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Basic Linear
Programming
Brian D Bunday,
B.Sc., Ph.D., F.S.S., F.I.M.A.
School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bradford

Edward Arnold

..
..

1989

32.973
23
519.852 (420)

.
23 : . . - .: , 1989. - 176
.: .
ISBN 5-256-00186-8.
.
- , ,
-, , ,
.
, , .
- , .

1602011000-042 141.89
046 (01)-89

32.973


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. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
1643
- 11.01.89. 60x88/16.
. 2. "-". . . . . 10,78.
. .-. 11,52. .-. . 10,51. 50 000 . (1 : 1 - 25 000 .).
. 22183. 6622. 70 .
" ". 101000 , , / 693
"
. . "
, .113054 , , 28

B D Bunday 1984

ISBN 5-256-00186-8 (.)


ISBN 0-7131-3509-3 (.)

,
,
.
" ", 1989


.....................................................................................................6
.........................................................................6
................................................................................................................................7
1 .........................................................................................................9
1.1. .............................................................................................................................9
1.2. ...................................................12
1.3. ..............14
1.4. n .............................................................16
1.5. ........................17
1.6. ....................................................................................................................20
2. - ...................................................................................................24
2.1. -
.............................................................................................................24
2.2. - ............................................................31
2.3. ...........35
2.4. - ............................................................40
2.5. .............................................................................................46
2.6. ....................................................................................................................51
3 ....................................................................56
3.1. - ................................................56
3.2. .........................................................59
3.3. - ........................................................................63
3.4. ....................................................................................................................69
4 .........................................................................................74
4.1. ......................................................................74
4.2. ..................................78
4.3. ..........................80
4.4. ..................................................83
4.5. ....................................................................................................................91
5 .......................................................................................95
5.1. ...........................................................................................................................95
5.2. .................................................................................................96
5.3. .......................................................................99
5.4. ..................................................................................................................102
6 -....................................................................106
6.1. - ..................................................................106
6.2. .................................................................................111
6.3. ....................................................................................113
6.5. ..................................................................................................................120
7. ........................125
7.1. .......................................................................125
7.2. ....................................................................................128
7.3.
......................................................................................................................................................133
7.4. ..................................................................................................................137
...............................................................139
.............................................................................................................139
..............................................................................................................................139
.....................................................................................................141
5



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1. . ., . . . ,
. - .: , 1969. - 424 .
2. . ., . .
. - .: , 1976. - 191 .
3. . ., . ., . .
/ . . . . - .: , 1977. - 367 .
4. . ., . .
. , , . - .: , 1982. - 239 .


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LET .
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THEN GOTO, THEN GOTO
. IF ... THEN ... ELSE REPEAT ... UNTIL ... . . . ,
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0. 1,
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DIM. , DIM () DIM ( + 1), (, L) - ( +
1, L + 1) . . , .
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1

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1
1.1.

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1
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( ) .
3 2 , - 4 2.
1700 2 .
12 , - 30 .
160 .
,
2 . , - 4 . ?
, x 1
, x 2 -
. , x 1 x 2 . ,
,
.
P = 2 x 1 + 4 x 2.
(1.1)
,
P = 2 x 1 + 4 x 2 .

, ,
. ,
P
P
= 2
= 4
x1
x2

x 1 x 2 . ,
, x 1 x 2 . ( )
x 1 x 2 . ,
, .
,
, . .
x 1 0, x 2 0.
(1.2)

:
3x 1 + 4x 2 1700 ( ),
2x 1 + 5x 2 1600 ( ),
9

(1.3)

, ,
x 1 x 2 ,

(1.2)

(1.3)

P = 2 x 1 + 4 x 2.

.
,

.

( .
1.1).

.
3x 1 + 4x 2 = 1700,

1.1.

2x 1 + 5x 2 = 1600.
1.1 ,
. , ,
(1.2) (1.3), .
. . ,
( ?), P .
. 1.1
2x1 + 4x2 = 0 ,
2 x 1 + 4 x 2 = 800 , a b .
P 0 800.
, P ,
. ,

P
x1

2
P
, . .
P ,
4
x2
,
.
P ,

, c , B ;

P 1400. B , x 1 = 300, x 2 = 200,


.
3x 1 + 4x 2 = 1700,
2x 1 + 5x 2 = 1600.
, 2 300 + 4 200 = 1400 .
,
.

10


.
, , . .
- ,
.
( )

z = c 1 x1 + c 2 x2 + K + c nxn
(1.4)

x1 0, x2 0, K

x1 ,

x 2 , ,

x n ,

xn 0

(1.5)

m
a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + K + a 1n x n ( =, ) b 1 ,

a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + K + a 2 n x n ( =, ) b 2 ,

(1.6)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a m 1 x 1 + a m 2 x 2 + K + a mn x n ( =, ) b m .
, = .
() . b i , c j , a ij
. ( 1)
.
:
()
z = c T x0 ,

(1.7)

x0 0,

(1.8)
(1.9)

A0 x 0 ( = , ) b ,

x0 =

x1
x2
M
xn

- n 1 ,

c T = c 1 , c 2 , L , c n - 1 n ,

b =

b1
b2
M
bm

- m 1 ,

A0 = a ij m n .

0 x 0 A0 , .
. 1.3.
11

1.2.
, , ,
,
. , ,
", ",
, .
1

z = 3x 1 4x 2

0,

x 1 , x 2

x1 +

x 2 20 ,

x1 + 4

x 2 20 ,

10 ,

x1

x2 5 .

,
. 1.2,
PQRS.

z
x1
z
x2

3
.
4

z
= 68 R = (12,
8). , , .
1.1,
.
x 1 =

1.2.

12, x 2 = 8 z = 68.
.
2
z = 6x 1 2x 2

2x 1 + 4x 2 9 ,

3x 1 + x 2 6 .
. 1.3

z
= 6 ,
x1

6
z
z .
= 2 , , ,
2
x2
. , =

12

1
1
= (2, 0)
, 1
2
2
,

z = 12.
1

1.3.

1
2

, 1

1
2

+ 1

2, 0

= 2

1
2

, 1

1
2

0 1 .
z
1
1
2
1
= 12 .
2
2
.
.

z = x1 + x2
x 1 , x 2

0,

x1 x2 1 ,
x2 2 .
,
. 1.4, ,
z , . .

,
z . ,

z , .
1.4.

. , z / = x 2
3 .

13

, z = x 1 + x 2
, z (min) = 1
( x 1 = 1, x 2 = 0).
, .
4
z = 2x 1 + 3x 2
x 1 , x 2 0 ,

x 1 + x 2 10 ,
3x 1 + 5x 2 15 .
,
(. 1.5).


1.5.

. -,
, , . -,
. 2 ,
.
. ,
.

1.3.

-.
,
,
.
, :
z = c 1 x 1 + c 2 x 2 + K + c n x n
)
z / = c 1 x 1 c 2 x 2 K c n x n .
) , 3x 1 + 2x 2 x 3 6 ,
3x 1 + 2x 2 x 3 + x 4 = 6 ,
x 4 .
x 1 x 2 + 3x 3 10
x 1 x 2 + 3x 3 x 5 = 10 , x 5 .
) x k , ,
, x k = x /k x //k , x /k 0
x //k 0 .
,
(- ).
(1.7), (1.8), (1.9)
:
z = c T x ,

(1.10)

x 0 ,

(1.11)
14

A x = b , b 0 .

(1.12)

, , x
( ).
. 1 . 1.2 :
z = 3x 1 4x 2

x1
x3

= 10 ,
x4

x2

= 5,

x1 + x2

+ x5

= 20 ,

x 1 + 4x 2

+ x 6 = 20

x i 0, i = 1, 2, K , 6.
1 1.1 :
z = 2x 1 4x 2

3x 1 + 4x 2 + x 3
2x 1 + 5x 2

= 1700 ,
+ x 4 = 1600

x i 0, i = 1, K , 4 .
:
x1
3 4 1 0
2 5 0 1

x2
x3

1700
1600

x4

.
.
, , (
),
.
, . ,
. ,
. n
, m ( m

< n ),

, n m m
m ; ,
. , ,
. .

. , ,

( x1 , x2 ) ,
( x 1 , x 3 ) , ( x 1 , x 4 ) , ( x 2 , x 3 ) , ( x 2 , x 4 ) , ( x 3 , x 4 ) .
. 1.1 (.
).

15

1
2
3

x1
0
0
0

x2
0
425
320

x3
1700
0
0

566 23

5
6

800
300

0
200

-700
0

x4
1600
-525
466 23

466

0
0

2
3

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;
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, . m
n ; (
) , ,
.

1.4. n
,
.
, .
1.2. n - .
.
, .
n -
x1
x =

x2
M
xn

PQ , P Q - , p q ,

,
p + 1

q ; 0 1.

S , P Q
PQ S .
( )
, , .

P1 , P2 , K, Pk ,

p 1 , p 2 , K , p k ,

1 p1 + 2 p2 + K

+ k pk ,
16

i 0 ( i = 1, 2, K , k) i = 1 .
i =1

. 1.6,
. , .
1.6,
VW
.
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5

P 1 P 2 P 1 P 2 .
1.6.
P 1 P 2 P 3 ,
P 1 P 2 P 3 P 4 , -
.

1.5.

:
z = c 1 x 1 + c 2 x 2 + K + c n x n

a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + K + a 1n x n = b 1 ,
a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + K + a 2n x n = b 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a m2 x 1 + a m 2 x 2 + K + a mn x n = b m
x 1 , x 2 , K , x n 0.
Ax = b , x 0 , A m ( < n) .
.
1. ,
.
, .
n r 0, .
x j = 0, j = r + 1, K , n ,
r

x j a j = b , x j > 0 j = 1, 2, K , r ,

(1.13)

j=1

a j - A .
a j - , r m - A
( m r 0).
a 1 , a 2 , K , a r ,
r

j a j = 0 ,

j =1

( -1).
a k > 0 ,
17

(1.14)

ak =

j k
j =1

j aj
,
k

(1.15)

j k

xj

j xk
k

aj = b .

k ,
xk

= min
j =1, K, r

xj

;j > 0 ,


X j = xj j

xk

, j = 1, K , r ( j k ) ,

(1.16)

X j = 0 , j = k, r +1, K , n ,
,
r 1 . ,
.
, , r m , .e.
.
2. .
x y A x = b , A y = b , x 0 ,
y 0 , ,

w = x + 1

y , 0 1 , w 0 .

,
Aw = A x + 1
= b + 1

= Ax + 1

Ay =

b = b.

, w , , ,
.
3.

x1
x2
M
0
- .
x = x m
0
0
0
x 0 A x = b ,
n m x 0.

18

x 0 ,

x 0 - , u
x0 = u + 1

v ,

v , 0 < < 1

A u = b , A v = b , u, v 0 . , n m

um + 1 + 1

v m +1 = 0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
un + 1

vn = 0

, 1 , uj v j 0 ( j = 1, 2, K , n ) ,
uj + 1

v j = 0 ( j = m + 1, K , n )

uj = v j = 0 , j = m + 1, K , n .
, u , v - , 0
, x 0 . x 0 , x 0 = u = v ,
u v . - .
, . . :
.
x 0 - . r x 0 .
,

r m , . . x 0 - .

x 01 , x 02 , K , x 0r ( r > m ) . a 1 , a 2 , K , a r
A ; , .

1, j , 0,
r

j aj = 0 .

j =1

,
0 < < min
j

x j0
j 0 ,
aj

x1 = x0 + ,
x2 = x0

1
2
r

0
0
x 1 0 , x 2 0 .
A = 0 ,

Ax1 = A x0 +

= Ax0 + A = b .

A x 2 = b .
19

, x 1 x 2 - x 0 =

1
2

x 1 + x 2 . ,

x 0 - , x 0 , , r m .
n
m
( )
.
4. , , ,
.
P 1 , P 2 , K , P k
p 1 , p 2 , K , p k ,
z 1 , z 2 , K, z k .
m

z = c 1 x 1 + c 2 x 2 + K + c n x n = c T x , z i = c T p i i = 1, 2, K , k .

x = 1 p 1 + 2 p 2 + K + k p k , 0 , i = 1 ,
z

z = c Tx = 1 c Tp 1 + 2 c Tp 2 + K + k c Tp k =
= 1z 1 + 2z 2 + K + kz k .
, P 1 , P 2 , K , P k x ,
z

, i 0 ,
k

1 = 1 z .
i =1

z 1 , z 2 , K , z k ( ).
z j , . . z j z i i = 1, 2, K , k .
i z i , z 1 , z 2 , K , z k ,
1 , 2 , K , k , j = 1 i = 0 ( i j ) . ,
z P j .
,
, -,
,
.

1.6.
1. , .
I, II, III.
:
I
II
III
A
0.5
0.4
0.2
B
0.25
0.3
0.4
I, II, III 40, 36 36 .
5 3 .
,
. .
20

2. w = x 1 + 2x 2
x 1 0 , x 2 0 ,

x 1 + 3x 2 10 ,
x1 + x2 6 ,
x1 x2 3 ,
x 1 + 4x 2 4 .
3. 2 . , 15
, 5 .
.
4. z = 2x 1 x 2
x 1 0 , x 2 0 ,

x 1 + 2x 2 11 ,
x1 + x2 6 ,
x1 x2 2 ,
2x 1 4x 2 3 .
5. z = 3x 1 x 2
x 1 0 , x 2 0 ,

x1 +

x2 1 ,

x1

x2 1 ,

2x 1 +

x2 3 ,

x1 + x2 6

2
, ) = 6 , = 6 .
3
6. z = x 1 5x 2
x 1 0 , x 2 0 , x 1 + x 2 6 , 3x 1 + 4x 2 12 .
7. 3x 1 + 6x 2 + 2x 3
x 1 , x 2 , x 3 0 , 3x 1 + 4x 2 + x 3 2 , x 1 + 3x 2 + 2x 3 1 .
,
, .
8. 0,03 %
3,25 %. , , ( 1 ):
, .


, %
, %
A
0.06
2.0
30
B
0.04
4.0
30
C
0.02
3.0
45
) = = 1 , ) = 2 , =

,
? ,
.
21

9. : )
, ) , ) .
0 100 .
, , 60
60 .
.
, .


A
90
30
70
B
65
85
50
C
45
70
10

. ,
, .
10. , 8 15
; .
1, - 2.
:

1 6 : 1 5000 1 10%. 2
4000 1 20 %. 1 6 . ,
288 . 1 . 2 5 ,
336 1 . 1/4 , - 1/3 .
10 , 1 360 . 1
12000 8000 .
x 1 x 2
( ), .

.
11. . 1.2 .
,
.
12.
. 5 , - 7. ,
3, 4 5 G 1 , G 2 G 3 .
,
? .


A
B
3
4
G1

G2

G3

13. - .
, 550 .
22

2 , - 3 2 .
1200 2 . 12
, - 30 ;
160 . 3 .,
4 ., ?
14. : ( ) .
1000 800 ,
40 . "" 30
50 ; "" 40
20 . ""
500 . ,
"" 1500 .;
900 000 . . , ,
210 . I
"" 1000 . , "" 500 . . ?
?
15. ;
, .
( ) :

40
110
190

170
100
150
) . 800 , . - 500 .
400 , - 600 , - 300 .
?
) - ,
. ?

23

2. -
2.1. -

, . 1.2, ,
, .
. -,
. , ,
, .
:
c 1 x 1 + c 2 x 2 + K + c n x n = c T x = z

(2.1)

x 1 , x 2 , K, x n 0 , . . x 0 ,

(2.2)

a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + K + a 1n x n = b 1 ,
a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + K + a 2n x n = b 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a m1 x 1 + a m2 x 2 + K + a mn x n = b m

(2.3)

. . Ax = b ; b > 0 ,
, ,
.
, , ,
m A , B m n .
x 1 , x 2 , K , x m ,
, x 1 , x 2 , K , x m b x ,

x1 +

+ a /1m +1 x m +1 + a /1m +2 x m +2 + K + a /1n x n = b /1 ,

x 2 + K + a /2m +1 x m +1 + L LL LL L L + a /2n x n = b /2 ,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xm + a

/
m m +1

(2.4)

x m +1 + L LL LL L L + a mn x n = b .
/
m

(2.4) c 1 , c 2 , K ,

c m z ,

x 1 , x 2 , K , x m z
c m/ +1 x m +1 + c m/ +2 x m +2 + K + c n/ x n = z z 0 ,

(2.5)

z 0 = c i b /i .
i =1

, (2.4) (2.3) , (2.5)


(2.1) ,
. (2.4) (2.5)
x 1 , x 2 , K , x m . x m + 1 , x m + 2 , K , x n 0,
x 1 = b /1 , x 2 = b /2 , K , x m = b m/ , x m + 1 = 0 , K , x n = 0

. b /i > 0 , .
. -
24

,
.
, A :
A = (BR)

- x 1 , x 2 , K , x m , a R

m n m ( A ), (2.3) B 1
(2.4).
B 1 .
(2.3)
(BR) x = b
(2.6)

B 1 ( B R ) x = B 1 b ,
.. Im ( B 1 R ) x = b / ( - (2.4)),
1

b = B b
a j/ = B 1 a j j = m + 1, K , n

/

(2.7)
(2.8)
(2.9)

c j/ = c j c i a /ij ,
i =1

/
j

= c j c TB a j/ = c j c TB B 1 a j ,

(2.10)

c TB = ( c 1 , c 2 , K , c m) - -
z (. (2.1)).
.
,
- 1 . 1.1, .
1
2x 1 4x 2 = z
x 1 0 , x 2 0 ,
3x 1 + 4x 2 1700 ,
2x 1 + 5x 2 1600 .
x 3 x 4

3x 1 + 4x 2 + x 3
= 1700 ,
+ x 4 = 1600 ,
(2.11)
2x 1 + 5x 2
2x 1 4x 2
= z .
b ,
+1, , x 1 = x 2 = 0 , x 3 = 1700 , x 4 = 1600
, (2.11) .
z , , ,
.
z ? x 1 x 2 ,
. x 1 x 2
25

z . ,
. x 2 ,
x 2 .
x 2 x 3 x 4 ,
(2.11).
. , x 2 .
3x 1 + 4x 2 + x 3 = 1700 , x 3 0 x 2 = 1700/4 = 425.
2x 1 + 5x 2 + x 4 = 1600 , x 4 0 x 2 = 1600/5 = = 320.
, x 2 320 (
), .

2/ 5x 1 + x 2 + 1/ 5x 4 = 320 .
, 4, (2.11) (4 -
x 2 ), , - 4,
(- 4 - x 2 ), x 2
, , 1.

7
4
x1
+ x3
x 4 = 420 ,
5
5
2
5

x1 + x2
2
5

x1

1
5

x 4 = 320 ,

4
5

x 4 = z + 1280 ,

(2.12)

x 2 , x 3 ,
.
x 1 x 4 . 0.
z , x 1 .
x 1 , x 2 x 3 ?

7
4
x1 + x3
x 4 = 420
5
5

x 3 0 x 1 =

2
5

420

x1 + x2 +

0 x 1 =

320
2
5

= 300 .

7
5

1
5

x 4 = 320

= 800 .

, x 1 , 300 (
). 7/5 ( x 1 )

26

x1 +

5
7

x3

4
7

x 4 = 300

x 1 ,
, 2/5 -2/5, .
x 1 , x 2 , .
:
5
4
x1
+
x3
x 4 = 300 ,
7
7
2
3
x2
x3 +
x 4 = 200 ,
(2.13)
7
7
2
4
x3 +
x 4 = z + 1400 .
7
7
, x 3 , x 4 (
z )
z . , z
z , -1440
x 1 = 300, x 2 = 200, x 3 = x 4 = 0.
.. 1.1, ,
0 A A B - .
, (2.11) x 1
0 B C .
. (2.11) - (2.13) ,

z 2x 1 4x 2 = 0 ;
2
4
z
x1 +
x 4 = 1280 ;
5
5
2
4
z +
x3 +
x 4 = 1400 .
7
7
.

x1
x2
x3
x4
1700
3
4
4
.
0
x3

x4

1600

5*

z
x3

0
420

-2
7/5*

-4
.

.
1

.
-4/5

x2

320

2/5

1/5

z
x1

1280
300

-2/5
1

.
.

.
5/7

4/5
-4/7

x2

200

-2/7

3/7

1400
.
.
2/7
4/7
z
0 5 - ,
. 1
27

7/5. , ,
, , 0 .
, , . ,
, k -
, (2.4) (2.5), .
- x 1
x m+1
x2
xr
xm
xs

1
.
.
.
.
k
x1
b /1
a /1m +1
a /1s

x2

b /2

xr

/
r

xm
z

b
b

/
m

z /0

xn
a /1n

a /2m +1

a /2s

a /2n

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
1

.
.

a r/ m +1

a r/ s

a /rn

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
1

.
1. .

x m +1, K , x n .

/
m m +1

c /m +1

a m/ s

a m/ n

c /s

c /n

c m/ +1 , K , c s/ , K , c /n . c /s. c /s
, x s

z .

, c /j - ,
. , ,
c /j . c /s 0 ,
z , .
2. .
x s ,
? i - a /is > 0 , ,

x s ,

b /i / a /is ,

xi

. ( a 0 , x s x i
.) x s
/
is

max x s = min

i =1, K , m

b /j
, a /is > 0
a /is

(2.14)

r , x r 0, x s
b /r / a /rs . .

a /rs 2 , r - , s -
.
3. .
x 1 , x 2 , K, x s , K , x m; x r x r .
, x s
1, a /rs , .
2

"". - . . 30

28

x s . i -
( i r ) a /is x s

a /is ( ).

c /s (< 0) x s , c /s (
) .
:
- x 1
x2
xr
xm
xs
xn
x m+1

1
.
.
.
.
k+1
x1
b +1
a +1r
a 1+m+1
a +1n

x2

b +2

xr

+
r

xm
z

b
b

+
m

z +0

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

a +2r
a

+
rr

.
.

+
mr

c +r

.
.
.

a 2+m+1
a

+
r m+1

.
1

c +m+1

+
m m+1

a +2n

.
1

a +rn

.
.

a m+ n

c +n

b r+ = b r/ a r/ s ;

(2.15)

a r+j = a r/ j a /rs ;

(2.16)

b +i = b /i a /is b +r , i r ;

(2.17)

a +ij = a ij/ a is/ a +rj ;

(2.18)

c j+ = c j/ c s/ a +rj ;

(2.19)

z +0 = z /0 + c s/ b +r .

(2.20)

(2.15) - (2.20) ; .
3.
, , 1
+j . , ;
, z .
2
6x 1 2x 2 = z
x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 0 ,

2x 1 + 4x 2 + x 3
3x 1 + x 2

= 9,
+ x4 = 6 .

- 2 . 1.2, .
, ,
. .
1 .
. 1.3 , 0 . ,
x 1 = 2, x 3 - 5, x 2 = x 4 =0, z , -12.

29

x 2 ,
x 2 . , .
, .

x1
x2
x3
x4
9
2
4
1
.
0
x3

x4

3*

-6

-2

x3

10/3*

-2/3

x1

1/3

1/3

12

(
) .
3/2
.
1
3/10
-2/10
2
x2

x1

3/2

-1/10

4/10

12

. 1.3. ,
, :

z .
3
x 1 x 2 = z
x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 0 ,

x1 x2 x3 = 1 ,
x2 + x4 = 2 .
, x 1 = 1, x 4 = 2, x 2 = x 3 = 0
, .
x 1 . ,
x 1 2x 2 x 3 = z + 1 .
- 3 . 1.2. ,
. 1.4:

x1
x2
x3
x4
1
1
-1
-1
.
0
x1

x4

1*

-2

-1

x1

-1

x2

-1

30

, .
. 1.4. z x 3 .
. , x 3 ,
. , x 3 ,
0. , x 1 , x 2 . (. . 1.4). , a /is 0 .

2.2. -

.

,
.

( ), ,
.
- - .


.
.

-
, , ,
.

.
min c /j = c /s ( < 0 ) ,
j

.


. 2.1. - -

max x s = min

i =1 K m
a /is > 0

b /i
a /is

b /r
.
a /rs

(2.21)

, (2.14). ,
(2.15) - (2.20).
-, . 2.1;
, .
( b /i z /0) .
. 4000 - 4030
1 . 2.1.
READY.
10 REM -

31

15 REM
20 REM
30 READ M,N
40 1=+1
50 DIM A(M1,N),BS(M),NB(N),V(M1)
60 PRINT
100 REM
105 REM
110 FOR I=1 M1:FOR J=l N
120 READ A(I,J)
130 NEXT J:NEXT I
150 REM
155 REM (1,0)
160 FOR I=1 M1:READ A(I,0):NEXT I
200 REM ;BS -
205 REM I
210 FOR I=1 M:READ BS(I):NEXT I
250 REM ; ]
255 REM , NB(J)=0
260 FOR I=1 M:NB(BS(I))=1:NEXT I
290
300 PRINT : PRINT
310 GOSUB 3000:STOP
400 ZERO =1E-08
490 REM Z (..
495 REM Ml)
500 MIN=-ZERO:S=0:PV=0
510 FOR J=1 N
520 IF NB(J)=1 THEN GOTO 550
530 IF A(M1,J)>=MIN THEN GOTO 550
540 MIN =A(M1,J):S=J
550 NEXT J
560 REM S=0,TO
565 REM
570 IF S=0 THEN GOTO 2000
740 REM ,
745 REM BI/A(IS)
750 MIN =1E20:R=0
760 FOR I=1
770 IF A(I,S)<=ZERO THEN GOTO 810
780 RT=A(I,0)/A(I,S)
790 IF RT>=MIN THEN GOTO 810
800 R=I:MIN=A(I,0)/A(I,S)
810 NEXT I
890 REM R=0,TO
900 IF R=0 THEN GOTO 1800
910 PRINT ;R; ;S
920 PRINT
990 REM
1000 PV=A(R,S)
1010 FOR J=0 TO N:A(R,J)=A(R,J)/PV:NEXT J
1040 REM ,
1045 REM
1050 FOR I=1 M1:V(I)=A(I,S):NEXT I
1070 FOR I=1 M1
1080 IF I=R THEN GOTO 1120
1090 FOR J=0 TO N
1100 A(I,J)=A(I,J)-V(I)*A(R,J)

32

1110
1120
1150
1155
1160
1170
1180
1190
1200
1210
1240
1250
1800
1810
1820
2000
2010
2020
2030
2040
2050
2060
2090
2100
2500
3000
3010
3020
3030
3040
3050
3060
3080
3090
3100
3110
3120
3200
4000
4010
4020
4030
9000
9010
9020
9030
9040
9050
9060
9070
9080
9090
9100
9110
9120
9130
9140
9150

NEXT J
NEXT I
REM
REM
NB(BS(R))=0:NB(S)=1:BS(R)=S
REM
=+1
REM
PRINT
GOSUB 3000:STOP
REM
GOTO 500
PRINT HEPEMEHHA S
GOSUB 3000:STOP
GOTO 2500
PRINT
PRINT

=144
FOR I=1
PRINT ;I;
;BS(I);
PA=A(I,0):GOSUB 9000:PRINT
NEXT I
PRINT Z ;-A(1,0)
GOSUB 3000
END
PRINT ;
FOR J=l TO N:PRINT XJ ;:NEXT J
PRINT
PB=122
FOR I=1 TO Ml
IF I=M1 THEN PRINT"-Z";:GOTO 3080
PRINT BS(I);
FOR J=0 TO N
PA=A(I,J):GOSUB 9000
NEXT J
PRINT
NEXT I:PRINT
RETURN
DATA 2,4
DATA 3,4,1,0,2,5,0,l,-2,-4,0,0
DATA 1700,1600,0
DATA 3,4
PC=INT(PB/100)
P$=
IF PC=0 THEN PRINT :GOTO 9040
PRINT LEFT$(P$,PC)'
PC=PB-100*PC
PD=INT(PC/10):PC=PC-10*PD
IF PD=0 THEN P0=l
IF PA<0 THEN P$=P$+-
PE=ABS(PA)
=+5*10^(-1-)
IF PE>=10^PD THEN PRINT PA;:RETURN
P$=P$+MID$(STR$(INT(PE)),2,PD)
PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PD+1)
IF PC=0 THEN RETURN
PRINT .;
PE=INT((PE-INT(PE))*10^PC)

33

9160 P$="000000000"
9170 P$=P$+MID$(STR$(PE),2,)
9180 PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PC);:RETURN
READY.

. c /j ,
500 550 , .
MIN = 10 8 ,
. , . ,
; , , ,
, , 1, 23947 10 29 .
.

( 750-880). , a /is
. , (
b /i a /is ) , 0 -
.
300, 310, 1200, 1210, 1810,
2100. ( 1210) .
, .
910 , .
, 3000, .
, ,
,
.
( 10) , .
, 9000, .
. = 144 2020 = 122
3030, , ,
.
1 . 2.1;
. , .
,
.


0
XI
X 2
3
1700
3.00 4.00
4
1600
2.00 5.00
-Z
0.00
-2.00 -4.00

X 3
1.00
0.00
0.00

X 4
0.00
1.00
0.00

2 2
1
X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
3
420
1.40
0.00
1.00 -0.80
2
320
0.40
1.00
0.00 0.20
-Z
1280 -0.40
0.00
0.00 0.80
1 1

34

2
X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
1
300 1.00 0.00
0.71 -0.57
2
200 0.00 1.00 -0.29
0.43
-Z
1400
0.00 0.00
0.29
0.57


1
1
2
2


X 1
1
300
1.00
2
200
0.00
-Z
1400
0.00

300.0000
200.0000
-1400
X 2
X 3
0.00
0.71
1.00 -0.29
0.00
0.29

X 4
-0.57
0.43
0.57

2.3.

, -, .1.2.

, , 3, .
.
1
3x 1 4x 2 = z
x 1 , x 2 0 ,

10 ,

x1

x2 5 ,
x 1 + x 2 20 ,
x 1 + 4x 2 20 .
- 1 .1.2; .


x1
x3
= 10 ,

x2
x1 + x2

x4

= 5,
+ x5

x 1 + 4x 2

= 20 ,

(2.22)

+ x 6 = 20 .

- .
, . ,
, .
x 1 = x 2 =0, x 3 = -10, x 4 =- 5, x 5 = 20, x 6 = 20, x 3
x 4 . - .
.
.

35

( ) x 7
x 8 () . :

x3

x1
x2

+ x7
x4

x1 + x2

= 10
+ x8 = 5 ,

+ x5

x 1 + 4x 2

= 20 ,
+ x6

(2.23)

= 20 .

. x 1 = x 2 = x 3 = x 4 = 0 (
), x 7 = 10, x 8 = 5, x 5 = 20, x 6 = 20. -

x7 + x8 = w
(2.24)
w

. I

w .
, (2.22) , ,
( ) ; I
, w 0 x 7 x 8 . x 7

x 8 , (2.23) (2.22).
, w ,
II .

, x 7 x 8 .
, w , . .
. x 7 x 8 , ,
(2.23). w x 7 x 8 .
w .
. ,
x 1 x 2 + x 3 + x 4 = w 15
I
z , , . ,
I z , .
w 0, II .
.
I :
- x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
x6
x7
x8

10
1*
0
-1
0
.
.
1
.
0
x7

x8

-1

x5

20

x6

20

-1

z
w

0
-15

-3
-1

-4
-1

0
1

0
1

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

36

x1

10

-1

x8

1*

-1

x5

10

-1

x6

30

-1

z
w
x1

30
-5
10

.
.
1

-4
-1
.

-3
0
-1

0
1
0

.
.
.

.
.
.

3
1
.

.
.
0

x2

-1

x5

-1

-1

x6

10

-1

-4

50
.
.
-3
-4
.
.
3
4
z
0
.
.
0
0
.
.
1
1
w
w , x 7 x 8
0. , x 7 , 1
x 7 , x 8 . x 7
, , w x 7 , x 8
1, w 0( w + x 7 + x 8 = 0 ).

z

z , , ,
-. (. 1.2).

I ,
II. II :

x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
x6

10
1
.
-1
0
.
.
2
x1

x2

-1

x5

x6

10

-1

z
x1

50
10

.
1

.
.

-3
-1

-4
.

.
.

.
0

x2

15/2

-1/4

1/4

x5

5/2

5/4*

-1/4

x4

5/2

-1/4

1/4

z
x1

60
12

.
1

.
.

.
.

.
4/5

1
-1/5

x2

1/5

1/5

x3

4/5

-1/5

x4

1/5

1/5

68

16/5

1/5

37

2, 3, 4 , Q, R (. 1.2).
, z -68 x 1 = 12, x 2 =8, x 3 =2,

x 4 =3.
x 3 x 4
, , ,
, .
2
( - 4 1.2).
2x 1 + 3x 2 = z
x 1 , x 2 0 ,

x 1 + x 2 10 ,
3x 1 + 5x 2 15 .

x1 + x2 x3
= 10 ,
3x 1 + 5x 2

+ x 4 = 15 ,

2x 1 + 3x 2

(2.26)

= z .

, x 5
w = x 5 . x 1 x 2 + x 3 = w 10 . :

x1
x2
x3
x4
x5

10
1
1
-1
.
1
0
x5

x4

15

3*

z
w
x5

0
-10
5

2
-1
.

3
-1
-2/3

0
1
-1

.
.
-1/3

.
.
1

x1

5/3

1/3

z
w

-10
-5

.
.

-1/3
2/3

0
1

-2/3
1/3

.
.

w . w
. w 0, x 5 = 5.
(2.26), . 1.5. I
, II,
.
3
0,03 %
3,25 %. , , ( 1 ) :


, .
, %
, %
A
0.06
2.0
30
B
0.04
4.0
30
C
0.02
3.0
45

38

,
? ( - . 8 . 1.6,
.) -, ,
.
1 x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , .
x 1 0 , x 2 0 , x 3 0 .
:
x1 +
x2 +
x3 = 1 ,
0, 06x 1 + 0, 04x 2 + 0, 02x 3 0, 03 ,
2x 1 +

4x 2 +

3x 3 3, 25 .

z = 30x 1 + 30x 2 + 45 x 3 .

( 100), .
x i ( i = 1, K , 5 )
30x 1 + 30x 2 + 45x 3 = z

x1 + x2 + x3
= 1,
6x 1 + 4x 2 + 2x 3 + x 4
2x 1 + 4x 2 + 3x 3

= 3,
+ x5 = 3

1
.
4

.
, .
x 6 . w = x 6

z .
, :
x1 + x2 + x3
+ x6 = 1 ,
6x 1 + 4x 2 + 2x 3 + x 4

2x 1 + 4x 2 + 3x 3

= 3,
+ x5 = 3

30x 1 + 30x 2 + 45x 3

1
,
4

= z,

x 1 = x 2 = x 3 = 0, x 6 = 1, x 4 = 3, x 5 =
3 . w , x 6 .
( ,
1) w ,
x1 x2 x3 = w 1 .
:

x1
x2
x3

0
1
1
1
1*
x6
39

x6 ,

x4

x5

x6

x4

x5

z
w
x3

0
-1
1

30
-1
1

30
-1
1

45
-1
1

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
1

x4

-2

x5

1/4

-1

1*

-3

z
w
x3

-45
0
3/4

-15
0
2

-15
0
.

.
.
1

.
.
.

.
.
-1

-45
1

x4

1/2

6*

-2

x2

1/4

-1

x1

-41
7/12
1/12

-30
.
1

.
.
.

.
1
.

.
-1/3
1/6

15
-1/3
-1/3

x2

1/3

1/6

2/3

-38

I 1; w x 6 .
z

38 .; x 1 = 1/12, x 2 =

1/3, x 3 = 7/12.

2.4. -
,
. . ,

.
, N () .
GC , -
= LC
. , .
. :
c 1 x 1 + K + c N x N = z
x i 0 , ( i = 1, K, N )
a 11 x 1 + K + a 1 N x N b 1
b GC
= b G C+1
= b G C+EC
b GC+EC +1
a M1 x 1 + K + a MN x N b M

40

GC

EC

LC

GC x N +1 , K , x N+G C
-1. LC

+1.

x N +GC +1 , K , x N +G C +L C
x N+MK +1 , K , x N+MK +GC +EC ( = GC + LC -
) +1 GC + .
LC
. .
w .
,
d 1 x 1 + K + d N x N + K + d N+MK x N+MK = w + w 0 ,
d j , GC +
x j . w 0
, . w 0 d
( + 2)- .
, , , a GC = 2, = 1, LC =
1 (. . = 4, = 3) N = 3, :
2x 1 + 3x 2 + x 3 6 ,
x 1 + 5x 2 + 6x 3 9 ,
x1 + x2 + x3 = 4 ,
x 1
+ x3 2
x 1 2x 2 3x 3 = z , .
.
-

0
6
x7
9
x8

x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

x6

x7

x8

x9

-1

-1

x9

x6

-1

z
w

0
-19

-1
-4

-2
-9

-3
-8

0
1

0
1

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

( 500- 1180). , (I II)


. I L = 1 ( ); z + 2,
z

. II L = 0; z + 1,
. I
w , , 0
, L 0, II .
.
READY.
10 PRINT -

41

15 READ ZZ
18 REM ZZ=+1
19 REM ; ZZ=-1
20 REM
22 REM
25 READ GC,EC,LC,N
30 MM=GC+EC:M=MM+LC:MK=GC+LC:N1=MK+N
40 P=N1+MM:M1=M+1:M2=M+2:N0=N1
50 DIM A(M2,P),BS(M),V(M2),NB(P),SL(P)
55 REM
60 FOR I=1 TO Ml:FOR J=l TO N:READ A(I,J):NEXT J:NEXT I
90 REM , ,
95 REM
98 REM
100 IF GC =0 THEN GOTO 150
110 FOR I=1 TO GC
120 A(I,N+I)=-1:A(I,N1+I)=1
130 BS(I)=N1+I:READ A(I,0)
140 NEXT I
150 IF EC=0 THEN GOTO 200
160 FOR I=GC+1 TO MM
170 A(I,N1+I)=1:BS(I)=N1+1:READ A(I,0)
180 NEXT I
200 IF LC=0 THEN GOTO 240
210 FOR I=MM+1 TO M
230 A(I,N+I-EC)=1:BS(I)=N+I-EC:READ A(I,0)
240 IF MM=0 THEN PRINT 1
250 REM 1
260 L=1:N0=P:REM N0
270 FOR I=1 TO MM:FOR J=0 TO N1
280 A(M2,J)=A(M2,J)-A(I,J)
290 NEXT J:NEXT I
300 ML=M1+L:REM ML=M+2 1;ML=M+1 2
320 IF ZZ>=0 THEN PRINT
325 GOSUB 3000:STOP
330 REM ;NB(J)=0,
335 REM J-
350 FOR I=1 TO M:NB(BS(I))=1:NEXT I
400 ZERO = 1E-08
490 REM
495 REM , .. ML
500 IN=-ZERO:S=0:PV=0:1=1+L
510 FOR J=1 N0
520 IF NB(J)=1 THEN GOTO 550
530 IF A(ML,J)>=MIN THEN GOTO 550
540 MIN =A(ML,J):S=J
550 NEXT J
560 REM S=0,TO
565 REM
570 IF S=0 THEN GOT0 1900
740 REM ,
745 REM BI/A(IS)
750 MIN =1E20:R=0
760 FOR I=1
770 IF A(I,S)<=ZERO THEN GOTO 810
780 RT=A(I,0)/A(I,S)
790 IF RT>=MIN THEN GOTO 810
800 R=I:MIN=A(I,0)/A(I,S)

42

810 NEXT I
890 REM R=0,TO
900 IF R=0 THEN GOTO 1800
910 PRINT ;R;CTO;S:PRINT
990 REM
1000 PV=A(R,S)
1010 FOR J=0 N0:A(R,J)=A(R,J)/PV:NEXT J
1040 REM ,
1045 REM
1050 FOR I=1 TO ML:V(I)=A(I,S):NEXT I
1070 FOR 1=1 ML
1080 IF I=R THEN GOTO 1120
1090 FOR J=0 TO N0
1100 A(I,J)=A(I,J)-V(I)*A(R,J)
1110 NEXT J
1120 NEXT I
1150 REM
1155 REM
1160 NB(BS(R))=0:NB(S)=1:BS(R)=S
1170 REM
1180 =+1
1190 REM
1200 IF ZZ>=0 THEN PRINTK:GOSUB 3000:STOP
1240 REM
1250 GOTO 500
1800 PRINT S
1810 GOSUB 3000:STOP
1820 GOTO 2500
1900 IF L=0 THEN GOTO 2000
1905 REM 2 .
1908 REM 1, 2
1910 REM , W 0
1920 IF ABS(A(ML,0))>=lE-08 THEN GOTO 1960
1930 PRINT 1
1940 L=0:N0=N1:REM L 2
1950 GOTO 500
1960 PRINT
1970 PRINT ;:PRINT -A(ML,0)
1980 GOSUB 3000:STOP
2000 PRINT
2010 PRINT

2020 =144
2030 FOR I=1 M:SL(BS(I))=A(I,0)
2040 PRINT" ";I;" ":BS(I);
2050 PA=A(I,0):GOSUB9000:PRINT
2060 NEXT I
2090 PRINT Z ;-(1,0)
2100 PRINT

2120 FOR 1=1 TO M
2130 PRINT;I;;
2140 IF I<=GC OR I>MM THEN GOTO 2160
2150 PRINTPABHEHHE HE :GOTO 2180
2160 IF NB(N+1)=1 THEN PRINT..;
2165 PA=SL(N+1):GOSUB 9000:PRINT:GOTO 2180
2170 PRINT OPAHHHEHHE
0
2180 NEXT I
2300 GOSUB 3000
2500 END

43

3000 PRINT ;
3010 FOR J=1 TO N:PRINT XJ ;:NEXT J
3020 PRINT
3030 PB=122
3040 FOR I=1 TO Ml
3050 IF I=M1 THEN PRINTZ;:GOTO 3080
3060 PRINT BS(I);
3080 FOR J=0 TO N
3090 PA=A(I,J):GOSUB 9000
3100 NEXT J
3110 PRINT
3120 NEXT I:PRINT
3200 RETURN
4000 DATA 1
4010 DATA 2,0,2,2
4020 DATA 1,0,0,1,1,1,-1,4,-3,-4
4030 DATA 10,5,20,20
9000 PC=INT(PB/100)
9010 P$=
9020 IF PC=0 THEN PRINT:GOTO 9040
9030 PRINT LEFT$(P$,PC);
9040 PC=PB-100*PC
9050 PD=INT(PC/10):PC=PC-10*PD
9060 IF PD=0 THEN PD=1
9070 IF PA<0 THEN P$=P$+-
9080 PE=ABS(PA)
9090 PE=PE+5*10^(-1-PC)
9100 IF PE>=10^PD THEN PRINT PA;:RETURN
9110 P$=P$+MID$(STR$(INT(PE)),2,PD)
9120 PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PD+1)
9130 IF PC=0 THEN RETURN
9140 PRINT.;
9150 =INT((-INT())*10^)
9160 P$=000000000
9170 P$=P$+MID$(STR$(PE),2,PC)
9180 PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PC);:RETURN
READY.

, , ,
(
100- 230-) - ( 250-
290-). - I II
,
. ,
, , I.
II, L 1 0, ML 500
+ 2 +1 NO ( , ,
) N1 ( ,
). ,
0.
( 2000- 2300-)
,
() .
, , .
9000 (. ).
2020 - 3030 .
44

3000 . , , ,
-1 ZZ .
1
( - 1 .2.3)
x 1 , x 2 ,
x 1 10 ,
x2 5 ,
x 1 + x 2 20 ,
x 1 + 4x 2 20 .
3x 1 4x 2 = z .
GC = 2, = , LC = 2, N = 2.
4000-4030. :


7
10.00
8
5.00
5
20.00
6
20.00
-Z
0.00
-W
-15.00

X 1
X 2
X 3
4
5
6
7
1.00
0.00 -1.00
0.00
0.00 0.00 1.00
0.00
1.00 0.00 -1.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
1.00
0.00 0.00
0.00
1.00 0.00 0.00
-1.00
4.00 0.00
0.00
0.00 1.00 0.00
-3.00 -4.00 0.00
0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
-1.00 -1.00 1.00
1.00
0.00 0.00 0.00

8
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

1 1
1

1
10.00
8
5.00
5
10.00
6
30 00
-Z
30.00
-W
-5.00

X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
1.00 0.00 -1.00 0.00
0.00 1.00 0.00 -1.00
0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00
0.00 4.00 -1.00 0.00
0.00 -4.00 -3.00 0.00
0.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00

2
2

1
10.00
2
5.00
5
5.00
6
10.00
-Z
50.00
-W
0.00

X 1
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

X 5
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

X 6
X 7
0.00 1.00
0.00 0.00
0.00 -1.00
1.00 1.00
8.00 3.00
0.00 1-00

X 2
X 3
X 4
0.00 -1.00 0.00
1.00 0.00 -1.00
0.00 1.00 1.00
0.00 -1.00 4.00
0.00 -3.00 -4.00
0.00 0.00 0.00

X 5
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

X 6
X 7
X 8
0.00 1.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 1.00
0.00 -1.00 -1.00
1.00 1.00 -4.00
0.00 3.00 4.00
0.00 1.00 1.00

1
4

3

1
10.00
2
7.50
5
2.50
4
2.50

X 4
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00

X 1
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

X 2
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00

X 3
-1.00
-0.25
1.25
-0.25

45

X 8
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

X 5
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00

X 6
0.00
0.25
-0.25
0.25

-Z

60.00

0.00

0.00

-4.00

0.00

0.00

4

1
12.00
2
8.00
3
2.00
4
3.00
-Z
68.00

4
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00

X 1
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

2
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00


0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00

5
0.80
0.20
0.80
0.20
3.20

1.00

6
-0.20
0.20
-0.20
0.20
0.20

1
1
12.0000
2
2
8.0000
3
3
2.0000
4
4
3.0000
-68


1
..
2.0000
2
..
3.0000
3

0
4

0
X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
X 5
X 6
1
12.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.80 -0.20
2
8.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.20
0.20
3
2.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.80 -0.20
4
3.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.20
0.20
-Z
68.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
3.20
0.20

2.5.
. ,
0 .
, 0.
.
, . ( b /r = 0). x s , , , a /rs
, ; b /r a /rs =0
min
i
a /is >0

b i/
= 0.
a is/

, x s 0 .
z . ,
x s x r ,
z .
1

46

x 1 , x 2 ,
2x 1 x 2 4 ,
x 1 2x 2 2 ,
x1 + x2 5 ,

3x 1 + x 2 = z .
(. 2.2) ,
- (3,2), z =
-7. ,
, ,
(2, 0).

( ).
.
-
:

x1

0
4
2*
x3
2
1*
x4

. 2.2
x2

x3

x4

x5

-1

-2

x5

-3

x 1 . : x 3 x 4 ?
4/2 = 2/1 (
). ,
0, . x 3 .
:

x1
x2
x3
x4
x5

1
2
1
-1/2
1/2
.
.
x1
0
.
-3/2
-1/2
1
.
x4

x5

3/2

-1/2

z
x1

6
3

.
1

-1/2
.

3/2
1/3

.
.

.
1/3

x4

-1

x2

-1/3

2/3

4/3

1/3

, z -7 x 1 = 3, x 2 =2.
, 0 x 4 .
. , .

x1
x2
x3
x4
x5

47

x3

3*

-2

x1

-2

x5

-1

z
x2

6
0

.
.

-5
1

.
1/3

3
-2/3

.
.

x1

2/3

-1/3

x5

-1

1*

z
x2

6
2

.
.

.
1

5/3
-1/3

-1/3
.

.
2/3

x1

1/3

1/3

x4

-1

7
.
.
4/3
.
1/3
z
1
2. z .
. - ,
.
:
2x 1 x 2 4 + ,
x 1 2x 2 2 + 2 ,

- .
,
.
, . 2.3.
. 2.3

. 0.

.
, : .
, -
(, , ) .
. , (2.20),
z /0 , , z /0 + c /s b +r , c /s -
, ,
; b +r - , . c /s
, b /r . , z
.
( , ).
n
n
,

m
m
.
b +n 0,
. .
, , ,

48

3.
. .
2
. . . . .
x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 ,

1
4

x 1 8x 2

1
2

x 1 12x 2

x 3 + 9x 4 0 ,

1
2

x 3 + 3x 4 0 ,
1,

x3


3
1

x 2 + 20x 2
4
2

x 3 + 6x 4 = z .

.
,
.
( x 5 x 6 ). x 5 .
2 x 1 , x 2 . 4
x 3 , x 4 . 6 .
, z .
. .
,
.
, :
1
1
x 1 12x 2
x 3 + 3x 4 0 ,
2
2
1
4

x 1 8x 2

x 3 + 9x 4 0 ,
1,

x3

z x 1 = 1, x 3 = 1, x 6 = 0,75 x i = 0.
z = -1,25.
-
1


X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
X 5
X 6
5
0.000
0.250 -8.000 -1.000 9.000 1.000 0.000
6
0.000
0.500 -12.000 -0.500 3.000 0.000 1.000
7
1.000
0.000
0.000 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
-Z
0.000
-0.750 20.000 -0.500 6.000 0.000 0.000
1 1
1
3

, -, . - . .

49

X 7
0.000
0.000
1.000
0.000


1
6
7
-Z

0.000
0.000
1.000
0.000

X 1
X 2
1.000 -32.000
0.000
4.000
0.000
0.000
0.000 -4.000

X 3
X 4
X 5
-4.000 36.000 4.000
1.500 -15.000 -2.000
1.000
0.000 0.000
-3.500 33.000 3.000

X 6
0.000
1.000
0.000
0.000

X 7
0.000
0.000
1.000
0.000

2 2
2

1
0.000
2
0.000
7
1.000
-Z
0.000

X 1
1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

X 2
X 3
X 4
X 5
0.000 8.000 -84.000 -12.000
1.000 0.375 -3.750 -0.500
0.000 1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000 -2.000 18.000
1.000

X 6
8.000
0.250
0.000
1.000

X 7
0.000
0.000
1.000
0.000

X 5
X 6
-1.500 1.000
0.063 -0.125
1.500 -1.000
-2.000 3.000

X 7
0.000
0.000
1.000
0.000

1 3
3

X 1
3
0.000
0.125
2
0.000
-0.047
7
1.000
-0.125
-Z
0.000
0.250

X 2
0.000
1.000
0.000
0.000

X 3
X 4
1.000 -10.500
0.000
0.188
0.000 10.500
0.000 -3.000

2 4
4

X 1
X 2
3
0.000
-2.500 56.000
4
0.000
-0.250
5.333
7
1.000
2.500 -56.000
-Z
0.000
-0.500 16.000

X 3
1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

X 4
X 5
X 6
0.000 2.000 -6.000
1.000 0.333 -0.667
0.000 -2.000 6.000
0.000 -1.000 1.000

X 7
0.000
0.000
1.000
0.000

1 5
5

X 1
5
0.000
-1.250
4
0.000
0.167
7
1.000
0.000
-Z
0.000
-1.750

X 2
X 3
28.000 0.500
-4.000 -0.167
0.000 1.000
44.000 0.500

X 4
0.000
1.000
0.000
0.000

X 5
X 6
1.000 -3.000
0.000 0.333
0.000 0.000
0.000 -2.000

X 7
0.000
0.000
1.000
0.000

2 6
6

X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
X 5
X 6
5
0.000
0.250 -8.000 -1.000 9.000 1.000 0.000
6
0.000
0.500 -12.000 -0.500 3.000 0.000 1.000
7
1.000
0.000
0.000 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
-Z
0.000
-0.750 20.000 -0.500 6.000 0.000 0.000
-
1


X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
X 5
X 6
5
0.000
0.500 -12.000 -0.500 3.000 1.000 0.000
6
0.000
0.250 -8.000 -1.000 9.000 0.000 1.000
7
1.000
0.000
0.000 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

50

X 7
0.000
0.000
1.000
0.000

X 7
0.000
0.000
1.000

-Z

0.000

-0.750

20.000 -0.500

6.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

X 6
0.000
1.000
0.000
0.000

X 7
0.000
0.000
1.000
0.000

X 6
0.000
1.000
0.000
0.000

X 7
1.000
0.750
1.000
1.250

X 6
0.000
1.000
0.000
0.000

X 7
1.000
0.750
1.000
1.250

1 1
1

1
0.000
6
0.000
7
1.000
-Z
0.000

X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
X 5
1.000 -24.000 -1.000 6.000 2.000
0.000 -2.000 -0.750 7.500 -0.500
0.000
0.000 1.000 0.000 0.000
0.000
2.000 -1.250 10.500 1.500

3 3
2

X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
X 5
1
1.000
1.000 -24.000 0.000 6.000 2.000
6
0.750
0.000 -2.000 0.000 7.500 -0.500
3
1.000
0.000
0.000 1.000 0.000 0.000
-Z
1.250
0.000
2.000 0.000 10.500 1.500

1
1
1.0000
2
6
0.7500
3
3
1.0000
Z -1.25


1

0
2
..
0.7500
3

0

X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
X 5
1
1.000
1.000 -24.000 0.000 6.000 2.000
6
0.750
0.000 -2.000 0.000 7.500 -0.500
3
1.000
0.000
0.000 1.000 0.000 0.000
-Z
1.250
0.000
2.000 0.000 10.500 1.500

2.6.
1. - 3x 1 + 6x 2 + 2x 3
x 1 , x 2 , x 3 0 ,
3x 1 + 4x 2 + x 3 2 ,
x 1 + 3x 2 + 2x 3 1 .

2.

x 1 , x 2 , x 3 0 ,
x 2 + 4x 3 1 ,
x 1 + 5x 2

1,

x 1 + 2x 2 + 3x 3 9 .

2x 1 2x 2 + 4x 3 = z .
3. (, , ),
I, II, III, IV.

.
I
II
III
IV
A
1
3
1
2
3
B
6
1
3
3
6
51

- 84, 42, 21 42 . ,
. ( ,
; ,
, ;
.)
4.
. - , -
,

.
, 1

-

A
50
20
B
40
30
6 .
- 4 , - 10 .
50 000 ; 44 000 -
30 000 .
.

.
5. z = 50x 1 + 25x 2
x 1 0 , x 2 0 ,
x 1 + 3x 2 8 ,

3x 1 + 4x 2 19 ,
3x 1 + x 2 7 .
6. w = 8y 1 + 19y 2 + 7y 3 ,

y 1 + 3y 2 + 3y 3 50 ,
3y 1 + 4y 2 + y 3 25 .
7.
.
, .

A
B
C
D
, -
0,5
1,5
2
1,5
, 2
4
2
6
8
,
5
5
12,5
10
,
-.
8. ,
, ,
. , ,
.
,

52

80
125

A
0,01
0,02
0,04
B
0,02
0,01
0,01

160
120
150


,
,
.
-. .
9. z = 4x 1 5x 2 9x 3 11x 4
x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 0 ,
x1 + x2 +

x3 +

x 4 15 ,

7x 1 + 5x 2 + 3x 3 + 2x 4 120 ,
3x 1 + 5x 2 + 10x 3 + 15x 4 100 .
10. : ,
, . ,
, , 10,
3, 7 4 . 1 ., .

:
) 500 000 .;
) 40 % 20 %
;
)
, .

- .
11. x 1 0 , x 2 0 ,
2x 1 x 2 4 ,
x 1 2x 2 2 ,
x1 + x2 5

x 1 + x 2 = z .
12. , 20
, 30 , 10 40 .
1 ( 1 ) ?

2
12
10
1
2

12
0
0
4
3

1
8
3
0
4

2
2
4
6
2

12
36
32
18
10
53

13. W, X,
Y Z , , , ,
.
.

, %

,
A
10 (W)
90000
25 (Z)
B
15 (W)
100000
C
20 (X)
120000
50 (Y)
( ) 1 .

X
Y
Z
W
A
B
C
72
60
67
75
90
87
84
, ,

.
14. 24 :
,
2-6
6-10
10-14 14-18
18-22
22-02

4
8
10
7
12
4

8 .
, . ,
, :
x1
+ x6 x7
= 4
x8
= 8
x1 + x2
x9
= 10
x2 + x3
x 10
= 7
x3 + x4
x 11
= 12
x4 + x5
x5 + x6
x 12 = 4
, x 1 , x 2 ,
x 3 , x 4 , x 5 , x 7 , x 12 .
,
-.
15. 3x 1 4x 2 5x 3 = z
x 1 0 , x 2 0 , x 3 0 ,
x1 + x2 + x3 4 ,

2x 1 + 3x 2 + 4x 3 6 .
16. , ,
,
. , .
?
17.
l j x j u j , l j u j - x j . ,
.
54

, -.
. . [ 8].
.
, :
?

55

3
3.1. -
(2.7) ,
,
. ,
m n
=
(3.1)
, m ,
,
= (R )
(3.2)
- m * m, a R m *
(n m ),
(R ) =
(3.3)
-1
.
(I m 1R ) = -1 = 1
(3.4)
.
- .
; , ,
-.
j j
,
/ j = 1 j
(3.5)
j . j ,
0

0
j = 1 , 1 ,

0
0

/
a j - -1.
,
0

0
= 1, 1 q ,

0
0

/
k - q- B-1, .
1 .2.1.

x1

x2

x3

x3
x4

1700
1600

3
2

4
5

-z

-2

-4

x4
1

- .

56

x1

x1

300

x2

200

-z

1400

x2
1

x3

x4

5/7

-4/7

-2/7

3/7

2/7

4/7

.
(x1, x2).
0
3 4

=
2 5
(3,4)
1 0

I 2 =
0 1

5/ 7 4/ 7
,
1I 2 = 1 =
2 / 7 3/ 7
, - -1.
1 .2.3.
x3, x4, x5, x6
, . .
1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

(x1, x2, x3, x4)


, . .
1 0 1 0

0 1 0 1
=
1 1 0 0

1 4 0 0

x3, x4, x5, x6


0 0 4 / 5 1/ 5

0 0 1/ 5 1/ 5
1 0 4 / 5 1/ 5

0 1 1/ 5 1/ 5

( ) -1

0 0 4 / 5 1/ 5

0 0 1/ 5 1/ 5
1 0 4 / 5 1/ 5

0 1 1/ 5 1/ 5

57

.
.
b/=B-1b,
.

z. - ,
. :
1 1 + 2 2 + .... + = z
11 1 + 12 2 + ... + 1 = 1 ,
+ + ... + = ,

22 2
2
2
21 1
(3.6)
........................................
1 1 + 2 2 + ... + =
1, 2, ., m z

(3.7)
1 1 + i1 i + 2 2 + i2 i + ... + 1 + i i = z + i i
i =1
i =1
i =1

i ,
(3.7) . i. -. x1, x2,,xm ( ), i
11 1 + 21 2 + ... + 1 = 1 ,
12 1 + 22 2 + ... + 2 = 2 ,
13 1 + 23 2 + ... + 3 = 3 ,

.. = ,

(3.8)

, = (1 ,..., )
z.
1


(3.9)
= 2 , = ( 1 ) .
M



, 1, , m , .
j ,
. . p- ,
1( ) +1. j
. ,
z p. k q-
, z p.
1 .2.1. x3 x4
z 2/7 4/7; -
.
:

3 1 + 4 2 + 3 = 1700 1 (= 2 / 7)

2 1 + 5 2 + 4 = 1600 21 (= 4 / 7)

2 1 4 2 = z.

( ) 1 2 z,

58

2
4
2
4 2
4
2
4
1 (2 + 3 + 2 ) + 2 (4 + 4 + 5 ) + 3 + 4 = z + 1700 + 1600 ,
7
7
7
7 7
7
7
7
2
4
.. 3 + 4 = z + 1400,
(3.10)
7
7
z.
(3.7) z ,
i,
. (
0) (3.7) 0; ,
0. , z

z opt + t i = 0,
..

(3.11)
z

opt

= t i


(. (3.10)).
2 2.3 x3, 4, x5, x6 (0, 0, 16/5,
1/5), - (-0, -0, 16/5, 1/5) (,
; ).
, (2.22) (0, 0, 16/5, 1/5)
z, (2.22),
. -(-0*10 + 0*5 + 16/5*20
+ 1/5*20) = -68.
. ,
.
, i
. -
, ,
.

3.2.
,
.
-. ,
, .
.
, ,
. , ,
, , . ,

; ;
, ,
. ?
,
, .
; ,
.
:
1)
bi ( );
2)
j ( );
3)
;
4)
.
1) bi

59

Ax=b z=cTx
.
:
1

2
= + , =
M



T
z=c x
, .
B-1. 1, 2,., m ,
b = 1b = b / 0.
(3.12)
(3.7) :
z opt = i i ,
(3.13)

m

j + ij i 0

(3.14)

i =1

( 0, 0).
bj, (3.14)
.
,
.
* = 1 (b + b ) = b / + 1b.
(3.15)
* > 0, ,
(3.14). z
m

z* = ( i + i ) i ,

(3.16)

i =1

(3.13)
z opt
= i ,
(3.17)
b i
zopt b1, b2,, bm. , bi,
B*, (3.15),
.
1
1 .1.1. ( .)
.
, .
3 2 , - 4 2. 1700 2 .
12 , 30 .
160 . 2 .
, 4 . ,
?
1 , x2 ,
, 1, x2 0,

60

3 1 + 4 2 1700,
1
1
1 + 2 160,
5
2
..
3 1 + 4 2 1700,
2 1 + 5 2 1600,
-2x1-4x2=z (, ).
() :

x
x2 x3 x4
1
x3
1700 3 4 1
x4
1600 2 5
1
-z
0
-2 -4

x1
x2
-z

300
200
1400

x1
1

x2
1

x3
5/7
2/7
2/7

x4
-4/7
3/7
4/7

4
5

7 ; - 2/7,4/7.
1 = 7
2
3

7 7
1. ,
. 1 2?
, 1700 1701. b
1701
.

1600

5
1* 7
*=
2
2
7

4
5
1701 300
7
=
+ 7
3 1600 200 2

7
7

4
5

1 300 +
7 =
7 ,
3 0
2
200

7
7

.
z (-bii) (2/7*1701 + 4/7*1600) =-1400-2/7.
, 2/7 ., - ,
1 2 . .
i.
2. , .
, 1 7 .?
1700
.
b
1610

5
1* 7
*=
2
2
7

4
40

1700 300
7
7 , .
=
3 1610
30

200 +
7
7

61

z -(2/7*1700 + 4/7*1610) =-140040/7.


40/7 . 1
7 ., . ; ,
. .
.
, 1 z -2 (300 + 5/7) - 4(200 - 2/7),
2- -2(300 - 40/7) - 4(200 +30/7)
2) j.
2
1 P1 ., 2
. 1 2 ?
P1x1-P2x2 = z + 0.
,
, . .
5
4
1 + 3 4 = 300
7
7
2
3
2 3 + 4 = 200.
7
7

z , x1 x2
z. , ( ) P1,
2 z;
2
3
5
4
1 2 3 + 1 + 2 4 = z + 3001 + 200 2 .
7
7
7
7
, ,
.

4
3
2
3
5
2
1 2 0 - 1 + 2 0, . 1 1 .
7
7
2 5
2 4
7
7
. 1.1, , ,
z, , ,
.
j .
.
,
. ( ) ,
. ,
, -.
3)
3

4 2 20 .
? ., ?
x5 ,
: 1, 2, 3., 4, xs
31 + 4 2 + 3 + 4 5 = 1700,

1
1
1 + 2 +
5
2
2 1 4 2

1
4 + 5 = 160,
3
- 5 = z
62

...
31 + 4 2 + 3 +
2 1 + 5 2 +

4 5 = 1700,
10
5 = 1600,
3
- 5 = z -

10 4 +

2 1 4 2

, x5,
(3.5) :
4 5 / 7 4 / 7 4 20 / 21

=
1
10 / 3 2 / 7 3 / 7 10 / 3 6 / 21
2 / 7
, (3.7) ,
- 1 =
2 4 / 7
5 z
2
4 10
64
+ * 4 + * = + .
7
7 3
21
( 5):

1 2
3
4
5

1
2
-z

300
200
1400

1
1

5/7
-2/7
2/7

-4/7
3/7
4/7

20/21
6/21
-P+64/21

- + 64/21 0, , , ; x5
, .
- + 64/21 < 0, . . > 64/21, x5 .
-.
4)
4
, ,
550 . ?
1 +x2550.

. .
x1 = 300 2 =200, 1 +x2 =500
.

, 450
, . .

3.3. -
1
, 450 .
x1+x2450.
x1+x2+x5=450, x5 0 -

.
.
?

63

,
,
5
4
3 4 = 300,
7
7
2
3
2 3 + 4 = 200.
7
7
x1+x2+x5=450 1 x2
1 +

3
1
3 + 4 + 5 = 50.
7
7
( -
):

1
2
3
4
5
2

1
2
5
-z

300
200
-50
1400

5/7
-2/7
-3/7
2/7

-4/7
3/7
1/7 1
4/7

. 1, 2, 5
, , .
5 . , , coxpa
? ,
-.
- ,
( )
(, ),
. - ;
,
,
. ,
- , , (
).
x5
. ? Xs
, , (
(2.15) - (2.20))
. ,
. x5 -
x3, -3/7. -3/7,
x3 ( 1),
1
7
350
3 4 5 =
,
3
3
3
. . x3 .
x3 .
, ,
. ( -3/7) .

1
2
3
4
5
2

1
2
5
-z

300
200
-50
1400

5/7
-2/7
-3/7
2/7

-4/7
3/7
1/7 1
4/7
64

650/3

700/3

350/3

-z

4100/3

-1/3 5/3
1

1/3
1

-2/3

-1/3 -7/3
2/3

2/3

:
650
700
4100
1 =
, 2 =
, z = .[
3
3
3
x3 - , ,
.
.
, :
1. . ,
; , .
- r-. .
.
2. r- a/rj. , , ,
.

min j/ / rj/ .
j

s- , s .
3. -, a/rj.
(2.19)
*j = j/ s/ rj/ / rs/ ,

, a/rj , /j , , s

min j/ / rj/ = s/ / rs/ .
j

, - -
.
, -
, 1
. ,
.
- , ,
, - ,
, -,
. ,
1 2, .
, .
, ,
.
READY.
10 REM -
15 REM -,
20 REM
30 READ M,N
40 M1=M+1

65

50 DIM A(M1,N),BS(M),NB(N),V(M1)
60 PRINT
100 REM
105 REM
110 FOR I=1 M1:FOR J=1 N
120 READ A(I,J)
130 NEXT J:NEXT I
150 REM
155 REM (I,0)
160 FOR I=1 M1:READ A(I,0):NEXT I
200 REM ;S - A
205 REM I
210 FOR I=1 M:READ BS(I):NEXT I
250 REM ; J 255 REM , NB(J)=0
260 FOR I=1 M:NB(BS(I))=1:NEXT I
290
300 RINT " " :RINT K
310 GOSUB 3000:STOP
400 ZERO 1E-08
490 REM Z (..
495 REM M1)
500 MIN=-ZERO:S=0:PV=0
510 FOR J=1 N
520 IF NB(J)=1 THEN GOTO 550
530 IF A(M1,J)>=MIN THEN GOTO 550
540 MIN=A(M1,J):S=J
550 NEXT J
560 REM S=0, TO
565 REM
570 IF S=0 THEN GOTO 2000
740 REM ,
745 REM I/(IS)
750 MIN=1E20:R=0
760 FOR I=0 TO
770 IF (I,S)<-ZR THEN GOTO 810
780 RT=A(I,0)/A(I,S)
790 IF RT>=MIN THEN GOTO 810
800 R=I:MIN=A(I,0)/A(I,S)
810 NEXT I
890 REM R=0, TO
900 IF R=0THEN GOTO 1900
910 RINT " ":R: /" ;S
920 PRINT"
990 REM
1000 PV=A(R,S)
1010 FOR J=0 TO N:A(R,J)=H(R,J)/PV:NEXT J
1040 REM ,
1045 REM
1050 FOR I=1 M1:V(I)=A(I,S):NEXT I
11070 FOR I=1 TO M1
1080 IF I=R THEN GOTO 1120
1090 FOR J=0 TO N
1100 A(I,J)=(I,J)-V(I)*A(R,J)
1110 NEXT J
1120 NEXT I
1150 REM
1155 REM
1160 NB(BS(R))=0:NB(S)=1:BS(R)=S
1170 REM
1180 =+1
1190 REM
1200 PINT "A"
1210 GOSUB 3000:STOP
1240 REM A
1250 GOTO 500
1490 REM -;AAA A
1495 REM AA
1500 MIN=-ZERO:R=0
1510 FOR I=1
1530 IF A(I,0)> MIN THEN GOTO 1550
1540 IN=A(I,0):R=I
1550 NEXT I
1560 REM R=0,TO A
1570 IF R=0 THEN GOTO 2000
1600 REM A , A
1610 MIN=1E20:S=0
1620 FOR J=1 TO N
1630 IF NB(J)=1 THEN GOTO 1680

66

1640 IF A(R,J)>-ZR THEN GOTO 1680


1650 R=ABS(A(1,J)/A(R,J))
1660 IF RT>= MIN THEN GOTO 1680
1670 S=J:MIN=ABS(A(M1,J)/A(R,J))
1680 NEXT J
1760 REM S=0,TO
1770 IF S=0 THEN GOTO 1800
1780 GOTO 910
1790 REM B 1780
1795 REM AA A
1800 PRINT "HET "
1810 GOSUB 3000
1820 GOTO 2500
1900 RINT "A "S" HE A"
1910 GOSUB 3000
1920 GOTO 2500
2000 RINT "A "
2010 RINT "A A A"
2020 =144
2030 FOR I=1
2040 PRINT " ";I;"
";BS(I);
2050 A=A(I,0):GOSUB 9000:PRINT ""
2060 NEXT I
2090 RINT " Z A "; -A(1,0)
2100 GOSUB 3000
2500 END
3000 RINT "A A",
3010 FOR J=1 N:PRINT "X" J " ";:NEXT J
3020 PRINT " "
3030 PB=122
3040 FOR I=1 TO M1
3050 IF I=M1 THEN PRINT "-Z";:GOTO 3080
3060 PRINT BS(I);
3080 FOR J=0 TO N
3090 A=A(I,J):GSU 9000
3100 NEXT J
3110 PRINT " "
3120 NEXT I:PRINT " "
3200 RETURN
4000 DATA 3,5
4010 DATA -1,-2,1,0,0
4020 DATA -2-1,0,1,0
4030 DATA 7,8,0,0,1
4040 DATA 1,1,6,0,0
4050 DATA -6,-6 56,0
4060 DATA 3,4,5
9000 PC=INT(PB/100)
9010 $="
9020 IF PC=0 THEN PRINT " ": GOTO 9040
9030 PRINT LEFT$(P$,PC);
9040 PC=PB-100*PC
9050 PD=INT(PC/10):PC=PC-10*PD
9060 IF PD=0 THEN PD=1
9070 IF A<0 THEN P$=P$+"-"
9080 =ABS(A)
9090 =+5*10^(-1-)
9100 IF PE>=PD THEN PRINT PA;:RETURN
9110 P$=P$+MID$(STR$(INT(PE)),2,PD)
9120 PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PD+1)
9130 IF PC=0 THEN RETURN
9140 PRINT" .";
9150 PE=INT((PE-INT(PE)*10^PC)
9160 P$=" 000000000"
9170 P$=P$+MID$(STR$(PE),2,PC)
9180 PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PC);:RETURN
READY.

-
.
.
2
1, 2,

67

1 + 2 2 6,
2 1 + 2 6,
7 1 + 8 2 56,
1+2 =z.
: j 0,
1 + 2 2 3 = 6
2 1 + 2 4 = 6
7 1 + 8 2 + 5 = 56
1+2=z.
x3, x4 x5 (. . x1, 2),
. , x3= 6 x4= -6.
-1 ( )
1 2 2 + 3 = 6
2 1 2 + 4 = 6
7 1 + 8 2 + 5 = 56
1 + 2 = z

.
-, .

1
2
3
4
5
0

x3

-6

-1

-2

x4

-6

-2*

-1

x5
-z

56

x3

-3

x1

x5

35

-z

-3

x2

x1

x5
-z

-3/2*
1

1
1
1

-1/2

1/2

-1/2

9/2

7/2

1/2
1

-2/3

1/3

1/3

-2/3

26

-4

1/3

1/3

. z ,
. , z 4
1 = 2 x2 =2. .
4000-4060 .
,
.


0

68


3
4

-6.00
-6.00

X1
-1.00
-2.00

2
-2.00
-1.00

X3
1.00
0.00

X4
0.00
1.00

5
0.00
0.00

56.00

7.00

8.00

0.08

0.00

1.00

-Z

0.00

1.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2 1
1

3
-3.00

X1 X2
0.00 -1.50

X3
1.00

X4
-0.50

5
0.00

1.00 0.50

0.00

-0.50

0.00

3.00

35.00

0.00 4.50

0.00

3.50

1.00

-Z

-3.00

0.03 0.50

0.00

0.50

0.00

1 2
2

2
1
5
-Z

2.00
2.00
26.00
-4.00

X1
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00

2
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

X3
-0.67
0.33
3.00
0.33

4
0.33
-0.67
2.00
0.33

5
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00

1
2
3

1
1
5

2.00
2.00
26.00

Z 4

2
1
5

2.00
2.00
26.00

X1
0.00
1.00
0.00

2
1.00
0.00
0.00

-Z

-4.00

0.00 0.00

X3
-0.67
0.33
3.00

4
0.33
-0.67
2.00

5
0.00
0.00
1.00

0.33

0.33

0.00

3.4.
1. : , 2000. 1 ,
Q, 1000 . 1 .
: 600 . 1 900 . 1 . 100 30
50 Q, 100 60 10 Q.
, , (500 + 400).
10 000 . 6000
8000 . 5000
3200 Q. ) ,
, , 4 550 000
.
. ) ,
?
2. i,
1 + 10 2 + 3 = 40,
1 + 2 + 4 = 20,
69

f=10x1-111x2. -.
3 + x4 5.
- ,
.
3.
n

min z = j j zi j 0 ,
j=1

j=1

ij

j i i = 1,..., m.

, ( ) i, ,
m

) j + ij i 0, j = 1,...., n;
i =1

) - i 0, i = 1,...., m
: - i - n+1 z.
, ) ,

(z opt)
= i

4. . I 3
; 3 . II
4 3 ; 6 .
III 2 ; 2 .
, 20 10
. ( ),
?
5. , , 3, 4, 5 .
I II, 12
15 :

I 3
II 4

2
1

3
2

.
1(11).
6. .
, , , :
, -

1
2
1

2
4
1

4
2
2

70

360 -, 520 - - 220 -.


, , 9, 11, 15 . ,
:
i 0,
1 + 2 2 + 4 3 + 4 = 360,
2 1 + 4 2 + 2 3 + 5 = 520,
1 + 2 + 2 3 + 6 = 220,
= 9 1 + 112 + 15 3 .
-, ,
1 = 180, 2 = 40, 3 = 0.
- , , ,
.

10 .
?
7. 500 .
4000 ,
.
440 . 12 '
10 . , 40 %
80 % ,
2800 . 2000
3000
.
, ,
,
. , 11 850 000
.
10 000
. ?
8. .
. ,
90 ,
80 .


1
2
3
4
,

, .
, .

20
30

25
45

40
80

55
85

j j :
z = 1 2 2 4 3 34 ,

71

1 + 32 + 8 3 + 4 4 90,
2 1 + 2 2 + 3 + 34 80,
j 0, j = 1,....,4.
.
, :

1
2
3
4
5
x6
x1

10

-1/5

-4

-3/5

4/5

x4

20

4/5

2/5

-1/5

-z

70

1/5

3/5

1/5

1) -.
2) .
3) 10 , ,
40 . . ; ,
?
4) , 1 3
. 80 . 10 . 1
1 . , 3-2- .
.
, ?
5) ,
4 15 . .
9. x1 0, x2 0,
1 + 32 8,
31 + 4 2 19,
31 + 2 7
50x1+25x2 .
10. x10, x20,
7 1 + 8 2 56,
1 + 2 2 6
x1+ x2=z.
11. , xj bi,
m

i =1

j=1

z = i i = j j
(, ).
12. x1
2 , .
-
:
x1 2 ,
1 + 2 6,
4 1 + 112 44

72

-2x1 -5x2=z. .
, ,
. ,
1 + 2 2 8.
,
.
13. - -,
GC
LC .
""
( ,
). -
-.
14. :
x10, x20, x30,
31 2 2 + 4 3 8,
1 + 2 2 + 3 9
2 1 + 2 6
3x1 +x2+23=z
15. - k-
(2.4) (2.5) .
3 , r r-
. ,
r

1/s
1 0 0 / 0 0 0

rs

0 1 0 2/s

rs

1
r - m + 1
= 0 0
/ 0 0 0

rs

/
ms

0 0

/ 0 1 0

rs

0 0

0
0
1

rs

1444444
4
4244444444
3
m +1

. , -K1 -
k- . -1K+1 (k + 1) -, +11 = 1
.

73

4
4.1.
1
.
15, 25, 20 ,
20, 12, 5, 8 12 . ( )
.

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

W1
W2

1
5

0
1

3
2

4
3

2
3

W3

? ij , . , ij0,
()
:
11 + 12 + 13 + 14 + 15

= 15,

21 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25

= 25,

31 + 32 + 33 + 34 + 35 = 20
( );
+ 21

11

+ 31

+ 22

12

+ 32

+ 23

13
15

= 12,

+ 33

+ 24

14

= 20,

+ 25

= 5,

+ 34

= 8,

+ 35 = 15

( ). ,
= 11 0 12 + 3 13 + 4 14 + 2 15 + 5 21 + ... + 4 34 + 335 ,
.
, .
, 0 1,
. ,
, ,
, ,
, - . , ,
. ,
, .
7, 8, ,
7 ij.

i (i = 1, 2, . . . , ), bj (j =
1,..., n),
m

i =1

j=1

i = j.

(4.1)

74

- i
j , ij 0,
11 + 12 + .... + 1

= 1 ,

21 + 22 + ... + 2

= 2 ,

.........................................................................................................................
1 + 2 + ... +
= ,

+ 21

11

+ 1

+ 22

12

= 1 ,

+ 2

= 2 ,

...........................................................................
1
+ 2
+
=

= 11 11 + 12 12 + ... + .
, (4.2) :
ij 0,
n

j=1

ij

= i > 0

(i = 1,...., m)

(4.3)

ij

= bj > 0

(j = 1,...., n)

(4.4)

i =1

= ij ij ,

(4.5)

i =1 j=1

i =1

i =1 j=1

i = ij = ij = b j
j=1 i =1

j=1

(4.1), + n - 1 ,
, + n - 1 .
, ,
.
,

1
( ) .
1:
1
0
3
4
2
15
5

25

4
20

8
12

1
5

4
8

3
15

20

75

.
,
. " ".
,
: 0 1, 2 12 12
( ). 2 ,
12, . . 3.
.
1
12
4
2
3
03
5

3
3
25
12
4
4
3
20
81
20
12
5
8
15
11 3 ( x33 5),
1, 1 17
. .

. ,
0.
3
12
3
1
0
3
4
2
5
3
3
25
12
4
4
3
20
81
17
12
5
8
15
( )
. 0.
+ - 1 (4.1)
3
12
15
1
0
3
4
2
2
8 3
15 3 25
5
1
2
15
17

8
12

3 20

4
8

15

=3*1+12*0+2*5+8*3+15*3+15*4+5*1= 147 .
, . ,

(. (4.2)).
sr ij. sr
s br. s, s, br br s
.
+-1 , ij

ij =

p q
, .
,
. . ,
,

76

,
, , . ,
31 + 2 2 + 7 3 + 4 = 9,
2 +

4 4 = 2,

3 3 + 4 = 7,
4 = 2.
. "
" ,
0.
.
1.
. ,

.

. 0
.
m * n ,
, 2;
,
2. ,
+ . , + - 1 .

.
, , ,
, .
2.
ij = m

p q
,
.

pq = p

( )

pq = q

( q)

(. . p < bp ), , bp
bq q . , . .
,
p / q / = / p / q / = q / p / q / = q q
, ,

bq

- -
q

+ bq
q

. , ai bi ,
.
, ,
, .
77

; ,
3
(, 7 4 1).

4.2.
-,
, .
, .
. . 1 . 4.1 ( ,
-, ).
1 , "
", . ,
.
, ,
xij 0,
, , 0.
i. vj - - , i- j-
, i- i, j- vj ,

11 + 12 + .... + 1

= 1 ( - u 1 ) ,
21 + 22 + ... + 2

= 2 ( - u 2 ),

.........................................................................................................................
= ( - u ),
1 + 2 + ... +

11

+ 21

12

+ 22

= 1 ( -1 ),

+ 1
+ 2

= 2 ( - 2 ),

...........................................................................
1
+ 2
+
= ( - )
11 11 + 12 12

= ,

(4.7) (3.7) .
ij ij i vj, xij ,
i- j- .
(4.7) ,
, 0.
,
ij u i j = 0, uij
, i vj.
. v., ,
+ 1 , (4.8) + n 1 +
. , 0
. . 1
:
3+w
12-w
15 (-4)
1
0
3
4
2
2-w
8 3 15
C=147
5 w-3
10
2
3 25 (0)
15
4
8 5
1
4
3 20 (-1)
20
15
12
5
8
(5)
(4)
(2)
(3)
(3)
8 u1, u2, u3 v1 . . . v5 7 . u2=0,
v1 = 5, v4 = 3 v5 =3. v1=5,
u1=-4 u2=-1. , u1=-4, u3=-1, v2=4, v3=2.

78

, . /ij - ij
, (4.7) ,
ij/ = ij u i j .
(4.9)
cij=0. /ij
, ij ,
. 'ij
; , 'ij , .
. ,
.
, 22 .
, 22 1 3.
22 w x21 w,
(2). (1),
x11 w, (1) 12
w. , : 22 = w, 42 w 8 - w,
(4),
, -
. " ".
, , w, 2.
21
:
10-w
0
15 (-1)
5+w
0
3
4
2
1
8 3 15-w
5 2+w
1
2
3 25 (0)
15-w
4
8 5
1 -1 4 w-2
3 20 (2)
20
5
15
12
8
(2)
(1)
(-1)
(3)
(3)

=5*1+10*0+2*1+8*+15*+15*4+5*1=141=147-3*2= ( ) + c/22*w.
ui vj . (,
.) /ij , 0 ,
. ,
x35. w,
. ( .)
w 10, , : 12
.
15
15 (-3)
1
0
3
4
2
8 3
5 3 25 (0)
5 12 1
2
5
5
10 3 20 (0)
4
8
1
4
20
12
5
8
15
(4)
(1)
(1)
(3)
(3)
:
C=15*1+12*1+8*3+5*3+5*4+5*1+10*3=121=141-2/10= ( ) + /35 *w.
i vj. /ij .
,
11 = 15, 22 = 12, 24 = 8, 25 = 5, 31 = 5, 33 = 5, 35 = 10.
79

121 . ,

m

i =1

j=1

= i u i + j b j ,

(4.10)

(4.7),
0 ( , ,
, , , 0) , (4.10)
(3.11) .
(4.10) .
.
, 12 0 , ,
, , 0; , ,
.

4.3.
(4.1) .
* , * - 1 .
, .
1 ( 1 . 4.1 4.2)
15, 25, 20 , W1, W2, W3,
, 20, 12, 5 9 .

W1
W2
W3

S1

S2

S3

S5

2
3
3

2
1
6

2
1
3

4
3
4

? 60
. 46 .
, , 14 .
0. ,
, .
. , ,
(4.1) .
,
. .
:
15
15 (-1)
2
2
2
4
0
5-w
C=95
3 12
15
1 3+w 3
0 25 (0)
W
-1
20
(3)

6-w
3

6
12
(1)

3
5
(1)

14
4

20 (1)
0

14
(-

9
(3)

x13 ; w 5; x21
:

80

15

15 (0)

5
8 3
3 12 1
1
0 25 (0) C=90
5
14 0 20 (1)
3
6
3
4
20
14
12
5
9
(2)
(1)
(1)
(3)
(-1)
14 (3, 5) 3.
.
11 = 15, 22 = 12, 23 = 5, 24 = 8, 31 = 5, 34 = 1, = 90.
, , :
.
. .
,
0. (4.6) ,
,
. . , 0 ,
.
,
, 0.
.
0.
, , ,
m+-1 ,
( 0).
.
0 . ,
; ,
. i vj.
2
F1, F2 F3
S1, S2 S3:
, .

S1

S2

S3

F1

110

115

126

F2

107

115

130

F3

104

109

116

1000 S1, 1500


S2 1200 S3,
, 1000
F1, 1500 F2 2500 F3. ,
,
.
?
, (5000 ) (3700 ).
, 1300;
. ,
.
. , 100
.

81

S1

S2

S3

S4

F1

110

115

126

10

F2

107

115

130

15

F3

104

109

116

25

10

15

12

13

, - i, vj . .
:
10
-2
10 (-4)
110
-3

115
13+w

107
10

126

2-w
115

-6
130

15 (0)

C=4273

2-w

w
13
104
109 -8
116
10
15
12
13
(110)
(115)
(130)
(6)

25 (-6)
0

w 2; 0 x32, 23 ( ).
, x23, .
- i vj,
, 0:
10 (10)
-4
-4
10-w
w
-10
0
110
115
126
-3
15
15 (6)
C=4257
107
10

115
0

104
10
(104)

130 -6
2+w
13-w

116

109
15
(109)

12
(116)

25 (0)

13
(0)

w 10:
10
110
-3
107

126

115

w
130 -6
3-w

116

0+w
104

10
(104)

115
15-w

10

12
109

15
(109)

10 (10)

12
(116)

0
15 (6)

C=4157

25 (0)

13
(0)

w 3, :

82

115

110
w
-3

10
126

12-w
107

10-w

130

3+w

10
(104)

109

25 (0)

12
(116)

13
(-6)

126

2-w

10
(107)

10 (0)
0

3+w

13
104

10-w

115

130

15 (0)

15
(115)

C=4109

12
109

C=4139

116

w 10:
w
115
110 0
107

15 (6)

12

15
(109)

10

0
3

115

104

10 (6)

25 (-6)
116

12
(122)

0
13
(0)

. , /12 = 0,
. w 2:
2
8
10 (6)
110

115

126

10

0
5

107

115
13

130
12

15 (6)

C=4109

0
25 (0)

104
109
116
0
10
15
12
13
(101)
(109)
(116)
(-6)
, , = 410 900 .
: F2 1000 S1 200 S2;
F3 1300 S2 1200 S3.
: F1 200 S2, F2 - 1000
S1, F3 - 1300 S2 1200 S3.
,
, .
, ,
.
10,01; 15,01; 25,01; 10; 15; 12 13,03.
.
(, ).
, , , . ai bj , ,
- . , ,
. 4.1.

4.4.
,
. .
- (. 4.17).
83

- (
500-840) [. 4.18].
DA(I) DB(J) 0.
TR(I) (1) 1-
J- .
( 1000-1585) u v /ij
/kl (. 4.19).
( 2000
3250) . .
"" w , " " ( 2050-2730).
1 (, L), - , IP - "
", (RT(T), ()) = (RI, CJ) - , . D
1, w; = 1, , IU = 1
IV = 1, .
2100 RT(T) ,
( 2140)

( 2150). ,
IP = 1 ( 2170). ,
L. CJ,
; FC = 1.
, RT(T)
, () - CJ;
D -1, 1
( 2320). L, , (
2400). () [=CJ] ,
; "
". , FR = 1.
, RT ()
84

RI, () - ;
: D = +1, MM = 1,
2100 .

, (CJ = 0 2190),
" ", ( 2210)
. (RI = 0
2590), , (
2610) . ,
, ( = 1 2150 2550).
,
2400 3000.
3000 - 3040 ,
D= -1. w (, LL),
. 3100 3120 .
(, L) , (, LL) -
.
- v.
( v) 1340- 1342
/ij 1581, 2071, 2321 2721 .
. 3221,
w , .
1 . 4.1.
. ,
. ,
.

85

READY.
20 PRINT "PEHE "
0 REM N
40 READ M,N
50 REM (1) (J)
51 REM ; DA(I) DB(J)
52 REM ; A I(I) IC(J)
53 REM ( 1),
54 REM ; (I) TC(J)
55 REM 60 DIM A(M),DA(M),B(N),DB(N),IR(M),IC(N),TR(M),TC(N)
65 REM IU(I) IV(J) (
66 REM 1), U V
67 REM
70 DIM U(M),V(N),IU(M),IV(N)
80 DIM RT(M+N),CT(M+N)
85 REM C(I,J) , X(I,J) 90 REM S; IX(I,J) ,
95 REM 1
100 DIM C(M,N),X(M.N),IX(M,N),D(M,N),MM(M,N)
105 REM
110 REM
140 REM ,
150 FOR I=1
160 EOR J=1 N
170 READ C(I,J)
180 NEXT J
190 NEXT I
200 FOR I=1 TO M:READ A(I):DA(I)=A(I):NEXT I
210 FOR J=1 TO N:READ (J):DB(J): NEXT J
490 REM C(RI,CJ)
500 C=0:CT=0:CR=0
510 RI=0:CJ=0:Y=IE10
600 FOR I=1
605 REM
613 IF IR(I)=1 THEN GOTO 670
620 FOR J=1 N

86

625 REM
630 IF IC(J)=1 THEN GOTO 660
640 IF C(I,J)>Y THEN GOTO 660
650 Y=C(I,J):RI=I:CJ=J
660 NEXT J
670 NEXT I
680 REM
681 REM X(RI,CJ)
685 REM IX
690 REM
695 REM ,
696 REM
700 IF DA(RI)<=DB(CJ) THEN GOTO 760
710 X(RI,CJ)=DB(CJ)
720 I(RI,CJ)=1
730 DA(RI)=DA(RI)-DB(CJ):DB(CJ)=0
740 IC(CJ)=1:CO=CO+1:CT=CT+1
750 GOTO 810
760 IF DA(RI)=DB(CJ) AND CR=M-1 THEN GOTO 710
770 X(RI,CJ)=DA(RI)
780 IX(RI,CJ)=1
790 D(J)=D(J)-DA(RI):DA(RI)=0
800 IR(RI)=1:C0=C0+1:CR=CR+1
810 TR(Rl)=TR(RI)+1:TC(CJ)=TC(CJ)+1
820 IF C0<M+N-1 THEN GOTO 510
830 CR=CR+1
840 REM 760 ,
850 REM A ,
990 REM U V, 0
1000 FOR I=1
1010 IU(I)=0:U(I)=0
1020 NEXT I
1030 FOR J=1 TO N
1040 IV(J)=0:V(J)=0
1050 NEXT J
1060 REM A ,
1070 REM L
1080 T=0:L=0
1100 FOR I=1 TO M
1110 IF TR(I)<T THEN GOTO 1130
1120 T=TR(I):L=I
1130 NEXT I
1140 U(L)=0:IU(L)=1:C0=1:CR=1:CT=0
1150 FOR J=1 TO N
1160 IF IX(L,J)=0 THEN GOTO 1190
1170 V(J)=C(L,J):IV(J)=1
1180 CT=CT+1:C0=C0+1
1190 NEXT J
1195 REM
1196 REM
1200 FOR I=1
1210 FOR J=1 TO N
1228 IF IX(I,J)=0 THEN GOTO 1310
1230 IF IU(I)=0 AND IV(J)=0 THEN GOTO 1310
1240 IF IU(I)=1 AND IV(J)=1 THEN GOTO 1310
1250 IF IU(I)=0 AND IV(J)=1 THEN GOTO 1290
1260 V(J)=C(I,J)-U(I):IV(J)=1
1270 CT=CT+1:C0=C0+1
1280 GOTO 1310
1290 U(I)=C(I,J)-V(J):IU(I)=1
1300 CR=CR+l:C0=C0+l
1310 NEXT J
1320 NEXT I
1325 REM ,
1330 IF C0<>M+N THEN GOTO 1200
1340 PRINT " "
1341 PRINT "U(I)";:FOR I=1 TO M:PRINT U(I);:NEXT I:PRINT ""
1342 PRINT "V(J)';:FOR J=1 TO N:PRINT V(J) :NEXT J:PRINT ""
1390 REM '(IJ) D(I,J);
1395 REM , 0
1400 FOR I=1 TO M
1410 FOR J=1 TO N
1420 IF IX(I,J)=0 THEN GOTO 1460
1430 D(I,J)=C(I,J)-U(I)-V(J)
1440 IF D(I,J)<>0 THEN PR I NT " 1"
1450 GOTO 1470
1460 D(I,J)=C(I,J)-U(I)-V(J)
1470 NEXT J
1480 NEXT I

87

1490 REM D(I,J)


1495 REM (,L)
1500 T=0:K=0:L=0
1510 FOR I=1 TO M
1520 FOR J=1 TO N .
1530 IF IX(I,J)=1 THEN GOTO 1560
1540 IF D(I,J)>=T THEN GOTO 1560
1550 T=D(I,J):K=I:L=J
1560 NEXT J
1575 REM 0, D(I,J)
1576 REM
1580 IF T=0 THEN GOTO 4000
1581 PRIN"": PRINT "C'KL= "T; PRINT "K= " K: PRIN "L= " : PRINT ""
1582 PRINT "" :GOSUB 5000
1585 REM , 5000,
1586 REM
1990 REM ;
1995 REM 0
2000 FOR I=1 :IU(I)=0:NEXT I
2010 FOR J=1 TO N:IV(I):NEXT J
2015 FOR I=1 TO M+N:RT(I):CT(I):NEXT I
2020 FOR I=1 TO M:FOR J=1 TO N
2030 D(I,J)=0:MM(I,J)=0
2040 NEXT J:NEXT I
2050 T=1:IP=0
2060 RT(T):CT(T)=L
2070 D(K,L)=1:MM(K,L)=1:IU(K)=1
2071 PRINT T,K;L
2100 FR=0:FC=0:RI=RT(T):CJ=0
2110 FOR J=1 TO N
2120 IF FC=1 THEN GOTO 2180
2130 IF IX(RI,J)=0 THEN GOTO 2180
2140 IF IV(J)=1 THEN GOTO 2180
2150 IF MM(RI,J)=1 THEN GOTO 2180
2155 IF (J)=1 AND J=L THEN GOTO 2170
2160 IF TC(J)=1 THEN IP=1 :GOTO 2180
2170 FC=1:CJ=J:IV(J)=1:J=N
2180 NEXT J
2190 IF CJ<>0 THEN GOTO 2300
2200 IF IP >0 THEN IP=0
2210 D(RT(T),CT(T)=0:T=T-1
2220 GOTO 2500
2300 T=T+1
2310 RT(T)=RI:CT(T)=CJ
2320 D(RI,CJ)=-1:MM(RI,CJ)=1
2321 PRINT T,RI;CJ
2400 IF CT(T)=L AND T>2 THEN GOTO 3000
2500 FR=0:FC=0:RI=0:CJ=CT(T)
2510 FOR I=1 TO M
2520 IF FR=1 THEN GOTO 2580
2530 IF IX(I,CJ)=0 THEN GOTO 2580
2540 IF IU(l)=l THEN GOTO 2580
2550 IF MM(I,CJ)=0 THEN GOTO 2580
2560 IF TR(I)=1 AND IP=0 THEN IP=1 :GOTO 2580
2570 FR=1:RI=I:IU(I)=1:I=M
2580 NEXT I
2590 IF RI<>0 THEN GOTO 2700
2600 IF IP>0 THEN IP=0
2610 D(RT(T),CT(T))=0:T=T-1
2620 GOTO 2100
2700 T=T+1:IP=0
2710 RT(T)=RI:CT(T)=CJ
2720 D(RT(T),CT(T))=1:MM(RI,CJ)=1
2721 PRINT T,RI;CJ
2730 GOTO 2100
3000 W=1E10:L=0:KK=0
3010 FOR I=2 TO T STEP 2
3020 IF X(RT(I),CR(I))>=W THEN GOTO 3040
3030 W=X(RT(I),CT(I)):KK=RT(I):LL=CT(I)
3040 NEXT I
3100 FOR I=1 TO
3110 X(RT(I),CT(I))=X(RT(I),CT(I))+W*D(RT(I),CT(I))
3120 NEXT I
3200 IX(K,L)=1:IX(KK,LL)=0
3210 TR(K) =TR(K)+1:TR(KK)=TR(KK)-1
3220 TC(L) =TC(L)+1:TC(LL)=TC(LL)-1
3221 PRINT "W="W,:PRINT "KK="KK;:PRINT "LL=" LL
3222 RINT "AA "
3250 GOTO 1000

88

4000 PRINT "OKOHTEHOE "


4010 GOSUB 5000
4500 END
5000 =0
5010 PRINT " I J XIJ CIJ "
5020 FOR I=1
5030 FOR J=1 N
1320 NEXT I
1325 REM ,
1330 IF C0<>M+N THEN GOTO 1200
1340 RINT " "
1341 PRINT "U(I)";:FOR I=1 TO M:PRINT U(I);:NEXT I:PRINT ""
1342 PRINT "V(J)";:FOR J=1 TO N:PRINT V(J);:NEXT J:PRINT"
1390 REM C'(IJ) A A D(I,J);
1395 REM , A 0 AA
1400 FOR I=1
1410 FOR J=1 TO N
1420 IF IX(I,J)=0 THEN GOTO 1460
1430 D(I,J)=C(I,J)-U(I)-V(J)
1440 IF D(I,J)<>0 THEN PRINT " 1"
1450 GOTO 1470
1460 D(I,J)=C(I,J)-U(I)-V(J)
1470 NEXT J
1480 NEXT I
1490 REM A A D(I,J)
1495 REM A (K,L)
1500 T=0:K=0:L=0 1510 FOR I=1 1520 FOR J=1 N
1530 IF IX(I,J)=1 THEN GOTO 1560
1540 IF D(I,J)>=T THEN GOTO 1560
1550 T=D(I,J):K=I:L=J
1560 NEXT J
1570 NEXT I
1575 REM 0, D(I,J)
1576 REM A A
1580 IF T=0 THEN GOTO 4000
1581 PRINT" :PRINT 'C' " KL=" T;:PRINT"K=" K;:PRINT"L=":PRINT ""
1582 PRINT"":GOSUB 5000
1585 REM , AA 5000,
1586 REM AA
1990 REM A A .
1995 REM AA A A 0
2000 FOR I=1 TO M:IU(I)=0:NEXT I
2010 FOR J=1 TO N:IV(I)=0:NEXT J
2015 FOR I=1 TO M+N:RT(I)=0:CT(I)=0:NEXT I
2020 FOR I=1 TO M:FOR J=1 N
2030 D(I,J)=0:MM(I,J)=0
2040 NEXT J:NEXT I
2050 T=1:IP=0
2860 RT(T)=K:CT(T)=L
2070 D(K,L)=1:MM(K,L)=1:IU(K)=1
2071 PRINT T,K;L
2100 FR=0:FC=0:RI=RT(T):CJ=0
2110 FOR J=1 TO N
2120 IF FC=1 THEN GOTO 2180
2130 IF IX(RI,J)=0 THEN GOTO 2180
2140 IF IV(J)=1 THEN GOTO 2180
2150 IF MM(RI,J)=1 THEN GOTO 2180
2155 IF TC(J)=1 AND J=L THEN GOTO 2170
2160 IF (J)=1 THEN IP=1 :GOTO 2180
2170 F=1:J=J:IV(J)=1:J=N
2180 NEXT J
2190 IF CJ<>0 THEN GOTO 2300
2200 IF IP >0 THEN IP=0
2210 D(RT(T),CT(T))=0:T=T-1
2220 GOTO 2500
2300 T=T+1
2310 RT(T)=RI:CT(T)=CJ
2320 D(RI,CJ)=-1:MM(RI,CJ)=1
2321 PRINT T,RI;CJ
2400 IF CT(T)=L AND T>2 THEN GOTO 3000
2500 FR=0:FC=0:RI=0:CJ=CT(T)
2510 FOR I=1 TO M
2520 IF FR=1 THEN GOTO 2580
2530 IF IX(I,CJ)=0 THEN GOTO 2580
2540 IF IU(I)=I THEN GOTO 2580
2550 IF MM(I,CJ)=0 THEN GOTO 2580
2560 IF TR(I) AND IP=0 THEN IP=1 :GOTO 2580
257B FR=1:RI=I:IU(I)=1:I=M
2580 NEXT I

89

2590 IF RI<>0 THEN GOTO 2700


2600 IF IP>0 THEN IP=0
2610 D(RT(T),CT(T)=0:T=T-1
2620 GOTO 2100
2700 T=T-1:IP=0
2710 RT(T)=RI:CT(T)=CJ
2720 D(RT(T),CT(T)=0:MM(RI,CJ)=1
2721 PRINT T,RI;CJ
2730 GOTO 2100
3000 W=1E10:L=0:KK=0
3010 FOR I=2 TO T STEP 2
3020 IF X(RT(I),CR(I))>W THEN GOTO 3040
3030 W=X(RT(I),CT(I)):KK=RT(I):LL=CT(I)
3040 NEXT I
3100 FOR I=1 TO
3110 X(RT(I),CT(I))=X(RT(I),CT(I))+W*D(RT(I),CT(I)
3120 NEXT I
3200 IX(K,L)=1:IX(KK,LL)=0
3210 TR(K)=TR(K)+1:TR(KK)=TR(KK)-1
3220 TC(L)=TC(L)+1:TC(LL)=TC(LL)-1
3221 PRINT "W="W;: PRINT"KK="KK;:PRINT"LL="LL
3222 PRINT "PEOPA3BAHE "
3250 GOTO 1000
4000 PRINT "OKOHATEHOE "
4010 GOSUB 5000
4500 END
5000 =0
5010 PRINT " I J XIJ CIJ "
5020 FOR I=1 TO M
5030 FOR J=1 TO N
5040 IF IX(I,J)=0 THEN GOTO 5110
5058 PP=C(I,J)*X(I,J)
5060 CC=CC+PP
5070 PRINT I;J;
5080 =430:PA=X(I,J):GOSUB 9000
5090 PA=C(I,J):GOSUB 9000:PA=PP:GOSUB 9000
5100 PRINT ""
5110 NEXT J:NEXT I
5200 PRINT " ";CC
5250 RETURN
9000 PC=INT(PB/100)
9010 P$="
9020 IF PC=0 THEN PRINT"": GOTO 9040
9030 PRINT LEFT$(P$,PC);
9040 PC=PB-100*PC
9050 PD=INT(PC/10):PC=PC-10*PD
9060 IF PD=0 THEN PD=l
9070 IF PA<0 THEN P$=P$+"-"
9080 PE=ABS(PA)
9090 PE=PE+5*10^(-1-PC)
9100 IF PE>=10^PD THEN PRINT PA;:RETURN
9110 P$=P$+MID$(STR$(INT(PE)),2,PD)
9120 PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PD+1)
9130 IF PC=0 THEN RETURN
9140 PRINT".";
9150 PE=INT((PE-INT(PE))*10^PC)
9160 P$="000000000"
9170 P$=P$+MID$(STR$(PE),2,PC)
9180 PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PC);:RETURN
0000 DATA 3,5 10010 DATA 1,0,3,4,2
10020 DATA 5,1,2,3,3
10030 DATA 4,8.1,4,3
10040 DATA 15,25,20
10050 DATA 20,12,5,8,15
READY.

A AA

U(I)
V(J)

-4
5

0 0
4 1 3 3

C'KL=-3 = 2 L= 2
I
1
1
2
2
2
3

J
1
2
1
4
5
3

XI
3
12
17
8
0
5

CIJ
1
0
5
3
3
1

90

3
0
85
24
0
5

3 5

15

45

A AA 162
1
2
3
4

2
2
1
1

2
1
1
2

W= 12 KK= 1 LL= 2


U(I)
V(J)

-4
5

0 0
1 1

3 3

C'KL=-l = 3 L=1
I
1
2
2
2
2
3
3

J
1
1
2
4
5
3
5

XIJ
15
5
12
8
0
5
15

CIJ
1
5
1
3
3
1
3

15
25
12
24
0
5
45

126
1
2
3
4

3
3
2
2

1
5
5
1

W= 5 = 2 LL= 1


I J XIJ
1 1 15

CIJ
1

15

2 2 12

12

24 8

24

25 5

15

31 5

20

33 5

3 5 10

30

121

4.5.
1. :
4

11

16

13

2. :
9
2

10

7
14

91

2
15

5
11

10

13

10

3. 1, 2, 3,
50, 30 20 . .
1, 2, 3 4,
12, 15, 25 36 . .
1 .
:

15

19

14

2
3
4

19
19
15

18
18
19

16
20
18

,
.
4.
. ,
, S1, S2, S3, S4 S5,
2, 5, 4, 8 6 .
: 1, 2, 3 4 - 8, 3, 9 5
. ,
:

S1

1
2

S2

S3

S4

S5

*
*

*
*

, ,
,
, .
S5?
5. F1, F2, F3, 50, 25 25 .
. 1, 2, 3 4,
15, 20, 20 30 . .
1 . :

1
2
3
4
F1
13
17
17
14
F2
18
16
16
18
F3
12
14
19
17
,
.
92

6. F1 F2, .
16 12 .
.
20 14 . .
1000 F1 F2 8 .
1, 2 3,
10, 13 7 . . 1 .
:

F1

F2


.
7.
. :
-
I
24
16
8
10
14
II
21
15
7
12
16
III
23
14
7
14
12
,
I, II, III 2:3:2,
, , 70
10 - , 15 - , 20 - , 10 15 - -.

?
, ?
8. I, II, III IV 950,
300, 1350 450 .
, , , D, , 250,
1000, 700, 650 450 .
:

12

16

21

19

32

2
3

4
3

4
8

9
14

5
10

24
26

24

33

36

34

49

,
.
9.
. :

1
2

420
350

550
480
93

1
1
10
2
12

:

2
13
6

, . .

3,0

3,6

500

600

3,2

2,9

300

500

,
, . 0,5 1
0,6 2.
.
. 10. , ,
. 26, 23 22 ,
6000, 3000 3000 .
1500, 2500, 2700 3300 W, X, Y, Z.
.

4
1

2
2

1
7

11. , , ,
-. - ?
12. " ". , ,
, -
, . ,
, - .
, .
.
?

94

5 4
5.1.
1
1,2,.5
1,2,5.
. ,
? ( )

4 5

10

18

11

2
3

13

19

12

14

18
9
12
17
15
4
11
6
14
19
10
5
ij i- j- . ij
, , ,
, xij
:

11 + 12 + ... + 15 = 1
..............................
51 + 52 + ... + 55 = 1
11 + 21 + ... + 51 = 1
..............................
15 + 25 + ... + 55 = 1

= 10 11 + 5 12 + ... + 19 54 + 10 55
, .
1, ,
, . ,
() ij 1, 0.
, 5*5
, ,
. ij 0 1 ,
(., , ).
.
*.

, , . 1j, 2j, ., nt,
i, j, t - 1, 2, . . . , . - n!,

.

. . .
95

5.2.
.
,

.

. ;
,
.
.
. ,,
. 5.3.
. ,
. ( )
,
( ).

. [15].
*.
.
.
, .

', - , '
. ( )
, , ' .
1. ' ,
. ' .
2. i bj,
' i i.
min /
(i i ) = r/ r
i
3. /r-br.
4. /r . /r - " ".
5. - , /r . ,
' 2.
.
.
6. /r . .
7. , /r .
. , , D.
8. D , ,
. /r 6.
D ,
.
, .
, .
, , ,
.
, 3 /r - /r
, 8
96

.
, .
1 . 5.1.

1. 2
2 1: 5, ' = 9, 10 5 9 18 11
4. 3: 2, 13 19 6 12 14
' = 3, 1. 4: 9,
' = 12, 3. 5: 6 3 2 4 4 5
' = 10, 4. (/r -i)
18 9
12 17 15
1 3
3. 2 1
11 6
14 19 10
4. 3 3, 1
5. ( 1) , 10 6 9 18 11

13 20
6 12 14
6. 3 3 1
3
3
4 4
5
7. 3 3 3
8. D ( 2) , 18 10 12 17 15
,
11 7
14 19 10

1. 2
10 8
9 18 11
2. Min (/r - i) =12-10=2 4
6 12 14
13 22
3. 2 2
4. 12 4 3
5. ( 3) ,
18 12 12 17 15
3 2
/
2. 2 3 i -i 11 9 14 19 10
10-9=1 5
10 9
10 18 11
3. 2 3 1
13 23 7
12 14
4. 10 5 5
5. ( 5) ,
3 6
5
4
5

6. 10 5 5
18 13 13 17 15
7. 10 5 2
8. D ( 2) , 11 10 15 19 10
, 4

97

10 9
10 18 11
1. 2
12 14
13
23
7
2. (/i -i) 13-13=0
3
6
5
4
5
3.
18 13 13 17 15
4. 13 4 3
5. - 3; , 11 10 15 19 10

2. 2 3 A; Min(/i -i) 10 10 11 18 11
10-9=1
3. 2 3 1
13 24 8
12 14
4. 10 1 1
7
6
4
5
3
5. ( 1) ,
18 14 14 17 15

/
11 11 16 19 10
2. 1, 2 3; Min( i -i) 11-10=4-3=15-14=1
11 11 12 18 11
3. 1, 2 3 1
4. 4 3 4
12 14
14 25 9
5. ( 4) ,
4
8
7
4
5

6. 4 3 4
19 15 15 17 15
7. 4 3 1
12 12 17 19 10
8. D ( 1) 1,
11 11 12 18 11

12 14
14 25 9
6. 11 1 1
5
4 8
7
4
7. 11 1 2
19 15 15 17 15
8. D ( 2) ,
12 12 17 19 10

,

1 1, 2 - 3, 3 - 4,

4 - 2, 5 - 5
:
10 5

18

11

13 19

12

14

18 9

12

17

15

11 6

14

19

10

39 -.
2
, ,
Y:

9.00

11.00

11

8.00

10.00

2
3
4
5

10.00
15.00
19.00
20.00

12.00
17.00
21.00
22.00

12
13
14
15

9.00
14.00
20.00
21.00

11.00
16.00
22.00
23.00

"" "" ,
, 1 .
.
, .

98

.
?
.
/
/
1
2 3 4 5
11
12
13
14
15
11
12
13
14
15

9 10*

21

22

10*

20

21

2*

17 18 23 3* 4
11* 12 17 21 22

15
11*

16
12

21
17

3*
23

4
24

10 11* 16 20 21

10

11*

16

22

23

23
22

24

23 4*

, . ,
( ). .
: 115, 123, 134,144,152.
Y: 115, 213, 314, 411, 512.
:
1152134115123141 . .

, , 9.00,
22.00 9.00 .
.

5.3.
, ,
, .
. ,
. R .
(= R, + min., -max.) .
250310 I IM L.
320-360 NM(L) - L, MA(I) -
1- , 1 (L, ) - L, JR (I)
(I) I. 1 400-470,
; , ,
1(1), 1(2) . . 480 NC - ,
( NC = 1); LR(1), LR(2) . . A, a JK(J) 1; MB(J) , J.
99

2 520640; IZ 1(=1())
JD I. , JK(JD) = 1,
. IZ IV, - ,
A; JC - , a IR , MB (LR(JX)) ,
LR(JX) ( 650670).
IV IP ().
3 (680700).
720 JC , . . LR(1), LR(2),. . . , LR(NC) LR(NC
+ 1) JC. 750 IM(JC) JC,
a JM(IR) - IR(=IM (JC)). 770: JC JY
. JC , ,
( 780 840).
JU , JU
, IC(JC, JX) IP(JU).
5, 520 2.
5 840,
( 6). 850 LS = LR(JX)
JX . JK, . . .
MB (LS) , LS.
LS ( 880 ).
910 JC.
IP JC ( 6); JP = JP(IR) 930
IR, 940 JR(IR) = JC.
JQ = NM (JP), JP JR (IR). 970-1020
, JP JR.
. 1030 : JP
, , NM(JP)
1, 400 ()
. 1040, JP
;
IM(JP) - , JC JP, a JC(JP, JQ) (
JP) IR. ,
JP 930 .
1500 420,
.
, . ( )
J 1 (. 1520),
I JV(I) (. 1550). ,
.
1

93 93
96 93

91
90

94
94

99
98

99
96

90
97

92
91

96 90

91

90

92

90

93

96

93 94
94 93

95
95

96
91

97
90

10
97

92
96

93
92

94 93

96

90

93

89

88

91

94 96

91

90

95

93

92

94

93 94

95

91

99

91

96

1) ; 2) . 2000
1). :
READY.
20 PRINT-
30 READ N:REM N-
40 REflD MZ: REM MZ=+1,TO ;
45 REM MZ=-l.TO
50 REM .
70 DIM R(N,N),P(N,N),IC(N,N)

100

80 DIM MA(N), IP(N),MB(N),JV(N),LR(N)


90 DIMJR(N),JU(N),IU(N),JK(N),NM(N)
95 REM R
100 FOR I=1 N:FOR TO N
110 READ R(I,J)
120 NEXT J:NEXT I
190 REM
200 FOR I=1 N:NM(I)
210 FOR J=1 TO N:P(I,J)=-MZ+R(I,J)
220 NEXT J:NEXT I
230 M-1E10:REM R
250 FOR I=1 N:IM=M
270 FOR J=1 N
280 IZ=P(l.J)
290 IF IZ>IM THEN GOTO 310
300 IM=IZ:L=J
310 NEXT J
320 NM(L)=NM(L)+1:K=NM(L)
330 IC(L,K)=I
340 MA(I)-IM
350 JR(I)=L
360 NEXT I
400 J=0
410 J=J+1
420 IF J>N THEN GOTO 1500
430 IF NM(J)<2 THEN GOTO 410
440 JU=NM(J)
450 FOR K=1 TO JU
460 IP(K)=IC(J,K)
470 NEXT
480 NC=1
490 LR(1)=J
500 JK(J)=1
510 MB(J)=0
520 IV=
530 FOR K=1 TO JU
540 I=IP(K)
550 FOR JO=1 TO N
560 IF JK(JO)=1 THEN GOTO 630
570 IZ=P(I,JD)-MA(I)
580 IF IZ>IV THEN GOTO 630
590 IV=IZ
600 JC=JD
610 IR=I
630 NEXT JD
640 NEXT
650 FOR JX=1l TO NC
660 MB(LR(JX))=MB(LR(JX))+IV
670 NEXT JX
680 FOR K=1 TO JW
690 MA(IP(K))=MA(IP(K))+IV
700 NEXT
710 (JC)=0
720 JK(JC)=1
730 NC=NC+1
740 LR(NC)=JC
750 IM(JC)=IR
760 JM(JR)=JC
770 JY=NM(JC)
780 IF JY=0 THEN GOTO 848
790 FOR JX=1 TO JY
800 JU=JU+1
810 IP(JU)=IC(JC,JX)
820 NEXT JX
830 GOTO 520
840 FOR JX=1 TO NC
850 LS=LR(JX)
860 JK(LS)=0
870 FOR I=1 TO N
880 P(I,LS)=P(I,LS)+MB(LS)
890 NEXT I
900 NEXT JX
910 NM(JC)=1
920 IC(JC,1)=IR
930 JP=JR(lR)
940 JR(IR)=JC
950 IW=0
960 JQ=NM(JP)
970 FOR IL=1TO 30

101

980 IZ=IC(JP,IL)
990 IF IZ=IR THEN GOTO 1020
1000 IW=IW+1
1010 IC(JP,IW)=IC(JP,IL)
1020 NEXT IL
1030 IF JQ>1 THEN GOTO 1080
1040 IR=IM(JP)
1050 JC=JP
1060 IC(JP,JQ)=IR
1070 GOTO 930
1080 NM(JP)=JQ-1
1090 GOTO 400
1500 T=0:PRINT " I J
R(I,J)"
1510 FOR J=1 TO N
1520 JV(IC(J,1))=J
1530 NEXT J
1540 FOR I=1 TO N
1550 J=JV(I)
1560 T=T+R(I,J)
1570 PRINT I;,R(I,J)
1580 NEXT I
1600 IF MZ=1 THEN PRINT " ";
1610 IF MZ=1 THEN RINT " ";
1700 END 2000 DATA 8,-1
2010 DATA 93,93,91 94,99 99,90,92
2020 DATA 96,93,90 94,98 96,97,91
2030 DATA 96,90,91 90,92 90,93,96
2040 DATA 93,94,95 96,97 10,92,93
2050 DATA 94,93,95 91,90 97,96,92
2060 DATA 94,93,96 90,93 89,88,91
2070 DATA 94,96,91 90,95 93.92,94
2080 DATA 93,94,6,95,91,99,91,96
READY.

IJ
11
28
32
46
55
67
74
83

R(I,J)
93
91
90
10
90
88
90
6

PBEH 558

I3
15
21
38
44
57
63
72
86

R(U)
99
96
96
96
96
96
96
99 774

5.4.
1) :
)
)
3 7 6
4
1
7 4 3
9
4 3 3
1
2)
102

6
1
9
1

9
1
1
1

7
1
1
1

)
9
3
2
5
3

2
7
1
3
3

6
6
8
1
5

1
4
2
3
2

)
4
2
2
4
2
7

2
6
3
2
2

103

7
2
3
5
3
2

3
4
5
4
3
2

4
5
4
5
1
3

3
8
3
4
3
3

4
4
2
3
2
9

3)
, , , D, , b, , d, e. ( )
:
-
D-d
-
-
B-b
60
30
100
50
40
Y S, , U, V, W;
: S, Y , U, V Y W.
Y, . (
) ( , ,
. .) :

20
40
Y 30
60
1
( 2 2 ) ,
?
6. , , . .
kT2, - .
?
, 1 ,
.


A
8.00

12.00

9.00

12.00

10.00

14.00
A
14.00

18.00
A
18.00

22.00
A
20.00
C
23.00
B
7.00
A
11.00
B
9.00
A
13.00
B
13.00
A
17.00

18.00
A
22.00
C
9.00
A
12.00
C
15.00

18.00
7. ,
.

1
2
3
4

, ,
1
2
3
4
5
11
15
20
16
13
12
13
22
14
16
14
16
24
22
22
14
12
20
19
20

6
26
29
32
31

7
11
13
16
15

5
6

16
13

13
15

12

11

22
18
16

20
14

23
26

34
29

17
18

17

17

24

10

8. .
:

1
2
3
4
5

80000 60000 50000 40000 20000

104

. ,
:

0,7 0,6 0,5 0,45 0,4


,
?
9. , ,
.
?
10. , ,
, -.
?

105

6 -
6.1. -
-
.
. , k
,
. , ,
.
, -,
1953 . ,
-, ,
. -
, - (. . 3).
,
<, .
, ,
i 0 (i = 1,. . . , n),
b
(6.1)

= z

(6.2)

- m*n ; b - m*1
, T - 1*
.

11 1 + 12 2 + ... + 1n n + n +1

= b1
21 1 + 22 2 + ... + 2 n n
+ n +2
= b 2

...........................................................................................

1 1 + 2 2 + ... + n n
+ n +
= b

1 1 + 2 2 + ... +
=

(6.3)

(6.3) - , xn+1,, xn+m


b1, b2,,...,bm. Im
m*m. - 1 =
0, 2 = 0, m = 0, z
.
- , , k-
:
;
;
-.
, , k- x1, 2, . ..,
m ( ) , b/1, b/2,,...,b/m.
-1 m*m, - 1, 2,
,m,
-, , (
, -).

106

1.
( (3.7)):
1 j
m

/
j = j + ij i = j + ( 1 2 ..... m ) 2j
(6.4)
i =1

mj
j = m + 1,......, n
(6.4) i, - -, aij -
(6.3).
c'j .
, , 0. , -, c'j = c's. /S <
0, S . /S 0,
z .
2. , S
ais ( ) .
. (2.9)
s/ = 1s ,

(6.5)

..

is/ = ik ks ,

(6.6)

k =1

11
-1 = 21
L

12
L
L

1
2

(6.7)

, s
, (. (2.14))
m s = min
/
is 0

s/
r/
=
is/ rs/

(6.8)

, .
3. , -.
) (x1, 2, .. . ,r, ..., xm) (x1, 2, .. . ,s, ..., xm).
)
b/
s = b +r = /r ,
(6.9)
rs
i = b i+ = b i/ is/ b +r

(i r)

(6.10)

) , ,
-

107

1/s
1 0
rs/

2/ s
0 1
rs/

= K K K
1

0 0
rs/

K K K/
ms
0

rs/

0 0

K K

0 0 r -

K K
0 1

( ) = * ( )
(. . 15 . 3). ,

(6.11)

( ) = ( ij+ ),

ij+ =

rj
rs/

is/
= ij - / rj = ij is/ rj+ (i r)
rs
+
ij

(6.12)
(6.13)

r S. ,
,
1/s
/

- 2s/
rs
/
ms
/
rs .
) -. (3.9)

m

i = ki k
k =1

i+ = ki+ k ri+ s ,
k =1

k r

S xr.
,
m

i+ = ki ks/ ri k /ri s =
rs
rs
k =1

m
m

= ki k + /ri ks/ k s ,
rs k =1
k =1

k=r 0. ,

108

(6.14)

ki

/
ks
k s
(6.15)

/
rs k =1

c/S. , ,
.
, . ,
i- ci z i = 1,. ..,
.
,

i+ = i +

j/ = j ij/ i

(j = m + 1,....., n)

i =1

(. (2.10) . 3.2). ,

i+ = i

ri

s/ = i s/ ri+
rs/
,
,
1/s
/

/2s
ms
/
s

1
x1, x2, x3 ,

1 + 2 2 + 5 3 36,
2 1 + 32 + 33 48,
1 + 2 + 2 3 22,
9 1 10 2 15 3 = z. .
,

x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

x6

1
2
3

36
48
22

1
2
1

2
3
1

5
3
2

1
0
0

0
1
0

0
0
1

109

-9

-10

-15 0

.
, .
, /j
. :
c /3
c /4 c /5 c /6
c/1 c/2
x3
0
-9
-10 -15* 0
0 0
1

-6*

-4

x1

-2*

-1

10

1
-2*

3
2

13
2

0 4, 5, 6 36, 48, 22.


I3, - 0.
.
, ,
- 0. /j,
s- , a/is (
),
, -.
. /j , .

a/is
4

x4
x5
x6

36
48
22

1
0
0

0
1
0

0
0
1

5+
3
2

-z
x3

0
1
5

0
0

0
0

-15

36
5

x5

132
5

-35

7
5

x6

38
5

-25

3+
5

-z
x3

108

3
1
3

0
0

14
3

x5

26
3

1
3

-73

4+
3

x1

38
3

-23

5
3

1
3

-z
x3

184

-1

-2

1
4

0
-14

10

5
2

1
4

1+
4

x2

13
2

1
4

3
4

x1

21
2

-34

-14

9
4

-34

-z
x4
x2
x1
-z

197
10
4
18
202

-12
1
0
0
0

3
2

13
2

-12

-1
1
-1
1

1
-2
3
7

110

1
3

7
4

1
5

-6
1
3

1
4

4 ,
1 = 18, 2 = 4, 3 = 0, 4 = 10, 5 = 0, 6 = 0
z , 202. ,
1 1 1

0 1 2
0 1 3

, , 4, 2, 1
:
1 2 1

0 3 2
0 1 1

, -, , 1
= 0, 2 = 1 3 = 7.
, 4*4 (
, -).
-
4*7.

6.2.
, , = ,
. ,
. 2.3. =
. .

. Im , .
( 1) w,
. - 1,
2, m w, - 1, 2, m z .
w
d/j.
(6.4)
m

d /j = d j + ij i ,

(6.17)

i =1

dj 0 dj, .
1, w -
.
, ,
w - i -1 ,
=, 0 ,
.
i , 0. 1 i i
(6.16), c/S i d/S i. c/j d/j
(6.4) (6.17) . , 1
, w 0 ( ,
111

), z
.
1
1 0, x2 0,

31 + 4 2 19,
31 + 2 7,
1 + 2 15

10x1+52=z.

0
1
2
2

19

3
3
1
10
0

4
1
1
5
0

-1
0
0
0
0

0
-1
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

1
0
0
0
1

0
1
0
0
1

15

/1 /2 /3 /4 /5 /6 /7

d/1 d/2 d/3 d/4 d/5 d/6 d/7
-6* -5
0 -3*
0
0
0

1
1
0

1
-1
0

0
0
0

5
9

25
9

0
0
1

0
2
1

I: 1
I: 2
I ,
z
II , e z

x6
x7
x5
-z
-w
x6
x1

19
7
15
0
-26
12

0
1
0
0
-1
-1

7
3

1
0
0
0
-1
1
0

x5

38
3

-z
-w
x2

-703
-12
4

x1

/iS
3
3+
1
10
-6
3+

1
3

0
0
1
0
0
0
0

-13

2
3

0
-1

-103

5
3

1
3

1
-13

0
0
0

-19

4
9

x5

10

-29

-19

-z

-30

-59

-259

1
3

-3

-w
0
0
0
0
2 w 0. (6.4)
- z (5/9, 25/9, 0), ,
, 1=1, x2=4,
112

z 30. x5=10,
.

6.3.
. 2.5 , ,
, -
. ,
. ,
.
, . ,
.
. 2.5 , ,
. ,
, ,
, , .
,
. ,
. . 2.5, ,
, , .
, :
xi 0,
n

j=1

ij

j = bi

(i = 1,...., m)

(6.18)


j=1

=z

(
):
xj > 0,
n

j=1

ij

j = bi + i

(i = 1,.....m)

(6.19)


j=1

=z

. . ,
, 0,
. .
k- , , (x1, x2, .xm) ,
ij. (2.8) ,

m

i ( ) = ik b i +
k =1

)= b +
/
i

k =1

ik

k,

(6.20)

b/i .
, , . b/i> 0,
ik, , i () 0
. b/i = 0, , ik , > 0.
113

S , .
,
m

b i/ + ik k
k =1
/
is

(6.21)

is/ 0.


b i/
is/

(6.22)

is/ 0.
b/i/a/is /is > 0 b/r/a/rs,
(6.21) r.
,
(6.9) (6.10):
s+ =

1 / m

b r + rk k ;
/
rs
k =1

(6.23)

is/ / m
is/

= b / b r + ik / rk k ,
rs
rs
k =1

+
i

/
i

(6.24)

, r, , , (6.24),
, .
(6.22) , (6.21)
.

b i/ + i1
is/

(6.25)

i, (6.22).
, r
min

i1

r1

.
(6.26)
rs/
,

m
1

s+ = / r/ + rk k ;
rs
k =1

/
is

is/
(6.27)
= ik / rk k
rs
k =1

i, ,
i - , (6.24).
(6.26) (6.27)
.
++
i

114

(6.22), (6.26), 2 r

min

i2

r2

.
(6.28)

rs/
i, .
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
(6.22), (
) (6.26), ( )
(6.28), . . . ,
. , ,
, . .
z
z 0+ = z 0/ + s/ s+ ,
(6.29)
/
S < 0 *S > 0 ( (6.23)), z
. , ,
.
(mn ) (. . 2.5).
/
is

1
x1, x2, x3
1 2 2 2,

2 1 2 4,
1 + 2 5,
3 1 + 2 = z.

1
2
2
3

4
5
z

0
1
2

x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

1
2
1
-3

-2
-1
1
1

1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

c /1
-3*
0
0

c /2
1
-12
0

c /3 c /4 c /5
0 03 0 x1
0 2 0 x2
0 43 13
a/iS

x3
x4

2
4

1
0

0
1

0
0

1
2+

x5
-z
x3

5
0
0

0
0
1

0
0
-12

1
0
0

1
-3
-32

x1

1
2

-12

x4

115

x5

-12

3+
2

-z

6
3
3

0
1
0

3
2

0
01

-12

x3
x1
x2
-z

-1

1
3

4
3

3
1
3

2
3
1
3

z -7 1 = 3 2 == 2. 0
3 4 ( )

2 + + 0 2
4 + 0 + 2

.
1
2
, , . "" 21 =42 : 11 >02 .
6.4. -

.
. 2. ,
0. , + 2
, , .
0, , .
,
*, -
, , , 0, -1:
b1/
/
b2
= b m/

- z 0/
/
-0

11 1m
21 2 m
m1 mm
1 m
1 m

0
1

60 100-500.
c/j (6.4) d/j (6.17) 530 540.
, /iS 760780
vi.
790-1000.
740810 . 2.4.

. 6.1 6.3.
. , . . ,
( ).

- -. -
. -
. , -
-, -
.
-
. - , + 2 + N + GC +
1 . - , + 2
+ 1 . ,
116

, ,
.
- . .
.

READY.
10 PRINT " "
12 RINT " -"
15 READ ZZ
18 REM ZZ=+1
19 REM ; ZZ=-1
20 REM
22 REM
25 RED GC,EC,LC,N
30 MM=GC+E:M=MM+LC:MK=GC+LC:N1=MK+N
40 P=N1+MM:M1=M+1:M2=M+2:N0=N1l
50 DIM A(M2,P),B(M2,M1),BS(M),V(M2),NB(P),SL(P),C(P)
55 REM BBEC
60 FOR I=1 M1:FOR J=1 N:READ A(I,J):NEXT J:NEXT I
90 REM , ,
95 REM
98 REM
100 IF GC =0 THEN GOTO 150
110 FOR I=1 GC
120 A(I,N+I)=-1:A(I,N1+I)=1:B(M2,I)=-1
130 B(I,I)=1:A(M2,N1+I)=1:BS(I)=N1+I
140 READ A(I,0):B(I,0)=A(I,0):NEXT I
150 IF EC=0 Then GOTO 200
160 FOR I=GC+1 TO MM
170 A(I,Nl+I)=1:B(I,I)=1:A(M2,N1+I)=1
180 BS(I)=N1+I:B(M2,I)=-1:READ A(I,0)
190 B(I,0)=A(I,0):NEXT I
200 IF LC=0 THEN GOTO 235
210 FOR I=MM+1 TO M
220 A(I,N+I-EC)=1:B(I,I)=1:BS(I)=N+I-EC:READ A(I,0)
230 B(I,0)=A(I,0):NEXT I
240 IF MM=0 THEN RINT " 1 "
250 REM 1
260 L=1: REM N0
270 FOR I=1
280 (M2,0)=B(2,0)-(I,0)
290 NEXT I
300 ML=M1+L:REM ML=M+2 1;ML=M+1 2
320 IF ZZ>=0 THEN PRINT "EPBOHAAHA AA:GSU 3000
330 REM A ; N(J)=0
335 REM J-AA A
350 FOR I=1 TO M:NB(BS(I))=1:NEXT I
400 ZERO=1E-08:NIL1E-20
490 REM A A
495 ,.. ML
500 MIN=-ZERO:PV=0:ML=M1+L
510 FOR J=1 TO N0:C(J)=0
520 IF NB(J)=1 THEN GOTO 570
525 REM CJ'
530 FOR I=1 TO M:C(J)=C(J)+B(ML,I)*A(I,J):NEXT I
540 C(J)=C(J)+A(ML,J)
550 IF C(J)>=MIN THEN GOTO 570
560 MIN =C(J):S=J
570 NEXT J
580 REM S=0, TO
585 REM A
590 IF S=0 THEN GOTO 1900
740 REM A ,
745 REM BI/'(IS)
750 MIN =1E20:R=0
755 REM '(IS) V
760 FOR I=1 1:V(I)=0
770 FOR K=1 TO M1:V(I)=V(I)+B(I,K)*A(K,S):NEXT K:NEXT I
780 V(ML)=C(S)
790 FOR I=1
800 IFV(I)<=ZERO THEN GOTO 1000
810 K=0
820 RT=B(I,K)/V(I)
830 DF=RT-MIN
840 IF DF>=0 THEN GOTO 870
850 R=I:MIN=B(I,0)/V(I)
860 GOTO 1000

117

870 IF DF<>0 THEN GOTO 1000


880 K=K+1
890 MIN=B(R,K)/V(R)
900 GOTO 820
1000 NEXT I
1010 REM R=0, TO
1020 IF R=0 THEN GOTO 1800
1050 IF ZZ>=0 THEN GOSUB 3500
1100 REM A -
1120 PV=V(R)
1130 FOR J=0 TO M1:B(R,J)=B(RJ)/PV:NEXT J
1180 REM
1185 REM
1190 NB(BS(R))=0:NB(S)=1:BS(R)=S:NI=NI+1
1200 GOTO 500
1800 RINT "A "S" HE A
1810 GOSUB 3500:STOP
1820 GOTO 2500
1900 IF L=0 THEN GOTO 2000
1905 REM 2 A .
1908 REM A A 1, 2
1910 REM , W 0
1920 IF ABS(B(ML,0))>=1E-08 THEN GOTO 1960
1930 PRINT " 1 "
1940 L=0:N0=N1:REM L 2
1950 GOTO 500
1960 RINT " "
1970 PRINT "A PABHA";:PRINT -B(ML,0)
1980 GOSUB 3500:STOP
2000 PRINT"OKOH4ATEAbHOE "
2010 PRINT "A "
2020 =144
2030 FOR I=1 M:SL(BS(I))=B(I,0)
2040 PRINT " ",I,"
";BS(I);
2050 PA=B(I,0):GOSUB 9000:PRINT ""
2060 NEXT I
2090 PRINT "MHMM Z ";-(1,0)
2100 RINT " "
2120 FOR I=1
2130 PRINT " ";I, " ";
2140 IF I<=GC OR I>MM THEN GOTO 2160
2150 PRINT "PABHEHE HE ":GOTO 2180
2160 IF NB(N+I)=1 THEN RINT ".";
2165 PA=SL(N+I):GOSUB 9000:PRINT " ":GOTO 2180
2170 RINT " 0"
2180 NEXT I
2300 SS=1:GOSUB 3500
2500 END
3000 RINT " ";
3010 FOR J=1 TO N:PRINT " X J ";:NEXT J
3020 PRINT ""
3030 PB=122
3040 FOR I=1 TO ML
3050 IF I=M1 THEN PRINT " ";: GOTO 3080
3060 IF I=M2 THEN RINT ".";: G 3080
3070 PRINT I;:PA=A(I,0):GOSUB9000
3080 FOR J=0 TO N0
3090 A=A(I,J):GOSUB 9000
3100 NEXT J
3110 PRINT ""
3120 NEXT I:PRINT" "
3200 RETURN
3500 IF L=1 THEN RINT " "
3510 =122
3520 FOR J=1 N0:PRINT " C"J" ";:NEXT J
3530 PRINT" "
3540 FOR J=1 TO N0:PA=C(J):GOSUB 9000:NEXT J: PRINT" "
3550 IF SS=1 THEN GOTO 3600
3560 PRINT "X";S; " B,X",BS(R);"B ";R;" "
3600 PRINT "3C ";:IF SS=1 THEN PRINT" "
3605 GOTO 3620
3610 PRINT " A' lS"
3620 FOR I=1 TO ML
3630 IF I=M1 THEN PRINT "PEEHE ";: GOTO 3670
3640 IF I=M2 THEN PRINT " .";:GOTO 3670
3650 PRINT BS(I);
3670 FOR J=0 3680 A=(I,J):GOSUB 9000
3690 NEXT J
3700 IF SS=1 THEN GOTO 3720

118

3710 PA=V(I):GOSUB 9000


3720 PRINT""
3730 NEXT I:PRINT" "
3750 RETURN
4000 DATA 1
4010 DATA 0,0,3,4
4020 DATA 0.25,-8,-1,9,0.5,-12,-0.5,3,0,0,1,0,-0.75,20,-0.5,6
4030 DATA 0,0,1
9000 PC=INT(PB/100)
9010 $="
9020 IF PC=0 THEN PRINT"":GOTO 9040
9030 PRINT LEFT$(P$,PC);
9040 PC=PB-100*PC
9050 P0=INT(PC/10):PC=PC-10*PD
9060 IF PD=0 THEN PD=1
9070 IF PA<0 THEN P$=P$+"-"
9080 PE=ABS(PA)
9090 PE=PE+5*10^(-1-PC)
9100 IF PE>=10^PD THEN PRINT PA;:RETURN
9110 P$=P$+MID$(STR$(INT(PE)),2,PD)
9120 PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PD+1)
9130 IF PC=0 THEN RETURN
9140 PRINT".";
9150 PE=INT((PE-INT(PE))*10^'PC)
9160 P$=" 000000000"
9170 P$=P$+MID$(STR$(PE),2,PC)
9180 PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PC);:RETURN
READY.


-
1

36.00

2
48.00
3
22.00

1
-9.00

2
-10.00

3
-15.00

X1

X3

X4

1.00

2.00

5.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

2.00
1.00
-9.00

3.00
1.00
-10.00

3.00
2.00
-15.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

1.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
1.00
0.00

4
0.00

5
0.00

6
0.00

3 , 4 1

4
36.00
1.00
0.00 0.00
5
48.00
0.00
1.00 0.00

A'lS
5.00
3.00

6
22.00
0.00
0.00 1.00
2.00

0.00
0.00 0.00
0.00 -15.00

1
-6.00

2
-4.00

3
0.00

4
3.00

5
0.00

6
0.00

1 6 3

3
7.20
5
26.40


0.20
0.00 0.00
-0.60
1.00 0.00

6
7.60

-0.40
0.00 1.00
0.60
3.00 0.00
0.00 -6.00
108

1
0.00

2
-2.00

3
0.00

4
-1.00

5
0.00

A'lS
0.20
1.40

6
10.00

2 5 2

3
4.67


0.25
-0.25
0.25

A'lS
0.25

119

8.67

1
12.67

1
0.00

2
0.00

0.25

0.75

-1.75

0.25

-0.75
-0.25
2.25
-0.75
0.00
10.00 -2.00
184 -1.00

3
0.00

4
-0.50

5
1.50

6
6.50

4 3 1

3
2.50
2
6.50


0.33
0.00 -0.33
0.33
1.00 -2.33

A'lS
0.33
1.33

1
10.50

-0.67
0.00 1.67
0.33
197
-0.50 1.50
6.50

-0.50

1
2
3

1
6
3

10.0000
4.0000
8.0000

-202

1
2
3

1
0.00

2
0.00

3
2.00

4
0.00

5
1.00

10.0000
0
0
6
7.00


4
10.00
2
4.00


1.00
-1.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
-2.00

1
18.00

0.00
-1.00
202

3.00
0.00

1.00

7.00

6.5.
1. -, :
1 0, 2 0,
31 + 4 2 1700,
2 1 + 5 2 1600
2 1 4 2 = z .
2. -, :
i0, i = 1, 2,
1
10,
2 5,
1 +

2 20,

1 + 4 2 20
3 1 + 4 2 = z .
3. -, :
120

1 0, 2 0,
1 + 3 2 8,
3 1 + 4 2 19,
31 + 2 7
50 1 + 25 2 = z .
4. -, :
y1 0, y2 0, y3 0,
y1 + 3y 2 + 3y 3 50,
3y1 + 4 y 2 + y 3 25
8y1 + 19 y 2 + 7 y 3 = w .
5. - :
1 0, 2 0, 3 0, 4 0
1 / 4 1 8 2 3 + 9 4 0,
1 / 2 1 12 2 1 / 2 3 + 34 0
3 / 4 1 + 20 2 1 / 2 3 + 6 4 = z 1 .
, ,
.
6. .
(1, 2 3). , ,

, .-.
1

1
1

2
1

3
2

60 .-. , 240
.-. 180 .-. . , ,
170 .
1, 2 3 15, 22 19 .
,
:
i 0,
2 1 + 32 + 2 3 + 4
= 360
1 + 2 2 + 3 3

+ 5

1 + 2 + 2 3

= 240

+ 6

1 + 2 + 3

= 180

+ 7 = 170

= 15 1 22 2 19 3 .
, , , .


100

1
3

-43

5
3

121

40

1
3

2
3

-43

3
4

3
7

20
10

-13
-13

1
3
1
3

1
3

0
1

2
0

-2760

2
3

, -,
.
4 . 1 .-.

1.
?

2.
3 30 .
?
7. D1, D2, D3.
10, 10 30 . . ,
/ F1, F2; F3
D1 1 F1, 4 F2 2 F3; D2 - 2 F1 3 F2 3
F3, D3 - 10 F1, 10 F2 8 F3.
F1, F2; F3 650, 850 650 .
, , ,
D1, D2, D3.
,
20 %- . ,
D1 D2,
D3, D3 10 %. ,
, , 20
%- .
, 300 .
1
D1 D2, - D3
? ,
11 % . 8.
.
, ,
. 14 * 10
I 12 * 10 II. -
, , i j Rij.
Rij
i
1
2
3

j=I

j=II

6
8
4

6
5
5

().
56 * 10 3 . i,
j, Wij 3 :
122

i
1
2
3

Wij
j=I

j=II

2
3
3

3
3
2

, , 7 * 10 .
1, 2, 3 10 ,
1 2, 1, 3 .
:

11 + 21 + 31
+u
= 14,
12 + 22 + 32

+v

2 11 + 321 + 331 + 3 12 + 322 + 2 32


2 11 + 21 + 3 31 + 2 12 + 22 + 3 32

= 12,
+w

= 56,

+ z = 70.

R = -6 11 8 21 4 31 6 12 5 22 5 32
, . ,
, - ,
-.
;

x21
x11
x32

-2

-2

10
12

3
0

2
1

-1
0

0
0

10

-4

-5

152.
) .
) ,
I, .
?
) , II.
2 3 1 4 10
. 1
. ? 9. :
1 ,

1,08
0,96


0,50



100000
130000
150 000

, %


I
,

123

30 ()

50 ( }

200 000

1,96

--

30 ()

30 ( )

2,46

60 ()

30 ( )

180000

2,08


-. , - ,
.
10. k-
- 0.
r
. ,
.
11. -
. 4. ?
12. - . 5.
, ?

124

7.

7.1.
, .
,
() . ,
, . .
:
x j 0 ( j = 1, 2 , K, n ),
n

j =1

j =1

a ij x j

bi ( i

= 1, 2 , K, m )

(7.1)

= z .

cjxj

:
y i 0 i = 1, 2 , K, m ,
n

a ij y j

i =1
m

i =1

c i ( j = 1, 2 , K, n )

(7.2)

= w .

bi y i

. 5, 6 . 2 .
3, 4 . 6.
:
x1 0 , x 2 0 ,
x1
3x2

+ 3x2
+ 4 x2

8
19

3 x1

x2

50 x1 + 25 x 2 = z .
:
y1 0 , y 2 0 , y3 0 ,

y1
3 y1

+ 3 y2
+ 4 y2

+ 3 y3
+ y3

50
25

8 y1 + 19 y 2 + 7 y3 = w .
, -
.
.
.

, .
:
x 0 ,
Ax b


125

cT x = z

(7.3)

.
:
y 0 ,

AT y c
(7.4)
bT y = w
.

, (
), .
.
1

x1 0 , x 2 0 , x3 0 ,

3 x1
x1

+ 4 x2
+ 2 x2

+
+

x3
x3
x3

7
= 6
4

x1 4 x 2 3 x3 = z .
.
z , , z = z .
x3 4 -1 x3 4 .

x1 + 2 x 2 + x3 = 6

x1 + 2 x 2 + x3
x1 + 2 x 2 + x3

6
6

. .

x1
x2

+ 2 x2
2 x2

x3
x3

6
6

, -:
x1 0 , x 2 0 , x3 0 ,
3 x1
x1
x1

+ 4 x2
+ 2 x2
2 x2

+
+

x3
x3
x3
x3

7
6
6
4

x1 + 4 x 2 + 3 x3 = z .
- .
:
y1 0 , y 2 0 , y 2 0 , y3 0
( ),

126

3 y1
4 y1
y1

+ y 2
+ 2 y 2
+ y 2

y 2 + 0 y3
2 y3 + 0 y3
y 2 y3

1
4
3

7 y1 + 6 y 2 6 y 2 4 y3 = w .
. , y 2 = y 2 y 2
- ( ),
:
y1 0 , y 2 ( y 2 ), y3 0 ,
3 y1
4 y1
y1
7 y1

+ y2
+ 2 y2
+ y2

+ 6 y2

1
4
3

y3

4 y3

= w .

2

x1 0 x 2 ,

5 x1
x1

+ 3x2
x2

10
4

6 x1 + 10 x 2 .
x 2 x 2 x 2 , x 2 x 2 0 ,
:
x1 0 , x 2 0 , x 2 0 ,
5 x1
x1

+ 3 x 2
+ x 2

3 x 2 10
x 2 4

6 x1 + 10 x 2 10 x 2 = z

y1 0 , y 2 0 ,
5 y1
3 y1

y2
y2

3 y1

y2

10

6
10

10 y1 4 y 2 .
.
3 y1 + y 2 10
3 y1 + y 2 10
, :
y1 0 , y 2 0 ,
5 y1
3 y1

y2
y2

6
= 10

10 y1 4 y 2 = w .
, ,
,
.
127

,
( 1); ,
( 2).

7.2.
1. .
(7.4) (
) : y = 0 ,

AT y c
b T y = w .
x 0 ,
Ax = b

c T x = z .

x 0 ,
Ax b

c T x = z , .
2. z ,
, w ,
.
X Y -
.

= cT X

= bT Y .

(7.3) AX b .
Y 0 ,

Y T AX

Y T b = bT Y

(7.4) AT Y

X T AT Y

= W.

c , X

X T c = cT X

0 ,

= Z.

X T AT Y - , Y T AX ,
,

= cT X

Y T AX

bT Y

= W,

(7.5)
.. Z W .
, z ,
w , z
w . , .
3. z = z min ,
w = w max = z min . -

, .
,

x j 0 , ( j = 1, 2 , K, n , n + 1, K, n + m ),

128

a11 x1
a 21 x1

+
+

a m1 x1

+ am 2 x2

+ K +
+ K +

a12 x 2
a 22 x 2

a1n x n
a2n xn

=
=

x n+1

x n+ 2

+ K + a mn x n

x n+ m

b1
b2

= bm

c1 x1 + c 2 x 2 + K + c n x n = z .
1 , 2 , K, m - - ,
1 , 2 , K, m z

m
m
m

x1 c1 + a i1 i + x 2 c 2 + a i 2 i + K + x n c n + a in i
i
i
i
=
1
=
1
=
1

x n+1 1

x n+ 2 2

x n + m m

= z + i bi
i =1

(7.6)

(7.6) - z ,
. ,
i 0 ( i = 1, K , m )

cj

+ a ij i

0 ( j = 1, K, n )

i =1

(7.7)


i 0 ( i = 1, K , m )
a ij

( i )

c j ( j = 1, K, n )

(7.8)

i .
, (7.6) 0;
0, 0

z min

, z min

i =2
m

bi i

= bi
i =1

= bi
i =1

( i ) .

( i ) . -

(7.9)
w ,

,
yi = i .
, (7.5)
w . ,

w max

= z min

(7.10)

4. w = w max ,
z min = w max . -

.
1 2;
, 3.

bT y = w
AT y + y s = c ,

129

y
= m +1 0
y m +n
- .
T = ( 1 , 2 , K, n ) ,
T AT y + T y s = T c = c T ,

ys

(b

(7.11)

+ A
y + ys = w + c .
, w ( , ),
y y s (7.11) ,
,
T

T
b

A
T

(0,
(0,

0, K, 0 )
0, K, 0)

(7.12)

. .

b +

0
A 0

( )

(7.13)

.
,

w max

= cT

( )

= z min

(7.14)

3 4 ,
, , ,
. - (
), , . -
. .
. 6.4,
, .
, 7 3 ,
9 X 8 I 8 X
8 II. 3 7 ,
I; 4X4.
,
.
3 4
x1 0 , x 2 0 ,
2 x1
3 x1

+ 3x2
+ 4 x2

10,
19,

x1

+ 2 x2

7 x1 + 10 x 2 = z .

y1 0 , y 2 0 , y3 0 ,
130

2 y1
3 y1

+ 3 y2
+ 4 y2

+ y3
+ 2 y3

7,
10

10 y1 + 19 y 2 + 9 y3 = w .
, x1 = 1 ,
x 2 = 4 , 1 = 0 , 2 = 2 , 3 = 1 ( ) z min = 47 .
, y1 = 0 , y 2 = 2 , y 2 = 3 ,
1 = 1 , 2 = 4 w max = 47 .
.
. , ,

w = 10 y1 19 y2 9 y3
( - ).

-

X 1
X 2

4
5
6
1
10.00
2.00 3.00 -1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00
2
19.00
3.00 4.00 0.00 -1.00 0.00 0.00
3
9.00
1.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 -1.00 0.00
7.00 10.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
. 0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00

7
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
1.00

8
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
1.00


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-6.00 -9.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
X 2 , 6 1

A'IS
6
10.00
1.00 0.00 0.00
3.00
7
19.00
0.00 1.00 0.00
4.00
8
9.00
0.00 0.00 1.00
2.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00 10.00
. -38.00 -1.00 -1.00 -1.00 -9.00

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0.00
0.00 -2.00
1.00
1.00
3.00
0.00
0.00
X 3 , 8 3

A'IS
2
3.33
0.33
0.00
0.00
-0.33
7
5.67 -1.33
1.00
0.00
1.33
8
2.33 -0.67
0.00
1.00
0.67
-33.33 -3.33
0.00
0.00
. -8.00
2.00 -1.00 -1.00

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-1.00
0.00
0.00
1.00 -2.00
1.00
0.00
X 5 , 7 2

A'IS
2
4.50
0.00
0.00
0.50
-0.50
7
1.00
0.00
1.00 -2.00
2.00
3
3.50 -1.00
0.00
1.50
-1.50

131

8
3.00

3.33
-2.00

-45.00
. -1.00

0.00
0.00

0.00
-1.00

-5.00
2.00

5.00
-2.00

1
1
2
3
4
5
-0.50
0.00
0.00
2.50
0.00

A'IS
2
4.75
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.75
5
0.50
0.00
0.50 -1.00
0.50
3
4.25 -1.00
0.75
0.00
0.25
-47.50 0.00

-2.50

0.00

-0.50

1
2
4.0000
2
1
1.0000
3
3
4.0000
Z 47


3
.. 4.0000
1

0
2

0
1
2
3
4
5
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
1.00

2
4.00
0.00 -0.50
1.50
1
1.00
0.00
1.00 -2.00
4 10.00 -1.00
0.50
0.50
-47.00 0.00 -2.00 -1.00

-
1

X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
X 5
1
7.00
2.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 0.00
2
10.00
3.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 1.00
-10.00 -19.00 -9.00
0.00

0.00

1
2
3
4
5
-10.00 -19.00 -9.00
0.00
0,00
X 2 , 4 1

A'IS
4
7.00
1.00
0.00
3.00
5
10.00
0.00
1.00
4.00

0.00
0.00
0.00 -19.00
1
2
3
4
5
2.67
0.00 -2.67
6.33
0.00
X 3 , 5 2

A'IS
2
2.33
0.33
0.00
0.33
5
0.67
-1.33
1.00
0.67
44.33
6.33
0.00

1
2
2.0000

132

-2.67

2
3
1.0000
Z -47


1

0
2

0
1
2
3
4
5
4.00
8.00
0.00
1.00
4.00

2
2.00
1.00 -0.50
3
1.00
-2.00
1.50
47.00

1.00

4.00

. (7.6) ,

i xn + i = 0 ( i = 1,K, m ).
(7.15)
(7.11) ,
j ym + j = 0 ( j = 1,K, n )

(7.16)

, i xn + i 0 j
ym + j 0. .
k -e ,
( xn + k > 0 ), k - ( k ) 0. k -
, k -e .

.

7.3.


.
- (. . 3.3)
. -.

x1 0 , x 2 0 , x3 0 ,

x1
x2

+ 3 x3
+ 2 x3

3
5

4 x1 + 6 x2 + 18 x3 = z .
z ,

-. :

x1
x2
x4
x3
x5
-3
-1
0
-3
1
.
0
x4
-5
0
-1*
-2
.
1
x5
1

z
x4
x2
z

0
-3
5
-30

4
-1
0
4

6
.
1
.
133

18
-3*
2
6

.
1
.
.

.
0
-1
6

x3

1/3

3
-2/3
x2
z
-36
2
, x1

-1/3

.
2/3
-1
.
2
6
= 0 , x 2 = 3 , x3 = 1 z min = 36 .
- ( x 4 x5
z ) 1 = 2 2 = 6 .

y1 0 , y2 0 ,
y1
y2
3 y1

+ 2 y2

1
.

4
6

18

3 y1 + 5 y2 = w .

w = 3 y1 5 y2 .
:

y1
y2
0

y3

y3
1

6
18

0
3

1*
2

.
.

1
.

.
1

y4
y5
w
y3

0
4

-3
1

-5
.

.
1

.
0

.
.

6
6

0
3*

1
.

.
.

1
-2

.
1

y2
y5
w
y3

30
2

-3
.

.
.

.
1

5
2/3

.
-1/3

6
.
y2
2
1
y1
w
36
.
- (

y4
.

y5
.

1
.
1
0
.
.
-2/3
1/3
.
.
5
1
w ) 1 = 0 , 2 = 3 , 3 = 1
( y3 , y4 y5 ).
. y1 = 2 y2 = 6 . -
- , ,
.

, .
:
xij 0 ,

134

x11 +

x12

+ K +

=
=

x1n
x21 +

x2 n
K

x11

x21
+

x12

x22

x m1 +
x m1
+

x1n

xmn

= am
= b1
= b2

xmn

= bm

xm 2

L
+ x2 n

a1
a2

c11 x11 + c12 x12 + K + cmn xmn = z


(. (4.2)).
ui v j (
, ),
+ v1
c11
u1
+ v2
c12
u1
+ vj
cij
ui
um
+ v n cmn
a1u1 + a2 u2 +
am um + b1v1 +
bnv n = w

.
ui + v j cij .
, .
m + n 1 (
) (
).
, .
, i - j - ui v j
z
n

z ai ui
i =1

j =1

bjv j

=
i

(. (4.7)).
ui v j - , ui

+ vj

z = w .
xij cij

(c

ij

ui

v j ) xij

= z w

= cij xij .
ui

vj

0 ,

z w . ,
.
, , (,
, )
( -) . ,
, .

f ( x) =
x j

j =1

dj

cjxj

(7.17)

(j

= 1,K, n )
135

(7.18)

j =1

aij x j

(i

bi

= 1 , K , m)

(7.19)

d j = 0 , , ,
. (7.18) (7.19)
xj

u 2j

dj

= 0

(7.20)

j =1

aij x j

v i2

bi

= 0

(7.21)

F ( x, , , u, v ) =
+

(x

j
j =1

cjxj

j =1

u 2j

dj

i =1

n
aij x j
j =1

v i2

bi +

(7.22)

i j - .
, (7.17), ,
(7.22),
m
F
(7.23)
= 0 , .. c j + aij i + j = 0 , ( j = 1 , K , n )
i =1
x j
F
1

= 0 , ..

aij x j

F
j

= 0 , .. x j

u 2j

F
v i

= 0 , .. i v i

= 0

j =1

(x

dj

b1 = 0 , (i

= 1 , K , m)

= 0 , ( j = 1 , K , n)

bi = 0 , (i

n
aij x j
j =1

v i2

= 1 , K , m)

d j ) = 0 , ( j = 1 , K , n)

(7.24)
(7.25)

(7.26)
(7.27)

, (7.24) (7.25) (7.18) (7.19).


(7.26) (7.27) .
i -.

F (K) = f ()

Fmin

(7.28)

f min

(7.22)
Fmin
Fmin
= i
= j .
bi
d j

(7.29)

(3.17).
bi d j - , Fmin
, ,
136

0 j

(7.30)

(7.7). , (7.23)

ci

aij i

i =1

= j

0,

,
m

( i )

0 aij
i =1

ci ,

i .
Fmin , x , . .,
,
Fmin = ci xi =
=

j =1

cj

xj

j =1

x j j

(7.27) d j

cj xj

= bi

aij i i bi
i =1

( i )

+ bi

= bi

( i )

= 0.

( i ) ,

(7.31)

. . zmin = w max .
, - ,
.
.
- -.

7.4.
1. ,
x1 0 , x2 0 ,
3 x1
x1

+ 5 x2
+ 9 x2

18
30

2 x1

+ 7 x2

27

11x1 + 44 x2 .
2. ,
x1 0 , x2 0 x3 , ,
2 x1 + x2
x1 + x2
x1 + 2 x2

+ 4 x3
+ x3
+ 3 x3

22
= 9
18

5 x1 + 7 x2 + 13 x3 .
3. , k - , k -e
.
4. , k -e
, k - .
5. x1 0 , x2 0 , x3 0 ,
137

3 x1 + 3 x2
x1 + 2 x2
3 x1 + x2

+ x3
+ 5 x3
+ 2 x3

7
9
14

11x1 + 14 x2 + 15 x3 = z .
3 4 .
6.
x1 0 , x2 0 ,

x1

x2
x2

1
2

x1 x2 = z ( 3 . 1.2) ,
, .
7. , ()
z ( w ) , ()
.
8. , , . 7, .
.
9. 3 4
x1 0 , x2 0 , x3 0 ,

x1 + 5 x2
2 x1 + x2
3 x1 + 2 x2

+ x3
+ 3 x3
+ 5 x3

7
9
14

7 x1 + 4 x2 + 11x3 = z .
10. ,
. p0 = 1 8 , p1 = 1 8 , p2 = 1 4 ,
p3 = 1 2 , p j - , j - . j
C j , C - . ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
7 .

138


,
. ,
.


1. Beale, E.M.L. Cycling in the Dual Simplex Algorithm, Nav. Res. Logistics Quart., 2,
269-276, 1955.
2. Dantzig, G.B. 'Maximisation of a linear function of variables subject to linear
inequalities', in Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation (Edited by . .
Koopmans), Wiley, New o York, 1951.
3. Dantzig, G.B. Linear Programming and Extensions, Princeton University Press, New
Jersey, 1963.
4. Dantzig, G.B. 'The Simplex Method', Rand Corp. Rept., P-891, 1956.
5. Dantzig, G.B. and Orchard-Hays, W. 'Alternate Algorithm for the Revised Simplex
Method Using Product Form for the Inverse', Rand Corp. Rept., RM-1268,1953.
6. Ford, L.R., Jr. and Fulkerson, D.R. Solving the Transportation Problem, Man. Sc., 3, 2432, 1956.
7. Gale, D. The Theory of Linear Economic Models, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960.
8. Garvin, W.W. Introduction to Linear Programming, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960.
9. Gass, S.I. Linear Programming: Methods and Applications, McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., New
York, 1969.
10. Glover, F., Karney, D., Klingman, D. and Napier, A. A Computation Study on Start
Procedures, Basis Change Criteria and Solution Algorithms for Transportation Problems,
Man. Sc., 20,793-813, 1974.
11. Hadley, G. Linear Programming, Addison Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1962.
12. Hitchcock, F.L. The Distribution of a Product from Several Sources to Numerous
Localities, J. Math. Phys., 20, 224-230, 1941.
13. Hoffman, A.J. Cycling in the Simplex Algorithm, Nat. Bur. Standards Rept., 2974,1953.
14. Kuhn, H.W. The Hungarian Method for the Assignment Problem, Nav. Res. Logistics
Quart., 2, 83-97, 1955.
15. Mack, C. The Bradford Method for the Assignment Problem, The New J. of Stats, and
Op. Res., 1, Part 1, 17-29, 1969.
16. Orchard-Hays, W. Advanced Linear Programming Computing Techniques, McGrawHill, New York, 1968.
17. Wagner, H.M. A Comparison of the Original and Revised Simplex Methods, Op. Res., 5,
361-369, 1957.
18. Walsh, G.R. An Introduction to Linear Programming, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.

.
;
. , .
:
1. - , .
2. - (. ).
3. GOSUB 9000.
- - , = 100* + 10* + , , , - 0 9
.
139

= 0, . > 0,
, , .
. , .
, .
9000 =INT(/100)
9010 $="
9020 IF PC=0 THEN PRINT"":GOTO 9040
9030 PRINT LEFT$(P$,PC);
9040 PC=PB-100*PC
9050 PD=INT(PC/10):PC=PC-10*PD
9060 IF PD=0 THEN PD=1
9070 IF A<0 THEN P$=P$+"-"
9080 PE=ABS(PA)
9090 PE=PE+5*10^(-1-PC)
9100 IF PE>=10^PD THEN PRINT A;:RETURN
9110 P$=P$+MID$(STR$(INT(PE)),2,PD)
9120 PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PD+1)
9130 IF PC=0 THEN RETURN
9140 PRINT".";
9150 PE=INT((PE-INT(PE))*10^PC)
9160 P$="000000000"
9170 P$=P$+MID$(STR$(PE),2,PC)
9180 PRINT RIGHT$(P$,PC);:RETURN
READY.

140


1.6.
l. x1 = A , x2 = B , x1 0 , x2 0 .
z = 5 x1 + 3 x2
0,5 x1
0,4 x1

+ 0,25 x2
+ 0,3 x2

40
36

0,2 x1

36

0,4 x2

x1 = 60 , x2 = 40 , z = 420 . .
2. 10 x1 = 2 , x2 = 4 .
4. -10 x1 = 4 , x2 = 2 .
1
1
5. ) -13 x1 = 3 , x2 = 2 .
2
2
) -9
25 13
15 + 39
x1 =
, x2 =
;0 1
10
10
) .
6. , .
7. 12/5 x1 = 2 / 5 , x2 = 1 / 5 , x3 = 0 .
8. x1 = 1 / 12 , x2 = 4 / 12 , x3 = 7 / 12 , = 38 3/4 . 1 .
9. x1 , x2 , x3 - , , .
70 x1 + 50 x2 + 10 x3
90 x1 + 65 x2
30 x1 + 85 x2
x1 +
x2

+ 45 x3
+ 70 x3
+
x3

60
60
= 1

x1 = 17 / 59 , x2 = 6 / 59 , x3 = 36 / 59 .
10.

12(26 x1 + 45 x2 ) / 5

0 x1 30,0 x2 20,3 x1 + 3 x2 100 .


x1 = 40 3 , x2 = 20 .
12. 1, 4, 0 G1 , G2 , G3 ;
2, 0, 5 G1 , G2 , G3 .
25 .
13. x A = 450 , x B = 100 .
14. 367 "", 683 "".
15. x , y - .
) x = 400 , y = 400 ;
) x = 400 , y = 100 .
2.6.
1. 2, 4: x1 = 0,4 , x2 = 0,2 , x3 = 0 .
2. 0, 8: x1 = 0 , x2 = 0,2 , x3 = 0,3 .
3. x A = 13,125 , x B = 2,625 55,125 .
4. 40 000 - 20 000

141

, 10 000 - .
5. z = 150 , x1 = 1 , x2 = 4 .
6. w = 150 , y1 = 0 , y2 = 25 9 , y3 = 125 9
7. xi - , x A = 400 , x B = 0 , xC = 150 ,
x D = 0 ; 3875 .
8. x A = 2000 , x B = 7000 ; 10 350 .
9. x1 = 50 / 7 , x2 = 0 , x3 = 55 / 7 , z = 695 / 7 .
10. 200 000 . - , 100 000 . - , 100000 .- , 100 000
. - .
11. z = 2 , x1 = 2 , x2 = 0 .
12. - 150 ( ); 5/6 ,
1
5 , 3 .
3
13. 9000 W , 81 000 Y , 15 000
W , 85 000 Y , 24 000 X , 60 000
Y , 36 000 Z .
14. 26: 4 ; 10 - ; 8 -
; 4 - 4 ; 4 - ; 6 - , 1 -
, 11 - .
15. .
3.4.
1. ) 5500 , 4500 ; 6) 100 .
2. x1 = 160 / 11 , x2 = 60 / 11 , x3 = x4 = 0 ; z = 460 .
3. x1 = 10 , x2 = 5 , x3 = x4 = 0 , z = 455 .
4. x1 = 4 , . 0,6 (
); - 1,2 ( ).

5.

xA

= 18 / 5 ,

xB

= 3/ 5 ,

xC

= 0.

4
= 19 .
5

1: 7/5; 11: 1/5.


6. - 0; - 1 .; - 7 ; x1 = 150 ,
x 2 = 50 , x3 = 10
7. 2700 , 2150 . , .
3 5 4 5
2
; 3) , x1 = 4 , x 4 = 24 ; 4) 66
8. 1) 3/5, 1/5; 2)
P 100 ,
3
2 5 1 5
1
1
P - ; 5) x1 = 11 , x2 = 6 , x3 = 15 .
4
4
9. x1 = 1 , x 2 = 4 , z = 150 .
10. .
12. x1 = 22 / 7 , x 2 = 20 / 7 , z = 144 / 7 , x1 = 0 , x 2 = 4 , z = 20 .
14. x1 = x 2 = 0 , x3 = 2 , z = 4 .
15. E F .
4.5.
1. x13 = 8 , x 21 = 2 , x 22 = 9 , x31 = 2 , x33 = 1 , x34 = 13 ; C = 103 .
2. x13 = 9 , x 22 = 4 , x26 = 10 , x31 = 6 , x33 = 1 , x34 = 2 , x35 = 7 ,
x 44 = 11 , x46 = 0 , C = 144

142

3.

xij - (. ), C i - x11

= 7,

x 41 = 36 , x32 = 25 , x13 = 5 , x23 = 15 .


4. xij - Pi , S j .

x12 = 5 , x14 = 1 , x15 = 2 , x25 = 3 , x31 = 3 , x34 = 4 ,


x43 = 1 23
s5 .
5. xij - , ., Fi ,
C j ; x11 = 10 , x14

= 30 , x23

= 20 , x31 = 5 , x32

= 20 .

6. 10 000 F1 , C1 , 6000 - C 2 ; 7000


F2 C 2 , 7000 - C 3 , 2000 7000 .
7. : I-10 , 10 - ; II - 10 , 10 , 10 - ; III - 5 , 15 - -.
86 000 ( ).
8. : I - 500 , 450 ; II - 300 D; III - 1000 ,
350 D, IV - 250 , 200 .
9. 1 420 1, 50
30 .
II 300 2. I 520
1 30, . II
480 2.
10. : 1500 W, 2500 Y;
: 2500 X, 200 Y, 300 Z;
: 3000 Z.
5.4.
1. ) x11 = 1 , x23 = 1 , x32 = 1 ; Min = 9 . ) x11 = 1 , x23 = 1 , x32 = 1 ,
x 44 = 1 ; Min = 37 .
2. ) x14 = 1 , x 21 = 1 , x32 = 1 , x43 = 1 , x55 = 1 ; Min = 100 . )
x15 = 1 , x 22 = 1 , x31 = 1 , x43 = 1 , x54 = 1 , x66 = 1 ; Min = 158 .
3. :
S D d;
T B b T E e ;
U C c;
V A a;
W E e W B b .
4. : 1-2, 2-2, -4, 4-1.
5. - , - D, - ,
- , - .
6. :
: 2-12,6-11;
: 1-9, 3-10,4-7, 5-8;
: 7-4,11-5, 8-6,9-1,12-2,10-3.
7. : 1 - 5- ;
2 4-; 3 - 1-; 4 7-; 5 - 2-; 6
- 3-; 7 - 6- . 111.
8. : 1, 2, 3, D 6, 5.

143

6.5.
1. x1 = 300 , x 2 = 200 , z = 1400 .
2. x1 = 12 , x 2 = 8 , z = 68 .
3. x1 = 1 , x 2 = 4 , z = 150 .
4. y1 = 0 , y2 = 25 9 , y3 = 125 9 , w = 150 .
5. x1 = 1 , x 2 = 0 , x3 = 1 , x 4 = 0 , z = 1,25
6. ) ; ) : x1 = 90 , x 2 = 30 , x3
7. x1 = 50 , x 2 = 50 , x3 = 50 ; 2500 .
x1 = 100 , x 2
x1 = 75 , x2

= 150 , x3
= 100 , x3

= 30 .

= 0 ; 3000 .
= 25 ; 2775 .

8. ) 10 105 1 I, 4 105 2
I, 12 105 3 II.
, 105 , 14 %
.
) 105 I 2 . 105
2 .
1
1
) . 11 ( 152 163 ).
3
3
28
14
105 1 I,
2
3
3
35
I
II.
3
, II - .
9.

, .

--
-

54
46

36
1
1
7
86
3
3

90
23
37
490 133, 33 .
7.4.
1. y1 0 , y2

3 y1
5 y1

+ y2
+ 9 y2

0 , y3

+ 2 y3
+ 7 y4

0 , ,
11
44

18 y1 + 30 y2 + 27 y3 .
2. y1 , y2 , y3 , y1 0 , y3 0 y2 , ,
2 y1 +
y1 +
4 y1 +

y2
y2
y2

+ y3
+ 2 y3
+ 3 y3

5
7
= 13

22 y1 + 9 y2 18 y3 .
5. x1 = 1 , x 2 = 2 , x3 = 3 z min = 84 ; 1 = 3 , 2 = 2 , 3
: y1 0 , y2 0 , y3 0 ,
144

= 1 .

2 y1
3 y1
y1

+ y2
+ 2 y2
+ 5 y2

+ 3 y3
+ y3
+ 2 y3

11
14
15

11 y1 + 20 y2 + 11 y3 = w .
y1 = 3 , y2 = 2 , y3 = 1 w max = 84 ; 1 = 1 , 2 = 2 , 3
6. : y1 0 , y2 0 ,

y1
y1

y2

= 3.

1
1

y1 2 y2 ; .
8. : x1 0 , x 2 0 ,
5 x1 + 5 x2
x1
x2

4
2

7 x1 + 3 x 2 ; .
: y1 0 , y2 0 ,
5 y1
5 y1

y2
y2

7
3

4 y1 + 2 y2 ; .
9. x1 = 4 , x2 = 1 , x3 = 0 ; z = 32 ; 1 = 0 , 2 = 2 , 3 = 1 .

145

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