Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

IV. .

4.1. . , .
Def. - , .
; , .
, -
.

. - , ( 2.4.2.); .

4.2. .

.
.

, ..
. .
2- ,

()
1. -.

T =[ (-80)400]OC
(
-
P=[(-0,001)40]

-

).
-


--

95%
.

2.
:
T =[ (-20)300]OC

,
.
P=[(-0,01)1] ,


3. .
,
T =[(-100)1000] OC

--
-
P=[(-0,001)50]
..
-

-
.
--
4.
,
T =[(-100)1000] OC -
P=[(-0,001)10]
-

-
.
--
5. (
-
T =[(-20)500] OC

)
P=[(-0,001)50]
6.

T =[(-50)200] OC
.
-
P=[(-0,001)1]

,
-

.
-

7.

-
T =[(-100)1300] OC
--
P=[(-0,001)10] ,

8.

T =[(-10)100] OC

P:=
9.
, -
T =[5002500] OC
. .
-
P=[0,11]

.

3.3. .

3.3.1. . .
, : ,
;
() ;
.
.
.
, . , ,
, .
( )
. ,
, , , , , ; (
)
.., .
, (
),
, -
. .
Def. :
, , , , .
Def. : ,
, ,
.

, , ( ) -
(-). ,
-, , - , ,
, ,

. ,
( ).

S
= IOS - ICS - div (J + S w)

(1)

S ();
IOS ;
ICS ;
J - ;
w .
-
. dV. .
.
_________
| Wr
|
Wr - , /;
wl - , /;
| IO IC | wl
|_________ | () - l, / 3
|
|
C+dC - l+dl, / 3
l
l+dl
, / 3
C
C+dC
, /
- , .
- , 2/
, /.;
= / - , 2/
IO , /;
IC , /;
2. .
dV
, , ..,

( )

div( w)
( wgrad ) divw 0

(2)

C
= IOS

(3)

II

- ICS
III

Wr (1 -

IV

) C

wl

C
l

2C
l 2

D - , /.

C p
T
C
2T
= IOS0S - ICSS - WR R + Wr
- wl
+

l
C
l 2

VI
VII
VIII
IX
( )

(5)

XIII

w
= wl

XIV

XV

(WR V XVI

XI

w
)
l

(4)

XII

P
l

2w
l 2

XVII

IOS , / 3;
ICS , / 3;
0S, S , /;
R , /;
V , 3/;
D - (- ), 2/;.
- , ..
, .
.
.
,
. ..,
.
, ,
.
(5).
(5) ( III
)
/ = IOS - ICS Wr - wl /L + D / L2,
(8)
I
II
III
IV
L - , .
.
(III) : (IV) - (
) - .
=

wL
,
D

(9)

(II): (III) - -
.
Da I =

WR L WR

,
wl C
C

(10)

= L/ wl - , .

(II): (IV) -

W R L2
,
DC

Da II =

(11)

DaII .
(6) .
(II): (III) - ,
.
DaIII =
(12)

W R H R L W R H R

wl C P T
C P T

= L/ wl - , .

(II): (IV) - ,
.

W R H R L2
,
T

DaIV =

(13)

..
, ,
, . -
.
Def. - , , (
) .
(9)-(13)
(5)-(8) ,
.

= F (W ; Da ; Da ; Da
C

II

III

; DaIV; Re; Bo; IC; IS )

T
= FT(WR; DaI; DaII; DaIII ; DaIV; Re; Bo; IC; IS Gr; Ki; Bi )

Eu = FP (WR; DaI; DaII; DaIII ; DaIV; Re; Bo; IC; IS ; Fr; Gr; Ki; Bi)

(14)
(15)
(16)

Eu, Re, Fr, Gr; Ki; Bi, () , , ,


, , ..
, (14) -(16),
,
, , Da II; DaIV.
,
.
: / ();
/ ();. () (-).

.

1. (-)
/
(). ,
.
.

0
x

(17)

(17)

2
0
x 2

(17)

T
0
x

2T
0
x 2
(17)

Bo<<1
(17)

DaII<<1
(17)

DaIV<<1
(17)

(12) %, (12) (
). .
.
1.1 -.
,
, ,
.., . .
.

. -

.
aIAI = bIBI

Const

(18)
( )

dc
=
d

WR

WR

d
d

d
d

(18)
(

; ; ,
).
MC*

d
d
+ MACA
d
d

= - R | WR | - m | Wm | - F

F(-) +

(18)
, / 3;

d
| , , /;
=
c I T
d

M = V , ;
MA , ;
- , /3;
- , ;
m , /;
Wm - , /;

m , /;
Wm - , /;
, ;
- , -1;
C*- , /(.);
CA - , /(.);
, /( 2 );
F - , 2;

(T - t CP
T t1 , , ;
=
ln
T t2

(18)

, /(2 );
F , 2;
T1, t2, tCP , , ;
- .
( )
N = N n 3 d 5 - , ( ) , ;
N
=
F(Re;
Fr;
)

(19)
).

(19)
(18)- (18)
; .

-,

d
=0
d

(20)

=
R
|
WR
|
(20)

F(-)

.
-- .

dc
=
d

WR

(1+

d
)
d

(20)

, .

d
<<1
d

(20)

dc
WR
d

(20)

(20)

c0

dc
C Wr

dX

W
0

(21)
.
(19)-(21) [,
] -- . ,
.. . (20) (21)
.
- ,
, .., . ,
-
.
, -
. , ,

; ,
. ,
-

. - .
, ,
. -
, .
, ,
, ,
. , , .

: - - -;
- - -.
1.2 -.
,
, ,
. ,
. .
.
.. : .
. -

-
A+ D + E

( III)

, ,
.. - ( ) . ,
D
.

:= Gs =0

d
d

GA=VA

(22)

GA=Const

(22 )
=Const

VA
(22)

= + GA= + VA

(22)

( )

VA
dc
=
V0 VA
d

- WR (1-

d
d
) - C
d
d

(23)

dc
=
d

VA
V0 VA

WR

(1-

d
)
d

d
d

(23)
- .. , .
(
-
; ; ;
).
MC*

d
d
+ MACA
= GA H * - (V0+VA ) {R | WR | - m | Wm | }-F - F(-) + N
d
d

(23)
H * = mXIHIN - , /;
HIN- I , /;
mXI I ;
( )
N = N n 3 d 5 - , ( ) , ;

(23)

- -; (18)(18). , (23)- (23) ;


.
(23)- (23)
(18)- (18) (
0; - GA; - t0; - )
;
.

-
1.3 - -.
,
, ,
. ,
. ,
.
.
. -
.
. -

-
A+ D + E

( III)

, ,
.. - ( ) . ,
D


Gs =0

d
d

GI

Gs

IVI

SVS

(24)
, ;
GI , /;
Gs , /;

{GI; Gs }=Const
{VI; Vs }=Const

(24 )
(24 )

= + (GI - Gs )= + ( IVI - SVS)

(24)


V= M/

(24)

( )
,

dc
=
d

VA
V

- WR (1-

d
d
) - C
d
d

(24)

dc
VA
=d
V

- WR (1-

d
d
) - C
d
d

(24)

- .. , .
(
-
; ;
; ).
MC*

d
d
+ MACA
= GAH * - GSH*S - V{R | WR | - m | Wm | }- F - F(-) +N
d
d

(24)

HS *= mXIHIN - S, /;
( )
N = N n 3 d 5 - , ( ) , ;

(24)

(24)- (24)
( 0; - GA; - t0;
- ) ;
.

.
.
1. : , ,
.
2. , ,
.
3.
.
4.
(dT/d < 2 K/c; dP/d<1 /).
5. .
2.
, ,
. :
.
2.1. .
( )
, (17)-(17).
-. -
.
1.
( 1 %).
.
2.
, .

. -

.
-

( )

(c Ao c A )
dc v (c Ao c A )
WR
=
WR =
0
d
V

(25)

10

(c Bo c B )
dc B v (c Bo c B )
WR
=
WR =
0
d
V

(25)

= v/V , ; -
.

MC*

d
d
+ MACA
= GA H * - GSH*S - V {R | WR | - m | Wm | } - F - F(-) + N
d
d

(25)
HS *= mXIHIN - S, /;
..
.
-

(26)

dc dc B d
=
=
=0
d
d
d
(27)

A
(28)

A0

WR

WR

(28)

GSH*S =

GA H * - V {R | WR | - m | Wm | } - F - F(-) +

(28)
- .. .
(28)- (28)
-. .., -
- .
,
- (
).
, .

. ,
.
2.2
, -, .. .
() ..
. , , .
-
.. -.
( , -) .
( ) .

1 d 2c
Bo dl 2

dc
dl

WR

=0

(29)

11

L
d 2c
T0 Pr dl 2

dT
dl

DaIII

K T
=0
T0 c p

(29)

. -

.
-



: ;
; ;
; .
, .
;
; , (
) . ,
.
.

. .
, ,
.
: -.
(24)-(24).
1. :
VdC = dN.

(30)

2. :
WRI d = dI
I I.

(30)

3. , :
I-1 WRI d = I-1 dI = dX
(30 )
I I ;
X .
(25)- (25) (24), (24), (24), (24).
dMI = dM + dMs
dNA= dNB = N0(1-dX) =- dI
-1
I

(31 )
(31 )

MdT + MAdT =
= H * dMI - H*S dMS - R I-1 dI - m | Wm | - F d - F(-)d + Nd
(31)
(26)- (26) .
1.
MI = M + Ms
2.

(32)

2.1
-
NA = NA0(1-X)

(32)

NA0 () , .
-
N = N0 - NA0 X

(32)

N0 () , .
2.2
I, ,

12

NI

NI0

NA0

I-1I

(32)
I I.
NI0 () I, ;
, , , I
MI = MmI NI

(32)

MmI I, /.
3.

Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 + Q9 = Q5 + Q6+ Q7+ Q8

(33)


Q1 = MI HI* = NI H , , ;

(28)

HI, HI* - , .

Q2 = -

F d - F - , ,

(28)

Q3 = (-NA0) I-1I RI - , ;

(28)

RI - I, /
Q4 = (-NA0) I-1Im Rm - , ;

(28)

Rm Im - I, /;
Im- I .
Q5 = MA (t - t0) , / ,
MA , ;
t , t0 , ;
Q6 = MI HI* = NI HI , , ;

(28)

(28)

HI, HI* - , , /.
Q7 = MS HS* = NS HS , , ;

(28)

HI, HI* - , , /.

Q8 =

F(-)d F( -) - , ,

(28)

Q9 =

d N

(28)

N , , .
( )
() =298,15 (25,00 ).
-

t
t=25

(t-25)
(t -25)+ +
(t -25)+ +
(t- t)
(t - t) + +
(t - t)

(t -25)- +
(t -25)
(t - 25) + +
(t- t)
(t - t)

(t -25)- (t -25)- (t -25)


(t - t) - +
(t - t)
(t - t)

13

, ,
: = Pt

14

Оценить