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Jacques Lacan LE SEMINAIRE ENCORE LIVRE XX (1972/1973) Tex e e a!

"# $a% Jacques&A"a#n M#""e% E'ITIONS '( SE(IL )ARIS 197* +,- .,-,/ 0123/,45 -/36, 27 189 (1972/1973) : ;<=>?@AA +>?>&,B<C> 2ABB<;> 6CDEAF /.DGDF 2H0-:, 2711

I M>? NDBOPABDFQR PSD TSA?O NFAUD>C>BAE> V C< DNOWBA?DL>BX TSD WYB> SDG=> FLD<GD ;D=> ZD;[> L<\BALDFSA ] NDFB< L>FR FO=>;QK F=O;OX 0D L;<[<C<[ V NDCVBR PSD [DGO F?>E>SQ C> ^SDS N;<=[<S C<F?DBQ?D WDBQ_<R P<[ ;>CQ_<X , E>S<[ DWC>;O\ABR PSD [DSAL O [<CV C> N;DSV\<CAA LF<GD NOSA WYB D=ACK V CAP<GD C< \<B>` DW ^SD[ EC>SQX 3[<CCD ND^SD[OR C>L<;CD<R V <IJ E=<FQ ] => A LY SD\<X a<[O V C< N<;<FS>` O=ALBVSQFVXXX <IJ A <IJX aSD F C<?DSD;YU ND; AG;><S [C< C> ;O?OR S>? ^SD SDS Z>?SR PSD A F;<=A L>FR L DG;D[CDb [>FF< E=<FQ N;AFOSFSLO`IAUR V CAP<GD C< \<B>` DW ^SD[ EC>SQ SD\< C>BA@DX /D SD \< BA F>[D<c ] L ^SD[ LF< =<BDX TSD L>_< V C< \<B>` CAP<GD EC>SQ D C<?D<[ EC>CAAR O;YL?>[A L>[ N;<ND=>CCD[ ] D C<[ BA ;<PQ A=<S L [D<[ FBOP><c /< =O[>`K L>_> N;AL<;\<CCDFSQ [C< A DWdVFCV<SFV ?>? ;>E ND=DE;<CA<[R PSD [D< V DW ^SD[ C< \<B>` CAP<GD EC>SQ A[<<S =;OGA< ?D;CAX 3 <FBA V =<bFSLAS<BQCD E>CA[>` ND DSCD_<CA` ? L>[ NDEA@A` >C>BAEA;O`I<GD FLD< V C< \<B>` DW ^SD[ CAP<GD EC>SQ N>@A<CS>R SD L>[ =D ^SDGD <IJ =>B<?DX :DS NDP<[O S< AE L>FR ?SD N;DUD=AS O [<CV FLDb >C>BAER F[DGOS CD;[>BQCD LYbSA AE C<GD C< ;>CQ_<R P<[ FDWFSL<CCDGD V C< \<B>` DW ^SD[ EC>SQ ND?>\<SFV A[ =DLDBQCDX :DN;<?A SD[OR PSD P>FSD N;AUD=ASFV FBY_>SQR N;DSALD;<PAV [<\=O [D<b NDEA@A<b >C>BASA?> A S<[R P<[ V E=<FQ E>CA[>`FQR ?>? LA=AS<R C<SX e +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> I : N;D_BD[ GD=O V =>B SD[OR D P<[ NDB>G>B LDE[D\CY[ L>[ ;>FF?>E>SQR E>GB>LA< XXX > SD A UO\<X /A VR CA SY F`=> ND=FS>LASQ C<BQEV &>VA UO\<R ABA > SY A UO\< C< F?>\<_QX ,C>BASAP<F?A[ =AF?O;FD[ ;O?DLD=AS DFS;>VR ?>? B<ELA< W;ASLYR BDGA?>K ND SO FSD;DCO [D\<S WYSQ SDBQ?D UO\<X 3[<CCD ^SDb BDGA?< V A FB<=O`R N;<=B>G>V L>[ =BV C>P>B> N;<=FS>LASQ F<WV L NDFS<BA ] NDFS<BAR ?>? A NDBD\<CD <bR =LOFN>BQCDbX H=C>\=YR DSL<P>V `;AFSOR ND\<B>L_<[O OEC>SQR PSD N;<=FS>LBV<S FDWDb [Db =AF?O;FR V NDN;DWDL>B DWdVFCASQ <[O SDR PSD B<\AS O ^SDGD =AF?O;F> L DFCDL<R SD <FSQ ;>ECA@O [<\=O VEY?D[R F D=CDb FSD;DCYR A GDLD;VIA[ FOWd<?SD[R F =;OGDbX f;A=AP<F?Ab Z>?OBQS<SR F?>E>B V <[OR VLBV<SFV =BV [D<GD LYFSONB<CAV C>AWDB<< ND=UD=VIA[ [<FSD[K F>[D FOI<FSLDL>CA< E>?DCD=>S<BQFSL> FLA=<S<BQFSLO<S D SD[R PSD VEY? ] DC FOI<FSLO<S F>[ ND F<W<R F?B>=YL>VFQ L<?>[AR > GDLD;VIA< FOI<FSL>R B`=A ] =;OGD< =<BDX M>?

7 +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> I

PSD <[O N;A=<SFV N;DFSASQ [<CVR <FBA V F [<FS> O?B>=YL>` FBO_>S<B<b L NDFS<BQX 0<GD=CV V AE C<<R AE ^SDb NDFS<BAR C< LYB<EOR C>ND[CAL `;AFSOR PSD N;>LD GDLD;ASR ND FOSAR D SD[ \<R D P<[ F<GD=CV WO=O GDLD;ASQ VR AWD NDBQEDL>CA<R L `;A=AP<F?D[ F[YFB<R A C>FB>\=<CA<R L F<?FO>BQCD[R FDLN>=>`S ND& Z;>C@OEF?A L D=CD[ FBDL<K ghu#ssanceX i;>LD C< N;DUD=AS [A[D NDFS<BA ] LDEQ[AS< UDSV WY S< CD;[YR PSD ;<GOBA;O`S =DW;Yb DWYP>b ?DC?OWAC>S>R SD <FSQ FD\AS<BQFSL>X aSD =D [<CVR SD V FS>CO AFUD=ASQ AE SDGDR PSD L N;>L< DFS><SFV E>LO>BA;DL>CDR SD <FSQ AE SDGDR P<[ L NDFS<BAR ?>? N;>LABDR E>CA[>`SFV ] AE B`WDLCYU DWdVSAbX 3CY[A FBDL>[AR V AFUD\O AE SDGD N;<=<B>R W<E ?DSD;DGDR <FBA GDLD;ASQ LF<;Q<ER SD <FSQ LYFS;>AL>V F<;A`R ?DSD;>V WY ? ^SD[O N;<=<BO FS;<[AB>FQR C< DWDbSAFQX ->? FDDSCDFVSFV =;OG F =;OGD[ N;>LD A C>FB>\=<CA< V iHj0/f C>[ C> N;A[<;< D=CDGD FBDL>X 0BDLD ^SDROEOZ;O?S C>[ EC>?D[D S>?D< N;>LDLD< NDCVSA<c ] UD;D_D =<[DCFS;A;O<S ;>ECA@OR D ?DSD;Db V L>[ C> F<[AC>;< ND ^SA?< O\< ? _D;CV ;>ECA@O [<\=O NDB<ECY[R F D=CDb FSD;DCYR A =D& 9 +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> I FS>LBV`IA[ C>FB>\=<CA<R F =;OGDbX a<[O FBO\AS NDB<ECD<c TSD S>? CA?DG=> A C< WYBD P<S?D DN;<=<B<CDR LACDb P<[O ND;>EAS<BQCD< OL>\<CA< ND DSCD_<CA` ? F;<=FSL>[R ?DSD;D< LCO_><S GDLD;VI<[O FOI<FSLO VEY?X kEOZ;O?S DEC>P><SR PSD [D\CD F;<=FSL>[A lC>FB>\=>SQFVmR CD C<BQEV CA L ?D<[ FBOP>< AU ;>EW>E>;AL>SQX kEOZ;O?SR ABA N;>LD NDBQEDL>CAVR C> C>FB<=FSLDR DEC>P><SR PSD LY [D\<S< lC>FB>\=>SQFVm C>FB<=FSLD[R CD N;A OFBDLAAR PSD LY <GD C< ;>FS;>PAL><S<X : ^SD[ FOSQ N;>L> ] ;>E[<\<LYL>SQR ;>FN;<=<BVSQR LDE[<I>SQ LF< SDR PSD S>? ABA AC>P< FLVE>CD F C>FB>\=<CA<[X : DSCD_<CAA N;>L>&C>&C>FB>\=<CA< =DB\<C F=<B>SQR D=C>?DR D=CO DGDLD;?OX i;>LD C< VLBV<SFV =DBGD[X />FB>\=>SQFV NDCO\=><S P<BDL<?> SDBQ?D D=CD ] <GD FL<;U&VX 0L<;U&V A <FSQ C< PSD ACD<R ?>? A[N<;>SAL C>FB>\=<CAV ] />FB>\=>bFVn 3[<CCD E=<FQ C>UD=ASFV SDS NDLD;DSCYb NOC?SR ?DSD;Yb >C>BASAP<F?Ab =AF?O;F ACS<;<FO<SX : SD L;<[VR ?DSD;D< NDFB< L>F ?DG=>&SD L [D< ;>FND;V\<CA< N;<=DFS>LABDR V NDNYS>BFVR ;>E[Y_BVV DW ^SD[R N;D=<[DCFS;A;DL>SQR PSD NFAUD>C>BAE C< NDELDBV<S WDBQ_< =<;\>SQFV ^SA?AR DS ?DSD;Db VR N;A LF<[ OL>\<CAA ? C<bR DSD_<B ] ^SA?A ,;AFSDS<BVX o<BD L SD[R PSD F S<P<CA<[ L;<[<CA [Y FDF?DBQECOBA C<E>[<SCD ] ND DWUD=CDb S;><?SD;AAK N;DG;<FFD[ ^SD C< C>EDL<_Q ] DS >;AFSDS<B<LF?DGD N;<=FS>LB<CAV D WYSAA ? OSABAS>;AE[O p<CS>[>R SD <FSQ ? S<D;AA ZA?@AbR G=< VEY? LYFSON><S ?>? NDS;<WAS<BQC>V @<CCDFSQR ?>? ACFS;O[<CSX 3[<CCD ^SD NDWO=ABD [<CV NDFS>LASQ ND= FD[C<CA< SD WYSA<R SD LYF_<< WB>GD ?>?

N;<=[<S FDE<;@>CAVR C> ?DSD;D[ C>=<VBAFQ C<?DG=> NDFS;DASQ E=>CA< ^SA?AX 3S>?R V DFS>LBV` L>F ] DFS>LBV` L NDFS<BAR G=< ACA@A>SAL> @<BA?D[ L>_>X /D OUD=VR NA_O C> =L<;VUR PSDWY LYR OUD=VR E>=O[>BAFQ D S<U G;<E>UR ?DSD;Y[ L NDFS<BA ^SDbR ND&LA=A[D[OR N;<=>L>BAFQR LDS ^SO Z;>EO ] C>FB>\=<CA< o;OGDGDR o;OGDGD F WDBQ_Db WO?LYR C>FB>\=<CA< (S<BD[) o;OGDGDR ?DSD;D< <GDR ^SDGD o;OGDGDR FA[LDBAEA;O<SR C< VLBV<SFV EC>?D[ B`WLAX 17 +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> I

2 />NAF>L ^SDR V C< NA_O LFB<=K A SDP?>R ABA >[ACQR q#n => WO=<S S>?X .`WDLQR ?DC<PCD \<R ND=><S EC>?R A EC>? ^SDS LF<G=> LE>A[<CX j LYF?>E>B ^SDR L DFSD;D\CDb ZD;[<R O\< =>LCDR E>[<SALR PSD POLFSL> ] DCA LF<G=> LE>A[CYX 0N<@A>BQCDR PSDWY [<CV FN;DFABA NDSD[ &, B`WDLQR ?>? \< B`WDLQR DC> SD\< LF<G=> LE>A[C>c ] , ?>? \<R ?DC<PCDn 0?>\O WDBQ_<K W<FFDEC>S<BQCD< LDDWI< C< DS?;YBA WYR ?DG=> W C< LYVFCABDFQR PSD \<B>CA< P<BDL<?> ] ^SD \<B>CA< o;OGDGD A PSD UDSV FS;>FSQR A[<CO<[>V B`WDLQ`R A [D\<S ND;Db \<B>CA< AGCD;A;DL>SQR DC> LF< ;>LCD =><S <[O NDBCO` LDB`X iDF[DS;AS< UD;D_<CQ?DR A LY OLA=AS<R ?>?A< DCD SOS N;DAELD=AS DNOF& SD_<CAVn />FB>\=<CA< o;OGDGD ] C>FB>\=<CA< (S<BD[) o;OGDGD DFS>LBV<SR S>? ABA AC>P<R LDN;DF DS?;YSY[K DSL<SR ?DSD;Yb DCD C<F<S L F<W<R C< DWVE>S<BQCD L<;<CX pDBQ_< SDGD DSL<SD[ ^SA[ [Y C< [D\<[ =DLDBQFSLDL>SQFVR NDSD[O PSD B`WDLQ S;<WO<S B`WLAX M;<WO<S C<N;<;YLCDX M;<WO<S <IJ A <IJX 1IJ ] ^SD A[V SDGD EAVCAVR G=< W<;<S L o;OGD[ FLD< C>P>BD S;<WDL>CA< B`WLAX 3S>?R DS?O=> AFUD=AS SDR PSD C>FB>\=<CA<[ S<B> o;OGDGD FNDFDWCD =>SQ C>[R NOFSQ C<=DFS>SDPCYb A C<=DFSDL<;CYbR DSL<Sc TSD C< B`WDLQX TSD SDR PSD L N;D_BD[ GD=OR ND= L=DUCDL<CA<[ DS P>FDLCA 0LVSDb ,CCYR LCO_>L_<b [C< \<B>CA< [YFBASQ FAFS<[CDR C>EL>B V FBDLD[ >[O; (1r>SAG)X ,[O; ] ^SD FS;>CCY<R L\O/`L>CCY< L S<BD EC>?AR PSD LA=A[ [Y C> <GD NDL<;UCDFSAX TSD P<;SY NDB>R N;ALC<F<CCY< L S<BD AE NDSOFSD;DCC<b <[O DWB>FSAR S> E>;D=Y_<L>V NB>E[>R ?DSD;O` [Y FNDFDWCYR ?>E>BDFQ WYR ;>FF[DS;<SQ L [A?;DF?DN A ?DSD;O`R ?>? LY ND[CAS<R \AECQ` D=CDEC>PCD C>EL>SQ C<BQEVR AWD F S>?A[ \< OFN<UD[R ;<N;D=O@A;OV S<BDR DC> C<F<S <[O F[<;SQX 3[<CCD S>[ <IJ LDNBDI<CAV (Ten&ch%$s) W<;<S C>P>BDX /<N;>LABQCDR S>?A[ DW;>ED[R GDLD;ASQR WO=SD S<BDR FD[>R A E>;D=Y_<L>V NB>E[> ;>EBOP<CYR AWD S<BDR L[<I>V <<R C<F<S C> F<W< FB<=YX 0B<=Y ^SA L C<GD E>[O;DL>CYX 11

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21 +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> II

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w9 +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> IV

IV
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[>S<[>SA?DLR S>? ^SD DS?O=> ?;OGDLD< =LA\<CA< W<;<S C>P>BDX }D;DLD= EL<E=R ;>FNDBD\<CCYU C> NDFB<=C<b AE FZ<;R N;<=NDB>G><SR FDGB>FCD ,;AFSDS<B`R FO& *3 +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> IV I<FSLDL>CA< C<ND=LA\CDb FZ<;YR ?DSD;Db LF< DFS>BQCY< A N;ALD=VSFV LD L;>I<CA<X 1FBA EL<E=Y L;>I>`SFVR SD N;APACO SD[O C>=D AF?>SQ LD L;>I<CAA E<[BA LD?;OG FLD<b DFAX aO=D[ VLBV<SFV O\< D=CD SDR PSD C>_BAFQ B`=AR ?DSD;YU C>WB`=<CA< E> ^SA[ UD;DLD=D[ EL<E=R E> ^SA[ L<PCY[ L;>I<CA<[ C<W<FCDb FZ<;YR C>L<BD C> [YFBQ D FOI<FSLDL>CAA =;OGAU FZ<;R NDELDBAL A[ FDE=>SQ NSDB<[<<LO FAFS<[OR G=< NB>C<SY E>CA[>`S ND DSCD_<CA` ? E<[B< =LOF[YFB<CCD< NDBD\<CA<R UD=V LD?;OG C<< SO=>&F`=>R FBDLCD ?DB<F> L EOW& P>SDb N<;<=>P<X 4>EL< C< ND=LAGD[ WYBD ^SO FBD\C<b_O` FAFS<[O N;D=O[>SQc -DN<;CA? N;DFSD&C>N;DFSD DW;>SAB LCA[>CA<R PSD =LA\<CA< N;D[<\OSDPCYU FZ<; [D\CD DNAF>SQ C<F?DBQ?D ND&ACD[OX />UD=AB>FQ BA E<[BV L @<CS;< ABA C<S ACS<;<FDL>BD <GD C< L N<;LO` DP<;<=QX -DN<;CA?>CF?Ab N<;<LD;DS ] ^SD CA?>?Db C< N<;<LD;DS LDDWI<X 1FBA [YR LF<GD BA_Q ;>FFO\=>V ND >C>BDGAAR ;>FF[>S;AL><[ @<CS; FZ<;Y ?>? GDFND=FSLO`IO` NDEA@A`R SD PSD WYR E<[B` ABA FDBC@<R [Y L ^SO SDP?O CA ND[<FSABAR C> SD[R PSD FDU;>CV<S DEC>P>`I<< @<CS; F>[D ND F<W<R ^SD CA[>BD C< DS;>EASFVX HS?;YSA<R PSD E<[BV C< ;>FNDBD\<C> L @<CS;<R P<BDL<?> ] > C>EYL><[ [Y S>? SDGDR ?SD C>=<BV<S EC>P<CA<[ ] DSC`=Q C< F[OSABDK DC N;<?;>FCD LY_<B AE NDBD\<CAVR NDFS>LAL C> << [<FSD FDBC@<X 0<bP>F O\< DP<LA=CD FS>BDR PSD A FDBC@<R L FLD` DP<;<=QR C< C>UD=ASFV L @<CS;<R PSD DCD N<;<[<I><SFV L N;DFS;>CFSL<R D ?DSD;D[ LF< S;O=C<< FDFS>LASQ F<W< VFCD< N;<=FS>LB<CA<X 1FBA PSD&SD A DFS><SFV L @<CS;<R S>? ^SD N;ALYP?> FPAS>SQR PSD DEC>P>`I<< FDU;>CV<SR L ?DC<PCD[ ASDG<R FLDb F[YFB C<AE[<CCY[X 0[YFB ^SDS DWOFBDLB<C FLDbFSL<CCY[ ?>\=D[O AE C>F POLFSLOR PSD [Y VLBV<[FV P>FSQ` D?;O\>`I<GD C>F [A;> ] C>_<b F<[QAR F?>\<[R A LF<GDR PSD F ^SA[ S>? ABA AC>P< FLVE>CDX ->\=Yb AE L>FR L?B`P>V F>[YU PSD CA C> <FSQ B<L>?DLR N;ALVE>C ?D LF<[O ^SD[O WDBQ_<R P<[ DC =O[><SR A [<;O ^SDb N;ALVE>CCDFSA C< UO=D WY DFDEC>SQX k ?>\=DGD AE L>F <FSQ C>WD; N;<=;>FFO=?DLR ?DSD;Y< L>F OFS;>AL>`S A NDELDBV`S WOCSDL>SQ ;DLCD L SDb [<;<R L ?DSD;Db ^SD L>F CA L P<[ C< FS<FCV<SR C< C>;O_>V CA L ?D<[ FBOP>< L>_O ?>;SACO [A;>R ND&N;<\C<[O N;<=FS>LBV`I<GDFV *w +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> IV

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0=<B>L C<F?DBQ?D _>GDLR NDELDBAL_AU [C< LYF?>E>SQ [>BD&ND[>BO C<PSD FOI<FSL<CCD<R [Y [D\<[ S<N<;Q NDF[DS;<SQR ?>? LE>A[CD N;DVFCV`S =;OG =;OG> ,;AFSDS<BQ A u;<b=X oBV ^SDGD CO\CD C>bSA L AU LYF?>EYL>CAVU SDP?A N<;<F<P<CAVR FDN;A?DFCDL<CAVX ,;AFSDS<BQ L F<=Q[Db ?CAG< O\< OND[AC>L_<bFV C>[A /A?D[>UDLDb ^SA?A E>=><SFV LDN;DFD[ DW O=DLDBQFSLAAX : FLVEA F S<[R PSD [Y F L>[A GDLD;ABA D C>FB>\=<CAAR ACS<;<FCDR PSD C>AWDB<< DP<LA=CY[ L DSCD_<CAA O=DLDBQFSLAV N;<=FS>LBV<SFV ,;AFSDS<B` C< PSD ACD<R ?>? <GD DSBAPA< DS NDS;<WCDFS<b ] S<U F>[YUR D ?DSD;YU L N;D@ASA;DL>CCDb [CD` F<GD=CV Z;>E< _B> ;<PQ A ?DSD;Y< N;V[D FLVE>CY O C<GD FD LF<[ S<[R PSD DSCDFASFV ? ND;D\=<CA`X iDS;<WCDFSA FDDSC<F<CY F =LA\<CA<[X : @<CS; FLD<GD [A;> ] [A;>R DS ?DSD;DGD CYC< C< DFS>BDFQ ?>[CV C> ?>[C< ] ,;AFSDS<BQ ND[<I><S C<ND=LA\CYb N<;LD=LAG>S<BQR E> ?DSD;Y[ C<NDF;<=FSL<CCD FB<=O<S =LA\<CA<R ?DSD;D[O DC FBO\AS N;APACDbR > <IJ =>B<< ] LFJR PSD ;D\=><SFV A O[A;><SR FDEA=><SFV A ;>E;O_><SFVX 3[<CCD E=<FQ ;>FNDB>G>`SFV NDS;<WCDFSAX 3 O=DLB<SLD;VSFV DCA =LA\<CA<[X 0S;>CCD< =<BDR CD C< SD \< BA F>[D< C>UD=A[ [Y A O u;<b=>R F SDb ;>ECA@<bR PSD ;<PQ O C<GD A=<S D N;AC@AN< O=DLDBQFSLAVc oLOF[YFB<CCDFSQR D=C>?DR L SD[R PSD O u;<b=> N;AC@AN O=DLDBQFSLAV FLVE>C F LC<_CA[ LDEWO\=<CA<[ A F S<[ =LA\<CA<[R ?DSD;D< ^SD LC<_C<< LDEWO\=<CA< N;DLD& @A;O<S ] =LA\<CA<[R FS;<[VIA[FV <GD NDG>FASQX u;<b=R ?>? CA FS;>CCDR C>EYL><S N;AC@AND[ O=DLDBQFSLA<[ A[<CCD ^SDR SDG=> ?>? ,;AFSDS<BQ ^SD WY O=DLDBQFSLA<[ CA?DG=> C< C>EL>B ] =BV C<GD ^SD L BOP_<[ FBOP>< OSDB<CA< WDBAX :YF?>E>SQ DW O=DLDBQFSLAA ?D<&PSD L>\CD< ,;AFSDS<B` O=><SFV BA_Q ;>E[Y_BVV D SD[R PSD F>[ DC EDL<S ^C<;GA<bR >?SALCDFSQ`X : ?>P<FSL< N<;LDGD N;A[<;> DCR ?>? CA FS;>CCDR N;ALD=AS E;<CA< ] A[<CCD L C<[ N;<WYL><S =BV C<GD LYF_<< O=DLDBQFSLA<R O=DLDBQFSLA<R ?DSD;D<R C< DNOF?>VFQ C> O;DL<CQ G<C<EAF>R ND;D\=<CAVR AFUD=AS AE F<;=@> ?>? @<CS;> PAFSDGD O=DLDBQFSLAVX aSDWY FS>SQ O=DLDBQFSLA<[R CA L ?>?D[ N;<=&

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F?>E>BAR PSD C>FB>\=<CA< C<NDF;<=FSL<CCD FDDSCDFASFV A DFS><SFV N;DPCD F@<NB<CD F ACY[ C>FB>\=<CA<[ ] C>FB>\=<CA<[R ?DSD;D< F<?FO>BQCY[ DSCD_<CAV[ C< A=<S C> NDS;<WOR ?DSD;DGDR PSDWY DCA FDFSDVBAFQR LDLF< C< C>=D WYX MDR PSD DWC>;O\AL><S O?>EO`IAb \<FS ,;AFSDS<BVR L SDPCDFSA FDLN>=><S F S<[R PSD L >C>BASAP<F?D[ DNYS< N;<=FS><SR ND ?;>bC<b [<;< =BV S<UR ?SD A=<CSAZA@A;O<S F<WV L NDBDLD[ DSCD_<CAA ?>? [O\PACOR DWd<?SD[ ] DWd<?SD[R ?DSD;Yb E>CA[><S [<FSD SDGDR PSD C< [D\<S WYSQR F SDP?A E;<CAV o;OGDGDR LDFN;ACVSDX 3[<CCD NDFSDBQ?OR NDF?DBQ?O DWd<?S V AG;><S ND;Db ] F [O\F?Db FSD;DCY ] ;DBQ SDGDR PSD E>CA[><S [<FSD C<=DFS>`I<GDR DS& FOSFSLO`I<GD N>;SC<;>R A F?B>=YL><SFV SDR PSD LDECA?><SR ?>? C>[ ^SD P>FSD N;AUD=ASFV C>WB`=>SQR C> [<FS< ;<>BQCDGDK Z>CS>E[X j NDPSA FD\>B<` D SD[R PSD =DFS>SDPCD F?>E>B ND ^SD[O NDLD=OK =DFS>SDPCD ] ^SD LF<G=> FBA_?D[ [CDGDX :<=Q GB>LCD< ] ^SD OLA=<SQR PSD F =;OGDb FSD;DCYR FD FSD;DCY \<CIACYR N;DAFUD=AS C<PSD FDL<;_<CCD ACD<X j NDNYS>`FQ L FB<=O`IAb ;>E E>ND[AC>`IA[FV DW;>ED[R A =DFS>SDPCD NDBCDR PSDWY L NDFB<=O`IA< NDB[<FV@>R ?DG=> O C>F C< WO=<S E>CVSAbR LF< ^SD O L>F OB<GBDFQR ND?>E>SQR PSD FD FSD;DCY \<CIACY ] E>P<;?CAS< DN;<=<B<CCYb >;SA?BQ (1>) N<;<= FBDLD[ \<CIAC> ?DFDb P<;SDbR DEC>P>`I<b O [<CV SDR PSD =DB\CD WYSQ E>G;>\=<CD ] FD FSD;DCY (>) +<CIACYR D=CA[ FBDLD[R LDE[<I><S DSFOSFSLO`IA< F<?FO>BQCY< DSCD_<CAV LDLF< C< DWd<?S >X 13 Z<L;>BV 1973 GD=>X

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77 +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> VI

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7e +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> VI iDC>P>BO CO\CD PAS>SQX

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i;<FBDLOSY< [AFSAP<F?A< AEBAVCAV ] ^SD LDLF< C< WDBSDLCVR C< NOFSY< FBDL>R ^SDR L FOICDFSAR BOP_<< PS<CA<R ?>?D< [D\CD C>bSAR C< FPAS>VR DS[<SQS< F<W<R G=<&CAWO=Q C> NDBVUR />NAF>CCDGD +>?D[ .>?>CD[R NDSD[O PSD ^SD SDGD \< ND;V=?>X M<N<;QR ?DG=> V F?>E>B ^SDR LY C>L<;CV?> F=<B><S< =BV F<WV LYLD=R WO=SD V L<;` L pDG>X j L<;` L C>FB>\=<CA< \<CIACY ?>? C<PSD AEWYSDPCD< ] A[<bS< ^SD L LA=OR CDR ND?> V C< LL<B L>F L FOSQ =<B>R DFS>LQS< ^SD AEWYSDPCD< L FSD;DC<X : ?DC@< N;D_BDGD L<?>R LD L;<[<C> u;<b=>R LF<R L SD[ PAFB< >;?D F <GD D?;O\<CA<[R A [CDGA< =;OGA<R FS;<[A& 91 +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> VI BAFQ FL<FSA [AFSA?O ? NDBDLY[ FCD_<CAV[X /D <FBA N;AF[DS;<SQFVR ^SD FDLF<[ C< S>?X /< VLBV<SFV BA C>FB>\=<CA<R ?DSD;D< AFNYSYL>`SR CAP<GD C< EC>V D C<[R S<[ F>[Y[R PSD DS?;YL><S C>[ NOSQ ? LC<&FOI<FSLDL>CA`R ^?F& FAFS<C@AAc 3 C< B<\AS BA L DFCDL< D=CDGD AE BA?DL o;OGDGDR BA?>R PSD [Y A[<CO<[ pDGD[R \<CF?D< C>FB>\=<CA<c iDF?DBQ?O N;DAFUD=AS LF< ^SD WB>GD=>;V WYSA` EC>P<CAV A NDF?DBQ?O ?;D[< [<FS> o;OGDGDR A[<CO<[DGD [CD` WDBQ_A[ o;OGA[R ACDGD [<FS> ^SD[O WYSA` C<SR L GB>E>U O C>F NDC<LDB< C>PAC><S =LDASQFVX 3 NDF?DBQ?O DS@DLF?>V ZOC?@AVR F ?DSD;Db ?>FS;>@AV ?>? ;>E A FLVE>C>R LNAFYL><SFV L ^SD \< [<FSDR D =LOU pDG>U O C>FR ?>? LA=AS<R C< [D\<S WYSQ ;<PAR CD C< NDBOP><SFV DWDbSAFQ A D=CA[X /< FBOP>bCDR =;OGA[A FBDL>[AR A[<CCD L B`WDLCDb ACS;A\?<R L AG;< FDWB>EC<CAVR DS?;YBDFQ -Q<;?<GD;O FOI<FSLDL>CA<X .A_Q F<WV ?>FS;A;DL>LR DS?>E>L_AFQ DS FLD<b B`WLAR C>=<<SFV DC C>bSA ? FOI<FSLDL>CA` =DFSONX /D ?SD EC><S L ?DC@< ?DC@DL ] WYSQ [D\<S FOI<FSLDL>B>R FD FLD<b FSD;DCYR A 4<GAC>c 3 ?>? EC>SQR WYSQ [D\<S A[<CCD NDF;<=FSLD[ 4<GACY DWC>;O\AB DC L F<W< AE[<;<CA<R G=< DWAS><S \<B>CA< WB>G> LD LSD;Db FS<N<CAR WB>G>R ?DSD;D[O [>B<CQ?D< > C< FBO\AS N;APACDbc 27 Z<L;>BV 1973 GD=>X

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LF<U DEC>P>`IAUR S<[ <=ACFSL<CCY[R O ?DSD;DGD DSFOSFSLO<S DEC>P><[D< A ?DSD;D< FA[LDBAEA;O<SR FDDSL<SFSL<CCDR F[YFBDLDb N;DL>BR C<PSD C<=D& F?>E>CCD<R C<=D&FSDbCD< ] <FBA UDSAS<R C<N;A&FSDbCD< ND N;<A[OI<FSLOX oOWBA;DL>CCD< ^SA[ DEC>P>`IA[R DS ?DSD;DGD DCDR LDDWI<&SDR =>\< A C< E>LAFASR z C< A[<<S =<B> L ?>P<FSL< N>;SC<;> CA F ?<[R ?;D[< DWd<?S> >R LNAF>CCDGD L S>WBA@O ND =;OGO` FSD;DCO L<;SA?>BQCDb P<;SYX oDFSON ? F<?FO>BQCD[O N>;SC<;OR ?DSD;Y[ VLBV<SFV =BV C<GD o;OGDbR <[O =>CD NDBOPASQ C< AC>P<R ?>? P<;<E SDR PSD FBO\AS N;APACDb <GD \<B>CAVX ->? LA=CD C> [DAU G;>Z>UR G=< z A > FDN;V\<CY [<\=O FDWDb EC>?D[ ;D[W>R ;<PQ A=<S C< D P<[ ACD[R ?>? D Z>CS>E[<X TSDS Z>CS>E[R L NB<CO ?DSD;DGD FOWd<?S C>& UD=ASFVR A B<\AS ?>? ;>E L DFCDL< SDGDR PSD C>EYL>`S LD u;<b=DLDb S<D;AA N;AC@AND[ ;<>BQCDFSAX i<;<UD=A[ ? =;OGDb FSD;DC< S>WBA@YX : ^SD[ GD=O V ND=UD\O ? S<[<R ?DSD;O` u;<b= C>;DPASD DFS>LAB L FSD;DC<K as q#"" tas e#!c ] a<GD UDP<S \<CIAC>c u;<b= OSL<;\=><SR PSD FOI<FSLO<S SDBQ?D [O\F?D< BAWA=DX aSD ^SD DEC>P><Sc TSD DEC>P><SR PSD AGCD;A;O<SFV @<B>V DWB>FSQR D ?DSD;Db C<BQEV F?>E>SQR ?>?&CA?>?R PSD << LDLF< C<SX HWB>FSQ LF<U S<UR ?SD OFL>AL><S F<W< FS>SOF \<CIACY ] <FBA DCA LDDWI< OFL>AL>`S F<W< PSD&BAWD AE C>NAF>CCDGD O CAU C> ;D=OX pDBQ_< SDGDR C<N;>LD[<;CD AFNDBQEDL>SQ FBDLD +<CIAC> F DN;<& 9y +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> VII =<B<CCY[ >;SA?B<[R NDSD[O PSDR ?>? V L N;D_BYb ;>E O\< DWdVFCABR >;SA?BQ ^SDS A[<<S ;D=DLD< EC>P<CA< A <GDR FB<=DL>S<BQCDR C<BQEV ONDS;<WASQ S>[R G=< ;<PQ A=<S D C<&LF<[X v>NAF>SQ <GD L ^SD[ FBOP>< [D\CD BA_Q N<;<P<;?COSY[ (La)X HC A[<<S C<NDF;<=FSL<CCD< DSCD_<CA<R A V L>[ F<GD=CV ^SD N;DABB`FS;A;O`R ? DEC>P>`I<[O N<;<P<;?COSD< ,X o;OGDb ] ^SD C< N;DFSD [<FSDR G=< B<N<P<S AFSAC>X HC E>FBO\AL><S ;<N;<E<CSA;DL>SQ SDR F P<[ \<CIAC> FOI<FSL<CCD FLVE>C>X k C>F <FSQ SD[OR ;>EO[<<SFVR BA_Q FND;>=AP<F?A< FLA=<S<BQFSL>R ?DSD;Y[A V L N;D_BYb ;>ER L AU [<S>ZD;AP<F?D[ DWBA?<R A LDFNDBQEDL>BFVX pO=OPA L F<?FO>BQCYU DSCD_<CAVR ND DSCD_<CA` ? SD[OR PSD L W<FFDEC>S<BQCD[ [D\<S WYSQ LYF?>E>CDR L ?D;C< o;OGA[R \<CIAC> ] ^SD FOI<FSLDR ?DSD;D< F ^SA[ o;OGA[ FLVE>CDX 3[<CCD ^SD V UDS<B WY F<GD=CV ?>? [D\CD VFC<< >;SA?OBA;DL>SQX +<CIAC> A[<<S DSCD_<CA< ? DEC>P>`I<[O ^SDGD o;OGDGDR S>? ?>?R WO=OPA o;OGA[R DC DW;<P<C LF<G=> o;OGA[ DFS>L>SQFVX :Y LFND[CAS<R DF[<B`FQ N;<=NDBD\ASQR L FLVEA F ^SA[R PSD O o;OGDGDR ?>? V =>LCD O\< GDLD;ABR o;OGDGD C<SX o;OGDbR ^SD [<FSDR ?O=> LNAF>CD LF<R PSD [D\<S WYSQ L DEC>P>`I<[ >;SA?OBA;DL>CDR VLBV<SFVR L DFCDL< FLD<bR L ?D;C< o;OGA[X :DS NDP<[O L DEC>P>`I<[R E>NAF>CCD[ L N;>LD[ NDB< S>WBA@YR E>?B`P<CCD< L F?DW?A , N<;<P<;?COSD ] S(X)X

->? [D\CD N;<=FS>LASQ F<W<R PSD , VLBV<SFV G=<&SD S<[R F P<[ NDBDLAC> ] S>?DL> N;A[<;CD WADBDGAP<F?>V N;DND;@AV ] NDBDLAC> GDLD;VIAU FOI<FSL F<WV FDDSCDFASc , L<=Q A[<CCD ^SD DWDEC>P><S L<;UCVV AE AFUD=VIAU DS N<;<P<;?COSDGD DN;<=<B<CCDGD >;SA?BV FS;<BD?X TSDS N<;<P<;?COSYb DN;<=<B<CCYb >;SA?BQ C< [D\<S WYSQ LYF?>E>CX H +<CIAC< C< [D\<S WYSQ LYF?>E>CD LDDWI< CAP<GDX +<CIAC> FLVE>C> F S(A)R A O\< ND^SD[O DC> =LDASFVR DC> C<&LFVR WO=OPAR F =;OGDb FSD;DCYR FLVE>C> F uX TSD u <FSQ C< PSD ACD<R ?>? Z>BBDFR DEC>P>`I<< W<E DEC>P><[DGDR SD F>[D<R L DFCDL< P<GD B<\AS O [O\PACY Z>BBAP<F?D< C>FB>\=<CA<X aSD ^SD S>?D<c , SDR D P<[ OW<=AS<BQCD GDLD;AS S> L>\C>V ;DBQR ?DSD;>V L C>_<b \AECA N;AC>=B<\AS [>FSO;W>@AAR ] C>FB>\=<CA< A=ADS>X 97 +>? .>?>C 1IJK GB>L> VII

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4AFOCD? 9X

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4AFOC?A 17R11X

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4AFOC?A 12R13X

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4AFOCD? 1wX

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