa
oToB.
o epeo:
B oeHe6a, ao
o6ae'yaaH|x
B Ha pM B|oHeH
BoHpo6|.
fleo o1,o oHHa Hoapopolax)Kyapol"lMepe
oHoH.o Ha,o aBappM AMC yaHa
pe AMC Hoe ea 6eo.oaa) oPlHe'oopoa}4aeAM, aapepa eoy6 apeHy.ooyB aMoooapeaHlt
ooBopo,oopt
AMC BappePl
H ?.4y
aaolo poKol"lHa o o. B o ooopyaa| o6o
aaopoHa a eHoa oHao
yoB,oop|o)HaB|oH
ea.
Ha Ix apopoa o,a BT 6ape a pa)I{aca1aIt
Bo}Ia aBa' oo aBa Ta rT (Bo)) Topooa
a. .(ypoa a o.oM apopo i pao o Mopoooy o aBa ooe ItBIoo.ooy pyoBo,lrT eTopoox opa.,paooIlI a o.Hoapo.po,
rUIoo Irpy yaaaro o opo IIpoB.}r
ropoo a., ooBarTopooo
p.TB eB' HopBI{tto oToB poBoT B ax
).tlax o B.oTBoparo (paaH o oBaIoToT]a A, a oI _ a) BBC).
a apo.por HaxoT Topoora ya Too o.oo
(ro) B,oTBa,To Ta ya aT olBX o}.lxIy.oB,
oTopI poBo. oo po.poa.
paa BoI{I o o)lI )'y oo oaoBIBaT
B papaaTIBaI pooI oo.I. oe opoo
yl aaloT oo oIl{el paoTaT B' To Tao oaoBa
poBoTo' a r ylI ao B pa}IIoM' To Mr).y
.o}l(at yTaHoBapBa poooBopa (C).

o l pa oBTop' To B paoa aBaoI Tropoox


opaoB, paoo)I(rrl{I a apo.por' a aBa' ao rt,
poo pI'aMHpoBaa pyoBo, opaTBI oylv1Ta' oTopI
}.IBp).aT a aoNl Bloo }poB a C A, a Popo.

14.2. PIe opyo AMC


p tr a AMC po, BaH[tI o ooB aN{oToB BrpToro A, oyTc I p popoB T' pr.TB
B II p}To TII. p Too' Ioa A po a A
olr oya o oo p BIrTo..{ pa tpo
MHIA, .TaoB popB p}Too oop.oa'p'Bro,
py ((To))- yro Ott. yo oMIIlIl,o)lo
paoo)l(Iloa apoI pTaBo oy; aBap.pI.UI'
o' ox{ao'
Br,a
poTaB
To
AappT
po.
tlIo, B orr yLIaBTaparoTBI.T AM a o)IGIoIIII] oa.' To o.arT pa Topoor opaoB Ira apo.poax
opt{lrTpy,rroT.
paaT a oa.opo opaI lra apo.po.o}I{I
, paoolt(lll
Hx.
o,
o-Tp ylrTax lt oT
opa'
|4
aaa
AC, .o)It pooI opa
papa poI{oooo.I IIITopoBIpypr, a Ta(.o, II.a TIIoo

oTaB a.

Ilaa o Topoooy oI pa,ao' aa


(o A) aT oIrpT}IIxpoa o orTBy oI{aT oa,o paTa o oToB oaIBaT'To Ha ao AC,
Br,rTpooTa paa, llo .yroti:
- oaTa )ypoo lloTa'
-oHaTa oya,Too oTaa'
-a|IapaTa,
-aHa oaTa.
-oHaTa. paH apBoB paxo,IaTpaoB,
- ooo, Bol\4oaTl
yIITIaro,
.ooIITtlI
-oMIl, paII aBTol{ooo }.HTa pa 1oo
opa ()'
-oH .paM Topoooopa.ooaTopa(MP)'
-Boopoopa.
o epeo:
o
BoMHa
po
o o p paee
AMC H apopo}4
(oaax)oaae
Hoplpaeepa6oo.a B o}4eHx
aHpH|
yaHaBBa
oopaovx r (oo),vot Ha ao Mo pooH
4 2 oa 72 o6a oeH. ee oo HpeHoeo6oCo. B apoPo t paH|o|opol ep6ypB pMl:oHa B
epoaoopo' a BTopa- a npBol.4epry Hl, aa a
<<pet>.
6toooHoH|.
B oxpMo aly
Kaep|
popo
o6 aptpa 27
oa aoaep|9 2, a B|oa_ 3 . CoBaHo,
. eoaoe Koo
Boya(o eopa)Hy)HooHoyoey
oHapoya e' o
B eH |.|opaHoo
al
oaa
|XaH.
24

BpaMppoBepBa|
.,.lHHle
MoHoay |Ja
o |4ee BeBo(oM.
B otm dupozo Lll1o|1t11ua
oopyyT paov ro }rHpaoTa AC. o orli UII{I
oJt, Ha OTopo axoT
oo.l paot }loT ap. Ha Tor o.To]!{ B
o B oo a opaI o}IpoHoa paHl Topoor.
B e ooI (oa, palr, al tl ..), oopIr
o}T )eIlo pao. )e Haxo.T.oloIrIHpy ypo MI pTa.oyTa,I'a Tar oxoI rTBa
(o, C p.). B o Bp a o AC Ha To .r)Hoo oTa oBoIoTrp.
B o.tt,tmd ocmLtlt mlrozo Coma a THa paeI apTI oo.I'BpTaI{I
papeI'.aI{Io avo o}ao ooe
o apaB (aa, pa, 6p, BoTo .,.), OI\40IO
oTopI
r oTaB aoToTrI{o{a MTopoJIoyIOoaoy. B o
oar Ta oopyy paov To HHpa-tIoTa'oopt poBoT oya al. p-oT Ba T (flo. p})
o.IlIoopa o avo lloor polroax ooI B
aoopToB IIaa'I.Ha o axoT xoa loyr\{rTa'pTBa B' a p.oyTaHaBBaT oIoTp I).Ia}IaIIIa ao eopooo .oya, oop)o a p oo.
o pao'r To oopyy aooo . acI{a y eTopooo oyTa a}I{ooa)I(a.
n pm p.aaela paH pa.opMo,
a1!1o yo.raa aapaTypI.pav B Topooa opa, pxo a AC, poxo.T p aapaTylo. Ca x<oto oBe.I Tpat poo.I auI B.
ooIo yo 6apoa pa}I' To oaaIy)
ally aapaypy paN{aTB paI{IoIlaTax ( o BoaTIoaapaypr a o ryo). B aapao oopyyT Ta paou To )epa (xa) BIo}IpaI{Ix polrax pao a Topooo o TIl.
o epeo:
pe|e
pBa B|4- o e oo<p>,
Ho a <<oBepaoe. oao ae peBaoa yeBy epHoJIy)Mo6. E e oopeeaB|eHa
exa peB, o oooepo taape o, MoM|,
ep|otya
Hl,a oMepl
oHop|
- a paoxaxeypotAC.
nt1u oJ'Imad pomI .\'||!o)rumo
muo paaa . paHoHLIapT ooI r.oyToB, oxoI
o orToB. a oaa oopyyT o :UIIpaa B
ooTTTB yIByIo poa.
o epeo:
pe aH
ota,eo,ooaa
XpaHHoeoex pMHoH
oylo.B HaoeBpe poo oxp.

25

H }lHoeHyey t'llH, a B o o B o r6
epo, oopl parHoa | oyH|.oao, oTaa aH potlJo,
o}4Haryao Ha|Bot\4HTo
pao| MHoHoeHo. H ao
e oary oy pao| ap||lMepa}4.a Tp.
l apoHle BoA oo|, oople HyHo paopoa oo.
<oo|po> ooa
a|poaH|aH ( alael
aHoBaplo Hop, o|e ee paopoa- HHo ppoBa). P6oa M aHaM poBoeo B aH|XoHX Ha AM.
o,m d pttu |pu u podL1l ,\rampulo6 prTaBT oo a, a oTopo B .oTaTo}lo oTB IoT aH patlIx
apT' BpTaHl papoB' oo.l py .oytIToB. .
paT Ta aIBarI pxo.I aTpplaI apxBI aTrpI{aJII
B ooTBeTTB yyloll\4 oPar .oyrI lra A
AC.
or IoT pat po xpalr Ho)I(aIT o p TI
paT
Too poa. T, apI\{p, aKlr apTI a AMC.ol
3 a, a.}lB}I oo.I - oToHo.
oo, |1o71ozm u door,tmbllbt ||mt loduti.
yI{Tl a opayroTc poBo.TBa HaIo Ha apo,po. oopyoBa yHToB }raJIIo o)o B Jl/yto apapa.
B ooeB ylrTBytolIl 1poBa LIpoTy)I Txoopy.ytoT or
I1 pztIH aapaTypI
oaoT
MP, ooa.a Bo.opoopa}rr. po To' p ooA,
.oT opayloT pao Ta oToB B otlx paooo
oaHoo HTpoB C opB[.

14.3.Bl opaoIa Avl


Bl o paot a AC oprJITT aaa' oTopI
paooIltlo }ta po.po.B ao-o p o]\{
pIaTaBap.pe,
pIIIaI)(
a.aaB oT IIITaToo AC yoToBao aTa.
,o' a o.o ao.po B TtI ylo poBoT
o.Il-Ba.rTa BlToB ooB,.a To oo o TI Bo.yxI
tI B .I{BoBp' a a .pyoapopoTax BIJlrToBB T Bx
yTo oul oT}I'a o-.Ba.Ta- Mr}yapo.I,To oBplx}to oB.Ho'To Ha AM rooMo BIOTpaHI o paoT.
a A pBoo apo.poao.}IHoT B oToH cIIpaB.|
papaoTo
poHooB' otlyTa a), oop]vlo

Ta
a B pr a a poxo o.ttBITaorTa' To
yMTa,
a A BTopoo apopoa Ha oy)rBa Drqoo aa B aI (())
paIla|Iy oTa o T IIyT. ooy r o.I{'a oa 3 4
x{pa-HoTao.oBpopaoTaTHa AMC (A.
oo, Hrop pay pyy apoopToB, a' .oBaTlIo'll
paHylo apyy AC a ' Ha a.o A o)tlo Bl,r},Io oIloBI{IB.IpoT:
- poBoTBoaIo;
* opaTBHo.pooTapaoTa;
- opaoHapaoa;
26

_Toa paooTa.
Paop
poHo.

ar.t pao, oopili

BIotIIoT a AC,

o o-

poBo.T .mpoJloZLLC, poozuu u paouoolL||lHa AMC


opo poB.
ot't det't. BtroT x T-MTopoo.
aIo. a AMC paoTpII B ,yr apapa.
aH]\{aT poopo
pom,
npmuo-11poZotlu(l
lIoT, aJIIoaT B oTaBH aBaoL|Ix poooB oo.I Ir paI{t
po JIpaIx . Cpro oBtlo' To p ToN{ oaT}lo yTIBaT paaHr ToB B apoopTy. po Too' To1 B. poI BIoaT

B papaoy rrlTopoBlx pyp) tlo o}DBaro TppTop'


Ta a lrlTopoBo pyp{rlt Ta) B^cpoHoo. opaopo o,oToB B
paoa TpycT oT }Itrpa-oTa
pooTa
Baoo poooB'

BpxpaTopoI
oaT paTopoIx
Iaro
y.a),
pa
(oytIl

a
a paae oToB
BooooT
N,{TI
aT
HoXo.o
Ta
BIr paa. rroTy

IIII6BIII'UI oraI aBa B oo,I' Ta a )rT Tlx aTopoB pB.T Toy' To opaB,lBaN{opoooB y, o.
op.ul1uo pon?4 aIoaT B BoprI{o 'oB.rII .o r.
oTopa M
U IT9B A ot To Topooo opa,
paoTI o
B
o
ooa BI6I{ Bo yiIx oaoTr.
Bo.T
pa.
Ioa
Bo Ba)IG{oT yTyaT opaTBlto-poItoTo
BoBpIIa opa,l oTa ((BoM) roao.aT o0 rrrH aTro ooI a apo.pol\{' oyTa,I (oa, o BIoBy
pyp.Io) pyoBoTBa aBapp.| oaoBaIryl
lllTopooy
aBao.tpa, oIlyTaJI a Bo.yIIrIx y.oB' oHyTalUI oaoB

oyTa (p),rp)a Ta]r )pl{o I{I P ( C opB['


oo.I N{O)I(TBIB}l
oa
r{a'

A
I(
IIal
H)
(Bl, }i)t'oopIr
apo.poI{Ir

Ty
T Tpo BaOllyto
oltoILIolI

opMaIi
o,t
}}pl

BaMI
HI aI{oI T...),
oTopol\I
B
opo.a'
1oa
o
oo
opa
o apo.poMa' rp.aa
B.{,

Haxo.T apoopT oo .p}Tor.


a opaoa paoTa pT oT lloTa oTIloo a op.a rpr.a.oil' o MrToHopa, a N{Topooo
1rrr oa B oHr oTBTTBII9T' yN{I{ to papoBaT I{a
plpl'
HBIIII9 TyaIo. oaIIIo, .a) poBo B Byr .oBl
BIBaHIx
Toy o HayT TyrToB. B aI rT TB,
I
ooy,
o; opaoIro paoTI, poT a paT.
TaT
oiT
p ooo BIy oBoT ToT B paoT], T op o
opoIII raoM.
Mmodu pol a AN{ aIaT B oTaBe po.roalr apopoa, y
o oI{oBIIe aBaoo-aT
TIX. oo}roT BoIroBIt oa}II , aBa B}t!I oo,I,
papaoT poBp tloBI I!1To.oBpotloa oTI Toponox
Ta pal a
B a Hop,Bo papaoTaI{HIx Ha AM,
poBpy BIIlIorIIx opaoB Popoa. Toa

paoTa BIo-

1l

oa,ItIM'
aT Ta poBJHlt HT o aBaoo rTopoo
aBapp.
TIM p ] 1}1oaBo
aaa' H)or yrHo paBT p;lI MTO.I\{
TopooaBaoIIyIo
IIaT
oo.Iuo I{ Too opo]o
py-IIoT
Io'llo}I}tlN{ropoJloIo,MaTooIo'aTaTyTaTTy
B Bopoa' BaHI
p}T llt' o yBpIIo opTpoBa.c
po oo,
BIoIlI{ o pot }TIpaB B}.IHI,B.
aBap.p'la.a
IIa.o oTaToI{o xopolxo }Ia Ty prTBI
aHaT.
T,I' Topoorc o oTopoo po.T
BIOT r)I(ypa rl{a. B oa ,r}(ypMo t pao a AMC
(apr r), x{IIpIo I Bo.T apr IIp-oT
tp
paor a AMC)'
IloT (1-3 uoa B aBoT o o
Trxll.aro,a,
(x) o popa, apr x-aIo.aTJI
pa.oopaTopI.

(paoaapao)
I{aa ya B
Py oo p ao aA MC e e a L l . B o a o T B o . T :
-opal{a rTopoooo oJIToB'
- op ali o p a o Bo M o T o [I T o p o o p o po
oopoa,

paoo pIx
ol{Tpo a opaTo
TaT
poo}Gro
p
pao
I{I]op,TBrI{o }{aT B To
A
o oao,
AC A'
-opallarI IIpoBe ail' paoal'
pap'oB'
[D(
o
-poB.H popo AC
- B I{rlTa Bo Bp aT a a. rp )I ( Bo , y I x y o B o T o po o r .

yoBN{.p.
.r}ypo r aIaIoT B
oor oa oJI)ItoTI{I

,y.
-mpu

ol{o a
ulrrIrp-Cuo'mu (mpu ,tt) oyrTBT
apoooo MaTpaa,
aTBo pMa opao 1loTroo
lp papao poa oIoItr oTaM yTaI{oBr}Il oa
Ta) oy]TBT y
ooB oo.I' a pao IIoB-IIa,a,
opaB,IBaoTaBaoI{IpoooBoo.I'oItTpoJIaoJIoBa
aJI}Ia
pa paTIlIx To.oB poIloa aaT
u o,,"pu'"""o
Il)rpaTapIo
pyoo,TBo
o
B po. o oTyTB.
AC
poIIoI
B
papaaIBa)T
yaT
tloTa op,TBIIo o
oo.I.

a ea paoo A o,\p u2rIlp-uorlmu


o oarx Bx
poroa oo.I pryp)r}I,l
Ta'
o Tpaa'
apopoa
pao
o ao tloo.
.,.o"' ll opa
oapa'
BoBpo aapoBaT oT apoJlo
AM
a
ocTyIl,I
olrpopoBaT BorBp.IHoT
a AMC,
'y.,,
a.I BoylI{yto oao.
opa'
Teopoo.,u.*o
oIIpaTBIto
- yaTBoBaT B
pao rypo I rIp oxo.oT
noon,,poa
oJITax a paB.y oo'I.

28

tlp (mu) no puop- oa }IaTyTpoo paB yayaTai ppoB' oyla AC, op)aTpopl
Trxa-Ha.T.
paou oTott poBoTa:ll
"ou*n
oa o,p)aTB
(lt't-dlnlt)
|11u-dm
mpu
opTopooyoayBoopo.opallr'poBoMoTaB. paBaTTrTropoo apooTII{aI.I{'
apa po' oToItto
yTa}IoBtII
B
oo
o
paI rropar
o rirH
pyp}aT
oxooT
p
ar.aa oo.o
aBap,pltl,
x{I{rpa-oTa paoToB
Ht Cu (pduotllllpmo) a AMC oaT yaTaIo pao }ouaalo alIapaTypI r poT' poB.I{ aT paoopaTopa I]pIlaTtaTB oTaBI{paa}I
paoTl pa.oTTpa.
'
opoo oaoT Bx oIIoTI JIor HMo A.
o epeo:
e 6lo aaHo' yBa)alaeto yeyaHa AMC ea
o oaa<<BypeBaB ao.oMpyap.Ho, o oe?|?
B oMya
o,
BHH6,
>. Ha AM oBopaeHa,
opape

XHoo
Ha6ll,
npooB
eHoo
B }4eH:
papaopoHooBoeHoo

oHya
a
poH
eHoo
,
o AMC
eo|>.
M|pa BB po<oyepa
o|.
- Hoo
aaH
a
o
M|eH,
Hooo
opyHoB

o
p6yT
ogoHK
e)ypo eH HoBoooToHpy
Hpyo yaTa
Ho l H | .

y I{)I(poB-oToB B paoT AMC


pyoytoo
puo'u oIo opa}IyT o TlpItBo}"{y y (a
n.1p"o
"'*,u'
2- -il IIaIBarN{a(lpxa>): 1 - . - .HBIta a 9 2| ,

o BoH
I{oa a 2| o 9 4-.I{ - BIxo.o. C.oao'
TrTB}t{o,a AC paoTaIT . oI' B pa.I{ HI4'
Io ppao B ooBTTB TpyoBI
r y paoB AC
JI o oo-o opyI]oB' B
oTyoB
B
po.
aoo.aTTol\{
)I(pI-oI. B po
o.ypI
tsIoaIT
.xt}p} rI1
o..)ypI o a.alo aAC
a
[ITaToB
oIloT) }oToBaIx
a B {a ooTIo
paoI'
B.
ao-O
BIgIUIIT
zUIHa MC
oTa.
oaoT
BIo}oT
}ypHoo
yoToBaIIIx IIITaToB
p

14.4. opa Io AM
I]oToBHoxoa
!. oyrB opoooo o
pa.ooapoox'
l\{Tropoorx'
xoHa opa .aI
o(ppIr
aIoH
lt
aoIlI }.TrroBIxaI.r.
oB
po'

B
o
opaax
) Byt Bo Bx MrTopoJlox

opaa
TaoBI{IIoy
oTBrTTB}.rBoo)oTM Topool1coo
opy ro paoTI.opaa' popaN{a opo aIo.opT Io A.
amopoozut,tdtt..'poo.TBaMrTopoox
aIo}.tIT
, a apopo o.aITglytoyHTI:oItoBo

239

eil (oH)' BooaTI]IyT ar (B) .oo[lTHI


yHTI a (H) oH oaT Ha apopo oo aa'
Ba apoBaI po.poI oaoIlIoa.,a BH
H - B aBoT oT opTItIxyo yaTa apopoa.
apopo opyoBa Ta oa, o oH paoaaT a
apoBo Tpo yIlT () Too ypa, oTopI ao o
poBoTBT oa.aBoyIIrI{I
yoB. I oa Ha apollpo T' To oH oopyT a opoo-.Tpo
yHTe ().
M poBo.TBaaro. .o)t(Hooa opo op
Tlloo o oooB y. Po oH paaeT rTopooa
Iloaa popa, or.lBal poBo.Toa. BH
paoIIaT y poBooox{HoooIloBltoy TapTy Topa B a !.
Booar yT aro oopyy ^aN|
l popa' a
oH (po It Too Tooa). !otlTIlI }rHIa paa a rx pBo}IIxpaoappax (P) .Ia a loo paHI oo, B.oT oaHI oToB MTopoo|\I B9II. BI a-aTrJUI a !H
poBo. o o poIropyo BIOT paI oao 200 . floaa a-aJIIoaTr a flH oaT pyoBoT oToB (apr po). ooo y aloe
or I oa po poooBop ro ttoTol, pao cTa.TrpoB! P a apoopTa.
opoo ar poBo.TppIo. Ha apopol\{
pyoyo paoo a poBoT )ao' a p a
oToB - p 30 . Ha apopoa rpyoyToo paoo rTopoJIoaro.o)IaI{Ta2 o BIarpBoo aoa.
o epeo:
pa,yaal,ay apHy.eo, eo. Booe pooaeoeHoo, y)B 6 ao ypa aHoBo'eaoyo6o,
ooop B|oHeH
oo apoooey,Hao|opaHje,
ol e 6too6ao.Bo o| Haotvl rpa. A ep
Haa>.o6taoe| 6 o Ha6
a B <<
a ooo 4 v. ppHo H)DeH
H opory o Aoa o apoopa e a a o.
p|,aJeyo .. a, Bayx(Ho aa - o o?!Bo ooMy oHa apopoMaa Hepyoyoo
pa6ooa6epoBopyoyoHo,a Hoa
pa6oa Be altloo l.laaoeo.Co
BaepoBaHHl
1o6l
o6y o <o6ep>o opoy oB
B apoop/a aM y) ax<'t
aeolo: eXa 2 oooBtvtoe
|ry,paya <yp>B Bo Bopol, oyeeoHao ooo papaoapoHooo|'
Mopoo ar .T a pzpl, |tuIIL|
topot.
Pezvpt aro.,a Too o o o to aa}Io' poo.T
)ao p 30 B aI\{ooT aooB a apopo.
po oo' o popI\II{rpyplrIx poBoT o
zry <Tpo>.o a oTyaTa AC oT TapIIIoaBaooo
Haa Iia apopo\{ paTB To ya, o.aB pao apo.po
240

poolllo TI{opotlITB. oe pypI Ha.BIoaT B


aelil4a .ytoTopoJIoMBa:
- ItapaBtl opoT Bpa'
_ B.oT BoT I{aBI,
- BH IIoo,I.
oaoTIo,
- TMpaTypo Too poI'
- oT}IoToBa)oTI,
- aTopI.aB.
Pyar x aroe,BJIa B Bo.' oTopI Moy paBaT opITI TrTo Mlr(yapoI o.a TAR SPCI.
opat ooB Ipaop o,I{.
oaIM aI o oo. Ira apo.po' o oopI IIa
prI a p' BIy oT BoyIIrIx y.oB' T alrr Tropoo aH' ojl)lIltlIoT opaTBI{IxopaoB Popoa,
paoo)}IIxa o apo.poM.
nuute aIoH poBoT B ooTBB pr pTp o yreHI I1yy.lllH ooI' oaBeI a AC oBeo
pyoBo.TBo aBapIIpT opalIa B.(, paooxtllIM a apopo. oto T pTp oBa.aTIIII7 yaoI paHI aJI MI{yoB apo.poa. aI HaIoe poo
a po.po BII9HIyaaoo pe.
pay IIo BO}IOBIJI4
Pyar aIlI a oyT ToJIo Ha Bor apo,Ilpo
o aaa B lra pye AM e epaloT.
Bopot a. - To Tae e:rI a.' o Too
a oT}IIBraNI' a a Br oMo oo.Ix yo. PeyaTIroporx I{aIo, B oe o aeil aI' a
pa oyloT.pa IIa o}IAC. a. poBoT pTppyT B x {ax' oa eIl,I oo.r ooTBTTByT
opI pTep' oTopIr oJIaoBIBa I{a AM pyooTBo
aBapp|4TvI p yo. Pyal topovIx a. p )ry]r ooI p.a pa )I( oe Too' a To xta p y)rIIIe ooI - prI B
apoBao rraroael\,I'
yTaoBIIIrIapa Too ep 10 o Too' a To Io apoao. lal lopo.rlx aro. pa Too B apa Tx
o 2 ooo BpytrToB (apopoo), opr FIaxo.THa aIIevII4
I{ oT apopoa, a oopo aro,Il poBo..
Hao oT oo, a Topooe aI. poBol,tc
(pypI, ropovI aIlI), eor paTa aIo. a
rTropoo Bea oaoBa:
pu,tt mep. Ha AC oxoo epT apaB opoT Bpa poBoT opelle a2 II 10 . po opr. a.
ItIx }IaIoefa pMIrI BTpo' oyIx BTa oa.,
.oelr oTaB 2 , ooy Io oao' To IIp Tao opr.Il
oyaT ao BepoToe aIIe BTpa' oTopoe ye IIa BoyIo y.o a Tx aax oa. !. opooo opa,
241

papopaHo a p.Iapo.poa, po. op.}I,o)I(oaBT 10 .


B oo' papoTpaelx a apo.poM paBaIxa op
BC, yppyT HIp, T.. BrTp' B apaBe oopoo BBo.
opaBa a aTo o}lH. opaBa )rTIBaTB Tx ya'
oa aHTo JIoI{o aolo B ot 5 payo. TI{or apaBH BTpa yaIaeT o' papoTpaIx a
p.IapoopTa.
B oor pH prroBrTpa op.rTTa) oTor
BTpa oT p,o I{a (optI), lpa aay opoT BeTpa
pI.yl0 .
Haa BTpa oBarT Ba B pa.ax opy o r,ralo a'a opoT BTpa- ( HoTopIxTpaax / ax).
Budu.ocm. Ha a B||IoTItIpoBoT oolro popoB opHTpoB BoT (,lx oHIx). Ira apo.po T
Tra oa.I{,a ax apo.pooBoro' To B.oTop.reTc
Too B.oB. ).TaI ar aBNIoToao
poBoT o a BoT 2000 r. c a B ul
2 , o Bo MpT y ooB ooI' a ecII.a B
or 2 , o y pr.I ooI y pauo TapTa. B oo ya B
Bo BaTeHI.By BoT.
p aux B.oToT 50 o l500 oxoo epTBoT
a B. po opHe .aIx a. a BoTto oTaBe 2 , oao' p To pooT }Ir poTo apuo oprI{
a ToT epo.. op a .oT poBo.Ta aqylo
Byx Iry oT.eo'a aTM .Byx o).l p,}Ia B.oT
rpae HaIII.
orryurroaIl BoT Bra opyJU{eTB IIIy opoy. JI }IaeB.ro 500 ' To opyH poBo7"tco 50 , .oTI{TB p.a o 500 .o 5000 ' o oy}r.y poBo.,IT
o 100 . p Bo oe 5000 opyell poBo..ol .
u noodt. Haro. a Br,{ oo.Ha apopo poBo.T r.a Byao. opa oo ex B I]rpe.aeTooBaTrJUI
oTpIITo' o.o AR ooBa a6l 46.78
Too o.a.o .ra B o a yaaI paT Be oaI Brjl oo.I, .r IlT Ia p. AaoIlI Topoor o.I x opt pat l paoTpI He.
om. Ha. a oaa oTaBIoT Byar aroH a xapaTpTaM oao' BJIIoa poT)eHIIoT
B BpaI{o opoIITaI{o apaBIl'lx' a TpyTypo opo, a
Ta) yIt{IrTaIae a Ioo paI{I HpaB.
tI opoTIo Ir}I. B oo B .yIr op. BJIIoaIoT
.aI{lo oJITBoao B oTaHTa, op oao (oo Haro.aoo.yBa II yBo-o}(.aoao') BIoT
paa oapaI oao a. apo.poo. B T)( {ax, oa I|}LI
HoT paIa,paopa}Ia Io M:'pBoT aJIII{a1a

1l,IBIoTIoaoB. ae BIOIe paI oao' pe.aBaMI aBaoHoy ooBaT)'BJUIt{uUII{I


a po. 10 . .
o
oaoT
op)T
a
o
o
oJIrBr
oao, a
aHI
opa
oTeIIoo oa.rocT )eo pya.B oo Bo (opar) o oavHoT Moy ooa BFIo TIpxox oaoB' pe opa o
rrl pa aa aoo tl)I(eo o. Bloa paI oao
BJIIoa opye}I.o l0 B lII)opoy. ara oaHo BIoTo o 200 , To l\{pt BIoy oao l\{o(o to oe Dpo.poa (.ra o o oH)' a ec|4BIoTa oao : 200 ' To pel{
BIoTIoao oHo poBo.a P paove TapTa. p pe
IIIe opa B P o a l0 , B oaI{ppa yT BBo.T opay. . ya}Ie rIvI pr Be'Ix BIoTy oao op.JIT
Booo, To BTo IOTIoao B Bozlx yurIBaTBezlJIaBo' a p oIeTBr oao 4 oaa ee .oya Byil'Joe ope.eeIIBIoTIx< aIII oao.
Te.nepmpa od u mJvI|tpmpmou poct. a Ily,
prr Bo' I\,IPaTypBoyxa a ypoBIIe oyoaopoB a
a B, o.ao poBo.T a B Ta ax rBoo)lo. ooy
ar a N{paTypooo ooo Tplt{oepa poBo a
orloa.e' T .aI IoT oTaToIIo ppeaTl. o
T.aI oo}o xpoeTp opJI IlpaTypa
To pl. TrpaTypa Boyxa Toa poI pT o,TIx oe
paca' oHao B Bo.ax T TepaTypI epealoT B I pa.ya, opye poBoT .o aro roo aIt.
m o d. ooea Barlo Boyxa (B
mo cum l lo
o> a apopoe I{r p. olo a apopo MpT MpaTypy
yxoo MoIloo TpoeTpa, o ' oy poTpr aI, op eepaTypy To poI ooTey Ba)oT Bo.ya. opr IIaIle oTIloTIlo ao epaT B poTax
opy .o I .
moepo deu. Aopo .aBJIeea AC I pyt apoepal{ rr appaN{-apoa. oaa apoea opyJlT.o rale o.o. a p. cT. B oax, papoTpaIIJIrD(
a Bo irpopo' yzBIBaeTaBrr B p. .' pBor ypoB paoo TapTa B, a B Boax' epaaMIx a .py zrpopoI,aBeII
yztIBaTB a, pBeIIoe ypoB}IIo op. op.o BI{e,I opaBo B oaaHIIapopa Ba,oJDer I{ py ypoB.
B p poBe Tooor alo IIa apo.poe Ir
oTaT oT poB.I{ IIaIoea ror pyx Ta. oao
aa BIIeTc(oIl apIM)>o arrr opa. il
ey opoo B aT o B.I{oT' BIoe e paI oao,
BrTpe pyl.x xapaTpa' oTopI oyT Bea aeIlo pzlT a oIII pao. lpo eIIT Bo Bp.
PpaBIr .aIea a aI\{ Mopoo a.
paTpa oJrya aoap ooBaIo aoB, paIvlHIae-

24

paoo paIr aToB op.a opao tt] <(Tax)).


(IA).
Ito B <<Hpxo.o IIyaTa pa)'aG apopooB)
BIaBoTBo
a
aIeH
olo a apo.po poBo.T
o.ao
oTo.
ooIlo.opoBI
lllx oa.oB a THB}IoTIO
TopooB Tx rax' o.a B Iy' . paoo)Ii apopo, .pyo
BII.
TM
a
o Ta T' pxo.T poBoT IaIo.elflvI
TropooHT
oB
a apo.poe ocaoIro oa,r
apopoax poBo.Tpao po yr, To aI.;g1aTax
oa,p aa. .al{o i"'u'^. o .rTp' 1^a)e
IIpoT :ry ooToBy' a x
tlo' To T a p.BapTo6)IG{I
.o y po B o. T B r T o p o o I { a . o yt TBJ UI r o .
Po.poToM.
ao paBa' oTopI oBTI{o yTI{oBI{rC A
Too IapopoBoT
Ha
apopoax
poozuu du.
p Tp
B.a
poBoT
ODHI
oTIrI; aIo.. aro e]cr
o)I(T BIyaa B oItoBI{IIIOT po. po Too IIIap-oT
opaTB
IIoTa
aT B o pyo Bp o ).aaIIIoyplroo
I{oopyoBoTBaaBaoII}Iooo.pa.,paooItrIlooI{aapo,po.
o
BI [I.apa-IIoTa ToT BIy ,o(}rI oaoBa
p, oo'
yo B,{ apopoa.
o epo:
pyoBoXol(yMHa.
o, o l oKoo po,aGlHoB ooeBy
o, o a)e aoao B oeHepea ea. oeH,H Bea..[eo
ooy a AMC
yooeM>.
<opoPl
pooHleaeHBto'lo?toHo
H oo, H pyH
B
He
poo
HoAa
a

oopo,
ooo
o|-iotvt
Hoapoo
o6ooe
Heoo
<B
aHa)>
AMC a
oo. oeo/y opooHaaHa
ya,
paH
a
M|
a
ep
HpoHoBeHHl
o oopoot,l,Ho o
He
060.
po
apa-oa
|ya
oe
ColroIapooTltIxaJIIoopeTcBTpltaBI0T100
apoo' a BIoTr pya lra pyx BIoTa. .{,oya ooBa
paTo
a
l{axo.
TaIt
T
x .aIx ,pyx Ta'
apoa
pIIaT
To
(
o,
H 10 oT ooo o apo.poa
aaro BIo IIIapoB,po a TA, I Ba paaIBirjl BII).
oToB T-IIaroa.
B T yllax'
apIII IraIo,gLIaapo.poy r [poBo.T
l1:
-BIoTa

)I(Ir

paIII

oao

IIa apo,poM

150 ;

-opoT Brlpa r oe 15 /;
o r _30 o;
_TpaTypa Boya y l 40
-Iraapo,poI{aIaIoTpoI'lIIaIoa..
o epeo:
opaHeHH |yapa-noaMetoaoHo o6ooal
BBeHH|
opouJap6a 200 /, nooeM|.Bto,o BpHa
o BpHa Blo
,,o'y np" |oeo6aoB150 t oyl4o oHy opa
<oa>
pyHo
oeH
/
15
y
oee

p
1O0 (epe 30 )' p opo
oeH
eepypa
p x
ap oo' a oH eoopoaHo.
MepaB|oKX
a
p
apo}4'
a
Jlo)Hooooo6ooy Blyy Ha6a
244

rypa ooaBoaHo3p|oopoa.B po Ha apooH|


a6e'oy,oHo' e l4aH|e
o, oaa o6
eoAoa,l.Ua
e.
B x ta' o/a o a-To pa IiIapooTHIa e
polIBo.II' ypI o oa .T :loToTJIo poro Bpa rra
BIoTzlxtI BooJIoBa..lI{I'
paBaeI opo Bo.ylllIx y.oB.
Pduoottluot du. Pa.ooaoI{Iaro. Ha apo,poN{apoBoT a oa}o)pooBIoaa' ol{a paa BrBIx oa.oB. a apopo opoo paoaop
(P)' To paoooI r.poBoTpypo. B po o.
oB T aro. .oI{IpoBo ao a IpoTyTB tlo'
ToB - 3 ' o oaoBaI{I IrTpo ylo
p oTyT oaoT a Bo pIt{oeoB paooaoI{I galoe oy poBoTcp 3 . poeHaTopI' yaI{oBHIe a apo.po' .onGIooBT oBTHo P aBTooo .JUIo{H opa o
Tooo)}IpooBIx oao. Pyal a pooeaTopoB
aoT lta paooaoylo apy oBTHo .aI P oeHo oylo B opaTBo-pooTo pao AC. B yx' o.a a apo.po P' paooaoHIe aro poBo. o.r o apoy )ypHoo HoTa olvlo .epoo paooaTopa.
o epeo:
ppa6olepoopAooopa
MP poao.Paa oo B o,l'o .qepa Boe oaopo)eBe (aot),
xoAea oH otlJHo oaovoooo6ao. vepi
oa - ol4ea.ooy B eepooopyaHoBeHt
ip,
oopoBoeoepaopy6o aBo,oop|ea o6a.H.e
pa )Hoolope
H ry <o]xy>.
p eo6oopoepaooaoHle o lB eepo(e Bo poo lpo
Heya paoeeeo) poa opooBpeBlKv
p.otoaHa
aHBpaeo opo6 o6l, eoBHo'o|4H
o6opo HeHae
a 10 ' oloyoyoaoHo oopooaHHI
oo/o6lo
paooaoyo6oy.3 20 a p opo o 900 /v (250 i)
oey Ha paHeoaopao H 5 . 3a aoe pI\4
eep
H yee a pa <<op>)
aoe, e,l oBoeBoyo6Hoa,6 x oeoHa 20 tp a Booo
Hol(y
oHolvl.
paooaoo
o6oo,e 6o o eepy o H)DHo
Ha.
o yy}ollr paBa paooaoltl{I aro oHo poBo.T oMoIo P .p oaTopoB' yTaI{oHHIHa pac.|oIkl oe 50 o apopoa.
nmuot deu. B oT 0T aa AMC anro
aapaTypI JUI pa yloo rropa a aI{ Boo)l( p
opal opTBIlo oT C arrr pzuloo Bp JI
p
MoB aogll JI oHa).ot yaaa opa o}{a
o aI azBIBae. o"tl Ie oJIyT .)ypI
IlooM p papa poooB oo.I paloT ya B! p

245

Hoxo.oT- p},I(oBoTByaBap.pl".
Ta aaaytoBo opa aalo B zroyp.
du dou c opmo odu,ttdo. Ha' poBoI po BC, oyT oy opa o ypyo, oe{' .B pa py oaI B. aro,e
cpoBo a)ll{Boyloo ya (vo ta ae eo), 1l.
}IoTo'oopl BJIIHB oTa a)a poll] pBapToea/to ooToBy.
a
Har. oe opa Bo.ylxoo y.a o.pa.eIoT
yto B.I:
H x Taax oTa
-du lra mq op lom u uJ!l1t,|.
paI
oao, Hae
a oT op,TB]oTy r p
BIoT
100 a BIoypyoT .'B BTpa BeTp a
T pya. oa a) opa a BT paT o Too' a
Boy]IIoy.o .oo oao IoI oeT' a p Il - o Too
IvloTa.oa BC IIe oTo oao BIOTIoa o oa;
_dtl npu nom no mpIc llu |1opo' p oe o Tpa
(paoy) a BoylIIHoo ya oprT aeypyo, o.rI{ .py oaI e oo.I' oopIe oy IIoeIIIaTpy
Bo.ytIIIy,a. opa o x BIlx pea pay o
oapyr rTpy B aIrrrr oJIyT p o}IyTavI
a]
- cnul u dpu pzpe deu. HeperpI aroe opo B poo.T o apoy IloTa A p opal{I ypaeIBoytIIHI B)I(e. oap BC o apoy Tpa ( a) .o pa IIa Io aI o ypyToT' oe,
BTp' TMpaT}pe pTxBr pao Boro Toao)L|:
-du no cnulo opt (IREP) npu lnouu ldpodt noo. opo po. x aei,l ope.r .
o py . paMapBa e y.
.{are ae .oe opo BC pyloT B zUIIIo
)ypa a AC, a a opy BC aIalo a a opoa oo.a)'
oopI oe pel\{.IlBC .oe oT.aBaTa AMC. po Too' peaBao a )yplroy }IoTy, oMa.p aa lll),?a (o
JIe ila' oTopI p a AC a) yIIo ep.a opa
o yox oTa o apIpyy.
,{ MTopooID(' apoor pa.ooaollIx a' x o, po' TaJIa' ,oyI\{HTpoBaI{'op.o oaa pyoo.My THoy oTaBy paoa yI /B)t(}taa B
Ho A, a oTaB paI\{eeoopyoa ppo a :rpo.poaA HA.

246

15
Co PAIlPoCTPAtItt
IroPA
ToPooo

tIA AMC

15.1. OtII o oooIIopra


B oo paoI o Topoooy oIo a.at op
papopa l\{opooo opa. fleiaTo' Tpy.o
pTaBTpaoy A, n Ita Ty Ta}rIoH oyaTI{ o.oo oopaoTHo l o oo..a o (oo.y a o> t{Boo}l(o
opa,
opooro
ya
.a}
T a Bo}.Ixoo
ToT a)

BIOHT oT o TI

BO,yIIII .

oo oy papoTpaIo Topooo opa Po.poMT y,o eIIeTc oro BtIaH.


o}, r patlI: oT Topooroo
opa
o
yla .o Toa.aTr aBaooo Tropoooo IoT'
oTyaa, oa .o)Ita l op".to,
oTy.a t opa
ucI!u]|tu l pnplmuo.
oTyaT .||4uLlrrcll,l4u
rol,Io . Topoo oot Toa opa'
aBa|l, oTHoT:
o or
-aa poa B.oTBa rT Topoox a;
- rT M)'yHapo.oo oa;
-rT aBToaTx a;
- pTBa paB oo.I;
oa Ta.
BT yI{BpaIrI' yoB.
al,r Too op
oJIy B oo opaoio
Too
alaII:lI
TBopT oa
j'|l11opo]lozuo
poozuo lu olo
. Ta' oo}o
oxt
opa,
o aBa.
TyaT oHoBIro
TropooI,Iop.T
o
a
rT
Tali
opo oopy,a
-Topoora

BtlI BIII,I ,oTToo BIoo To}IoTIo. oao poT


opak oytTB oT.JIIlIx {aTa aoa) oto poT)ItIIo.aT oxo.l pB pyI{x ooB pa.
oI! oBoT orlT Topoo}.
Cm,ledpodozo
opaIo' al{aoylo To' oTopa p.aT o po .
m mo-Ql?luu cmt oTa)T Ta, yTaoBrI{I{I B
TpylIooT}II paoa (pI, I Ap ..). a oro BrTIp pa B y pr.aloT B.,l o pI MTopoo
pe
a' a Io pa p Ha ( TaI{ yra)
Tooo} Ta}I. Ca aBToaTo T p.aloT pa
oB ppop, To otl opoIo. o.ao Ha Ta Ta tI
BIoIUI)T apoo anro, a rp.a opa B TpI
oo.l py ppaI up C.
oo To B T aBToaTx a aaIT Ta' paoomo,\4mu
)I{I a apo,poa. To o.M|1 pduomua
tIT|o]mury
r4
a
(PAC)
po.a

mL|u
,vmopoozu
(AC).
um.^4]
uoplttoo-L|,||pumIb
l ,Ilnopo()Zul

24'7

pIlJI pHa TNta o a.ao popaN4e poBo.


pyTaoB p
Tpa (a) Topoox BH, BIaa
paI{I
y
.ooTlx A'
yTaHoBrI
a pt ,aopI'
pr3yTaToB oTBTTB}tHt a oaoT oToB' a Ta o.poBalr
Ta a
Ha
ox
oa.
p U I}II Teopoo
poB
ooTBrTTB
poBo,
MoeT
p oo.oT
,,,op*u'
.rp
l -2 .
BakIAo
paoTro
cpdmt,l pdu nozodt r.yT oT pTBa
Bo.yto pa.
pa.oJloaPlduolneut pld ooT c oolIl pz;I{Ix
BpTaJIoa
oa a, BJIIOT
oIx a. ooI
Crr

poI.
IIoo pzlBTJI (or yBI yBo-ol), B
a
oaTopI (P), po Too' aIoT Boo}IoT aro,a
rTropoo
}rBooaa Bx pyx pyoB' pilaT o}II oaoB optlHo
or T...
T, op.JUIT BpTaJIyIo -pyypy oaIroT r
ca e aa) pea odu,lo pad oTI{oT BoylIIIII
oaoeopooeo
oo eyo.ro
poB IIa py, *o'op"'"
"
eoyTBIIIOIiT'UIIIIoTI.oIIrTropoorxyooTpa.
i'' tIorTI poBo. o pIIIrH oa}I.pa aBaolloo
oTpyTyp
BpTaIryo
opr.T
paBra oBoJIT
Boyla
ooI
eil
ag;avI
oIIaI
II
aoT' BoT B oaax, ae
pBa tto .,. yI{aTIo B oTax Ha Bo,yIy paBe oy
p:BpIIIrIIr.
oII Io IIa o aJlor
AC'
aBaI poBoI paBTJo pe.o
Boyra paB.a B pailoil
HaJIL|I|4
o
o
oo.,
a opalo
aIroo
To ((opoo yoBoTB).
peaIT a) BoaIx eiPII4iI X BIIkIHk1IIa Br, oT oay
a oay.
aox
TaIoI,D( porTaIoIIIx BoyIHIx yoB' a Ta BC,
ooo
IIorT
ora Ta IISBSJIT
Mpooa
HalaBakII.
oo,o oeI,IJI pa.aHo
opa'
C IIpI{MaIoT IIa arMIIIx aBoliot yax pa
paoa
" ''oorop,aloT IIoTa
"II aaJIIa. B ooI{Ix

opa
oaralo IIoI{I\,{yIooo.
C3
yo
ooHlx
aIrI
.lIo
o pi}o{rI
PaI BI I\{Topooro op'
B oIIoI\{ I TotIoB' B aTrIIo p oo'lloT py pya
oro
ooaloT yIIIo pIIIaT aa|4 o TopoooMy
paao avla.

15.2. Cop papopaer


eTeopooo Ilop{a o pa.oIlaaM B
paoaIlaa
Cop papoTpaIt rTropooo opa o
yTBoBa
ia
e
-

B otlo yxoT B poIIIor.


pduomopoozuecu
mpl
o1II
p Popo .oaToHo
rr.
eTopooyro
BIo
pa
(PM), oTopI prazr p
oT
a.akl
pyx
paao
op'u"lo' oxoylo oe
o
.ra
paT
opa
la l{apooo xoBa. Ca oa
paoTy.
BoIo
.,po,ou'. oao PM r oB ppaT
248

pr Bol o do,vml PMII, oopIe IIpaJIerapy oopI, ooa, oy .. o I{poB'a aoTy paoI paoa paal pa (a aI BTI ), o)Ho oyua opa o ao o )rHToB'aox B o oTBTBtIoT aHoo PIJ', ropoBIooBlr p.ypr)'aI{Io
Bp Ha Ioa aHIMP oyto paB.oo.I.
po Too' yTBe.c!uuooo pduoaH' oTopa oyrT JIp.aoo opTI{oHa opT BoyIIIHooya' axoo B oe. a 1a peaT o pao pa
'B
B.oB:
-npedu r/oLMET. pa o ooe (o) aIBaTa aoo tIppIBIro rpa p a op.o ao Baaoa. Ba BT ao I o.p)opa o
auo oo poHoax ooI a oay o eo apoopTa
(eyapor). p oy oo opa Bo.a' BtIo'
oo. Ta p.a ov yoHI, Ta lloe a Bo. Ha
ao y aoo BIIIaTBa. e pa BJIoTo
oTyIe 'oBI aIx. o o oo ooBaT' ooy II.
opa TaoBT oyo B paBo orrro paoe (ao
IIpa VoL
ooo 400 ). po oo, oa IIoTottIIo oBTop ro opa. ( ay BC ooMa eopooa opa o aoy-o poy apo.poy' To o oT
o{T' BoooBaBIaI{I'oTya o B.aaa. PeyplrI Bo. oToB a pyo ao Iax pe.aT B
p a paa B .r p oTpIToo TTa. .{,ao BaI{ Baaalo 2000 .
- pd TIS (utomti til ittion servie - oa aToaTo pa pa pa apopoa).a paa oBoJUIoJry
B aBToMao p)IN{ oo.y o.I{oo (loo) apo.poa. T pa.r
oppye B oTpITo B opeTB}IIlo oe IIpoBe.r a6e
o PA a pyo ao Ia. lao pe.ao
ATIS oae 40450 , poBo.T epea ar Ba paa B a.
o epeo:
PaHlBeopt aoHoopaoBea pyH|
poopap6oapoaH).a aHe|p
a HaIaBP A (pooeHa
pa B a epeopao ooe 5_9 poopo payeo 800 . ooy ta, a aory pa6ol|.JJBPA oo oo apoopa,o
oe<6a>>
6 ao <>opaeo ooeo FlptlJpyry
oe.
ooI Too rTopoo opa' pao o
paoal{aa B' B|oT. nmuol uop'tu Ba)a . e} a epe paBr poalx T, o oaoc"|4 a)ea pee TyMaI{a' oBaIBaIo ore oa., ..
C poBo B B.o papao aaoa' op
BI\{oM .aao oHI . oye opa o pap
oox ae oao, aBI{Iopao a ypoBIIx' B
.eBo pe. flal papaoN{.aaolle oy HTpppoBa
249

a HaH Nlpa}pl Ha Bpxrr pa oa B TH ce24 aoB.


Hao p opaHlI .afo MI oJlol' oToIIl paoB
a' oaa. o]\{Iro paoTpr T B}x BoB }loB ooaT
o).I{T pgpl{to apl{y papr oaoT. .aHI o Tpa.
Typ Bp pal oaoT, oyHt papaHo.aao, o},I IT ooaBHI BttI Ta.'apHI arll Trpa.
Typ IBo,}xa ap a l l l xB I o T a' o o Bo T o p T . B I T
BIoTy BpxI{ paHl oaoB B a.aoM pao. po Too' Tp'UIoBHa opaa yToBI al p glr roxo.oo popaIroo oH Moa I o oJIyaT .ooJI}tTHIBtl o

BpTaIII pox TpaTypI' BaoT' TpaTyp oBpxoT


op BTp a paIII ypoBx' paTaI{l o .B(rIt ao ..
oaIo' a o.HIxIl . ytltoBa opa .lItI opao ll alapT HoT B oItoBI{o BooaJII xapap p o or oo oTaoB.
Tar o pa.oaaaM B' Bp ooto paoTIlrx
poBo op pduouoo .^4mopoo?u('o|i
pr.TB' Ha AM
p
uoplu.
rTB MP Tpx oaTopoB' o oTopIx
Tao' To opaT IropaIo oT pa,ooapaaIBa
BIllI'
I y
oo TaH Mo)o Too o paoagaa B' a aHo pay
To opMaIL opIo o)Ho oyITBT o poBoHIN,{aaa
c'. Haro.' poBo,I ooIo MP, oBoIoT yTaoBT MToaoxtt{ llpo.T a opar}II I{aJ]a oT aTopIx oa(HxtI ap.oB)'
oB, poTao oaoT' BI{ Ta aIBaIx
Hopa a
po' Bo-o}IqrBIx oaoB po JIoI{o.

oyT JI pao p.yp)IrJI o oaIx II aBa|I TopoIIox B'IIIIX, ooHo x' oTopI IIa}oaIoT paBTHo o oT
). por Too' .aI MP oaIBaIoT oylo oapopoa (2040
o p paoT B poil( p.o TI Tropoox Ta}r' B IIpopx paoax paoax, paooiI oTaToo o oT oy,apBl{I{o paI.
I{aa B.
r, Ir ytloHy Tao- To HopB' r
op o paoallaax
a a l4onx-pldu |1ozod |1 |1pomLu opm. Bo.yllIIII
ya paloT a}Ir o auo oor oaI BH oo.I Too
paoa, B oopoM oH IIaxoT.
po Too' Ha apo.po B aTB prpBoo aItaJIa B ry oT(o)
,;I y)a B {a BIxo.a Tpo poBo.ro
Pal Tar
dulloa.
B
pqduomuu
o
B
o)l(T ooBaT
otl oxo)
a
Trp
flfl'
pao^Ilo
pa.oTa
Ta aoa
a TBIII oIoBItI oToBI To.
ooo pyTBo pa.oaaoB B p. py B.a B
- T oo.oT poJIa.IBaTopooTo a' a ooBo tl.oTaTo -Bp. TB ap ao B o . B p } ( tI Ip a. o o a o T o y o
yBI oT BIIS] cpI' o oopo o11(o oMaT B, aIIa oT oJUIpoo c|1|114 aTI 1p oa a}lo paoTalol oxoBI pa,oTa.

250

o epeo:
B o plvt B Hy)paoaa|
peao6o epoool ep,o6ploo.oatH ao-oBoeo
opa
o HaHaa opoaoaopoo,o peagoo e.
pooot
eepa,a o pa6oe.o H ao.o pe ya' oo
oye:<<Maa,
pae6 ary oo eepypo pa.
xo a|ao epype Ho a eypy,o a 3aa,
Ho aoa 6ye ap, a aM Hxoee oo. epooot
p _ o o ao.Ho 6e...t>.
o-oyoHoHHoo6.
15.3. op aotI Teopooeo
op o poBoI{IIt{
tla{ B
poI aHaI B BI ao a.)IToo M.
Topooo opN1a.o pooa a AC o)eT oya oI]la aT pa' algloa'ooo B oBpeI yoB, par B Topooapa, ooa oe oaot
aBappI.
oo p).r paaa o poBo.HIaaa , xoT HaoIlT' To o opoooopau oa .aHI,oyHI B pryTaT poBrrvl TopoJIo a poHor
aHIr, O{I{I{IB pyTaTpapo po}IooBoo.I.a oo
I IIoBlI' Hoolll\{opaTooBaTJUlB yoo rl rro
.JIl op. ooy to6a lrpalt Haaa oppy, a aTr p.aB . Bo.. Ca - o aBJI aroaBII] o).aMIx
(poo) opoox yoB B opI oe BpIl B ollpToI\{T' oTopo o.oToBrl{oB ooTBTB paHl
opao
JUIo)ooBIya. ooBaT. ooBaTJUI]\{
o opa oTI{oTl ar aoToB'MopooopaI'.TepI apooo, ya Tpya)a ar .Trpl aa.
opoo Bo. oyIoTc aBaoHIlrooBar'
aBI{Iopao' p oyrBtl ao oI
a oa, .. BTa
oa. aoT oa p BT oa. aay IropTBr.
Ho aB oT opel\{o ToI{oT oJIyt{HIxBoo. po o,
IIBtIoa ooBr T Boo pIlI\{aott Ba)IiIpt pooo HpoBa YoHe ec a Bo Bp oa. oy McTopoor Bo N{tTvptvao Bao ae
olloM T .ToaBa. o oyIo a) a AMC o.ooBll aBl,la aTooo TaTT o apopoMa.
ooo o Topooo opa oTyIaTa AC vp
potulo yaI{)orTropooLlo ytr (poao MC),
a ooBIlI poBoI{I (epaI lr oI) aaa B Ha
AMC BJUI.y:
poli poBoll epao MtrpTBa B (ao a);
po poBo aoMapo pa .aIx
(AC;
251

po IIpoBo. aao AFTN (aa A);


paoMTopoooo
po poBo opat a}IaoN4

Tpa;
- po poBo oI oM opoa' B oTopo Hao.Tapoop.
- TI
po pood mzpol Muumpl|Il u \pou
BooBo
opa
pa) Ha AC oy{H
oT Taoo.]
e
Il' yI{ (oa) ppaI oaIlI
apoy.
o
opa
ropoBoo oa o Topooro
o aa a AM rT B,a' o.ao IIooBM (a ouIlI
opaIr Tt.paI)AC oIaBaTB TpaI o yt.
My B pBr B apy.
opaa IIITopoBoooa y,u paoTpa o.pooo B r}To apapa.
p,to npood c uo II ao ap}I' Ta a ooBtlo
oIropa oTyaT1lo o Toy aay. B paa Popoa
o.aao)IGIaopaoo-BITaTa Ip.o pox y''n", oyoIx ooroT Txoooo
paoox
oaI{oTIo,
a opao .porTopoox.aI:
opa' paoaoBoTIo aIIa, oooTto
pa,,ou
*un oo*n,,BIx' Ta BI To.oB oTpoJI. ACI
.,p,'",,"'"'
.,p"",u"n"" oo oBo}oT paBoo-opaoo paata Tr. C p TrMoT A{ o)T l oo
para a oT.lypoB' ax<.r oTopI apaTpT opr.IIIJIao Blllotll a,a.Cy BBp rT opaor oTo B B aHrx Topoorx p, a Bpy B - oTo ppaao opa B B.aIloTx pooTx apT. opapalr }Tr
oa TpyTypa oTpoI{AII op.JUITTo
ppaoT.
a o opy o,o opa'ao .a}trq
B oopI yItTI.poTopoooT py[IpyloT o paol{a o Bo rrpo pa po opa - TppTopaI,B'Ie.cI{ayoTao TM
poTopoJlo poM (TM).
aLIaoTyalo
paoTy
op,
oyrTBJUIIor
orpaTBI opaoM'
,poTropoooo
JI.oBaIr
ayIII
opa' poBo.T
p)a o apro pp.|op, Br.rT papaoy poooB pa31Hoo
Ilaa' BI9JIJIMaT poo paTI.Happ,
,po]\{T,JIapoopTa yoBo (Ca-Trpyp) Ta T BJIT
rTp Cpo-aa,oo.
o pyIrIrlIpa o opy papoTpaIo .poToB paa
pooro opa IoT proaJIItIM G)
aaloT
P
AC oo opaTBllo-pooTo rToT
paoo. B Po T p PMI]' oTopIpaa),t1o-,oBao
oo}l(Ill o, Hoop aap. Hapy o B y
PM Moo I{ IoT r y poBoo .poTopoooo rTpa. o aroaT op poTopooo opa o TppTop oo Iapa' B poBoTB Bro oa poo252

o poI B r papTpaHllrl. po Too' B oalro N{poBoo


xoT xpa oyI aHI. B a TpaH apxB BlIIoT opBo

oolr

l-{, a oo

opa.r llpo-

yt.
Hop a a rpaIloBalloo olta opa lrIrt
AC y]rTBy BoI\rooptoB o.r[ (.yoo.
opooa opa' oTyalota o AC, op)rl aHI Bpo I oaHlpoHooB (B). B - ).yapoJllla
ra' oaa pTaB oopaot aapoli op
aBao}lI opoo poooB o aplIJpya orToB. B oypoB r IrI prToT oaoBao a NI}(oy,apTBrHo]\,l
oI{aHIxTpoB oaIpoHooB (B PI-\). p o oItoBHI
aar ao TrI Beor BoIvIo)oo oIx HUIlxpoooB a pao oor {To ooTBTByrox poBl"I' ytBrpx{IrI )Iqy}rapoo opaa pa)alroil aa

(oA).

p a opTBo arut-o aTB o ort


BIB / PI-{ .yrTpaapBa a oBo pr.oTBT
ooTBlII.aHIo oaIpoFloaB aH x TooT' BoBproT oeo yoBrTBop}I yaTaoIl]x poa. o
o.payBTa ooTBTTB},Ioropoaa' ooBTTByIo atIIx ooTBTByIoxTrxx pTB.
Ha or,B oTolIT B}x BpHIxHTpoB (oo
Baru) a.apoaHITpoB' o oTopIx Itaxo B
o.
o a.To pa a A e oTya y)IIa Bo,'To oT oIarT apo B o. ao aBaoIlI Topoox
.aI. o oTBToB a apoI pooT o yroN{y aay
A. Cyruey Bo T polx ao .HIx'oTopI paoox{I
o (Boo), B, pro, Baro paa..{ pox
AC poTT opaa apyl aa aHIx' a a
oII' B oT o aa .aIlIo Bo' a Topooy opaIo a apo pyto oaI.
FTN ( ). o aa p.aB oo
p.o pood c to.|||
BpHyro Ty aoHlx llpBatx , paHao
aBIopao. o ooT apoaBa' a Tat(pyJI,IpoT'o aItoT Boylx}roo .B.AFTN pryapBaT o oo | pot .aHIqy aBaot poBaItITaH(apoopa).
B o oT TI AC aHaI AFN opaoBaI o pHpr.a oo, T.. .r oTytTByT rpapxa
y ,r}rpaak7
otlTpy oa Topooo opa ty ooBaTr'
pyla aBToapoo T Popoa. o .aT Boo)oT
opooM opal{a olra opaTBItI .aI ,IIpy
eTopooItvr
opaa apy' a.I]p ToM BIlItTo
opoT p.aoo.
TaH' o' B BoIo op.'oBl]aT

25

opo poa }I BpHI aTpaT }ra or{ Hoopooo Hop]\ta poBT B To ya' a AM
xol .aHI o arlo oo. pooI o apo.poy oa. aaI' a B pao allaoB AC poor 6o pya opa H
ooo

T paBo oaT po apo


oTya. B ol ya HoT AC
o aaa AFTN B apoopT' oo oopoo oTyTTByT' oyT
ooylo Iropa.
p,to npood omonlp(rt.Il Io.||4pdo.vmopo]lozL|oz

Ill|lp. o . poB p.HaFIaH. pa B aaooBo op


pae opa)H. Ha oBpIto Ta paB|7.ITH aMlIIx aapaa pa HIiI )D oytoT oayro, ooB oBa poI{N{y ay, poayto aI paTBo.
poM' a apy ooIo aHI aapa oITpy BIBo.T lroxo.yto Hopa a pTp.
pto npood n1J.loI!l.I|t|,Jlo.|vlZopod, omopoI4 od, Ipo.
]
opoox
l1opt1. PapoTpalt
.aI oyTBrT
p oo ToHo B. o ooTHo opoo oo B
ooBaT, oBoIoI BH6T B paI ooH yToH'
oTopI Boolro opaT B o.oBo op, oyo B aIx yTpoTBax. oao . Too aaa B xapaTpI Ta }l.oTaT a

p pa opa
BpoToT BoHoBH o
a Tpy.ooT' a a p ox ooBaTex opa
po )( (oBaH;aII>>al{a .oBoo Iloo Bp. po Too' eoHI{I paoop tI aIBaT }Ia MaH}IyIo [rTy' o Hr pooT I{o ppa p.}Ioo ooI]itl. oToy TaHapTy TIroppapoTpar
oyro l(y oT a ppBHyI Ty
T.
ooBHIx
a
ca
oTaa
NIa, p.yoTpylo
yy Ta pyo oo oJIoBa ToHHo B. Ia
poBo.T a Iropa o oo a oI aTooTBT' lI
AM
opa, o IBaT oT aBJIa' }ITp},r Topooo
ora

ooaBa
a a yoa JUI aToB AC,
Topoory opIo' Tl, To o paoBo ac Hopa r
pyT LIx BII]aTTBa.o oBr}I r.ylolx, o HoBIx .aHI.
B ar eyT OTTT' o oo pHIx BIIIIyIyT pyr. prTBa papopa}t Teopooo I{opa. o.

TooTBT.

op.' )polozooplL|a (), paIlae B


ottI rTopoo aBaoHIx y?' poo)rHIx }Ia apo.po' paI mponuLuu|Ll mpom' oBoto BopoBo.T
oo o-o , y.aIlo oT Ta oT.
o pyooo
paBr' m]lLldue' oyle BoHHyIo apy l]p.all
Bol]Hoo opa)H oyHl aHlx (prp. apTy oo.l) a
B pBylo

paI' paooI B paox o ooBaTee' a<e.I4llll (I7HeBooTa), ptla JI pa ooe oy o.


TBy ooBaT, ao.IXc B opTBItHo o py o
pya. oao T BIIIB l paapBa ., Ta a x ooBa .oTaToHo oITHo o.
"|<

opoo paaaB o poBoIx pa.oal{aa B, Mtotx a


AC, o o opa' oopy a AM o}"Tpa o a.
I{aa'oTBT opoTo r a Bopo o To' aylo opa oyT paaT A?
A epaTavyto oo.y(Boo) apo.poa'pooI oopaoo
HaI]a'.aIMP, .aHHIoyto paB.oo/I,
.I
lIITopoBIooBrH pypIr,I apoo .aIrI.B opa B aBoT oT oTp6e IvIo)I paa o poBo.HI
paoaJla B oTplTIM TONI VI|B aopoBaHHo . !.
opoBa o opa oyT aI{]r yapoHI
aaoIr o.I'p o oTopIx o .
o epeo:
aBaoHHlX
BC oa 50-x oo oa e CCCP yeoaeb p|"IlX
ee (eaA). a la opoBaHao pyHpaoao
pa opa. 6lo oKeHooee a pyH|
apoopo.B aoHHlMeopoo\
ep',a epa,Cepo,Hoo6p
opeet
po pa,ooptepe
oo6lx,oppoa,.a
oaBal4eeopooo
B HpCAC, paoot
eHpe(A) o Byoo. oo epo apaoaeoaBeaapooplep epaHy AM, oyaeo6oyopa Holpee.
pava opa B aT}toprI\{- ooo .oTaToA.
.{,o To' To p'Tao op.oa opa a AC .a o.
Tya B aT Tepa' ax{ r Ho paot ro yo o
.B-TprpaI. ao op.o paot apya aaI B| yLI[Ia
x Ioeitce. A . ooer ypoo B Tr o,I a t (oxo.I>a. opa Ma AC ao-o p BT HaIyoBpIlITBoBaTI CIA, o. oTpIBlllllx oBIx Boo)oa o, Ta BITox.
Ta; B ao-o p Ta AFTN BeTpaBTN,r NIo,pat
Itaa A, o oopoy aaa o pIry rTpaapIp.aBa
oo Irapylo o,Hoo apoopTa pyo. T paa a aIBaI(BIq}II))TpaMI'Tpe x JIpaI
opa o op..
15.4. Opa3l{ lTopMooo ooB
yplriil AMC
o.a )TBtltllxpo MTopooroo o oToB
- BoBp}IoooBr pyr o oarx . oToB Teopoo BX' B ToM -IoaI paoBpeI{I xapap. !,Ttto' oTopIr B' Happ, poI' p'
IIIBUII
p.' IoT oaI xapap Ii B.a oapyta oTM rTo.o.! oo 30-x oax pol]]oo ToT a pIta Ta ooB o oaIx Topoox Bx o a,
paooHIBopy apopoa. a oa;La.o otlo oya oee papoTpaF{r.Ca II]TopoBIxoo
pIlTpoBaa.oa paBT oo Ba)IyI aT TopoJlooo

2s5

oyo oaoT tloToB. Ha o lxTooBIx ooBIH


HaIl
Bp
o paB.e opoBo pyp)rrl{. B l{aTorr
IIITopoBIx oIoBrHI-I pryp) e]HI o Bopoo.
opaa tllTopoBoo ooBr p.yIIp'II a apo.po
II]TopoBoo
oo yoBo o)l(T r paa Ha.B aT: opalra
I{a apopooa opal{aIo topoBoo ooBre p.yp).H
py. o Haaa aBaT ,a. op.tl llrTopo3oo ooBrvI
pr. lmop,too o|loLu - To paoBa Tropoora
T"opopalta o aaBIIl (yJIBIIIJ oaa Iooo TropoJlooo
- To op.
}Io. aBI4a i I1oo.I. lllmop-loo npdpJldtt
B9HI[
aBavI
oaoo
(y)
NI
a o o,ao Bo[ItIoB}I
ooBrle
11lTopoBor
To
a
o'
oo,I. x op. ao
oT.
oTBaT IraIo.aT, a opoBo pyp'I{ papaoaTIBaeT
AC
a)'o
Bopy
ooH
mopl|4oo; oba. !
pzuu
BIIo.a

pBaT
o.arT IIITopoBo oo. PoaIr C
I{apaoo
MToTa
o oaIx aBI4a Be' oo.I
IIaaIl'
oo
aI{ (aaoIr MToTaI) ToTa
oTI T.,.). oto oa ITopI\{oBoo oa pTopoorr
paoo}ttFttl r , 20 o apo.poN{a
BaIoT rTroTa'
p,I{ o .aII]' 200 . T paTo oyoBIrI T' o p
paBo 30
poT ltt apx opaoa aopI p,
o l{ a A
l,I/, ao Bt{ oo.I (po)) 20 Ip,
oo
pT Tpaa' a oa Brr ra lflra200 , To a rT .a{
xo.a' oo,a o)l(T HaToo T, To opa 6-,7yooo
paTaoBo aBoT oa)I(rT IrppIrTaTBI{o. B topoo oo
, a
20
r
paoo)l(IlI
Toa'
BIaIOT
oa Hr
lIITopMoBo
B
BaIoT

200
o
a
Ta' paoJlot}IIr
ae
Ta.
Koo oo B paoax pro TI0 MropoJlo
pTB B opoBo.III
p
oTytTB
paoa
B yooyllIx
oaHI pToTa'
a IIITopoBo rropa pBaIoT
A o.a
opaoB
TIx
.a pa.oprTBa B. o yaaI
paoIr apBJIaIoT
B o oalx a13aBJI ooI
a
Ta
a
II1|,
po.poMoB IIoa.oIIIx loao I Bo.yIrIx
paoTI.
BoytlIHIx y,oB' oTopI BIO}UI)TaBaoo-x
ay IIa pBr paI ToTaH oa IlITopoBo
poaHo
B
oIJIaT
A
pa OTaBJIT )oo aaI{
(tpBrII,l
op.JIT oopaoT
C
Pyooo
.
p
o
t{JI) Toi|}Io Ta B IIITopoBo oJIo.aoo apo.poa.
1IytITIBa Hallr p.TB B IIa To Ta ee apy)HoT
apaIIlBaT
MToTa
c aa.o
paoo.
opaoo
To pyoBoapoopTa'
pa}II
Ito
oo
B
IIITopoBo
BtoII
o apoB oa Trpa
pror
yaaBa
TBo MC
pBaI pToTaH,
BIop
B
(olo o BT).
o
ropooyoTI

poBo,T
{To
a IIIopoBo Hopa
pTB B
apopooB,
oo)I{
o T, Boopa opaoo
rp.aTooBr
poIr
poaalo aTopl{l poroB.

256

Ta||- Too B
B yTaoBHI a.pa pyoyoo' a OT.FII
opall
oay
IlITopoBo
po. x paoTI. Caooo ppaaT
p.aopal"Ir
o IIITopoBo
aTop aprrT. TpaN,{l
T o TpaHIaaa I{oop> BIr op,.oyo y
Ilaaa AMC pyoBo.Ta MC p Iop a IIITopoBoooJIa T r o.{a(ooHa o>. a rI a AC TpaIoT a opoBoo oa rro aTTMpBy B o yr Tapa oTpaBHTpa.o' ol a B ITopoBo
oJe' T ){IlI,}Io o.a aaT TaT tI, II Ho.a IT.
oy IIITopoBooo Boy .oo apopoa aTIBaTo 20 o 40
a paJllloo aae' p T TaII rpao Ta pa(GoIIIoo IIoo,I))
oT oa
To' ToIp o HapaBHIVIII
B TaH oa Ty ooy apaT pr.yprAIVIC opoo
Trpao.
ooBIeII op.o r( oBe o AC
Cpa IIITopI\4oBIx
pyoBoo
TIIoo oTaBa yTaoII HMo A
(A, rTpoo'
oppTpyT rTHo yer4,co
apo.poI{IIaTJIO
a a.o]\,{
yoB a apo.po.
oIIpTTIIx
tlrr a.oT xMa paoo}III{lIeTopoo[D(al{, l.tD( B IlITopoBoojlo, oop B B zlJII{ooTI{.a paaT
B oaT .xtyplloo tloIITa a pao Tax paoo A, oaror
a oaoTIIogToB.
o epeo:
Cxa paooeHa, paopao6 oalBHxooopaoape. H o ap
ol,eaoopeHa pyHoao
<<oa>
aaBex yo, oop|xo)Hao(po Ha|Ba)
paoHe
ryaHa AM opoBaop.ooo ooyHaya|Bae
(pet)po poo)opoBo
o apopoao yHa oHpotlt
opao aaB.poeoo' pBa eHppyaoy/ aooe
opyHop 50 o aay
apopol, ap pogooepe
(ay)
HapaB
Ha|Bae
ap|,a Ha o}46oopyry ooHHo
epe
10
olBa
Hpae
o|Ho
pv

o apopoaH ry aH.
pe
0 yo|payoB.Pa Hppya 6aBo,Ha oopotvl
oyopeHyeepaMy opaeo oaoteH apaauJol't.
Ha ao-oaH,HoKoo oy ey,
a
oopoe
H oo|,
H apaHaopa}4yoHooBela o o|-|pe o]vlo
_ paoo Ho. o oo, 6l oyeHa,oHa y]vlop)DHo
opy)ooH.a o, o eH oeHp
oaa epaHo]vl
HaaHMaH,yoo payo eKo Ha|a
tiol'1'<<ol]'1>>
Cev, a oop/a H a, o/ oBooe |4-op|4
oo|'1.
lop|o1btt4
oe y| e paM'aopogoooogee peype)H
pHtvly Ha| a e to pt'4oB|M o olvl.

pzltuu 1amop]'|oozo nou u npednpdu apodpot.


IIIopoo oorH tlp.ytlp)Iqrelra apopor aJIIoarT B papao oo o auo o.ao oor oaI |I aBa BIlM ooI, oopIr oyl IIoBT a oaoT oToB opa}IoTxI{ IIa ' pr,a T Boo B yaoBe}rlrI a'pa.
oal BtI ooI pu nom no mpUv|otloT:
251

poI(rol);
Tpo ol;
}lIypyoT o;
IopI BoI uar yp'
Bya .
p oa o opor M : 0,8 o oaI JI orToB .ooTot1TaIoTypra yoT' yBo-o.Baoaro pa.
a apo.po a.a o).arT (po) ao-o
pl BIIII, To B To yar BIyaT Bo. opa
SIGMT, oTopI ar p.aloo allaa B. opa SIGT .ao y.r paaTpBa opoo y. o
IJI,To T Bo. ypyroT' o aoB r.Bo IryNlrpa Bo.o
a}IaT aaa. Co opae o aIoaIM oao Br (opoBo ooB) paT .o oBS, a Bo. pa o o.ao oao B (Ipoo p.yp}q)pT o FCST.
oar B}IooI npu nom a 4cmt odu,tluu u
o po (a roax o 3000 ) .ooTrJltto yaaIroy BII]IoIloT:
- BTp y opoTIOo 15 /;
- B.oTy }I5 a oto TppTop;
- oaoT BIoTo paI rI{ 300 a oruo TppTop;
- yN{pHaypyToT ypIro oIrr;
- ypI{IopllI BoI.
p .r poo prIII BIIII a AMC ryaloT Bo AIRT,
opa oopIx Too ooTBTTBy pay
Bo.o SIGT. o Ta)l( I BoIo ypa)' oTopa )It.BIlo
I{aaT Ha;L[a.
ao Tpo, ox<a1, o opa To' IITo aTaBII
(Ho A), a .pye p}oBo. .oyTI aro oH o'ITIo <oraTppTop>. B o oBTTBeoT aoo ToT Bopo pIIIaTo-paIloy. a o TalT, o a apopor rx y 10-15 a Ha oo apT oo.r aroaTc |4
yy,IHa B.oT' a oao' To Ta1rl TppTopIo o}Ho
TaT <oro>.
oar BIIM ooI' oTopI admc podpo|, oTI1oT:
-

oo. oo.a;
IIIBUI p;

Ia opoTro o |5 lc;
oC BIllI 40
TpaTypa Boyxa y rJI vDe-30
";
oC
opaI
po TrpaTypl Bo,ya y p 0

_
M.
258

Tpoe

OIII;
poa' pa.;
r Ir poooTro

o 2 ;

a-

-o rpI{HIe o.aTHa apopoM' To lloT oTaBrT ITopoBo pyp)'Ca tIIopoBIxpyp paTpoBaoI]o A. Hao oI{oBI{I
oa' pBI papao tllopoBI rrpypl X ary
ooBaIo.
B-pI, mop,|'loo pdpdu ppmblam tu,Mao
o.,t,too
azoplIrlloInlo, lto oe . o po Bo oaTor Too' ToI }Ia apopo ooTBrTTByIol yI p, oI pI oaoT' .o Topot{I' poI{o oaa oTaToHo
THI(po pooa oto)- pyo.
B-oprx, mop4oo npdpdu nepdm ,M rrr.^4
. , omIo|Lv,t Coplt1ombmuu |. o o
Io A Ta .oTaTotlo oo. B tuopoBI p.ypr} Too papaaTIBato' ToI y<t paalro aa o ooToBT aao yIIITOTBJIBoI{ao oaoo BeI1
oo.I.
B-px, u on(rHo Iru apodpol oIruo,a mop]||oonpdnpdur comIto o, mo mu c,,lIdam mop,I4oonpd||pJtoul opll|u oncltozo u.
o epeco:
oe yoHo oo)e. ryaMo oHHyp H oH
o6pooo)ypBeHoa.peoo,o HoHo pllJoa. y, a po,a oa poHy'o ye/ o Ha apopo]
rya. o
pyp oxpaee
ea? Bo x ya HHo a opvloBoe
ry}4aa'
B-.repr) tl podpol dm odo on,oeu |1ozodt u mop*too ttpdpdue op,|4o ocm6o, l7o m ol.
om o7llul{oudpzozo otltt|o?o6l1u'mo mol,tIdm topo mop]v|
oo npdnp d u .
o.e. IUmo p't,tot np dp Jdu o op'tlm l |lul,,ll
u pllo||lnod pnu pomu zpld,o uuu, omJ dt ,\|oJm onaon nomo podpot. lo
To IBaTp Afl (apopooo Tpoo yt{Ta).!vp
A IIHoBaT o o pyoBoTBo aapp.,a p oo.oT .py yI. opo Bp}{}IIIlTopoBI pype
yta apoopTa yTaHaBBaTaaJlo apoopTa oBTIlo aao AC.
Ta pao, B ropoBIrBo (SIGT' AIRMT IIITopoBI
pyp).) yaoBtIHI op.o ooar pyoBoTB aBap.pT, y, B.(, oy oTaBy paloT IIo aza B.
po oprlr ao pyur,B oopo aao o4'
o nocdoqmLmuu l|1oo)oora oT.
o epeo:
Ho,opo epopo oa|xBeHoo|o 6lTyaoH.Happ,eHa popoHoaHHo
BoHryMH,o B epBy oepo o Hy)Hopyp
eep,a }Door"lpyooeaB-

2s9

ye epa, 8 , oay,B eppp.E t o)aHaeHoe


y opo)6l eeHoap,ooptoopaHoapory o
opHeHa ere'oo o oapa e oe,e B|aa
p HooBoHeey oo e,o H popo}4e
}4eprypa
Boyaya
o oHoopayaMopoa(pap o) |I1
o HypoHoopay,
Bo pyooBopopoyt o ).|aeyo 6y oao.
B puIll]o B o apapa oTaT opaa lxTopoBo.
o ooBilI| pyp.H Ita apopor: opaHa lllTopoBoo
oa' oTaB IIp} o lllTopoBoy ooBreH p.yp)/H Ita apo.po HyoTo BIoJIIle.
p pItIx opoBI ooB pyp a
A oTaBI p/yp)IqI{
o ao o.ao B B.
B
)
500-poo
o
aopl.
opa o auo B
a
Bpa oyae a AMC oT Beax BoyIIIIx yo |4o. Bo,yIIIIx
y,oB, axo. a oay' a o)al Bpa - To potlo Ba
BTpa ypltI I{oTo.
15.5. Aollo-MTeopooe o.I'
oyMIe .oa MTeopooeo op
! oa opooo opae y paIII aBotII Teopoo opalra oy oro oeTBo pa.
oHIx (ol.rr) :UI}II)yllapotlIx aBaoIIIx Topoox ooB. a oa oTtIoT oI H-Ol, -03 H-04
(<<oI.rI>)
ylrapoIe I). Ha oa T oo I oTaI{aBBa y, Ta a yeoB aoMT p )I pyx lI .I{' pe paIII, Jry <Aaoa MrTopoJro)).
aIII aBao}IHIM Teopoo oa oo o.I

MTAR, sPI, TAF, WINTM, ARFOR, RoFoR, WARP RADOB.

ol TAR SPCI paaeI. p.a opa o ao oo a apo.po. Paa oo Too o, o oo) oa MTAR pe.aloT pyJIpIe Bo' a ooIo oa SPCI oo.
o yeBeIIIx rIIx B oo (epeypI o).
o TAF y) epa poIlooB oo.I o popoy' a o
WINT - JUI pa poIloa TI\paTypI Bpa a BIoTax. AaoI o.I ARFOR RoFoR p.a}IaIIllUI pra potlooB o ppTop o apIpyTy, ooTBTo. ooro oa WARP epea
opa o oar B,l ooI' a oa RADOB - opa P.
B p.rIlI BIllI oI BJII e)ylrapo,I o5Tc IIrpra opa Bo Bx Tpaax _ ea ICAO. Cpypa o.oB
oaToo o)a' oao IIr B oII o.aoBo aTo o5oT IIa pa. Haoe papoaIrI BIoT ol TAR, sPI TAF. T.
paI' ao.poBal{IeT o.a' tIoT.oJD pao.poBa
oa' .e. I{aTTpyypy oa a aT.
ooo oT aBaoI{Ix Topooe o.oB oT oo olI) JIIOaTB To' o aBaoI{}IIo.I ao py oy o.p.
)a pao oTBo I{aoB ( oIIx o.ax B ao py oao IUIT p), p B pya oo p o BTpa t
260

BoI. B aa aro TrpaMN{I Bo. .aBoTTlyBI, ooTBTTBy aBaIo oa. po aI. po porro Bo
Bx Tpaa}aIBaTo pI{rypHBoy BpH.B paa' ao,poBaIo.o MTAR, o pyp Bo (pyao rro) oao op.oo poHo a oa.y (a p a
a oT oTaa).
po l xl aBaoII[lI Topoox o.oB'
aBaT po o ax<o pyIr a)oo o.a' .a) To
_ o aoapo, Cyy
1 o aBaoo opoo
Lo.aIlIop )yapo.IxaBaoI{HITopoox ooB, oTopIMB]' yBa}aMIa' Bao)ToaoT
BI oBo.Tao. a pTpaa a A, To B l\,{a
T oIloBIr o.I(MTAR, TAF), a B MI oTaIIIxooB' a B oITIr oT, y.(a,IBaT) .oo.
o epeo:
orMAR TAF pH,oeB|oo v|e o.flo o,
eoytyo opao o ryeBypaap oHya
e,
o aooo poHoaxoo|eeM aoApoaHol
pa.o ee ota oaoepaHepeaBHHl
ay-ypeo Bpeao HoAaopa HaM oopaopoBa
y pyy.Ctto y epe H|MoaBo. oapopa|4rypa 6y HaKo|yeBa.A a opl|HoooaayteHe oaa
- Ba o1H
Haoo.

261

a 16

ABAOIIHI PoItot ooI


oA OPABIBAMOCT
l6.1. TpeoBaHr eBt BaoltIM
oIloa ooI
pooa po a AC - o.Ir ooBIx BoB paot opaTBIopaoB Popota.p poBoTBeoToBeoo.o
BeI{o oo o)tl]opao yIBaTopoo
co,
a B aI o, a o p pl aoeTa a ooBTByro yvo appyra o' ooo a apopo o..
pozo tloodt - proaaoaoe BpoTHo oToII oo.I
(llpoox yo), orao B op.Ipo Bpr B
opo o aT BoyI}IoopoTpaHTBa.
B opH pooa oo.IT Tp}lI FIT,oTopIooo oT.
Bo-prx, poI{o - poaaIr ao poTI l\,ITropoo yoB. {o' poI{o TpoT I{a oIIoB lrayt{oo poo) {rTo BTI aoop}Io ,I opoo
yo Bo Bpr poTpaB.
Bo-opr, potlo - To proo)r o aoe BpoTI{IxTopoox yoBx. o prultlo B)o yIBaT' oBop o Boo}HoT poopoBa,I. B oo poopoBa,I )T xo.a opa o ao oToIt oo.I.aa ooa _ oBo)ItIoTae MTopooex BH aopI B oe a,. oao' poo oop, ao xoo opa papao
poIrooBooI H yTByT' Ta a, oo opoI' l\{Topoora BeaopJUIT ao-o opIIIoTIo' a pyo TopotII'
B MrTopoo BHI xapapyIoT tlBoto a B poTpaI{TBe'Ta Bo Bpr. Bp HoBIx TI{x peB' BIoa
oe' oBIIaooT xoo opa, o po o
ToHoT B IlaTo Bpe oa.oTaTooayo.
opro, ooo aBaolly, oxo. aMzUIo ot
poo ooI. ooy aBaoI poHoI oo.I .o)II .oaToo oooaINI|4 otII. o oNI apapBaT ao poTI ropoore yo pao, oopoo.aBUIpo. T
aBaolloo pooa oo.I .oI{ l pa' IiIM
oyaT
.BoBIrooTooBa. ooo o aaT IIITopoBIpyp.
B ao BpM l\{eopoo opaI' oalo aBaIg,
oaBIoT rpTBI ool. C yvo Bo oI{oo BIIII'pooI oo.I.o)IlIt pTaHI B BpoT}Ioo
p' o.Hao oo .rao o p pI{'oTopIMI y oya pal{.
xor arpaa papao poooB ooIa AMC
BT ylo:
- perrIo oBIr apIooI;
apTIapu oopa piBIrIx ypo;
262

pI BIOHIpoo apTI;
.aIlHI TrpaT}pl]o-BpoBoo opoBa aTopt

pautx

l\T{oB;
- .al o To oxt.o oo. apo.pooB oa,
:il?CHl apopooB;
- opoBl ooBlllH oT Ta}r txTopoBoo oa;
opa o IIoo o apoy;

,aI{I opoo oo.l ;


opa o oo apo.poN{o TI{I Boyll]HI |411i,1;
Iropa o oo. ayx(I apo.pooB;
aI yTBIlIlIx },T}loB ;
.aIrI P;
.aHIr ]apooT}lIx aIo..

o epeo:
ooDe Ha o <HHl>oK. MoHo oyMa, o Hoy poHoat4
o e
ae Hoa aHMa- oKo aapy oHl l4apa.Ha ao ee
. Bo-pB|X' He a B oH| aepa HyHo apoBaT aooy oHpHoo poHoa' r Bo-Bop|,aHH|oHa|aH ap| ool
,1'pyo oHo Hopa poT a Be pyX poHoog. Ta o y
Hoa Ha B poHol pMeH Baa.
1.2. OoIIIe BI aaoIII
paaTIBa}Il I{a A

poooB ool'

Io IloTB o TpoBa IMo A a AC,


/ p}' papaaTIBaT .ytoIr B,I aaoI poooB oo.]I: yTolII poo oo,I rro apo.po; opaTBtII poI{o oo.I o
apo.poy;opaTBIIIpooIoo.IoapopoaMTIIIBO.}II{I
IV papa, opaTBIx pytl I\4Topoo oToB;
:IHI'JI AMC
a oa,y; potloI oo.I o Bo.yI TpaaM, lTooI
potIol

I{I Bo.yII aplxpyta; poHoI oo.I o paoa{ (oa)


oJIToB' a Ta poo Bpa TMpaTypI I{a BIoTa. po Too, a
o},T oTaBT IUII B.I pollooB . oH'I paAMC
I cIIaH aBaoHo x.
mot npozo no7odI o podpo]|,| pHaIra B oI{oBI{o , py},To1loo polloa apyrT
oBo.TBa aBap,I]p. Ha oa
paoTa. o poo papa6a
.a
oJITI,
paoTa }, oaloi

iu,"u","" 18 00 .o 18 00 yIoIyro (o Toy Bp)


oToT B}x aT: po}IoaooIa o ( 18.00 o 06.00) pooa
Iloo'Ia. ( 06.00.o 18.00).Bp pooaoo.la o Ha.}I
rT a( B T }Iax'o.ao opa.
B ayro aT yoHoo Ipo}roaBtoaIoT .aI{Io .tol]l M BIUIooI B yaaIro H ooBaTopoox BrLIalt^
TII9T:BTp y JI(apalt opoT), Bo y ' Be
ooI'oao (ouo, oprta, BIoTa )I{paI), TpaTypa
Bo.ya( poo }Ia o yaIBaN'laaTrpaTwa, a B poo- aMaJIa).
r I{a.IIH

z6

nplnuttti tlpozo nozodt tlo podpo papaaIaeTc,Boro apo.poa ( pay 10 ) B aBoT o poBo.TBooo.oT I{a
po 6' 9 e 12 . B o.I}^{axopaBIpoIroIoo,Io apo.
poMy oTaBIoTa 18 .aa24 (opat poo a24 - To }I
o.rr poo!). opI pooI o apopol\,{ypr.aIraI
o opa o aaa B o o.ao oo. py AC,
a Tar .JUIoyTa pao A oo apopoMa.
oepal poHola 6 9 .r papaalaTp a,I3 .r, a a |2,
|8 24 - p D.Ir 6 . Hao.lrIppoTpaHr a AC o 9aoBI pooI. aapI po pap (poo) opaTBlloo
Ilpooa - 00 o pIIBoM BpIII\ a aI|ee.rp3 .r. B apopTa pyIoyo o paoo BpJlaaJla (o o.ra!) , pBoo
potloa o)ToTaTo Ta.apTIIoo'T.. o)Tr pao 6 9 .
B opar po o apo.poy BaIoT B yaao ooBaTHOT .y Topoo BIII BIIoHoo.I: Bp
y M (apa opoT), o y ' .eHoo.I' oao (oBo' pa, BIoTa paIIIoao), TraTya BooC, BII25
" pxo.T }D(ay ( oa o.arT l -30
p 0 "C oTpaTIIIIlar), o.ee ypyeoT (B}IoT' Toa o), px palla oao ( oo )o
pca BpTaoo paBT), apI op' pBzUIoB yTBIlIlI
pIUITTBoaa' BrTp a BIoT p (apaBIlr opo).
o epeo:
poHo|o.
Ha ao , a6oeppopaeHe
or'|opaBH|
ol Ha 9 ' oao o paa'yeBylBo Ptp, e o AMC oyH
oepoo poy poHoool,o p|yl
pooepe y. flo|epoHolppaata
a|ep aa. o Ha,o o oBeHHo poHo3eoeHa <<eeHt>
pooa 6aep aa, a Ha oeye 6 oH Moe poHooo yoH.o oo, a oHep a 9.
aooopoHoao poHooe 6l yoH|lB)|'B o oBoeoy opaBHoyoHpoHo ool,e ooa py o a-o pHa
<<o
o pooy>.
pmut npozoI nood no podpot MB papaaIal a
M (C I, II, III papo) .rooBalI'I l a AC IV papa.
pooI BJUIIoT AC IV papa TpyTBIIIM oyT B
arrrrt oTaIIrTl{oo oTaa paor.roBI{zlMIlIxy<A.
opaI l}pooI o apo.poa B oTaBJIIoTIIa po 6 9
(olo a 6 v). Hao e pBoo tlpooa p pyoovo
pao apoopTa oxto I a o.I{ a paHIII aaa paol aBape.pa apopo. B poIIoI BJIIoaIoT.ylo opoo BIII: BeTp y M (apaer opoT), o y .
BelooI' oTBo' opa BIoTa r palrI oao, T1\{paTypa Boyxa y r ( oa o)r.aT l -30 oC, It 25 " epoT vp 0 oC opaT}IIaIz), o () TypyToT (oT Toa o), a Ta apITe op yTBt{Ix pIUIT oaa.
264

poot ozodt nocd papaataloT }ao poo a 2 '


o a HaIBarIpotloITH.rrNIHLI
oo.I.o pal B
rpaa TAR ap opaTBlpooa oytT p
o ooBB pooI BaT oraropooa opa:
BTp y rM (apa opo), oT y r' BeooI'
oJITBo' opa BIoTa r paI oao, oeee ()
pyo (BoT Toa o), a TaI(apI op' pBa.IoB yTBe}IIpTB oaa.
pozot nozodt o odtr mpcl4,ltmJ|| odat,u ut7u]|u
'uptupmJv|papaaIaloT ovII a).oo oTa, o aoy l
aprpyy (p B) oT poBo..
p oe o paa o paBJIaoToB o popa B polloa ooryalBa}oTBH oo.r( oae poa pa), oeBo
opa oao (.olx lBIx ).Bo-.o.BIoo), TrpaT}pa Bo.yxa }Ia a.ao ro oa oJIoIl}I oT Ta}I.apoo
arjl, oa ypyTI{oT () o.' BIoTa epx paI
oao (.ol yBI rBo-o)BI oao), BeTp a BIoTax
Ha IIIeoIl oa (apae opoT), a a: pyo e
(la o' aaIIaopoT BeTpa, Toa pyoo ).
p oa o paBa ByzrI oToB (IB) oor B
pooax oo.IyzrIBalo:BoT y ' BI4ooI' oTo, opa BIoa pa}II oao, or oeII () TypyttTo' BIoTa yo oTpMI (rr oa ao a yoBe oTa
o), BIoTa ep palrI oao ( 1"raB' o.a oeT poBo.
T o oor B)' apIT op yBIlI pIITTB oaa, a
Ta Bp I{a BIoTr oTa (IrapaBtl p).
pozot nozodt no paoal (nodu) nomo oTaB a AC
(AM oa' oa aBaprpT apyT ao-o pao (oa) oI B Tprax paIx opa Hapo.I{ooxoa.
B x pooax yzlIaT: BeTep y e (apa opo), oo.I' oBo, opa BIoTa paI
.oTy , BeI
ao, TrpaTypa Bo.ya (p pooax .JUIBIoI{eItlIaBax
pao aIBaT a aallr|a, a HN|aIILIa
paTypa a po
pooa), ot ypyHTtIoT () o.' BIoTa yo oTrpMI
(e oa ao.Ta ypoBII oea ) ), apIr op yBrI{IlI pIIoaa' a Ta)e BTp a Ioax (apa opo).
poeo mp u mnpampI t lcom" oyBeTc rIo .
ooBaIn Tx .aHI JUI BIoIeI
IIITypax paoB Ira apopo. poo BrTpa TepaTypIB x pooax papaalaeTcla |2 ep 6 v. B x yaIBaIoT TepaTypa Bo.yxa kI ee oTJIoIl oT Taapo a ).poBII500, 400, 300 200 a (oa ooHro ooaro
,aI{Ia }po 250 a), p (apaIl opo) a T )I( ypoB,l,
a Ta, yo TrH (toa o' aaa opoT Bpa a o
Tp Toa pyoo .r).

26s

opo yza paIx opoo B aBaoI{I{I


pooax oo.IpaaTpBar B y apapa.
1.3. Tptloo aBaol porroo oo.I
p papoe Bx BoB aBaotll{Ix poooB oo.Iopoor BI{I yaIBaT B zpdu odll uoe pomttul
pdu.l',teue.p T B BvI,To oJIoIl,I oT pHx y.yf pBIIIIaTylo BH:
_ IIapaBH BeTpa (y e a BIoTax) +30 oC;
_ opoT Bpa y e I lc o opoT 15 / +20o p opoT epa oe |5 lc;
_ . opoT BTpa a BIoTax I25 l.o BIoTI 8 *35 / a
BIoTa oe 8 ;
_ B.oT *200 o I{a 700 +o/op BMOT o

700;

- orBa oaoB *l oa (26aa);


_ BIoTI r paHI oao +30 o BIoTI |20 +0%
p BIo oao oe l20 ;
_ TpaTypI Bo.yxa +1 "C.
o epeo:
e, ott,oaayl|ae
yBeH:a ottoaa pooax oollvteeopooee
BeH|
e p.oo Baopoa peeoepeee,aao,o Hoy<oo>.
Bo oy oepee.pooPt,
o poHoeoo|yaa Beep apaeHe]vr
240". a oop,aHoepeHoepeoo)ee,
o eep 6y oaal( ao|
poHoapaeep aya|Bae
payax).
e oMo oyo]vl
oKoH * 30o, o aHooH|,
o poo opaaep l.4He
paeBpa o 210 o 270o, .e. y Ha
<<p|
paa> 60o. ee payo - llla a pya, p ao oy oy,eeHo,
ot|o. AaoH|e
pl4ep|lt{oHopBe
o py}4HapoHoaoo|'
apaTpT oo.I B aBaoIII poIloa oyT
yloa TpIl{oo'I.
Hnpeue mp. ara' oTya y Bp oIloT o .ToB pa.yoB'
opom mp. oprroT oIIa aT B )ax y.y, a a
BIoax _ B JIoMTpax B a. .a oaT' To azla opoT Bpa ye pBIIIIaTp.IrIoopo a 5 rr/ o, To B poIloa oo.I
yaIBaT BI{a opIBoB. p ao Bp y M (o 3 /) I4IIa BIoax (.o 20 /) oT pIIT pI\{II<yovI> aaHI|
apaBI{.
B apIpyIx pooax p ByEUIIlIxoa poIlo epa ppaaTIBaJI ypoBIIe 100, 200, 00,400, 500, 1000, 1500' 2000, 3000 ( o.eJIIx{zx ooTJII{o JUI 4000 5000 ) Ira. oBpxoTI ,
a p oea o ppa - a poBe Mop.

266

p poopoBa pyl B pooa yaIBaT BIoTa


BTpa a o p)r' a aI(BIoI
o pyoo TII,I'MaI\{zUIHUopo
B oeTpa lra )PoBeM op.
THjI
.pyoo
Ta H Bpe paI
oT
p
o 500 aII B.oT B
.[Iom udu^4omu.
BoT o 5000 - o oT
a
p
poI{oa ooI opyT.o 50 M'
,
o B poHoax oa.aT oTpoB. .,ror.aTB.MoT5000-9000
Bx BaX poIIooB yaIBo
pyI{rM.o 1000 . BMo 10 o
BaT B opax.
u nozodt. erI oo.I B pooax yaIBaT B ooBeTTB
B
o.IIoTAF o zUIIIoa. p papaoTr IIpoooB o oa.
(poa
BIIy)aoBzr)
)Iax aavlB poI },ToIUITB. poI:
(poa
JI
poaa>.
p poo IIIBaa yaIBaT a)aBII BTpa o aMUIIIa
opoT.
oo poopy oo JI paoa apopoN{a. p pooe o.
aJIo yaIBarT MpaTypa Bo.yxa.
oyIT pI:
[l poI{oa aopo TypyToT
<a (y(
oao)>;
B
oaax
(a (ypea) ypyoT

pyIIIo poopypea) opoa.ra TypyIITIloT)).


pr B pol\{ o, To oa o)I,aT o oBepxoT JI o ).poBIUI,
BlIaeo600 .
(oe (yl!{pIrp poo oe BC oylo pIII:
((o
(ylpo rt
, ao) oee B oaax oaax));
"o.
aor) o. B oaa (oaax)>.
B aaoI llpolloax oo. yaIBaT IIe ToJIo I{IIBOT
BrypyoT (or), IIo o, B oopo To BII o.a.
oTa IGI epx pa o yaIBarTc c opyI{ o oe TpoB.
omi. oeo oaoB yaIBaT B oTal{ax. B pooax
tl{to)I(o yaIBaT o Ip orB oaIIoT, Ba |Iaa aMoo
oplooI{
pe^ae
p
IIoo,I
poIloax
B
oao
opa
"".o ro
",".
ooae opaIIIM IIaBaI{ o-py, p pae
IM
oer|paN{ opa oao I{ ooaT. JIIoe oTaBJI ToJIo
pea
o
oTopo
opaJl
ao,
IIUIy{rBa )rrBo-,oBa
pIIII\{aI{ opa'lM'
Broa x paIII oaoB y13IBa opyell o ToB
B
po. B pooa o apopoMy Ta BIoTa aeTca, )1poBIIapopoI!{a.
oa.
paI

BIoa
MapIpyIII poI{oax poI{oa o oa
opI
oB yaIBa B pao xoTo o I{a po' B
oa.
yaa
apIpya'
paoax _ a, ypoBIII{ op 'TaJIaeo
BIoa Bpxlr .pu""' oao yzlIBaT aIooBIoTe I{
paI oao To oo paIlr, To opyIle BISTIpoBo

oIo o or TpoB.
Tnpmp od. Tpaypa Bo.ya B poIloax yaIBae I{aIx paya I{e. oo TepaTypI Boyxa oT a'apoo
r BJI)a B poIIoI ool I] ex {ax' oa oo o aoroo
o.
BeIIe ol paBo 5

26'7

Bom L|oI|lp.||I
0 oC. BIoa yo oTpI B pooa oo.I}aIBaTB p ooTJIoypo op opytl o oTIl poB.
pmu Zop, ot1o,|tpou ucmH npmmu o.u'
apI op' oo .pyx p oaa B poI{oa o paoy
(oa) yaIBaTBo paoa, p pooax o Tpa (app) B p.axIpI paI T}Io oyto , a p pooa o
apopoy - B pa}Ia aoo apo.poa.B poIloa yT ooBaT Tp}II: (opI apITI))'(BptIllII op apITI))'((aTo p]TI ), (yTBIiI{I

p IUITTBjI

apITI)

T..

p papaoT appytllI poooB' poIrooB o paoa oJIToB


poIrooB o :lpo.poMa B B IIae TTa pooa aecpaTo B pooo op poo tloToo oo (xapapTa }IoITo ao) a ToT po.
16.4. .(aa I{ oppTB
aBIlaollr poIIooB oo.I
Ta a B Tr poa' a oopt papaala poIro' .iUIoll
B.a llooa oTaT ooo' To B TpMoo IIpoIIooB oo.Ip,yaTpBaT a vIl. eTaa,Ta oppT' ,[m,lulu aBaoI poooB oo.IpoBo.T o Ty IIo Bp.
opI TpIIITiUIa o Ty .)rlo:
_ B IIaaJI' pg.I{,olr N{appyra (aa - pBa TBpT' cpe_
a BTopu TpT rTBpT' oII - BpTa rTBpT aprpa);
- po (opo) ooB ap]pya;
- B Bpo (roo ..) va paoaBapaTa;
- a }{ao... o... (yara :aBarrvI
opTIIIyo);
-

MTaN{;

B HIIax;

IIa Jloax;

I{a opa'
oor TpI eTavlaI7o BpI{ BI.T yto
- B HaaJI' p.I{' or poa;

opao:

_ po (opo) ooBr poa;


- Bpea ( paBI Bo.a ooaarT aT ya
TPo). Ilpooa oo,I oyT Tp (GpIIaN{)),o a
po poIroa To BIr o}Iro ar.a IIe Byx pa, po,oDTHoT poa B .o)a pBIIIIaTo.1looac a oa po.oTeIloT BI{,II{ .oJDI{aI oI ooB}IIpoa poI{oa;
_ oTro ( opaBJUIIBoax oaae aTI{ ya

BCG);

B po oT ... o ... (yaIBaBp Haaa oa e)'


o TpMoB (pIIaM)) ((oTtIHo) B IIrx oox
(oax) pa pytla BpIt' oopo B I aax ooa
Bp I{aaJIa oa BJIII'I II'I oo,I. .{ pa (oTo)) po M'I oo.I olo yaIBaT o y (p rp)
aoB.
268

op o Tzla poooB oo.I tt H BoT o pooax


oo.I BpoTlroo ope. B p BpoToI poo - o) TaIIa. o.ao ToT B eanIaIJo pHaN{, o oTopIx I oBopJI
paIll' oJIyTpa p.o.
o epeo:
He oe o, o alo, papa6alpoo ool,oe
aeo 6o opol oe ol op6e.oao o|.
a }4ooaoxpepoaHoyry BK
yo,o popoHoaoe Botooe
oKoH
eHeopoo
(l e He paaey o
Ho ]oea J|lljoo6t H|tvl
poHoo oHa, o yx( ato vao). B o olyae yMHoeHo
poHoo aaoHH|X
ooee.B eo poo|oHl6l a oHo
opoe, Ho np oM B x eyya|aa oaMleHa|e
eHH
Meeopooe
H,o oop| 6oeHa 6eoooBH|
poee,Coy 6la, o aa.
o oo BoroHo
epoao>>,
eo ooaaaooaoeMy
o e<oy}(M
aaPpyeHopaBo aa.Bo ooy<<oe
t>poHo,
po oopl oa B uJyya o oop: <Bpa P,tea
Ha oy pyooeo,oooa <t
l(ya...>>
}t|
eHoo6o oypoHe oy.Bo e oa payaoaoHo.
oppmu BIIoT B opaBI pooI oo.I o apo.poy B
pooI o apIpyy. o .raT B x ).lla' o.a eor poo
I{oTa (ao Ho.a la) o)T pB Io ypoBIUI oaI{oT oeToB HepoBoeIII aTpzLIIIlIMaTpaTa aBape.(apep, oTpaBa aoeTa. oa a aao apopo).
pul^kl
B opaIlI pool ooI o apopoy (o TAF) B pytlI
ooI (o MTAR) oppB BJI}oaT T y{ax, :
I\{II,IprHoo BTpa pBIT BaI yaTaoHI ae:'o opyrT I apTa (B) () opa;l oToB a ax-o Tax Bo.ylIIIxy.oB;
_ opo epa vITcc epIloo a p l aoopo;
_ BoT.oT pBIT Ita 150, 50, 600, 800, l500,

3000 (poaxo B _ 5000);

- o)I(aTaUIo' pepaIl IlTBoT oaIx


aBa eil ooI (o, apalo ya, ypIe
HI oa' Tr oMo' Ia p, poa, IIIa' rp ppo ,llo o);
oaIIIe BeI'
- BIoTa e paI oao p e oeTBr 5 oao oe
oTI{T peBI0, 60, l 50, 300 (p oTa o B - 450 );
oTBo oao Ioo r paHI MI{ 450
o 0_4 oaToB o 5-8 aoopo;
poopy paBe parIl )ro-oo oa.ro;
BpTzr}IaBNIocToT}I pBI 30, 60, 150 300 ;
_ roI pye pTp' oaoBal{l pyoBoTo aBa)elIpW|TI1.
o epeo:
E eoB epeeHH|,p oop|xa oppeB
poHoyoo|,o aooHH|,
o ooa,,V||lp|^Bov|
p-

269

M pa6oa.
ry ooBKao-Hypy|aooB' Haoopo,<papJa>
l poo ool,6py
toBa'oppB'BoBpel4eo
ee 6oHo.
pa6ory aapep
oB|lllae
B aaoI pooI oo.Itlo MapIpyry oppT BoT B Tx
}Iax' JI:
- BrTp a lro

Iroa MIiT o IIapaBI o I{a 30o, B


To {a' r opoT pa Ia (:la) o 60 ;
- opoT BrTpa a IIIoIi IIa () o a 40 r/;
_ TrpaTypa Boya a [IoIl I{a (lrc) a 5 oC oe;
o II
- ox(.aT B9IISBH o. () ypyoT,
l yaao B poor oo,I, JI ot.aT el{e TBIIT Tx

;
_ o}aTBoI{IIoBer(ppa)px oaIx aBap7
IIooI;
BelA,Iit
- o)I(aeTBIIIIH(ol) BIoTIr paI{I oao
() oT ,o pzIx a II).oB ooI, yTaI{oBeI{Ix
JI oTo o B.
AaIr pooI oo,Ioopa<aro a apax ooIx eil
ooI' a apTa A pIx ypoBl{ei,, aax pooa BTpa TMpaTypI, a BpTaJIHIxpapa raJIIIIx aax. Co c T
.oyIITaM' . pylo )oIIoI ooI' BI, ).Ba)at a,
oaoN{Tr a paT aw){'
1.5. o opaBIBaMoT aBaoIII poIlooB
oo,I ITopoBI pe'yp)elr
onpdttomb aBaoIIIx poooB oo,I - To yagoBe
TII ooTBTTB yo oo.I'oTopI poIlopoBac' T yoB' oTopIe au aro,a. o tIoJI)a,B oTaBI I{a
(A
oIIpaTBI{IpoHoI o apopoy, poIIoI Ita oay'
AC
a Ta pooI o apIpya paoa opryp).ek7)
IIITopoBI
aTBa IIpoIIoTo paoI oBI,IB
o. I{ro oII BIIe.c
.I x(rpa-ollalvf Bo Topoooo opalla B oM. Io arTy poIIooB ooI o)t{o yT o aTB or
eoao' pyJUIpoT ooIIoT BoytIx pBoo MrTropooo oI{oIIIIl.
oa oaB'IBaroT poTIooB oo,IpoBo'T {BIlo oao I4ztJIIroTpy, oep)a o A. oro oIilry poooB
ll' capl MeI (oeraae
oBo ap IDIIp-I{oI A
paory ply r), a oIrpoJIIyT Ty paoy optsIlo aaJrAC (Alvfl!.
apye ae paoTI aBap.ptklLIe Io It BoIIio
ax Ta IIzlIBatx<oIx Tya>>,o oa poooB ooI BI{ypI{tIo AMC. r ar.zlJloapyIII IUIaa oToB' o
oa poooB poBoT B.a aaJIIto AMC oBo pyoBoPIToToB cTapLnaaoI{Irpol\{ o,I{r'e TpeI po.
2',70

AaoIe pooI ooI oy otIBaT.Boo: B poHTa opaBIBaeoT' aTpI{aTBo.


oa opaB.IBaoTpotlooB B poI{Tax oT a AC
< >. pooI oo.l oI{BaTo IUITpTepIv{:
l. oaI BevIoo.I(ro - lo, aBao B poor - .aB:UIoB pooe,l.
2. apa BTpa y (+30").
3. Copo Bpa y e (+3 /.o opo 15 / +20o p opoT
epa oe 15 /).
4. B,ro (t200 .o IIa,I700 +30o/orlpBoT o 700 ).
5. BIoa rr paI ao (*30 .o BIoTI |2 r0o/o p
BIoToao o l20 ).
B ar.oo pIlI BIIIIppB TaT oaoBI ppaBIIBaeT 20Yo. Ta, app' B BIIIM poo oIIpaB.a.
o B, o ToJIo a.roe apaBelre BeTpa ozlJlo o IIpooToo a *40o, o BaIII poIlo opaBaJI a 8o. Taa opaBIBaMo
e B oM {ae' cII B BaIe poI{o (o{o e))' o la
poa' oopo B BaIIIpoIloe e. Ha aI B' To oB paBBo' I{o' o)zlJIII)'Ta oaaeT .eaT.
p o paoar A o poooB ooI oJIyT
ToJIo zUITpaTBaoea: (flpoIlo opaBzr)>
II <<
poo Ir opaB.z>. p ao o poo ooI cTae:c opaB.aBIIIB To yae, ec IIaeI{eoo epeIx BIIIIepTepB BIIIIOa yaaIII pel Jvlr oaI eIkloo.I' yaaIIIe B pooe, a.a' o.Flaor ooTBTTBoBzI
BpeII BooBe'I' .aHoB poo.
ee eoJlo flpaBvl' BaIIIIIx oeo IpoIIooB oo.I:
- p oII poI fpaa' ).aaI B Ilpoo, rTIBaT .aIIIr
P, opooo oa opoo ooI;
- opIrpooI pooI ooI poHoI oo.I pooo
op r oealo;
ae aroaIIacoao o 2 oaoB' BIoa rxI
paII oao BoT raIt' aorl yl!{ oo.' yTaoBeIII a apo.polvl'a opot BTpa pBI[I:UIa 3 ,/, o ao poo
B.a llTae opaB.aBIII.
o epeo:
oeo 6t, yaal/oHBa oexpaa.o yeByeyooe|]ol!t
B Bpoooope pooaoolya|
oo poy, pMe poHoo 6l yaaaoo 0 40olo'Ta o,
oa|Bae,
o o poHooeHH ye (e oaae),a e poa oH,
o a poo 6y ae opaBal"t,
ae e B e |y poy
poHo40o/o'Bto,o oa peaBeepoooBooaeB epoooope Hoaoo <<
a aopol o
y>>,
poo .
A eep, oaya,a}loaeB oeepo. peoo, o Ha apopoyaHoaoyoo|100 x 1000. o pooy Hoo)ao6aoloo150 , o2000 p o opor 10 /. aree aaootoo1000 , Bo10

271

ao}4BHo,o Ho
Bep o opo2 /. oBop,HeBoopy)e|Pr
<<He
oa B poe>, eo poHo opaa.oao H ]l.l loa.
ooMyoT
ooa t aoeo l4Plyo,
Ha6aaH apol.{e
oe oxoHa o, o
npoooHaopBaBJM'
o <eopat>
poHooB( ao!)oy6 yHor
B ooH 3a op|Baeo
<<a]a
a!
a
B|Ka>>,
HMo A
opI p,ypr)' a B poooB oo'I, Ta) o')aT
(
orII' Ta orBaT B aTpaB}Io op: (opaB.z}o)
PopaB,ao). oao BII oo,I' yaaor B IIITopoBo
oo
p' aIo.ao,a aaoBpIIoTpype)I{.rTrpa
To BI{ o 30 , To ao IIITopI\{oBoprypIl Tae opaB.aBIII.TopoBo IIpyp.eI{y .ra opaBaBIII B
II a 30 ,
To yrlar' r.eTp pytlp,}Io o B)]iIIj
oaoIIoJIToB
aa

apylllllto
I{
pBo
oToTJITBo
o.ao To
To TaapyruItI'
Irr
oao

IIaIt
oToB

T orToB.

o IIIopoBor p.yp.y a opaBaBIII.


poot ooI o apIpya paoa ooB orIIBaIo p IIapyIII}Ix aI{oB oToB o aBIlIo oall,pa ax(a BoyIIIoo
ya. Oy Taoo Ilpooa poBo cTapLnr4x(IIep-IloT BTr
)I(ypIIITIIIoallpo oaII.poMaBaopa.
Cp opaBIBaoT IIpoooB ooI IIITopMoBIx p.ytlp}.
Ir BIpDaT a M (oo o.) oopT aIII .oyr. oor B.IIIo or pooog orBy apyIIIII
aoB IIoToB o B Toy)I oaoBIBaIo pyoBo.TBo aBappI{JIT (oIvo o yo B}). Haa AMC (AMI{) aT I{aaI{a apoopa o .B}I(eIo)I(IIOB yTaIIOBIIIII
po ooaloT T B,IaooBTTBro B polrzrI{o yl]paBr o
poMopoo peoH:UII{oypaBee pa'alrc5o aBvIavI.
o epeo:
Xoo6l oo opaBaJeBHaHeH HoopteoH|,Bpeype.
aH|e oHopoo3oB oplrloIx
Bo-ept,B|naB BpyBepyoplogopyp)qee,oo
6yao>.fleepy ay yay pyBx (o x) epHoe<<ap|
p1lle.
o 6y poc(o ooo B oe
pMa
o
a Heoy, Ao
6aepe],|,6yoBHo,HMye epa,ooyHaa (opooa)aa aKae oKo o' o6lBpya opooopeyo oMoeepylpnaBHo
peeH,a nool4<xopaBa e pa>>,
yo'
t]ooH|
paMoopeeHe yeo]vre}ox
.
oIzlBa aBpeyp)(te
opo|x
Bo-optx,o op|Baeo
oeoBHe HapyH- opt{oBoplypoo apyepea oeo8:pDt
_
yl6y.
HeopaBao,HapyuJe H.o oxo,o, xo,olo Hajy
oa.He ep,vo
aKoo<<Xpo)>
B-px,o pMpl4aHKo
ox po.
opaB|aeo
a|o oa Maxoe l"1
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opaBaH
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oo
oHHo
A
a'
oo. C poooo|
<<oo)HoHeo)+(o
o, B o poo.Co opo|pypeH},t
e

a
a
pe
a
pa$oae
paHe}4
Ha
pa>. peaBe e6e, o l
ep3o peypeeaBaoBa a BooBeH
peypeeH.
oplog|x
opaBao' Bopo_ He te
oo6ao, o pypeeHe
<<aHa>>
a Kpaep,a a a Mo)<<aBa
(

ooy
ex
yo
eH

2'r2

opaao.ooAo
y> Ha He]o)- 00 o 24 , o pype
lllop}ro|
peya ,HaaAMC a auJ,o y a opa|Bao
pee50% (a ao, oHo_ opaBo).Ho a Ho, ,l |B oyepH|,He aB||Ba
ulopMoBopypeH
pay Ha rr. Bt o
lo)ela ( 00 o 12 13 o 24 u). pyoHoo pypH
BllJpea opaBIaMo
pHy Ba opa, oeHo,
ye Beo 50o/oaa paa 67o/o'Bt o H Hpy,| Be
Ho, o poeoaeB|eooyy.Ho o e B. B
peypHa po 6 v (o x y 6ye tp,
| ltloB||B
peype)qy oaB1t<
80o/o).
o6 opa|l4o
a eIpea (a
pypeH
o o-aHe pe.E tBa
a y 6ye e,
epo, oay,yo6o),o aKx peypee
e e]vr, oop|oo oHo opao. Bo a, 6e o oao
peyp
50 o 860/o.
oop]vro|x
B|yopa|Baeo
aHH|x,
Ta e arya HyHo,o ooeoyeaHe ey'He atae,
peao po6eoay,o oHoBHa aaa_ oroaapep
aTpaal4' e ooa poHaM.
Ml HaeHUl
16.6. Paop poHooB ool
,{ oprTBoBaII,I roo paor, ooeo ao pyo, a ecopooo oe aBavIvoxo ana peyTaoB
,TIIoT MrTopoox opaoB. ooy IIeopaBaBI po - To prI{I pr pao r Too oIITa, y oTopoo poIlo
opaB.a,o Bro oTBa, Tal pooI oo.I.oDr oBpaT <gaopy>.
Pop onpdIt|u npozoo _ o oBIIoe BB p
ouro B pooax oo,I rpaoa po)ll oyto x
przra o royIo Tax oIo Bp. Paop poooB oo,IoIIa op opIIIHTBoBa,I aTBa Topooroo o
aBa oBIIIIIIpoIIaJIIloo ypoBl{ oTpy.IroB MTopoo.
oo opalla. Paop poIlooB ooI opaIIyT poBo,T aaJIo AC (AM JI o o op}{r TapIII IIx(rIIpoM-oTo.
oxo pypoBaT p. oa paopa poI{ooB oo.I.
o orr r apaBIII:
_ Ha oBIIII arTBa o oToB B l\{opooeo
oToIII;
- IIa BIBIIIIIIIx pH' oTopIe pB or B poo
ooI;
_ a oIIIIpoollaIloo aTpTBa a a)oo oTa B
ooT' Ta Bo ropoooo opaHa BeT;
- IIa BIB}IIIe.oaToB a oo papoTpal{ p.oBoo oIa paor;
- a oIIe poa oao' pypIIoT ooIto Bo.yII{IxpBoo;
- Ira BIpao porlpi o peoTBpaIo rotx Boo)IIx
apy prrrMa orToB;
I{a oBpIIIeTBoBa opaHaTopo, oao MTo.
o paor epoB-IIooB pyoBo AC (A'

27

! peaa|I .|X poa oxoo aTIlo oToB poB.HIopapo. Paop poIIooB ooI .o)e poBo apoBaIII zrT pooIIaIIo' oeo oporaJltlo'
ooo o ooIIIIo oo.IeUITaM.
oa a AC poBo.Tpaop opaBaBIIIro poIroa oo.' oTopr I a p ,oTaoo oo IIoITro ryal' T pooI
oo. papa (B zl.aHooMa)).
o epeo:
H pare oe ao pa6op pooo ool poo o p B ]"|a
a a|aeoexye6e. Co, p )ypo,o oMope,a eo
oHo|opaBa poy y. E ooo aoo aHoopo|{oa
AMC oao<oP>,o e B op- poHolopaa.
aol
y
o a pooo p<o ye
Kaoo-y
pooa Haa}|Haa<<H>>,

opaoa.Ca Hoopeo apaepeo pooHe opaypa' e apxBIea|e,a aaapeapo' 3ae eaot.|


ae o a,e opeaooa a oMoaepooa,o
ya|Bao
pooe o a6aoa 6;l0 ee, a(e yaapHy,
oey poHo opaa. eae a HoB eeH Beo a.
poo Heopaae
exye6ee Ho,y oo a eyt.{e
l, B|rynap B aHaollyeo, HaaAC 3aKHe
ye y ee oooBoTo paopa. ooy Hoyo peo]'4ey
o BooeoaHIxe oo|,pyoy - aeapo apl apveo oopa, py - oHMeo|pooa p,te 6apxo6pao.B yee p oope.Tep ye
pyo o yae eIeoo6eo,pyo aaeaaoap
.. Ho aoe poKae o' o ae o, ep p oo pa6opy pooo ooI' a opo peyal..Qae ep
Bo oeaao lrya Ha exyee e xo, o ootypo
p6oeoo]vraee
pe.

214

a 17

ToPooo oC
PAAIIO

ABA

17.1.OoIe poaII'pr
)oToB
eTropooolvly
opooo

orToB

aJIIoaT

B BoBpIIIlo

oB.o oaoo, eToo oTaBa yI Be eopooo opN|avII' oo


IoH Bo oDIIoTIIIx o(x(ea> paa o opoIo xapaTpyT
yT
ao. a eoo

Teopoooo o oToB. poy oa oTa pepIIIaT paJIIlI .oDIloIIr a A, a)oy II ooo


.aT .oTaor o opooo
BIoIIII o paor.

opa'

oxor

opoooy oIo oo pBrylo


OIIOBHIpoa:
BoBpMeIIo;
oJII{oa;
- aTBo.
o epeo:
Ha aorl epe.
oay, oo6o o6xooopoooaaB
peH
peoa.Coepeooo,o B 6ya F |1p.4
HHlx
y A (6y o |
opoHa ory opeeeHHoy
o)HoHoy
Kopa)a, ep/ pyoBoaapep)
o oo oea/ Koao o oHopHopeeHoepeeHe yeo},tae eopooo op.opaa oa t oo xopouJeoeBa.B o
e opyHAMC (AM).
Be pa6oHpaaoaBa|
aHpoa|
Mopooo o poBo.T o IIaHy o ooJITJIIIIUIBaM' oTopI.oJDIIII pea Ira AC {[eTepo. a )I(aTIIorpaBaT a AC r o3.lr'.M a 3 o ITa. B a
,oJDtIoI yaao pe]vlIm u pJ|lnodu, aplapm nm,nIrI
apodpo,tt,oTopI .oJDI}Iaxot Ira paovlv\ IIe BIIIIa 2
IIoTa oT oIIoBoo apo.poa oa.' ulolt nom npul lf|oHu
noem (y:l IToeT oT o popa). Tp aa BpeMeI{,oBIa'
a oTopor oJDIGIar ,aa aBa IIa o, paTr Be/aoTaToIlo .JI
oo, oI a A]vIC yrJI apoTt ooy poIto, oytlT oTBT
yIITa IIoa. aaHIx itpopooB opyrpoBaT papaoa o
poIlo o apIpyly oTa.
r r aaIIoBa apal{' To B epo npedpumo nodzomo (pooT llaaye IIJIBITa e a) rypr oT oTBaT
IIa o.II Bopo oallpa aa, oopI o)llo opypoa: Hy,
a?>>.o oaaeT, o a aBpa oI{ xoT yeTT Ilpry y
oa' oyT oL:,BITTo tloor. o aoo Bopoa ypr
HoT oDI(II .aTa)y tlpBapTr poIlo ooI lra aBTpa o
BoMy apopoy oe (pap.o) oo)oT aa BIo-

2'75

IlT oT. opo

o (ToTa)

aa a yo apopo p a.p)I
BITa I{a TI{t po r paaIBa Ba pal{Ill.
B po ttpdomo odomou (pooT Ba a l o la)
IIa) Bo)xIx yoB oa:
- .aI o a.ro oo. opaTBIlI pooa o apo-

poy BIa' oa. aIIIlI;


- pooa oo.I IIITopoBI pytlp)Iqe'l
oToB;
-

o apIp},Ta

.aI{I opoo oo/I ( o );


pI BIOTI apTa oo.I' oBaTIBaIo
IIIpy oTa;
- .aIlI P yTBeIx yTHoB ;

B p-

oao yo oyTa.
AC
po.poa BITa oT a opa o poo
yTa oa papaaIBaT B pooI' poM poIloa o apopoy

oa.

Cpo eBlUI potloa oo.Io app},Ty ol pBIIIIaTpaToe Bp oTa a 30 p o po.oTJIo oTa (oIvo
po pooa opyI o 30 II B.a yr poy).
Bp1"l oo Topooro oyI!{IrTa ( o)rN,ITa'
oopy al e a op BC) oo poBo.T H pa v a 45
.o aalrpoBaIloo BpI\{BITa,a eI4ooIII apa BIrTa
a2 oee, To ar oa oytlT oByI yTI{yIo oyTaIo a

AC.

a apopor oa IIT Topooeo ytl (a oa


Ia), To Ho apopoa BITa paBo a poIro ooI o
MapIpyy (Ty.a opao>, 1Io Too B To ).a' po oa oa
oa Bp To B apoopy zar B ye I{ pBIIIIa9 .
o epeo:
oeo6t, yaaetae,oHoo o poaHHl
},loeHI
oeH|pBa'
Coapopoa|ea'eBHo,papalo po|.|o
(o oey
apopoy) poo oo|o appyry.poooo|o apopoyr.loaoHe oyy oa,ooplpaoaa AC popoao' Bo ooy
a apopoeBIe}(rr oyHpoHoaoo| popoaoaK oo/
o6lpoHo oHo poorypo
ta.
opepooHoeBp oaoeaB poroHopoopry_ pl4po
1 . o pPlH}DHo
oapaoeaoo,opy |pyaa
lo oa po. paee, o Moe pe a poe)qro.
_ pooaatpo, <<oBeHt>
a o,a B eo-o paao
p |a(oe 6l oPrBoa oo).3e e Hoa popoM
B|eaye <y'l> pooo o o,leyey appya,e,l y
Ho e yepHoB oM, o aUJee o ao' }o o Proe( oe) o apoyaaa opHpool
poHooo|o oHtappy,
Ho oH
HoeBHo
ooa poHoo po po)oHooloe.
B po)Hot oo,oel4ypervlpoHooo npeB|a
p oea' poo,o aooe 6l e 14.00, o 14.00 6t
poHoool.Co poBeoy 14.05 |4-apo|,oope 6l y276

Ha B poHo,p oa oyoBpH.o oa? pvH|


o oo. a aoHpo
HoaHe' a aK oa oa po3ot.tj
poHoa.Bo oo, 06l rya to, opo pooay.
o. o o )e pHnp .
Bo pHH| paHlBpH]
ep B|e 20 oee HyHaoopHaeopooeoHya
a.
Bpy.r oo Topooo oyTa I{ pa, a 45
H.o BIlTa' oyoo )a oo a)y (or.lo, ay
ByIo) ooy.
B apoopy oa. ar oa ,aopooyt .oyHTa- o oo .)yoy }IoIo a AMC, a e oa BI.aBa
Ty yJIoB oTa o Too To BIoHIIoyap]pyty.
o o paBJIo eoa: p oooT }Ia apopo BTa (oa, poyooM aao) oT r po.ItaBoy}I arpo. yilaT B o,yIa p'rBa ooI a Bo.)I{o
ax a BoyIrylo paBy oeT l p HoT, oopr pBapTHo poIIIr:ryl ooToBy T.oy a ).llaTr B Tax
oTax (a oa B [IyT oBopT o' To p a op a.
Be (ao)l(oB): a zr potlo' a pooyTpoBa a)' aN{ B
aoT o oTpeT'To (apopoa>).
|7 .2. opo eTeopoooo o
opao B[
opooo oe opaoB B[ aaT B BoBprIIo p op o avo o>aeo oo.e a apo,poa,
paar paoa oToB. opooa opa' p.aBaa
opaa B,(, oT .Byx a: opa |I ctIpoyI,
eoo.o aTa opalro B. BIoItBox oao,
opavI IIBoyIIIIx yo, I{axo B Bo)r,(.
Co olryTpy (yo r.ro) a.ylo aTyay Hy
Tepo ylI Ira apo.po. B o oyJITa oaro ora
apapTa oo.}IIyo o paoy oBTBI{o Ha apopoN{.
poHoI ooI a po. o paol /)I(ypTBao apo.poa BIa, oa aaHI' potloI oo.Io BoyII]IM Tpaa' Tt{Iil{
paoa oToB. po Too' B yo oyTa oBo.yI}III1I
oa o poJlaao IIapaB HIIJIpaooll.oB' oTopI o r BIIIIIa po. I prraT BoyIIIor popa}rTBo apopoa' a Ta a"Icopa o ao oo Boo apopoa,
aopo aBlI H o MI{.
B oya ooo oTaI Boo)o BooBII oaI
oo.I Bp poxo.ll aoplx poo vpe pao apo.
'poa.
po Too' Bo Bp,I oyTa oT ooa o xo oo eTeopooeIlD( popo, aIIoBo pTB BvI, a Ta
o oToBo x<ypoIlIAC Io oToB.

27',|

o peo:
_
pB|Hoe
B p oHyaryae e|eepoB eo

e.ooeBooolli."]-"P.']S
o poxo
o6to.

ya.Hep,oeepay6aHapopopaBao
_
eo ooo.peooooa,a Ho ottog3opepaHo
MooIx

Ka
o-oopa

oHae
ao-y

Be, o
pa
o oa
(a
>t,
,pouo'* aie, epo'Koop|ey a oya

oflv| ' M a o ) .Bo o M o p H aBa<<H a po BP ),aBa e eH y)H


6yee poooHoo6 py BBpx aK-o paBpl,o oopll
H
pay. Hy a e t
ae
ep a, o ooH3 eepo
y.Itl.
o <<epoKa>
o
KloHo),
a)e
He

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(o oe
**y.o
"pa,'..'o B|oepooay|.}o a, o Beapo B ope, HHo
eBopo
a l4ooo <(aopolllo Bo ,lo ye 6e py6ooa oag
<<a
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oaee

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pa
a,epou. E t Mpay
y, Ho o o
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oo.
a
opyBa
6y
e
Ha y opyHBaFte-o,
).{e
y IIo).I{aT
Ha apopo ar rp ar .Tp
((BoIo)),"6op*uu"ro, ooy yIIpaBrI{ BoyIIIIIIa B Boooar
o OTBTBIIO. [p IIya Ira apo.poM
.yaopa.
o
Apopooy Tpoy ylrT IIrp.aT aIIHIr ao
IIoo.HaBoapo.po'pooIooIIIoBoeyapo.poMy'apIpya
IIM' IIITopIIoToB' yI{Ta oa, aIIaIII apo.poa oppTBI
oytaI
oBI ooBIIIllI pyp}I tlo Boy apopo'

aacIl\{.
apo,poa oa
Tpaa'
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ToJIo Be^l\{o a{ivp yIIT pyI{ oaT
o oo. Boo apopol\{a.
oHa apol ep y p.aloT .aI{Io a.ro
apopol{y.
Boy
IIo
o Boo apo.poa IIITopMoBIooBr
yIIT TI oa. Trp y pya o'{,up
oI]oBeIJ.vI
BaIoT B.rlI o a.ro oo lIIopMOBI
IIoBoyapo,poy'pooaooIaoay',aIIIoBeTpaBIMP p paoe TaII B p 100 IIa BIoT Pa, a Ta .,aItIM
)N{e('op)).
o.
Ha ep ytIT tloo.a IIpaIoT BII,I o a.ro
oppBI
o, Boo apo,poMa' poIIoI IIooI o cBoMy apopoy
popoy' B'H' IIITopoBIooBevl pryp,Hln o Boy
(o apoy
o aro o)Iao o' a aIIaIx apo,poN{a
(Iop>.
pr)r
.rTrpa), a ar aIM p pao P
y eTIx

oao-p
y
Mr Trp
I]ITopooe
o
BerHvI'IN1
ao
Bo,ytIIHIxlvioalo
MOBIoIIoBrMoBoyapopoy'IIpoIIoaoBoryapopoy
pype) oppTBa IIM' Ilpooa' lIITop]\{oBIMooBeII'lI
IIo apo.pooIIoBIrlI
MB paoa oToB' I[opMoBIM
"'''-'o
oo. I{a

o.ao
a oa. aaI, B'I o ao
a
a
,aI
apopoax oa aIIaIIIx (o apoy repa),
MP p pao Ta}I B p)I<<llTop).

2',78

!1poy IIITypaIryapoopTa ooa opaTBIrIpoIIoI o


Boy apo.poy oppTBI ' pool MrpaTypI BTpa a paIII BIoTa' pooI ool IlITopoI pyptl o Bo},lHIM paa, TI BoyIlII H paoa oToB. B o x{ Ta
arao IIITypMao oa, . .T ypt t).pal{'opalry
poyluBae Topooeo opa o ).IBy B apoopy p.oaaaB.
eopooo paal{x ropoB o}IaIx paoI Tpo C opB! oyITBT Tae oTa AM (AC).
oal p C opB oe o oBTTBIIoT oea
pooa oo.l ITopoBIMtlpyp}/I{o BoyIHITpaa' a
a pooa BeTpa TepaTypI o paa. pooI p.TaBIoT B ToBo aro B' B roTopI YIa - B Be ap A.
po Too' o apoy pyoBo. (aa) I pax(.al{ooTopa
C opB[ ItoT, oaro ot p, oppy o areo o)aN{ooo a apopoax oa. aaIx.
oa oToo !'ypI IIoT oaoo llTpa C opB!
. a B M}Ir oo.IlIx co ol{e oTBTI{oT oaoo IIpa ( Bopo oppoBaT o I.D(pyoBoT HI.
o Bopoa Topoooo oe IIoJIToB.eypr o I{ C opB.( ao.TByT eypI tloTo oe AC
(A)' a Tae eypI IloTa pyx A, oTopI oya paoIe pI C opB! o oIIe' .)I(ypHI}IoTa BoTBo eoyll (oI oa).
opooo o erypo I If oyBeT a
T a ooBa o opooo opa' oTopa oyIIaT B
oar IITp o AC (A) BoTBo oyl.
Paort IIp (P) C B oea B opoolltlo oToIIIII oo , JI oTopoo B or PI{ oopyy pao
o JI'IIoT oole III4Hvr
B.
Paol p C opB! oea JI o oI oTBeTBtlI{oT
yI oyaMkI o ao oTo IIooI ar paBT|4o poo. Ta oyTa poBoT )l(HpoIloo a paa B y p ayevl Ha )ypTBo epo rIlI
PI{. TavI opoBo).aloT oao eooo oToo
aTepaa' Ta oyJI.aI4oyT poBoT rooe pyo Bp
o apoy aaa III paaoo Topa P C opB.
po oo, PI{ oIarT potloI oo.I (eoI pa)
IIITopoIepypIn o oyIIIHIpaa' pooI ooI o apoBJIa apopoMI B. o apoy ypo tII a PI{ o)eT
.poN{al\{'
ooa aa ooa Tx apopooB.
Ha P C opB! Ta)l( ep.aloTopprTBI pa oTaBrIlI{I pooa ooI' IIITopoBI ooBrIl,I o apopoal\,Ioa aaI{IM,
xI oxaoo It{er pa.ooo' .aIIIea o P, ya.
I{oBoy a aopoe, e paoo) PI{, pa opa.

2'79

P o oaoT oToB paot


pI-oT
eypo HI P opB oyloT B oxo.r apaa'
Mlo

a AC.

B HII
.{ypr IIT PI] oa oToIlo r a
pyoBoyo B olt PI{ optIIIo oppoBaT
MrTopoox
oI
BoHoB

o
paoa
TapIo.IITpa

oToB
ITII
aBvIavI oo.I' oyTB op opo ooI p Tpo paooo
}ITpa, o}'IIITBJUIT Bao, o Bopoa MeTopoo-

oe oJIToB .)ypllI oTa oIIaJIItoo Tpa


BoTBHo oll.
(l o oopy.yr) ae
paol pI B[
BooaJIIII
o o opa.
paHo MTopoo
oaloT
paoTI
BooaToo
rpa
opa aB oT oprTIIl yo
paoayT pyoBoTBo poIlitJIIII ypaB poyrr

roo

ao

aBvla.

o epeo:
o
a,
BPt,yaal
aeopa
C ooaaaooapapaa

oo6aeyprHo o o rya.Ha epKoMy1o o<eH


otJ|I
t a,o o Hoa ao, Bea6ye o'Ha o e o He a. Be Ao o]vl,o opapao]vly Hoyoapy pyor'tyooHoMyy Ha apopol,teB oBe<<pay}4o
.. He a Heol'lJo'A e 3o a, o B oae oo xopooHo>>,
llJHKoyH B <yx>pa6ot apep|^'o oBeeo aoo
ep, aoo eepoopa. o l ye xopoo Ha,o po oy aBa>y B 6ye _ B| ye aoe 63
6l <<o
o60'
o MTo B MTopoooorropal{oB B.( aa oeeII aBToMaTpoBaIID(TrM B.{. AoaTpoBaIII{I rI' papap|
oarr III,IIUITapalro ar.ul plllI{ [IypaI.D( aa
panI4o
a
ooBIBaT
aa ypaB,l BoyI[IrIM BID;,oy
oo MTeopoollo pa. ooy opo Teopooeoo
oIt aBoN{aTpoBaI{IlIxTrI!{ B.( oyTBJUIrT B ooBTB o
IILI:uIIropyI4r, papaaIao IIazUIo A (A) oBTo oJDoTHl IIo' OyIBJUIIoIIIM pyoBoBo aBToapoBalil{o
eo. a yIlI ,oJDIrar ypxra B TIIo ypaB o poTopoo (a IIo.a oBopT < ypa B ypaBII paao
aBav.
B yu o Topooeo oeII opao B.{ ,oDI
r opaIlI Be BIToopa' p.oaBIa pao Ta
Tpo B,{, po ooI IIpa, ooI oopaHll I{a
paox 1v1Tax'xI cB IIpra pa' BaN{tIIeoaTTBa ...
Cyyra Ta Topooeoo oe opao B!
oBoT.Tepa paIx paoB pelaT Bo aa. opo eTropoooo o oeToB o pz13ITpaa y.paoTp B
ylo apapa.

280

17.3. opo }reTeopooroo o oeoB


o paIrrp
a alao BIII]'Topooor oe ooB aIoaT B ao yo otlya aoo aa BIa a op
BC pao eeopooo .oTa, o op}a op
aBcT oT xpapa poo)To oa.
B opa yo oyTa Bo.T ya opa B ya:
ao ooBaTIIoT
- oTo ooII o y apIpyy |4|4o ya po
oa BC;
poo epaTypI BTpa Ha BIoTa;
BIoTa Tepaypa TpooayI BIoTa ypoBl{ azLIIIIoopa (p ooo);
ave o)arIe oaI BevIooI o apIpyy oea opa o pyIx TrIIx;
ava ooa pooI ooI o apo.poaM BIJIeTa'oa
aaIII;

opa(o poaroaa);
pya l\,{Teopooa

- .aIIIopoo ooI ( o ).
p roIt ByaIII oToB a)a .ooI{o ooa.
c om uu Zp|lul oo, udulocm onct t1u nozodt
euut7l
I||u,lpImue zop ol',tu, mdu uI|Irudu u clI|4I
mlopo zo dt|u.
oya opoBo)a IoTpae oao Bo oToo I\{ap'UIa'oopr e B paop}r .e)yplloo I{oa. ooo
BIIaH eeTHa yoBTe yaT apIpyta' . oT ao
o)l(tI.
Te oyTa' a eoBaTtlo, B .ao ey oo
To oro aIBa a MaIIoo.
p oax a aIx BIoTax ByaIx oax oyT _ .o ypoI{ oa
opa .o ypoB}UI 700 a, a p oTax IIo Tpaa
BIIIIo e (py) ooo oapveo oepxo.
Mmeopoozuo onu nomo podoumIromeee 2 '
p pooTr}IoT oaooo oa eII 2 al a AMC
orlaT Too TyIo oyTaro. Ha oyMIITav7a op eoyo aT. o yo oTa, o oop I ToJIo o paa.UI' tyl I{oT TaBT B aav|ay a oe ( oo
) ITa: <dvIopooyto oooBy poulr)' yaIBaT zBar
AC, aT' Bpr,I BoI arar. To ax(a' oopI lloyar Ty
yr{y oyTaIo, paIBaT Ita AC B r.IIIoM)I(yIrzr.
p l{aao olrya oal{p a)I ooae oro ar,
op peilca ap]py oa. o ac NI oo, vor a ao
T oTa (I> yo oJITa. o pol oapa ara y o)I(eTt p1^ra pooa ooI o apo.poy BIeTa'
oa. aaI loa pya oya.

281

o epeo:
oao opat,o paaaBa. yaaetvae,
opoo ooyHaaHHoo.
06o H oH6pale<y.
>>,
oot4ypaBHeHopo oaaea, oopol'ly<e oaa> o
HHo' o H HHo.aX oaHpoBBoyltlH|x
yoBaH e eppopPo' Bey BaoHH|
Hoo,a y laH'yeByeBo<<aBaoHHo-eopooa
oTa>>,
a o Ho_ B|y
o poea. M)(y o6o ooaHo6ea,o|at
v1op. e Bpy .o <oaHp
aa_ 3?H}t?>>l
oopoyB
H)DHo.
o o M 6y H BXAMC pa, oH rya p.Eeo,
yay B/o oH po(oo6a o ea),Fto o oo ao op o)e 16,H o)eaH<ooa>>,
a o oe aloBloyeJ
Hoooea.
Menlopoo?uo ou oIn1o
podoumeomom 2 do 5
v. p poorToT oTa o 2.o 5 a oo yo oyTa oya a, B oTopo aaI poI{oI oo.IB y BITa'oa a aaI apopoax a po' pIIIIa p oTa
I{a30 .
p oH BIToB a apo.poI,.r oTyTTByT AMC I{oo aTIo' a}a aecoyTa Bp}{aTro oo.I pooa a oJIT.o apopoa I{aaIl,I opao.
p roLl pyoBI oToB pToB o yTaHoBIrIapIIIp},TaTopooy ooToBy a AC poxoT Br a), fl ,o},I\,IHTa
Bpr{aT Too TapIy pTaIo pyt.
Mmopoozueo oeu nomo podoumomboe 5 .
a BC, I oTIo Tpaa po.onT}IoTIoo 5 v,
.ooTI{o yTI{o oya oytIaIT:
aBao}I}TopoIroTy apTy oor oo.I;
- aBao} pooTylo apTy puo oopa oo
ypoBIUI, oopI BeT 6al a.aI{oy IIIGOHy oTa (apy
A) poo BTpa TrpaTypI Ha IIIrol oTa' oopr BI.arTB
al;
a pooaM Ioo.Io aopoy BITa' oa. aIIaIM
aIo aopoo.aB}I lra apopo BITaa o.IIpo;
_ a <opoa oo.a)' opt zl) aotUIT B o.
p IoII oToB o IvtTI{I
Bo.)III{I
:|ipo.oToT 5 v (ol IIa aTpypoBa oB IIp oapooao oaoB, oTIa oBylo paBy ..) a)r oyaT o'I' B oopo ).aIBaTpaTa apaTrpTa IIoo oao
poo o l\{aIxpyy IIoTa' poo BTpa Ha BIo oTa' pooI IIooI o apo.poN,Ia
oa. aaIIIl\{'.aIIIo avo oo apo.poa BITa a o.I{po, a Ta I\{aIloar aopoo
aBIIeIly o apIpy paoy ooB.
o epeo:
Cp opo oa Hax tvrpH|x
flaae Hooo1.
a}4ooBpMpopa 850 /. o Ha,o p oe Ha po|J
o 15001700 a)yH)Dao Hoaooyaoy.
aoeHa
282

poHe 40004200 , o ao]y)yHy)Hoo e poHo


ool/a e a - Be ol4eopooeo
oyeHa.A ep
pa6 apry Pocc oope(pe),a ao HHo oo
oHya
B oeoyHo.oya,o pepHoB ooBHypeHx peo Mo)oopoo yo oyae,
e pepo 40o/o
pooaoHooooHoo6eoo|/ oo pepHoB 10o/oH)DeHB
o oyeo.} paBaMopooeoo
o6eeoeoB HaeHo
Mep oFta<<ya>
oo oo6oa o ooo oMa po
pa6ot.
Mmopoozuo ocu nomo M IV ppd. a y
oBopo BIl' A IV papa oTaT oT .p} AMC o rox pap,oB ' To Ta H IoT oT pyI. !ypI
TxIl-TopoJIo ao AM
o{aT oT aprI{oo a e A
(A) poIloI ooI o oMy apopoy oyT . olryTa TI{oo .Tpoo oTaBa.
poloI ooI JIJITopoooo oee oToB apopoMoB, oDBaMIx AMC IV papa, oTaJUIIoTB 0/e oJIe.oBaTI{oT:ap]py ao) oeToB; Bp c poI{oa; xapaTpTa
}IoTo oao; poo pa (apaBIIe opo), B'{oT'
oo.' oao (.ro, opa, BIoa l pat), oetl,I' 1poT' Bpx pal oao, UIoo .aBeHJIo
Mapulpyy oIIa JI IoTI >aleoap opxo pao
aaoo pBIII]UI
B opo eToT.
B pooI' oTaBJIMI.ooa a AC IV pp:a' o.lIBaITHoTo, papaoaBul poo' tI A ]l\f
paBa BIIoT B o a-o tl. PapaoaIl"lpoHo oo.]I
oIl r o oo)IloT paTM' T H .oYa.]BoI"lBeHHrt]t)
TooBa,I.
Mmopoozllcoe ou noemo pot lllpIrc|Iopnlii
(TC)' epooo o T }{H oopI \.tr.
l.^4omo
o. Ta, app, aBo oT po.oDIflTJIooa l o'l CT papaaTIa apIpyII poo oo.I'B oopo}{ or.].-Io yaIBaT o.aeIyoB ooI a aax aopa BIoTI' pI-rpoo oTa ). B o poI{o o.p)aT Be.IIJIo opoTl II
IrapaBel{ BeTpa' TpaTyp Bo.]Ka e oJIoI{e oT a,apTI a, Ta'e BeII o oaIx NI aBvla BeIoo.I BIOT
BrpIII ){Bo-oo oao.
aly CTC pe BITo BI.aT}'Ioa MTopooa ,o).Ta:
pooTa apTa A-l00 T-70 yae a oH ypo c|lIl:o ypyTHoT' o,' BIoT plltIl ytrBo.o. oaoT' TMrpaTypI Bo.yxa OTJIOI{,IoT Ta.apToo
IIa,I;
pooT par pape aopr oT oBepoT o BIoTI16 000-20 000 . }Iaaoo oIloo {aToB aI
poTeHoTo 00*500 l al;

283

- Taa yaa o yaTa TpaI poI{ox aH


opoT IrapaBJIBep TrpaT}pI oToH}I oT TaHapTHoo
aH' THBIlo ypyI{TI{o.pyx oaI ooI'
a poHoaIToo/I
o apopoy BITa'oa aaIII.
o epeo:
eoool(yH|
,l o6eeCTC poo poo, a
HaaHo..Qeo o, o o6ttxeepa]
HH|t
prypBpooo
opoa(o H-04) p epeaeooo ypo 100 , o <eo>16
. CepxyoB|e
aoe|e aeoe. eoBiteo,pa o peHe]'4nepryp|
epa Ha B|oao 16 oyHHo Haaa<ol>>,
oololy HHa 6a apooeoapt,oo ry py aoy
o6pa6om, a }Doolpoaapo papaoaporo Ha ypo.Be o
py pMeH/ o aoooo.
17 .4. co eo T lt{Topooo o oee oeTo a
MeIII BoyIIIIIrtlx oToB o plteell) aBaI{
B lrapoIloll{o
ooo I]orToB a TIx Bo.y[I}IIx|4HI1X(B) opa)I B
paIx oyl!{Ha. Pa oI{oI{IoooT opoooo otl oToB a B, oopI JIaIoT B e.ylol.
l. ! oo a B oro oy It)H Boy[IIro IIpoTpaTBo (rol .o 6100 ). a oTI Bo ox {a BIoH,IIoT
o paa By.rI oeoB aBHI opao a zUII po aJIIXBIoax.
B l Bo.ytllopoTpaTB a' B Brpx' BoHaT oaI .oToB eTeopoo B:II.
Hapep, IBaI' rp' pa'
poar,o' c|IlaIa yp, pa oaoT
/Ba oa BoyIIIIx y.oB, oIo Iaro Il}tlx ox TpoIIopr opTBrI{oy eo oBepxoT.
ooy p rTopooo o oToB a B ox
ooeo ar aa aoepIx pooB' pzrBBax B ) oo poopr, ooeo B opao o' oa XB.a oI o B.
2. o B poo a. aoopIlTpo ToT o o(IlII\{
xapapo pea o.TaloiopxoT. p aa oo
oao papao aBaolx I]po}IooB ooI y,o xopoIo I{aT
BTopo}I IIaT l ooo.
. oa IIBo aopI pooB B )I(x ox aopr rrep.oo.aT o)l(ItI yoB oeTo IIa MIIx roa.
oTI aHo BTpaIo BH ooI' oopI Il Too
aTpyHT opoBae ooBoe}Ie' IIo oa oB JIIoaIo
Boo)Ho BIoIIpo o paBa ByaIx ooB.
4. p opooo oIl orToB a B oo.a
oa oyTaTBa oo oapa Bo.yIIrIxyoB. Hao 1"rIBaT' To p BIo peoB a I\{aIxBIoTax oa.py BoyIIIoo
y.a Tpy.tl oTpoBaT aoeT BpTorT' opIITpoBa B poTpaTB, op.JUIToaI ce B)LIoo.I o.p)BaT B
284

( rM). Tpy,o opoBa oyoI T' o BOyIIIIoTo


)I(x oeB aMoepI olv ypypoBaI e' M py o.
o ooo al\{eo ToM a po ToTIo. Bee p
oT }I zLIBIoa yIrI[aT paccTo' oTopoo B oeTe o)Ho opT oao opooeo BIl.
poo pI a MB B}ITooTopI e paopI aMoTI oe o.p}eIo aopIx , paTBI{I
aoTI. aMoTI r TeII aeI o H' oopo aoJlee oao aN{oopapopaoo oa y a aoa A2. a aoeToB Tar I\{[IeTx Boo)lGIo opI{ B oTe po' o paa I{TI{BIIIxe.
Pac eic prTB B p o a }IaJIIBIoa aTo
opaIaT. ap Boylxoo y.a' BIoIo o o B, vao
IIIH BoIvo)}IoTpooypoBaT .po yo. B
yllax o oe pe.oDeI{ oaaT a o aI{,I' yrllr oIT.
o yaaIM pHa oooe a popaT aTIIa pr.oIIa o.oToBa' B To aIa oyTa o Mopoo yoB oeTa o a.aoy ap]pyy.
5. Mo apoopTI B oTaToIlo oopyoaI I\{a oa.|4pIe )T oB. Ha paax Ir Bee B pa.oTrxl{ oTpo oeTa, B cB e IlaTo BopaaeT po yao opelpo. C apoopTa B { paBTa' a oepox BoB pe IaB I{Ie Bo.yIlIIIIpIHaa}IBaT B
yIIIIx III4HLK.
orx IIaI{I yTa' B oToI la oToI{o. Hpo B aaBaIoT B Ta IIaeI yIITa' oopl o
eT B. o oa TpyoT B yIpaBe Bo.yIIIII\{
.BII o){elr eTopooo pa yoB oa..
6. eopooeo o oToB B aTo po.T
oyIB B yJIoBx po Teopooo rT p o|paI{Ix
Boo}tloTx opa papoTpaen o opa' B To .
Topooeo, oToMy yo opal{oBaT a.e)o IIITooBoe ooBrrII p.ype)rqIlo oar BI{IIooI. B o aMo Bpe p
oax a aJII BIoTax oBlIIIaIT peoa oo poooB
oaI{Ix eopooex e o By appyty (o B). B
x yox yTBIro BopaTar po oa eoopa, oTy.
a opo peoI aMoToB.
,7.
opoo opal{I, oae oJIo oTI o B,
IJIoIII{I
o IIITaTy I{e Moy Br oTy (poovyro)
paoy. B ooprx apoopTax I a oaoIIIx oa.ax ooe I{eT Topoo opao. eopooeo oe pol oeToB B
Ta yI{I opao oyITBeT a AC apoopTa BITa.
8. opooor
oee oo o B opaIIyT oao o A parpeT p.o Teopoooo oe B oH TI{ooepoo )ITa>.opooo o
oeToB IIeopeTBIIo B apoopTa B, elo a AC Ilo.
ylo py' oylBr.eypI rpolvl-IlolTTo o AC.

28s

a TIx
!. opoooo oe aBvla, paoalo
Bo,yapopoa'
o
oo.I
po}IoI
Bo.ytllIx I1,oyT
pr.yprtIITopoBI
paa
oToB'
I{ITpaa, B, app}"a
.rpaa apopoa, opa o ao oo.
It o BoytIIl
apopooB MB oaoHIoao' opoa oo.a,aIIIlraIo. ooIo P ( T) aoBIxapo.poo.
p BITo a Bo.yIIrIxyoB oBaIoT B aBo
oT po.oTrHoT oTa aHI aa, ap A
ooTBTTByoypoB. po oo' ax{ o{aloT oaTHy yTylo oyTaIo.
p yeTB}l Topooroo ocH oToB o MB
ooo ar T oeBpt{a opa cflepo yI o
}I ooI{I yo B o oTTBoT. .ox(oTI{Ia
par'ao aa (aoI apo,pooB) oaoaIo c ailIo
oo AC oar opal{oBaT BoBpI{or IIoy op o
oo apopoMoB o aaaM B A pa lta AC.
Be puHIII BIIIIoottoT oTI{oT oTa , BIOII(pro
vI aBap|oo-x4 paoT (AP), oTa o A
aiIaB apoo o) oToB a apo.poI oa,oItIoa'' I{a oTopIx T p.TaBT rTroyI. Tax oToB paaa
ap;avlPo B o BIoIIT I{oo oIIoB. Mopooo
o T oToB oyrTBJUITB ooTBTB Ho A :ulIro py, papalaIBao aUIIIoaoo AMC aMeTTe aLIIaapoopTa o .BxtH' oTopa yBpaT pyoBo'Te BaIIperlpT.B py yaIBarT pao xapaTp BooI
oToB, opa' oya orIr oToB' Ilop.o pr.a a apo.poN{(oao.ryr oa.y), opI pTBa.oBH Topooo opa o paooB B,, opo Tropoox
HaIo. |IpeaTo Hopa Ha AI\4C aooo apo.poa T.,.
o apo,po.{ poooo orI4 oyloT pooI
y' apIp/y' paoy (oa) oToB IIITopoBI pytlp. B
ya appyt oTa poaT o ao- TpoBoa IIIrwI
TpopavI,a TaJ BIOJIIIToTIo palloppoB pyoB
a BIII oBe' o oaa rI{o tloo' To oyloT
poIIoI oo,IToo o apl]IpyTy. pe.r paI paoltoB' .JUIoTopIx papaaTIBaIoT pooI ooI' opr.IT pyooTr aBap'IIpT oaoBIBaIoT a'IIIo AM.
Mopoa opa, rooa II o IIorToB,
BpIaT IIo paIly ,Tpy I B)It' oTBaloey a opaIIaI aBaoIIIl pao. a a opa p.aTa p}tI
yoB' axoapo.poI oa.o}IIoa' a Ta a}a Bo,yI]II{Ix
JIy'(I
BH
B Bo,yxr. p par ItoTo .Tpy
ooaoT
o
I\{rpI
IIIopoBoo p.yp).}lo.t{pa
oB opaoT TII a M.
Pyoo aBap.IpT IIaaI{AMC opaIIyT a}J'Tc
IIoTa oaor,l ooI{IroTNIaBaoI{IIIpaoT vI Br;.
286

Teopoox yoB a IIIo. er p o.


o yIrro Topoo JIaTI{x
TaBo poBoT ar^
oToB.
ltaaI
oooTr paolr
pozrIlo ypaBr o 'aBap,p.'
Ha ooaI4 aBo
Tprx,tIBItI M9IM pox
poTopoJlo opayrT oIt
(app' .aI o
opa
oa oo,I ,yo oxoMo
}Ia pa .'.).
aBo,a
FIo opoB' .aIo xapaTp pToo
pooa
y,oB
AMC apoopTa BITa oaT a)I Bo.yII{Ix
p
pooooI a B po, oToB. flya p{aT IIa}y
)I(ToT oTa oee 2 . llopTBoo Topoooo
o oToB a aoBo AC papaaTIBaT6-or po}IoI

oo.I p a}I 3 aa. pa.ra x poI{ooB IIa apopoMI MB


(oT
ooa
Boo)I{IlII\,I
Br
oyITBT
JIoa,
oa.oltI
oro TJIoHa.o MTIIo IIIpooBaTo pa.oTa).
Mopooo or ooB oyTBT, a paBo'
xoAM, oTopa IIao.T B oI{ STBTTBHI{gTToo opa1la B.{' ya
OTBTTBIIIIOT
B
oI{
BIOJIII'IIOT
oTI
,Tpao paoT' B o {a'
y ooBTByIopyoo opaa B.{, o AM apoopTa BlIITaapaIIIBarT
I]orToB.
Bp
paTlro
Ha
(oa)
AC poItoIIooIo paoy
150
oao
pa}II
IrIr
p oT 3000 r}I lk:llco.r
B II}' a Ta p Irir oaI{Ix oToB MTopoox
H Ia}( p ooo paa B a p.aT.aI{Iropoo oo,I.Tpy B o.ylo p.aa AC. o B MrTropoox oyMIIToB BpyaIoT tlo. po .oIIoI{Ia, oyITB) pyoBoTBo oa.

o epeco:
prae, yBaala,6oyyoHytHa opaHeooA-2. o o
- oH ]vtoe
po o BooHoI aHeHHoa p|e'a pot.,t
o
oy)t,
peage
He
oo
He
ao
apoApoy
ao
H
popo"'
oe6

yHa
o3ytl.loo
npu""'"n paaHoaa. oap
- ByH. Tao oaHp ypa opaHeoo BoMyaory ( oa e
ae),aB a6Hy,yaBae
ao pogoopooe
]yooy
po}4,
oKlga
o aoHopoaH3|Ba
<o6po>>'
aoe
pa6ol.
o
o
aao
epa
Ha
papHe
apBa
06 pao,epoeoKaIBa
aaHpoBaHH|
ea, aB|oH
pa6o.
epyo BoxBx o oo paoHe|oHe
ooo To p BIoJIIII{oToB I{a MB aaloT {I tlorTI. T oI IIpoBo.T Ha oBIx apopoax TIII; )I pa}.a
o Ba. opooro o Ta orToB oyrTB
ao AMC p { B TpooM 0oTBTTB o A. oaI
oTaB YaoaT yoIrI poIloaM ooI' orpaTBIII
(oo IIITa6BI) pooa o apopoa, poIloaM o paol{a
a TaI(opav! pryp) e1g1y1'
ooB L||v|
IIoToB' I]ITopoBtI\{

[IapoJIoTI{I.aIIIM.
P
o,
,aIII
r o avo
H orx apopoa Topoo aIo. opaytTc cA (1"la).
aM A, a B - aNI
281

o peo:
yptlxy,eBHHo,
o)li|ea.oao, oo opoH|'y
a oo p poo ooe (a o
ol, o)t(Ho
Heoaol-to
aBopooa), pyo opo|,a oHo
e 6oa oBeBHHo
B Boye.
eHo>>
apopoMeBe ypaHloHoo yp a He or - y <<oH
ooy p a)oMeHot-lyee eooo|apopooB,a oop|
paoe BloHeH
o pya(ap) apaypaH|
Ha Hoe
o6eea.

po
poMoy
o' Bo ae o|
oa oBeHHo e ooy, o ypH|o oeBoo apopol4
ol o (a o oa 100 6oe), e <o oo|>He 6y, o
o opao14at HaoooKypaoB.A ep |eoA
ya6y o pyl,oy a B.a o pool4ooB|yHK
| ye6IoeoBHo |oayp|'
17.5. ooIIIIoT eTopoooo oee
M)I(,yapo.IIIoTo B
Mdpodt omb, - To oTI' BIIIII p BoyIIII y.a oyapTBo paI{I Po pyoo oyapTBa v7
oTI' BIoIII B Bo.yI}IopoTpaI{TB pyoo o.apTBa (oyap). yapo}II oTIopa.)a prypl{I' BIO,IMI
o paIIaI{Io' ooJITI{I or (paoBI)' oTopI oTIIo-

T apTptlIe .IJIIIIeoTI.
yapoIlI oTI paalla aB|aPoclpl BIo,lr B ooTBrTTts poBaIrMI yoB'IM yapoD( .ooBopoB' aJIIOIII
ex(.ypaBTBo Po py Tpaa o BoytoM oo.
opoooe oe e,FrapoIlIx oeToB oyleBe
(A) oao poa HMo A Too paea
A
Bpo opooro oalla (pox 3 o o
Mex<ypooopaapaaoaa).
A (AM), oyIeTBIor Teopoooe oeeer ),yapo,IIIxoToB' oa oalrI' ep, TI oTaB
pTaBT apy)Ix aBaoa opooo oyJla
aI{IlIIt{o aro oaMo oToII oo.I a BoyIIIIx Tpa.
ax' appoa BIra' oa' aaHIx.
C r Topoooo oe Mr)IqyIIapoIIIx IIoo A
oIIaIII aBaoI{I TopoJIo IITpI (Hoop, aapo) pypllo oaB o apIIJIeIIIoII aBaolr}Iylo pooTylo oyTaro. [ ppop, B pe.a oTopIx yaaIII I1I
y oBTTBOT a oaBrl{ poooB, B BI pollooB oo'I
ypoBII (loI), .JUIoTopr oII papaIaloT' oprJIoT Pporo y1lTo aTaoIIIx poa oaoBIBaIo C A.
Hao o po.ox{ToT oTa a) Bo.)IIoo13 wM
TaBTJ aBaoa p BITo o){arT MTropooIyt 'oy*ou".o. oa roa aBaoIry poIloTyro apTy ooI Bv oo.' apy ap.ro oopav ll' poTro BeTpa paTypI I{a
Io oTa,a poIIoaN{ooI o apopoy BITa,oa aaIII. .{ylra ope a pyo ( pox Iolile) Ir
Ira aJIo ( Bx oTzUII)r B ooTBTTB oaHI'|MI4 IAo.
288

B o {ae, cJI Ioac apa oBIaeT Be l\{apIpyoTa, n;y


Bpya poo o oT'lJIIIoy Iacy apIpya' oaBIlI{I o 'ypo.tloy oy RoFoR opIr TTo. po oo, IIay o)T f
Bpra apa oo<el, o{}I}IaoT.pyoo pooToo p.
eopooa oyTa'l ar oyllx y.oB pa aBaoalt poT Ha pyo l ao I.
o epeo:
pet,oya yatao|e' a, oepaeeyHapote
ol oeteeopoo
oyeo yHy oyaeaoa.pae6e, yetae,o opo o pooeFto
UJaeo o appyry eepyp - . Bpe loa o ol'!y appyry
pepo 20 |pepHooo ) Bpe}|eyo opaHa oHya
a a oo6ye
a BpyeHeyoyo.oao o opa|Ba,
6eoooo.
oB|H
e oo o6roreo.Co AC (AM), oop|eoye poBqeH
oyaa oM|e'eooqa ao aoy|a6ay pa 10o/oa ae a1(y,' o){B
oy,ooHeoo)^.ia
oo ta. Peo, Ho Hoa o3apyHo o6 Hoa na'
Boyooya al e B'|
oo6eo ya,oa o]apa
po|lKo.a eoae }rryao oaoap CH,
oop|ee oH xopotrlooop o-a,a a, o e o oop opy.B ax Jl)^]a,
oHoo,<ota,>
par |,l Ha oopxoaBo]a.
A pl?!
pooI oo.I o apopoa' pooI a oay' oppBI II
Bo o a.ro oo oaBJUIIoT oJIoBaeI\{MyapotlI
o,oB' lopole oo SIGT oTaBJIJIIoa AC o oIIe oBpBeaD( oIo eya.
BeHoT paol tlpoB CopBfl'
po,I{IxoToB. oo}I'I oaBJUIIoB T Iax' oa aro.al
JI o).a) otII ao pooo TJItIo (prrI pol),
r po.ll la, rr lpa' JIo oe[vle TypyIITIIo. a pa'I oTaBJI oTpII TeTo ooBa
IIp1UIIopae a alo Ie paT pyoBoIo oToB
paoa (aply .rpy) pytlpe a Bo,yIIIIxyoB.
a< Bo,y[IIIIxyoB' Ilaxo B IIoTe, oa Beo ae oo (o MTAR), pooaN{ ooI (o TAF), oH|4|v1
opIe epaT IIo paoaaa oBa}I VOLT, a}IIIvIo a.
o ooe o apoy aa o pI\{ aaa cBvIpl IIJ0p1\{oBIoo SIGMT, rp.aBaIlv{a op oyltlIx y.oB o
.eTp aiula B.
B apI apoopT Topooeoe oee a)e o.
ylIII{Ix yoB Po poBo.T IIo ooTBTByIo oaIII' aJIIeI A Po oTTIlI opa}IaM py pa' oTBTBSIIIII oII oToB. paT paao aBavtPo
apyIx apoopa oaI Ira opo lvleopooeoo oII pox a paT ooTBTByroe pr (p oxo.
o) rro o BIoIIIlIo.

289

o epeo:
B oeepo Hop]p,B oPre Ha HeoopapopoMX
Po, Meoo6oyo oyaa Heepo.oo}4
Tao ooopeAoooo y <Brifing>>.
poopepa
oaaopeeHy"ooy t6opa>eHoooye eopooeo
oya.paeaa (otoo op BC, opo o
Be eoxotea|eoy
ryp) or o oa Hoo},r,
opa
opaproB rypooae, Ha ooBHoyHHo
pp.lH l.a a poe t oe oBpMHa,
al4ooHo
p6y peHHa orytoaa' Ho oryae etoa <<apy>>
o6a Hoo.B peyeoye,o Ho |-l, o
a e,oyB opo
o papaoaae poHol oMyoH }|I,
op,e Hao e ea, eo o y yHo.Bo ooype e
I4o aae<6peory> IaeHoBa BBo6ayyylo oya.
ae,yyJaBaoHHyoooyHooB yyeeopooy oooByeHoooa'
17.. ooIIIIoT eTopooeoo oe
l{Il' apylo a y.
ooo rTopoooo e oToB aaa op
opIT ao ooBa BoyII{I yoB, o opa
poTeopooo opavl c aaop op oea}IoB' a Tal(
ouro eBoI poeo B aTlvIoepa or Bo.IMpoTpaI{Ba.
oe a opepo opo (oeao) oepoTto Ba
oJII aopoxoT B o)III yoB,I. oao TpoIlTI{IlTzUII{Ie
ToB a oao poBo., a paBo, a orx BIoTa' oaloa oBepo a II oaIBaeT BltHll }Ia x opoo.
yoB,I.
Cyo a Topoooe oee popea p
oTax BoyIIIIx y,oB' BIOI{I paJIIII llapo.o-xore
aaI4 ppeo o, oTopI oy oyBJUI'B I]Ipoo tlpBayoB, opae op aop.
IoT' a Ta,e p ox aBI4a|4I4
B ao Bp apyec a yax BpoTI oyloT
oe oo paB.' o.oa propIoBIx paoo, ay{o-.oBaTr' IaTex' BLIIX'aaTIIIx pyx pao.
ol p oy poBo.Ta MJII p,IIoutIxBIoTa' B
paIx p)ax JIoTpoBaH|4|4 c pHI aIIBppoBa}I.Tpyo p opaa opooeoo o oeoB aBaI IIa\
op oI oTyB .oTaToo eT ,poTopoo
a Mopr oTyTTB ooo IIITopoBoo ooBee.
oor ToI{aI\{}poopooo op NIavI pao
ooB yoBoo (opaoo) poTa BJUI aro' poBo.I
a yIl' BoyIII}IapaB.a ooI I]yoa opa. Cop PoTeopooo opa Ha ax, apylT BeporI' o)
oy]rcTBT ooIo TaI{apTo aapaypr, a opaa a opao opa.oHa yBIBaT pyTa.a|loBIx a.e
a y}I py yoB.
290

B l )laB p o oeToB a. opIt{ ooo


o opa Ira y. oyaloT apyeIx Topoo po. Co apyrx a paccanl4 epra aprr P oBoT Bo o B Bx I{aoaIiIpoopoo y.
Blop ooBa eoxo.o opa opIoT yoB'IM
aBa apaTepo BIOIUIIX
IlIx aa.
B oe. Bpe oruyr po TzUIapa opa o oea
poTropoox y. paIII Mo)Io to ooBa oo
oparo opa oo,I, paoo)eI B poaIx Toax' o
ep B oIlI paoa oaa yTaaBBaIo e opI y.
!
aro a Mop T oyloT TaI( ,Peyloe I.
opa aBToaex y opaeTc kt epe.aeT B rIITpI pa
opao aI o auLIIayTI{oBo r <Apo>. p opoooM oe oeToB a. opM yIeI{yIo olv1o oaIBar Tar yTI{oBa opa.
HopI{oe ropooo or BporTo, apylx a .a, oyITBT yoa poTopooa pya. oe oToB ppo o o poBoT o ar oapa
a)a >ai.fa paoy oroB AM poa polvITopooea oepaop. o ooIro aTyao B T ytl., oa a ye
.poTopooea ya oTyTByeT II ona a oaa B JIol\{oTIIoIe. B ax Jlyax aa o)rra oTyTI a AC ( poopaopro) I{ oI{e' eM a 4 o BIa BpoTa (aaa oeo). B a yaIBa Bp aaa ooa olToB' oop.aI
paoa oeToB' IvlIIyIoo.I aea oo.a paoe paoo opa (aopl) a o oT)ae aB. oe o.a aB
teao o oolla orToB a AC paeT opa o HapaB pI opo pa, B.Mo' BeI4oo,I' oao (oe,
op BIoTr paI), Tpaypr Boy oepo.aB. opooe arekl po,orTa' poIIIrlIIe aI{y)
IIo.oToBy. lllopoa opa IIeraeT ((a pe> B Tr ).ax' oa opoT Bpa )rBBaeT BIIII oyTI poB' B.IlloT
tll loa e paI oao yl!{IIIIIao ae e
caIIoBI{oo Iryla ooI aroae oeelle B oaax cI4a ypyHTIloT. .{aI o oo. IlITopMoBI ooelIl e)I(eaI{oraIT a AMC a eTalo op (opl).
o oa a olapo BoyIIIIIoo yIIa HaI{Ir opt.
eIJ IIryT OBTTBHOT (p av ooBopa o eTopooo
oe Tax oo) a BoBpoe aro oe BepToeToB oxoo opa. opo opaa I7poBeekl
poopoooo o Bpoeo, apyt :acaxI4III4
Mop aopa' operJUIT ooTByroe I{Tpye o po.
Bo.y oo aIIIooy.rra (opl), oopa papaaIaeT Ha oIIoBa ytx pyoBox .oyIe}IToB.
Byo Ha yIr opeJUIIT BII-:
ooI' aJIt{oT opoao .oT' BIoTa, opa oTo oao. Haoe aro

291

opooo Bo B oao, Ta a aI Ta.


e oaI BIIet|,a poa' III.LII,oa.' oaa o. BIoa r paI oao B aTo Te oIIp.oao
oa BpoeTaa ayy y.Ha.
ByaI a a opoTa.lo BMoTIo Mop poBoT pBIao ox{}Io. ooy o Ba}Io xo r BpIe
opIITpI' pao o oTopI TI{o o Mo)l(o op ooIo TxIIx pTB. p oyTa aa o Ba o opaa BI{aI{ra Boo)oT yyII] opa (o) a ve
oToII o' apr opo oBHo oTaIBae a
oTe aI BoyII]oo yIIa' ooeo B Te yllax' oa oeT
poo.T }Ia I\ltzLIx
pr.r}Io N{ZUII
BIoa.
Hooo aI( oIt' To oTI I{a op BIoIIIpaTr p oTyTB aaIx apo.poo. o aJIaIBa olyl oTBTTBIloT a Teopoo)r yy Ila aTBo papalaI poooB oo.I.
p oeeIl oao Bro-oaoI opa a BDy . oxoo paoTo rpa yp .BIDL|cLIa IToI plItoo BTpa. yp ya oBaa IIapaBe BTpa' To BoI{a ay BeTep' oopr pBo.T oBrII y BToeTa pai}Bopa.
Baloo ol\,la.
Borre opo oBpoT IUIT BIoTy oo yI a
ypor op. o Nlo)T pBT (poBaJIBa) BrpToeTa p oa'
oUIIBaIoBepToeTa c .rI '.
Bo-oa.oIe opa ooo oxtI B oo BpI{. Hor
axo.I lra oa.y pyro oT Too oTaBa roaro I\,IaTpTBa,oToy r.apo T' ooToBeI oTaI\{a yax B llooe Bpe'
TaT IIaTo aTpal\{Boo a.
|1 .7. op a' epeBa}ra l}I
a op Bo.IIIIIoo y.a
p ro IIorTa B Ta I{.lIBaeoIIITaOMp)' oa ax o, opa o oo.e p.a a op Bo.yIlroo ya p
paa: a BeT' B oII ooa B o pya.
H m a)y BoyIoo ya oa )4) Bra, oo
B, apaBII opo BrTpa y ' opa o oar BIIIa
ooI o ypy a' a a(r BIoTy l paI oao kI B|1o y r, o III, 200 2000.
B o nodod p ao I{a oay a) o{aT oT .eTpa r:opa o epayp Boyxa y ' apaBr opoT pa' aToepo aBeII,BIoT palrI oao, a Ta o oax orH' pyoTvI|4 oaIx B,Ix ooI pao apopoa.
B o p2 YtIary ep.a opaIo o BIo x paIII
oao, BoT a B, apaBIr opoT Bpa y M' a Ta'e
oToe B oT e.

292

o epeo:
E l,yaeta'e pa aeHo
poeeHaaopaa,o
oee,o ay pa op o6xoapa Heoeo. fle,.lHo,
eyp ee,pee Beo,H))o
Hyp Bea ooe B, o o, oy, l4eopooo
opaooo 6oo
ao.A o eo Hapae
.4opoBepa,ato6 oatxex
oolaya eoxoo.o oo a eoaoBea.B oe oo,
o o oaGlloeaee pepo10_15 , op oyooyH peAae o6a oaoHooHpBBH
opo ooe paoe apopoa- 1"tprypa oyxa, aoepoeeH,opo6 oat Be .. Heo.
plBHoepe oo B, oa oe ao pyry, a o op pea
aylo }oHy y <<Bey}o>
opao oo/o' H ooo|.|,o|ae6eooroa.}o ato B|oeepaH|
oo,Bo
a B HapaBeH
opo p.CoroeB oeee- e
Gl|eeeopooee
xpap'oHao/ea,o o oepuJeHoHe
o ooH|xro.
17.8. ooIlo eopoooo oe oeToB
B paIII eopae paoa
opooo o oeToB' BIoJIIUIMIxB pzrD(opax paoa, oyeTBJUI Be.a B ooBeTBr,r <GIaaBee o eeo.
pooI{loy oIo palro aar>>'
r oIT Too paBv!!Ia' To B B.e .oJDKo r optIlo o..aoo. oao o aeo Il
a. op,o Mopoooo o orToB aBIc|4T ToJIo o opoo oo)I(II}IJlz}po.oa'o o xapaTepa aaJII{a C.
apaep aaJII{a opo B Topo' To B ool pyl o
eopauoN{y ooI{Io pIITo IeT y paol: opltI'
pop' ape (aapv) yIIII{I.Co>oT lv1Topoooo o oroB B T paoax ooea po TIo
eTeopoox a, oopa oIo) oTID( pooB, a Tar ao )IeoT paoo.
Paop ooeo eTopoooo oee oToB paao aBaoo B a)o peIIIIIx paoo.
opl pot. B opIx paoax ro yT (apopo) o
JIa ooIIoT, oopI aBT oT BIoTI yTa a ypoB
op' Mrooo}II ytlTa oToTo opllI pIII' IapaBJ{
xpa I{a[paB,I ooBy BTpoB, a Tae o pa.aor aTopo xaparpa o.Talo op.
o oToB B opllI paoa .oTaoIIo o)I. B rx o-'D(
aopI a. opa aTo oaT IIa TpMa vl:aea
ypyoT' paBBae pooBa ToT. oal MI aoprlx poo B opa aoppyT. Ha aeo opo op a
BIIl)D'eoo o.a Boyxa aopI pol opro. o
pBo yBI{Io o oa. HTBOT o oaoB' OBIIII)
pxe paIII oao, a ae apIT BpIIIIIop oaa.
Ha opeI oa a e xox Boya oao paIBaT, oa, ppaa ( yl!{HulaeT TI{B.
o).

29

p xo yI opl{Ix BpIII oao oa. Moyt


I{oBa.oTvpl r. Co}IoT pa opI paoax ooBa oIIIooopa op oao.
Hao o)l oo,}IIyoB'I B opax ara B otIII .
I.

oor BrTpoBI pxo. p oopI pal xapaTpy


a|xpa B6.yIIIHI oToo Boa)T opIe BoIlI' B oTopIx aroo)T c.
a ypyoT
aT oTaToIIo JIa TypytlTo.
ypyTIIBI{9
To.a orTI B oII
o,
BaT Tpo
oTraeT B
a ypyeoT
ToT I{aTeHo yo}(IoT.
((poBpIIIa opI Bo' op.e oTopI oo o Ta aIBaI
TopI{I) oaaM.
B opax aIoaloTc zopo-doul mpI. pr, a BTIIO,
Bo.yxa Mry opIl\{ xpo
pTaBJUIIo oo TIryIo py
IIapBa
paI
olII JIooB. opo
o' ooIry
BTp
/. opo-oI{I
5-,1
I{r
pBIIIIa
oIo
opHo-.oIIIlI BTpoB
aBTp
BTpa:
xo
apaBeII
,Ir
o.rt
rT opoIo BIpa)I(IIIrI
paBr .OJIIIIa JIOIII op, a IIoIo - o JIooB op B .oIry.
-a paI{o oIo opoT opo-oIII{Ie BTpI }I pe.
TaBT oro oao . TIIoT aBaI4. Ca aIIpBII
1p
BTpa oT.Il IIo o}l(T BIBaT III 1IIl I{a poTBoolI

Bra a apo,po.
t rlpcTaBJUIIoT 6Iyro oaIIoT aavl' l\{ opIIo-oIIIII
BrTpI. ] To I (o 20 |c) opIBTI BTp, ro op. p
Bo.ya yIIIIIagT o oTIIoax aTo OBIIIIa TrpaTypa
TJIIIUIBil{HoT. r oaloT Tx {x' o,a lra y Boyllloo
pIITTB. CoBaTIIo' To r (To)
TrL I{axoT opopav
r BTep' a N{HI{IIIo rIr4 opopa B]/{).lur oo.

B opli aa aI oaHI :raBa7I. \,r. moot mp'


BTp p,TaBJUIT oo oTo Boyxa o TB N { I T)I(Col
pepoN{ ooT o oTaToI{o oooy JIoy rTIIoT. a
BIIyrI{
I{apaB
o
oa
Boo Bpa BeTc BTp B Aap'
Te IaBrTep
TooBI
Hao oa
paooB ]\{aTpa Ha [ope.
x'oaoyrl{ooIlTItopoxoTapyJIoIIIx
pooB. p ax yax opoT BrTpa o) oTa 30 / . AIIaOIII yoB ,JI BOIIIIOBII,I |4 IIel. .kITooBIx BTpoB o IaT

Bo l\{Ilox proax

o epeo:

Po.

oe, yaet , a 6too oHoM pepe o Ba}4,o


aoe oot ep. o epypo] Ha apo pe e ypopHo Mo
oet-taBaM Cpaa. Meo 3 peae o60 H|oe o<ooBao xoI, H oa oopl py pa|e apl o|. Cpy
> |H.po , Ha pl B, oe He paHo a o6ltx 6ot ta y ooo He oeH BIoo op, eM 6oe, o y-o t.
ye y)<e o peCy po o po. oao a HHot\,l
yp)a Ha oX (o o
a-Hy
<<pae>>,
oo
opy
o

e6

aHo
ro). H a| yM|e |H pH| ya Ha <<Bo>>
294

aBa o. a oa p,o1'ty
CpeayaCepeao.A o
yopoyooyoH| K,loH,y paa'o oyl-(a a
a opa paoo' o Cepeayoy
o pa). H|llJa,
Cpeao.A o pxy, a, e HaHaey' opy ao 6oo ot
|.
pyto, a eepoa,ea olo}4aH|
p o eTopoox o oToB B opIx paoa ooo
BIIa}IyT yeJUIoao' e apIT op oaa' B,I
oo.I(ooeo Boo)oT BoI{tIoBJIpo Tt{Bo ypy), yle Bo B B,Ix oo.I'a Tae BTpoBoy py.
ooo Topoooo o oToB B opI{I paoa
aJIIoaIB ylo. Bo-pI' B opa a BIIoT ooBa P. {o To' o ooo To p apo.po oopao paoaaT a Blo <o> ypoBl{ op, T.. y oo)It op. p
ToM JUI BTa oa o.yIIrIyoB oTp1ec B t r,
a:tpopo' IIoTpoeI{o a o BIoo T. B o rar opHIr
, paoo)I Bopy apopoa' aoBT pao P, paooaop (T) apTy papopa oaoT oo a oo.
Bo-pr1, p Tropooo oII oeo opI paoa oro BMa yrT opa' oyao a AC o poTaIo Bo.yIIIIy.oB.
B-px, papaoT poITIooB ooI lIITopMoBD(pypl
oe ). TIIIx pao oo oaIx ei ooI.
puopu pot. B x paoax a IaT oI{Ie .JIoToB yoBll oo.I. oar BIt B popx paoa yT oT a.eTBlIIeTyI!{aHI' oTIr oaa' a ae BIIlo o oaoT yl!{aIIoB op. oIyt oao pTaBIoT a t{oHI
o aopr.
poI ypye}IoT B II)IiN,r
Bpoo p) B pop paoa MeT o ooo.
ao araT pt opa. p _ BeTep' oopl B .Bor Bp apaBeII op a yIII' a B oo - yIII a l{ope. Copo epa p p
oIo pBIluae 5-.7 l' ! oToB ooo oao p pTaBT.
Hao oaa .JUIoeToB opa. pa _ To l oplc BP'
oopI a.ae paoa, /IlBIo opI p po oyaeT
oplo. Copo BrTp p op olo pBIIII20 /. a ppo opt Hoopoca opa. AoIII yoB aroaro
a oo oyopo, Ho ' a aa B pyx paoax.
p oe yo oTa B po paoax aoe Tpoo rIIaT p)Ito oao' Boo}IoTBoHoB yal{oB' po
IlT}tBIIoypyoT B ptlo JIo.
o epeo:
06 oo6oxoeoBH Ptope6topaaor le' floaee a
6ol]Jpxa.oa Ha apopo,paooeH|x
Ha ao 6pery (a e y
a e), oaeepHarya.H op 2- o 6epaoeoB.
a <<ea>>
rya, a Ha apopoo10 . Bo o aeaa:
pe rya . poapat6op, tea opoHy
op' o o, a ao paoHo epooep|Haxory' Ha ooaH

295

v1' Ka oop,<o aoHy p6poa>' eV|oo aapoHoo o tH.4'


a He
Hoaa,o rya pTHa apopo,o rya paeHa ]opl/
<<Hapo>>
apopo.
o
o6eo
aryaHa' ryMaH
oopo,paga,ao,a e oo HpHoHa6eH,
HooB. oH 6 a Hoa ope}4B Hy y ooy'
oa Ha opHoo|tll.A ooy,o p Bo,ooeo }4leHo,opa}(aBe| ya ( oa e). y ea oaBae,
o o eyB, paB oyegoHpyo. Ho BHaHe oep6opoB/oop|eoBo}o
HaBoHHlx
rtoa oaaHPt
p_ a o ey?>.
popepoBy popaHe,
a o <<o
p opooo or ooB B pllop paoax Hroxo.N{oooBaT Ilopa P aI{I poeTalox ByIIII
y.oB' a Ta rrTIBaT TIII pa BoHOBJI oa}II'B.HvIil,
tlooI. po Too, p oT I{a.Nlop a IIp}IoaIx BIoTax }raTo aT ooa aa BIoTy BotI' ooI{IIo IIp I{o Bo Mop. Broa BoHI B ToM o pao aBaTop aBvITo opoT
apaBII'I Brpa. aoo' To BIoTa BoI{ Bo ByTprI{x op or oTaT 5_6 , a B oTpITo orar - 10-20 . p otl oeToB
To oToTTBo eo6xo.o oao IIBaT.
pmuecu pol|l. B apX paoa\ B TII Bo oa HaIo.aTo)tII,JUIpoHopoBa yoB IIoo,I.o oyoBI{o IIa oJUIpHoo I{ oplro o' IIo paypo Boyxa B I4N1I1|
po' I oa.aM (apa) pxoI oI{I, oro oBoprI\{oTr oo.I,}xy'nalox aalox oT (a a p.), o tlpooH pa.oBv| alepo T Topoox Tai T.,'
B ap.rx paoa oTtI aoToB BIoIlIoT paT r
aaIIIx apopooB' oT ovl yaIBaIoT B oHo'|$aa.eopoora ya B Tx pao:l rT ooylo oTBTTBroT a aTBo
eopooroo oee oToB. .e BI.Ta.o
]\{eTooI, ,Ba)HOB.
B rox IIIpoTax lpoI IIoT Irr aa)T, o TyMaIII a oaoT oTraIoT aTo. Bro popaIloT aTopI oyoBBaeT
opo]y B1\{oT'oIlao prIII IrBp o o,II rJIar4I4,Ix pT,roB oal yoB . BoHoBrI{,I BoBIx

TooB pDIt.
po Too' p o TMpayp B yoB,I ITBS oo.I o
Ba aoa Ira B opayT TyaII (oa TyaII opaye a aBToI\daIII}Io,rpBalor o apopoy), otoI oTopoo paaT
IIpaT IIBooIIo.
Iyro oaHoT ,JUIoJIrTo IIpr,aBT oaHa eea, apaTpa Too {apT paooB. oa pTaBrT oo oaa Too oT Hro TpoB .o ox .ToB TpoB. oaa
B.I{I. IraIoTeIIc oyl I oapy)I ooIo Bo
(PBo-2). a oaa a paoo}HaoIo I{a BIo 30-100 M. p
or B He oTMraIoT aTrI{o yxy[Ie B,I\{o yepIloe
I{o orIr.
296

o epeo:
- B apxpaoaxo neparypaoyae 40o lopoae po.
oao p x eeparypxB oe p pBHol4
pa or opaoBaeAHlpa|,oop|ea o oBopoI]vl
ooa aoH|x
Ba.To, a pao H|el4,e poH,
e Ha apoApoe,papoeHaH, g apaooBpxo )aaeoooa'
_ E Ha apopoeopo a opo payo,a oe eooe o a
oe, o ao oea oe y o. aa)pae oe yo, oa
6opoa paaex ao a o re.o6l p oae
aa)pe ap Heo e oopo' aa yrp aoea epe opry
Bp polyllJpo6peo pya, o oopoy B ;lo|{orya |
oy o aoa|.Too oe oo, a eeparypa oHe <
to>>,
o6eoa Gloe. ooaeoa)p|ope}DeB oe, oa ap6oee},taooHpoa.
p opooeo oeel{ oToB B apx paoax oxoo TaTo a.UIpoBaT aI ale, .aIIIeP C.
poe oo,
a IlITopMoBo opa, oyalo'.oxoM eTUIr
a A. oaI B .r{rr yT TIIIx ooo
BotIoII oaI e ooI.
ay oo B yJIrIuII aTBa eTopooeoo oeII paalro aa Mo)I(eo:ra xopoo opaoBao aoTB ]\{paIM Topoo o.pae Popoa.
cmtt paot. CoI JUI oToB oo.IIr yoB alaro
B yTIHx paoa. paa, a pl BJI.'B oTJI o apx
paoo, .eoT Bea (llo' xo' xooo))' po yTIIIIpaol orT
a:}a' To TaN{o Bra (Io' Txo' )apo>. B yIrx paoa
oaI .y oTMT r BTep a e.TBr _ aIII
1p, yyla o oa o eox oB rTpoB. po oo, BIoa Tel{epa)pa o o 6ole BpTaJIHIpa.}I}ITI
TpaypI oyoBaloT IITByIO rypyeroT' BIIBaIoyIo oray BoyIIIIxyoB' I cBvlr Tpa. p loo epayp a!ITo yBBa JIxapa oa aoTa' B {a /oTaoo
.4,to B a :popo I{o.aBoo)lto yIBJIT BT oa.(y.
Broa rpaypa Boyxa )T paooooo, a uUIr
B yTIIIIpaoa oroo oTBa oTIx IIaoI (opoo
..) opaHo y Ha xy Beo oo oTaBa apooa
o.aooIIIe ytloT B eo paoe.
Coova, p:l,I po opoIx paoB' J/yIIIaT pooee paoB' coBoo pMa opa xoo o,aBaTzUI.
I aTIe IIoJr.
o epeo:
paoo.Ha oooooeo6t ppl4pooeoey|lx
6epeeaooop paooe(ep})a pae)a apopol4a:e.
eo paoo.My H pepo450 r' a aa o x popea
50 ope' Boo- ylpoHo
500 . . Bo oapy
pyo aa poolool.opoH y oo' A e Apta,a .

297

p opo..to}Iooe oToB B yTIIll paoa ooo a y.]]JIopa' p.aao aa Bo)IHIx


yoB' .aI P. a) eTI paa BoI{oBtl,I oaI BeIoo.I.
B a T oTT' o Topooo oee paao aBI4aIIB opI' popx' ap yIl{rx paoa
eeT o ooHoT' oopI ooo ytITIBaT p oyBa
aBa.
17.9. oItoll Mopoooo e oo
a aIlI BI0T
a aIao BIllI, B oTBTTB A oTI BoylIIIx y.oB op:leIoT a oTI a pero zLIIIx aI BIoax' px
or BIoTax, a Ta a oTI paop.
Caoer BpoTI paao aa BIoIlI oTI roo
rpt{Ix aao BIoT. eo, To p oTa I{a aI
Ioax p oeTa B TpaTop BTpaIo paI oaI B ooI' .a rIp MTopooo o DI(a BC py paI.aopa.
Paop ar Bopo o opoo.
Mmopoozuo onu |tomo pdo
u
I^4ult ^4lI
com. opooe yoB'I B )H JIopoBo
aopl
o
ao aTpyI{)' a oa JIIoaIo Boo)oT BIo oeo. B
oor po o.a oIIoB}II BrI4 oo.I, ooIII ec
aaL7BIIIIoa oao pypoT oToB' - }Ia oao, opaella Bk7|\loc'oa. o.. B r po aoyro oaoT II aBa pe.TaBJUIT
pooa .TtIoT p6IIoT Il)Il o aept.
Bloa <e pI oao BoT oy.lBaT }IyI\,lI
oo.I' oToluy p op.eIIIyoBII,Ix aI{oBTBooxtIM oaa
B Bo.yIIIiIIy.oB' a ae yar o aoeTa I4pI
pToeT.
p oaa opao o aTo yo),IT
yoB oTpoBa Bo.yIoo y.a. eI oporr p ao
oo oap1aeT c or TpyoN{II|eBeIr oBe' oper
It{ooox(eHlraoa Bao. DI(a pIII pyo. o
oa I{oe oo}Izro Hapee TIIoo oTaBa. [eo' pe.oo)I, o B/oTyxy,IIII{a.o 1000 ' a opoT oa
Bo.yI}Ioo
ya oaB 360 / (100 /), To ay o oapy aoo-o oTa a . pI{TvIp:tnHoTaT 10 .
ooy p IIoa a aIx pllo zUII BIoax Bo BpM ooToB oTy IIIT)4)aopaIBae oaa BIoa oTa. oa pa.rTIBaeT {To pa MToT' BIoTIp o apryy oa,
a TaI(eTopooLD( B: Ilpoo aB.e|
pape.eHo
o apIpyy rl\{paypI oyxa. a opavI py TTroyoTaBy oT raJIToB Toy)t ope.eIleoao BITIoJITa.

298

flooo oo.o IraT .ooT.o Too oTaBa opIv1ao pap.eIl BTpa B I{)e o aopI' zUI
pyoT' Ix .Bo Bpa Px oaI BeH oo.I.
B a oIIoBIx Mepop, oopI
.o)I(I poBo a
AC p ovrl{ oToB FIa zII pr.I{olJIIx BIoTax,
oo
oTeTT JI.y: yI{e o-opav ooo
paoa
oeToB; oBaHe BIHoaIr(e oepo
opopa paoa a oooopayloe aopI; eilkle eT eopoo
a,
o oTopI oTyaeT opa o oo.' x ppIIaBIloT;
aeI aapI{I BIoTIII(T-925 -so) apT
oo.I pT
ool eI'oo.I )o o; Boprl p
u'*'"
u'I{I o avo oo. o a IopoBoo ooB, "
ar P,
aIx a, axo.x B Bo.yr, ro opa, ero
pao ooB. oy o op'a ry poBo
yeTo BpIl
o.a BprI\{I{yo.
Broe Tx Mpop ooe .oTaToo yro pIIIaT
a/a eTropoooo oeIr,l oeoB IIa aJII pro aIx
BIoTax.
Memeopoozltco oecnu nomo pdtl u otau
loma.
Co aoepI, oo pM oI BIoTa (1000-12
000 ),
BIIeTc.oTaoHoaBIII I HakIB IIe oaIx.JUI
aBa Be oo.I..(lI{o' a oaorr, ooo oao
BepzUIHoopaBTI4,pooo .ToT,TtIB}Ioypyeo
o.eI4'I'a Ta zulll pyI ee oTJIoI{epaI oT aapT}lIxae oy )rTBeIIo yoBI,UIoTa.
H ra BopIlo aaT BopoI ,,'II4:I
pHx apaeTpo aoepI a apaeTpI oa BoyIIII yo' Ta
a ToT I\{aTeptl
r oe B pIy aBax la.
p oeevl orToB a p.IIID( orx BIoTa aoe
pooy yy o.n)Taa apaepa paBTI4aoprx
poeoB BoIoI4oaIx e ooI. oaa yeTpoBoT
rIoMpea T' Bpe o.a Bp yo.
! aaa aoepIII pooB IDeIIpo-IIoTo oDI(IrI ooa pIl{lr oTee oBI apTI ooI,
apI apvo oopa paJII{Ix ypo (o A-850
o AT-200)' apa oT
500/1000, apI TpooayI N{al\{aooBeTpa' a a)I( potloe
pI{I BIOTIIIeapTI, poIloT aBaoIIIr
apI ooI
(A) 1poe 400, 300 vl20 a apI oorx e
ooI IIe BIIe ypoB 400 a. po Too' p poBII aHaJIaoITaN,t
oaIa ouryro oo paooaoHIe yTIroBIr
a
alol(
aIII'
ae TI oooe ooBtI,I oaIx oo.I.
Aa epo opa o BIoIt y.reo
ooe a, ao. B Bo).' DI(, rBIIIx oeT B
ao-.o paoe ( aoy-o appyy) plIIIIIx
a AC
ca oop oo Topooo jo*ne"'u",.

299

y.oB
paa o oToBoaIBaT'To a Bo.yI}rI
B aTJIp oyl poHoTylo pao.)yprroy IIoTy. [Ho' a aoo-o aoTa B TIl yTo
BIoI{r.Ba oTa o aIpyty a-pyp-Ba opa (ppo 1 o o appyty, l u o B apoopTy a apaBy aoJITa
oy aa)rpoB r 1 opao), o a a MoT paT
ryto oparo o pap. oaHIx e oo.Io apIpyy
a oTa p6pa, Ta oTa or. o opa
oo yToIlT ooI{ poao oao"I) ooI{ o Typyo o.HeI' llae po .TI{o' a Ta yoT opoT }IapaBr BTpa lra Io oTa' oTorl{r TpaTypI Bo.yxa oT Ta.apTI{IaH pe apaTpT.
Copto oB,o' To Taa opa p.TaB . oTo otyt rllo. Ho y T o.Hr.oTaTo _ oa aTo la yo. ooy poBe.e aTIl r oTaBo Boro aBaoTpa oxo.o opaa BHaH oToB a BaoT aTBoo
paoTlroo pe MTopoox BII B oT' a paoTlry
ory ropoox yo oJITa.o Too' oTa ao-
p y,o aT Topooylo o,oToBy |' ec oTT' xapaTp
((Bo)) ToB oo' or l\{oo ro oaToI{o oppTo oa opaIo' oyIly) oT Too oTaBa.
oBoT aTo
o|il aaJl o1"ro op N{'a
yIIrT oTBo TIx poIIITB perloIo II' poox o B Topoo ylI.
Mmopoozl,Io ou ||omo mpqmop. papa
TaToTaToo oor o apI To pIIJIBIoIllI
oToB' Ta a ol B oaI .JUIaBa BeHoo.Ia.a o.Tpooayo. o,ao p oTaB aTop ay xo.o
,oTaTooopoo HaT TopooL7e oB|4oTa.
a oT Bo)IIoo
oarx oo,I, oaIBaIoX B|4I4e
,Ha, aop a) o)I(T BTpTT o yI TH' Typyo I{oo a, prI{a }TIBo-oBIx oao o
oTJIoIlHlnTpaTypIBoyxa oT Taaprx a.
CaopI yI TlUl oyt ar.a o By p.ra. C
o.o TopotII' To BrpIIlI pp popIx ytx . B
yax' oa a o pyoo TrI{ o. Tpolloao aa)T oTaToo }IIBTpI (50 / ) paope opoT Bpa orT pBIIa30 /, o ;IpTp apyoo TH'I.
C p1o TopoHI' po paop Ha BIoTax 7625 l Moy aroa orr papI yIl Tl'I' ppoa BoIlIIoB}I XapaTpT oTopI aaloT B )a oT opoo.
H }"rraT BTp opoTIo o 100 ru/ a p oTax B
op' Ta p tlorTax paop.
TypyoT oo ea aop oTaToo oa. [ o,
To p oTax a BIoTa, oToy BoyIIIIroo y.a, y aoTa
yy[IaT yooT yIIpaBJIoT.Cpaopa aT oTa ao3 00

Ta o ap[Ipyy' a oaIBaT paTa, oIo BIOIITB pxfi aBToaToo oTpoBaH (a aoo). p BTpe oo TH oaIlpy a}a y(o rpeBT aI\,IoTa p{o ypaBe B ooTBTcT.|vl ylBy poell.a PyooTBa o o yaTa) pooaT oT B ypyo o. !re e aoT oyoo,
IIoeT BIoIITo oporo 900 / (250 lc), a IIa pBo aoTa a
pe)I pyI{oo !paBen a apaT 10 , o a To Bpe oyrrlo
yo poeT 2,5 ' ! aa o or Moo.
BpurI yt{Bo-.ox(.eBIxoao oy poaT paopy p
tlo pao pooo .TIIoTB pooep. He o)a ((oBoa)
a} oaar B py oao ozrlBaeTB rlBo-.o.o oa' oT B oTopol\{B ooBTB H A aop ape.
oo TeaypI Bo,yxa o a.apIx a aoepe
oy r oaoo o] oTa 20" o B oy pyyr
Topoy. eo, o aoIIIyIo oaI{oT NI aBp7apeaBIoT oo)I(TrIIIroToI{,I MpaypI, T a oII BBaT pao ToBa .1\,IIaI
oToo aoeTa. Ta, ooTeIlI oTorII TpaTypI Bo.yxa' 20" yBBT paxo oBa ga 40 ( aa Ty.154
To a 250 /v) }{IrIIIaIoTooJlo aoeTa ppo a 1000 . Ta
opao, o)t(T oaa, o lpar (aar) oII IIoa y
BIIIIoToa aoa' To tI Too II oBoJI Io oeT a ao roe' o o)I(TIIpB IIIIpTIIIo.B.
p eopooo oe paoepIx oToB oao
oxo y Bex epeI{Ix BIIIIeaopo. o peye oT IIoa
aaa ooItoo apaa o papel{ TepaTypI Ba
roo. B oerx yax xypo II AC pxo.T e oo
aUIpoBaT' o 14 c*aarIa oTaBT (a), a oo opaoa apI
.70
apuo oopa ypo 150, 100,
vlvl50 a ( ao o aaHHI BIoT IIoTa aoa), oTopIe oIo II alrapylT r pealoTc poopoo pa.
po oo' oyer,aI{Ix Ta}po-BeTpoBoo opoBaIl BIre }poII 100 a ar opo or :pyo' a a Ta IIopa oIIro BIoaT B Bo epea TopooK poB.
Be BTo oyoaT oTaTo1o oo Teopoooo oe oToB paope p paBHIIo poo oo lra
.aIxypoBx.
|1 .|0. or a opI pooB
p lvleTeopooeo oeII ooB
p T' a aa papaoy pooa oo.I B Tpax opeJUI'
e r o l r, IIoIT B.apoaTpBaeT B JI o B IIoIT.I ap, oopr e B o paope. p To }IoT TapaT
oJIT' paoo)l( apvx TpoB' x oa' BOJI))'apaBr opoT r,l' a Ta) xapaTepT Boy[IIIIx a' aoepr
poo vIcoB ooI' oTopI ar aTc aao pao a po pooa. B o oToT oIlet aa aoepI pooB.

301

r jloBallrl. yHoT ooo aUIaaJIIoaT B YItl


oToIl aopl B a.aopa ooto ap oo,I,py aTp.ro. p a-rtl yaaBBaIoT aol{opl{oT' oTopr r yTByT B paBT HoTx pooB .aIoT BIBO.Io poaaMo x paBT B UIl. oy oIII{oo aaa
BeTc,o tlporoo aToo B paBT }IoTrx pooB' paa yy' T.. .aTpoIro.
C,oa|Io'o^|lltlu npdmm pozo u m
zo ocoo.
oor pI oJlroo allaa rylo.
|. onomu (pu). p ooaB JILIpaBH I{oITI
paBHBaT opoo BIII a oo JI pzt}IIxroTaH,D(
B oH oI{TBpI!{'JI B pzo BpJI.Hap,tp, poBIIoap I{a pIvroapT IIoo.IrT r To Ito, a paBI{rI{ aopo .aBIlJIB
oIl MoT Bp a paIrI TaJI, a a:flraI!aI4cappaa To aHaJI
a o.o TaI{II.
ee Bo BpII aopoo aBIII.UI
Parx ppoB ooTaBI{vIII paBrJI' BIoH'IIxoTo' o)o pB tIo)TBo. Ta, p or.oBaIlo ooTaBI{
apT oo.Io)IIo otIT BoIoIo' a Ta apaBIIe opoT aplec opaoa aopI poo, a oTIaI{ aTo.
pl poo a apT To paB}I ooIIIx yo a pBIx Ta}Io apTa T...
x a o.o I7a)|<e
2. omocm (pnpmmuom). p oaaTHoTaJI)aT B To, To pyTar ar.ei,l a Ta oJDrI r xapaTpI . aro,aloo aopoo poa. c e ToTa.
a-o MI{I coi, o pyTaTa lraIo.o.Bp)ItIIaB::'o
i ga o a rIIe ooBaTc v| oJIoBaT oTopo)Iro. HapN{ep, a aI{, paoJIox(HI a py orx Bo.oI\{oB'
apaB Bpa I{ o)ItT r oaaTHIM-a )rTBoBaI{ TI
polx py. Ta< I{a T aIIx TpaTypa Bo.yxa e BT oaTo -a paoo Tpeoo pa BoI yIII.
ox<o oBopT o Bao oaaIIoT oTIIIxpooB ae' B. PT' To Ho B oTT aT, a IIoToy aTBo roe orr po tlo.a oTaBJIT)aTytIIIIro'
o epeo:
H oo popoMeoaa6a,aptpt6a,oHH oe
py pt6y Ee o ooa' Bo o op-a6ae
r.lpoy
ao oooHa aoB Bep, py peaHa
oaeepaI'lI
3 o
eepa opopayaoepaao oo pale.
o o-oe
o oa oe p6o.tepaoa,
oHB,Be epat{epeaapay pla. Bl, a6Ao
6l oepa6oueH Ha eeoa.
. uu ozu. pI o o ar Bo lrapyIaloT
oo.IeZUII.o oyoo oTyTTB paTroo oITa I{
prTa. Happ, B poIlor ooI oI{orl{ opolx aIIkIN:,
yaIBa
Tya p Bo 200 . l oo.o aya
T' To p ya BI\{oT.oDIaI 1000 . lp oTo302

o.Bo oaHoT yIBaeT poa' BIoo.yIIBa oao


H)HIo)pay BIoo o 600 T./.
o epeo:
Mo eo o pyl',ta
ooo e oX eptpooax
oyax!Ho o epHo.Bo t oly-o oKa|aeepoo oo| oo-o oHypye'a poHoe e a.o pye eo ov|K1
1|
poo HapyeHaoeoaeo
oepoHoa.He y,o t'leHHo
B oM ee, te y a <60>>,
ae e aao,o a oxo ya1 op6e auJeopoHoaopa a o a. o e eae o o e < pJlo>>,
a o p|e,aK a eo ,lyx ao pye <<pBoy>
oe
poHo oya.
4' moDuec nocedomom. o p oeoo a.UIa a Bea.o)r oroa o. p oaBel{r pooa o.
or oxo.o poMoTp apTI a p.Iyr po' yII pelllByloee paBTe pooB p oIrT rTo oTa,
oopI e)ypIl epe a. Horoee Topro ooBaoT a pa a o ra p (peae BaT).
o epeo:
ypeoHoa aaol'lHoexp, a pao,e ope' peooM,o a ap <<oe
oBeeHo>Aeypoo poo)Haoepl po, oopto opooeo epea o opo, peoo.
, 30 /. T 6too qaeypa eyey oy.A ooy eltrypHoy
e oHpB,
o poeaoept
poala oo peBeHHa
e)ypaaoeppo
po oe pyo paoe.B pyaep 1t4H
o a o ... BepByoo
opo'
, ereeo, e ae, Ho o He oHae,o aHy ey, poee3eH.e e oo Plo)o,Ho l{Ho,e |
y eo)|,
e oa| e, a oa poeea.oao B o yae B|Aol{|a ox apI
a,o poHae eeHaHa ooooHeHoo
aHaa
aoo-o aoo-o lepaa.C oo opoHt,a a oBopo o, o I
oHHoMeHpoayey, .e. Be,o <aea>a peJle/ pyo - B|ee e oH,a aorooBl o ea|^'
ee oo aao olye ooy.He a6lao o, o ao
l po o paeey Byl4BoyHllvt
aa,ooyHa apa oyap
poaoa lopy oa,e ox paoaxpe6ea,a
xoo. E a ape y ep Kopoeeo
B py - <<e>)
a y yKa, aJeoe, o o yae .4oo
oBopo oXoMaae (oeoaae)aoeptxpoo.
5. Tpltpocm. o rr, o ooo pI{ oFloo
aaJIa.o ooa a To' To B aToep poeI poxoT }I a
ooT' a o, oToy o o)Ir xopoIo peTaBT, a
oBy e (a ) .re HI opoo BeJII p
II BIoTI, a oopo poBoT oecit aa. Hapep,
aoepI po ao IaT potll oIaT IIa apT AT-850, o
po ap. oo tIoT' oapyl opr.B Tooo)II
poa a ap AT-850, .o)To p.TaBT,To y Mo opo
TzUI poao ol y ao.T ppo a l50 a

303

ooeI{JIpa a apT AT-850, a xooa BTB - ppo a l00


Bp. ar pr{po o)Ilo pBT o)TBo.
ooao ooo aaJla aB.|oT apaTpa oTo oao, ooo paB.vlaopIx pooB .a oT xapaTepa pBI t{oTa. He y IUI Bo pBI a.To pTpaBaT a yl a. fla B Ta' a Ba oo ( o To a ,oyMIITI paTpyIOTo'oBaTJIoTo pat). ao ro ar p poB/ttoIloo a:Arajil4a
poBT o Ta
opao, or r toI{IlIB IUITooBI{IxpIIoB.
o epeo:
Aop x po eeHeHoo
(6oe) p6oa AM
Bp]vtH
3ao6p'o>t,
yy)DeoaToHoo|H|l,1
l-|oo,
o6 oe eparyp BoyHa y( <<Beo>>
a .'.40 (opo!) payoB.o o o
Hoo6e.Pao Ho'l o]'lo3tx, o oypoHoy He6ax yo l oHIl oB oMe Boyxe.ooyB poHoa Ho a
yaat.leparypaoooHy.H ye opaBpoo, BoyHlooeH Ha eBep|e,oo<<popao>>,
eMeparypao(a ypy oHo 41
py Mopo.A eo-o o6 poHoeoeooooe.o ypl ryva Ha C;lol eo' B l o yo6o po 6 e eo ppoaoHool, y Bopa He e t e, Ho, Bo-epBI,
yaH|epoHol,Bo-oplx,o6y-a o6B pooeprypoyaa
y H40 payo- l{yepe,o o y Baeo o}^].
CoaI{o' oI{oBIIIMa.aaN{ol!{Iloo al{la aopIx
pooB' a B.o o)IIIIoo BIIII'BJUIIOTBII{ popaT TpyTypI apu T' oyoa ooy B ao
paoe, yTaoBer aollopoe peerl l'' BoIo' ope.e Ta BoyIIIo ar pao opeIlr BoI!{ooT BprMII poxo aoplloo poa p aI{Ipao.
oyla poI oIloo aIlaa aopr pooB' o)I(IIo I Hoo, oII oo' oBopT o paI{Ix Bo.)IIIxaax (oI{Ix eIx' yorx yo.rBIx, OI{I{T{UIIII
Mopx
..), o To BIxoT a prI aIIIo rea. r oo paTo oTaIIoB a Trx oaIII I^aBaB}IIIoo.I' oTopIe oy TpTT o o oylo a.
omumt pmuu od. B BpJI o yoa
yxa Bo.ya acca B.oTI30-50 . ,{I yaIII B o1\{B6}DK
aaro pa p.o. Bo oIo' rpa a ytu' To Bo.y popeBarT TaIIoBT yovBI, o po ).lIBIx BIoo)..IBIoao B T poI o.a ao pyo oao II BoI{aT.
o oI{Tr}ITar apv Bo.yx BT yoI' oI{ao
To B Il BoaT' a paBo' Too yEIBa oao, oIl p.o
ooT .o BIa.cal JIBIIBIoa.oB.
Mopco pmuu od' B pao opaoa (pa, TIIp) opo apT oyx BeTcyxo, ooo youo
oyt ao. p o ,BI{ a Hop op Boyx popBaT yBa{IIT a. p oI{TI{eo TaHoB yoBI. B o Bo.yx B Te Bro oa MoyT aroa oaa BpTaoo paBI.I(o yIx.o yt{Bo-o<lx),BIr oa. poI.
04

omumt tvtptod. B rpo o yovBa Bo.yIaaa' pID(o,oopo BIIBaSToo-y epI{txoo)l eoT aBa. o oTerl o.yx ypHIrIx lupoT
BJUITyvr. B Boo)IGIoopaoae {Bo-.o.ooaoc, l,le po.
Mopo pet od. o .oaoo Ba)Ita yoBa o.
yIIII{aaa. B po. opo ypI Bo,yx yov Too
y pl aTpo. p o atrl po.}I y N{aTpa
Bo.yx popa yo.ro. o po opoBo)aT aTTtIoTHe a .TB - BoHtloB x oTI oao, yTIx
,Io yMaHoB.
o B opoM ypIro Bo.y pzBBBaIo oTaToo oI yBo-,ol oaa, BeBIe oa pol.
comum ponuu od. a oyra NIaa Br^C
yBp
po
Boy
you'
a
B
oTao

o.
B
oit
o. -a aoo Baoo.p)apo Too Boya opoBox{aT
apo oao oo.o. o po B IIr BoIIaTrrrBo-oBI
oaa, BI{eBIroa' |poI' a Ta] rl yp.
Mopco mponuu od. o o T TI, BaI
yor. p prrr a,y popae youo. Haoe ao Ta}IoBTyo.rr B Bp. pxo opoo polrroo Bo).a To opoBo}'aT oBIlu MpaTypl o 20-25 "
o BooBt{ po' a o - aTHIoBIIIIIIepa/pI'
BoHoB TyI\{aoB'II oI ao BIa.Mopo.
moput od. o Bo.yx aroa B oHoBIIo B BaTopaIx IIIpoTa. o o yBJIa}tl' eov a TrppTop Po
paT ra.
opoo yoBll, oTopI a) o)T BTpeT B oT'
aBToT Iox aop. o pee eo opa ap.roo opaoBa,
cTa o paB' Bp o.a yo, BaIlo oo)I(r o apIpyta
o po r pyx aopo. ooy p papao poooB
oo.IB pBylo orpr. oo papaoa poo oToo oo' T.. ope.JIT' y oyoa oo.a a Hpy a
po B aao paoe.,/
Ho a Br ooopa }IoTe pooB' o)o BIT
ooBIr ape I oB oeTa B H. Paoplr,t oT opo
tloo opoee.
Ituo. B oa olo xopoIo BIpa)IIIpoar paJII.
H> paa oao Mo}ItToya o BIoTI 100-200 I\{ }'
a Bep palra oao oaT 5-8 r oe. B epao aT JIoa aa or BBIe oa' poI. B.o
B B,Ixoo.IoT y!{IIIaTo ar 2000-500 ee. Bp
y B o aptx poooTaToIIo I (o 15_20 /).
B o Tope oa Bo).x uI. o B IIM arae
IroIa cocTa,oo-o.Ba oTo-I oaoT BIoo paI 50-00 (oa oao oyaT o e)
p pae 2- . o BIa.aTooI oa' opo. B-

305

oT r a oa'oB TyaoB' oTopI Ta p B TroI\{ Top JIoIIa' o) yxyIxaT.o 1000 II.


B po . oro paBBaT )rt1rBa MoIlo-}{Ba
oaoT. r oa BIa,aT paBItTI{o pro. p olo
Baoo,p}I(a Bo.ya aIo.aTc :a ooa c xopotll BoTIo.
B o aTMopI polro BTp o)T cIIBaTc o 20-25 lc'
B aorrrx
JIoI{ax B poI BIpa)l(I IIaTo ae'
ooo oM.
ou' oo.r oB;I B o} o xapaTp oo.I{IM
oa
yoBM B JIo. . T BoooT .JUI Typyoo
Bo,yxa opaoBa oaoB paJIHI p.
B olra oBI11Iroo .aBrJI ToM' a paBo' a0)muuo.
opooe
IIpoTI
cIIoBI4, oopI B aBaoI TeopoaIoT
Too B ypell.
AvoK.
ooaalT

TAF
TAR
oIltx oax
aI B aHTJIoIra paBIIHo Ba BoMo)oT-1HoBII,I
paaollIx TyaoB.
B po, B a}ITJIoax aaeTc opoIa oo.a c paaSI{III yI\4aI{aN{B IIoI yTpeI{I{ aI. oI{ao p aJIvI|4po BIpa)I{o klt|BepcvI B pIro o Mo)eT r orIla oTa II cIIo BIoTo I{)IG paI 100_200 BepIr paoao
o-rBa
BIaaIoT aI
ya
;g{2- . o'a p ao IIoTo
aTJIooB MoyT Booa. IIa aa.o pp
ByTpaoBI
a aBTBIr yN{aIII.
oo,a B Zp aIIJIoHa oo,r B oaT aTJIoI{a.
oedou' oo'a B .JIoBIrr ]l{o}T r oaoo p.lIloopo.
_ HaJIII} yBo-.o)Bo
IIOBIII apaTIrI epTI TIIO po.a
oaro, JIBIre |po, a ,JI I{o rpoa _ pa.raollI TyN{aIIoB.
a o pBeI{I{oo BIIII paToo oIIaII oo.I{D( yJIoB B paTax, aor
ap.rx
1.IJIotIoB' o)I(I,{ B o aTopII

JII;

o)zlll ooa a}og oaT


B
polro. opoa [ooa Io.aT

ollax oBIIItoo aBeI/DI.


aasl aoplrI poo3 - oIIoBo o. papaoTor
Too B oBoyIIo.I aHaJIpy Br 'aI{Ie
poIIooB oo.I a AC.
IIoTa' oo yIIIIlo pIaT aao IIoo,' I\,IIO B paop
orIo paqao aBavl.
lro MrTeopooo

306

a 18
ABTOATI
M ToPoooo
^kI'I
oCH
oToB
Aoaa Topoooo oer,l orToB - o)Iffla
tlooaoBa aaa. oor apaB}I er peIIII{lIl opypoaI C.B. Coor o aT aa.. oao N{}Ioo}II
.,pyIIoT,BaItI
p.la, opot oe aI paoopat
po oTot{ooBIIIIeeoa aBy TopoJlooo
oe aBavl o TopoI ICAO pyoBo.TBa pa).ao aa
Po II oBo.o aToo pe o aaepaBT.
oor apaBIr,IM aBoaTaTropoooo oee aBuIakIkI
o)l(o TaT eye:
- aBToaTa poBoBa a. a AC:
aBoaTaI.UI
opa paIpoTpaIrHII
opooo ropa;
aBoaTa BIoIl paeToB . llpotloa Topoo
BJIII e ooI;
aBToaTa,IBIOII,IIIITypaIIx paroB B ilpoopax;
coa aBToapoao TeI opoooo oII,t oroB.
pvIlI apaBIl BI ao.y o.o' oTopo oIlo lo I HiulBa I Ba(IM.B o HaToo BaoBaI{I
oI{IpIII o.o o aa7'To oTaBa (ay.ror' TrxIIo
T..) rooo apaBJI,I I{ oBo a .oTaoo IooN{ypoBl{e pelxT
aay B o.
Paop o opoo .o apa.
18.1. A^Ta poBoTa ro a AlvI
poa aBoaTa aloe a apopo BoIlJIa ao. o
oyoeo ByIt( rpkla.C oo opollI' oao poa ICA6,
a apo.po ea opa o oo.e Boo :Lopoa .oa poxoT peTIIoT II oe y II/. C po opoIII' p Teopoorx yoBx 2002000 xy)I( B ooTBT Ho A oa.aT oDeII poBo. aroe a ooIITeI{o yII a,
paoo)eo B pao o pBooo paoapepa. HaaT
poT Tya zUIo BI)I(aT'a o pey ooIIIIoo
).BreIJ lypo IIII A Bproo (a 15_30 ) prpaIIII
a apopoe IIa po a aloa oIloBlloo a o:,zloevl
- IIOIIeIy aro.
Hop a IarIea o AC TaoI{I popo, -a paIIIx pII]tIIx (TIII; po>>aroa oa e aTo (. a r pBo.e).
B aot poy aBToaTa MTopoo a.
r lra apopo pra oa paoTa aBToaea
opooeca a,I PAMC-.
oa paaea. aBToaTeoo pIl,I pTpa o aao popa ooBI Teopoo.

07

x B pao apopoa' opao peyTaToBep BIa


Topoool"lllopa.
PA-M
oaT pay N{Topoooopa Hrop.TBrI{o B opaTBI oparII'I ct apoopTa ep aoaapI aTop}rt yoTBa, a Ta B : (p B rr
paI aa) B B.IIopoBaHIIIx Topoo paM rpe pe.ro oTBrT a ATC B Teoylo T.
BerT BpeII zUIB px aToaTo paol PAC.
.ap' poBoT B a.aHIpo MpeHe Topoox B'IH, opao oo opa, oppoBa epa depeau

aaI cB'
Ha a p eTopoo BrIl o)l(T IIpoBoT
p 30 ' To ooTBTTByT nryapoI poal{. o BDtGIa a..
To oTaB Tpa. AoaTa, pIIIal oo PAM-M,
oe oaBeIIe TpaoBoJUIeTaT Hox olo IIp opoBao poBoI{' oopIr oyarT a.aT. po Too, PAM-M
o allpoa'
po
Bo
Brop.I

BI.ay
opa
ajIeHYI
.T
Tropoo/
BI,aBaT
oo1o
aaaM
Bv]l,
oT}4lalolvl o
ooopa' BaI{)r BotIoBtI tIparII IIITopl\,IoBo
oopo
p}{Hoo
o
opaL|,
BBo,a

.lI. a TaII'I .arT Boo)IG{oT


(, Tya T..).
oeeIla aBToI\{aT.ala
PAC-M
oopIla B B oT.I{Ixoo. oa oopyo PAC-
ToT tITpiUII{oopoBa, oTa aToB pTB oopr,
pa ep.a Topooo opa. B aBe ,aoB
oyloT TaapI Topoo popr TMI.
B ao Bp oTpyIIa o . A.. Booa papaoaa aToMaTpoaa Topooa opaotlo-pITea Ta
oopI IIoIIoTIoooTBT(^NI'1k-2000). o (oB or> PA-,
yT oBpMI{I oa IAo o poBoTBy N{ropoox
aro., opao x pyJITaToB, aBeI{ Tepa IIp.a
o altaa B. a o To yy, oHao a o.IIII
(ap 2003 .) a Ta B oIToM pe} yopyT Too yoo
(Ca-p).
ao o)lGI oo o aBToaTa p BoB aro. I{a apopo.
B oo HMo A a AC p a}qITp acaoIII poBo.T IIIapooTr ae (o Ilpax pyJlp}Ioo BIa ]apoB-oToB I paaIBJIpaIu). poe, opaoa pyTaToB
x aroeil poBoT oa Bp){yro.o ooT B pBylo op
poBoTBy IapooTIx ao.' ! opaoT .aIx Tx ae papaoal aopTI\{I popaI' Ilo oTy oxo,o lJITJIIIoTe{Itl.Ia AC II BJUITpaoBaT B aTo Bp.
p orueTBII aBToMaa TpaTypIIo-BTpoBoo o.poBa
aopl Ta BoaT oprI TII Tpy.o. , oo.o 9TTT yloe. C o opoI, }Ia T apoox
a yTapBIIIa aapaTypa' oTopa B pIr II oBoT aBToaT3 08

poaT a oBpIIo ypoBII .aIrI B HaIoeIiI.


pyo TopoI'
oTaoo pe:Ul T TaI{ papo-BpoBoo 3o.poBa TaBT
a pl IIa e a.ay aBoMaa a6loe, a a.ay IIp.a a
A.
oyo BoaT oHa poa: aoo prpI{TaBl
aI{I{IoII.poBa}IvI\ evl o aIe apooo alr o apopoa 300 o.
fleIlo' o)o pIIIJIpaJIHIx po}IoT aa'
paoa poae' ooBaT aI o.poBa B oe ( poaBJUIo raIIIa apooa a). lae epyp
"y,c'yIoT Ta pol. Ha loy |2_I4 "l paoo o.HaT ppo
a
oH a. poJlo' o pe Tp a po o.It{a
oTaBT
100 /, a paccTollv|e My apo.poo yoo ).HTo o}IpoBa
(Booo) paBlro 30 , To aHI aro a Ieoa IIoeTa (9000-1 1
000 ) l ye pao apo.poa' a a yaIr oT I{o pplro
a 100_150 . oo I4aIII{I
o.poa,l' oy{FIIII.
o
aoept, I\{oI{oTaT a oTaoo ooBpIlI' To pryaTa p B pe}Io o ,yeToTIloT oopoHoTIo.
H e saooyro aBoaa aro aao pa.ooaoI yToBI.aIx. . a papaar
po'rop1\,II
paMI HpprTa o{Ix pyaToB' o.ao oTyB
eoxo..
o x H oBo ooIo ooBaT Ioylo a AC opa. o ae Boo)I oo To.a' oa a AMC oBT oxooe oBo epo.lI B, ye opaoa}Io ToBo aBToapoBao paour To I{oa AMC, a a o AC ye
paoTI ooBaT oBprIvIIIIloooIoTpa.
o e aoo epeHq oo po:
E t, yata,aHe e6 Aaoeopoo'
tyl 1992 , o oapp/o poelaoaapaea
He pee.t, ao eo.Ce a eopooX,

pooI4
a n9zeHee e aa ee pee, oopoa apooH|X
ooo AC w np6ao'a pepoyo P, oopl Hy)H|
oHooopaooaooo
o o eppopPo, paHeey.
e oo 42 oao. eo<pee>-rao opl"toBooo pBex
apopooB.a, oe }, o B o poc(o.oa ooy,
a, ]t,to
oop, HpH|
y,lo Ho yr4ypo6e
opeeHy
a Hap o1
pytxpo]vloB.
e XBaaa o.
l8.2. AoaTa pa ppopar
Topooo op
Bopor copa papoTpaIl,I MTopooo ropa paoI pLyI{aBa. Ca TeMa () pI aBaI.IoI{Ix
B (CAC)' o opo parT opa o oo pIIo 100 ao
pyIx apo.pooB Poc, oTIlo (Irp.aT Bo ooojl) T
AC (oapoao gI pa .a). l a CA
yolpyrT IIa azDTaxB' oBoJUI BT Trepapoa a opo 50-100 o, o p.IopoTl{lauulITI A oe pa }D}IaopoT |20-2400 o.

309

popaMa aBToaa
opa. B ooTTB o
oa aBaoo opooo
oopopaMo p.oTpI{o oa e paBI7 eTpoB oyTa
papoTpaltr'

op
().
Coa I-{C ooT aBToIaTpoBaT
yopT o
""
opa o AC,
aBao}Io opoo
a T pxoa Ha ooBal{r p.ropoTIII aao opa
B aol

Bp,I Popo

papaoTaHa

oBp, a , a I x' a T Ho y B T o T B o a po o pT o B ' B J I ) a, B oT oT T1\{I CAC,


HI{Ix B Ty oa pa.
apopoa'
o oop o opa po pMepo )y 100
poI{ooo,
o
opa

poBo.T
IIoBoT
AC
""","*i
apopoa.
300

a oo,I' a y'
a N llpopal\{a p.yMaTpBaT oaL Mo B oTopI py.aIII{I
MTopoox
ao aol
x poaI{Ix rpax
oIaT
AC,
oy.
(AM),
To tloBo tloTaN{ AMc
(AM),
rTopooyo
T.. IIppaTT Ilrpray
o a[poy'
opa
o opa B a aIBaro aTIIo p}.
yT aaT' To B To IIapaB TopooCpaoTpa,
ora1, ao
ICAS,
poa
oa,
yla,
.,'""ou
"",.,oo*
aTIII yrxoB.
18.3. AaT
luopooIl

poIlo
BII oo,I

BII
paToB

oToB
. o
p.BI,I oxoI
Aoaa
oo.I
eil
o BTpa TIIpaTypI poI{oa oaHI aBapll
poIlo
Bpl\{
oTI{oT y ao aTyaI{I po. B ao
pryaToB IIoo
TpaTypI Bpa .arT yTM opoaJl
poIloa HoTe lIoTo-Ta
poIlaoo
paBTo poToo aTaToo aIITIapuTa II
ToaN{' yro
opoeJl ypaBI{Ir pp|L |Ip
pTopoB
lopa paBIx
poIlooT,ItIxTopoJloxBeHrII.cpal{TooaHaIIBI{. Tao opoaa NIoaI aBaII' opoJlox
o a oo
oIIoptIIx poI{oTrx
r oo BJIIa [o{It
TTx
poIloa or,ylo IIooBaHr
po.I{aoo
oa II oIBaoTopI
]l,
Tax
potlopoF,aI
aBoTe

I{roo,oT BBMS,JUI. o oyoo


T po,Ilal\{
B
B tItIIr o piBI{Ix ypoIl oTl, oaoBIx
II):F{I4
paIx o.eJI.
Too.IUI poporIIIr BaoTpo.r oJI oyT IIr

IIoa roOTraJIa. Ha oIIoB poBoT TaI( paT pyIIoaIIITaoo


(ooTIIoJI BpTaIIIx I]Dv. a ooB oJtyt{oo 6JUI aBeII
aTo

BTpa
B pIr pailaT 6JUI rooo
IIa) ooo
o oaIBa
a.a
peIrIII{Jt
To
paT
IIa
oao

TIIpaTypI'
paTa
Ipor
oo6pa"IM prIIH Ilol.loo rTo,a. B o < BprM
a
TMrpaI

alIBTBIlI rr TraTypI ( ao
poIIoTeoo aBoaTpoa. B oTopI
crT BrpTzUII.l)I{
6JUI epaTypI Ba}IoT
Too
paaI{ItI
xax

ap

310

oJIyT pooa oBTBo .I{oT


oa.oB'oao o Tpy m oJlyix BM oto a,IT oruoo po.
B oe Bp yeTByIoT .T' I{e oT' paJIIIIxore, oTopI pHIIIMyo pIIIaIoT aaIIloo pooa oa.
HI Ba)Ix aBa e ooI. H ra oTaaBBaT opoo a o-y.o.o,yT.ar ao oBpIIoo.
o epeco:
HeoopaHeM|e oaHa
|-|Bopoao oHoe pa(pooe).
H|rvl
eHt
1oM
oop PrIa.
oo xo o6paB Hl4aBo ao ooo.flae peoo(opye),o y a e opeMeHH
B aa opeeHaopoo
oo-6o BeH'E o a, o a pa6oa o poHoyoo BeHye aK
ooB BBoe BM olaHlx,.e. aaopeeH|
K,IaB
a Karyp. e. A vo a, e B ta po v:,BpoK
epop?oo p6ot aarypoooeHopol]lo y
poea oHHoeH
oo H ye o poopo6e oo B.
pe _ popeo,Ho Hoyee poe opeoBM oxo 6t e
yl4yooBy.
.{ c oa aBToaTa paoB eTeopoox
B oaI aBvIa tl ooI aIIpaBJIIlIa yOBpIIIIITBoBa IIIx o. poIloa paIl]pr ep poopyMIx
opoox B, a Ta' a papoy aJIopToB popa
Bppaopooo poHoa oaI e oo.I.
18.4. AoTI{a BIotl IIITypaIl proB
B apoopa
B aa yITByT ao, o oTopoy roo oT o.yloo y.a
o) oToBT Ha re. o OTBTBIIIMTaoM IIo.oToB o
BJUITpoBrIIe pBapeIloo IIIya}Ioopaa.
o o pyoBo.Ba aBape.pwlT|Ia.aIIIt BIoIoga
yIoB B .Trpo y Bp BITa, IIIoI apl]]py oT' .
a)I( Tya o.looB oTy. oao oo a o/o o{t{
o oooB _ a BIo pBapToo IIITpaoo paa
IypaI{oM a)IG.
llJypa aa qxo,T a AMC (A), yoT y.e)ypIloo oa Bep o MapIp}"y1oTa,
MpaTyy BoyxB IIIT}ao oa,
oTopa oro paoo)I(tla B oo a:I AC (a pao' To o.H,{oaTa), roT pe.BapTrIIIT) pav oTa.
Bo p oo paTa IIIT)aI{ opeeT yp oTa o oT.HI
)Iaa apIpya (r pa)' p poJIrTa x {aTo (l BTpa
MrpaTypI a Io oa) p aaIro opo oT. po oo,
IIITypMa o op.eTpao. oBa a r oTa BC, aaolrr aa oa yy apaBy oBa aN,IoeT.
Ha papr IT),?a pa.r, poBol plyro, TPaH aTpaa oro 40_50 . !o BB.I{aBToaTpoao TeI
Be paeTIpoBo.BpyHyIo' a a p.or apopooB paTI ea.eIoTToI{oTa opao.

1l

pyI{oo Tpy.a, oBIIII,I TI{BI{oT aeTBa pa{ a


oI lypaoo
oaBa' a .oBaTIlo, oBIIIIII oao
oToB' Ia o.aa
aBToaTpoBaIIa
Tra
IIIT).pMax
paToB
(ACIP). pI oa ACP
r papaal P
C.B. ooIII.

C < aJIIo;LaB .ylo. B rop Po (oa


CCP) a ooB Iox o. paIBaoJUIBplloo oyIIIap'I
pooTor o ooTHaaHa pzrIlIypoB,lx. opar o ooTa a BIoTax 400, 300 200 a BJUIaxoo JI BIoJIeII,I
pBTI{IIIITypa paTo. B eopoo xopoIo I{aIoT' To
or rooTI{aa a oo ypoB}I.aToJIyIo apaTpy IIoJUIBTpa a
ToM ) ypoBr, a oToer ooTr.UI o 40G-300 300-200 a
xapaTpyT TpaT}py Boyxa B Tx o. orI o o.eJIIlI
paTa B yax T.aIII o BTp TpaTyp oor ACIP pTIBalra opTI{yIo BoyIIIyIoTpay' T.e. NI a).ooyllaTa op.roo.l ) orTa' BpM IIpoTalaTa paxo. TOIUIBaa }{aT TpaI.
Pyar parTa BaB;uI Ha IraT B B zlJII{ooaa p.BapTJIIloo IlIT}paI{oo paTa' ooJII{TJIIloo.JUI o BpJI
oTa o Tpa xr aa ToJIBa .lI BIoJII{II'IorTa o apIpyry. Bp paTa opTJIo 4G-50 o2- MI{ ytlTo BpI{a BI.y
rropar a aT.
oo prIlI Bpl{Ixpeyr, ACIIJP .aT arTrr ooer e. !o ToN{'To IT).pI\{I{
aa BIoJI,ITpaTI
l o TpaI o,oo IIIeoa,a ACIP <oraT) IIoT o Ipe
BapaI{Ta(..pa.rIx TpaI .Ba IIIoIIaa a,o r*rx). B pya
pyoBo.Bo oTaM Boo)IGIoT TIpx BapaToB lpa orrr. o ooT ollo ToJIBo' pyp aorTa raee.
! oBpIIIIrTBoBaI{I o yyIII}IarTBa
IIpoIIoa BeTpa rpaTypI a BIoTax ooT y}{IIIT aTBo p.
BapTIlIx IIIT)aIrx paeToB.
o epeo:
ACP a ao ee peee|peBpoea ya z4
y 8. oao p lopeoMaHooMppyra jeoaoea epa
y6a o H HaHoopaoaoa p oee o appyry, He 3
}4HMaHoo
peeHoa,a oBPl pyx oo6pae.Hpp,ep
o t6paaoeeooypy |4 pay, oopaey 6o pB|H/
oBpHHo a poaoHol'l.a, o Hoapoxo'
B po yaTa ACIP aoppoBaa B aBToaTpoBaIIH)o Ty IIITypaoo r,I oToB (ACIIIO). a ea oo p.BapTIIoo III)aoo paTa OBOJUITpIIIaT r p
py a.a lllypaoo o oToB. Copro oB.I{o' To
paTI4 H o,aaaa,pIIIaa B l\{ ACIIJO, l\{o I paoBaa opa o oo..
,{e opIIITBoBa ACIIIO pyapBarT oBrpIrTBoBa BIo T' oyMori r, oBpIII}ITBoBa
.ropToB pIIIaI a.a, oBepIIlTBoBae TI oa opa |2

e ( Too MTopoo).o aeo pTo ACIIIO eT ooBa yToBo opa' .aIxTeopoorx paooaTopo opoI BITIx oo . pIII IIIT)pax a.a a a o BIa BoyIIIoo y,a' a yoIle x Bo
Bpe oea.
18.5. pur oa aBTo}raTl{poBIIo I
lTopoooo o oToB
pa'aa aBaPo, IreoTp a B pyoT, pooa pa.
BkIBaTc.Ha y epI BoyIIII apa T-l04 -18 pIII aI{orTI T-14, T-|54, -62, -86 pye. yyee a paao
a;avI-BBo. po e oBpIIIIIo aaoo .
B paBT a.apaBBaT aBaoI{a Topoo,l' oopa ooaT pIIIa Tpe.IIyl aa paao aa: oao,
peypoT oIIoIto Bo.yI}IIpoo.
.{aerer paBT aBaoo eopoovl Teopoooo
o oroB' o-B.oMy,o o yI o.a ooBalr
o opIIIeI{Ixpopo pI{ rTopooe B Ha
apo,po]\{ oxoo ooIo .peo), o y oBpIIIIlBo.
BavITo llpooa oa}II e ooI' oBpIIIBoBa}I,Ipe.TB
IIpa opa, oee ooo ooBaII yIIoIx arx, or IIIpooo BHpI{JIBITo x N| pIII aa eTopooeoo oe praoil aa ' aolt' o yt oa,I aBoapoao MI Meopooeoo o oToB (ACo).
Copo apopoIlo aoI{o oopy'oa' a Ta) oBa opoora xl{a oo oBIT oao oeoB' o.ao o
tl oBoo pIIIT B Topoo poI o pDaI{.
o aa. po oo' paIp pr eTIloTkItlp plII paIIIx apo.oxoeI aa.r oyoBBaT IloBI eoa
opooo yl.
o opooo opa' oT)IaIo a AM (Alvfl{), aToJIo ' o y oTa oaIBaeTJIllIo ao Bp ee aaa. ooy BopoI aBToaTa Teopoooo oe oToB
BJUIIoT Bopoa pBoTo o. Bpl ar Tparr Ty
poy pypoBa py paalC.B. Coo.
pTaB a pxypoBI{a Tea, ooa oACMO
llloo a B paI aoB allao N{aIIII{oooa.
Ha po (p) ypoBII po Po o papaata
oot poIIoI Topoox BeIl oaIII aBa l
oo.II, ce TeppTop TpaIII paoo apyrr<ITpa' ya BIIIoJIT oTI aoTI po aBaoa. poTtITp y BIoT Tar paoy oToo yBBa o aTBo peIaIx
a.a.
Ha opo (p) ypoBe a ae po}IaIlI ypaB o .poTropoo pool ooI aBa .o)IGrIyoT yo Ix ooo paoa.

.)tJ

Tp () ypoBH TI ACMO o}I{oya AC


(AM
apoopTa pI{Ix apopooB yIITo TIx ooo
paBToT pooB.
Ta a paa aBa Ia yra Topooo opav\ To p.TaBJUIoopaI o.ae eo aBToMaTpoBaIIo r }l oToB (ACo)' oopo BopoI TropoJloroo' IIITypMaoo Trxroo or oT.IIIaTIIIa.Ilaa.
oTaT' To oro I, r oT AMC, oy poaIIy BM ay opa opa, papaaBzlll B B.IpaTopoI BpxpaTopoIx poooB {To rTlIx oooTe. apopoa' a oal{.p aa a p,oo oyTa o{a r
Too yTlry pa o oo. B I{TpyI pao' Ho I
a par oIITopa' yTaHoBIIoo y oTa AC, ay ooy
pooI oo'IIIo apo.poa BITa,oa, aaIII'papr.Ilr
oaIx e o apIpy oJITa o{a I oeyr rTopooyt oy}a p.Bapr ITypMa}I pau oTa po'
( oTo. oT aI).
o (MaoBulla>>,a plJIIIoT' oTopa o}l( oyTBT p
payI{oM o,xor o BrM poa, BaI{IlI o aBa.
o ro ypoBII oaI{o AMC pB oBIIIII
poa zUIo o.oToB )IIpoB-}IoToB' a Ta}ItoTpy o x xooo ppo BIoo poo yypI. B ao e al IIIT TI oToB AMC y paoBaI{' o.;Ia o pao ye yTaoBIIa pozra BM.
Ho a aBToMaTaI Topoooo oe ooB,
oT o-pr}ffiy oTaT IIpaIro ypo B Tr' r oIIoBHI
Beo. Too o papaaIBaT aBaoIIIIIpoIroI, a Ta BIoH
BooaI y opa opa opao.'
(ACo) oIT arTBo MrTopoooo oC.ar ACo
e oToB BIIT Io BJIa.B IIBIIIIoao, pryJUIpo
pBoo.
oHoItoT BO.yIIII{D(

|4

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AIOIII4

B a.o r B a}or olo aaT pTBI paB o Ilro ay. B ao ao a aJIe oHo TaT oIolo aBy (ay 18). )e xoT oTaoBT a oIro
Ba}oM aT paBvl'aaoo eopoo - pxoe a or aT aoapoBa Topoor opal{oB' oBa paoy a)ao aa.
or pa aoapoBalr' oT I Too I{ oT' B >aile o.IoT (y oy) a .poTopooo yI' Ta Tr Topoox opaoB' oTopI oa
aBa.
pa.rI tlo.o.I oII ooro oT poI{ooB
(.A. aoo, .. opu), oao oll Il oIloIo oa}(aoT (AM), aalo Too TopoJlor
y paI AM
paao aa. T o o TooT a I\{opooo po.y I a yT op.eToa II r,a'lC'
oa)' PopoT, oao p Popo MoaIITTBo Ir pro)l( .IIoo l]o.xo.a pIII .ao pol. B ao pq <ya>)oTpyo AC pIIIarT o-Boy' o B BITaIM oTIo.ao.TB. Bo p aoe papoTaItI{HIBapaIITa yITBoBa apoBa paol AC.
(A) oTaIoT B IIITaTa popt apuam. Coy. AC
IlzUIIIIx, .. oTaT oyapTo yto. B o yIIa AC
apy. .I p.TB, oTopIr BIIoT pollaoy
MC. o poT o o apaT y paoarX , a .TB'
oIrro TlT a.poB' To oTpaTo aIBarT a a
oTpy.IIoB Topoox opaHoB.
Bmopo lpum. Copy. AC (AM BIBo.T [ITaTa paoo MC pBo.Ta paoy B opey oyry' oTopa opalryT a ae poII.uIHI C. a opa ra aJIIoa
,Ba ooopa: oI1 aBapr.pTl\,{a o1Bane a,a (oya
apoa), a pyo - o Bo prol{aIll C I{a o}{r Topooo opa' oxoo oyBan aBapr.Irp,lT' T.. oaBarT o)rtIIIxoo opa. Ha pa y Tx
.ooBopoB AM ((BT)).o ooT oo oBIT oJIa.Ipaa AMC.
Tpmu pum. peo oTyo AM B IIITaT aBapIIp|4T.
xopoIo lloxo o.IroBpIIo.opto - oToy To pI]aTIpao AC aTHo yBJIBIoT TaoBT Ta )I(' a y paIIoB pyx y aappT.Hy a oxo - oTol\{yo AM oaI,aeTc o aBoT oT pyoBoc.Ba aBapepT, ooy' oT
p.o, oTa pxoT poopoBaT oo.y' a apoH aaoB }a BIoHTa oToB. Ha pyI apopoa Ta B' TTBIIO,paT IlBoo}tII' a a p,Irx MaI }Io.
ytlaT.

315

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op}(aIo .o)rto aBap,pT. C.oao' tlyttlo paoTrro
oTaT' ((oKo o AC> oo BIT9B .JIaTaBaIIp.pvI'ITvIe.
T pao, TaoBT oTI' TooT opoooo oI{ aoo BITa.p ao Iloxo IIa ao apopo I{a TropoI{o Taooo o BITay.pao. o BoJI TTBHI{O,
aBappI4TeN|
y
oop
ooBopo
o opo IIyIro oao
AM (AM pozUIIC.
B oopr Tpal{ax poMa oJIaTITopoox yy pIIIaT
I{a. Ta, app' Ita opHa yTaoBra ToI\,IoToTopooroo o tlpTaloo a yy oylI{oo y,a porTa(a ,
o B, . oTopoo apo.poIr BIST aaI
TBHIIO,paIra). !,.rpa ya rIIBI{o p.arT B l\{Topooyt y JIaI{oToB' H6IIT aoo opa o ropooy .oyTaIo, raBMo o Too' pTT ToT opT T.
No aBap,p.epT Toyt pa B ooTBTTB aaIIpoBaIMoTBo BITSB poTalx p.
B o Tpaa poI yTBy pyo op.o. Ta yaBa
TooT apopotloo oy,IrBarBoyIIIoo y.IIa.oa oa 13 $
ToBa).
, ao To}Il ]\{aa}Ioo aI BC ( TooT
N{Topoo(ooo
pxo.cl:a
l
$)
ppo 8-1ro% oT To TooT
or o. Ta, app' r ao T-|54 (aaIta BI{a
aa 75 ) _ oTa MToy 75 $. B aIII TpaII IIITaTaT To-o
Bo 0'9 $.
oxoxt' o.ao.ToyI(oTBaIIvIvI>>
paT IlTp Botlpo' BaIII opol\{ paTa xt'
AMC (A) C o.o TopoI' aBapr.plT.o)Itl{o
aBap.pvlTe_
yN,Iy IIpJUI lra AMC, a pyb - To .aT'
oyr
oTa;oo
BoBpaT (apa) Bo,yIroo y.a
o Br MoyI ]LarlIoar'Ic
JI o ooa? p a BoBpaa o BII roy(I AC oIIa
pTBa a poBoTIII HilIrT a I{aBoBpaa aBappT14|o
(oo o.I{ooBoBpaTa cea,oBaT
BIo.
ytlyrr1r1o
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paBrBo p yoB' To yrTByto
t
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oo,I TopoI{TyI opaB.IarBeil
MT6I poIloa oaHIx
a B IIopaBaBIIIpoIIoI
IIoToy

oT. ox<aIo' oo '


AC onta T oTBTTBIIoT.
Tao pr.II o.ax.I y)e. To. o.o aBappTv|.
p.Bo AC a ooy aoTa a I\{r -a IIoo Brpa' opI I paa}I oo. B ,o Br'.Ia oapa, oTo Too' To poo
pI B aBapr.p'lT oTaaJI.p o v1cxo4
_ o ayIror pB.IIoo.I, T.e. npdltt,a o yrTB}l aoo.aTJIBy pr,BTyIIITBHI{IpTII praalrIo.
IIr I{ oaT. a aI BJI,,e I{oT ooBa
Br prooBaIII 'JIpooa oaoo B1IJoo,ITo.I oJIy
opaTJIIpyTaT' o B To ).!IaAM It .oa I{ aTproo ylp a a BUIIIBoBpaT llooy aoTa. I{o
|6

aI.aB]r oao B ooI ' poIlopoBaB


ro, I{ ooUI o ToM Tepy' To To.a B aTrpaJI}II oTp, ooB o
pI oo aBap'IIpTI4e,,oIIa oMI{poBaT MToa.
yytIIII
B
IIoToB
aIITepeoBa}IHoT
aTpiUII{a
al{r Iroxo.a
Il poopoBa

aTBa paoTI.
Aara BoBpaToB aoToB' oTopI tIpooIIIJI o B oJry)OI' oBoJIT BUIBT ((aI MTa) B MTo.r poHoa oaI N aakI Belrd.7
ooI. o, Bo o;I' .II.aTooB}I oaBT p poeuHTpo
opeTIe aa o oopaHa
po{oTll
JI poUII
BpIIII{TBOBaIII To. poopoBaI{,I Too JI IIoo BeIIx oo,.
oeJI pax{al{o
IIpoeI MTopooeoo
oo
aa oI B op oaIIoB. ,{o oa ToT Bopo oa
6aa oa aa, oH I\{II o aoBI
prIr' aooaTa
B aToe BpMJI B.T .oTaToI{o THBIIO.
o aaT' To' IIoTp I{a apaTI pTe
pyoT, aBaoI{I Teopoo B aoTIIo Bo or Io
Bo .o' IIp.aIII y' B ao-To p BJUIIoT' ecvl xoTT' aaa
Bo paoTI yIIIo paBIoT oTaBI{III p H a.aa.
Bopoa

B aror

ompo.e

onpoc' pad 3

1. pu oIloBI{Ie aa aBaotIIII ropootlr

opaoB 1py.

ypy.
A a u}po.po?
2. a p.rrarT

3. p.r otIoIIIr B'Ipao a A.


4. a a rTopoor Bra poBo laIooa AMC?
5. a poBoc apooe pavIooaoI aro,e Ha apo.poe?
6. a a AC poBo. op papopalr rropooeo opa?
7. a BI aBaoI{IIIxpoIIooB I1ooIpapaaIalo a A?
8. a a A oprroao Iopoo ooII yp?
9. a yaIBaIoT opoo BJIIIIB aBaotlIx pooa oo.I/
l0. a poBo. eTawavI oppe aBaoIx llpotloo oot?
1 l. a poo oIIa opaBIBaI\,{oaBaoIIIII po[IooB oo.III?
12.p oHoBIlIe oa' p.BJUII l!{oropooroMy otI orToB.
13. Paa> o IIop rropooroo o opao B,{.
o ope Topoooo o ooB o p:tI
l4.Paa
paaM.
15.aa opa xo. B yy oHyTaIo I{oo oatlpa IIa(a
oyIIItIoo clfla?
oo?
l6. a ooo eT MrropoJloleo o )}'I{apoI{
l7. a ooro r Mopooro oee oo ptBtII ropa.
.re paorra a p.BI{I roa?
18. pvr ooBIlI ptII otloo aavla aopIx pocoB.
l9. a oIloBtII aaIl o aBToaTa eopoooo oe oo
o rp. aaoo eopooo y<o?

|1

TPATPA
I

2.
3.
I

5.
6.
7.

- M : Tpaop,
mntto .!.' ptto M-, IIIp .M. taoa eopoo.
1985.- 262 c.
_ 232 c.
po.M' oaa oaoooB.- .: pooa'|983.
- .: ll. 2-,
ozmult o.., u B.!. 1ral oIto ooI I aB|4a'1I|.
_
pooa, 1992' 272 c.
opoo
.., opdo.uB. , Eue B',[. t7parvl o aBaoo
j,i**n
_
- .: pooa'1987. l84 .
(Ho A Haa o opooItlcol{yorp,aco aBa|lPo
_
95).- .: . Popoe,1995. l60 .
_
1986. PyooBo o paTopo}IIpooa oo.I.a 1. .: poro3a,
'702c.
- .: .poP1ooBo o poI{opoaIoMeopoo yo EJraBa14'
_
oa'1985. 304 .

pay 1
- M.: Boa,|962. - 384 .
8. pou .. paeaapo,Ilaa.
- .: Tpaop,|912. - l81 : .
9. Eo,[.' ApoaaBpToeoB.
- c.
_
-264
|0. Huumu .', o .l ooI al4at||l. .: Tpaop' 1984.
poopoB _

oopyoa
||. ou B.., o E.. u dp ool aaoo x
.: Tpaop, |985 - 256 c.
_ M': Tpaop,
|2. Boodo M. colo ya BpoTo(,aaoa).
1986.-262 c.
_-2-56.
_
|3. Bopo6 .M. Boa aBa. .: Malo)oI{e'|984.
(II A)
a1av]|IPo
pax<ao
ooB
14. Haaeo )oo,By
Po ( A)
l5. Haca o y B)eIpaao aB:a|4|4
ll lp.l _ .: Tpaop,
16. pa oyIIIItIB]I{M/T.. Aoa, C.B. Boo
1988.-229 c.
_
|.7. duC C Caooo). . : Tpop,|966. - 528 c.
py 2
poeoa, 1984.
|8. Mm .Z oor oe opo,o,.i'. a aopr.- .:
1<1

ooI' - .:
|9.p C. Co opoo ooI p.BIrII
c.
pooa,1968.-.1.74
- 6|6 c.
opoo._ .: oo a, |99-1'.
20. Bop6B.' :ore:Ul
|48 c.
_
|952.
poroa'
.:
2|. izuo '7. .{a.raoooJl.
- .: looa,
Meopoo.
B
r'oBal{
To,l
oclee
M..
p,t
22.
l985. - 348 .
p)a._ .: Bo,a,1980._ 384 .
oc a p.I
23' omu M.., t,,nnoB.B.
o oor pp. - .:
ora
p)o
i+. c*pun'uuntto C.Io. oa
Maopo,1988.- |54 c.
- .: pooa,
25. Bopo ' pnle It B Blo yllrpIrIxIIIoax.
c.
-234
1960.
_ .: poro.
26' o B. oo o IlIx.BaxBpa B pao apo,poa.
a,1983.- 30 .
B ooo ao2,7.Buuo I!'., u H.., Ilemep C.M., ItIp TypyIlo
_
_
.
288
|9.76.
.:
pooa,
p.
r poI{o.- aa: .
28 hpedi Io.., ozmu o. Aopa yo
_
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160
|9.78.
yllBpea,
o.
aaoo
_.: poro.a,|966._324 c.
29.ptloB .Bllic aop.
aTtID(aIlapaoB._ .: Tpaop, 1986. ooB
oaco
C.
o
B.',
o. <,*
-B
224 .
poroapo por3|' oopeto .', ede II'B , ucmo!. uea ooo
l981. _ 54 .
poro3a,
.ao x ooBa.ro..aa.- .:
oparropootlo
opaoa
aa
.
pottu
32. oua II.B.,
_296
c.
. _ .: pooa,1978.

318

JIAM (A) o rro


33' Moep M., tto .' ot peol\{aI.l
_ 28
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ItIJIaxoooapo.upoo. M.: oToa' 1981
_ .:
aIapaoB
raeIllx
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Paoa
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E
34. Bopo
_
poaoa,1983. |52 c.
_
|9'|9.
5 iadpo ..', edo .C o paoploo. .: poeoa,
- l04 .
(o p. A B.
36. oe M.M., puodo M.. Cpao.r aBaol{Iloo I!{ropooa
o.ro)._ .: Boa,|971. _304 c
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.7.oznlu o.., opdocu B. ooo eopoooo
.7
pa. _ ': *lI,.' |989 . - | c.
I{ylrapoIrI
oro. _ ': .1roeo38' Ept) . topooIIror o (yapo.IrIx
a,|98.7._ |52 '
- .: ll.
39. Mopooro oeoToBBo3yIIIy.oBparlao aBa.
oAA. 1980.- 80 '
_
|987. _
4}.Xdoo '. eaooroo a oo3oB ool. .: .' IIJII,
50 .

3r9

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Aaoa opoolul
Aollp
Aoaa opoo}feoo o oro
Aopa aap}Ia
Apoo.ra.apaa
Apoo
Apoop

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70
72
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75
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l14
119
120
t21,
t22
125
128
134
14
136
139
142
t45
150
l5
r57
159
185
185
186
188
191
r92
194
r96
19'7
202
202
204
20'7
209
209
211

251
255
260
262
262
26
266
268
2'70
27
275
275
27'7
281
284
288
290
292
29
298
01
0.7
0.7
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l0
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315
l8
320

24

oNTNTs
Forword
In t odution

.. . . . . . .

'. . . .

..........

'

Stion l. Fudamntlsof vition


Chptr l Fundamntalsof arodynamis of airaft
1.l The basi onptsand laws of aerodynamis. . . . . .
l.2. Causesoformationof liftig for. .
l.3. Th oneptof air comprssibility. .
l.4. Flow along objetsat variousflying spds
Chaptr 2. Fundamntals of th airraft dsign
2. l . Major struturallementsof airplansand hliopters
2.2. Basic onfigurationsof airplans
2.3. Basi onfigurationsof hliopters
2.4. Strutural intt and rliability of aiplansand hlioptrs
Chaptr 3. Fundamntalsof flit dynamis of airplans and hlioptrs
3.l. Lvl flight ofan aiplan
2 The limb of an aiplane.Th onptof iling
3.3. Gliding flight of an airplan
3.4. Th tak-offand landing stagesofairplans . . . . .
3.5. Rgims of hliopterflights.
Chapte 4. Classifiation ofairraft and arodromsofivil aviation
4.l. Clssifiationoirplansnd helioptrs.. . . '
4.2. Classifiationof rodoms.. .
4.3. Constituentsof an aodrom
4.4. Navigational instrumentsad systemsof airaft and arodoms. . . . . .
Chaptr5. lassifiationand orgaizationof flights
5.l. Classifiationoivil aviationflights.
5.2. rganizationoivil aviationflights .
5.3. Th struturof th Unifid Systm of Ai Traffi Control . ' . . ' .
5.4. Flit sparation
5.5. Fundamntalsoair navigation
5.6. Prinpls of navigationnginralulation

9
9
9
1l
16
l8
/.
2
25
2'7
29
3t
3l
32
34
35
40

Stio 2. Iflun ofatmosphri pramtrs on airrft flight pramtrs. . . .


Chaptr 6. Th fft of tmpraturand prssur on airraft flights .
6. l. Standardatmospherand its pupos
6.2. The fft of tmpratureand prssure on baromtri altimter radings . . . .
6.3. Th fft oftmperatur and prssuron flight spd radings
6.4 Th fftof tmprturand pressueon aerodami prformnsof airaft.
6.5. Th efft f temperafurand prssuron engine thrust arrdfuel onsumption6.6.Th fft oftempraturand plessureon tak-offandlandingofairaft . . .. .
6.7. Th fft of tmpraturand prssuon the limb rat and iling .
6 8. Short-angeand vry-short-rangforastof th surfa air and uppr tmpeatur
Chartr 7. Wind influn on airraft flights .
7.1. Wind influneon ris spedand Iange. .
7.2. Wind influne on tak-off and landing .
7.3. Jt uents and thir signifianefor air navigation. . ' .
7.4. The oneptoquivalntwind . .
7.5. Fatursof wind influenon th hlioptrflight
7.6. Wind shearsand their influnon tak-offand landing
7.7 Short-ageand very-short-rangforeastof wind and wind shrs .
Chaptr 8. ffts ofatmosphri turbulncon airraft flights .
8. l . Caussof fomationof atmospheriturbulen
8.2. Imnatof tuulrrt flutuationson th airraft. Tuulnt wathrof aimlns .

66
66
66
67
-70
'72
't2
'75
76
'79
86
86
9l
94
95
96
97
100
tt2
rt2
tt4
119

8.3.ThCAT strutur

z
z

44
46
48
52
52
5
58
60
6l
6

25

8.4. Turbulnin louds


8.5.Turbulnin jt unts
8.6 oographi turbuln
8.7. Synopti onditionsof intnsivturbulen.
8.8. Sirort-rangand vry.short.rangforstof atmosphiturbuln
... ...
Chaptr 9. ffts ofloudinss and stritdvisibility on flights
:
onditions
mtorologial
ompliatd
ausing
9.i. Cloudinssand visibility as major ftors
of flights
9.2.Wathrminima.
9.3. Visibility rangand its dpndnon various fators . . . . . .
9.4. torologialand flight visibility
9.5. trologialflight onditionsin louds of variousforms . .
with various metorologialphomenahindring visibility
9.6. Flight
"onJition.
9.7. Flight onditions in zons of atmospherifnts . .
9.8. Contrails bhind an airplan
forastoflow louds and rstritdvisibility.
9.9. Short.rageand very.shot1-rang
Chaptr 10. Iing of airraft and its impat on flights
10.l. Iing s a wathrphromnondangerousfor airraft
10.2.Classirationofi dpositsobsrvedin flight
rgim . . .
l0.3. Iing intnsity and its dpndnon miophysial loud strutuIand flight
10.4.torologial and synopti onditions of iing
l0 5. Featursofiing ofhigh.spdairplansand hlioptrs
10.6thods of iing ontrol
10.7.Danger of ic g|azeand flar i for airft and fighting thm . .
.
l0.8. Shortlrang and vry-shorang forast of ice g|aze ad glare i . . .
C h apt ll.fftsofthund rs to rmsan d sq u al l so n av i ati o no pr a t i o n
-. . . . ' . ' . . . . .
1 i.1. Thundrstormand squalls as wathrphnomnadangrousor airraft
1 1.2. Types ofthundrstorms and tnt ofthir dangr for airraft .
l l .3. Faturs of flights in zons of thundrstorm atlvlty
l l 4. Appliation ofmeteorologial radar data for diagnosis and prdition ofthunderstorm
sours

natural and man-madovr . .


12.3. Effts ofhydromtorologial fators on airraft situatd on th gound.
in mt|2.4. The aviation and limati dsriptions and rports and their appliatin
orologial support of aviation
liapti13. Influnofozon and sparadiation on aviation ativitis
l 3. l .ozon ontnt in th atmospherand its fft on aviation ativitis
13.2. Spa radiation and its efft on aviation ativitis
Setion 3. Mtorologial support of flights
Chaptr 14. organization of work of air mtorologial offis
l4.1.Purpos_,problmsandorganizationofairmtorologialoffrs'.'.-.-.:-.
(As) l4.3. Typs
14'2. Lotionnd quipmentof ivil aut6mati mteorologial stations
at
CAS
work
of
and sope
|4.4. rganization of obsvationsat AMS
Chaptr t j' ollting and diffusion of metorologial data at CAS
l5.1. Basi soursofmtorologialdata. . .
hannls .
l5.2. Colltion and dissmination f mtorologial data via radio ommuniation
hanommuniation
wir
through
15.3.Colltion and dissmination of mtoroloal data
n l s. . .
|5'4. Organtzationof storm alrt and wanings at CAS

326

r20
t21
t22
t25
128
|4
14
136

139
r42
r45
150
153
15'7
159
185
185
186
188
191

r92
194
196
19'7
202
202
204
20'7
209
209
2tl
219
219
220
222
22
226
226
227
21
231
231
24
26
29
24'7
247
248
25r
255

l5.5. Aviation mtorologialodes usd for mtorologialdatahang


Chapt16. Aviation wrathIforastsand thir validit assssmnt
16 1 Th rquimntsto b mt by aviation wathforasts
l6.2. Basi tpsof aviationwathrforastsdvlopdat CAS
l6.3. Trminologyof aviationwathrforasts
16.4.Dtaildlaboationand orrtivamndmntsof aviationwathrforasts
l6'5. Validity assssmntof aviation Wathrforasts and strm wamings
l6.6. Analysis of weatherforasts
.Iljvltorologial
hptr l7.
supportofivil aviation - ' . . .
17 l . Basi uirmentsto b met by mteorologialsupportof flights
17.2 Organization of mtorologial support of ATC bodis
|1 .3. organization of mtoologial support of flights along various routes . .
17.4. Fatursof mtorolgialsuppotof flights on domstiair lins and flights aimd at
appliation of airraft in national onomy
l7.5. Fatursof meteorologialsupportof intmationalflights
17.6.Fetursof mtorologialsupportof ship-bomairrft. . . .
17 7. Information transmittdfrom grund to airraft board . .
l 7.8. Feafursof mteorologialsupportof flights in misellaneousgogaphiegions. .
l7.9. Fafursof mtorologialsupportof flights at misllanousaltituds
17.l0. Comprhnsivanalysis f ^-,'atmospheri
prossswith mtoologialsuppotof
flights .
Chapter l8. Automation of mtorologial support of flights
18.l. Automationof makingobsrvationsat CAS
18.2.Automationof olltionand dissminationof mtorologialdata
l8.3. Automation of lulations for the predition of metorologial parametersand wather
phnomnadangrousfor airraft
18.4.Automationof making ai navigationalulationsin airports
18.5.Priniplesof eationof an automatisystmof mtorologialsupportof flights Instad
ofth onlusions.. . . . .
Rfrns

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270
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2'75
275
27',|
281
284
288
290
292
29
298
301
7
07
309
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311
JIJ

20

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ISBN 5

1-17-1