Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 250

()

. .

I.


2012

330.101.542(075.8)
65.012.173
535
:
. ., . . ,
;
. ., . . , .

535

. .
: . 2- /
. . . : , 2012. . I:
250 .
ISBN 978-5-4332-0063-0
-
, , . .
, . .
330.101.542(075.8)
65.012.173

ISBN 978-5-4332-0063-0

. ., 2012
.
, 2012

1
1.1 . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 . .
1.4

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

10
10
15
18
28

II

34

2
2.1 :
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 . .
2.5 . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

35
35
36
42
44
47

. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .

53
53
54
58

. . . . . .

68

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

3
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

4
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

. . . .

74
74

. . . .
. . . .
. . . .

79
83
86

5
93
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.2 , . . . . . . . . 95
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6
6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
7.1 . . . . . . . . . .
7.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 . .
7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.2 . . . . .
7.4.3 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.3 . . . . . . . . . .

107
107
110
115
115
124
133

136
. . . 136
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

140
143
146
146
148

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

150
153
153
155
157

8
160
8.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
9
9.1 . .
9.2 . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3 . . . . .

172
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

10
10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6 . . . . . . . . .

191
191
194
200
204
208
211

10.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
10.8 . . . 218
10.9 . . . . . . . . . 224

228

229

231

236

238

. .
. ,
- .
: .
: . ,
. , . .
, , , (,
, . .).
,
, , .

: , ,
, .
, , .
.

,
- .

,
.
.................................................................
.
.................................................................

.................................................................
. , . ,
.
.................................................................

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. , .
.................................................................................
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................
.................................................................
.
.
, ,

.
.................................................................
.................................................................
. ( ) .
.................................................................

.................................................................
.
.................................................................

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. , .
.................................................................................
.................................................................


.................................................................

1.1
, , .
, , , . . , . , , , ,
.
.
. : (, ) (, ). .
- ,
.
. 1615 . ,
, .
, . XVIXVIII .
, .
, ( ) , , [1]. -

1.

11

. . ,
, .
, , , .
.
. , . . ,
, 1 .
XIX . , 2 , .
, : , .
, ,
.
, .
. .
. ,
1890 [2].
XIXXX
,
20- . 1920- 1930- , ,
. . 3 .
. , , ,
- . , , 1

, .
2
() :
. , . , . .
3
, , .

12

I.

, .
60- [2].
70- XX . ,
(, - )
.
. : , , .
, , . ,
, , .
3- .


. ,
,
. .

, , .
19701980- . , , , .
,
.
, , ,
. , ,
.
- , .
, , , , .
(. ),
. , , : -

1.

13

;
, , ;
,
, .
,

. : , , ,
. , , , ,

.
: .
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
, ( ).
. ,
, , , , ,
.
:
,
( , );
,

;
, , ;
, , . .
. , , -

14

I.

, ;
, .
,
[3].
.................................................................
, : , , , , , .
.................................................................
(. ), .
XX .
( , ) [4],
. .
,
. , [5]:
1) , ,
, , , , ;
2) ,
, , ;
3) , ,
, ;
4) ,
;
5) ,
(,
40- 70- XX ).
1970- , .
, ,
, .

1.

15

1.2
,
, .
.................................................................
, ,
, .
.................................................................

: -, . [4]. - : ; ;
; ; . .
.................................................................
, .
, . . ., . . .. , ,
.
.................................................................
.................................................................
- .
? ?. ,
.
.................................................................
, , : ,
. . .
: ; ;
; ; ; ; .
: ; ;
.

16

I.

XIX . .
, .
.................................................................
() -
.
.................................................................
.................................................................

()
() . , y = kx+b,
. k
, (
) . b
.
.................................................................
. , ,
, .
. .
, .
:
.
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
.................................................................
( ),
.
.................................................................

1.

17

,
, ,
. , , .
, ,
, , .
( )
() , . : ; - -; ( ) (
); ; .

. . : . , . ,
. ; ; , . . [4].
.
.................................................................

- .
.................................................................
.
( , .). ,
(, ).
, .
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
, . ,

18

I.

, ,
. , ,

, .

1.3


, ,
.
,
, .
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
:
( );
(,
, );
: , , ,
. .; ;
(
, ,
,
);
, ,
(, , . .);
- ,
, .

1.

19

.................................................................

:
, , , , .
.................................................................
-
( ) .

, (, ) . - .
, , ,
. . , : , , , .
, . ,
,
.

( , , ) [4].
. .
- : , (. 1.1).

. 1.1
. . (), , , - (
), , [3].

20

I.

, , [4]:
1) . . , () ,
, , ,
;
2) , .
. , ,
. ,
,
. .
: ,
( , , , .) ;
3) - ,
. . .
,
, .
.
.
, () , ;
4) , .
. , . ,
(, ). . . : ( -

1.

21

); -
( ); - .
, ( ). . ,
, . :
, ,
. .
.................................................................
, , : ,
, - .
.................................................................
.................................................................
( ) : , , , ,
.
.................................................................
.
() :
, .
( )
, . ;
, , , . ;
, , , , , . . ;

22

I.

, , . , , .
, : .
, , . ,
, , , , ,
. ,
. ( )
(, .).
, , .
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................
:
1) ( , , , . .);
2) (,
);
3) (, , );
4) (, ; , ; , ).

. ,
. . , ,
, , , .
. : , ; ,
; .

1.

23

: .
. ,
, , , , , . .

. ,
(, , . .).
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
: ,
.
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
, .
, . ,
, .
,
.
.
,
.
, .

.
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................
:
(, , . .), ;
( );

24

I.

( , );
(
).
.................................................................
,
, .
.................................................................

( ) . , ,
:
.
.
. ,
,

.
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................
, , . , ,
. , .
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
? .
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................

1.

25


(. 1.2).

. 1.2
.................................................................
: ,
; ;
, .
.................................................................
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, -
( ) . x,
y. ABCD . A, . C ,

.
D .
ABCD . ,
, ,
,
.
.................................................................................

26

I.

.................................................................
( ,
)
, .
.................................................................
: -, ,
, ; - , ; -,
.
.................................................................
A B y
( Ay1 ) x ( Ox1 ).
y1 /x1 ,
x . A
B, B C ,
x. ,
( ) [6].
.................................................................
.................................................................
: ,
.
.................................................................
.................................................................
A, B, C, D , ,
.
.................................................................
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................

1.

27

( K), , . ( M), ,
.
, ,
. , , .
:
1) .
;
2) .
(,
). , , . : ,
,
.
, , , - , . . () , . , ,
.
? , ,
.
,
, , 1 ,
.
,
, , . , , , . ,
, , , .
-
.

,
.

28

I.

1.4

. .
, ,
, .
.................................................................
, . .

[5].
.................................................................
( , ),
,
. ,
: , , . .

:
1) - ( );
2) ;
3) ( , . .);
4) () .
: : .
.................................................................
,

.
.................................................................
.................................................................
,
, .
.................................................................

1.

29

.................................................................
, , ( ).
.................................................................
.................................................................
,
, (
).
.................................................................
,
- .
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
,
( ). ,
( ).

: , , (, , , . .) (, . .)
.
.................................................................
() , , .
.................................................................
,
, .
: ,
. .
.
.
, ;
;

30

I.

. .
:
(, ) , .
:
-, (
, , , , );
-, , , , ;
-, (
,
);
-, -
,
, , .
: .
.
.................................................................
, (, ), ,
.
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
,
, , , .
.................................................................
. , ,
, , ,
. .
( , , , ) . , , -

1.

31

, , , ,
, . ,
. .
, . ,
.

.
.................................................................
, . . ( ), , , .

[7].
.................................................................
, 1 ,
[8]:
1) , . . ;
2) , . .
;
3) , . . , ;
4) , . . ;
5) , . . , , ;
6) , . . ,
;
7) ;
8) ;
9) ,
;
1

. , 1961 .

32

I.

10) , . .
;
11) , . . , .
:
1) ,
( );
2) ,
( ).
. , , . ,
, . ( )
.
,
.
, . : ,
, .
, .


1.1 2 5
1 . 1
, ?
1.2 100
80 50 .
1 , ?
1.3 :
- 10 . . ; 6 . .; , , 12 .
. . .
,
?
1.4 (
) 1.1. .
.

1.

33

1.1

, .
, .


A
B
C
D
E
0
2
4
6
7
36
33
25
10
0

1.5
2 , 0.5 ; 3 20 .
40 , ?
, ?
.................................................................

1
.................................................................
1) ?
2) ?
3) ?
4) ?
5)
?
6) ?
7) ?
8)
?
9) ?

II

2.1 :
, .
, .
. , ,
, ,
, , -. , ,
.
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
,
, , , ,
.
. . ,
. -

36

II.


.
:
1) ( ,
, , , ,
);
2) (, , );
3) ( ,
, ).
.
.................................................................
, ,
.
.................................................................
: ; , , ; ; - ; ; ; , ; , ,
.
, , ,
.

2.2
-
. .
.................................................................
Qd ,
.
.................................................................
(), : , , , -, , .
.................................................................
.
.................................................................

2.

37

:
Qd = f (P, I, Z, E, Psub , Pcom , . . .) ,

(2.1)

P ; I ; Z ; E ; Psub - (); Pcom ()


.
, ,
, Qd = f (P).

.
() : (. 2.1)
(. 2.1).
.
.................................................................
, . , d.
,
.
.
.................................................................
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 2.1
, () .

.

38

II.

2.1
2011 .
Pi , .
10
6
4

Qdi , .
1000
2200
4000

.................................................................................
, , . Qdi = a bPi
. b
Qd P. , b < 0.
a ,
. ,
a 1
P = Qd . a/b
b b
,
, 1/b . d
.
.
.................................................................

() .
.................................................................

......................

2.1

.....................

, Qd1 = 1005P.
100 , (. 2.2). P = 20 0.2Qd ,
20 ,
.
.
b Qd (0 100) (0 20)
5(100/20). , P = 200.2Qd , (0 20)
(0 100) 0.2(20/100).
(,
) , , -

2.

39

. 2.2

, Qd1 = 100 5P1 + 2.5P2 + 0.001I. +2.5P2


, 1 . .
2.5 . +0.001I ,
1000 . .
1 . P2 I , 5 15000 ,
Qd1 = 100 5P1 + 2.5 5 + 0.001 15000 = 127.5 5P1 .
b ,

.
.................................................................................
.................................................................
(
) .
.................................................................
,
1 . ,
( ), . ,
, [4].
.................................................................
Qd
,
.
.................................................................

(18371910) , XIX .

40

II.

......................

2.2

.....................

, .
Qd1 = 100 5P1 , Qd2 =
= 200 5P2 . .
:
1) P = c dQ.
P1 = 20 0.2Q1 , P2 = 40 0.2Q2 .
2)
. 2.3.

. 2.3

3) , AB BC. AB
Q = 200 5P, 20 , 40 .
BC Q = 300 10P,
. , , 20
. :

200 5P; 20 < P 40;


Qd =

300 10P; 0 < P 20.


.................................................................................

2.

41

.................................................................
, ()
.
.................................................................
() ,
, . , . ,
.
( 1 ),
, , , [9].
.................................................................

, (2.1)
(. 2.4).
.................................................................

. 2.4 ,

:
1) .
;
2) .
, ;
3) . ()
, . ,
.
1

(18571929) , .

42

II.


;
4) . ,
;
5) .
, ,
.

2.3

.
.................................................................
Qs ,
.
.................................................................

:
Qs = f (P, Pr , H, T, N, B) ,
P ; Pr ; H ; T ; N ; B .
, , ,
, Qs = f (P).
, : (. 2.2)
(. 2.5).

. 2.5

2.

43

2.2
2011 .
Pi , .
4
6
10

Qs , .
500
750
1000

.................................................................
s , , () .
.................................................................
,
. , .

(,
, . .).
. Qsi = c + dPi .
d
. ,
. ci . ci ,
, , .
Psi = c/d +
+ (1/d)Qsi , c/d ,
+1/d . ,
. 1/d Qs ,
.
.................................................................
: .
.................................................................
.................................................................

, .
.................................................................

44

II.

.................................................................

.
.................................................................
, , , ,
.
,
, , .
, , , .
, , ,
.

,
.

.

2.4

2011 . (. . 2.1) , 6 .
. (. 2.6)
.
.................................................................
E (Qd = Qs ) ,
, (Pd = Ps ).
( ).
.................................................................
, .

2.

45

. 2.6
, : . 1 (. 2.7) . 2 (. 2.8) [10]. .
. ( AB)
. Q2 Q1 P2 , , .
. , Qd = Qs .

. 2.7
. (P = P1 P2 ) . , ,
, .
P , .
1

(18371910) , .
2
(18421924) ,
.

46

II.

. 2.8
.

. . Pd = Ps .
, . ,
.
,
. . . .
,
. .
1/b 1/d
.
1

1/d, b
.
1/b 1/d,
.
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
- -

2.

47

, . ,
(. ), [8]. ,
.

2.5
-. () ,
.
, .
.................................................................
[4]:
.
.................................................................
.
Ed , , ( ):
Qdn Qdn1
100%
% Q
Qdn1
Ed =

,
Pn Pn1
% P
100%
Pn1

(2.2)

Qdn1 , Qdn ; Pn1 , Pn


.

( ), .
Ed :
Ed =

P
Qd P Qd P Qd P

=
= Qd
.
=

Qd
P
P Qd
P Qd
Qd

(2.3)

:
Ed =

Qn Qn1 Pn Pn1

.
Qn1 + Qn Pn + Pn+1
2
2

(2.4)

48

II.

:
(Ed = 1), 1%;
(Ed > 1),
, ;
(Ed < 1) ,
;
(Ed = 0);
(Ed = ).
.
......................

2.3

.....................

, Qd = 100
5P. , , 10 . 12 .? ?
:
1) : ;
12 .
Qd1 = 100 5 10 = 50; Qd2 = 100 5 12 = 40.
2) Ed Ed
2 ., ,
, .
40 50
100%
Ed = 50
= 1.0.
12 10
100%
10
:
40 50
100%
(40 + 50)/2
Ed =
= 1.22.
12 10
100%
(12 + 10)/2
3) ,
10 ., :
10
= 1.0.
50
.................................................................................
Ed = 5

2.

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

,
.
. ,
10 ., .
.
, , ( 20%)
.
, , , , Ed > 1 Ed < 1.
,
, ,
.

, ( ).
,
. ,
.
,
. , Ed = 1, .
.................................................................................
:
. - ,
;
. , ,
Ed ;
. ;
. ,
;
.
;
. , ;
. , . ,
.
Qd , . :

50

II.

:
EI =

% Qd
,
% I

I ;
:
Exy =

% Qdx
,
% Py

Qdx x; Py y.
,
. ,
( ). ()
, , .
, ( ,
); (
). .
, .
, : , , ; ,
, ; , , .
. , .
( y x).
Es , Ed , , :
Es = % Qs /% P.
:
. ,
,
;
.
, ;
.
.

2.

51


2.1 , , : Qd = 14 2P Qd = 20 2P .
, ,
. ?
2.2 , A B,
: Qs A = 4 + 0.5PA Qs B = 2 + 2PB .
,
?
2.3
, 2.3.
2.3

Pd11 = 20 2Qd11 Pd12 = 20 4Qd12 Pd13 = 4 0.5Qd13
Pd21 = 5 Qd21
Pd22 = 20 Qd22
Pd23 = 6 2Qd23
,
, , 2.9.

. 2.9 : ; ;

, , .
.
2.4 N,
30 , 2.4. , , ?
2.5 N
Exy , 2.5. ?

52

II.

2.4

10-
0.85
1.05
1.24

10-
0.28
1.12
0.45

10-
0.20
1.28
0.15

2.5
x

Exy
0.81
0.29
0.87

.................................................................

2
.................................................................
1) ?
2) ?
3) ?
4)
?
5)
()?
6) ?
7) ?

3.1
,
, .
. ,
.
() :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
,
.
. ,
.
.................................................................
1 U
.
.................................................................
, , 2 [7].
1
2

. .
( . utility ) .

54

II.

. , , , .
-. , .
, .
.................................................................
, ,
.
.................................................................
, . , .
, .
,
, . ,
, , ,
, ,
.
, XIX .,
:
() ().

3.2
1 () [1, 7]:
1) 2 ;
2) ;
3) - .
4) () .
1

: (18401921), - (),
(18511914), , (18511926).
2
, , , ,
.

3.

55

.................................................................
TU ,
.
.................................................................
,
:
TU = f (Qi ) .
TU = f (Qx , Qy , . . ., Qn ).
.................................................................
MU ,
.
.................................................................
:
MU (Qi ) =

TUn TUn1
;
Qn Qn1

(3.1)

:
MU (Qi ) =

(TU)
.
(Qi )

(3.2)

,
, .

. 3.1. TU. , ,
.
1 .
.................................................................
( ) :
, ,
,
.
.................................................................
1

(18101858), ,
.

56

II.

. 3.1
:
, ;
.
,
. : ,
,
.

. ,

.
.................................................................
: , ,

.
.................................................................

( ):
MUn
MUx MUy
=
= ... =
= ,
Px
Py
Pn

(3.3)

; x, y, n .
MUn = Pn , . .
[11].

3.

......................

3.1

57

.....................

, 10
, : 1
2 . . ,
.
3.1

1-
2-
3-
4-
5-
6-
7-


A
B

1
1

20
24
20
48
16
20
16
40
14
18
14
36
12
16
12
32
10
12
10
24
8
6
8
12
6
4
6
8

:
1) 1 B 2 ,

1 .
2) A B,
,
20 . B,
A. 5 . 5 : 4- B
18 ; 5- 6- A B, . 2 A 4
B. 192 . .
.................................................................................
, ,
, , . , , x (

58

II.

y ) MUx /Px . MUx /Px = MUy /Py


MUx /Px , x. , x , , x.
,
,
.

3.3
1
. .
.
.
.................................................................
[11]:
1) ;
2) .
,
,
;
3) y, x;
4)
, ;
5)
,
.
.................................................................
:
, , .

: , (18451926),
(18451926), (19041989).

3.

59

.................................................................
U , ,
, , .
.................................................................
(. 3.2),
, . A, B, C,
, , (, 10 ) . , ,
U = X Y .
,

, .

. 3.2

.................................................................
:
1) ;
2) , , ;
3)
;
4) .
.................................................................

, MRSxy
.

60

II.

.................................................................
x,

y, .
.................................................................
MRSxy :
MRSxy =

y
.
x

(3.4)


, y x,
.
, ,
x y:
MRSxy =

MUx
.
MUy

(3.5)

:
, ,
. MRS , . . .
( )
MRS.
.................................................................
MRS ,

, U = aX + bY .
.................................................................
.................................................................
,
U = min {X /Cx ; Y /Cy }, Cx Cy .
.................................................................
.
, MRS , .

3.

61

, , , 1 , 2 , :
1) , ;
2) , ,
y x.
,
, , . I
( ).
.................................................................
, , .
.................................................................
:
I = Px x + Py y,

(3.6)

I ; Px x; Py y; x, y .
:
I
Px
y = a bx y =
x,
Py Py
Px /Py .
M y
(. 3.3), . N x x (). , MN .
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
E
x y:
Px
= MRSxy .
(3.7)
Py
1

,
.
2
,
.

62

II.

. 3.3

, :
Px
y
1)
= ;
Py
x
Px MUx
2)
=
.
Py MUy
,
.
.................................................................

, .
.................................................................
......................

3.2

.....................

, ( ),
80 . 1 8 ., 1 20 .
U1 , . , 2 3.2 .
:
1) ;
2)
25 . 1
.

3.

63

:
1) MN
, .
M , :
I = Py y;

y=

I
80 .
=(
) = 4.
Py
20 .

N :
I = Px x;

x=

I
80 .
=(
) = 10.
Px
8 .

, (. 3.4). E1 , .

. 3.4
2) MN . :
y OM
4
=
=
= 0.4.
x ON 10
x y.
:
=

8 .
Px
=(
) = 0.4.
Py
20 .

, y ,
x. 0.4 ,
1 .

64

II.

3) 20 . 25 .
M . M ,
, y, x. :

I = Py y ;

y =

I
80 .
) = 3.2.
= (
Py
25 .


. M N
MN,
8 .
0.32 (
).
25 .
,
U1 .
E2 . ,

, .
.................................................................................
,
, ,
.
.................................................................
(
)
( ),
. ,
, .
.................................................................
, (. 3.5).
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................
, P1 P2 . x y
MN -

3.

65

(. 3.5, ).
MN .
U1 , U2 ,
E1 , E2 . , Gp .

. 3.5

x (. 3.5, ). ,
.
- . ,
, . ,
. [12].
. 3.6 E2 x, y,
x.
Qx1 Qx2 ( y). :
(Qx1 Qx3 ) (Qx3 Qx2 ).
.................................................................

.
.................................................................

66

II.

.................................................................
1
,
.
.................................................................

. 3.6
,

M K, MN
U1 .

M K U1 E3 . E3 Qx3 .
.................................................................
, . . E1 E3 , U1
U2 .
.................................................................
, .
1

, .

3.

67

, , , ( , )
( , ).

.
, ,
.
.................................................................
, . Gg , [4].
.................................................................
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
(. 3.7)
:
1) (. 3.7, ),
2) , , (. 3.7, ) .
3.6, , (I2 > I1 )
( E2 ) . ,
.

. 3.7

68

II.

3.4 ,

, , , .
[3, 4].
.................................................................
()
Pmax ,
, Pp , .
.................................................................
:
= Pmax Pp .

......................

3.3

(3.8)

.....................

(. 3.8).

. 3.8
( A
) 20 ., ( B) 19 ., ( C) 17 ., ( E) 15 .

3.

69

15 . () .
:
1) 1 . 5 . (20 .15 .),
4 ., 2 ., 0 . (15 .15 .).
2) :

= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 5 + 4 + 2 + 0 = 11.

,
, P , Pmax , E
, (. . 3.8).
.................................................................................
:

= 0.5 (P P ) Q .

(3.9)

.................................................................
() Pmin ,
.
.................................................................
:
= P Pmin .

(3.10)

.
......................

3.4

.....................

( A . 3.8 3.3) 10 .,

( B ) 11 ., ( C ) 13 ., ( E) 15 .
15 . .
:
1) 1 15 .,
()

70

II.

= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 =
= (15 10) + (15 11) + (15 13) + (15 15) = 11.
.................................................................................
,
- , P , Pmin , E , . :

(3.11)
= 0.5 (P Pmin ) Q .
.
.................................................................
.
.................................................................

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, Q = 4 1 (. 3.8. 3.3).
? , ABA B . , ,
.
,
, ,
.
.
.................................................................................
.
:
1) ( ) ( ) ;
2) . Qs = c + dP Qsi =
= c + d (P t), t . ., Qs = c + d (P + ) . .;

3.

71

3) .
.
, . . , (. 3.9). , , P1 P2 ME1 . SP2 ME0 P0 SP0 E0 E1 P1 ,
ME0 E1
.

. 3.9 ,
, ,
.
. SP2 ME0 P0
SP0 E0 E1 P1 , , . , ,
. ,
.
,

, , . ,
.

72

II.


3.1 , 4 . 2 .
. .
?
3.2 TU = 4x + 2y.
: MRSxy ; MRSyx .
3.3 TU = 4xy. x
10 ., y 4 ., ,
, 420 . .
3.4 Qd = 150
2P Qs = 80 + 3P. .
3.5 , 3.2.
3.2

1
2


Qd1 = 40 2P1
Qd2 = 40 2P2


Qs1 = 4 + 0.5P1
Qs2 = 2 + 2P2

2 .
,
?
.

3.

73

.................................................................

3
.................................................................
1) ?
2) , .
3)
?
4) ?
5) ?
6) ?
7) ?
8) ?
9) ?
10) , ?
11) ?
12) ?
13) ?

4.1
. .
, ,
, , () .
.................................................................
( ) ,
.
.................................................................
() :
; ()
; , . .
, , .
. ,
, .
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................

4.

75

, , . :
, ,
.
.
70% 67%
.
, , . ,
. . :
, ,
. 1%
45% .
, , .
.................................................................
,
, ,
, , . .
.................................................................
:
;
;
, - .
:
,
: , ;
,
, .

76

II.

20% 90%
.

.
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................

.
[13]:
;
;
;
.
: . ,
, ,

.
, , ,
, .
:
1) ();
2) ();
3) ().
, ,
,
.
, , , .

.
,
.
, , .

4.

77

.
.
, . . , ( ) , ( ).
.
. ( 50%, 50%).
, .
,
, (
). ,
.

,
. .
.
, . .

, . , .
, , , .
, . ,
. ,
, . , .
.................................................................

[14].
.................................................................
, , ,
. , .

78

II.

, , , ,
. . , , .
, .
.................................................................
: , , .
.................................................................
,
.
, .
, . , .
, .
,
. , , , , , ,
. , : ,

, , .
: , ,
, , .

4.

79

4.2

: .
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
:
Q = f (L, K, , . . ., Fn ) ,
Q , L, K, , . . ., Fn
( , , . .).
.
, -
( , , , ) [3, 4].
.................................................................

, .
.................................................................
, . ,

, , , .
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
,
, () . , , , ,
, ,
. , , () ,
.

80

II.

,

.
, L ,
Q = f (L), :
Q = aL + bL2 cL3 .

(4.1)

.................................................................
TP ( Q) , .
.................................................................

:
1) MP
Q L.
:
)
MPL =

Q
;
L

(4.2)

) ,

MPL =

Q
;
L

(4.3)

2) APL ,
APL =

Q
;
L

(4.4)

3) EQL ,
% Q
EQL =
, ,
% L
EQL =

MPL
.
APL

(4.5)

4.

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


, Q = 10L + 0.5L2 0.01L3
( K const) (. 4.1).
4.1


0
1
2
3
4
5
6

TP
0
8
18
26
33
39
42

AP

8.0
9.0
8.7
8.25
7.8
7.0

MP

8
10
8
7
6
3

,
(. 4.1).

. 4.1 ,
()
.................................................................................

82

II.

,
, : ,
, MPL .
MPL [3].
.................................................................
: ,
, ,
, .
.................................................................
,
.
, TP. ,
, ,
.
TP, .
,
(EQL > 1),

.
(EQL = 1). . ,
.
(4.1)
Q = aL + bL2 , Q = aL,
Q = bL cL2 .
: MPL = a + 2bL;
MPL = a; MPL = b 2cL.
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................

4.

83

4.3

, (L) (K).
Q = f (L, K). 1 :
Q = AL K ,

(4.6)

A, , , ( ).
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, Q = L0.75 K 0.25 , . 4.2 [11].


, Q 57
:
1) Q = 57; L = 80; K = 20;
2) Q = 57; L = 70; K = 30;
3) Q = 57; L = 60; K = 50;
4.2
Q
L
10 20 30
50
33 40 44
60
38 46 50
70
43 51 57
80
48 57 63
90
52 62 68

K
40
47
54
61
67
74

50
50
57
64
71
78

60
52
60
67
74
81

, . 4.2,
, , ,
. , , ,
.
(, 57 . 4.2) A,
B C, L K.
1

( . . ),
1.

84

II.

Q1 , (. 4.2).

. 4.2
.................................................................................
.................................................................
,
, .
.................................................................
.................................................................
, K/L. .
.................................................................
K/L ,
. . 4.2 2/8, 3/7 5/6.
. 4.2 Q2 ,
. Q1 . ,
: ,
.
(4.2) [11]:
EQ, L =

MPL AK L1
=
= ;
APL
AK L1

(4.7)

4.

85

MPK AL K 1
=
= .
(4.8)
APK
AL K 1
. , , ,
, . EQ, L > EQ, K ,
, EQ, L < EQ, K .
, :
1) , .
Q = aL + bK ;
EQ, K =

2) ,
1 Q = min {kK K; kL L}, kK kL
. ;
3) ,
.
.................................................................
MRTS.
.................................................................
MRTS :
K

;
L Q const
(4.9)
MPL
MRTS =
.
MPK
MRTS ,
, .
MRTS
,
. MRTS , ,
, .
ELK , ( )
1% [3, 11]:
MRTS =

ELK =
1

% (K/L)
(K/L) MRTSLK
=
.

K/L
MRTSLK
% MRTSLK

(4.10)

(19061999).

86

II.

.................................................................
,
, ELK . ELK = 1.
, ( ),
.
.................................................................

4.4 .
. ,
.
( ).
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
PL PK , , L K.
:
TC = PL L + PK K.
(4.11)
:
TC PL
K=

L, PL /PK .
PK PK
TC Q (. 4.3) .
.................................................................
, ,
K L .
.................................................................

:

MPL PL
PL
K

MRTS =

=
;
=

L
PK
MPK PK
(4.12)

TC = PL L + PK K.

4.

87

. 4.3

.
,
.

, ,
.
. ,
OS (. 4.4).

. 4.4 : (), (),


()
, ,
, . .
(. 4.4, ) [4].
.
.................................................................

, .
.................................................................

88

II.

, , (. 4.4, ).
, (. 4.4, ).
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. 4.3 [11].
4.3

Q = L0.75 K 0.25
Q = L0.75 K 0.5
Q = L0.5 K 0.25



L = 20;
L = 30;
L = 40;
K = 100
K = 150
K = 200
29.9 (1)
44.9 (1.5)
59.8 (2)
94.6 (1)
157.0 (1.7) 224.9 (2.4)
14.1 (1)
19.2 (1.4)
23.8 (1.7)

. ,
.
.................................................................................
, ,
1%:
+ = 1 ;
+ > 1 ;
+ < 1 ,
.
, , .
x y
M N [15]. :
a11 M x;
a12 M y;
a21 N x;
a22 N y;
m M ( );
n N ( );

4.

89

px x;
py y.

,
TR (x, y) x y:
TR = (x, y) = px x + py y.
, ,
:
a11 x + a12 y m;

a21 x + a22 y n.

.................................................................
(x, y),
.
.................................................................
.................................................................
()
,
.
.................................................................
......................

4.1

.....................

, (. 4.4).
4.4

x
6
2
5

y
3
2
10


90
40

.
:
1) , :
TR (x, y) = px x + py y.
TR = 5x + 10y.

90

II.

2) , :
a11 x + a12 y m;
a21 x + a22 y n;

6x + 3y 90;
2x + 2y 40.

3) 4.5 .

. 4.5
D C ( DC). D , :
m = a12 y;

y=

m
90
= ( ) = 30.
a12
3

C ,
:
m
90
m = a11 x; x =
= ( ) = 15.
a11
6
A K ( AK):
y=

40
n
= ( ) = 20;
a22
2

x=

40
n
= ( ) = 20.
a21
2

4) OABC, AB
n, BC m.
5) ()
B OABC , :

6x + 3y 90;

B : x = 10; y = 10.
2x + 2y 40.

4.

91

B Q1 , ,
. Q2 ,
, ,
A C, .
6) , :
TR = 5 10 + 10 10 = 150 .
, B 10
x 10 y .
.................................................................................


4.1 A, B C (14K 2L; 10K 3L;
6K 6L), .
: PK = 3 PL = 2
. .
4.2 156 . :
PK = 10 , PL = 5 .
MRTSKL .
4.3 Q = 2.5L + 5K. .
4.4 :
1) Q = K 0.3 L0.6 ;
2) Q = K 0.4 L0.6 ;
3) Q = K 0.1 L0.8 ;
4.5 ,
Q = 218L + 18L2 L3 .
. ,
3 .

92

II.

.................................................................

4
.................................................................
1) ?
2) - ?
3) ?
4)
?
5) , ?
6) ?
7) ?
8) ?
9) ?
10)
?
11) ?
12)
?
13) ?
14)
?
15) ?

5.1
. :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
,
.
(, , -, - . .). , , , [3, 4].
.................................................................
TC , .
.................................................................
, .

94

II.

.................................................................
,
, - .
.................................................................
,
, ,
. , . , , , 20 . .
. 24 . . ,
, 4.5 . . ,
,
.

[15].
-, , . , ,
1 1.5 2 ,
, , 1 2 .
-, , . 1.5 , 2 , 1 1.5
. , ,
,
.
.................................................................
: ().
.................................................................
() .
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................
: , , , ,
, , , ,
.

5.

95

,
.
:
.
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................
. ,
(
), . , , ,
. , .
.
.
, .
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
,
. ,
, .
, , , ,
.
.

5.2 ,

.................................................................
FC ,
.
.................................................................
- , , , .

96

II.

: . ,
. ,
, , - .
FC , (. 5.1).

. 5.1 ,
.................................................................
VC ,
.
.................................................................
, ,
, , . . . ,
(. 5.2).

. 5.2
VC1 ,
, . VC2 ,
, .

5.

97

VC3 , , .
.................................................................
TC .
.................................................................

.
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
TC = PL L+PK K,
K const. TC .
(TC = k + lQ),
(TC = a + bQ cQ2 , TC = a + bQ + cQ2 , TC = a + bQ cQ2 + dQ3 ) . a .
a.
,
, , . . .
.................................................................
ATC , .
.................................................................
:
TC
;
Q
ATC = AFC + AVC.
ATC =

(5.1)
(5.2)

AFC AVC :
AFC =

FC
;
Q

AVC =

VC
;
Q

AFC = ATC AVC;

AVC = ATC AFC.

(5.3)

. ,
.

98

II.

.................................................................
MC , .
.................................................................
:
VC
TC
MC =
;
Q
Q

(5.4)

TC (FC + VC) FC VC VC
=
=
+
=
.
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q

(5.5)

MC =
MC =

, .
.
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 5.1 ,
.
5.1

,
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14

FC
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20

VC
16
22
30
40
52
66
88

TC
20
36
42
50
60
72
86
108

MC
8
3
4
5
6
7
11

AFC AVC ATC


10
5
3,3
2,5
2,0
1,67
1,43

8
5,5
5,0
5,0
5,2
5,5
6,3

18
10,5
8,33
7,5
7,2
7,17
7,73

.................................................................................
.................................................................

, AFC .
.................................................................
. 5.3 , ATC, AVC MC,

5.

99

TC = a + bQ cQ2 + dQ3 . AVC,


. 5.3, , , .
.
ATC AFC AVC . ATC AVC ,
, , AFC . ATC, AVC MC U-
. AVC , ATC.

. 5.3
.................................................................
ATC AVC
, , , TC
VC . ATC AVC
,
TC VC.
.................................................................

, , . VC = PL L,
AVC = PL L/Q.
APL = Q/L, L/Q 1/APL
:
AVC = PL

1
.
APL

(5.6)

,
:
1
.
(5.7)
MC = PL
MPL

100

II.


W :
W = MC MPL .

(5.8)

, , .
. 5.4 :
,
.

. 5.4

. [11].
,
. , -
.
,
. 5.5.
,
, Q1 ,
Q1 ,
Q1 .

Q1 ,

Q2 , , Q2 ,
.
Q3 Q4 ,
ATC3 ATC4 . ,
LATC.

5.

101

. 5.5

.................................................................
.
.................................................................
L, . 5.5, U- , ATC , [3, 11].
, , .

: L
; ; .
LATC, .
,
ATC .
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
, (. 6).

, .

102

II.

.................................................................
Q
ETC
.
.................................................................
:
Q
=
ETC

% TC
.
% Q

(5.9)


:
MC
Q
ETC
=
.
(5.10)
ATC
Q
= 1 MC ATC
, ETC
.

.................................................................
,
ATC .
.................................................................
, , ,
.

5.3
.
, TR,
: TR = TP P TR = Q P.
, ,
.
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.1, , 7.5 . .,
5.2.

5.

103

5.2 ,
Q
P
TR
TC

ATC
HTC
HTR

0
7.5

20
20

2
7.5
15
36
21
18

4
7.5
30
42
12
10.5

6
7.5
45
50
5
8.33

8
7.5
60
60
0
7.5

10
7.5
75
72
3
7.2
4.17
4.0

12
7.5
90
86
4
7.17
4.65
4.44

14
7.5
105
108
3
7.73

, ( = TRTC; = (P ATC)
Q), , 8 . 14 . .
8 . . , ,
, ,
.
.................................................................................
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................
, ( , ),
( , , .).
.................................................................
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
: , , ,
[14].

104

II.

() HTR , , :
HTR =

100%.
TR

(5.11)

HTC , :
HTC =

100%.
TC

(5.12)

HK ,
:
HK =

100%.
K

(5.13)

Hq , :
Hq =

100%.
ATC

(5.14)


5.1
10 . . 5.3. , ,
, . () .
() ()?
5.3
Q
TC

0
10

1
14

2
16

3
20

4
26

5
40

5.2
:
1) , 100 .
, 4 (
20 );
2) 20000 ., 20%;
3) 10000 . ,
12000 .
.

5.

105

5.4

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6. (
24%)
7. ,

, .
1000
126
5200
18000
10000
60000
10000

5.3 520
, 100 . 5.4 , .
5.4
MC = 0.5 + 20Q. ,
400 .
10 .
5.5 5.5
. . ,
.
5.5 TC, VC, ATC, AVC MC
Q
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

TC

FC

VC

ATC

MC

AVC

16
50
110
50
39.6
48.5

106

II.

.................................................................

5
.................................................................
1) ?
2) ?
3) ?
4) ?
5) ?
6) , ?
7) ,
?
8) ?
9) ?
10) ?
11) ?

6.1
, .
.................................................................
, , .
.................................................................
, ,
.
.................................................................
, , () , ,
.
.................................................................
.................................................................
,
, . 6.1.
.................................................................

108

II.

6.1

,
,


-
,
, , ,
, -

.................................................................
,
,
, [4].
.................................................................
.
.
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
. , , , . , ,
. . , .
,
.

6.

109

.
, : , ,
,
, .
. .

.
: ,
.
.................................................................
, , .
.................................................................
, , .
, ,
, .
. ( ) :
, , , , . .;
, ;
- ;
, , .
.................................................................
, , , .
.................................................................
.................................................................
, , ,
.
.................................................................

110

II.

6.2

. -
, .
() , . ,
() , , .
, . ,
, ,
. , ,
.
.................................................................
MR TR, .
.................................................................
:
TRn TRn1
;
Qn Qn1
TR

MR = TR =
.
Q
MR =

(6.1)
(6.2)

.................................................................
AR , .
.................................................................
:
AR =

TR
.
Q

(6.3)

, , . ,
().

6.

111

.................................................................
, , , ,
.
.................................................................
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 6.2, , . ,
10 (P = MR = AR).
6.2

TC

20

MC

TR


()

0
10

8
2

36

42

50

60

10
12

72

14

108

MR

20

-16

40

-12

60

+10

80

+20

100

+28

120

+34

140

+32

10

10

4
5

10

10

7
86

10
10

11

. 6.1 MR MC ()
TR TC ()

112

II.

, , :
1) MR MC.
MR = MC 12 ;
2) . , 34 , 12
.
. 6.1, MR MC.
.................................................................................

( KC , MR >
> MC), .

, ( MN , MC > MR), .
.................................................................
, MR = MC, Q .
.................................................................
.
Q . 6.1, .
, TR TC
( AB), Q . F, H
, , , F, H ( ), [14].

. ,
, MR
MC. , ,
MR MC.
, Q3 ,
(. 6.2, ).
ATC, ( M . 6.2, ). , . 6.2,
, TR = TC (. . 6.1, ).
. 6.2, ,
ATC E. ,

PA AE.
Q , .

6.

113

. 6.2 : P
ATC (); P ATC (); ATC P ()

, AVC.
.
.................................................................
P = AVC
( ) [16].
.................................................................

, .
.................................................................
,

(LATC).
.................................................................

114

II.

.................................................................

,
LATC.
.................................................................
, ,
.
. , - , .
.
, , . .
. 6.3.

. 6.3

( d0 d1 )
P0 P1 .
. (
S1 ) P2
Q2 . : , . ,
-
.

6.

115

6.3

6.3.1
.
, , . ,
, , .
.................................................................
,
, (, , ).
.................................................................
.................................................................
, , . .
.................................................................
.................................................................
, , .
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
, KN .
KM K (. 6.4), .
.................................................................
P = c dQ,
P = c2dQ O
, . . OM = MN (. 6.4).
.

116

II.

. 6.4 -
.
(MR = TR ) :
P
Q P
1
MR (Q) = P (Q) + Q
=P+
P = P (1 + D ) .
(6.4)
Q
P Q
E
,
[11]:
, .
Pmax /2
Qd max /2;
;
, .
-
,
.

: , .
,
.
......................

6.1

.....................

, Qd = 20 P,
TC = 5 + 10Q
K/Q = 2. -, :

6.

117

1) ;
2) ;
3) ?
:
1) P = 20 Q ,
, 6.3.
6.3
Q
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

P
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9

TR
19
36
51
64
75
84
91
96
99
100
99

TC
15
25
35
45
55
65
75
85
95
105
115

4
11
16
19
20
19
16
11
4
5
16

K
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22

/K
2
2.75
2.67
2.38
2.0
1.58
1.14
0.69
0.5

2) , 6.3.
3) ,
K = 2 Qi .
4)
.
, , , 10 , 5 ,
2 .
.................................................................................
, ,
. MR = MC. :
MR = MC P (1 +

MC
1
)
=
MC

P
=
.

1
ED
1 D
E

(6.5)

ED = 1 , ED < 1
. . , ED > 1.

118

II.

Q ,
QE , ATC,
(P > PE ) (. 6.4).


. ,
. ,
.
, MC MR (. 6.4).
.................................................................
MR MC, ,
.
.................................................................
C
A . A P . . 6.4
ATC, (
AA ), ( = Q (P ATC)).
, [11].
, . 6.5, d1 , d2 MR1 MR2 ,
. , , . ,
. MC MR1 d1
(, MR2 ), (, d2 ).
Q (
E ) P1 P2
d1 d2 .
.
. 6.6, d1 d2
, Q1 Q2 ( MR1 MC
MR2 MC ),
P .

6.

119

. 6.5

. 6.6

.................................................................
ATC .
.................................................................
, , , . , ,
. . 6.4
P KA. PE P AE.

120

II.

.................................................................
, ,
,
.
.................................................................
: ,

PE P A A, ;

, A AE, A EC
( ) [4].
X-, . . ,
,
.
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
( , , ) ,
( ) ( ).

.................................................................

.
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
(
) ,

, .
.................................................................
, PE KE
(. . 6.4) , -

6.

121

.
.

.
.................................................................

, , . . .
.................................................................
.................................................................
. : ,
, , , . . MR1 = P2 , MR2 = P3 , . . ., MRn = MC [11].
.................................................................
......................

6.2

.....................

- TC = 20 + 0.2Q2 .
P = 28 0.5Q.
:
1) ;
2) ,
5 .
:
1) ,
:
MR = MC 28 Q = 0.4Q Q = 20;
P = 28 0.5 20 = 18;
= 18 20 (20 + 0.2 202 ) = 260.
2) , , :
P1 = 28 0.5 5 = 25.5;
MR1 = 28 5 = 23.
, P2 = 23.

122

II.

3) MR2 P3 ,
:
P2 = 28 0.5 (Q 5) = 30.5 0.5Q.
MR2 = 30.5 Q.
Q = 10 MR2 = 30.510 = 20.5. ,
P3 = 20.5, P4 = 18.
4) :
= (25.5 + 23 + 20.5 + 18) 5 (20 + 0.2 202 ) = 335.
: 75 (335 260) .
.................................................................................
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
,
, .
, , , , , .
:

MR1 = MC;

MR = MC;

...

MRn = MC.

(6.6)

, ,
.

, . .

,
. . , ,
[11].
.

6.

123

- (). , -,
-.
.
,
.
.
.
[17].
- ,

.
: , , ; ; . .
, , ,
.
.................................................................

P P, MR = MC.
.................................................................
P1 ATC d (. 6.7).
, .

. 6.7
P2
MC d. ( ), ,

124

II.

. ,
[11].

ATC, ,
.

6.3.2
.................................................................
1 , ,
, .
.................................................................
:
1) , ,

;
2) , ;
3) , .
4) , .
, . ,
, ,
.
5) , ,
, [18].
,
.
.................................................................


.
,
.
.................................................................
1

( oligos , poleo ).

6.

125

,
, , .
.................................................................

( ), .
.................................................................
, , ,
.
, (, ) , :
( , ).
.................................................................

. 1 . [3, 11].
.................................................................
.................................................................
, ,
.
.................................................................

, .
,
.
6.3 [19].
......................

6.3

.....................

, (A B) , P = 80 Q,
Q (. . Q = QA + QB ). ,
(B) . A. , , A 80 ,
1

(18011877) .

126

II.

.
A TRA = P QA = (80 Q) QA .
:
TRA = 80QA (QA + QB ) QA .
:
TRA = 80QA Q2A QA QB .
:

MRA = TRA ;

MRA = 80 2QA QB .

MRA (MC = 0), A: QA = 40 0.5QB , 6.8.


B B: QB =
= 40 0.5QA . QB QA
QA QB . :
QB = 40 0.5 (40 0.5QB ) ,

QA = 40 0.5 (40 0.5QA ) .

. 6.8
E2
A B. 26.67 .
53.34 , 26.67 (80 53.34).
.................................................................................

6.

127

,
. n- , . : ,
,
. 1 [11].
,
, MC,
.

.
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

,
.
, , .
TR = P Q TR = (80 Q) Q = 80Q Q2 .
: MR =
= 80 2Q. MR MC.
MC, ,
, 40 (80 2Q = 0).
, QA QB ,
40, . (40, 40) [4]. ,
: QA = QB = 20 .
.................................................................................
.................................................................
,
,
.
.................................................................
.................................................................
2
. 3 .
.................................................................

( 1928 .) ,
, 1994 .
2
(19051946) ,
.
3
(18991967) .

128

II.

, . ( MC = 0),
, ,

.
.................................................................
,
, , , .
.................................................................
, , .
1 ( :

1 , 1 , 1 2 , 2 , 2 ), . 6.9 [11].

. 6.9

,
, .

,
, .

6.

129

.................................................................

.
.................................................................
B,
( , 2 ),
.
.................................................................
. 1 ,
,
.
.................................................................
.................................................................

, - , , , .
.................................................................
. ( MC const), ,
.
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
P = MC = ATC, . . , ,
. ,
, .
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
1

(18221900), .

130

II.

.
.................................................................
, ,
(-), () .
.................................................................

Qd = Qd Qs .
. MR = MC ,
P = MC . ,
, [3, 11].
.
.................................................................
. .
. ,
, ,
, ,
[4].
.................................................................
. 1 ,
, , , . ,

, .
.................................................................
,
MR = MC MC MR, ,

.
.................................................................

. . (19102004) ,
.

6.

131

.................................................................
. . 1 . ,
, ,
[4, 11].
.................................................................
1. .
2.
. ,
, .
3. ,
.
4. , , , .
, ,
.
.................................................................

. [11].
.................................................................
, ,
.
, .
. , , .
, ,
.

.
,


.
1

, 1944 .

132

II.

:
, ,
, .
,
. ;
,
;
,
,
, ;
,
, , . , .
.
.................................................................


.
.................................................................
[4]:
,
, ;
HH,
( ) :
n

HH = g12 + g22 + . . . + gn2 = gi2 ,


i=1

n ; gi .
, 1800 ( );
IL :
1
P MC
= ,
P
Ed
Ed . .
IL =

6.

133

, . ,
.
MC, MC
ATC.
. Q, , . ,

.

6.3.3
. , , , . ,
. , , ,
. .
:
, ,
, ;
() ;
.
,
;
, . , ;
, ( , , , ,
);
.
.
.
, , .
, . , ,
, , . ,

134

II.

, .
.................................................................
,
, : ,
,
; -, , P = LATCmin .
.................................................................
-
P = LATC, LATC .
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
. , , , , , , ,
[18].
, , , .
LATC
.
,
.


6.1 , :
LTCi = 3Q3i 18Q2i + 120Qi .
?
6.2 ,
TC = 68 + 4Q + Q2 .
100 .
() .
6.3 PD = 63 0.2Q,
TC = 36 + 0.25Q2 . -,
? ?

6.

135

6.4 - ,
Qd = 250 0.5P, TC = 12000 +
+ 0.25Q2 . , ? ?
6.5 , P = 600 2.5Q Q ,
Q1 Q2 . , 5
. .
.................................................................

6
.................................................................
1) ?
2) ?
3) , ?
4) ?
5) -?
6) ?
7) ?
8) ?
9) , ?
10) ?
11) ?
12) ?
13) ?

7.1
.
,
. ,
. , (, , ) , , .
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
, , .
.

,
:
PMPL = P MPL .

(7.1)

.
, . . P = MR, PMPL = MR MPL ,
PMPL = MRPL 1 .
1

MRPL MPL MR.

7.

137

MR MPL ,
.
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
:
TRn TRn1
.
Ln Ln1
dTR(Q (L)) TR
MRPL =
=
.
dL
L

MRPL =

(7.2)
(7.3)

, ,
. .
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( ) (. 7.1).
7.1

.................................................................................

138

II.

.
.................................................................
, (,
. .).
.................................................................
.................................................................
( ,
, ,
) .
,
.
.................................................................
,
MCL .
.................................................................

, .
.................................................................
, , , :
TCL
MCL =
.
(7.4)
L
, , , . MR = MC.
, , : ,
W MCL (
W = MCL ) [17]:
MRPL = MCL .

(7.5)

. 7.1 , . .
.................................................................
MRPL
,
MRPL ,
.
.................................................................

7.

139

MRPL MRPL ,
MCL . 7.1.

. 7.1
, MCL
. MRPL , , . ,
, L . , ,
:
MR MPK = rK ,

MR MP = r ,

(7.6)

MPK ; MP ; rK
r .
:
1) . F , ,
, . . F ;
2) , .

, ;
3) . , , F,
, .
, F, .
,
.

140

II.

7.5 7.6 MPL , MPK , MP :


MPL MR
W
=
,
MPL
MPL

MPK MR
rK
=
,
MPK
MPK

MP MR
r
=
.
MP
MP

W
rK
r
; MR =
; MR =
.
MPL
MPK
MP
, :
MR =

W
rK
r
=
=
.
MPL MPK MP

(7.7)

(7.8)

.................................................................
:
.
.................................................................
.................................................................

(, , )

:
MRPL MRPK MRP
=
=
= 1.
(7.9)
MCL
MPK
MC
.................................................................

7.2

,
, , .

( , ,
.).
.................................................................
sL ,

.
.................................................................
Wp1 sL (. 7.2) , .

7.

141

Wp3 ,
. ,
, , [4, 16].

. 7.2

. . ,

.
.
. ,

, .
,
(. 7.3).
, W0 .
.
. W1 .
. .
L0 L1 .
, ,
.

142

II.

. 7.3
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................

. :
() [3].
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
,
.
, (. MCL
. 7.1) . , ( )
.
.................................................................
, ,
.
.................................................................

.

7.

143

.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
, , , , , .
- . , ,
, .
.
, .
,
.

.
.................................................................
: , ,
.
.................................................................
, -,
, -, .
, , . .
, .

7.3

, .
.
.
.

144

II.

.................................................................
, , .
.................................................................
:
1) , , , , -,
, ;
2) ( ) - . (, - , , . .).
,
. ,
,
().

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, - N1 = 200
W1 = 2500 ., 2530 . ,
.
508 530 . (2530 201).
- 2530 ., 8530
. (2530 201 2500 200). ,
MCL (. 7.4).
.................................................................................
, , ,
MRPL . . 7.4,
(N2 < N1 ) (Wmin < W1 ), .
, .

7.

145

.................................................................
, ,
,
.
.................................................................
.
( ,
, ) . , ,
(. 7.5). d
,
MRPL . E2
W2 .
, (, ), . .

. 7.4

. 7.5

146

II.

.................................................................
, , ,
- ( ). , ,
.
.................................................................
, ,
.
,
, . 7.2.
7.2

P MPL = WL
MR MPL = WL
MR MPL = MCL
P MPL = MCL

,
,
.

7.4
7.4.1
.
.................................................................
,
, , .
.................................................................
, ( ). :
( ), .
. ( ) -

7.

147

, ( ) . ,
, .
.................................................................
( )
, , ,
.
.................................................................
, , ,
, , . . . , (
.).

( ),
(
).
,
, . .
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
, , . ,

. :
.
.
. ,
.
, .
[14].

148

II.

.................................................................
( ) , .
.................................................................

- .
. , , , ,
. .
.................................................................
, , , .
.................................................................
, , ,
( , , . .) .
, , .

7.4.2

, . . , , : ,
, .
, , .
, ,
.
.................................................................
,

.
.................................................................

7.

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

149

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, ,
: 2 ,
. ,
6 . .
, .
, - .
, (2 20)
120 (6 20).
80 (120 40) . 200% (80/40 100%) [8]. ,
.
.................................................................................
, ,
, .
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, 300 . . . , .
50 . . , , 55 .
. 50 . . , 70 . ., -
.
,
C1 , C2 .
,
MRTP. MRTP C2i
C1i .

1.1 (55/50), 1.4 (70/50).
.................................................................................

150

II.

:
.
, , . ,
, , .
.
,
. ,
.
,
. .
.

7.4.3 .

. , .
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
. .
, .
. ,
. . .
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
[18].

7.

151

.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
, .
. . 7.3
, , , 50 , 20%.
7.3

1
2
3

mv
50
60
72

Fv
50 + 50 0.2 = 60
60 + 60 0.2 = 72
72 + 72 0.2 = 86.4

36.4 (86.4
50).
:
Fv = Pv (1 + i)t ,
(7.10)
i ; t ().
() [3]:
Pv =

Fv
.
(1 + i)t

(7.11)

t- (1/(1 + i)t ).
......................

7.1

.....................

1.5 .
, 5 2.18 .
,
8%?
:
,
.
,
1.5 . 5 . :
Fv = Pv (1 + 0.08)5 = 1.5 1.4693 = 2.20395 .

152

II.

, Fv 2.18 .,
. ,
.
,
, 2.18 . 5 .
Pv = 2.18 1/(1 + 0.08)5 = 1.484 .
, 2.18 . 5
, , 1.5 .
.
.................................................................................
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
.
,
, 1 ,
2 , . . ., t :
Pv =

1
2
t
+
+ ... +
.
1
2
(1 + i)
(1 + i)
(1 + i)t

(7.12)

Pv , .
.
.................................................................
,
,
.
.................................................................
: ; ; .

.
.................................................................

, ,
, ,
.
.................................................................

7.

153

, .

.

7.5
7.5.1
( , , ).
. , , .
.
, .

.
.................................................................
, , .
.................................................................
, ,
, , . , ,
, .
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
, (. 7.6).
. .
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
,
,
.

154

II.

. 7.6

, .
.
.
,
, , . , .
.
, , . .
.
.
.
.................................................................

, .
.................................................................
, ,
, .
- , (
, ).
.................................................................
, , ,
.
.................................................................

7.

155

, . Rt ,
t- , a i ,
:
Rt
P =
.
(7.13)
(1 + i)t
. , ,
, ,
. , , Rt .
:
R
P = .
(7.14)
i
, , .

7.5.2
, . . , ,
. , .
.................................................................
, , , .
.................................................................
.

- ,
.
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
. ,
, : , .
- .
, , . ,
, , .

156

II.

, ,
, . ,

. ,
.
(. .
), . ,
, , , ,
, .
.................................................................

.
.................................................................
. . , .
. 7.4.
, ,
100 . , , . . ,
12%. , , 100 , 12 .
,
. ,
: , . ,
.
,

.
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
,
,
. -

7.

157

7.4

100
100
100

12
12
12

10
8
5

, .

, .

11.2
14
22.4

22.4
22.4
22.4

224.9
179.2
112

112.0
67.2

112
112
112

,
. . ,
, , .

7.5.3
.

.
.................................................................
.
.................................................................

,
. .
- , , .
,
, .
.................................................................
, , [4].
.................................................................

158

II.

, , : . , ,
. :
, , , . ,
, .
.................................................................

,
, .
.................................................................

.
.
,
.


7.1
. 2 . ,
, .
7.5.
, ?
7.5
L
0
1
2
3
4

MPL

MPL1 P

MRPL1

MPL2 P

MRPL2

18
24
28
30

7.2
. P = 160 Q, : Q = 2L, : L = W 140, L

7.

159

, W . .
7.3 , :
240 . ., 200 . . , , ,
20.
7.4
, 40 . . , ,
Q = 80K 0.5K 2 , Q , K
.
200 . , ?
7.5 , 20 , 56 . .
8%.
60 . .
.................................................................

7
.................................................................
1) ?
2) , ?
3) ?
4)
?
5) ?
6) ?
7) ?
8) , ?
9) ?
10) ?
11) ?

8.1

, .
. .
. ,
. , , .
[3].
.................................................................

, [20].
.................................................................
.................................................................
, ,
.
.................................................................
:

8. 161

1) , , , ;
2) , , , .
, . , , ,
. ,
, ,
.
. . 1 [3].

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, . . , , .
, ,
. ,
, .
.
, , ,
. , ,
. , ,
.
.
.................................................................................

162

II.

.................................................................
,
,
.
.................................................................
:
[20].
.................................................................
, , ,
.
.................................................................
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, , . , , ,
. .

t1 t2 . . 8.1, :
W (MPL P).

. 8.1 ,

W 1 , (MPL1 P1 ), ,

8. 163

.
. ,
, .
.................................................................................
.................................................................

() ,
.
.................................................................
,
. , , .
. , , .
, .

, :
,
(, . .), ;
,
;
;
.

8.2


.
.
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................

164

II.

: , . :
1) ,
;
2) , , .
.
, , . : ,
(. 10).
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................
, . .
.
0 1.
, . ,
.
: [21].
.................................................................

(), .
.................................................................

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. , ( ) 2 . 80 100 4 .
.
0.8 (80/100), 0.2 (20/100).
.................................................................................

8. 165

.................................................................
( M0 ) .
.................................................................
:
n

M0 = i i ,

(8.1)

i=1

i ; i
(), .
2.4 . (0.8
2 . + 0.2 4 .).
.................................................................
, : ,
, . .
.................................................................
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24 . .
, (10% ),
5% . , , , , , 1:5 20%.
. , ,
:
M0 = 0.2 2.4 . . + 0.8 (24 . .) = 18.72 . .
,

, .
.................................................................................

, .
, :
1) , i ,
:

166

II.

2 = 1 (1 M0 ) + 2 (2 M0 ) + . . . + n (n M0 )

(8.2)

2) ,
:

= 2
(8.3)
. ,
, . , , , , .
.
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, 20 40 . , 10 30 .
. , , 30 .
((20 + 40)/2), 20 .
, , , 100 . , , , 36 .
.
. ,
33 . (0.5 36 . + 0.5 30 .). ,
,
36 . , 33 .
. , ,
18 . , 19 . (0.5 18 . + 0.5 20 .).
,
[20].
.................................................................................
.................................................................
: ,
, .
.................................................................

8. 167

, ,
,
, , .

.
.................................................................
-
, .
.................................................................
.
.
.................................................................
,
- .
.................................................................

.

.
.
.................................................................
: , , , , , . [14].
.................................................................
,
. , .
, . .
. , , ,
,
.
.
.

168

II.

, .
: .
, ,
. .

,
.
, .
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, , , , ,
. , , , ,
. , , ,
,
. , 25 .
, ,
.
.................................................................................
. ,
, ,
.

[4].
.................................................................
, , , ,
.
.................................................................
,
.

8. 169

.................................................................
: ( , ), ( , ), ( , , ).
.................................................................
, , ,
. , , - ,
,
.
.
1 . . , ,
: , ()
, , .
,
, ,
, (
).
, , , , , .
. , ,
.
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, . N 20. ,
Pmax 2 , P 12 . . 20 .
[8]:
Pmax 1 =

P
.
N/ (N + 1)

(8.4)

, Pmax 1 ,
12600 . (12000/(20 21)). , 1

(. 1951 .), , 2007 .

170

II.

Pmax 2 6300 . (Pmax 1 /2). , ,


, , , , . , ,
, .
.................................................................................


8.1 , , : , (5000 . ),
-, ( 2000 .
10000 .). 50%. . ?
8.2 , , . , 10 , : 10 .
1000 . 44%;
5 . 56%.
, 800 .
, , , ?
8.3 6 . , 2/3
, 1/3 .
90 ., 75 . .
? :
? ?
8.4 .
40 60 . , 20
40 . .
, ,
100- .
, , , 28 . .
8.5 . ,
, 15. ,
48 . .?

8. 171

.................................................................

8
.................................................................
1) ?
2) ?
3) ?
4) ?
5) ?
6) ?
7) ?
8) ?
9) , ?
10) ?
11) ?

9.1
.
.
.................................................................
, , .
.................................................................
. ,
,
.
, .
.................................................................
, ,

.
.................................................................

9.

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

173

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. ,
(. 9.1, ).
P 1 P 2 Q 1 Q 2 . .
d 1 , P 1 P 2 (. 9.1,
) [3, 4].

. 9.1 : ();
(); (); ()

,
. -

174

II.

. ,
Q 1 Q 2 (. 9.1, ).
.
,
. P 1 P 2 (. 9.1, ).
,
Q 3 P 3 (9.1, ).
, , .
.................................................................................
:
-, ;
-, ,
,
.

()
[11].
......................

9.1

.....................

: . Qd = 4 + 3P P , P
, P . Qd = 6 + 8P 4P .
Qs = 4 P + 4P
Qs = 2 4P + 6P .
.
?
:
1) ,
, P :
4 + 3P P = 4 P , P = 1.6 + 0.8P .
2) ,
, P :
6 + 8P 4P = 2 4P + 6P , P = 0.8 + 1.2P .

9.

175

3) , , 9.2

P = 1.6 + 0.8P ,

P = 0.8 + 1.2P ,

P = 56, P = 68.

,
.

. 9.2

4) . P =
= 1.6 + 0.8P P = 0.8 + 1.2P ,

, .
, , . , 68 . 1 ,
, P = 60. , 49.6 . (P = 1.6 + 0.8 60).
, ,
59.6 . (P = 0.8 + 1.2 49.6), ,
. . 9.2 ,
( E), . . .
, ,
.
.................................................................................

176

II.

9.2
, , . .
, , l , n , m
.

.
.
.
, , , , :
1) : QDj = DSj , Qj j-
(j = 1, n), ;
2) : FtD = FtS , Ft
t- (t = 1, m), ;
3) : Pj QSj = rt FtD , rt
.
.................................................................
(2n + m 1)
.
.................................................................
, ,
, .
.................................................................
. , ,
[11]:
1)
;
2)
,
.
.
.................................................................
.

9.

......................

9.2

177

.....................

, ,
. Q.
, (2n + m 1)
, ,
. 9.1.
q1 = 2 + r1 ; q2 = 6 + 2r2 [15].
9.1

0.25
0.50


q1
q2


r1
r2

, , :
1) ,
, :
1 = 0.25r1 + 0.5r2 ;
2) , :
q1 = 0.25Q,

q2 = 0.5Q;

3)

0.25Q = 2 + r1 ; 0.5Q = 6 + 2r2 ; r1 = 0.25Q 2; r2 = 0.25Q 3;


1 = 0.25(0.25Q 2) + 0.5(0.25Q 3); Q = 16 . ;
4) :
q1 = 0.25 16 = 4 . ;

q2 = 0.5 16 = 8 . .

.................................................................................

9.3
. , .

178

II.

.................................................................
,

1 .
.................................................................

[11].
.................................................................
,
, , .
.................................................................
W , ,
: W = U1 +U2 +. . .+Un . ,

.
......................

9.3

.....................

, , : 20 . ., 20 . ., 20 . .
, 40 . ., 15 . ., 5 . .?
:
:
W1 = 20 + 20 + 20 = 60;

W2 = 40 + 15 + 5 = 60.

: .
.................................................................................

, , .
.................................................................
. .
.................................................................
1

(18771959).

9.

179

: W = min (U1 , U2 , . . ., Un ).
......................

9.4

.....................

, , : 40 . ., 20 . ., 8 . . ? :
1) 45 . ., ;
2) 10 . .,
.
:
1) , . 8 . .
2) , , ,
, 10 . .
:
. . , ,
.
.................................................................................
.
.................................................................

, .
, ,
.
.................................................................
. 1 . . : , , , [15]. (. 9.3).
1

(19051986) .

180

II.

......................

9.5

.....................

U , U .

. 9.3

M, D, N. M Ox
Oy .
N, U ( 10 .).
10 . ( ), . 12 ., 12 .,
. ,
. 11 . 10 . , : ;
,
.
.................................................................................
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
, . ,
, .

9.

181

.................................................................

, . 1 .
.................................................................
, .
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) , .
:
();
;
. , ;
- ,
() ;
,
( )
, ;
() , ().
, .
(, ) [3, 20]:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

(18481923) .

182

II.

.................................................................
: ,
, , -
.
.................................................................
.
......................

9.6

.....................

, : .
9 11 . : 2 8 , 7 3 .
3 .
3 . :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) - .
:
1) . .
, ,
,
( ).
. 9.4, . [3,
4]. ,
, .
.
( , ). . A
. , (
A B
).
B C, E0 . E0 ,

9.

183

. 9.4

.
D ( ):
.
2) . 9.5.
E1 E2 ,
, .

. 9.5

184

II.

E1 .
E2 ,
. , E0 , E1 E2 , , , -, - , .
3) . 9.6.
U , U . OMN,
MN.

. 9.6
.................................................................
, .
.................................................................
A, , . . E1 ,
. E2 ,
. E0 .
, ,
,
.
4) .
-

9.

185

.
,
- , .
:
A
B
MRSxy
= MRSxy
=

Px
.
Py

(9.1)

:
A
B
MRS
= MRS
=

P
,
P

. ,
, .
.................................................................................
.................................................................
- , , - .
.................................................................
.................................................................
-: ,
( ) ,
,
.
.................................................................
......................

9.7

.....................

, , , F1 , , F2 . : L K.
,
.
, . , 8 10 . 7 2 . 3
6 .

186

II.

A , (. . 9.5 9.6).
,
,
A B, B C . E0

MRTSLK
= MRTSLK
, -
.
.................................................................................
, , , (),
, , x y
:
y
x
MRTSLK
= MRTSLK
.

(9.2)

.................................................................
.
.................................................................
, , ,
, (
), (.

. 1.2 1 KK . 9.7).
MRT ,
.
.................................................................
,
.
.................................................................
, :
(MRT = Q /Q ). ,
MC = Q .
MC = Q . ,
:
MC
.
MRT =
MC

9.

187

, x y, :
MRT =

MCx
.
MCy

(9.3)

, , .
.................................................................
-
( ) ,

.
.................................................................
- . 9.7.

. 9.7 -

KK , , () . ,
, C. ,
, , E1 . ,
U U , E0 , .
, E0 .

188

II.

, ( ) :
MRTxy =

MCx Px
=
= MRSxy .
MCy Py

(9.4)

: MRT = MRS
= MRS
. MRS =
= P /P , MRT = MC /MC , , . , . . - , , .
[11].
.................................................................
: .
.................................................................
. ,
: , ,
, ,
1 .
.................................................................
:
, , -
,
.
.................................................................
, . , ,
.

. . .: , 2009. . 443.

9.

189


9.1 , ,
:
Qd1 = 12 + 0.2P2 P1 ; Qs1 = 4 0.2P2 + P1 ;
Qd2 = 16 + 1.5P1 4P2 ; Qs2 = 5 0.5P1 + P2 ,
P1 , P2 .
. ?
9.2 .
:
Qd = 16 + 3P P ; Qs = 20 3P + P ;
Qd = 20 + 3.5P 0.5P ; Qs = 25 1.5P + 2P ,
P , ., P , .
. ?
9.3 5 .
Ui Ui 9.2.
9.2

Ui
Ui

1-
50
+5

2- 3- 4-
60
70 80
+10 8 2

5-
100
5

, .
9.4 5 .
9.3.
9.3

Ui
Ui1
Ui2
Ui3
Ui4

1-
40
20
+20
0
0

2- 3- 4-
65 74 80
15 12 10
0
0
0
+10 2
0
0
0
0

5-
90
6
0
0
+20

, . .
9.5 . . 100
200 . 75 70 ,

190

II.

25 130 . . 5
1 , 2 1 ,
? .
.................................................................

9
.................................................................
1) ?
2) ?
3) ?
4) ?
5)
?
6) ?
7) ,
?
8) - ?
9) ,
?
10) .

10

10.1
10.1.1
. ,
X B C. X 1 C
D.

. 10.1

1) X 60 . 110 .
10 Y . ,
X B C 10.

192

II.

2) X
C D :
y
20 30
=
= 0.25.
x 150 110
10.1.2 ,
, 10.1. () y x
?
?
MRTCD =

10.1

20x 100y


40x 80y


50x 60y


62x 30y


72x 0y

( )
, , , :
20
20
30
30
= 1; MRT =
= 2; MRT =
= 2.5; MRT =
= 3.
20
10
12
10
, , ,
,
. ,
.
10.1.3 10.2
. ?
MRT =

10.2
A
X
Y
4 15

B
X
Y
14 13

C
X
Y
22 10

D
X
Y
26 6

E
X
Y
24 3

A
B, B C, C D, D E:
13 15
10 13
= 0.2; MRTBC =
= 0.375;
14 4
22 14
6 10
36
MRTCD =
= 1; MRTDE =
= 1.5.
26 22
24 26
A B, B C, C D
. D E (
MRTAB =

10. 193

), .
. , E
.
,
A, B, C, E. D
.
10.1.4 ()
AB BC, . AB
: A {0x 500y}; B {400x 300y}. BC
C {500x 0y}. .
E, AB.

1)
10.2.
.

. 10.2
2) , , , , AB
:
y 200
MRTAB =
=
= 0.5.
x 400
10.1.5 10.3 ( A, B), X Y , .
, Y
1 ?

Y :
MRTA =

x 200 0
=
= 0.5.
y 400 0

MRTB =

x 1200
=
= 6.
y 200

: B Y ,
A.

194

II.

. 10.3
10.1.6 2010 .
N 10 . 1 2011 .
20%. .


10 12
.
,
, .

10.2
10.2.1 : Qd =
= 602P; Qs = 2+0.5P. : )
; ) , 20 .

1) : Qd = Qs .
60 2P = 2 + 0.5P; P = 23.2 .
2) , :
Q = 60 2 23.2; Q = 13.6 .
3)
, 20 .
Qd = 60 2 20 = 20 ; Qs = 2 + 0.5 20 = 12 .
= Qd Qs = 20 12 .
10.2.2 15 . 1 10 . 20 . 1 ,
8 . : ) Qd = a bP P = c kQ,

10. 195

; ) ; ) ; ) ,
Qs = 0.6P.

1) Qd = a bP
:
y y1
x x1
P 15 Qd 10
=
;
=
; Qd = 16 0.4P.
y2 y1 x2 x1
20 15
8 10
:
0.4P = 16 Qd ; P = 40 2.5Qd .
2)
:
16 0.4P = 0; P = 40 .
3) Q
. P = 40 2.5Q
2.5.
4) , :
) ,
, :
16 0.4P = 0.6P; P = 16 .;

Q = 9.6 ;

) P

Ed = Qd . Qd :
Q

Qd = (16 0.4P) = 0.4; Ed = 0.4

16
; Ed 0.67;
9.6

) :

Es = Qs

P
16
; Es = 0.6
; Es = 1.
Q
9.6

:
.
10.2.3 x
Qdx = 28 0.5Px + 2Py . : )
( ) x y Px = 2 . Py = 4 .;
) x y , y ; )
x y .

196

II.

1) Py =
= 4 . :

Exy = Qdx

Py
;
Qdx

Qdx = 2;

Qdx = 28 0.5 2 + 2 + 4 = 35; Exy =

24
= 0.23.
35

2) (
x) % Qdx
% Py :
% Qdx =

Qdx2 Qdx1
100%;
Qdx1

% Py =

Py2 Py1
100%.
Py1

:
) Qdx2 y 1 .:
Qdx2 = 28 0.5 2 + 2 1 = 29;
) % Qdx % P:
% Qdx =

29 35
100% 17.1%;
35

% P =

14
100% = 75%;
4

) :
Exy =

17.1%
0.23.
75%

3. ( y ) :
)
:
Py2 Py1
Qdx2 Qdx1
100%; % Py =
100%;
Qdx1 + Qdx2
Py1 + Py2
2
2
29 35
14
% Qdx =
100% = 18.75%; % Py =
100% = 120%;
29 + 35
1+4
2
2
% Qdx =

) :
Exy =

18.75%
0.16.
120%

: , ,
, , x y .
10.2.4 .
Qd1 = 100 2P, Qd2 = 25

10. 197

0.5P, Qd3 = 80 P. : )
; )
; ) .

1)
(. 10.4). . ,
P = cdQ,
,
.
P1 = 50 0.5Q1 , P2 = 50 2Q2 , P3 = 80 Q3 .
, 50 ., . ,
.

. 10.4
2) , AB BC. AB
P = 80 Q, 50 ,
80
.
BC Q =
= 205 3.5P, [(100 2P) + (25
0.5P) + (80 3)]. , ,
50 .

:

80 P; 50 P 80;
Qd =

205 3.5P; 0 P 50.

198

II.

10.2.5 : Qd = 150 2.5P.


,
20 . , , ?
. .

1) ,
, 10.3.
10.3
, .
,

60
0

50
25

40
50

30
75

20
100

10
125

0
150

30

55

80

105

130

2) ,
.
.
3) (y y1 )/(y2 y1 ) = (x x1 )/(x2 x1 )
(. 10.2.2),
Qd = 130 2.5P. ,
20, b
.
10.2.6 10.4 ,
( ) : ; ; .
10.4

1
2

Qd = 20 2.5P
Qd = 38 2P

Qs = 1 + 0.5P
Qs = 2 + 2P

Qd = 10 0.3P

Qs = 2 + 0.5P

1) ,
. , , ,
b ( Qd = abP) d ( Qs = c dP). b , d,

10. 199

, . ,
, .
2) b d ,
,
.
3) ( ) b
, d. , , , , .
10.2.7 Qd = 8 P.
P = 5 . . , .
? , 4 . .?

1) (. 10.5).
, , , . :
TRi = Pi Qi TR1 = 8 0 = 0;

TR2 = 7 1 = 7.

, 4 . .,
4 .
10.5
P, . .
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Q, .
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

, TR, .
0
7
12
15
16
15
12
7
0

Ed

7
3
1.67
1
0.6
0.33
0.14
0

2) ,
Ed = Qd (P/Qd ):
P = 7 . . Ed = 1 (7/1) = 7, P = 6 . . Ed = 1 (6/2) = 3,
P = 4 . . Ed = 1 (4/4) = 1.
:
.
,
.

200

II.

10.3
10.3.1
TUi = 64i i2 , i . , , ?

MUi = TUi = 64 2i; 64 2i = 0; i = 32.


: 33- , .
10.3.2 , 10 , 2 . . ? ?

1) 10 ,
2 , , 12 .
2. MU = 12 2i.
, .
2) , , :
12 2i = 0 12 = 2i i = 6.
: 6 .
, TU = 12i i2 .
6 .
36 .
10.3.3 240 .
. 80 . 1 ,
60 . 1 . : ) ; ) , , .

1) AB A B
, (. 10.5). A
, 3 (240/80) B
, 4 (240/60).
2)
, OAB : Px /Py = 60/80 y/x = 3/4.
10.3.4 10.6 . 1 ,

10. 201

. 10.5 AB
840 . (C, B, M) ?

. 10.6

1) ,
:
I = PC QC ; PC =

840
I
=
= 60;
QC
14

I = PM QM ; PM =

840
I
=
= 160.
QM 5.25

2) , KD, M, . . , .
.
.
,
, , , , .
10.3.5 .
20 . -

202

II.

MUi MUi 10.6. : ) , ;


) , .
10.6
Qi
MUi
Qi
MUi

1
10
1
15

2
9
2
12

3
8
3
10

4
7
4
9

5
6
5
7

6
5
6
3

1) , , :
TU = (10 + 9 + 8) + (15 + 12 + 10) = 64.
2) , .
20 ., , . , :
TU = (10 + 9) + (15 + 12 + 10 + 9) = 65.
: 1 (65 64).
10.3.6 TU = 2xy.
x 40 ., y 10 ., ,
, 480 . .

1) ,
:
TUy
TUx

MUx =
= (2xy) = 2y; MUy =
= (2xy) = 2x.
x
y
2) , :
40 2y
4 y
Px MUx
=

=
= y = 4x.
Py MUy
10 2x
1 x
3) , , :
I = Px x + Py y 480 = 40x + 10y.
4) , ,
:

y = 4x

480 = 40x + 10y


480 = 40x + 10 4x 480 = 80x x = 6;

y = 4 6 = 24.

10. 203

5) :
TU = 2xy = 2 6 24 = 288.
:
6 . x, 24 . y ,
288 .
10.3.7 : Qs = 2.4+0.2P. Qd = 80.2P.
2 . 1 . : ) ; ) ; ) ,
; ) .

1) (. 10.7).
P1 , Qd1 = Qs1 :
8 0.2P = 2.4 + 0.2P P1 = 26 .;

Q1 = 2.8 .

. 10.7
2) :
Qs2 = 2.4 + 0.2 (P 2) Qs2 = 2.8 + 0.2P.
3) P2 Q2 , Qd = Qs2 :
8 0.2P = 2.8 + 0.2P P2 = 27 .;

Q2 = 2.6 .

204

II.

4) , 1 . (27 26).
5) , , :
T = (P2 P1 ) Q2 T = (27 26) 2.6 T = 2.6.
6) ,
,
.
5.2 . (2.6 + 2.6).

10.4
10.4.1 10.7
Li ( ).
: ) APLi MPLi ; ) , , ,
.
10.7 APLi MPLi
Li
TPLi
APLi
MPLi

0
0
0
0

1
6
6
6

2
13
6.5
7

3
19
6.3
6

4
24
6
5

5
28
5.6
4

6
27
4.5
1

1)
APLi = TPLi /Li TP/L
6
APL1 = ;
1

13
= 6.5;
2
TP1 TP0 6 0
=
MPL01 =
= 6;
L1 L0
10
APL2 =

MPL12 =

TP2 TP1 13 6
=
= 7.
L2 L1
21

2) ,
. 1 2-. 5-
6- . .
10.4.2 TP = 8L + 0.5L2 0.1L3 ,
L . : )
58 ; ) APL MPL
?

10. 205

1) APL MPL ,
10.8.
APL =

Q
= 9 + 0.5L 0.1L2 ;
L

MPL =

Q (8L + 0.5L2 0.1L3 )


=
= 8 + L 0.3L2 .
L
L

10.8
Li
APLi
MPLi

5
8
5.5

6
7.4
3.2

7
6.6
0.3

8
5.6
3.2

2) ,
APL MPL . 7 8 .
10.4.3
Q = K 0.5 L0.5 .
9 (-) 25 ()?

1) MPL MPK

Q (L0.5 K 0.5 )
9 1.5
0.5K 0.5
0.5
0.5
MPL =
= =
=
= 0.5 L K =
= 0.3.
L
L
5
L
25

25 2.5
Q (L0.5 K 0.5 )
0.5L0.5
0.5
0.5
= =
MPK =
=
= 0.5 L K
=
0.83.
K
K
3
K
9
2)
:
MPK 0.83
MRTSKL =
=
2.77.
MPL
0.3
: , , .

MRTSKL 2.77. ,
- 2.77
.
10.4.4 Q = 4KL. :
) ,
3 4 ;
) : Q = 4KL; Q = 2KL; )
,
.

206

II.

1) MPK :

MPK = (4KL) = 4L = 4 3 = 12 .
2) , L K
:
Q = TP = 4KL = 4 4 3 = 48 .
3) 10.9
.
- :
K=

TP
48
; K1 =
;
L
4L1

K2 =

48
.
2L2

10.9
Q = 4KL
Q = 2KL

Li
Ki
Li
Ki

1
12
1
24

2
6
2
12

3
4
3
8

4
3
4
6

: ,
K2 = 48/ (2L2 )
Q = 4KL.
10.4.5
Q = 2K +10L. ? .
?

1) MPL MPK :
MPL =

Q (2K + 10L)
Q (2K + 10L)
=
= 10. MPK =
=
= 2.
L
L
K
K

2)
:
MPL 10
=
= 5.
MRTSLK =
MPK
2
: MRTSLK .
, 5 . 1 . .
10.4.6 4 .
20 .,

10. 207

100 . 3600 . : ) ; )
, .

1) ,
:
C = PL L + PK K = 20 4 + 100 1 = 180 .
2) ,
, , :
K=

TC 3600
=
= 20 .
C
180

: , 4 , 20
80 . : TC = PL L + PK K =
= 20 4 20 + 100 20 = 3600 .
10.4.7 10.10 ,
, A B.
10.10

A
B


L K
Q
20 40
100
30 60
250

1) :
L2 30
=
= 1.5;
L1 20

K2 60
=
= 1.5.
K1 40

2)
:
Q2 250
=
= 2.5
Q1 100
: 1.5 2.5 . , .

208

II.

10.5
10.5.1 10.11 TC
Q .
FC, VC
MC .
10.11 FC, VC MC
Q, . .
TC, . .

0
5

1
12

2
22

1) :
FC = 5 . . ( ).
2) , :
TC = FC + VC VC = TC FC VC1 = 12 5 = 7 . VC2 = 17 .
3) :
MC =

TC
12 5
MC01 =
= 7;
Q
10

MC12 = 10 .

10.5.2
240 ., 60 .
20%
,
.
25%.

1)
:
AVC1 = ATC1 AFC1 AVC1 = 240 60 = 180 .
2) :
AVC 1 = AVC1 d AVC 1 = 180 0.2 = 36 .
3) :
AVC = AVC1 AVC 1 AVC = 180 36 = 144 .
4) :
AVC 2 = AVC1 k AVC 2 = 36 1.25 = 45 .

10. 209

5)
:
AVC2 = AVC + AVC 2 AVC2 = 144 + 45 = 189 .
6)
:
ATC2 = AVC2 + ATC1 ATC2 = 189 + 60 = 249 .
10.5.3 50 ., 5 .
500 . . - 10%,
30%?

1) - :
ATC1 = AFC1 + AVC ATC1 = 50 + 5 = 55 .
2) - :
AFC 1 = AFC1 d AFC 1 = 50 0.3 = 15 .
3) :
AFC = AFC1 AFC 1 AFC = 50 15 = 35 .
4)
- :
AFC2 = AFC + k AFC 1 AFC2 = 35 + 15 1.1 = 51.5 .
5)
:
ATC2 = AFC2 + AVC ATC2 = 51.5 + 5 = 56.5 .
6)
:
TC = TC2 TC1 TC = (ATC2 ATC1 ) Q TC = (56.5 55) 500 = 750 .
10.5.4 TC = 250 + 12Q + 0.03Q2 . ,
20 . .

1) ATC, AVC, AFC MC:


TC
250 + 12Q + 0.03Q2 250
ATC =
=
+ 12 + 0.03Q.
Q
Q
Q
VC
TC FC
250 + 12Q + 0.03Q2 250
AVC =
; AVC =
AVC =
= 12 + 0.03Q.
Q
Q
Q
FC
250

AFC =
AFC =
; MC = TC MC = 12 + 0.06Q.
Q
Q
ATC =

210

II.

2) ,
20 . :
250
= 12.5.; AVC = 2 + 0.03 20 = 2.6 .
20
ATC = AFC + AVC = 12.5 + 2.6 = 15.1 .; MC = 12 + 0.06 20 = 13.2 .

AFC =

10.5.5 , , , . 1
2.4 , 5 10 . 1 , ,
. 1 ,
: P = 25 . P = 30 . P = 10 .?

1)
, . 1 10 .
2) , . , , 1 :
TR = 2.4 25 = 60 .;

TR = 5 23 = 115 .;

TR = 10 10 = 100 .

: , 5 ,
.
115 ., 1 .
10.5.6 10.12. , .
10.12
Q, . .
400

P, .
25

ATC, .
22

K, . .
20000

1) 400 . . ,
:
TC = ATC Q; TC = 22 400 = 8800 . .
TR = P Q; TR = 25 400 = 10000 . .
= TR TC; = 10000 8800 = 1200 . .

10. 211

2)

1200
100%; HTR =
100% = 12%.
TR
10000

1200
HTC =
100%; HTC =
100% = 13.6%.
TC
8800

1200
HK = 100%; HK =
100% = 6%.
K
20000
HTR =

10.6

10.6.1
, 60 .
TC = 2500 + 0.25Q2 , Q .
: ) ; ) ; )
.

1) :
VC = TC FC;

VC = 0.25Q2 ;

MC =

TC

= TC = (2500 + 0.25Q2 ) = 0.5Q.


Q

2) :
MR = MC; 60 = 0.5Q; Q = 120 .
3) ,
= TR TC:
TR = P Q = 60 120 = 7200 .
TC = 2500 + 0.25 1202 = 6100 .
= 7200 6100 = 1100 .
10.6.2 Qd = 48 5P.
45 . ., 5 . .
?

1) , :
= TR TC = (9.6Q 0.2Q2 ) (45 + 5Q) = 4.6Q 45 0.2Q2 .
2) Q , :

= (4.6Q 45 0.2Q2 ) = 4.6 0.4Q 4.6 0.4Q = 0 Q = 11.5 .

212

II.

10.6.3 .
TC = 350 + 5Q + Q2 . , , 85 .?

1)
:
P = MC; 85 = 5 + 2Q Q = 40 .
2) :
TR = P Q = 80 40 = 3200 .
3) :
VC = 5Q + Q2 = 5 40 + 402 = 1800 .
4) Is
.
Is = TR VC = 2300 1800 = 1400 .
10.6.4 . Qd = 360 4P.
TC = 55 + Q2 , Q . : ) ;
) ; ) .

1) . :
) :
P = 90 0.25Q;

TR = P Q = 90Q 0.25Q2 ;

) :

MR = TR = (90Q 0.25Q2 ) = 90 0.5Q.


2) :

MC = TC = (55 + Q2 ) = 2Q.
3) , MR = MC:
90 0.5Q = 2Q; Q = 36 .
4) , :
P = 90 0.25Q = 81 .

10. 213

10.6.5 .
Qd = 8 0.1P; Qd = 20
0.5P. TC = 30 + 20Q, Q .
.

1) :
P = 80 10Q ;

P = 40 2Q .

2) :
TR = P Q = (40 2Q ) Q = 40Q 2Q2 ;
TR = P Q = (80 10Q ) Q = 80Q 10Q2 .
3) :

MR = TR = 40 4Q ;

MR = TR = 80 20Q .

4) , MR = MC:

MC = TC ; MC = 20 .
40 4Q = 20; Q = 5 ;

80 20Q = 20; Q = 3 .

10.6.6 P = 1200 0.5Q.


40 . , ,
.
.

1) , :
MC = AVC; MC = 40 .
2) :
MC = P 40 = 1200 0.5Q QMC = 2320 .
3) :
MR = MC; 1200 Q = 40; Q = 1160 .
:
, , . Q = 2320 1160 =
= 1160 .
10.6.7 - . - TR = 40Q 0.5Q2 ,

214

II.

MC = 4 + Q . S = 5 + 2Q . , -.
? - .

1) -:
MR = MC; 40 Q = 4 + Q ; Q = 18 .
2) , -:
AR =

TR
= 40 0.5Q ; P = 40 0.5Q .
Q

3) - , 18 .:
P = 40 0.5 18 = 31.
4) ,
- :
P = MC ; 31 = 5 + 2Q ; Q = 13 .
5) :
Q = Q + Q = 18 + 13 = 31 .
6) - :
d =

Q
13
100%; d =
100% = 41.9%.
Q
31

10.7
10.7.1 10 . . ,
, Q = 100L0.5L2 ,
Q , . , L .
. W 500 . ,
?

1) :

MPL = (100L 0.5L2 ) = 100 L.


2) :
MRPL = P MPL = 10 (100 L) = 1000 10L.

10. 215

3) ,
MRPL = MRCL :
1000 10L = 500; L = 50 .
4) :
TC = W L = 500 50 = 25000 .
10.7.2
Ls = 1 + 2W , Ld = 200 W .
MRPL = 80 L.
?

1) :
Ld = Ls ; 200 W = 1 + 2W ; W = 67 . .
2) ,
:
MRPL = W ; 80 L = 67; L = 13 .
10.7.3
L = W 40, L , W
. : ) 20 ; ) 2- .

1) , TC = W L:
W = 40 L; TC = W L = (40 L) L = 40L L2 .
2) 20 :
TC = 40 20 202 = 400 .
3) 2- :

MC = TC = (40L L2 ) = 40 2L; MC2 = 40 2 2 = 36 .


10.7.4 Ls = 1 + 2.5W .
Ld = 80 2W . () , ?
() ?

1) :
Ld = Ls ; 80 2W = 1 + 2.5W W = 18 . . L = 44 .
2) , :
0 = 1 + 2.5W ;

W1 = 0.4 . .

216

II.

3) ()
, :
1
1
I = (a1 + a2 ) h = (0.4 + 18) 44 = 404.8 . .
2
2
4) , , , , :
R=

1
1
(WE W1 ) L = (18 0.4) 44 = 387.2 . .
2
2

5) , :
IF = WE LE = 18 44 = 792 . .
6) :
d =

I
404.8
; d =
100% = 51.1%.
IF
792

10.7.5 , ,
27 . ., ,
8 . . , 10%?

1)
:
1
2
3
4
+
+
+
;
(1 + i)1 (1 + i)2 (1 + i)3 (1 + i)4
8
8
8
8
+
+
+
= 25.35 . .
Pv =
1
2
3
(1 + 0.1)
(1 + 0.1)
(1 + 0.1)
(1 + 0.1)4
Pv =

2)
:
Pv < PK .
25.33 . . < 27 . ., .
10.7.6 , ,
10.13.

10. 217

10.13

, %
(C + V )

,
.

100
100

10
10

11
5.5

110
110

, .

, .

1 1

10
20

20
20

220
110

110
0

1) :

= (C + V )
;
100%

= 100

10%
= 10.
100%

2)
:
P = 100 + 10 = 110 .;
3) 1 :
P 110
=
= 10 .
Q
11
P 110
=
= 20 .
P 1 =
Q
5.5

P 1 =

4) ,
, ,
:
TR = 20 11 = 220 .;
TR = 20 5.5 = 110 .
5) ,
, : = TR P :
= 220 110 = 110 .
10.7.7
1000 .
500 . .
382 . . . . ,
8%?

218

II.

1) :
R = TR TC; R = 500 1000 382000 = 118000 . .
2) :
P =

R
118000
100% =
100% = 1475000 . .
r
8%

10.8

10.8.1 , 10.14.
, : N1 , N2 , N3 , N4
. , ,
: N1 15%,
N2 64%, N3 14%, N4 7%.
10.14

1
2
3


N1 N2 N3
N4
10 8
8
2
14 6
5
3
12 10 5
1

,
:
n

M0 = Bi TRi ;
i=1

M01 = 10 0.15 + 8 0.64 + 8 0.14 + 2 0.07 = 7.88 . .


M02 = 14 0.15 + 6 0.64 + 5 0.14 + 3 0.07 = 6.85 . .
M03 = 12 0.15 + 10 0.64 + 5 0.14 + 1 0.07 = 8.97 . .
3 , .
10.8.2 , TRi 10.15, Bi .
, ?

10. 219

10.15

1
2

1-

TR1 , . B1 , %
20000
25
40000
25

2-

TR2 , . B2 , %
10000
50
10000
50

3-

TR3 , . B3 , %
20000
25
0
25

1) , :
n

M0 = Bi TRi ;
i=1

M01 = 20000 0.25+10000 0.5 + 20000 0.25 = 15000 .


M02 = 40000 0.25+10000 0.5 + 0 0.25 = 15000 .
2) , ,
:
2

2 = B1 (TR1 M0 ) + B2 (TR2 M0 ) + . . . + Bn (TRn M0 ) ;


2

21 = 0.25 (20000 15000) + 0.5 (10000 15000) + . . .


2

+ 0.25 (20000 15000) = 25000000;


2

22 = 0.25 (40000 15000) + 0.5 (10000 15000) + . . .


2

+ 0.25 (0 15000) = 56275000.


: . 10000 .,
(40000 .0 .). , ,
.
10.8.3 . , 10.16.
, , ?
10.16

1
1

42500
42500

64000000
144000000

220

II.

,
= 2 :

1 = 64000000 = 8400;

1 = 144000000 = 12000.
, . , .
10.8.4 + 10.17.
10.17

1) , ,

2) , ,
3) , ,
,
4) , ,
5) , ,

6)

+
+
+
+

+
+

: , , ,
. , U(m)
.
:
1) , ;
2) , ;
3) , .
, . ,
, . , 10.8, .
, , 500 . (m0 ),

10. 221

, 500 . BC, (B)


(C), . ,
, , . 500
, 18 , , 500 ,
(+b), (b).

. 10.8 ,
, 1000 .,
C , , 21 .
( B). EU
10.5 (0.521+0.50). 10.5
, 18, .
,
, :
1) ;
2) .
, ,
(. 10.9).
,
.
, (. 10.10).
, , .
, . , , , .

222

II.

. 10.9 ,

. 10.10 ,

.
10.8.5 , , :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4)
;
5) .
: , , : 1), 3), 5).

10. 223

10.8.6 , ,
Qd = 150 0.5P.
ATC1 = 48 + 2Q1 , ATC2 = 60 + 3Q2 .

, .
: Qd1 = 100 0.5P1 ; Qd2 = 150 0.5P2 .

?

1)
TCi = ATCi Qi ; TC1 = (48 + 2Q1 ) Q1 = 48Q1 + 2Q21 ;
TC2 = (60 + 3Q2 ) Q2 = 60Q2 + 3Q22 ;

MC1 = TC ; MC1 = 48 + 4Q1 ;

MC2 = 60 + 6Q2 .

2) :
P = 300 2Q;

TR = 300Q 2Q2 ;

MR = TR = 300 4Q.

3) ,

MR = MC1 ; 300 4Q1 = 48 + 4Q1 ; Q1 = 31.5 . .;
P1 = 300 2Q1 = 300 2 31.5 = 237 . .
MR = MC2 ; 300 4Q2 = 100 + 4Q2 ; Q2 = 25 . .
P2 = 300 2Q2 = 300 2 25 = 250 . .
4)
MR1 = MC1 ; 200 4Q1 = 48 + 4Q1 ; Q1 = 19 . .
P1 = 200 2Q1 = 200 2 19 = 162 ..
MR2 = MC2 ; Q2 = 25 .; P2 = 250 ..
, (
, ), (Q1 > Q2 )
(P1 < P2 ). (162 . .)
31.5 . . 19 . .

224

II.

10.9

10.9.1 - X Y .
X ( ) Px = 1.6+0.4Py ,
Y Py = 2 + 0.5Px .
?

1) , :

Px = 1.6 + 0.6Py ;

Py = 2 + 0.5Px .

Px = 1.6 + 0.4(2 + 0.5Px ); Px = 3; Py = 2 + 0.5 3 = 3.5.

2) , ,
.
10.9.2 : 12 . X 10 . Y .
.
,
. R
3- . X 6 . Y . 8 . Y X
5/4, 1/2.
? R?

- , MRS = MRS = Px /Py . R . -.


R,
, X , Y .
,
.
10.9.3 :
U = XY ; U = X 0.5 Y .
,
. R
7 . X 3 . Y ,
4 . X 12 . Y .
?

10. 225

MUx
Y 3
; MRS = = ;
MUy
X 7
0.5
0.5Y X
0.5Y 0.5 12
MRS = 0.5
; MRS =
=
= 1.5.
X
1
X
4
3
MRS MRS ; 1.5.
7
MRS =



. Y , , , X .
,
. - .
10.9.4 : 60 . 40 . A B . R
. 5 . . 10.18.

?
10.18
1
MPL1 MPK1
5
5

2
MPL2 MPK2
6
6

,
:
MRTS1 = MRTS2 .
,

.
5 10
MPL1 PL1
=
; = ;
MPK1 PK1
5 10

6 10
MPL2 PL2
=
; = .
MPK2 PK2
6 10

: .
10.9.5 + 10.19.

226

II.

10.19

1) ,

2) , ,
3) , :
4)

5) -
,
6) -
.

+
+

+
+
+

: , ,
, . ,
. - , ,
, ,
. - . .
10.9.6 . Ui Ui
10.20. .

, , . , , : ,
,
.
, , .

10. 227

10.20

I
II
III

Ui
Ui
Ui
Ui
Ui
Ui

1
24
2
24
5
40
25

2 3
35 50
5
12
24 24
5
5
60 85
5
0

4
86
25
24
5
150
0

, , , , .

, ( )
. .
. , .
: , ,
., , . ,
,
, , ,
, .

, ,
.
,
,
, .
, ,
, , , , , .

[1] . . : / . . ,
. . . 2- . . : , 2008. 384 .
[2] . 100 / . ; .
. . . . : , 2005. 352 .
[3] . . : / . . . . : -
, 2006. 640 .
[4] . . : / . . . . :
--, 2008. 576 .
[5] . . : . / . . , . . ;
. . . . . : , 2004 266 .
[6] . . : / . . . 2- .
. : , 2008. 448 .
[7] : . / . . .
. : -, 2007. 784 .
[8] . . : /
. . . 7- . : , 2011. 880 .
[9] . , //
. / . . . .
. : , 2000. . 1. 380 .
[10] . : 3 . / . . . :
, 1993. . 1. 594 .
[11] . .

:
.
/
. . ,
. . , . . . 5- . . : -, 2007.
391 c.

230

[12] . . / . . , . . . // . / .
. . . . : , 2000 . 1. 380 .
[13] . . : , 2009. . 1.
912 .
[14] : / . . . . . : ;
-, 2010. 511 .
[15] . . / . . , . . . 2- .
. : , 2003. 432 .
[16] . . . : / . . . . : ,
2010. 408 .
[17] . . : : . . / . . ,
. . . : [. .], 1992. 496 c.
[18] : (Managerial Economics) : / . . . . . . 4- . . : ,
2008. 704 .
[19] . . : / . . . . :
, 2007. 416 .
[20] . . / . . . . : -,
2000. 696 .
[21] . . - : : . / . . , . . .
/ : , 2009. 440 .

1
1.1 1 5 .
1.2 1 1.6 .
1.3 ( ) 144 . . (12 . .12 .).
24 . . (144 . .120 . .).
1.4 . .1.

. .1

232

II.

1.5 40
, .
16 (2400/150), 12 (2400/200). , 30 . 20 (2400/120),
(20 20 .), , ,
(2400 400).
10 (2000/200).
2 .

2
2.1 , , .
2.2 B , A.
2.3 . 2.9 :
1) , Qd = {25 1.25P 0 < P 20};
2) ,

10 0.5P 5 < P 20;


Qd =
15 1.5P 0 < P 5.

3) ,

3 0.5P 4 < P 6;
Qd =

11 2.5P 0 < P 4.
2.4 ,
.
2.5 , ;
.

3
3.1 MU = 4.5 0.5i; 9 .
3.2 MRSxy = 2, MRSyx = 1/2.
3.3 21 . x 52.5 .
y.
3.4 , , :
1

= (75 46) 58 = 841 .

e .

233

3.5
Qs1 = 3 + 0.5P1
Qs2 = 2P2 .
.

31.36 ., 100 .

4
4.1 C.
30 . .
4.2 MRTSKL = 2.
4.3 MRTSLK = 0.5.
4.4 ) , ) ,
) .
4.5 MPL = 218 + 36L 3L2 = 299, APL = 218 + 18L L2 , APL = 263.

5
5.1 292000 ., 144000 .
5.2 7526 ., 28000 .,
44474 ., 16474 .
5.3 .1.
.1
Q
0
1
2
3
4
5

TC
10
14
16
20
26
40

FC
10
10
10
10
10
10

VC
0
4
6
10
16
30

AFC

10
5
3.3
2.5
2

AVC

4
3
3.3
4
6

ATC

14
8
6.7
6.5
8

P
10
10
10
10
10
10

TR

10
20
30
40
50

10
4
+4
+10
+14
+10

5.4 VC = 0.5Q + 10Q2 ; TC = 400 + 0.5Q + 10Q2 ; TC = 1405 . .


5.5 .2.

6.1
3 .
6.2 48 . 2236 .

234

II.

.2
Q
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

TC
24
40
74
110
160
222
291

FC
24
24
24
24
24
24
24

VC
0
16
50
86
136
198
267

ATC

40
37
36.7
40
4.4
48.5

MC

16
34
36
50
62
69

AVC

16
25
28.7
34
39.6
44.5

6.3 -, , , 70 .
2169 .
6.4 -, , 125 . , 250 .
31250 ., 15343.75 .
6.5
, 79.3 .

7
7.1 MRPL2
.
.3 MPL , MPL1 P, MRPL1 , MPL2 P MRPL2
L
0
1
2
3
4

18
24
28
30

MPL

18
6
4
2

MPL1 P

36
12
8
4

MRPL1

36
12
8
4

MPL2 P

72
24
16
8

MRPL2

72
24
16
8

7.2 MRPL =
= 1608L.
,
TCL = W L = (L + 140) L = L2 + 140L.
MCL = 2L + 140. 2
(160 8L) = (2L + 140).
7.3 , ,
, ,
338.9 . . (240/1.2 + 200/1.22 ).
7.4
15000 .

e .

235

7.5 60 . .
320 .

8.1 6000 . , .
8.2 1.44 .
(0.44 (1000 800) 10000 + 0.56 (1000 800) 5000).
, , , .
8.3 85 . (2/3 90 + 1/3 75).
5 .
. 10 . (85 75).
8.4
50 ((40 + 60)/2) 30. , , 29 .
(0.5 30 + 0.5 28).
8.5 ,
51200 .

9.1
9.6 . 8.04 . .
9.2 1.6 .
1.2 . .
9.3 .
9.4
.
, , .
9.5 , ,
, ,
. .
, . ,
. .

AFC
AP
APL
AR
ATC
AVC
E
Ed
EI
ELK
EQ,F
ETC
ES
Exy
Fv
FC
HK
Hq
HTC
HTR ()
HH
I
IL
Is
K
L (, , )
LATC

237

M0
MC
MCL
MP
MPF F
MPK
MPL
MR ( )
MRPF ( )
MRTXY
MRTP
MRSxy (y) (x)
MRTSLK
MU
P ()
P
Pv ()
PMPL ( )
Q
Qd
QS
R
r
rK
rL W ( )
t
TMC
T
TC
TR
TU
U
VC
W

2


.
,
-
.
,
.

.
, , ,
, .
.
, ,
.
, .
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
.

.
.

239

(), , .
,
.

.
.
,
.
, .
.

.
() , ,
.
1) ,
; 2) , .
1) ; 2) , .
, , - ().
, .
.
.
.

, .
,
.
1) ,
; 2) .
1) () , ; 2) .
, .

240

, .
() ,
.
,
.
,
, .
.
, .
, .
, .
.
,
.
.
().
,
.
.
.
.

.

.
,
.

, 100.
.
.
.
, .
, .

241

, ,
, .
(, ,
.),
. ,
.
,
, ,
.
, , . .
,
, . .
, ,
.
() t- .
.
,
, .
()
, -
().
- , .
, .
.
, .
, .

, .
,
.
, .

242

( ), ,
.
, .
() .
, , ,
.
, , ,
, .
, .

Qd = Qs .

Pd = Ps .
,
,
() .
.
.
,
.
,
.
, () .
,
.
, (, .).
, .
,
.
( ), .
, .

243

,
.
,
.
, .
, .
() ,
.
.
,
, .
, .
, .
1) , ; 2) ,
.
, , (, .)
.
, .
.
, .
.

,
.

, , . . .

244

, .
, , .
, .
, .
, .
, , - .
.


.
.
, , .
,
, .
.

.
, .
.
.
.

.
.

245

.
.
, .
.

.
, , .
, .
,
.
,
.
,
.
11 , . . . .
, .

.
, ;
-.
,
-.
, .
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
- .
.

246

1) , ; 2) , , , .
.
- ,
.
, .
, , .
,
.
, .
() , , ,

.
() ,
-
, .

.
,
.
(), .
.
, ().
.
, .
, .

247

, .
, .
.
, .
,
.
, .

.
, , , .

.


.
.
d
Exy
.


.

.
,
.
,
.
, .
(, ,
, ) .
.

248

()
.
- .
.
, .
, .

.
, .

, ; , .
.




I.

. .
. .
02.08.12. 6084/8.
. . . 29,30. 500 .


634029, . , . . 11 . 17

.
634050, . , . , 40
. (3822) 533018.