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2007

634(2)273-431
88

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ISBN 978-5-7904-0684-3
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63.4(2)273-431

05-01-011919
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ISBN 978-5-7904-0684-3
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, 2007

............................................................................................................................................7
1. , .................................9
1.1. . .
................................................................................................ 9
1.2. ............................................... 20
1.2.1. . ..................................................................................20
1.2.2. ................................................... ............................... 23
1.2.3. ............................................. 33
2. .........................................................................................................36
2.1. ..................................................... 36
2.1.1. .................................... 38
2.1.2. ............................................................................... 39
2.1.3.
............................................................. 42
2.2. .................................................................. 46
2.3. ............................................................................. 49
2.4. ...................................................................................................... 53
3. ...........................................................................................................................57
3.1. ....................................................................................... 57
3.1.1. ...........................................................................................................................57
3.1.2. .......................................................................................................................58
3.1.3. .....................................................................................................64
3.2. ....................................................................................66
3.2.1. ...................................................................................................................... 66
3.2.2. ........................................................................................................................68
4. ..................................................................................................... 71
4.1. ...................................................................................................... 71
4.2. ..............................................................................................................................74
4.3. ..................... 79
4.4. .................................................................................................................................. 82
4.5. ................................................................................................................................. 86
4.6. ............................................................................................................ 89
4.6.1. ...........................................................................................91
4.6.2. ............................................................................................. 92
4.6.3. ................................................95
4.6.4. .......................................................................98
5. .........................................................................................100
5.1. ....................................................................................100
5.2. ......................................................................................... .101

5.2.1. ................................ .................................................... 103


5.2.2. ................................106
6.
VIIII . ..................................................................................................................................112
6.1. . (VII . ..)..... ......................... 112
6.2.
( VI - V . ..).................................. 113
6.3.
( V . ..).................................... 119
6.4. IVIII . ......... 121
6.5. ............................................................. 125
..................................................................................................................................... 132
.........................................................................................................136
....................................................................................................................... 153
Sum m ary.............................................................................................................................................154
1. ........................................... 160
2. ......................................................................................................196
3. ..
.............................................................................................................278

CONCLUSION
Introduction......................................................................................................................................7
Chapter 1. Cultural Identity, Dating and Period Placem ent................................................... 9
1.1. The Pasyryk Culture. General characteristic. Main types of monuments................... 9
1.2. Chronology and period placement of the Pasyryk culture............................................20
1.2.1. Problems. General review........................................................................................20
1.2.2. Chronology and period placement.......................................................................... 23
1.2.3. Chronology of the published kurgans of the Chuya and the Ursul...................... 33
Chapter 2. Funeral Cerem ony....................... ...............................................................................36
2.1. Spatial distribution of the burial grounds of thePasyryk culture.................................. 36
2.1.1. Succession of constructing the kurgans in chains.................................................. 38
2.1.2. Orientation of the kurgan chains............................................................................. 39
2.1.3. About the orientation of the dead to the sunrise
in the Pasyryk culture. Time of burial.............................................................................. 42
2.2. Funeral and memorial constructions.............................................................................. 46
2.3. Sepulchral pits and kurgan mounds................................................................................ 49
2.4. Cult constructions............................................................................................................ 53
Chapter 3. Invento ry......................................................................... ............................................ 57
3.1. Tools and domestic utensils.............................................................................................57
3.1.1. Knives......................................................................................................................... 57
3.1.2. Vessels......................................................................................................................... 58
3.1.3. Bronze nails................................................................................................................64
3.2. Jewelry and mirrors................................................................... ......................................66
3.2.1. Mirrors........................................................................................................................ 66
3.2.2. Earrings....................................................................................................................... 68
Chapter 4. A rm our..........................................................................................................................71
4.1. General characteristic...........................................................................................................71
4.2. Daggers................................................................................................................................. 74
4.3. About the purpose of votive models of daggers and substitutive knifes..........................79
4.4. Scabbards.............................................................................................................................. 82
4.5. Chekans................................................................................................................................ 86
4.6. Arrowheads........................................................................................................................... 89
4.6.1. Bronze arrowheads.....................................................................................................91
4.6.2. Horn arrowheads........................................................................................................ 92
4.6.3. Horn arrowheads from thepublished kurgans of the Chuya and the Ursul............95
4.6.4. Arrowheads with signs on sides...............................................................................98
Chapter 5. Belts and belt accessories.......................................................................................... 100
5.1. Belts of the Early Scythian tim e........................................................................................100
5.2. Belts of the Pasyryk culture................................................................................................101
5.2.1. Ways of wearing armour............................................. ........................................... 103
5.2.2. Description of belt accessories from the published
kurgans of the Chuya and the Ursul..................................................................................106

Chapter 6. Equipment of the Saddle Horse...................................................................................112


6.1. Introductory part. Harness of the Early Scythian tim e.................................................... 112
6.2. Equipment of the saddle horse of the Pre-bashadarskii
period of the Early Pasyryk stage............................................................................................. 113
6.3. Equipment of the saddle horse of the Bashadarskii period
of the Early Pasyryk stage........................................................................................................ 119
6.4. Equipment of the saddle horse of the Late Pasyryk stage............................................... 121
6.5. Harness sets from the published kurgans of the Chuya and the U rsul........................... 125
Postface............................................................................................................................................... 132
Bibliography.......................................................................................................................................136
List of abbreviations.........................................................................................................................153
Summary.............................................................................................................................................154
Appendix 1. Description of kurgans and cult objects................................................................. 160
Appendix 2. Illustrations................................................................................................................. 196
Appendix 3. Metal of the Pasyryk culture monuments from
the kurgans of the Chuya and the Ursul.......................................................................................278

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(108) (81) (, 1989, . 54; , , 2004, . 61).
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. 91, 95, . XIII. - 17, 18; , 1996, . 42, . 35; , 1993, . 33; 1994,
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.., .., ..
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, 2003. - . . - . 24-27.
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.. -
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.. . . - .: , 1980. - 124 .
.. VII-V . ..:
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.., .. -14 -
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.. . . - .: ..,
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.., ..
//
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.., .., .., ..
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. / . . .. , - .: , 1972.
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- 1993-1994 ( - 1993,
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.. . - .: , 1980. - 256 .
.. . JL: - , 1950.
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.. // ,
1960 . - .: .., 1961. - . 22-25.
.. : . - .: , 1980. - 62 .
.. - // .
- : - , 1983. - . 3-18.
.., .. // -
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(- ) //
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.., ..
// - . - -:
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.., ..
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.., .. . - : .
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.., .., .. . - .:
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.., .. -3 //75
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.. - // . . - .; .: ,
1970. - . 3 .- . 80-209.

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-, 2001. - 224 :
..
// . - .: ,
2004. - . 22-50.
.. -
// . : - . -, 2005. . 1.
. 104-112.
: . - .: , 2005.
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..
- // -
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.. . // . - JL: ,
1961.- . .- . 89-108.
.. ( ..
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., .. //
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.., .., .., ., .., ..,
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// . - ., 1997. - . 2. - . 36-44.
..
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- . 105-121.
'.. //
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.. //
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..
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.., .. // . - :
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.. . -
- . - .: .., 2001.
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..
// . - 1988. - . 29. - . 29-47.
.., .. ( ). - .: , 1997. - 187 ., .
.. // .., ..,
.., .. . - -, 1966. - . 303-428.
.. . // -
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.., ..
. // . - -: -
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., .., ., .. - (- , ).
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.. 1990-1991 . // ,
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.. -XIX //
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.. -IV //
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.., .. // . - -: , 2005. - . 86-91.
.., .. // -
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.., .., , //
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-. 99-103.
.., ., .. . //
- . - : - . -,
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.., A.JI. - //
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.., .., .. . // , . . - : .., 1992. - . 7-47.
.., .. . . III:
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// .
- : , 2001. - . XII. - . 29-36.
.. . - .: - , 1951. - 642 .
.. - VIII .. //
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.. // . - ; : - -, 2002. - . 103-131.
.. //
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.. // - . - -: .., 1995. - . 132-135.
. .
// - 240 . - -: .., 1996. - . 28-31.
. - ( )
// . - -: - , 1997. - . 2. - . 147-152.
.. // . .
--: - , 1999. - . 4. - . 74-82.
.. IV //
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.. ,
// - . - -:
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.. // -
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.. // 1975 . - .: , 1976.
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.. //
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.. ( ). - : , 1979. - 120 .
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( ). - : , 1980. - . 69-91.
.. //
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.. // . - :
.., 1985.-. 136-148.
.. - ( ) //
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.. . // 1985 . - .: ,
1986.- . 250-251.
.. . - : , 1987. - 299 .
.. //
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.. //
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.. . - : , 1991. - 190 .
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.. , //
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.. . //
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.. //
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.. I, III: //
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.. , , ( ,
) //
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.. // , . -
: - , 2002. - 2 (10). - . 127-139.
.. // , . -
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.., .. // . - :
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.., .., .. //
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.., .. //
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.., .. // .
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.., .. //
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.., ., . // Altaika. - 1993.
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.. ( ). -
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.. //
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.. // . - : - ,
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A.JI. -1 //
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A.JI. // . - :
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.., .. . - :
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.., .. 1 // , . - : - . -,
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.. - . - .: -
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-, 2005. - 208 ., .
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.. ( ). . 2:
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2001. - 528 ., .
.. . - .: , 1972. - 270 .
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. 1: . . . - .:
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-. . - .:
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.. // .
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.., .., .., .., ., ..,
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.. //
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.. :
// . - .: , 1983. - . 25-33.
.. - ( .. .. ) // . - . 22. - .: , 1981. - . 11-22.
.. (VIIIIV . ..): . . ... . .
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.. VIII-IV ..
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JI.C. (, ). - .: .., 1997.


- 5 6 .
J1.C. ,
VIII-V .. // .
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JI.C. //
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.. IXIII ..
- ( ): . . ... -
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.. VI-IV . .. //
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..
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.. VI-V . .. //
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..
// . - .: - , 2003.
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..
I- . .. // :
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.. . - : , 1979. - 208 .
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// . - : - . -, 1985. - . 147-172.
.. // . - . 1-2.7. - .: , 1964. - 92 ., .
.. - I, VIII - //
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..
// . - -: .., 1986. - . 35-67.
.. - //
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.. - I
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.., .. II ( ) 1976 .
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.., .. // . - 1981.
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.., .. I, 15
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.', .. //
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.. - 3
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.., ., ., .., ., ., ., .., .., .., .., .., .., X., .., .., .., .., ..,
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.. (- ). - :
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.., ..
//
: , , (
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.., .. (IVIII . ..). -
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.. -1 // . - .: , 1961. - . 3. - . 74-88.
.. //
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..
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.. (
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.. . - .: - -
-, 1994. - 208 .
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.. ( ).
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3., , .
11. - : - --, 2004. - 96 ., .
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// , . - : - ,
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3., ., ., . . - , 2000. - 56 .
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..
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.. - - -
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..
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.. ( 1865 1959 .)
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.. - (
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.. - 1 (
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.. .
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.., .. . (
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.. - //
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SUMMARY
Introduction.
This books special feature is large number (18) of the published burial grounds stretching
along the Ursul, the Katun and the Chuya from Tuekta up to the border with Mongolia (fig. 1). As a
result one can see panorama of the basic territory where the Pasyryk culture was distributed. Among
55 barrows presented in the book (38 of them are published for the first time) there are no burial
places of permafrost type like Pasyryk, Bashadar, Tuekta and Ukok. However, as for the number and
importance o f weaponry and horse equipment which simultaneously entered the scientific use this
research is one of the most informative. The materials are considered on the general background of
the Pasyryk culture. The special attention is given to chronology and period placement of the Pasyryk
culture monuments.
Chapter 1. Cultural Identity, Dating and Period Placement
The Pasyryk Culture. General characteristic. Defining cultural identity of the published
funeral complexes on the rivers Chuya and the Ursul, the authors proceed from the thesis of existence
of united Pasyryk archeological culture on the territory of the Mountain Altai and adjoining part
of East Kazakhstan, the culture that occupied convenient for half-nomadic cattle breeding steppe
territory of the Mountain Altai (in borders of the Altai Republic) and the Eastern Kazakhstan up to
the Tarbagataiskii Ridge and the Irtysh.
Among barrows of the Pasyryk culture there are two basic types of burials: authentically
Pasyryk (in wooden frame, frequently with a horse) and Karakobinskii (in a stone box, without horse
burial). It is believed that behind those types there were various ethnic groups of population that
lived alternately and quite peacefully coexisted on all the territory of the Mountain Altai. All of them
buried the dead with the head to the East, and placed the same stock into the burial. In most of the
published kurgans of the Chuya and the Ursul the burial places are accomplished according to the
authentic Pasyryk ceremony (fig. 3; 4; 26-30; 34-41). In some of them there are no horse burials, but
their absence in one or several kurgans even in pure Pasyryk chains is a usual phenomenon. The
presented Karakobinskii burials also differ from each other (fig. 17; 18; 25; 32; 46; 48; 49), which was
caused both by chronology and other cultures influence. Barrows 21 and 27 from the Balyk-Sooka-1
(fig. 11-14) built in the first half of the Vl-th century B.C., even before the formation of the Pasyryk
culture. They belong to the presently unexplored group of the population which came to the Mountain
Altai from the adjoining plain.
Chronology and period placement of the Pasyryk culture. Until recently the chronology of
Pasyryk culture monuments was considered as the most developed, but in late 10-15 years the situation
has essentially changed. The firm Pasyryk dates and connected with them dendro-scale of Bashadar-2
and Tuekta-1,2 (Source, 1991) have been revised. According to new radiocarbon dates all group of five
big kurgans of Pasyiyk has been dated about 300-250 B.C. (Eurasia in Scythian ..., 2005, pp. 79-82,
215). However, this chronology in many respects is not coordinated with archeological material.
The chronology of the Pasyryk culture monuments suggested in the book is based on the as
sumption about existence o f well-distinct, consecutively exchanging each other material complexes
o f horse equipment, belt accessories, weaponry, adornments and things ofart belonging to nomads to
the east from the Urals since the VH-th century B.C. The basis of dating is horse equipment and also
belt accessories which can be considered as a part o f united simultaneously existing sacral complex
consisting o f equipment o f a horse and a horseman. This approach allows to date numerous com
plexes outside Altai where there is no horse equipment, but there are details of belts. Starting points of
absolute chronology are: 1) final stage of the Early Scythian culture - the edge of the Vll-VI-th cen
turies B.C. (Arzhan-2, probably, Gilyovo-10); 2) the time of stopping use of harness sets with strap
dividers - about middle V-th century B.C. (Calmeyer, 1985; , 2001, pp. 81-97; Anderson,

2006; , 2004a); 3) the time o f decline of the Pasyryk culture - about the edge of the Illd-IInd
centuries B.C., determined by the absence of Hunn type products even in the latest Pasyryk burials.
In frames of the Pasyryk culture there is an early stage (Pre-bashadarskii and Bashadarskii
periods) and a late stage. The Pre-bashadarskii period (the middle of the Vlth - the first half
of the Vth centuries B.C.) is characterized by special harness, belt accessories, arms and ornaments.
At that time in Altai, as well as in other territories to the east from the Urals, the design of Early
Scythian bridle with dividers, doublers, circular or semicircular pronizkas (ringlets), chumbur (long
rein) blocks and fasteners of chin straps (fig. 80), belt accessories with carved holders, semicircular
pronizkas (ringlets), massive vorvorkas (fasteners), kostylyoks (fasteners on the belt), specific quiver
hooks and fasteners from wild boar fangs and from horn with lateral apertures (fig. 71. - 9-19) was
almost completely kept. The weaponry is characterized by daggers with butterfly-like crossing, grif
fon and bar-like pomme (fig. 64), original bronze and horn tower- and bullet-like arrow tips (fig. 68;
69). Knifes frequently have curved head and ring-like pomme (fig. 61. - 2-5; 82. - 8). Mirrors are
massive, frequently with long handle and sometimes with an eyelet on the back since Early Scythian
time (fig. 62. - 1-4). From ornaments the chronological indicators are earrinfs with a small perpen
dicular ringlet (or without a ringlet) on which a chain (fig. 6 2 .-1 3 , 14; 82. - 5) and flat beads with
angular drilling were frequently suspended. The animal style has its own features.
The Bashadarskii period (about second half of the Vth century B.C.) Basic monuments Bashadar-2, Tuekta-1,2. The dating harness accessories in Bashadar-2 and Tuekta-1 are bronze saddlegirth buckles\clasps, chumbur (long rein) blocks, and also semicircular iron pronizkas (ringlets)
in Bashadar-2, similar to the found in Ala-Gail-3 and Borotal-1 (fig. 30; 34; 39; 76). The design
of a bridle is not transitive (like Early Scythian) type and similar to the found in Pasyryk (fig. 77;
7 8 .-3 , 4). The belt accessories, the stock, the weaponry and animal style have their own feachers
(fig. 64; 68; 69, etc.).
The Late Pasyryk stage (approximately IV-III centuries B.C.) The majority of monuments
of the late stage are characterized by uniformity of the stock material and funeral ceremonies
(fig. 61. - 10-19; 62. - 9-12; 69; 75. - 11-18; 77). The brightest monuments are the big kurgans from
the natural boundary of Pazyryk, Bereli, and also from the upper Chaya and Ukok. The elite kurgans
of Shibe, Katanda, Bashadar-1, etc. can be added here. One of the earliest representative monuments
are barrows from Ukok (Ak-Alakha-1,3; Verkh-Kaljin-1; Verkh-Kaljin-2, c. 3; Kuturguntas). The
complexes of later datings than Pasyryk-5,6 are not distinguished authentically.
According to the available data, the chronological gap between Tuekta-1 and later barrows
of and Pasyryk-2 is considered (by dendro-scale) to be not 130 years but much less - about 60-70
years. In this case the Pasyryk kurgans could be dated about 350-300 B.C. E.S. Bankers opinion of
dating Pasyryk-3,5,6 not earlier than the end of the IVth century B.C., within late IVth -H id centuries
B.C. does not contradict this assumption (Bunker, 1991, p. 23). This chronological interval concerns
only the late group of the Pazyryk barrows, but the dating of the Chinese mirror not earlier than
311 B.C. shows only presence in the Pasyryk culture of barrows of late IVth-IIId centuries B.C.
Chronology of the published kurgans of the Chuya and the Ursul. Transitive time (first half
of VI century B.C.) - barrows 21 and 27 from Balyk-Kuica-1 (fig. 11-14; 68; 69; 71). Early Pasyryk
stage (second half of the VI-V centuries B.C.). The barrows of Kor-Kechu (fig. 18 concern; 19); AlaGail-3, k. 5, probably 2 (fig. 26; 27), Ala-Gail, k. 19, 23 (fig. 31; 32); Ulalinka (fig. 82) belong to the
Pre-bashadarskii period. The barrows Terbedok k. 2, probably 1 (fig. 22); Ala-Gail-3, k. 11 (fig. 30);
Borotal-1, k. 7, 82, 99, 100, 102 (fig. 34-41) belong to the Bashadarskii period. The late Pasyryk
stage (IV-III centuries B.C.) This stage includes the majority of other barrows, many o f which
contain amorphous material. There are not any special features in the stock and funeral ceremony
pointing to the presence of some special final group among the published barrows. The brightest are
barrows 1 and 3 from Balyk-Sooka-1 (fig. 3-10) chronologically close to Pasyryk-1,2, but they might
be a little older.

Chapter 2. Funeral Ceremony


Spacial distribution of the burial grounds of the Pasyryk culture. Practically all published
barrows from the burial grounds of the Chuya and Ursul are located in special for the Pasyryk culture
chains and micro-chains most of which have meridian orientation (fig. 2; 25; 57, etc.). The chain of
Pasyryk kurgans copied the really existing settlements with the dwellings of relatives arranged in a
line. Accordingly, the chain of burials (kurgans) was regarded in ancient time as a line of relatives
(sometimes conditional relatives) located in that way in real life, in time and in the other world. From
the east side of the barrows, as well as at the dwellings of nomads there were a line of stone balbals
(vertical stones) - symbolical tether at the house of the dead (fig. 60. - 1). Besides, the chains of
consistently erected barrows were also monumental annals of the sequence of events, marks of history
of a family, a clan, a tribe, and often of the people who lived there later and were not connected by
blood with the predecessors.
Chains, as a rule, were formed by a consecutive construction of barrows from the south to the
north. The similar lay-out can be found on the plain in synchronous barrows-cemeteries of the Ka
menskaya culture (fig. 58), but some tombs there were often intermediate stage in the formation of
more complex cross-like and circular lay-out (fig. 58. - 4, 5, 7, 9). The Pasyryk one was much easier
- it as though stopped in the development. Interposition and orientation of barrows in the Pasyryko a
chain (microchain) were planned initially during the first burial, the same way as in the Kamenskaya
culture. Meridian orientation of chains of the barrows and the real dwellings of nomads could symbol
ize the direction to the world mountain situated in the north, a reference point to which was the polar
or some other star. In some cases the Pasyryk chains deviated as influenced by the landscape (by the
direction of a mountain ridge, the river, etc.) the same way as it was in the settlements of nomads.
The direction of barrow chain never influenced the line along which a tomb, dead person and cult
constructions (balbals and ring-shaped stone constructions) were situated it was always perpendicular
to the long axis of barrows chain (fig. 57). This principle of perpendicularity since ancient time
was inherent both to burial grounds, and settlements with a linear lay-out of stationary dwellings or
yurtas of nomads.
About interposition of burial grounds and settlements of the Pasyryk culture. According
to the available data, the settlements of Pasyryk people were situated (as earlier Afanasiev and later sites
of medieval and modem cattlemen) at hillsides in broad gullies where it was possible to find shelter with
the cattle in bad weather, it was, as a rule, in the same places (fig. 59). Nearby, between the settlements
and the river on winter pastures there were also burial grounds (fig. 59). The widespread custom of no
madic peoples to arrange burial grounds on winter pastures is not by chance as their life and well-being
depended on the sites, suitable for winter cattle pasture. A kurgan or a cemetery was visible and recog
nized certificate of the rights of kinship group (including conditional relatives) for the territory.
Funeral and memorial constructions. In the Pasyryk culture there existed a complex, stretched
for decades funeral ceremony which included preparation of the dead for burial (mummification,
secondary burials, etc.) and the subsequent actions: filling the sepulchral pit, erection of tomb
constructions, creation of additional memorial (cult) constructions (ring stone constructions, balbals,
etc.). After erection of kurgan the tomb could remain accessible through the passages to the additional
burials. After the memorial ceremonies, the process of changing kurgans mound and the burial ground
did not stop - stone constructions, situated on the inclined surfaces, continued to change due both
to natural destruction and mound drift (the tomb remained on its place) downhill.
Sepulchral pits and kurgan mounds. There was one tomb in the center of the kurgan mound
in the Pasyryk culture. The majority of ordinary tombs with burials in the shape of a log house are
formed as almost a square. Organizers of burial places of the Scythian time in Altai proceeded not from
the volume of the moved ground, stone and wood but from concrete significant sacral parameters.
The length o f a tomb had special value. In Altai in the Vlth-IIId centuries B.C. when preparing the
burial the length o f a tomb was determined according to the social position o f the dead: about 1.6

meter (group 1); 2 m (group 2); 2.2-2.4 m (group 3), 2.6-2.8 m (group 4), 3 m (group 5), 3.2-3.4 m
(group 6) and more. The sizes and proportions of the Pasyryk tombs did not depend on the number of
the dead people and buried later horses (compare fig. 40,42 and 44-48). The relation of tomb length
to its width differed depending on the cultural identity. Tomb depth is frequently equal to its length.
When organizing a tomb the size of kurgans mound was determined, and constant interrelation can
be found between tomb and mound sizes.
Chapter 3. Inventory
Knifes. The knifes in burials of the Pasyryk culture are always placed not at the belt but near
sheep vertebras on a wooden dish or near it in the household half of the funeral chamber (fig. 18; 26).
The number of knifes corresponded to the number of the dead. In the published 57 barrows of the
Chuya and Ursul there were found more than 28 iron and 8 bronze knifes. There are pictures of 24
(fig. 61) - six bronze and 18 iron knives. At the early stage there are mostly bronze knifes with curved
butt (fig. 61. - 2-9), at the late - mostly iron, frequently with ring-like pomme (fig. 61. - 10-19).
as a leather cover were kept only at one bronze knife (fig. 22. - 5).
Vessels. Characteristic feature of the Pasyryk culture funeral ceremony is placing in the burials
of ceramic and wooden (fig. 51. - 4, 5) vessels, including wooden dishes in the form of little tables,
sometimes with bronze foundations on the legs (fig. 5; 6. - 6). They were located in the northern
household half of the funeral chamber next to sacrificial food and knifes. The number of ceramic
vessels usually corresponds to the number of the dead. Ceramic vessels, except for jars and pots from
kurgan mounds (fig. 4 2 .-1 0 ,1 1 ; 44. - 9,10), were sacral, were not used for household needs and can
be seldom found in the settlements.
Bronze nails. They are a distinctive feature of the Pasyryk culture. The size of nails depends on
their function (fig. 61. - 21-25). Large massive nails, up to 18 cm in length, as a rule, were inserted
from above into specially cut grooves on the end faces of log coffins covers. Nails of average size
(5 cm in length) served for nailing draperies on the walls of burials in the form of a log house and
a log coffin.
Mirrors. In the published kurgans there were found 13 bronze mirrors (fig. 62). Almost all of
them were found in the kurgans with log houses. The earliest of the published mirrors are a remark
able mirror with unusually wide bimetallic handle from Balyk-Sook-1 (k. 27); a mirror 9,2 cm in
diameter with an eyelet on the back from Ala-Gail with scratched image (fig. 32. - 3); a mirror with
a small handle from Borotal-1 (fig. 4 1 .-5 ); and also a small (diameter of 4,7 cm) but rather massive
mirror with looped handle shaped as a trunk of an ungulate animal (fig. 3 1 .- 7 , 8). Small diameter
mirrows are from rather late burials (fig. 62. - 9-12). The brightest find is a unique bronze mirror
of 1st half of the Vlth century B.C. made of tin bronze in the Balyk-Sook-1 (fig. 14. - 1).
Earrings. The earliest gold earrings with pendants from Balyk-Sook-1 dated the first half of the
Vlth century B.C. are the most complex (fig. 14. - 2, 3). Kurgan Kor-Kechu with silver earring with
a small soldered perpendicular ringlet (fig. 18. - 7) is dated within the second half of the Vlth century
B.C. Typical for Altai eight-shaped earrings from Kalbak-Tasha and Borotal-3 are dated as later time
(fig. 2 0 .-4 ; 4 4 .-1 2 ).
Chapter 4. Armour
In the funeral complexes of the Mountain Altai of the Vlth-IIId centuries B.C. (as in the
Tagarskaya culture and in Tuva) the overwhelming quantity of the presented weapon are conditional
models from bronze and even wood (fig. 63). The later the burial place is dated and the lower the
social status of the buried, the more monotonous becomes the armour, the items become more and
more fine and amorphous and in some cases made not of bronze but wood. In real life a weapon
complex of the Pasyryk culture seems to have been considerably richer and more variable.
Daggers. In the published complexes more than 16 daggers were revealed. Ten daggers
were found complete or with small losses (fig. 63). One more symbolical dagger was forged out

of a bronze knife (fig. 63. - 7). Conseming size and material out of 15 daggers all four iron ones
(fig. 64. - 8-10, 15) and a dagger with bronze handle and iron blade with tang (fig. 6 3 .- 1 ) belong
to real offencing arms. A series of archaic knifes of the VUIth-VIIth centuries B.C. are of special
interest, they were located into the Pasyryk kurgans of the Upper Chuya only as daggers on the belts
of the dead (fig. 66. - 1-9).
Scabbards. In the published kurgans of the Chuya and the Ursul there were found scabbards of
four basic types (fig. 73; 74). Special interest is aroused by intact leather scabbards of the third type
(fig. 19; 73. - 6, 7), and also leather-covered wooden scabbard of the fourth type for a fighting iron
dagger (fig. 3 7 .-1 ; 73). Alongside with Pasyryk scabbards with median vanes (fig. 74. - 9,12), there
already existed scabbards without vanes on the adjoining plain in the second half of the Vlth-Vth
centuries B.C., they were fastened to the leg in a similar to Sakskii way through the end of scabbards
or an aperture in the tip (fig. 74. - 1-3, 13-16). Mixture of both traditions resulted in occurrence of
original variants (fig. 74. - 5, 6).
Chekans. Chekan was one of basic kinds of weapon in Sayano-Altai, it had the same function
as a sword in the western territories. Fighting chekans were fixed on a wooden handle (fig. 16; 24)
70-80 cm in length. They had in a full set sharpened iron or bronze vtok, which served for stabbing/
striking (fig. 37. - 5; 38. - 6). In the published complexes there are 11 chekans: two fighting iron ones
with , the rest are reduced and miniature bronze models (fig. 67. - 1,2). Almost all chekans
are with loops, which is typical for chekans of the Vlth-IIId centuries B.C. from the Mountain Altai,
Tuva and Mongolia, whereas in the adjoining from the West and the North Kamenskaya and Tagarskaya cultures they are with sockets.
Arrowheads. Overwhelming number of arrowheads from the burial places of the Pasyryk
culture are made of horn. Bronze arrowheads in Pasyryk kurgans are rare (fig. 68. - 6), and iron ones
havent been found yet, which does not mean the absence of the latter in the armour of Pasyryk people.
A similar situation is in the published complexes of the Chuya and the Ursul. Out of 51 arrowheads
found there 46 are horn and five are bronze. Only two bronze arrowheads from the elite kurgan 7 in
the burial ground Borotal-1 (fig. 34. - 2) belong to the Pasyryk culture, other three bronze ones come
from another culture kurgan 27 of the first half of the Vlth century B.C. in the burial ground BalykSook-1 (fig. 12 .-1 2 -1 4 ).
C hapter 5. Belts and belt accessories
Early Scythian plaque-decorated belts with remnants of leather belt from Gilyovo-10
(fig. 72. - 1, 2) allow to understand Pasyryk belts arrangement and the peculiarities of evolution
and functions of belt accessories (as well as horse equipment). Both of those belts were intended for
carrying quivers with arrows and maybe bow quivers as in Arzhan-2. Besides them there were almost
undecorated belts for carrying daggers. In the Early Scythian time there existed specific strap belts
(fig. 7 2 - 3). In the Pasyryk culture (fig. 72. -1 0 ) undecorated belts for carrying a dagger under a short fur
coat were also used. Plaque-decorated belts with bronze and iron accessories and metal plaques (fig. 71),
which could be replaced in burial by wooden models (fig. 52), were worn over the fur coat. A quiver
(gorit) was suspended on the belt on the left, and on the right a chekan could be placed (fig. 72. -10).
Different from cultures of the Upper Ob, Tuva and Mongolia, Pasyryk belts did not have girdle clasp
(fig. 72.-4), and were fastened by special straps by means of a metal plaque with an aperture (fig. 71.-20.
- 28; 72. - 5, 6), as it was common in the Early Scythian time (fig. 72. - 1-3).
C hapter 6. Equipm ent of the Saddle Horse in the Pasyryk Culture
Harness of the Early Scythian time (VHth century B.C.). Due to remarkable safety of organic
remnants in permafrost Pasyryk kurgans, and to the finds of rich bronze harness sets with the oxidized
belts in the North-West Altai, equipment o f the saddle horse o f the Vllth-IIId centuries B.C. in Altai
is represented incomparably better than in other regions ofEurasia and is considered referentialfor
this territory.

It is stated that the main principles of harness arrangement from Ural to China in the Vlth-IIId
centuries B.C. were established in the Early Scythian time (Vllth century B.C.). Belt basis of Early
Scythian harness corresponded to the one found in permafrost kurgans of the Pasyryk culture
(fig. 77-80). The bridle consisted of 1) two crownpiece belts that began in the top apertures of cheek
pieces and were connected by vorvorka (fastener) or a knot at the left on the back of the horses neck
(fig. 7 9 . - 1 , 2, 4); 2) two throat lashes (long right and short left) connected by a special fastener
at the left (fig. 7 9 .- 1 , 4); 3) noseband, the ends of which were inserted into the bottom apertures
f cheek pieces (fig. 79. - 4). The bits were attached to three-hole cheek pieces or were put on a special
extension (fig. 79). The belt of rein was fastened to the rings of the bit on the right, and chumbur (long
rein) was fastened on the left. There was no browband (fig. 79). Saddle belts included a chest-piece
with two withers belts, and also two belly-bands - wide top and narrow bottom (fig. 79. - 3a; 78).
According to the data there were saddles consisting of two pillows and under-tail belts. Belts were
connected by vorvorkas and fasteners and were decorated with a plenty of ringlets (fig. 79). On the
belly belts there were three details: on the left - a belly-band buckle (with the peg downwards) on the
wide top belt; a block on the narrow bottom belt (fig. 78. - 1); on the right these belts were connected
by a large metal plate - a fastener (fig. 79.2, 3a). The saddle accessories, except for flat ringlets of
under-tail belts was not found. Horses were saddled from the left.
In the kurgans of the Chuya and the Ursul the details of horse equipment were found in 18 of 57
burial places. Seven of them belong to Early Pasyryk stage, the rest - to the Late Pasyryk stage.
Equipm ent of the saddle horse of the Pre-bashadarskii period of the Early Pasyryk stage
(middle of the Vlth - middle of the Vth centuries B.C.). In the horse equipment of the Vlth century
B.C. from the Southern Ural and up to China the features of the Early Scythian harnesses continue to
be kept, and rather standard set of details (fig. 80) is formed. The bridle of the Pre-bashadarskii period
was equipped with bronze and horn details: two cheek pieces inserted in the bits (fig. 80. - 1,21,25);
four dividers of the crossing belts (fig. 80. - 7, 8; 23); two dividers (fig. 80. - 4, 22); semicircular,
oval (rarely circular) ringlets (fig. 80. - 9, 24, 24); chumbur (long rein) blocks (fig. 80. - 2). Nose
pendants and fasteners of throat latch are seldom found in Altai. Forehead metal plates are absent.
Only a modified belly-band buckle and a block have remained from the saddle accessories of the
Early Scythian time (fig. 80. - 10, 18, 19), but there are saddles with horn metal plates and overlays
similar to the found in the later barrows of Ala-Gail-3, Borotal-1 and Chendek-6a (fig. 30; 39; 81).
Equipm ent of the saddle horse of the Bashadarskii period (about second half of the Vth
century B.C.). About the middle of the Vth century B.C. the kept Early Scythian tradition in harness
accessories (fig. 80) disappears completely. The belt basis of the ceremonial funeral Pasyryk harness
starts to be closed completely by various nonfunctional wooden plates, slats and other products
(fig. 78. - 3), but in daily life an ordinary shepherd, hunter and even a noble soldier (fig. 78. - 1)
used a simple harness as in the Early Scythian time, which is shown by all known images of the
Scythian time (also fig. 72. - 7; 78. - 2).
The harness of the Bashadarskii period is presented in the five published kurgans of the Chuya
and the Ursul: Ala-Gail-3,11 (fig. 27; 30); Borotal-1, k. 7, 82, 99,100 (fig. 34; 36; 39; 40). Almost all
of them are accompanied by the dated stock. Doubtless gem of the published collection is the horn
sets from Ala-Gail-3 (k. 11) and Borotal-1 (k. 99).
The harness of the Late Pasyryk stage (IVth - Illd centuries B.C.). The horse equipment of this
stage is wonderfully presented in the kurgans of Pasyryk, Ukok, the Upper Chuya and Berel, it is truly
considered the standard for reconstruction of the harness of the Scythian time for the territories of Eurasia
(fig. 77; 78. - 3,4), but almost all ornaments were made for burial. Only belt basis and iron bits are genuine
(fig. 75. - 11-18). Even horn belly-band buckles and blocks are seldom found in the burials (fig. 76. - 11).
The exception is rare hom sets used in real life (fig. 81), and also kurgan 3 of Balyk-Sooka-1 where besides
plenty of gold foil, remnants of unique nagrivnik (mane case) with images of cocks and of cheprak (horse
cloth under the saddle) decorated with horse brasses were found (fig. 4-10).

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