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2003

519

22.18
73

.., ..

73 . .: , 2003. 149 .

ISBN 5-89638-63-1
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519
22.18
73
ISBN 5-89638-63-1

.., .. ,
2

2003


........................................................................................................ 4
1. ........................................... 21
1.1. :
............................................................................................................................ 21
1.2. : ......................... 24
1.3. ................................. 31
2. ........................................................ 34
2.1. ........................................... 34
2.2. .............................................................. 41
2.3. ............................................................ 57
3. ..................................................... 60
3.1. ....................................... 60
3.2. ............................................................ 64
3.3. ................................................................... 71
3.4. .......................................................................... 76
3.5. ........................................... 82
3.6. ..................................... 91
3.7. ....................................................................... 102
4. ............................... 106
4.1. ................................................................................ 106
4.2. .................................................... 117
4.3. .......................................................................... 121
4.3.1. ............................................. 121
4.3.2. ................................................................. 124
4.3.3. .................................................................................. 126
4.3.4. ............................................................. 128
4.4. ....................................... 129
............................................................................................. 137
............................................................................................... 142

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, [21, 58, 62], . x X .
x X f(x), f: X 1 , .
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[77]).

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P(f, X) X,
5:
P(f, X) = Arg max f(x).
x X

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x X
q W f(q, x), f: W X 1.
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p(q));
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f f ,
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f(q, x) )
f (x), .

f (x) = min f(q, x), -

)
f (x) =

q W

f ( x,q ) p(q )dq

.. [58, 59].

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:

P(f, X, I) = Arg max f (x),


x X

6
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23

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f f .
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24

i-
xi Xi, x-i = (x1, x2, , xi-1, xi+1, , xn) Xi=
X j N\{i} 8 q W,
jN \ {i }

fi = fi(q, x),
x = (xi, x-i) = (x1, x2, , xn) X' = X j
jN

. = (N, {Xi}i N, {fi()}i N) ,


. ()
[15, 21, 65, 68, 86, 109, 126, 132].

(
) . x-i X-i
q W. ,
(BR best response):
(1) BRi(q, x-i) = Arg max fi(q, xi, x-i), i N.
xi X i

,
, ,
.
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.
(1) ,
(
) [21].
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8

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25

. , .
, ,
X' W.
.
() , :
(2) xi Arg max min min fi(q, xi, x-i), i N.
xi X i

x -i X -i

q W

(1)
( ),
. .
.
(3) BR(q, x) = (BR1(q, x-1); BR2(q, x-2), , BRn(q, x-n)).
[21, 68, 132] q ( )
x*(q) X', :
(4) x*(q) BR(q, x*(q)).
(4) :
" i N, " yi Xi fi(q, x*(q)) fi(q, yi, x-* i (q ) ).
EN(q) (4)
:
(5) EN(q) = {x X | xi BRi(q, x-i), i N}.
EN(q) ( x1* (q), x2* (q)),
[17, 109, 132]:
(6) x1* (q) BR1(q, BR2(q, BR1(q, ...BR2(q, x2* (q))...))),
(7) x2* (q) BR2(q, BR1(q, BR2(q, ...BR1(q, x1* (q))...))).
,
,
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26

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[34, 56, 109]).
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(6)): " , (1),
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27

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(1),
(. (7)).
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(
[97]).
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x-Bi ("B" beliefs;
, conjecture)

q i ,

) )

(8) xiB BRi( q i , x-Bi ), i N.


xB .
,
,
)
, $ i N: x-Bi x-Bi . -

, , x-Bi = x-Bi , i N,
( , , ,
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28

x-Bi ).
,
, .
i-
X -Bi X-i -

Wi W i N.
:
)
(9) xi( X -Bi , Wi ) Arg max minB min
) fi(q, xi, x-i), i N.
xi X i

B
-i

x X

q W i

-i
-i
)
= X-i, Wi = W, i N, xi( X -Bi ) = xi , i N, -

X

.
-, [9].
i-
pi(xi),
pi() D(Xi) Xi, mi(x-i) D(X-i) ,
,
qi(q) D(W) ( ):
(10) pi(mi(), qi(), ) =
= arg max
fi (q , xi , x-i ) pi ( xi ) qi (q ) mi ( x-i ) dq dx , i N.
p i D ( X i )

X ', W

,
fi()
W X.
. ,
, ,

.
,
29

,
.
. (. [114]),
:
- N ;
- K , i-
ki Ki, i N, k = (k1, k2, , kn) K = K i ;
- X =

Xi

iN

iN

- ui: K X 1;
- mi(|ki) D(K-i), i N, .
- si: Ki Xi, i N,

(11) Ui(ki, si(), s-i()) = ui(k, si(ki), s-i(k-i)) mi(k-i| ki) dk-i, i N.
k -i K j
j i

, , , {mi(|)}i N . , ,
, , m(k) D(K),
.
, {mi(|)}i N , [100, 135]
(rationalizable strategies) Di D(Xi), i N, Di BRi(D-i),
i N.
, 9 [132].
9

, (strongly dominated)
, ,
.
(iterative elimination)
( )
,
.

30

() [94].
..
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, [86]).
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[84, . 601]). [116, 119].
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[128].
( ),

10
, D. Lewis (1969) R. Aumann (1976).
(. )
.

32

i , a [115, 144].
(),
.
.
.
W {Ri}i N . Ri, q W, i , q [96, 99].
( , ) [97, 140
.].
[103, 133, 141 .] . [143].
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. [114] ,
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). .
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:
/ [102, 105 .].
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2.
-
. 2.1 , 2.2
. 2.3
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2.1.
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.
(, ,
34

, ). , ,
, i- ( )
(12) 1 xi = arg max min min fi(q, xi, x-i).
xi X i

q W x -i X -i

, (12) , , (,
).
(13) 2 xi = arg max min fi(q, xi, 1 x- i ).
xi X i

q W

.
,
(14) 3 xi = arg max min fi(q, xi, 2 x- i ),
xi X i

q W

-i

2 x (13) i i .
(
) (.
, [66]),
(15) k xi = arg max min fi(q, xi, k -1 x- i ), k = 2, 3, ...,
xi X i

q W

1 i

x , i = 1, 2, (12). (15)
.
.
1. :
f1(x1, x2) = x1 x12 /2x2, f2(x1, x2) = x2 x22 /2(x1 + d),
d > 0. ,
X1 = X2 = [e; 1], 0 < e < 1. , e
35

d . 1.
. 1. 1
k

k x1

1
e

2
e+d

3
e+d

4
e + 2d

5
e + 2d

6
e + 3d

7
e + 3d

...
...

x2

e+d

e+d

e + 2d

e + 2d

e + 3d

e + 3d

e + 4d

...

, , -, . -,
(, 11
(1; 1)) 12.
, ,
. , , ,
, i- k xi , i = 1, 2;
k = 1, 2, ..., (12) (15).

.
( ,

),
(12), . , , ..
,
, , 11

, ,
2

f2(x1, x2) = x2 + x2 /2x1,


( ),
:
2

xi .

36

= e,

= 1/2.

,
12

1 i

, 2 xi . , ,
, ,
, , 3 xi ..
. , 13. (
,
),

:
(16) xi = arg max min min fi(q, xi, j x- i ).
xi X i

j =1, 2,... q W

, , -, xi
1 xi , (12). , (16) (.
1).
2
1
. , (16) i- e + d,
e, .
. 2. 1
j

2 f1(BR1( j x ), j x )
j

x2

e+d

e+d

e + 2d

e + 2d

e + 3d

e + 3d

e + 4d

e+d

e+d

e + 2d

e + 2d

e + 3d

e + 3d

e + 4d

13

, ,
.
.. (. : , 2.2).

.
, ,
. 2.2.

37

, (15) (16).
. , ,
, .
, ,
,
, ,
, 14.
, ()
(
)
15
(16). :
(17) xi (qi) = arg max min fi(qi, xi, j x- i ).
xi X i

j =1, 2,...

, , , , (17), ,
.
, ,
.
,
, (
. 1 [62]),
14

( )
,
Ii, i-
, Ii.
15
, ,
, , , .

38

( *
*
) EN(q1) = {( x11
(q1), x12
(q1))}
:
*
*
*
(18) " x1 X1 f1(q1, x11
(q1), x12
(q1)) f1(q1, x1, x12
(q1)),
*
*
*
" x2 X2 f2(q1, x11
(q1), x12
(q1)) f1(q1, x11
(q1), x2).
,

.

, , xij* (qi) = x*jj (qj),

i, j = 1, 2.
, (17), (18).

(18), , x12
x1
x1 x12,
16 (. . 1.
1).

.
. i qij
qii
( , qi = qii . ).
, ( qij) .

16

, ,
.

39

(19) 2 xi = arg max fi(qi, xi, x- i (qij)),


xi X i

-i

x (qi,-i) (17).
(19),

*
*
EN(q1, q12) = {( x11
(q1, q12), x12
(q1, q12))}
:
*
*
*
(q1,q12), x12
(q1,q12)) f1(q1, x1, x12
(q1,q12)),
(20) " x1 X1 f1(q1, x11
*
*
*
" x2 X2 f2(q12, x121
(q1,q12), x12
(q1,q12)) f2(q12, x121
(q1,q12), x2),
*
*
*
" x1 X1 f1(q12, x121
(q1,q12), x12
(q1,q12)) f2(q12, x1, x12
(q1,q12)).
,
.
, (19), (20).
, (20)

x12
x1
,

,
x121
.
3,
. 3.
,
RDM2
.
,

, (.
[18]). .

40

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, .

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2.2.
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, 17, ,
(.
17

, .

41

) ,
. , ,
. .
18,
A = ||aij|| B = ||bij|| n m . 19 I = {1, 2, , n} ( ), J = {1, 2, , m}
( ).
:
i0 Arg max min aij, j0 Arg max min bij.
iI

jJ

jJ

iI

.
,
, , ,
(
, , ).20 ,

i Arg max

iI

j Arg max , ,
jJ

i = arg max j = arg max .


iI

jJ

a0 = max min aij, b0 = max min bij iI

jJ

jJ

iI

()
.
18
( )
,
.
19
, ( )
.
20
,
,
.

42

MGkl (matrix
game) A B,
, k l ,
k, l , .
, (
) .
( . [13])

. . ,
.
, ,
, . ,
k- , k
1- .


[72]. .
2 ( ) [71].
,
, .
.
. , ( ). ,
, . ,
, ,
.. 3.
. 3.


,

1
,

2
,

43

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.
,

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. 0- (
). 1- ,
( ).
3- ( , ),
0- , ,
, , , , , , .
, ,
.

.
,
[71, 72],

.
MGkl:
(21) ik = arg max aijk -1 , jl = arg max bil -1 j , k, l .
iI

jJ

, MG00 , MGkl ( aik jl ; bik jl ), k, l .


. -, MGkl
k 1, l 1 (. ). -, 44


, MGkl
k 1, l 1 ,
l = k 1 k = l 1,
, , . , ,
(
,
). .
4 MGkl
,
4
.
i0

j0

i0

j0

i1

j1

i1

j1

ik-2

jk-2

il-2

jl-2

ik-1

jk-1

il-1

jl-1

ik

. 4.
MGkl

jl

. 4.
MGkl

45

(. 3.4), ,
, , , ,
( ).

(ik, jl). ik-1 jl-1

(. 4),
.

,

.

IK =
ik ,
JL =
jl ,
K = 0, 1, 2, ,

k =0 ,1,...,K

l =0 ,1,...,L

L = 0, 1, 2, . I J .
( ) , MG,

. ,

:
(22) i = arg max min aij, j = arg max min bij.
iI

jJ

jJ

iI


, ( ,
L, K):
(23) iL = arg max min aijl , jK = arg max min bik j .
iI

lJ L

jJ

kI K

, (23), (21),
, .
(21)-(23) , , , 46

, j,
arg max aij , .. ,
iI

, ,
,
, , ... .
, , .
, , [73] .
. , .
.

, ( )
, . ,
.
1 ( ,
).
(i*; j*) . , (21) ,
, ,
(24) ik = arg max aij* , jl = arg max bi* j , k, l .
iI

jJ

(24) ,
ik = i*, jl = j*, k, l , 1
21 ( , , ,
,
,
).
2 ( ,
(21)).
21


,
.

47

(
),
1. ,
, 2

(i0, j0).
3 ( ,
22).
(24) ,
, ,

. , 3
,
.
4 ( , (21)).
, ,
.
, , , .
1.
,
(21), .

(25) Kmin = min {K | IK = I},


(26) Lmin = min {L | JL = J}.
, Kmin Lmin
,


.

22

,
.

48

" K, L IK IK+1, JL JL+1.


" K Kmin IK = I, " L Lmin JL = J.
K
L ,
IL-1 JK-1 . ,
,
(27) L 1 < Kmin,
(28) K 1 < Lmin.
, 23
(. (28)),
.
,
,
.
,
(29) K < Kmin,
(30) L < Lmin.
(28) (29), (27) (30), ,
(31) Kmax = min {Kmin, Lmin + 1},

(32) Lmax = min {Lmin, Kmin + 1}.

(33) Rmax = max {Kmax, Lmax}.


, .

23

,
( ) .

49

2.
, (31) (32),
24.
2
( ) ( )
.
(31)-(33) ( ),
(, |I| |I| = n, |J| |J| = m,
. 3). .
G = (V, E) ,
V = I J, (
) .
:
1. I
J ( ), J
I (
).
2. V (

- ).
3. ,
,
.
4.
, , i0,
min (n; m + 1).
5.
, , i0,
min (n; m).
24
, ,
,
.

50

6.
, , j0,
min (n; m).
7.
, , j0,
min (n + 1; m).
.
3. 2 2, , I = I, J = J.
.
2 2, . X1 = {x1, x2},
X2 = {y1, y2}. i0 j0.
x1 = i0, y1 = j0.
: j1 = y1 j1 = y2.
j1 = y1, i1= i2 = x2 ( (x1, y1) ). j2 = j3 = y2 ( (x2, y1) ). ,
i3 = i4 = x1 ( (x2, y2) ). I = I, J = J.
j1 = y2, i2 = x2 ( (x1, y2) ).
j3 = y1 ( (x2, y2) ). , i4 = x1
( (x2, y1) ).
I = I, J = J.
, 3 ,
2 2, , .

2 2 (, 78
, ,
, ,

[101, 136]).
3 , , , , , I = I, J = J.
51

5 4 4,
i0 j0 .

. 5.
4 4, I I, J J
(|I| n, |J| m) I J, , ( ) .
,
, , , .

, I J, ,
4-7 Lmin
Kmin,
.
, (31) (32), ,
.
.
52

n m 25
(31)-(33), , , Kmin = Kmin(n), Lmin = Lmin(m). ,
(34) Kmax(n, m) = min {Kmin(n), Lmin(m) + 1},
(35) Lmax(n, m) = min {Lmin(m), Kmin(n) + 1}.
(33) :
(36) Rmax(n, m) = max {Kmax(n, m), Lmax(n, m)}.
4-7 (34)-(36)
.
4. n m

(37) Kmax(n, m) min {n, m + 1},
(38) Lmax(n, m) min {m, n + 1},
(39) Rmax(n, m) max {min {n, m + 1}, min {m, n + 1}}.
1. n n, n 2,
26
Rmax(n, n) n.
( ) .
2. 2 2 .
, (37)-(39)
, ,
.
4 :
.
25

, .
26
, , , .

53

,
(. 2 ).
3 ( ) [132]. (Prisoners Dilemma):
- :

. ,
(1; 1). ,
, , () (6; 0). , . , , ,
, 5,
, .
6 (,
).

(5; 5)
(0; 6)

(6; 0)
(1; 1)

. 6.

(; ), a0 = 1 b0 = 1. ,
i0 = i1 = i2 = i = ,
j0 = j1 = j2 = j = ,

(
, (21)-(23) ,
, ,
- (; ),
).
4 (C ) [132]. (Battle of Sexes),
. (),
(), , .
7.
54

(3; 1)
(0; 0)

(0; 0)
(1; 3)

. 7.


(; ) (; ). , ,
,
.
,
.
p [0; 1] ,
q [0; 1] . p = q = 3/4, : (3/4, 1/4) (1/4, 3/4),
(3/4; 3/4).
, ,
p1 = arg max [3 p / 4 + 3 (1 p) / 4]. ,
p[ 0 ;1]

3/4.
q1 , . , , ,
.
5 ( ).
.
.
. .
, :
, .
( , ) :
.
55

, ,
(5; 0). (5; 1) ,
, ( , ). ,
, ,
(; ) (; ) (2, 3)
(3, 2). , ,
8.

(3; 2)
(5; 1)

(5; 0)
(2; 3)

. 8.

, :
i0 = , j0 = . (21) :
i1 = , j1 = ,
i2 = , j2 = ,
i3 = , j3 = ,
i4 = , j4 = ,

,
, . , IK = I K = 2,
JL = J L = 1,
, . I = I, J = J
i = i0, j = j0.
(
): MG00, MG03, MG10, MG13, MG21,
MG22, MG32. , , .
: MG01, MG02, MG11,
MG12, MG23, MG33.
, , .
56

,
. ,
, . MG20, MG23 MG33
, , a0 = 3.
MG22, MG31 MG32, , b0 = 1.

. p
, q , : p = 3/4, q = 3/5.
: (3/4, 1,4) (3/5, 2/5),
(19/5; 3/2). ,
,
p1 = arg max [p (9/5 + 2) + (1 p) (3 + 4/5)]. ,
p[ 0 ;1]


19/5. q1
,
. ,

, ,
.
, (
) ( k l) .

, ,


.
,
.
2.3.

57

27
(
) ,
. ,
,
,
-
.
, . , ,
,
,
, . ( ,
, )
.
72 [3, 129], (, ..),
.
, , ,
, ,

27

, , .
29
,
.
,
, ( n
n! ,
).

58


.
i- ,
. . , xi Xi, (
29, i-) x-i X-i (
). , (
), BR-i(xi), BRi(x-i).
( ), BR-i(BRi(x-i)) BRi(BRi(xi)).
( , . 2.2 3.6,
. 2.2),
. w ,
( ),
(
xi Xi x-i X-i), 2 (w + 1),
(w + 1)! ( ,
, ).
, , ,
2 (w + 1) 72, (w + 1)! 72.
w {0; 1; 2; 3}, w {0; 1; 2}. 7
, ( ) .

(, , )
,
. ,
.
, . .
59

, . .
3.

. ( 3.1),
( 3.2)
,
;
. 3.3

, 3.4 ,
. 3.5 . 3.6
,
. (
3.7)
.
3.1.

, 3.2.
, , , ,
,
.
, .

60

(. [62]): qi () i- , qij i- j- , i j,
qiji i- j- i- 30, .., i, j = 1, 2. ,
31 (.
[62]).
, i- Ii = (qi, qij, qijk, ),
( ,

). I1 I2

( ).

( ) .
.. [43] ,
i- , -, T,
. -,

: T + Ti,
- ( ).
,
, ,
(, ,
,
Tii) : T + Ti + Tji, ..32
30

, ( ) .. ( ).
31
, i- , , qiji qi , .
32

. , ,
. ( ).

61

, q T,
Ii = (qi, qij, q i1i2 ...ik ), k < , i-

T i + T j i + + T ik i = (T + T j + + ik ) i. ,
, , (. 3.2).
( ): , , . ,
, ,
, : ( ..) , ( ..) , ( ..) ...
.. , q11 q211, q1221 ..
RGkl, k, l = 0, 1, 2,..., (Reflexive Games)
,
( ) ,
( )
.
(, )
( ),
, , ..
, . ()

( ).
,
. , , ,
(
.. [94]). ,
. ,
, . ( ) .

62

, , :
, . , , Ii = (qi, qij, ..., q i1i2 ...ik ),
i, j, i1, i2, ..., ik N k 1.

: q i1i2 ...ik
i- , i1 = i (
, );
k > 2, . , k (
) ik = 3 i (
), k (
) ik = i ( ).
, ,
,
, ,
RGkl(I1, I2).
,
, ,
.
, [21, 62], ,
. (
) ,
,
, , 33,
.

(18) (20).

: 33

3.3.

63

,
,
(
) ()
(. );
, , ,
,
.
,

, ( ),
34 [15, 21, 65].
,
, .
,
,
, . , RGkl(I1, I2)

, I1 I2
k 1 l 1, ( , ). ,
( , ,
..) .

.
3.2.
N = {1, 2, , n} .
34

,
( ).

64

q W
( , W ),
Ii (
) i . -, i- q qi, qi W. , i-
q qij, qij W, j N. , i- j- k-
qijk, qijk W, j, k N. .
, Ii i- q ij1 ... jl , l
, j1, , jl N, q ij1 ... jl W.
I
q i1 ...il , l
, j1, , jl N, q ij1 ... jl W.. ,
I ,
.
, n ( n-),

.
I ,
:
(40) I = {N, (Xi)i N, fi()i N, I},
N , Xi
i- , fi(): W X 1 , i N, I
.

, ,
{N, (Xi)i N, fi()i N}, ,
(
I).
.
65

(
. 3.3) .

(. 9).
i- ,
qi.

q1

qi

qn

qi1 qij qin

. 9.

: , W.
, ,
(.
1.3
).
:
S+
N;
S S+ ;
|s| s (
),
.
qi i- , qii i- ,
66

, qii = qi. , i-
, ,
. . , , .
:
" i N " t, s S qtiis = qtis .
, , , qt t S+,
|t| = g, qt t S+,
|t| < g.
Ii, iN, Iij ( j- i- ), Iijk ..
, , , n (i, i N) Ii,
(t-, t S+, |t| 2)
It = {qts}, s S. , , ,
.

.
Il Im (l, m S+)
, :
1. qls = qms s S;
2. l m .
: Il = Im.
, . ,
t-
It fi,
t.
, .
5. Il = Im " s S Ils = Ims .
67

. Il = Im " s, k S
qlsk = qmsk " s S
Ils = Ims . : s
.
5 , .
, , .
6. " i N " t, s S Itiis = Itis.
. " i N " t, s S
qtiis = qtis " i N
" t, s, k S qtiisk =qtisk " i N " t, s S Itiis = Itis .

( , )
, , t t- (t S+): Il Im (l, m S+) t- , Itl = Itm.
t- t S, , t
, t- .
l- t-
m- (, , m-),
Itlm = Itm (l, m S+, t S).
t- l- m- : Il >t Im .
7. t-
,
" i N " t S " s S+ Ii >ti Is .
. 6
Itiis = Itis, t- , Ii >ti Is.
7 ,
.
68

l- m- t- ,
Itlm = Itm , Itml = Itl (l, m S+, t S).
t- l- m- : Il ><t Im .
l- m- t- s-, Itls = Itms
(s, l, m S+, t S).
t- l- m- s- :
Il >s<t Im.
l- m- t- , " i N Itli = Itmi (l, m S+, t S).
t- l- m- : Il ~t Im.
, - ( ,
).
,
.
8. Il ~t Im " s S+ Il >s<t Im.
. Il ~t Im " i N Itli = Itmi {
5} " i N
"kS
Itlik = Itmik {
s = i k} " s S+ Itls = Itms " s S+ Il >s<t Im.
,
,
.
.
9. t S :
1. t-
;
2. t- ;
3. i N Isi t-
i.
69

t S :
(" i, j N Ii ><t Ij) (I1~t~t In) (" i N " s S Itsi = Iti).
. 1 2, 2 3, 3 1.
12. i, j, m N Ii >t Im, Ij >t Im ,
Itim = Itm, Itjm = Itm. Itim = Itjm, 2 ( 8).
23. s 3 ,

s S+. s = i1 il (ik N, k = 1, , l),
i N :
Iti = { 6} = Itii = { I i ~t I il } =

Itil i = { 6} = Itil il i = { I il ~t I il -1
8} = Itil -1il i = = Iti1 ...il i = Itsi .
31. i, j N Itij = Itj, Itji = Iti,
Ii ><t Ij.
. ,
I It,
t S+, . .
, I n = n(I),
{ It 1 , It 2 , , It n }, tl S+,
l {1, , n}, Is , s S+, It l .
, , I : n(I) = .
, , ( ,
).
.
70

,
(,
).
( ) It, t S+, , Is, s S+, , I.
I , g , , It, t S+, |t| =g , .
,
.
, I, n(I) < ,
g = g (I),
1. Is, s S+,
It, t S+, |t| g ;
2. x, x <g ,
Is, s S+, It,
t S+, |t| =x .
n(I) = , : g(I) = .
, ,
.
3.3.
I ,
( , ). t-
xt
It , ,
,
. ,
( ). 71

,
.
xt*, t S+, , :
1. I
n;
2. "l , m S + Il = Im xl* = xm*;
3. " i N, " s S
(41) xs*i Arg max fi (q si , xs*i1 ,..., xs*i ,i -1 , xi , xs*i ,i +1..., xs*i , n ) .
xi X i


, .
, .
, ,

,
, .
, -, .
, .
6-7.
:
x2
x2
f1 (q , x1 , x2 ) = (q - x2 ) x1 - 1 , f 2 (q , x1 , x2 ) = (q - x1 ) x2 - 2 ,
2
2
xi 1, i = 1, 2. .
6. (,

):
q1 = 1, q12 = 3, q121 = 5, q1212 = 7, ;
q2 = 2, q21 = 4, q212 = 6, q2121 = 8, .
72

. (41)
:
x1 = 1 x12,
x2 = 2 x21,
x12 = 3 x121,
x21 = 4 x212,
x121 = 5 x1212,
x212 = 6 x2121,
x1212 = 7 x12121,
x2121 = 8 x21212,
..;
..
, ,
x1 x2,
.
7. : qs = 1 s S+. 2 , (41)
:
x1 = 1 x12,
x2 = 1 x21,
x12 = 1 x121,
x21 = 1 x212,
x121 = 1 x1212,
x212 = 1 x2121,
x1212 = 1 x12121,
x2121 = 1 x21212,
..;
..
, 6, x1 x2, .
2, , , ()
xt*. , .
10. xt*, t S+,
, n
, (41) n .
. xt*, t S+, . 2
, xt* n.
: Il = Im. , ql = qm xl* =xm*. ,
i N Ili = Imi, , xli* = xmi*.
(41),
xl* xm* , .
73

,
xt*, t S+, n (41) n
xt*,
It.
,

. (41)
,
.
, ,
(
), ( ).

.
I n { It 1 , , It n }.
X = {t1, , tn},

{ xt 1 , , xt n } , xt l X w (t l ) , l {1, , n}
w(s)
s, s S+.
X
:
(42) jt l ( xt 1 , , xt n ) = fw (t l ) ( qt l , xs 1 , , xs n ),
It l i = Is i , si X i N, l {1, , n}. ,

I sw(

t l)

I t l w (t l ) = I t , (42)
l

:
(43) j ( xt ,..., xt , xt , xt ,..., xt
tl

l -1

l +1

)=

f w (t ) (q t , xs ,..., xs w (t ) -1 , xt l , xs w (t ) -1 ,..., xs ) .
l

(42) (43) : , tl - (tl X) , q,


74

(n 1) X.
, j t l
{ xt 1 , , xt n } ( q t l ),
f i , i = w(tl). j t l fw (t 1 ) .
, .
(. )
11 (. 9),
fi(q, x1, x2, x3), xi Xi, i {1, 2, 3}. X = {1, 2, 3, 31, 32}
:
j1(x1, x2, x3, x31, x32) = f1(q1, x1, x2, x3);
j2(x1, x2, x3, x31, x32) = f2(q2, x1, x2, x3);
j3(x1, x2, x3, x31, x32) = f3(q3, x31, x32, x3);
j31(x1, x2, x3, x31, x32) = f1(q31, x31, x32, x3);
j32(x1, x2, x3, x31, x32) = f2(q32, x31, x32, x3).
(43) (41) ( xt*1 , ..., xt*n )
:
*
*
= arg max j ( x ,..., * , , * ,..., * ) ,

xt

xt lX w (t l )

tl

t l -1

xt xt xt
l -1

l +1

xt

l 1 n. ,
,
tl ,
l {1,,n}. ( )
,
.
, (. [21, . 74]): Xi
,
fi
xi,
.
75

,
.
11. Xi
,
fi(q, x1, , xn) q W
xi.
.
. fi
xi
j t l ( tl X, w(tl) = i),
(43), xt l .

[21, . 74].
, 8-10.
.
(. (41))
,
. ,
.
3.4.
, ,
( , ), .

xt, t S+, 76

It, qt, t , t S+.


:
xsi (n 1) ,
Isij, j N \ {i}.
,
.
, (41) ( ), .
, GI I (. ),
,
:
- GI
, , ;
- GI : ( )
, .
GI
,
I I
I = {N, (Xi)i N, fi()i N, GI}, N
, Xi i- ,
fi(): W X 1 , i N, GI .
,
( ) GI,
.

.
8-10. :

f i (q , x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (q - x1 - x2 - x3 ) xi xi 0, i N = {1, 2, 3}; q W = {1, 2}.

xi2
,
2
77

, xi i- , q
.
(.
[1, 126, 132]), .
, ,
(q = 1), , ,
(q = 2) . , 8-10
.
8. , , . , 9, s S Is1 = I1, Is2 = I2, Is3 = I3.
2
, xs*.
,
, : {I1, I2, I3}.
,
. 10.
x1

x2

x3

. 10. 8

(. (41)):

78

* 2 - x2* - x3*
,
x1 =
3

* 2 - x1* - x3*
,
x2 =
3

* 1 - x1* - x2*
,
x3 =
3

* 1
x1 = 2 ,

* 1
x2 = ,
2

*
x3 = 0.

,
:
x1* = x2* = 1/2, x3* = 0.
9. , , . , .
: I1 ~ I2, I1 > I3, I2 > I3, I1 ~3 I2 ~3 I3.
,
s S ( 5, 6, 9):
I12s = I2s, I13s = I3s, I21s = I1s, I23s = I3s, I3s1 = I31, I3s2 = I32, I3s3 = I3.
xs*. , Is |s|>2 It, |t|<|s|. I , ,
. ,
: {I1, I2, I3, I31, I32} (
, ).
, , .
11.

79

x1

x2

x3

x31

x32

. 11. 9

(. (41)):

* 2 - x2* - x3*
,
x1 =
3

* 2 - x1* - x3*
,
x2 =
3

*
*
* 1 - x31 - x32
x
=
,
3
3

*
* 1 - x32
- x3*
x
=
,
31
3

*
- x3*
* 1 - x31
x
=
,
32
3

* 9
x1 = 20 ,

x* = 9 ,
2 20

* 1
x3 = ,
5

* 1
x31 = 5 ,

x* = 1 .
32 5

, : x1* = x2* = 9/20, x3* = 1/5.

10. ,
, . , ; ,
,
.
80

: I1 >< I2, I2 >< I3, I1 ~13 I2 ~13 I3, I1 ~31 I2 ~31 I3.
,
s S ( 5, 6, 9):
I12s = I2s, I13s1 = I131, I13s2 = I132, I13s3 = I13, I21s = I1s,
I23s = I3s, I31s1 = I31, I31s2 = I312, I31s3 = I313, I32s=I2s.
xs*.
, Is
|s|>3 It, |t|<|s|.
I , ,
. ,
: I1, I2, I3, I31, I13, I131, I132, I312, I313.
, s S
q131s = q31s = q313s = q13s = q132s = q312s = 1, I131 = I31, I313 = I13, I123 = I213.
,
: {I1, I2, I3, I31, I13, I132}. C , . 12.
x2

x1

x3

x13

x31

x132

. 12. 10
81


(. (41)):
*
* 2 - x2* - x13
x
=
,
1
3

* 2 - x1* - x3*
,
x2 =
3

*
*
* 2 - x31 - x2
x
=
,
3
3

*
*
x* = 1 - x132 - x13 ,
31
3

*
*
x* = 1 - x31 - x132 ,
13
3

*
1 - x31 - x13*
*
x132
=
,

* 17
x1 = 35 ,

x * = 12 ,
2 35

17
x3* = ,

35

1
*
x31
= ,

1
*
x13
= ,
5

*
1
x132 = .
5

, : x1* = x3* = 17/35,


x2* = 12/35.
, .
3.5.
3.2 , . 3.3 , ( )
, .

, , ,
,
, .
82

(, ) ,
,

. , , .
. , ,
, ,
, , , (. m [62]
[139]).

, , , , ,
, ,
. ,
:
, ( 3.6), ( 3.7).
,
, , , .
, , ,
,
. (),
.
n . ( )
, n .
, , n
83

n . 13
( q1 , q2 , q12 .. 1, 2,
12 ..).

21

23

. 13.
, 14.
3

21

. 14. ,
13

: ti, t S, (n 1) ,
(n 1) tij, j = 1, , i 1, i + 1, , n.
: ti, t S, ti- t ( t , ti-
, ).

( )
2.
, 15.
84

21

12
2

23

13
2

. 15. 2
q12 = q2 q13 = q3, ,
14. , , 16.
2

23

12
2

13
2

. 16. ,
15
17.

85

21

12
2

13
2

21
2

23

23
2

. 17. 2
,
. 18 19.
23

12
2

21
2

13
2

23
2

. 18. ,
17

1
2

13

. 19. ,
86

17
, 20.

21

12
2

13
2

21
2

23

23
2

32
2

31
2

. 20. 2
, . 21, 22 23.
, 21 22 .
2

12
2

21
2

13
2

23
2

31
2

32
2

. 21. ,
20

13
2

31
2

32
2

. 22. ,
20
87

23

21

12

21

13
2

. 23. ,
20

(.
14, 16, 18, 19, 21-23) .
(. 14, 21 23).
14 , ,
. . , ,
.
21 .
. , , .
.
23 ,
, . :
,
,
, ,
. 23: ,
, ,
,
..

88


(. 3.7).

.
,
( ) ,
. , ,
t S+ (n 1) tij, j N \ {i}. ,
, n {tij}, j N,
(,
(. 3.2) ti- tii). xt*ijk = xt*ik , j, k N,
(44) xt*ij Arg max f j (qtij , xt*i1 ,..., xt*i , j -1 , xtij , xt*i , j +1..., xt*in ) , j N.
xtij X i

,
n {tij}, jN.
(44)
. , , ,
ti-.
, t, t S+, tm,
m N \{w (t)}, (, w (t) t), ti. tm
: t
( ti-).
, :

Nt = {k N | Itk ~ It } .
, ti- (, ,
tm-, m Nt )
tm-, m N. tk-, k Nt ,
xt*m , m Nt ,

89

. ,

xt*k , k Nt
(45) xt*k = arg max f k (qtk , xt*1 ,..., xt*, k -1 , xtk , xt*, k +1..., xt*n ) , k Nt .
xtk X k

(45) tk, k Nt . ( ),
xt* .
,
. (44)
(45) . ,

( N, {fi}, {Xi}, W
).
12.

N N : qk W, k N ,
xm* Xm, m N ,
k-, xk* , k N ,

xk* Arg max f k (q k , x1* ,..., xk* -1 , xk , xk* +1..., xn* ) , k N .


xk X k

.
( . 3.2), ( . 3.3),
( 3.4) ( ),
(,
, ) , , , , , , .

90

3.6.

, 1.2
,
, .
3.3
, I = (I1, I2, , In), Ii i-
, i N.
xi* ( I i ) 35 i- , Ii,
i N, x*(Ii)
. Yi
k
i- 36, y i i ( ki) i , i N. ,
, , ,
k, , k 1.
, g(I) I

g(I) = 1 + max {ki}.
iN


(46) X i* ( Y ) = U xi* ( I i ) ,
I i Y

Y Yi, i- , ,
Y, i N, 35

,
.
36

,
W . , .

91


Y:
(47) X*(Y) = U x* ( I ) .
I Y

W
k
y i i y ik i +1 , ki , i N, .
, (46) (47) . i-
Ii Yi
X * ( Yi ) = U x* ( I i ) , i N. I i Yi

(
), ? .
37,
.
:
k
(48) ki* = min {ki | X * ( Yi ) = X * ( Yi i ) }, i N.
, (48) , ,
, ,
,
, . .
(-

37

, , .

92

) .
.
, , .
i- 38
(49) vi = max min min fi(qi, xi, x-i), i N,
xi X i

x -i X -i

q i W

i-
Y Yi:
(50) vis (Y ) = min
fi(qi, x), i N.
*
yX ( Y )

(47), (49) (50) , vis (j ) vi, j Yi, i N.


,
. i-
:
s
(51) si* = min {si | vis ( Yi ) = vis (Yi i ) }, i N.
(51) , , ,
.
(48), (50) (51), .
13. si* ki* , i N.
13 , ,
,
. ,
,
,
38

, Y ,
qi W, i N.

93

,
.
13
(48), .
(
) .
.
,
( common knowledge). , ,
, (
), (
).
,
q 1, q 2 W

(52) EN(q1, q2) = {(x1(q1, q2), x2(q1, q2)) X |


" y1 X1 f1(q1, x1(q1, q2), x2(q1, q2)) f1(q 1, y1, x2(q 1, q 2))
" y2 X2 f2(q2, x1(q1, q2), x2(q1, q2)) f2(q2, x1(q1, q2), y2)}.
i- X-i W
:
BRi(W, X-i) =
U Arg max fi (q , xi , x-i ) , i = 1, 2,
x -i X -i , q W

xi X i


(53) EN = U E N (q1 , q 2 ) , E N0 =
EN (q , q ) ,
q 1 , q 2 W

(54) X i0 =

U x (q1 ,q 2 )

i
q 1 , q 2 W

q W

= Proji EN, i = 1, 2,

(55) X ik = BRi(W, X -ki-1 ), k = 1, 2, , i = 1, 2.


BRi(W, X-i): W X-i Xi
i- , i = 1, 2.
94

, (52)-(55).
14. E N0 EN, X ik X ik +1 , k = 0, 1, , i = 1, 2.
39 .
i- ,
X ik = X ik +1 , k = 0, 1, , i = 1, 2.
i- , i = 1, 2,
,
, ( , ).

Ii
. -, , . -,
,
,
, ,
, Ii. .
1. y i1 i- ,
i = 1, 2, ki = 1 ( qi),
: xi xij ( j i).
i- ij- ,
i- qi
( ). ,
X*(y i1 ) = E N0 .
2. y i2 i-
ki = 2 ( qi, qij), 40.
39


: ,
, ,
( , ) .
40

() .

95


: xi xij ( ). i- (, qi) , ij- , qij. i-
EN X*(y i1 ).
(
) :
xi xij xiji. i- (, qi) ,
ij- , , , iji- , i- qij. i- ij- iji- E N0 ,
, ij- ( i-)
Projj E N0 . ,
(56) X*(y i2 ) = BRi(W, Projj E N0 ) Projj E N0 X i1 X 0j .
EN X i0 X 0j , X*(y i1 ) X*(y i2 ),
(48) i .
3. y i3 i-
ki = 3 ( qi, qij, qiji), .
(
) :
xi xij xiji, i- (, qi) ,
ij- (, qij), , , iji-
( qiji). i- ij- iji- EN,

X*(y i3 ) = BRi(W, X 0j ) X 0j = X i1 X 0j .
(
) :
96

xi xij xiji xijij. i- (,


qi) , ij- (,
qij), , , iji-
, , ,
ijij- , i-
qiji. i-
iji- ijij- E N0 X i0 X 0j , , iji- ( i-)
Proji E N0 . ij- (
i-)
BRj(W, Proji E N0 ). ,
X*(y i3 ) = BRi(W, BRj(W, Proji E N0 )) BRj(W, Proji E N0 ) X i2 X 1j .
X*(y i2 ) X*(y i3 ), (48) i-
.
, , (Asymmetric)
i-
k
k -2
(57) AX i* ( Yi i ) = X i i , ki = 2, 3, ,
(Symmetric)
i-
(58) SX i* ( Yik i ) = BRi(W, BRj(W, Proji E N0 ), ), ki = 2, 3, .
k -1

k
SX i* ( Yi i ) X i i X i i ,
15, , ,
( ),
,
,
.
15. SX i* ( Yik i ) AX i* ( Yik i +1 ) , ki = 2, 3, .
15 ,
, k

97


, .
16. ,

X i* ( Y ) = X i0 , i = 1, 2.
16
,

[19, 62].
:
1) ,
X i0 X,

iN

( , . 11)
X ;
2) , X
. 12;
3) , X i0 ,
iN

( ) X
. 13;
11. fi(q, q) = xi xi2 / 2 (q + a xi), a (0; 1),
i = 1, 2, W = [0; 1]. BRi(qi, xj) = qi + a xj, j i, i, j = 1, 2.
: xi* (qi, qj) = (qi + a qj) / (1 a2),
j i, i, j = 1, 2. X i0 = [0; 1 / (1 a)], i = 1, 2. ,
, X ik = X i0 , k = 1, 2, , i = 1, 2 .
24.

98

x2

BR1 (1, x2 )

BR1 (0, x2 )

BR2 (1, x1 )

X 2k

EN
BR2 (0, x1 )

X1k

x1

. 24. 11
qi qj, , ,
[0; 1 / (1 a)]2.
( ) ,
- (. 2.3) . .
12.
f1(q, x1, x2) = q (1 x2) x1 x12 /2,
f2(q, x1, x2) = q x1 x2 x22 /2, W = [1/2 ;1], X1 = X2 = (0 ;1).
BR1(q, x2) = q (1 x2), BR2(q, x1) = q x1.
, EN
(2/5 ,1/5), (2/3 ,1/3), (1/2 ,1/2) (1/3 ,1/3), X 10 = [1/3 ;2/3],

X 20 = [1/5 ;1/2] (. 25).


99

x2

BR1(1/2, x2)

X 20

EN

X10

BR1(1, x2)

x1

X11

. 25. 12
X ik ai,k bi,k , i = 1, 2. :
a2,k+1 = a1,k , b2,k+1 = b1,k , a1,k+1 = (1 b2,k), a1,k , b1,k+1 = 1 a2,k ,
k = 0, 1, . :
ai,k+4 = a i,k , bi,k+4 = + b i,k , i = 1, 2, k = 0,1, .
, ai,k 0, bi,k 1 k , i = 1, 2.
U X ik = (0; 1) = X i , i = 1, 2. , ,
k 0

,
.
11 12 , i- (

100

UX

k
i

X i0 ,

k 0

, Xi, . ,
, ,
EN ,
.
13. W , .
: X1 = X2 = (c ;1 + c), c > 0. -
U X ik = (0; 1) , i = 1, 2, (0; 1) X i .
k 0


( ) . 14,
:
1. , ( (48));
2. ( ) { X ik };
3.
,
..
, , -,

[14, 39, 40],
. [117, 118].
, ,
, ,
, ( ) .
[18, 19, 34, 39].
[39], , ,
. , , 11 ,
101

. ,
,
.

.
,
, , .
3.7.
[62] (
):
- (
);
- ( );
- ( , ).

( , ):
- ;
-
;
- ,
( , ).
[19, 62], [62]. 102


.

(. (57) (58)),
, 41 , ( )
. , [19, 62].
( X
) F(),
.
,
(
,
i- ) ni.
n
n
(57) : AX i* ( Yi i ) = X i i - 2 .
, ,

n
X i i - 2 , , [58, 59],
.
x* , :
(59) x* = arg max
F(x1, x2, , xn),
n
{ x i X i i }iN

(52)-(58) ,
. (59)
, 16 (59) :
x* = arg max
F(x1, x2, , xn).
0
{ y i X i }iN

41

103

,
. x* X,
.
, X i0 ,
16, x* X 0 =

iN

. x* X0, .
, 15
ki* ( xi ) ,
, :
(60) ki* ( xi ) = min {k | xi* X ik - 2 }, i N.


.
,
, ,

( (60)). (57) (58) , xi* ,
( ,
).
42 (60) . xi Xi i-
,
:
(61) Uj(xi) = {xj Xj | $ q W : xi Arg max fi(q, xi, xj)}.
xi X i

42

, .

104

.
1. Uj(xi) = , ,
2.
2. xi X i0 , ki* ( xi ) = 2, 3.
3. Uj(xi) X 0j , ki* ( xi ) = 3, 4.
4.
U i ( x j ) X i0 ,

x j U j ( x i )

ki* ( xi ) = 4, 5.
5. .. , .


.
. , ,
,

43.

43

.

105

4.

( , , ),

. ,
44, (

) , .


.
4.1.
[4,
11, 12, 16, 20, 23, 30, 69, 75, 90, 91 .], ,
, .
, [91, . 4]. (
)
,
.
, , -,
,
44

,
( ),

.

106

. ,
, [62],
.
, , , , ( , ). ,
, , ,
.
, , , ,
. , -, ,
, , -,
,
(, 2- (
) ,
7).
(, ..) ,
,
.
(
) , .
,
.
( ),
.
,
, ,
, , ,
.

107

, .
( )
( )
(,

),
(
).
, (
,
, ).

,
.
, ,
, , ..,
[21, 55].
, -
, .. [11, 12,16, 20, 22, 27, 30 30,
49-51, 69, 75, 88, 91, 93 .].
, -

,
, . ,


. ,

,
108

[27, 33, 50, 88, 91, 93]


.
,
, ,
( , ,
[62] ),
.
( ,
, ,
..) ,
. ,
.
, ( , 1)
,
q1 = q. ,
( 2), ,
I12 = I2. ,
, , I212 = I2. ,
, ,
q2, q21, q212 .
, :
- , q2 ( );
- ,
q21 ( );
- , q212 ( );
- ,
q2 q21 ( );
- , q2 q212 ( );
109

- , q21 q212 ( );
- , q2, q21 q212 ( ).
,
, q2, q21 q212 W
. ,

[16]45 (
[83]).
. q
,
f2()
q1=q

q2
,
q12=q2
.
46
26 ,
. 26.


.
q2, , [62], ( ).

1 [18, 19, 21, 34] ( ), 45

, ( 36) (. 2, 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, 15-26,


28-31, 33, 35, 36),
(. ) (., , 2, 4, 5 .) ( /
).
46
, ()
q1, q12, q121 .., ()
q2, q21, q212 ..

110

, ,
. X2(q2) = Arg max f2(q2, x2)
x2 X 2

(
), q2 W.
.
,
q 2* W, .
, :
q 2* (q) = arg max max min f1(q, x1, x2).
wW

x1 X 1

x2 X 2 ( w )



,
x2
x1
27 ( x1 x2 ,
. 27.



).
7 ( ,
) 32 (
, ).
. q21.

q2 ,
. 28.

111

q
q1=q

q2

q12=q2

q21

q121=q21

. 28.

:
X2(q2, q21) = {x2 X2, x21 X1 |
" y2 X2 f2(q2, x21, x2) f2(q2, x21, y2),
" y1 X1 f1(q21, x21, x2, q21) f1(q21, y1, x21)}.
, I212 = I2 x212 = x2, , x2 .
( )
q2 q21, X2(q2, q21) :
q 21* (q) = arg max max
f1(q, x1, x2).
min
wW

x1 X 1

x 2 Proj 2 ( X 2 (q 2 , w ))


q2, , q2,
:
*
( q 2* (q), q 21
(q)) = arg max max
min
f1(q, x1, x2).
u,wW

x1 X 1

x 2 Proj 2 ( X 2 ( u , w ))

,
29.
112

(,
x2
x1
[16]):
- 1 ,
x21
, , . 29 .

;
- 3
;
- 6 ,
, ;
- 8 , ,
, ;
- 10 , , ;
- 14 , ,
, , ;
- 27 , , ,
, .

[16, 51, 91].
, 3 (. [16]) , ,
,
( ) .
,
, ,
, , q23
q31, q32 ..
113

, ,
,
. ,
(. ).
. [88, .235] ,
, , . , ,
, ,
. , . ,
. ,
, ,
,
, .
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
.
: qi
,
qij, .
, [32, 74]
(),
.
: ,
.
114

. .
( ). ,
.
,
- , .
, ,
,
(
).
. q212.

q2
q21, . ,
,
I212 = I2 q212 . 30.

115

q
q1=q

q2

q12=q2

q21

q121=q21

q212

q1212=q212

. 30. , ,

:
X2(q2, q21, q212) = {x2 X2, x21 X1, x212 X2 |
" y2 X2 f2(q2, x21, x2) f2(q2, x21, y2),
" y1 X1 f1(q21, x21, x212) f1(q21, y1, x212),
" y2 X2 f2(q212, x21, x212) f2(q212, x21, y2)}.
( )
q2 q21
q212,
X2(q2, q21, q212) :
*
q 212
(q) = arg max max
f1(q, x1, x2).
min
wW

x1 X 1

x 2 Proj 2 ( X 2 (q 2 ,q 21 , w ))


q2 / q21, ,
q2, :
*
*
( q 2* (q), q 21
(q), q 212
(q)) = arg max max
min
f1(q, x1, x2).
u ,w ,hW x1 X 1 x 2 Proj 2 ( X 2 ( u , w , h ))

116

,
31.

x2

x1
x21

x212

. 31. , ,
13 ( ,
,
)
34 ( ).
[16, 51, 91].
,
, .
.
4.2.
( , ..), (),
(
, ,
).
,
. .
117

,
[80, 85]. ,
.
, . , .
i- .
, j.
q W ,
.
,
..
qi W i- ,
qij W j- ,
..
, -, :
Xi = Xj = {a; r}, a (accept)
,
.., r (reject) ,
.. -, ,
W ,
g (good) b (bad), W = {g; b}.
( ) .
0 ( ). , Bi() W Xi ,
Bi: W Xi. : Bi(g) = a, Bi(b) = r, , , () , ( ),
.
[19, 62]
,
. ,
( ), : qi = g.
118

,
( ) . [5, 11, 12, 20,
23, 51, 69, 75, 80, 91].
1 ( ). , Bi() W ' qi W ' qij
Xi ,
Bi: W W Xi.
:
Bi(g, g) = a, Bi(g, b) = a, Bi(b, g) = r, Bi(b, b) = r,

Bi(g, g) = a, Bi(g, b) = r, Bi(b, g) = a, Bi(b, b) = r.


,
( ).
, ,
, . ,
( ), :
qi = g, qij , qij = g, qi .
,
qij
( ) ,
.
qij
Pepsi, , , ..;
, ..
2 ( ). , Bi() W ' qi , W ' qij 119

, W ' qiji
Xi , Bi: W W W Xi.
,
, :
" q W Bi(q, q, g) = a, Bi(q, q, b) = r.
, (
,
4.3.4).

, . , ( ),
: qiji = g.
, qiji

, .
,

[27, 50, 93]. qiji
?,
() ?, ( ) ? ..;
, ,
( ) ,
..
, ,

. -

120

47. ,
, .

(
) , .
4.3.
, ; ; ; .
,

.
4.3.1.


[28].
. -,
, (), .. [2].
-,
, ,

,
.. (. 47

, ,
,
,
!, ! ..

121

).
,
.
. q ( ) , q1
( ) (
, ), q2 (
) (, ),
q12 ..
, [37], (
). 48:
- ;
- ;
- ( );
- ;
-
;
- .

[37, . 137]: ,
.
( ) . . : ,
. ? ,
. :
. .
. , . ,

48

,
, , , .

122

,
49.
, , qi, i = 1, 2,
.
, , . qi
: ,
.
(. [35-37]) qij, i, j = 1, 2, .
, , qijk, i, j, k = 1, 2,
,
.
,
, 50 ( )
:
1. .
2. ( ).
3. (. ),
.
, , (,
, , ,
) ,
(. [35-37] ).
49

,
, , ,
, , -.
50
, , , ,
.

123

, , ,

.

.
4.3.2.

. [4].
,
,
. ,
(),
, ,
, ..
- .
, , , . .
[4, . 37].
( , ), , ,
.

. ( )
(ab), (c d), a, b, c, d W = {, , }
, , ,
. ,

124

, 32 3351, q1 = a (q121 = a),


q12 = b, q2= (q212 = ), q21 = d.
q
q
q1

q2

q12

q21

q2

q12

q1

q21

. 32.

q121

q212

. 33.

,
(q1 q12), (q2 q21) (q121 q12), (q212 q21).
( ).
, , ( ,
)
, , ,
, .
.
, 34.

51

,
(a = q1), (a = q121).

125

. 34.
(
: q121 = ),
(q12 = ).
( :
q212 = ,

:
q21 = ).
, .
4.3.3.



(. 35), [124, 125].




I
II

III
IV
126

. 35.

,
, , .
I (. 35) , .
II , , .
III , , .
IV , ( , ).

q , q1 , q2 .
,
q, q1 q2
W.
( I 35)
q1 q2, ( II)
q1 (q \ q2), ( III) q2 (q \ q1),
( IV) (q \ q1)(q \ q2). ,
q.
() , , q1 q,
q2 q. .

(, , ),
. (
), . ,
, (t-, |t| 2), t- .
127

4.3.4.

,
,
, . ,
(. ),
: , ,
... ,
. (. 3.2).
, .
.. [44, 46, 120-122]
[38, 81, 82, 92]
, .
, [122] , ( )
:
(. ). ,
. , , .
( 1 2)
1u 2u . (. 36).

128

1u

2u

. 36.
1u 2u
x1*u x 2*u
( ).
1 2, ( x1*u , x 2*u )
, .
,

x1 BR1 ( x2 , x1*u , x2*u ),


(62)
*
*
x2 BR2 ( x1 , x1u , x1u ).
(62) x1* x2* , .
4.4.
, ;
. .
129

,
,
, ,
.
, / . .

,
, 52 (,
, ..), .

(
)
.
, ( )
(.
4.1).
,
.
: ( ,
);
.
, :
; ;
52

, , , , ?

,
,
.

130

; ;
; 53.
( ) 37,
.

. 37.
,
37.
( ), ,
, (,
, ) .
.
, , ., ()
( , ).
(. 37) 54.
, (
,
) (
53

, , , , ,
.
54
.

131

) . 37
. 55.
:
1.
. :
.. ,

; , , .. ;
, , . , . , .- . , .. ,
.. .
2.
. : .. (); .. , .
() .
3. .
: , ,
,

.. ;

.. ; .. ;
. ; , . , . .
, :
4.
() .
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