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. 8 (3532)72-22-77,
-mail: arhirta@mail.ru
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Key Words: universal suffrage, principles of electoral law, electoral


personality, abridgement of electoral rights, electoral qualifications.
The article is devoted to comprehensive analysis of principles of universal
suffrage. The author provides theoretical justification of the principle of
universality and indicates the position of universality among other electoral
principles. Special attention is given to the problem of abridgement of electoral
rights. The article also contains the analysis of electoral qualifications both in the
history and nowadays.

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31



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460000, . , . , 50,
. 8 (3532)72-22-77,
post@oimsla.edu.ru

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Keywords: law-enforcement bodies, desertion, banditism, the Great


Patriotic War, crime, NKVD.
NKVD bodies of Southern Ural contributed to the victory over fascist
Germany. During the Great Patriotic War law-enforcement bodies had to deal
with matters not peculiar to peaceful time, such as cleaning of cities and torons
from criminals, providing safe evacuation of population, plants and factories.
NKVD bodies struggled with deserters, people spreading provocative rumors,
gangs and bands, stray and neglected children.
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42



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460000, . , . , 50,
. 8 (3532)72-22-77,
post@oimsla.edu.ru

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43

Keywords: public order, social security, ecological barrier, ideological


relations of society, public place, acceptance, social-legal categories, rules of
behavior, morals, traditions, violation of the law, drug addiction, meetings,
processions, demonstrations, vigil, catastrophes.
Article is devoted the relations, formed in public places, that is in places of
mens contact by satisfaction of their material, mental needs during the rest.
Topicality of this article is showed in the necessity to attract the attention
of scientific community, practical workers of securitys sphere of public order and
social safety for views forming to present this problem in the form of system, to
see all the constituents elements of persons security, society and state, to
investigate connection between the elements of common system, to model
complicated processes of ensuring of public order and social security, to forecast
possible conditions of the system, as well as to help to work out necessary
recommendations to the public authority.

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.: 8 (495) 691-34-90, mail: igpRAN@igpRAN.ru

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Keywords: The law, the doctrine on the law, Russian jurisprudence,


science of law.
Article is devoted research of doctrines about the law, developing in
Russian jurisprudence in first half 19 of century. Teoretiko-methodological bases,
informative and ideological value of doctrines about the law, a place in existing
philosophical and politiko-legal doctrines, the general and especial in sights at the
law of Russian scientists-lawyers of first half CIC of century are shown:
Z.A.Gorjushkina, L.A.Tsvetaeva, A.P.Kunitsyna, M.M.Speransky, K.A.nevolina,
etc.


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.

Keywords: Legislative (representative) bodies, subjects of the Russian


Federation, electoral system, two-chamber legislative body.
In article the author investigates the questions of formation of twochamber legislative (representative) bodies of state power in the Republic of Tyva
and Sverdlovsk region. The actuality of the theme is connected with proceeding
changes of the electoral system applied on elections of subjects of the Russian
Federation and search of its optimum model.

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460000, . , . , 50,
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post@oimsla.edu.ru

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.

Keywords: local government, organizational structures, municipal chief,


models of choice, preference criteria, conflict between two branches of power.
In the article arguments of advocates and opponents of choosing
municipal chiefs in Russian Federation from among deputies of representative
99

body are verified. On the ground of two criteria, degree of populations direct
influence on choice of people for three chief positions in municipality and on
probability of conflict situation between two branches of power in future,
comparison of three existed models of choosing municipal chiefs in Russian
Federation is provided.



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.

. ,
,
.

Key words: Trade Union, legal strikes, primary trade union organization,
individual contract of employment, prohibition court order, collective contract,
trade unions of the UK, trade unions of the USA.
World historical experience in the sphere of civil community development
shows that trade unions as one of the social institutions are the most important
elements of mechanism economy conditions. Actual recognition of trade unions
takes place under the pressure of labour movement and starts with the abolition of
criminal responsibility for trade union activity. From the beginning of the XX th
century trade unions and their striking activity gets legislative recognition in
almost all European states and the USA. Having appeared in the epoch of
industrial revolutions trade unions did not only vanish away in post-industrial
world but still keep their role of social regulator in different spheres of life.

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123



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, .

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.

.

Key words: political system, political organization, political party,


political competition, democracy, legal system, system analysis, modernization.
At present time modernization of the political system in Russian being
with discussion subject, as for scientific community the same for political elite.
The plan of D. Medvedev by the reform of the political system RF being with the
component of the program of modernization country. In the article has been

124

considering the main directions of the modernization of political system RF


according to of the Program of President RF.


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135

..,
..., , , ,
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460000, . , . , 50,
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post@oimsla.edu.ru
e-mail: svetlanashine1@rambler.ru

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;

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Key words: aesthetics, aesthetic consciousness, aesthetic values, aesthetic


categories, the aesthetic attitude, mass media, axiology, sociality, inculturality.

136

In article it is described, that means mass media influence construction of


aesthetic values of the person. Existing concepts of formation of aesthetic
representations and theories of psychological development are analyzed. The role
of mass media among other sources of influence, in formation of aesthetic
representations is defined. Dependence of a level of influence of mass media on
becoming representations about beauty from age of the person is traced.

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157

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Key Words: right, law, juridical positivism, legalism, law comprehension,


natural law, law initiation, lawmaking, enactment.
The analysis of interrelationship between rights and laws, presented in this
article, contributes to further enhancement of law comprehension and legislative
development. Recital of various concepts of law comprehension at different historical
stages of legal science substantiates and complements the characterization of law as a
complicated social phenomenon.


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460000, . , . , 50,
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Keywords: adoption, statistics, court, education, the orphan.


In the article the reasons, consequences and prospects of the decision of an
urgent question of a social orphanhood in the Russian Federation are consistently
173

considered. The judicial statistics on interstate and international adoption of


various regions of Russia is analyzed, certain tendencies and problems are
revealed, ways of their permission are offered.

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. 8 (3532)72-22-77,
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Keywords: bank an experiment partner, Recipient of a loan, Party of a


contract, Subjects of educational loans, Experiment
Currently

in

Russia

the

normative

documents

which

regulate

implementation of the experiment on government support to allot educational


loans are amend. First of all the amendments applied to subjects of educational
loan contract. The author gives classification of contract subjects and defines their
189

characteristic based on the given classification and on the general scheme of


interaction of educational loan contract subjects.

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..,
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460000, . , . , 50,
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post@oimsla.edu.ru
: , , push-, pull, 1886 ., 1961 .,
1974 ., - 1996 .,
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.

Keywords: telecommunication, broadcasting, push-technology, pulltechnology, Berne convention 1886, Rome convention 1961, Brussels convention
1974, WIPO Internet treaties 1996, WIPO Audiovisual performances treaty, right
of communication to the public, right of broadcasting, right of rebroadcasting and
retransmission, right of making available to the public.
The article deals with technological aspects of broadcasting and the
materials of Rome conference 1928, Brussels conference 1948, Rome convention
1961 and other. It is concluded that there is no uniform approach to international
protection of authors and performers broadcasting rights. Authors enjoy the
broadest protection. They have the right of communication to the public,
embracing any means and processes of broadcasting, and the right of
retransmission. Performers enjoy much narrower protection. They have the right
of communication to the public only in respect to live performances, whereas in
respect to fixed performances they have the right of broadcasting by pulltechnology and the rights of remuneration for broadcasting by push-technology.
Moreover performers dont enjoy the right of retransmission.
Considering it necessary having common legal concepts it is proposed that
authors and performers would enjoy the uniform right right of communication to
the public. This right must give authors and performers the possibility to authorize
four distinct acts - broadcasting, communication to the public by wire, making
203

available to the public and retransmission. At the same time the boundaries of
these possibilities may vary in accordance to international agreements.
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217

Telecommunication // Wikipedia org: . : 23.01.2010. URL: http://en.wikipedia. org/


wiki/Telecommunication ( : 23.01.2010).
2
Dilhac J-M. From tele-communicare to Telecommunications // IEEE org : . . : PDF. URL:
http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs_iportals/iportals/aboutus/history_center/conferences/che 2004/Dilhac.pdf
( : 23.01.2010).
3
., : Gokhale Anu A. Introduction to Telecommunications. 2 nd ed. N-Y : Cengage Learning, 2004. P. 2
a.o.
4
., : Protection of broadcasting organizations : Technical background paper prepared by the Secretariat
// WIPO, Standing committee on copyright and related rights, 7th session, 13-17 May 2002. Geneva. April 4, 2002.
P. 5. . : PDF. URL : http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/copyright/en/sccr_7/ sccr_7_8.pdf (
: 23.01.2010);
// ,
: 15 , 11-13 2006 ., , 31 , 2006. . 30. URL: http://www.wipo.int/edocs/
mdocs/copyright/ ru/sccr_15/ sccr_ 15_2.pdf ( : 23.01.2010).
5
: URL :
http://www.wipo.int/treaties/ru/ip/berne/berne.html ( : 23.01.2010).
6
: URL:
http://www.wipo.int/treaties/ru/ip/rome/rome_convention.htm ( : 23.01.2010).
7
1996 .
: URL: http://www.wipo.int/treaties/ru/ip/wppt/wppt.html ( : 23.01.2010).
8
: URL:
http://www.wipo.int/treaties/ru/ip/brussels/brussels.html ( : 23.01.2010).
9
. . // . . 1969-1978 //
bse.sci-lib.com : . : 23.01.2010. URL: http://bse.sci-lib.com/article109536.html (
: 23.01.2010). . . . : 23.01.2010. URL:
http://bse.sci-lib.com/article109539.html ( : 23.01.2010). . .
. . : 23.01.2010. URL: http://bse.sci-lib.com/article094985.html ( :
23.01.2010).
10
// Wikipedia.org: . : 23.01.2010. URL: http://ru.wikipedia.org
/wiki/_.
11
., : Protection of broadcasting organizations: terms and concepts: Working paper prepared by the
Secretariat // WIPO, Standing committee on copyright and related rights, 8th session, 4-8 November 2002. Geneva.
August 16, 2002. P. 6. . : PDF. URL: http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/copyright /en/sccr_8/
sccr_8_inf_1.pdf ( : 23.01.2010).
12
., : Protection of broadcasting organizations: Technical background paper ... P. 11; Study on the
Socio Economic Dimension of the Unauthorized Use of signals : Part I : Current Market and Technology Trends in
the Broadcasting Sector // Screen Digest Ltd, London: WIPO, Standing committee on copyright and related rights,
19th session, 11-14 December 2009. Geneva. November 30, 2009. P. 13-14. . : PDF. URL :
http://www.wipo. int/edocs/mdocs/copyright/en/sccr_19/sccr_19_12.pdf ( : 23.01.2010).
13
Study on the Socio Economic Dimension. P. 14.
14
push- push .
15
pull- pull .
16
., : Protection of broadcasting organizations: Technical background paper ... P. 11-12.

218

17

Berne convention for the protection of literary and artistic works : Rome act, 1928 // Ricketson S., Ginsburg Jane
C. International copyright and neighbouring rights: The Berne Convention and Beyond. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. New York
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Appendix, p. 16 // oup.com : companion website. . :
PDF. URL: http://www.oup.com/uk/booksites/content/9780198259466/15550019 ( 24.01.2010).
18
Ibid.
19
Ibid.
20
Records of the Conference : General Report on the Work of the Brussels Diplomatic Conference for the Revision
of the Berne Convention, 1948, June 25-26 // Ricketson S., Ginsburg Jane C. Op. cit. // oup.com : companion
website. . : PDF. URL: http://www.oup.com/uk/booksites/content/9780198259466 /15550028
( 24.01.2010).
21
Berne convention for the protection of literary and artistic works : Brussels Act, 1948 // Ricketson S., Ginsburg
Jane C. Op. cit. // oup.com : companion website. . : PDF. URL: http://www.oup.com
/uk/booksites/content/9780198259466/15550020 ( 24.01.2010).
22
Ibid.
23
Ibid.
24
Diplomatic Conference on the Protection of Audiovisual Performances : Memorandum of the Director General //
WIPO, Assemblies of the Member States, 36th Series of Meetings, September 24 to October 3, 2001. Geneva. June
18, 2001. P. 1. . : Doc. URL: www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/govbody/en/a_36/a_36_9.doc (
: 24.01.2010).
25
Op. cit. P. 5.
26
Op. cit. P. 6.
27
Ibid.
28
Ibid.

219


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Keywords: a society with limited liability, the notary, a share, a share part
in an authorised capital stock.
Article is devoted actual problems of an order of the certificate by the
notary of the transactions directed on alienation, pledge of a share, a share part in
an authorised capital stock of societies with limited liability. Those obligatory
actions which the notary should make at the certificate of the specified
transactions are analysed, those documents which are necessary for obtaining on
220

demand for the certificate of contracts of alienation, pledge of a share, a share


part in an authorised capital stock of societies with limited liability are resulted
and opened.


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:
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Key Words: law of succession, successor, testator, universal succession,


inheritance, testament, intestate succession.
The institute of succession law occupies a superior place in Roman Civil
law. Roman lawyers worked out and recorded fundamentals of law of succession,
which are relevant even nowadays. Roman succession law is a feather in Roman
lawyers' cap but even now this law is subject to continuous change. The analysis
236

of succession law concepts needs both the historical survey and the research study
of present-day context.

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The article is devoted to revealing and research of some aspects of


displaying of a principle of competitiveness in court of the first instance, at a trial
247

in essence. Certain attention in this scientific work is given to an estimation of


activity of court and the parties as equally important participants of competitive
process. The author considers the concept according to which competitiveness in
civil process matters as one of the characteristics defining its development from
the point of view of the material (substantial) part. Some proposals aimed at
perfection of the operating of modern remedial legislation were made by the
author.


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Key words: action, prerequisites, inheritance, Jurisdiction.


In the article the author examines the theoretical and practical problems of
implementing the right to sue related to inheritance, to examine his assumptions
and conditions. Particular attention is paid to issues of jurisdiction and
admissibility of cases.

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290

Key words: systematic interpretation; general & special rules; general &
exclusive rules; rule-principle; arrangement of legal rule.
The article examines the problems of systematic interpretation of criminal
procedural rules in system with other rules of criminal procedural code. The
author analyzes correlation of general & special rules, general & exclusive rules,
rules-principles & other rules of criminal procedural code, as well as question
about force of legal rule depending on its arrangement in the criminal procedural
code.

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76CCBD0112BB6231A5DB28001B ( 22.02.2010).
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310



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Keywords: the scientific view points of different authors, special legal


status, the civil plaintiff, participant of the criminal proceedings relationships,
crime victim, enjoying full rights.
This article contains the investigation of several problems and actual
questions which connected with the special legal status of the civil plaintiff as
an enjoying full rights participant of the criminal proceedings relationships.

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Key Words: guilty mind, value, norm, obligation, conscience, criminal


intent, negligence, psychic attitude, consciousness, psychics, motive, objective,
emotions.
The article gives consideration to social roots of guilt and clears up the
substance and nature of guilty mind.


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345



..,
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460000, . , . , 50,
. 8 (3532)72-22-77,
post@oimsla.edu.ru
..,

, , .

,

.

Key Words: counterfeit, document forgery, falsification, public officer,


enactment.
The author carries out a historical survey of the evolution of counterfeit as
a criminal law concept, and then identifies development trends of the Russian
legislation concerning counterfeit.

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460000, . , . , 50,
. 8 (3532)72-22-77,
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: ,
,

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,
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Keywords: adversarial principle, contestable, procedural equality of


parties, the separation of basic criminal procedure functions.
The paper highlights concern procedural issues related to the division of
criminal procedural functions, considered as one of the elements of the
adversarial principle. The author presents a theoretical definition of criminal

366

procedural functions and justified idea of the need to distinguish criminal


procedure functions on the basic and other (auxiliary).

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373

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: 8 (3952) 211-817, e-mail: smirnova-ig@mail.ru

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Key words: criminal procedure, social value, criterion, the aim of criminal
procedure, criminal and procedural policy, public opinion
The article highlights the necessity of axiological assessment of the criminal
procedure with the aim of supporting the efficiency of changes included in criminalprocedural legislation.
The matching assessment of the criminal procedure, its aims, order and
results have the constant character and is possible at any stage: the realization of
value system that must be fixed by law and the factual realization of normative
prescripts. Consequently, it is necessary to choose such criteria of social value
assessment of criminal procedure that can be applied at any above-mentioned
stages. The following criteria form the system:
-

Normative criterion that defines the aim of criminal procedure;

Regulatory criterion that means the criminal and procedural policy;

Actual criterion in other words the public opinion.

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judicial.
In the article the maintenance of the poorly studied concept of criminal
trial the Judicial discretion is considered. Following elements of the
maintenance of the judicial discretion are allocated: the legal fact (structure),
382

as the basis of occurrence and application of the judicial discretion; internal


belief, as the subjective element influencing a choice of alternatives; analogy of
the law and analogy of law; application practice of and a state policy in the
field of criminal trial, legality and justice principles, as the objective elements
influencing a choice of alternatives. In the work the examples of the influence
of substantial elements judicial discretion on a choice of alternatives within in
criminal trial.

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Keywords: criminal procedure, judicial authorization, the measure of


restraint, detention, the facts, evidence, the validity of suspicion, the validity of
the charges, guilty of committing a crime.
The article discusses the problem of investigating the court issues with
some of the suspected or accused of committing a crime in the election,
extension or cancellation penalties. Different points of view available in the
science on this issue, the position of the Constitutional Court and the Plenum of
the Supreme Court of Russia, the European Court of Human Rights.
Substantiates the author's approach to addressing this issue and the wording of
the proposed changes to the text of the Code.


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Key words: rulings of the Plenum of Supreme Court of the Russian


Federation, purpose of criminal procedure, violation of criminal procedural law,
administered justice, revisory origin of review, doctrine of contentiousness,
permissive origin of criminal procedure, essential elements of petition of appeal
(filing petition)
The article represents the author's approach concerning the regulatory
activity of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation with regard to confines of
appellate judicial review in accordance with the RF Code of Criminal Procedure.
406


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Key Words: an individual carrying on administrative functions,


organization-regulatory functions, executive functions, profit-making organization,
non-profit organization.
The article deals with characteristic features of a special subject of crimes
against service interests in commercial and other organizations, and then
particularizes characteristics associated with their criminal prosecution.


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Key words: water body, water body safeguard, water protection zone,
government control over keeping and usage of water bodies, legal responsibility
for water law violations.
The article deals with ecological state of water bodies in the Russian
Federation including but not limited to Orenburg region. The author carries out
analysis of principal legal measures of protection and responsibility for water law
violations.

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Key words: farm, agricultural commodity producer, agent in agriculture.


The article is devoted to the problems appeared in theory and practice of
legal regulation of the farms. In particular there are some matters of
determination of legal status of the farm and its owner, implementation of legal
personality of farming, its determination as a special agent of entrepreneurial
agricultural activity.

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The key words: ecological safety, environmental protection, state control


in the sphere of ecology.
The problem of legislative adjustment of ecological safety in the Russian
Federation is considered in this article, the terminology is determined, the
attention is paid to the international legal attachment of the ensuring ecological
safety.

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Keywords:
Accounting Expertise costs - the study and solution of experienced
specialists on accounting and tax reporting costs, since their recognition and
legitimacy for inclusion in the cost.
Forensic expertise - an analysis of the knowledgeable person on the
instructions of the court or the investigator at its disposal various documents
(evidence) to establish the evidence relevant to the proper settlement of the case.
Costs - it is economically reasonable, documented costs of a commercial
organization, it made for activities under the constituent documents.
The article examines the state of accounting expertise costs of
organizations at the present stage of development. The author notes that the
possibility of accounting expertise, as a method of financial control, use only the
investigating authorities and courts. The concrete examples in which the
conclusion of accounting expertise is evidence-base in cases of arbitration courts.
Therefore, the author pays particular attention to those cases where you
can effectively use accounting expertise, as a method of financial control.
The article deals with the reasons for the underutilization of cost
accounting expertise at the present stage. Particularly highlighted the ambiguous
approach to the implementation of this method of control from the owners of
organizations.
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Keywords: simplified taxation system, special tax regime, small business,


Perestroika, market relationships.
The development of small businesses is one of the key aspects in the
process of enhancing the economic growth of the Russian Federation. A simplified
taxation system provides adequate conditions for the implementation of this
development. The author of the article examines the rationale and settings, as well
as the dynamics of the development of the simplified taxation system in Russia.

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490

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. 8 (3532)72-22-77,
post@oimsla.edu.ru
: , ,
,
.
-
.

Key Words: international treaties, biological diversity, preservation of


rare and endangered animal species, preservation of habitat and animal migration
routes.
The article is dedicated to International Law concern for preservation of
rare and endangered animal species. Emphasis is placed on analysis of substance
and practical application of international treaties of the Russian Federation in the
area of biological diversity conservation.

491

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514

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, ,
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515

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,

,
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Keywords: the Social state, individual business, public social function,


socially focused business, social responsibility, restrictions of enterprise activity,
internal social function of business, external social function of business, subsidiary
social responsibility of individual business.
Formation in modern Russia socially focused individual business
represents a necessary and major component of development of the Russian
Federation, as social state with market economy. In the scientific article the author
considers ways and limits of influence of the state on socially responsible
behaviour of business, analyzes the approaches offered by jurisprudence to a
question on social responsibility of business, formulates offers on legislation
improvement, proves expediency of introduction in a scientific turn of a category
subsidiary social responsibility of individual business.

1
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Keywords: social policy to Russian Federation, labor relations, legal


warranties of the labor rights, warranties in sphere of the labour, warranty
payments, additional charges, ways of the ensuring the labor rights, warranties
of protection of the labor rights workman.
In article author analyses the practical person-legal problems,
connected with using acting normative-legal base, adjusting granting warranty
535

and compensation workman in situation, installed and clearly determined by


labor legislation.
We shall Consider the questions a warranty and compensation, their
legislative determination, as well as obligatory using in determined events.



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Keywords: investment agreements, investment process, the international


investment law, the foreign investor, the foreign investment.
The article contains complex research of the legal nature of investment
agreements on the basis of the analysis of the points of view of the Russian and
foreign scientists, norms and acts of international Law and current legislation of
the Russian Federation in this field. The problematics of the given theme includes
544

consideration of an international legal and national-legal componenst, allocation


of administrative and civil elements, and also differentiation of investment
agreements from other civil-law contracts. Practical examples, including judicial
practice are given in the article.

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5
. . 17.12.1994.
16.04.1998. ( 16.12.1994 1390).
2

566

Wuhler N. Mixed Arbitral Tribunals // Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Bernhardt). Vol. 1. 1981. P.
142146; Rahmatullan Khan. The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal: controversies, cases and contribution. The
Netherlands, 1990. P. 8390; Toope S. J. Mixed International Arbitration: studies in arbitration between states and
private persons. Cambridge, 1990.
7
. . , // . .:
, 1995. . 1618.
8
.., ..
. ., 1992. . 118.
9
. . .: , 1901. . 56.
10
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15
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, , . ., 1975. . 40; . .
41 - 53.
16
. . ., 1973. . 164 - 185.
17
.. : . - . ., 1976. . 6 26.
18
Fischer P. Die Internationale Konzession. Wien - New York, 1974. S.108-120
19
.. ., . 2002. . 10.
20
. . 11.
21
Schwarzenberger G. Op. cit. P. 117; Nwougugu E. Op. cit. P. 40.
22
.. ( ). ., 1969. . 59.
23
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24
., ..
// . 1999. 9. . 36.
25
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26
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567


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22 2004 122

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.

.

Key words: the object of social welfare benefits to the specialists of state
health service working and living in the countryside and settlements of city type,
mechanism of relation of rules of law, Constitutional Court of the Russian
Federation, responsibility of subjects of the legal relationships of social welfare.
This article is devoted to providing benefits to state health service
specialists, working and living in the countryside and settlements of city type.
568

According to the law from the 22nd of August 2004 122 skilled specialists in the
countryside are from the category of citizens equally protected by state. After the
1st of January 2005they were unfortunately divided into groups according to their
social protection. This question is analysed in this article on the base of concrete
decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.

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..,
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460000, . , . , 50,
. 8 (3532)72-22-77,
post@oimsla.edu.ru

: , ,
.
,
.
.

Key words: teaching of foreign languages, speech intercourse, speech


intercourse teaching.
The author of the article analyzes the terms speech intercourse, speech
intercourse teaching. There are also questionnaire data carried out among
students and teachers in the article.


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12. .. : - .- ., 2002.- 216 .

588



..,
..., ,
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460000, . , . , 50,
. 8 (3532)72-22-22,
post@oimsla.edu.ru
: , , ,
,

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,
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Key words: higher education, educator, humanization, bilingualism,


interference, methods of teaching foreign languages, modern technology,

intercultural communication, information technology, visual expression, business


play, authentic text, project selection, modernization, autonomy, professionalism,
personality development.
Treating language acquisition as means of intercultural communion
requires an alternate approach to teaching methodology, enlargement of
professional knowledge and skills, development of educator's communicative
proficiency, elaboration of modern teaching technologies. The article deals with
such approaches and issues of foreign language teaching, as communicative
instruction

method,

person-oriented

educational

work,

autonomy

of

undergraduates in the course of learning foreign languages, information


technology in language teaching, didactic and psychologic principles of visual
expression, use of business plays in seminars.

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/ . ...,
... -- .: , 2004. .197, 200, 203.
2
. .: , 2006. -.56.
3
. .: , 2006.
.59.
4
Ibidem. .162.
5
Ibidem. .339.
6
Ibidem. .209.

605

..,
..., , ,
() . .. ,
460000, . , . , 50,
. 8 (3532)72-22-22,
post@oimsla.edu.ru
: , , ,
, ,
, .

, ,
, :

,
, .

Key words: assessment, testing, test item, test procedure stages, validity,
reliability, criterion of estimation and interpretation of test scores.
The article deals both with some academic questions of testing in teaching
of foreign languages (such as character and particularity of testing, basic
requirements to test content and its procedure, distinctive features of various kinds
of tests, primary advantages and disadvantages of testing) and also with various
examples of test techniques being used in Orenburg Institute of MSLA.

606



( ,
),
, .

.
,
,
,
,

.
, ,
.

" ".


, ; ,
,
.

,
1, :
-

, ,

, " "
;
-

;
607

, ,
, ;
-

;
-

;
-


;
-

2.


, ,
(, ), .
, ,
/ ,

. .
-, (
,

),

,
,

, -
.

608

-, ,
,
- .
, ,

,

,
, .
, ,
.
( )

, :
-

(language arts view): 1) (listening), 2) (speaking),


3) (reading), 4) (writing);
-

(communicative
(grammatical

competence
competence)

view):

1)

(phonology),

(morphology), (syntax) (semantics); 2)

(pragmatic

competence)

(sensitivity to illocution); 3)
(discourse competence)
(rhetorical organization), (coherence)
(cohesion) ; 4) (strategic competence)

(interaction

skills),

(interaction

patterns),

(non-verbal features of interaction).


609

, ,
,
:
(receptive tests);

(productive

tests);

""

(open-

""

ended tests)

,
(objective tests)

(criterion-

(norm-referenced tests)

referenced tests)

(knowledge-based tests)


(performance
tests)

(discrete-point tests)


(integrative tests)

(verbal tests)

(written tests)

(proficiency tests)

(achievement tests)

(formative assessment), ,
610

(summative
assessment).
"" ;


.

. ,
,
.
, ,
(test
items). ,
: 1) , 2)
, 3) , , 4)
( ).

:
-

(limited response); ,


"" "";
-

(multiple-choice); :

;
-

" " (matching);


-

(ranging);

(editing);

(labelling);
611

; , (paraphrasing);
-

, (ordering);
-

(information transfer);

(grammatical transformation);

(crossing-out odd items);


-

" " (cloze test

c-test).


:
-

" ":

Task. In each line cross out an odd word.


1) unbearable, incomprehensible, unexplainable, unaccountable
2) unforgettable, memorable, unacceptable, never-to-be-forgotten
3) positively, relatively, comparably, respectively
4) responsibility, audibility, accountability, liability
5) reasonableness, credibility, sensibility, believability
6) decision, measurement, judgment, resolution
7) belonging, scholarship, possession, ownership

; "Mafia a Global Problem"

():

612

Task. Match the headings with sub-paragraphs:


1) Computer-related crime.
2) Corruption and bribing public figures, and elected officials.
3) Illicit arms trade.
4) Trade in humans.

a. Armed conflicts in hot spots world-wide are fuelled by an international


network of arms producers and suppliers. The most dangerous aspect of these
crimes is illicit trafficking in radioactive materials.
b. As soon as governmental and commercial organizations started making
intensive use of computers, the Mafia reached out for computer networks.
Organized crime is making active use of all computer-related facilities.
c. This crime has been gaining momentum and includes transporting
illegal immigrants to their destinations, procuring women for prostitution, hiring
people for slave labour, acquiring household servants from developing countries,
and selling children for illegal adoption for enormous sums.
d. This activity is not subject to punishment in a number of countries.
Under the veil of commission or fees for consultancy, intermediation or legal
services, bribes have become part of business overheads world-wide.

; "Criminal law":

Task. Rearrange the words given in the frame in the following order:
accused, acquitted, convicted, death row inmate, defendant,
executed, executioner, prisoner, suspect

1) , 2) , 3) , 4) ,
5) , 6) , 7) ,
8) , 9)

; "Criminal law":
613

Task. Look at the list of crimes in the box, and then look at the categories
below. Decide which category each one comes under (some crimes can be listed
under more than one category):
1) crimes against the person
2) crimes against property
3) public order offences
4) road traffic offences
5) political offences
6) offences against justice

abuse of office, arson, assassination, assault, battery, bigamy, blackmail,


bribery, burglary, conspiracy, contempt of court, corruption, counterfeiting,
defamation, drug dealing, drunk driving, embezzlement, espionage, extortion,
forgery, fraud, grievous bodily harm, hijacking, hooliganism, kidnapping, larceny,
manslaughter, money laundering, mugging, murder, perjury, pick pocketing,
piracy, poaching, rape, robbery, sedition, shoplifting, smuggling, tax evasion,
terrorism, theft, treason, vandalism
- (cloze test),

, ,
. "cloze"

- "closure",
( )

(,

, , ) .
- "Forms of Business
Organization", :
614

(gap-filling with

fixed-ratio deletion); : 6- :
The primary players in a (1)___ are the shareholders, directors, and (2)___.
Shareholders are the investors in, (3)___ owners of, a corporation. They (4)___,
and sometimes remove, the directors, (5)___ occasionally they must vote on
(6)___ corporate transactions or operations. The (7)___ of directors is the top
(8)___ body. Directors establish corporate policy (9)___ hire officers, to whom
they (10)___ delegate their obligations to administer (11)___ manage the
corporations affairs. Officers (12)___ the day-to-day business affairs and (13)___
the policies the directors establish.

(gap-filling with rational

deletion, variable-ratio method); : :


The primary players (1)___ a corporation are the shareholders, directors,
(2)___ officers. Shareholders are the investors (3)___, (4)___ owners (5)___, a
corporation. They elect, (6)___ sometimes remove, the directors, (7)___
occasionally they must vote (8)___ specific corporate transactions (9)___
operations. The board (10)___ directors is the top governing body. Directors
establish corporate policy (11)___ hire officers, (12)___ whom they usually
delegate their obligations to administer and manage the corporations affairs.
Officers run the day-to-day business affairs (13)___ implement the policies the
directors establish.

(intermix of letters); :

:
The primary players in a corporation are the shareholders, directors, and
officers. Shareholders are the investors in, and owners of, a corporation. They
cetle, and sometimes vemore, the directors, and occasionally they must otve on
specific corporate transactions or operations. The board of directors is the top
615

governing body. Directors bessilath corporate policy and hier officers, to whom
they usually gadelete their obligations to mardiniste and anamge the
corporations affairs. Officers nru the day-to-day business affairs and memiplent
the policies the directors bessilath.

(partial word reconstruction):


The prim--- players in a corporation a-- the shareholders, direct---, and
officers. Shareholders are the investors i-, and owners of, a corporation. They ele--,
and someti--- remove, the directors, and occasion---- they must vote on spec---corporate transac----- or operations. The bo--- of directors is t-- top governing
body. Directors estab---- corporate pol--- and hire officers, t- whom they usually
dele---- their obligations to admin----- and manage the corporations affa---.
Officers run the day-to-day business affairs and implem--- the policies the directors
establish.

(sentence

reconstruction):
The primary players (a corporation, and, are, directors, in, officers, the
shareholders). Shareholders elect and (and, corporate, must vote on, occasionally,
remove, sometimes, specific, the directors, they, transactions or operations). The
board of directors (body, governing, is, the top). Directors establish (and, and
manage, corporate policy, hire officers, the corporations affairs, their obligations,
they usually delegate, to administer, to whom). Officers run the day-to-day (and,
business affairs, establish, implement, the directors, the policies).

, (cloze-elide procedure);
7 :
616

The primary players instrument in a corporation are the shareholders,


directors, and officers. Shareholders are the investors in given, and owners of, a
corporation. They elect, and sometimes direction remove, the directors, and
occasionally they must vote on specific corporate transactions or operations count.
The board of directors is the top deficient governing body. Directors establish
corporate policy and hire officers, to whom they in usually delegate their
obligations to administer and manage the corporations affairs. Officers run once
the day-to-day business affairs and implement the policies the directors establish.
-
,
, :
-

( )

" ",
(cloze dictation partial dictation);
-

,
;
,
; :
The primary players in a corporation are (1)___, directors, and (2)___.
Shareholders are (3)___. They elect, and sometimes remove, the directors, and
occasionally they must (4)___ or operations. The board of directors is the top
(5)___. Directors establish (6)___ and hire officers, to whom they usually (7)___
to administer and manage (8)___. Officers run the day-to-day business affairs and
(9)___ the directors establish.

, , ,
, ; ,
617

,
:
The primary players (1)___ are the shareholders, directors, and officers.
Shareholders are (2)___, and (3)___. They elect and sometimes remove (4)___ and
occasionally they must vote on specific corporate (5)___. (6)___ is the top
governing body. Directors establish corporate policy and hire officers, to whom
they usually delegate their obligations to administer and manage (7)___. Officers
run (8)___ and implement the policies the directors establish.

,
:
i) :
-

,
;
-

;
-

, ;
-

, ,
; ,
10 ;
-

, ;

, ;
, ;
-

;
618

,
;
-

;
-

; /

( /
);
ii) :
-

;
-

;
-

;
-

(authenticity),
(validity) ;
(reliability).

.
(authenticity)
" " :
-

, ,

;
-

;
, ,
;
619

, ;
,
.
(reliability)
:

-? ,
,
, ,
(replicability) (comparability).
:
-

);
-

, );
-

( , );

(facility value);

80%,
;
-

(, , ).
:
-

(test-retest procedure);
-

,

50 50 (split-half
procedure);
620

(alternate, equivalent or parallel forms)


-

, (independent
review)3.
(validity)
:
, ?
.
:
-

() (face validity)


, ;
:
;
;
; ;
;
;
-

(construct validity) -


, "" ,

, , ,
;
"" ,

;
-

(content

validity)

;
621


,
;
-

(criterion-related

validity)

, ,
(concurrent validity), ,

(predicative

validity),


4.

, -
.

, ,
,

. ,
:
, ?
? ,
, ,
, ?
,

, ?
?5
,
,
" " (Assessment Bill of Rights),
:
622

i)

(, ,

) ;
ii) , ,
,
,
,
;
iii)
;
iv)
;
v)


; ,
;
vi) ,


;
vii)

,
,
;
viii)
,
,
,
.6

623


:
-

;
-

,
;
-

;
-

;
-

;
-

;
- ;
-

, ,
7.

:
) :
i)

, ,

, ,

;
624

ii) , :
, ;
iii) , :
,
, ,
;
iv)


;
v)

15

(access skills), :
(seeing); (listening);

(reading);

(attending);

(processing information in a timely manner);


(remembering); (writing);
(spelling)

(following

directions);

(locating test items); ,


(locating answer spaces);
(working for a sustained period of
time); (sitting
quietly); () (erasing
completely); , (working alone);8
) :
i)

, ,


;
ii) ,
;
625

iii)
,
, - ;
)

" " :

i)

, , ,
,
; ,

;
ii)
;
iii)
;
iv)
, ;
v)

,
.

, : 1)

() , 2)
,
.

.

,
.
626

(Knoch, 2007)9
:

(accuracy):

(percentage error-free t-units);


(fluency):

) (cross-outs);

(complexity):

" ,
" (Academic Word List AWL)10, 570
, 10
;
(style):


(hedging devices);
, , ,

, , ,
(can, may, ought (to), must, could, might, shall,
should, will, would), (: think,
believe, seem), (: to some/a certain extent),

(:

(:

perhaps,

probability,

presumably,

probably),

possibility),

(: probable, possible);
-

5-

(paragraphing):

(five paragraph model),

(introductory

paragraph),

(three body paragraphs) (conclusion


paragraph);
627

(content):

;
-

(cohesion):

"" ;
"this/these",
;
-

(coherence)

(topical structure analysis),


,
(topical depth), "",
(theme topic), "" ,
(rheme comment),
(:
(parallel progression),
(sequential progression) (extended parallel
progression).

,

,
:
-

(exactness) - ,


,
,
;
-

(pronounciation)

,
;
628

(coordination) - ,

, ,
,
,
;
-

(sensitivity to illocution)

(rhetorical organization),

(interaction

patterns)

(interaction skills),
-

(efficiency).

. 1 ,
, ;
,

- , ,

. ,
,
. , ,

.

629

. 1. (Bohman, 2001).11
, ,

, . ,
,

;
,
.
,
.
630

, ,
,
, . ,
,
. , ,
,
" " ,
.

,
.
, " ",
" - ".
,
( ,

,
), ,
.
12:
-


;
-

;
-

;
-

;
631

,
;
-

;
-

(:

..);
-

,
;
-

;
-

.
- ,
,
, :
-

, ,

,
;
-


;
;
-

(,

, ,
;
, );
632


;
,

;13
-

,
"",
,

;
-

: "
, -

,
. , , ,
. ,

, ".14



. , ,
:
- (rendering):

; ;
- , , , (describing);
- (writing to dictation);
633

- ,
,
(annotating);
- (simple
completion);
- (solving cross-words and puzzles);
- - (essay writing);
- , (exposition);
-
(declamation and colloquy);
- (case study method);
- (projects) (presentation);
- (imaginary guided
tour);
- (role playing);
- (conference or interview);
- (portfolio);
- (journal);
- (observation);
- - (peer- and self-assessment).
, ,
, :
1.

,
, , ,
, ,
, , - .

634


.
2.

, .
, :
-

:
, , ;
-

( ), (
),
( );
-


, ,

Wiggins, Grant P. Assessing Student Performance: Exploring the Purpose and Limits of Testing.- San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1993.- . 13.
2
Brown, Douglas H. Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practice.- Longman, 2003.- . 16.
3
Gipps, Caroline V. Beyond Testing: Towards a Theory of Educational Assessment.- London: The Falmer Press,
1994.- . 67.
4
Boyle, James. Educational Testing: A Competence-Based Approach.- BPS Blackwell, 2007.- . 65.
5
Wiggins, Grant P. Assessing Student Performance: Exploring the Purpose and Limits of Testing.- San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1993.- . 6.
6
Wiggins, Grant P. Assessing Student Performance: Exploring the Purpose and Limits of Testing.- San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1993.- . 28.
7
Wiggins, Grant P. Assessing Student Performance: Exploring the Purpose and Limits of Testing.- San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1993.- . 26.
8
Kopriva, Rebecca J. Improving Testing for English Language Learners.- New York: Routledge, 2008.- . 242.
9
Language Testing Journal, 2009; 26;161.- http://www.sagepublications.com.- . 280.
10
. http://simple.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Academic_word_list
11
Language Testing Journal, 2009; 26;161.- http://www.sagepublications.com.- . 163.
12
Boyle, James. Educational Testing: A Competence-Based Approach.- BPS Blackwell, 2007.- . 128.
13
http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/325852
14
Brown, Douglas H. Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practice.- Longman, 2003.- . 113.

635



..,
,
() . .. ,
460000, . , . , 50,
. 8 (3532)72-22-77,
post@oimsla.edu.ru
: ; -;
; ; ; ;

; ; ;
; , .
.
,



, ,
, , ,
.

Key words: problems of translation and interpretation; law students;


interpretation error; idiomatic expressions; dialects; technical language; legal
language; sign languages; bilingualism; balanced bilingualism; domain of
language; culture; cultural differences; miscommunication; client's prior legal
system.
636

The article is devoted to the problems of translation and interpretation in


the legal sphere. The author shows why an understanding of the nature of
language and the role of culture in communication is necessary for an accurate
conveyance of meaning. The article highlights the importance of teaching law
students about why they need to acquire an understanding of the complexity of
language, the process of language acquisition, the cultural differences expressed
through languages, as well as the role of the interpreter and skills necessary to
interpret successfully in order to communicate respectfully and accurately with a
client.

,
.
,

.
,
, (Vicky Funes-Torres), , ,

[5]. ,
, If you do
not have an attorney, we will furnish one for you ( ,
) -
, (
to furnish ,
,
).

(Linda

Friedman

Ramirez

and

Leslie

Kay),

,
637

, [9].
: 1)
, ; 2) ,
,
, , ; 3)
; 4) , ; 5)

, 6)
, [9,12].

,

, ,
.
,
, :
.
How to Make An American Quilt
; (the English Patient)
, ; The Professional
, As Good As It Gets -
. ,
, -
,
.


,
638

[11].
-, ,
- ,
[11].
, s good as it gets - .
,
, ,
[3]. ,
, - "The job only took two hours; it was a piece of
cake (a piece of cake - , ).... It was just a plain
vanilla sort of house (, ).... The police were there in a
flash" (in a flash - ). ,
, .
, , ,

.

.

,
[18].
.
: , , . .
, ; : , , ;
: ,, .
.
, :
bin (been), hev (have).
: 1) ,
, , ,
639

:
, . ,
: housecoat
(dressing gown), parvel ( ), linny (), clumper (
), aput ( , ), do-less (), fogeater
(). 2) -, :
, ; , ,
, : , .
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
, 21 ,
.
guagua , - ; alpaca
, ,
[13].
,

.
(Angela McCaffrey)
[12].
, ,
, .
cintura ,
, ,
, .
- ,
640

, .

[12, 13].
(Michael B.
Shulman): Hombre, ni tengo diez kilos!.

!
,
: , !
: , !
kilos
. ,
, [14].

.
, .
, ,
(Mixtec.
- .
. 550000 .
, 24500; ,
15000; ,
, 511000.
:

[19].

, ,
-.
, . ,
.
, [10].
641


,
.
,
.
, (American Sign Language /
ASL) , ,
[15].
,
. , ,
(Pidgin Sign English / PSE)

, , ASL

[15].

, ,

,


, . -,
, ,
70-75 , ,
ASL [15].
,
, ( ,
) . ,
,
,
.
642


, . ,
,
, , - (Susan BerkSeligson), ,
, [4].

(balanced

bilinguilism)

,
[3]. ,
-
, . ,
,
, .
,
, - ,
" ". ,
-,
.
, ,
(dominant).
. , ""
" ". ,
. ,
.
,
" ", " ".
.
, ,
.
643

(domain of the language)


[7, 8].
,
, ,
, .
, ,
[7, 8].
, .. , ,

, .
-, ,
(to play marbles) ,
, , , , ,

, , [4].
,
,

.
,
, ,
, ,
, .

, a peculiar
Cant and Jargon of their own, that no other Mortal can understand (
, ,
) [16].

644

,
, ,
.
, , [20].

. . , 1871 1919
, 1929 1950
150. . " " (1968.)
250 .
( , 500 (!)),
,
, . ,
( ..):
,
, [2].

, ,
, ( , ,
, ) [20].
(
) (18321917):
"Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals,
law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member
of society" (" , , ,
, , , , ,
"), "Primitive Culture", 1871.
,
, , , ,
, , .
645

,
,

.
(Angela McCaffrey) ,

. , .

,
, , ,
().
, - .
, ,
:
, ,
.
,
, [12].

,
. ,
,
, ,
, .
: ,
[12].

,
, -
646

, ..
.
- (Beatriz Valera-Schutz)
(Margarita Gonzalez) ,
.
.

,
,
.
,
[17].
,

.
,
, , , ,
.
,
[17].

,
. :
, ,
. ,
, . ,
.
,
.
647

, , (,
, , , ,
11 . . -.
200 ),
, ,
, .
.
,
,
.

, ..
- [6].
, ,
,


. , ,
, ,
,

.

1. .. , .. , .: , 1999.
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Key Words: gambling, Internet, computer-technical expertise, Internetcasino, Superomatic, Global Pay, Global Slots, Di-Pay.
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techniques used in arrangement of gambling games with the help of Internet
system. The author introduces a classification of software technologies underlain
the operation of all such schemes; gives careful consideration of issues to be
solved by an expert dealing with the examination of technical and software tools
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