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-

..

2007

801.321.3
. : . .2-, .
. / .. ; . . .-. -; , 2007. 100.
ISBN 5-9616-0185-4
- , , ,
- () ,
- ,
, , , ..
,

, .
.
, , .

-
- .
:

;
, ..
( -
).

ISBN 5-9616-0185-4

.. , 2007
-
, 2007


................................................................................ 5
1 .............................................................................................. 7
1
............................... 7
1.1. ................................................... 7
1.2. ................................. 9
1.3. .
.......................................................................... 13
# 1 ............................. 16
2 ............................................ 17
2.1. ......................................... 17
2.2. ................. 20
# 2 ............................. 25
3 . ................ 29
3.1.
......................................................................................... 29
3.2. ........................................................... 31
3.3. .
........................................................................................ 33
3.4. .. 37
# 3 ............................. 41
2 ............................................................................................ 47
1 47
1.1. ................................................................................. 47
1.2. ............................... 49
# 1 ............................. 52
2
.................................................................. 54
2.1. ............... 54
2.2. ....................................................... 55
2.3. ....................................................... 55
2.4. i.......................................... 56
2.5. . /U/, /u:/
/I/, /aU/, /U/ .................................................................................... 56
2.6. u......................................... 57
# 2 ............................. 59
3

3 61
3.1. ...................................................................... 61
3.2. ...................................................... 62
3.3. th, /T/, /D/ ............................................. 64
3.4. sh, /S/........................................................... 65
3.5. ph, /f/........................................ 65
3.6. ng, nk ............................................................... 66
# 3............................. 68
4
(). ................72
4.1. ........................................................ 72
4.2
..................................................................... 74
# 4............................. 76
5 79
5.1.
......................................... 79
5.2.
......................................... 82
5.3.
........................................................... 84
# 5............................. 85
6 .............................89
61.
..................................................................... 89
6.2. ............................................... 91
# 6............................. 92
.........................95
................................................................................96
: ............... 96
...................... 98
,
, ................................................................... 99


. -
,
. , , ,
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, 2- ,
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.

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,
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, ( American Accent Training by A.
Cock, How to Teach Pronunciation by G.Kelly).

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. , ,
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, ,
.
6

1
1


1.1.
- .
, , , , , , , .
1 ,
, ( ), ().

()

.1. :

7

, ,
,
.
, ( /aI/
ice). 20
: 12 8 (cf.:
6 ).
.
.
() ().
24 .

, ,
, , .
: , ,
, , (
).

, ,
. .
. ,
, ,
.

. .
, . , . -, , ,
.. - .
.
,

8

, .
.

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.

. . - , ( ) , ,
( ).
- , , .

. , , , .

- , : , ,
..
1.2.
, , :

(-),

(),

()

().
..,
,
, .
,
, .. , .
9

. , , . ,
, ,
[ 1977, .5-6].
:
? , .
(L articula#tus, articula#re to divide into distinct
parts) , [, 1985, .21]
, (.
kustikos ), - - , , .
:
1) ( );
2) ( );
3) ( );
4) ( )


.

, .

10

, :
1829
1877 -
1910- .

(,
, ).
,
. , ( ) , .. (1880-1944) 1912
., ..
.
,
, .
,
, , ,

,
, , , .
-.
, ,
,
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, , ( )
.


11

()
. , -, .
,
,
.
-
(, , ),
, ,
.
, , , ..,
. ,
:
( ) (
). , ,
.
, , . .
, , , ,

[ .. . 1999, . 99].

12

1.3. .

.2. .
I ; II ; III (; IV ; V ; 1 ; 2 ; 3
; 4 ; 5 (); 6 (
, , , );
7 .
(.2) , , .
, , .
()
. :
1)
2)
3)
4) ()
5) ,
6) .
:
1)
2) (,
)
3) .
13

- .

,
,
, . (. .3).
.
, -
, , , , . .
, , ,
. .
.
c: / t, d, s, z, T, D, l, n, r/.

. 3.

14

.
:
1) 2) 3) .

1)
2)
3)
. 4.

, .
; , , .
.
(). .
,
.
,
/m, n, N/.
,
,
. .

,
(, , ).
, ,
. , .
.
;
, .
. ,
, (. . 5).
15

) .
.
.

) .
.
.

.5.
.
,
, , , . . .

1. ?
2. .
3. .
4. ?
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. ?
10. ?

16

2

2.1.
1.1
.
, , , , , ,
.
, c :
, ,
,

.
,
( , , ..
[.: , 2000, . 49-53].
.
, , .

, .
, .
: .

(. 1),
17

, ,
: , ,
, ..
, , : see, low, tie, etc.
, . .: need - neat; sea sead seat - sit.
.
.
,
.
,
. , - , ,
, . ,
.

. - , . ,
,
. ,
() .
,
, .
.
, , .. .
,
, : net /net/,
speak /spi:k/, type /taIp/.
1
[Brown 1984, p.33].
18

1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

A
I
e
Q

B
i:
eI
aI
I

aU
U
u:

D
I
e
A:
:
U
:

(
). , :
pit /pIt/
pet /pet/
pat /pQt/
pot /pt/
put /pUt/
cut /kt/
another /'nD/ ( ).
4 3 (
/I/ ,
, /i:/ ():
peat, see /pi:t/, /si:t/
bay, paint /beI/, /peInt/
like, buy /laIk/, /baI/
boil, boy /bIl/, /bI/
1 ( /u:/) 2
/U/ :
now, out /naU/, /aUt/
no, road /nU/, /rUd/
do, tool (new, tube) /du:/, /tu:l/ /nju:/, /tju:b/
19

D 3 3 .
r
(. II). (BE)
(AE) . , r
. . [Brown 1984, p.34-35]. 3 :
) , r,
;
) , r ;
) , r , r ()

hear /hI/
air /e/
tar /tA:/
core /k:/
tour /tU/
purr /p:/
colonel /'k:nl/

hearing
airing
tarring
coring
touring
purring

c
idea
calm, Path, laugh
cough, law, talk
fluent

2.2.
, ,
, .
, - , .
,
.
20

:
1) (, .. );
2) , - ;
3) () .
[ 1999, . 169].

, :

(, , ),

(, , ),

.
[. 2000, . 47] () , () .
, , , .
.
:
, , - , . , ,
(.5).

. [Brown 1984, p.19].
2

1
1i
2
2i
3
4
5

A
p
b
f
v
m
w


B
C
D
tS
t
dZ
d
T
S
s
D
Z
z
n
l
r
j

K
g

N
h

21

2.
(p,b, m, w)
- (f, v).
(/ T, D, t,d, n, l/)
-, ..
, . . /D/ /T/. (
).
: /s, z, r/.
, - . , . [Brown 1984,
p.21], .
D - ,
( palatum ).
,
(velum).
F /h/.
(. 2). - .
2 , , 1,1i
, , / p, b, t, d, k, g /
, /tS, dZ/.
2,2i (). , , .
: /s, S, z, Z, f, T, v, D/.
3- /n,m,N/.
4- , ().
22

.
24 :
15 (m, n, , b, d, g, dZ, l, w, j, r, v, D, z, Z).
9 (p, t, k, S, tS, f, T, s, h).
3 (m, n, )
9
6 (p, t, k, b, d, g)
4 (l, w, r, j)
13
9 (f, v, T,D, s, z, S, Z, h )
2 - - (tS, dZ).

36 :
4 (, , , )
18

14 (, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , )
3 (, , )

16
13 /, , , , , , ,
, , , , , /
2 /p, p/. ( ).
, , .
23

-. ( ), - .
, , ,
.

, . ,
,
, : back bag; pence pens.
(20 ) (24 ) 3.
3

Vowels

Diphthongs

Consonants

i:

bead

eI

cake

pin

sue

hit

toy

bin

zoo

book

aI

high

to

she

u:

food

beer

do

measure

left

fewer

cot

hello

about

where

got

more

shirt

go

tS

church

no

call

aU

house

dZ

judge

sing

hat

fan

live

run

van

red

A:

far

think

yes

dog

the

wood

24

1
.
.
KEY FOR PHONETIC SYMBOLS
(According to Longman Pronunciation Dictionary
by J.Wells, 2nd ed., 2000)
RP

Gen
Am

p
b
t
t
d
k
g
tS
dZ
f
v
T
D
s
z
S
Z
h
m
n
N
l
r
j
w

Consonants

RP

Gen
Am

pen, copy, happen


back, bubble, job
tea, tight, button
city, better
day, ladder, odd
key, cock, school
get, giggle, ghost
church, match, nature
judge, age, soldier
fat, rough, physics
view, heavy, move
thing, author, path
this, other, smooth
soon, cease, sister
zero, zone, roses, buzz
ship, sure, station
pleasure, vision
hot, whole, behind
more, hammer, sum
nice, know, funny, sun
ring, long, thanks, sung
light, valley, feel
right, sorry, arrange
yet, use, beauty
wet, one, when, queen

25

i:
eI
aI
I

fleece, machine
face, day, steak
price, high, try
choice, boy
goose, two, blue
goat, show, no
goat, show, no
mouth, now
near, here, serious
square, fair, various
start, father
lot, odd
thought, law, north

V cure, poor, jury


: nurse, stir
nurse, stir, courage

kit, bid, hymn


dress, bed
trap, bad
lot, odd, wash
strut, bud, love
foot, good, put

I
e
Q

u:
V
oV
aV
I
e
A:
A:
:

Vowels

In foreign
words only

happy, radiadion
about, comma
influence, situation

u
I

stimilus

grand prix, chanson

A: grand prix, chanson


Q vingt-et-un

intend, basic

: vingt-et-un

2
. .
beat i:
bit I
bait eI
bet e
bat Q

u: boot
U put
V boat
aI bite
: bought

3 (CD 4 track 18)


:
1.

Tense Vowels () Lax Vowels ()


1.
beat
bead
:
bit
bid
2.
seat
seed
:
sit
Sid
3.
heat
hed
:
hit
hid
4.
Pete
impede
:
pit
rapid
5.
feet
feed
:
fit
fin
6.
niece
knees
:
miss
Ms.
7.
geese
hes
:
hiss
his
8.
deep
deed
:
disk
did
9.
neat
need
:
knit
(nid)
10.
leaf
leave
:
lift
live
26

4 (CD 4 track 42)


, , .
Say, Ray, take a tack. A high-tack tack? No, Ray, a high-tech
tack, eight high-tech tacks, take them. Then find a way to make a
place for the tacks on the day bed. Hey, you lay the tacks on the paper
place mat on the table, not on the day bed, Ray. At your age, why do
you always make the same mistakes?
/eI/
late
hail

/Q/
lack
hal

/e/
let
hell

/eI/ /Q/
/e/
take tack tech
fate fat fetch

/eI/ /Q/
mate mat
came can

/e/
met
Ken

5 (CD 4 track 28)


, .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

P
Perry
pat
Paul
pig
prayed
poi
pull
purr

B
berry
bat
ball
big
braid
boy
bull
burr

F
fairy
fat
fall
fig
frayed
foil
full
fur

V
very
vat
vault
vim
-avoid
-verb

W
wary
wax
wall
wig
weighed
-wool
were

6 (CD 4 track 31)


. .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

S
price
peace
place
ice
hiss
close

Z
prize
peas
plays
eyes
his
to close

nouns

27

S
books
maps
months
hats
pops
bats

Z
waxes
pencils
dogs
trains
oranges
clothes

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

use
rice
pace
lacey
thirsty
bus
dust
face
Sue
loose

to use
to rise
pays
lazy
Thursday
buzz
does
phase
zoo
lose

verbs

contractions

possessives

bikes
laughs
thanks
eats
takes
speaks
its
whats
thats
a cats eye

windows
washes
arrives
comes
goes
lunches
theres
hes
shes
a dogs ear

7
/s/, /w/, /T/, /D/. , .
1) Three witches watch three Swatch watches. Which witch
watches which swatch watch?
2) Three switched witches watch three Swatch watches
switches. Which switched witch watches which Swatch watch switch?
3) Three Swiss witch-bitches, which wished to be switched
Swiss witch-bitches, watch three Swiss Swatch watch switches.
Which Swiss witch-bitch, which wishes to be a switched Swiss witchbitch, wishes to watch which Swiss Swatch switch?

28

3
.
3.1.

, ,

.
.
.
(), () [ . 1999, . 151].

. ,
, . .
( , ,
) , .

,
.


. .
1. . ,
, ( ). 29

,
().
2. . .
,
:'suphate,'alkane, 'purity.
, , , :
'nature 'natural, 'power 'powerful.
, : 'atom a'tomic, 'carbon car'bonic, 'industry - in'dustrial.
,

: , ,
.
3. . , (
),
: `evo'lution, `interference, `solubili'zation, `decom'pose.
, , .

.
. , electrochemical, spectrographic, indivisibility .
, .
4. . .
:
; : (.)
( , , .) ..
30


, . ,
: increase - increase, import - import. .

.
: . ,
. E.g. 'solvable sol'vation - in'soluble.
3.2.
, , , ,
. .
,
, . :
( ), , , .
,

. ,
, .
, stress shift - . ,
afternoon - - -,
tea, :
- - - -, , : application /QplIkeISn/ - - -, application rule: - - - -.
31

,
, .
: .
, , . , , (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of
Current English), Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced
Learners .
- , . , chromium ,
chromium plates \fittings, A.
. (A. Hornby, C. Ruse Oxford ESL Dictionary, OUP, 1995),
fittings
( ? , ).
EPD . ( Jones 1997)
LPD . (Wells 2000)
.
, , . (EPD) : decade dekeId /-ked, -kId,
dIkeId, dekeId/.
( ), (
), , ( ), .

.
:

detail
research

BE
/di:teIl/
/rIs:tS/

32

AE
/di:teIl/
/rIs:tS/

3.3.
.
,
,
, ..,
.

. , , , .

. , . ( ) , .
() .
. , .
:
They used
1

a voltmeter
2

and an \ohmmeter.
3

,
,
, , .
, (, , ,
) , (, , , )
. , , ,
33

, :
We can give them many pure \substances.
We can give them many pure \substances.
We can give them many pure \substances.
, , - .
.
(, , ..).

. . , : Around the turn to this century, the Dutch
physicist, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, first liquified helium 4 3 (When?
Who? What? How?). .
,
, ,
.
. ,
,
, (color, program, fiber), .
,
(,
, ), .

, - , :
34

1. . :
molecule
cobalt
metal
element
industry
sulphate
ethyl
detail

()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()

2. , (. ).

:
compress (n)
conduct (n)
subject(n)

compress (v) ,
conduct (v)
subject(v) (,
)

( 7.)
3. , , ,

.
:
important /Imp:tnt/
development /dIvelpmnt/
develop /dIvelp/
compound /kmpaUnd/
industry /IndstrI/, control, politics, educate, etc.

35

4. ,
. , ,
, .
:

decomposition /di: kmpzISn/


decolourization /di:klraIzeISn/
analytic /QnlItIk/

5. , (bifluoride, isobutyl, peroxide, monoacetate),


.
, . , , , -
.
, , ,
:
, ,
.

,
, ,
:
There once was a student named \Besser,
Whose knowledge grew lesser and \lesser.
It at last grew so small,
He knew nothing at \all.
And today hes a college pro\fessor.
36

3 .
3 .
2 .
2 .
3 .

3.4.

- "" . , , . , . ,
, , .
,
, . , . -,
.
. -
,
(), , . : , ,
. .

,
.
. , , . .
(Tone) ,
. (Tone
Pitch) ,
.
( ,
(High Pitch), ( , Low Pitch )
(Middle Pitch,
).
37

() (Nuclear Tone), (Terminal Tone). , Give me a


\flask, please!" flask (Nucleus).
,
, ,
(Head). .
, : "Give me a flask, please!"
"Give me a " .
,
(The Descending Stepping Head).

. , .
, .

,
. .
:
Plastic packaging reduces \weight.

. . .

, , -
. .
, ,
.

.
38

.
.

- ,
, ""
(Tail). .
.
.
Its a small \energy

. .

. .

, , -.
.
.
Yes

- , . , , , , , , ,
, , , , , .
:
1)
.
2)
.
39

3)
.
4)
.

.6.

.
, .

. ,
, , .
, ,
.
,
- , , , .
.
, .
, .
-
,
, ,
, ..
40


, .

1.
. ,
, :
, , , .
chloride /kl:raId/
sulfate /slfeIt/
ethyl /eTi:l/
methyl /meTIl/
amide /QmaId/
constant /knstnt/
research /ri:s:tS/
element /elImnt/

ion /aIn, A:n/


iron / aIn/
alkyl /QlkIl/
aryl /QrIl/
boride /braId/
atom /Qtm/
compound /kmpaUnd/
enzyme /enzaIm/

2.
. ,
.
catalyst /kQtlIst/
element /elImnt/
energy /endZI/
industry /IndstrI/
purity /pjUrtI/
quality /kwlItI/
ethane /i:TeIn/
constant /knstnt/
helium /hi:lIm/
silicate /sIlIkeIt/

lattice /lQtIs/
molecule /mlekju:l/
hydrogen /haIdrdZn/
oxygen / ksIdZn/
quantity /kwntItI/
segment /segmnt/
silicon /sIlIkn/
polymer /plIm/
isomer /aIsm/
density /densItI/

41

3.
:
electrode /IlektrUd/
kinetics /kaInetIks/
efficient /IfISnt/
organic /gQnIk/
enamel /InQml/
cement /sment/

electron /elektrUn/
potassium /ptQsi:m/
potential /ptenSl/
inorganic / `IngQnIk/
dilute /daIlju:t/

4.
, :
re duction
so lution
po lution
pro tection
se lection
nuit rition

co llision
di ffusion
co rrosion
ad hesion
co llection
re action

5.
, . .
potentiometric /ptenSIUmetrIk/
electrochemistry /IlektrUkemIstrI/
homogeneous /hUmUdZi:nIs/
equilibrium /i:kwIlIbrIm/
analytical /QnlItIkl/
reorganization /rIgnaIzeISn/
interaction /IntrQkSn/
concentration /knsntreISn/
polymerization /plImraIzeISn/
petrochemical /petrUkemIkl/
solubilization /sljUbIlaIzeISn/
polytechnic /plIteknIk/
42

6.
. .
Analytical application
Electrochemical kinetics
Heterogeneous catalysis
Thermodynamic process
Diffusion-controlled second-order rate constant
Acid-resisting cement
Carbon fiber cement
Electrosynthesis at constant current
Cathodic synthesis
Deformation energy
Transition metal atoms clusters

7 ( Cd 2 Track 15)

(e.g. a progress to progress) . - .
An accent
A concert
A conflict
A contest
A contrast
A convert
A convict
A default
A desert
A discharge
An envelope
An incline
An influence
An insert

to accent
to concert
to conflict
to contest
to contrast
to convert
to convict
to default
to desert
to discharge
to envelope
to incline
to influence
to insert
43

An insult
An object
Perfect
A permit
A present
Produce
Progress
A project
A pronoun
A protest
A rebel
A recall
A record
A reject
Research
A subject
A survey
A suspect

to insult
to object
to perfect
to permit
to present
to produce
to progress
to project
to pronoun
to protest
to rebel
to recall
to record
to reject
to research
to subject
to survey
to suspect

8
, , .
1) Zin/ zin ions/ zin and copper ions
2) A tube/ a test tube/ a clean test tube/ a clean test tube with a
stopper
3) A tube/ a glass tube/ a long glass tube/ a long glass tube in a
hot bath/ a long glass tube in a hot water bath
4) A plate/ a copper plate/ a clean copper plate/ a clean copper
plate in a solution
5) Group/ group IV/ group IV elements/ group IV elements:chlorine, bromine, iodine / klri:n brUmi:n aIdi:n/
44

9
, .
.
, .
Around the turn to this century, the Dutch physicist, Heike
Kamerlingh Onnes, first liquified helium.

10 (Cd 2 track 13)


) , , . .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

I bought a sandwich.
I said I bought a sandwich.
I said I think I bought a sandwich.
I said I really think I bought a sandwich.
I said I really think I bought a chicken sandwich.
I said I really think I bought a chicken salad sandwich.
I said I really think I bought a half a chicken salad sandwich.
I said I really think I bought a half a chicken salad sandwich this
afternoon.
9. I actually said I really think I bought a half a chicken salad
sandwich this afternoon.
10. I actually said I really think I bought another half a chicken
salad sandwich this afternoon.
11. Can you believe I actually said I really think I bought another
half a chicken salad sandwich this afternoon?
) 7 , .
45

11 (CD 1, track 23)


c , ,
, .
Hello. My name is ___________. Im taking American Accent
Training. Theres a lot to learn, but I hope to make it as enjoyable as
possible. I should pick up on the American intonation pattern pretty
easily, although the only way to get it is to practise all of the time. I
use the up and down, or peaks and valleys, intonation more than I
used to. Ive been paying attention to pitch, too. Its like walking
down a staircase. Ive been talking to a lot of Americans lately, and
they tell me that Im easier to understand. Anyway, I could go on and
on, but the important thing is to listen well and sound good. Well,
what do you think? Do I?

. 10.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

I did it.
I did it again.
I already did it again.
I think I already did it again
I said I think I already did it again.
I said I think I already did it again yesterday
I said I think I already did it again the day before yesterday.

46

2
1


1.1.

. .
, ,
.
, , ,
, ,
, , . ,
"" ,
, . .

( ) .

, , ..
,
- (p,v,m,f,t). : sh
/S/, ch /tS/, th /D/, /T/, ng /N/.

47

 4.
, ? .
4

Aa
Bb
Cc
Dd
Ee
Ff
Gg
Hh
Ii
Jj
Kk
Ll
Mm
Nn
Oo
Pp
Qq
Rr
Ss
Tt
Uu
Vv
Ww
Xx
Yy
Zz

/eI/
/bi:/
/si:/
/di:/
/i:/
/ef/
/dZi:/
/eItS/
/aI/
/dZeI/
/keI/
/el/
/em/
/en/
/U/
/pi:/
/kju:/
/A:/
/es/
/ti:/
/ju:/
/vi:/
/dblju:/
/eks/
/waI/
/zed/, /zi:/

/eI/ /Q/ /A:/ // ( w)


/b/
/k/; /s/ e,i,y
/d/
/i:/ /I / /e/
/f/
/g/ ; /dZ/ e,i,y
/h/
/aI/ /I/ /i:/
/dZ/
/k/
/l/
/m/
/n/
/U/ // /U/ //
/p/
/kju:/
/r/
/s/ /z/
/t/
/u:/ // /U/
/v/
/w/
/ks/ /gz/
/aI/ /I/
/z/
48

,
, (
). . ,
,
.
,
.
:
Ferment /f:mnt/ < L fermentum + yeast, fermentare = to
cause to rise;
Porphyrin /pfrIn/ < Gk porphr(a) = purple
Cyclic /saIklIk/ < LL cyclus< Gk <kklos = circle, ring

1.2.
,
: 26 44 . .
5 a, o, u, e, i, 5 20 () ()
.
. 3 ( 1), 12, 8.
,
, , ,
.
(take, like, so), - ,
, (bay, boil, high, though).
49


, .
.
, (. 4).
:
I ( , : shake,
note, me, by);
II (
, - at, net, lock, tip;
III ,
r: car, form, serve, turn, burn;
IV , r : care, fire, here, during.




4 5.

,
. .

50

1-
()

2
()

3
(.+r)

4
(.+r+e)

A /eI/

name /neIm/

fat /fQt/

mark /mA:k/

care /ke/

O /U/

note /nUt/

not /nt/

north /n:T/

more /m:/

I /aI/

ice /aIs/

list /lIst/

firm /f:m/

fire /faI/

E /i:/

me /mi:/

set /set/

term /t:m/

here /hI/

U /ju:/

tube /tju:b/

cut /kt/

burn /b:n/

cure /kjU/

Y /waI/

type /taIp/

system /sIstm/

myrtle /m:tl/
( )

tyre /taI/

- , .

51

1.
. .
1. /eI/ - tale, make, same, place, taste, page, base, case, plate,
phase, stable, rate, range, vacant, layer, day, say;
2. /Q/ -as, that, acid, atom, act, react, add, band, brand, fat,
flat, bad, plan, lack, rack, mass, matter, scattering, magnet, plastic,
plasma;
3. /A:/ - large, sharp, dark, hard, arm, smart, farm, particle,
charge, discharge, carbon, remark;
4. /A:/ - ask, task, flask, mask, half, plant, sample, blast,
bath, calm;
5. /U/ - no, so, whole, hole, hope, home, close, rose, note,
cope, local, bone, ozone;
6. // - nod, pot, lot, loss, got, not, hot, top. spot, shop, clock,
doctor, lock, soft, bond, oxide, hollow, possible, polymer, porosity,
copper;
7. /:/ - sort, form, fork, short, order, ore, door, floor, four,
force, source, resource, broad, pore, boron, porous;
8. /aI/ - nice, ice, fine, nine, ion, side, size, pie, dye, like,
strike, type, cycle, hydrogen, enzyme, glycol, glycine;
9. /i:/ - me, he, she, deep, tree, three, eat, tea, speak, teach,
reach, mete, meter, meet, steel, field, believe, receive;
10. /I/ - in, if, him, his, big, did, hit, sit, little, film, lid, grid, fit,
since, system, typical, cylinder, mineral, glycerol, physical;
11. /:/ - stir, first, girl, bird, firm, serve, term, observe, her,
burn, hurt, nurse, turn, occur, return, curve, surface, surfactant;
12. /aI/ - fire, hire, wire, iron;
13. /e/ - let, best, tell, shelf, test, seven, bench, let, desk, net,
set, setting, bed, cell;
14. /ju:/ - tube, tune, due, hue, use, fume, amuse, fuse, news,
student, butyl, reduce;
15. /U/ - put, look, hook, cook, should, could, would;
52

16. /u:/ - loop, room, alumina, prove, super, glucose, fructose;


17. // - must, but, cut, bulk, shut, bulb, club, butter, function,
bubble
18. /jU/ - pure, impure, cure;
19. bomb, pneumatic, listen, knowledge, knife, write, weight,
weigh, could, hour, would, should;
(, )
2.
, , /:/:
ir
er
ear
ur
or

first, firm, stir, confirm;


term, observe, serve, refer, prefer;
/:/ research, learn, early;
burn, turn, curve, occur, return, hurt, purple, furnace;
work, worker, worm

3.
4 . .
Firm, far, system, side, tell, tube, more, luster, pure, six, force,
dear, alike, fore, stir, close, burn, put, day, band, crash, soft, mete,
Pete, red, face, late, red, tin, black, help, act, phase, start, wire, ion,
acid, type, mace, clear, smash, hole, source, knock, summer, coke,
hard, there, remove, where, chair, rare, alarm.
4.
, .
: no not note
1. so so##
2. bun bu#n
3. car car# (#)
4. ore #ore
5. ion #ion

:
, , , , , .

53

5.
, :
Mum, mume, mam, mame, marm, mom, mock, mack, mome,
meam murm, myme, mym, moom, meem, mask, mick, meek, mearn,
mere.
6 ()
!
Use, useful, type, system, acid, film, doubt, cycle, hour, ion,
coke, rod, fuse, cell, stir, wire, hard, soft, style, filter, atom, act, close,
force, visit, add, furnace, sharp, purple, burn, ore, lock, observe, turn,
black, perfect, care, side, start, finish, near, cut, occur, surface, acidic,
prefer, valency, balance, surface, phase, charge, desk, flask, loop, porous, porosity, ammetre, boron, carbon, bond, refer, bulk, polymer,
abuse, type, typical, physics, receive, enzyme, glycol, coal, ozone,
glucose.

2


2.1.
, 5
(a, i, e, o, u),
. : , ( ) . , ai, ay, ea, ee (aim, clay, seat, seed).

54

2.2.
,
ai, ay /eI/. main, aim, brain, drain, say, lay,
may, decay, etc.
, ai, ay /e/:
says, said, again, against.
,
, au, aw
/:/. - because, saw, taught, autumn, August,
law, launch, author, automate, automatic, automation, draw.

: gauge /geIdZ/ (AmE gage)


1) n. ; , .
2) v., , ..

2.3.
ea, ee, ei,
ey, ie /i:/: seal, mean, weak, deep, receive, key, believe.
,
. !
)
, :
great /greIt/ -
break / breIk/ -
steak /steIk/ -

55

) ea /e/:
head /hed/ - ,
bread /bred/ -
read /red/ - pst. part.
heavy /hevI/ -
ready /redI/ -
steady /stedI/ -
lead /led/ -
) people () eo /i:/.
2.4. i
, . ,
ie piece, believe, field, etc /i:/.
ie
/aI/: tie, die, pie, etc.
, ei, /i:/ : receive, deceive, perceive, etc.
ie:

friend /frend/
sieve / sIv/ ()

2.5. . /U/, /u:/


/I/, /aU/, /U/
oo /U/ /u:/: room, soon,
hook, book, etc.
/u:/ o: to, two, who.
/u:/
oe (shoe).

56

, /u:/
ou group, route.
oi, oy
/I/: boil, oil, soil, coil, alloy, etc.
ou, ow /aU/:
about, house, how, without, ground, found, loud, round, pound,
noun, mouth, crown, etc.
ow /U/: know, low, flow, grow,
follow, glow, etc.
, mould ou
/U/:
mould n. , ;
v. , .
oa ,
/U/: road, boat, coat, coating, load, loading, soap, soaping, etc.
2.6. u
ue /u:/: true, blue,
glue, flue, etc. /ju:/: cue, hue.
, /u:/ /ju:/, ui: fruit,
nuisance, etc.
ui build (built) /I/,
fluid / flu:Id/ (, , ) ui - .
uy /aI/: buy

( + , + ).
, , ..
57

6


ai
ai+r
au
aw
ay
ea

ea+r

ee
ei
eu
ew
ey

ie

oa
oi
oo

/eI/
/e/
/:/
/A:/
//
/:/
/eI/
/i:/
/e/
/eI/
/I/
/e/
/A:/
/:/
/i:/
/i:/
/eI/
/aI/
/u:/ or /ju:/
/jU/
/u:/ or /ju:/
/U/
/i:/
/eI/
/aI/
/i:/
/e/
/I/
/U/
/:/
/I/
/u:/
//
/U/
58

aim
air
cause
aunt
because
saw
way
dream
ready
break
near
bear
heart
learn
need
receive
eight
height
neutral
Europe
new
sew
key
obey
die
piece
friend
fierce
coat
abroad
oil
food
blood
book

ow

ou

oy
ue

ui

/U/
/aU/
/U/
/u:/
/aU/
//
//
/:/
/I/
/u:/
/ju:/
/u:/
/I/
/ju:/
/aI/

grow
crown
shoulder
group
house
cough
double
bought
joy
blue
value
fruit
build
suit (for some speakers)
guide

1.
/i:/.
//. :

/i:/

ea
ee
ei
ey
ie

clean, speak, sea, please, heat, weak, mean, seal, meat;


deep, need, seed, meet, week, peel, green;
receive;
key;
believe, field, piece.

2.
:
Seat, peace, meat, field, clean, read, weak, great, teacher, believe, deep, reserve, key, easy, deal, seem, work, green, heavy, people,
indeed, piece, week, lead, steady, ready, research, mean, sell, seal,
learn.
59

3
/u:/. . :
too /tu:/
tool /tu:l/
food /fu:d/
moon /mu:n/
who /hu:/

soup /su:p/
group /gru:p/
shoe /Su:/
route /ru:t/
true /tru:/

4.
/aU/.
:
house
without
about
ground
round
gown

pound
town
brown
down
noun
crown

5.
/I/. ,
, .
//.
oil
point
boil
boiler

voice
moist
soil
noise

Boy cooks in boiling oil.


What is a boiling point?
Avoid the moisture.
Point the moiety.
This boiler works without any noise.

60

boy
:alloy
toy
joy

6.
, ,
.
How many cookies
could a good cook cook,
if a good cook
could cook cookies?
7 ()
!
Break, clean, reserve, launch, green, oil, brown, saw, key, field,
heavy, weak, soil, group, loading, build, without, author, law, route,
true, about, alloy, food, pound, blood, saw, sew, ground, sea, glow,
noisy, bauxite, believe, moisten, crown, fluid, easy, because, moist,
deal, soap, people, speak, teacher, mould, automatic, low, how, now,
point of view, coating, moiety, law, great, glue, breakage.

3


3.1.

- , :
thin - thinner
fat - fatter
rub - rubbing
, ,
61

( ) , . 7.
7
,
/ks/ . i e

success, accident

/tS/ .

cappuccino

gg /dZ/ . i e

suggest, exaggerate

ss /S/ .-ion, -ure

passion, pressure

zz /ts/

pizza, mozzarella

3.2.
4 () . ,
. ( ,
u, a, o) /k/ - come, case, cup,
i, e, y /s/ - cycle, cent, cell, acid. ,
.
, , /k/, , , black, clock, stock, lock .. : <ck>, /k/,
, (.: back book,
stock stork, lock- look, etc.)
h, ( ), ch
- /tS/ (change, check, bench), ( ).
, ture (nature, mixture, future, picture, feature).
, ,
, ch /k/.
62

school,
architect, character, chemistry ( ), mechanical, technology, echo, , , :
hlorine /kl:ri:n/
hloride /klraId/
chemisoption /kemIs:pSn/
chloroform /klrf:m/
chrome /krUm/
chelate /ki:leIt/
saccharide /sQkraId/
hiral /kaIrl/ ..
, /k/
school, scholar (-), scholarship (),
scheme. : schedule.

/Sedju:l/,

/skedZu:l/.
, ,
:
machine /mSi:n/, machinery /mSi:nrI/.
s, . :
science /saIns/
scientist /saIntIst/
scientific /saIntIfIk/

- , - CHEMISTRY?
,
, .
ALCHEMY:

1325-1375; MY alkamye < OF alquemie <ML alchymia < Ar al


the + kmiya# < LGk che#mea, chymea (1590-1600).
63

tch,
/tS/ :
watch, catch, match, etc.
3.3. th, /T/, /D/
: /T/, /D/.

. , , - /T/ /D/.
/T/ , : thing /TIN/
ether /i:T/
tooth /tu:T/
thallium /TQlim/
/D/ - , :
this /DIs/, thus /Ds/, with /wID/, other /D/, neither /naID/.
/T/ /D/
( ):
bath /bA:T/ n. ,
bathe /beID/- (), , , .
. /T/ /D/:
,
, // //. /D/
, .

64

3.4. sh, /S/


sh /S/.
short, shop, show, wash, dish.
, /S/ :
- tion solution, solvation, ablution, equation
- ss+i Russian, issue
- c+i social, official, species /spi:SIz/
- t+i initial, technitium
, -tion,
/Sn/,
/Sn/ /S()n/.

, , -ion, -ian BE AE:
excursion
aversion
dispersion
version

BE
/Iksk:Sn/
/v:Sn/
/dIsp:Sn/
/v:Sn/

AE
/Iksk:Zn/
/v:Zn/
/dIsp:Zn/
/v:Zn/

3.5. ph, /f/


, , . , ch .
ph, /f/ philosophy, photography,
phonetics, philosophy, telegraph ..
65

, , :
pharmacology
phosphate
phosphorous
photochrome
photoelectric
phenol
photometer

/fA:mkldZI/
/fsfeIt/
/fsfrs/
/fUtUkrUm/
/fUtUIlektrIk/
/fi:nl/
/fUtmIt/

photo. ,
/U/. , : sulphur /slf/, sulphurous, sulphate, sulphide ..
,
, ..
f sulfur, sulfuric, sulfurous.
( ) : ph+th,
: phthalic (acid), phthalein, phthalocyanine, diphthong,
etc. :
/fTQlIk/ - /TQ:lIk/; /fTA:lUsaIni:n/ - /TA:lUsaIni:n/.
, ,
.
3.6. ng, nk

ng, nk
/N/. , : sing, king,
think, long, thing, drink.
g , nk k . , /N/ 66

/r/, /N/ /g/: finger /fINg/, hungry


/hNgrI/, English /INglIS/.
8.
.
8

ck

/k/

pick, stick

/tS/

change, chip

/k/

chemistry, technique

/S/

machine

/g/

ghost

/f/

tough, cough

ought, though

ng

/N/

sing, thing

ph

/f/

phone, physics

/kw/

queen, quiz

/k/
-que
..

antique, cheque

/S/

ship, fashion, cash

/T/

bath, theatre

/D/

bathe, brother

/w/

what, where

/h/

who, whole

ch

gh

qu

sh
th
wh

67

quiche

1.
c i, e, y
:
C /s/

i
e
y

acid, acidic, cite, pencil, cis-, citrin


cent, cell, ice, fence, force, peace, balance,
cycle, cylinder, valency, leucocyte / lu:ksaIt/

2.
, :
/k/ black, current, carbon, come, music, article, can, clean, kinetic,
bank,click, create, stick, check, cost, cast, scale, arsenic crystal;
/s/ nice, cell, cellulose, cent, centre, centimeter, centigrade, device,
cycle, acid, acidic, office, reception, ceramics, centrifuge;
/tS/ which, check, French, chess, teacher, launch, choose, change,
charge, discharge, charcoal, batch, catch;
/k/ chemist, chemistry, chemical, chemisorption, technology, chlorine, characteristic, characterize, school, scheme, mechanical,
chromium, chloride, chelate, chloroform, chloroplast, cholesterol /klestrl/;
S/ machine, machinery, parachute, chic
3.
:
Chance, March, circle, chloride, mechanical, curtain, certain, black,
school, lunch, launch, branch, card, December, October, luck, ice, icy,
acid, acidic, scale, scientist, copper, cellulose, cool, basic, crown, particle,
carbon, hydrocarbon, chlorophyl, cycle, catalyst, watch.

2 4 (CD4 track 55)


:
The computer cursor careened across the screen, erasing key
characters as it scrolled past. The technician was equally confused by
the computer technology and the complicated key-board, so he clicked
68

off the computer, cleaned off his desk, accepted his paycheck, and
caught a taxi-cab for the airport, destination Caracas.
5.
:
this /DIs/
these /Di:z/
that /DQt/
those /DUz/
they /DeI/
them /Dem/
together /tgeD/

than /DQn/
there /De/
their /De/
thus /Ds/
with /wID/
without /wIDaUt/
other /D/

6.
, /T/ /s, t, f/.
:
three /Tri:/
health /helT/
month /mnT/
thirty /T:tI/
thin /TIn/
theme /Ti:m/
truth /tru:T/
birth /b:T/
bath /bA:T/
theory /TIrI/
thick /TIk/

myth /mIT/
thesis /Ti:sIz/
theatre /TIet/
thousand /TaUznd/
health /helT/
both /bUT/
think /TInk/
thought /T:t/
thanks /TQNks/
through /Tru:/
method /meTd/

7.
:
thick
myth
thirst
death

sick
miss
first
deaf
69

8.
:
Mix them. With salt. With sand. With zinc. Both methods.
Without ethyl. With bismuth. Their theme. Their theses. Those theories. That method. That bath. Both baths.
9.
:
Cathode
ethyl
method
growth
methyl
methylene
methane
thorium
ruthenium

/kQTUd/
/eTl/
/ meTd/
/grUT/
/meTl/
/meTli:n/
/mi:TeIn/
/T:rim/
ruTi:nim

ether
mathematics
thermal
thermometer
bismuth
enthalpy
naphthalene
thulium
lithium

/i:T/
/mQTmQtIks/
/T:ml/
/TmmIt/
/bIzmT/
/enTQlpi/
/nQfTli:n/
/Tju:lim/
/lITim/

10.
:
/f:st, T:st, DUz, bA:T, TIk, TIrI, TaUznd, Di:z, Tru:,
dIsp:Sn, mi:TeIn, bIzmT, kQTUd, TmmIt, lITim,
nQfTli:n, eTl, T:ml, TA:lIk, T:rim, fTA:lUsaIni:n, enTQ lpi/.

2 11.
,
. / T / / D /.
The throng of thermometers from the Thuringian Thermometer
Folks arrived on Thursday. There were a thousand thirty-three thick
thermometers, though, instead of a thousand thirty-six thin thermometers, which was three thermometers few than the thousand
thirty-six we were expecting, not to mention that they were thick
ones rather than thin ones. We thoroughly thought that we had ordered a thousand thirty-six, not thirty-three, thermometers, and asked
the Thuringian Thermometer Folks to reship the thermometers; thin,
70

not thick. They apologized for sending only a thousand thirty-three


thermometers rather than a thousand thirty-six and promised to replace the thick thermometers with thin thermometers.
,
th /T/:
Thuringian /TjurIndZIn/, Thatcher /TQtS/
: Thames /temz/
Thailand / taIlnd/
Thomas /tms/
Thomson /tmsn/
12 ( )
/T/.
1) The sixth sick Sheiks sixth thick sheep.
2) I thought a thought. But the thought I thought wasnt the
thought I thought I thought. If the thought I thought I thought had
been the thought I thought, I wouldnt have thought so much.
13.
. , /S/:
nation
solution
evolution
pollution

Turkish
Russian
English
Spanish

initial
partial
commercial
essential

14 ()
:
/kl:ri:n, mSi:n, saIns, rA:D, plu:Sn, kA:bn, kraIst, p:S,
skeIl, sel, saIkl, teknldZI, dIvaIs, f:st, brUmi:n, aIdi:n,
meTeIn, TIrI, vneIdim, mQgni:zim, mQNgni:z, frQnsim,
zmim/

71

2 15. CD4 track 8


,
.
You say you dont know a proton from a crouton? Well, you are
not the only one. A recent nationwide survey funded by the national
Science Foundation shows that the fewer than 6 percent of American
adults can be called scientifically literate. The rest think that DNA is a
food additive, Chernobyl is a ski resort, and radioactive milk can be
made safe by boiling.
16. ()
:
School, cathode, character, methane, science, cabinet, scholar,
chemist, evolution, scheme, initial, thermometer, mechanic, chromium, ethyl, receive, acid, ion, atom, carbon, commercial, theory,
technical, method, thin, thick, thousand, rather, organic, inorganic,
silicate, cycle, formic, bismuth, mathematics, together, either, methyl,
Russian, launch, partial, solution, English, French, Thames, American,
physicist Thomson, particle, polymer, helium, proportional, chlorine,
butyl, chrome, technetium, calcium, cadmium, arsenic.

4

().

4.1.
, ,
. :
, , .. ,
: , , .. , ,
72

.
:
muscle /msl/ - muscular /mskjUl/
sign /saIn/ - signature /sIgntS/
bomb / bm / - bombardment / bmbA:dmnt/
,
( ) . , ,
:
pneumatic / nju:mQtIk / -
psychology / saIkldZI / -

: ,
.
,
:
Initial clusters
Medial Clusters
Final clusters
<bd> bdelium
<st> fasten
<mb> lamb
<gn> gnat
<ft > soften
<ng> string
<kn> knee
<bt> subtle
<mn> autumn
<mn> mnemonic
<sc> disciple
<bt> debt
<pn> pneumonia
<th> asthma
<gm> phlegm
<ps> psalm
<rrh> catarrh
<pt> pterodactyl
<rh> rhetorical
<sc> scene
<wr> write
( )
h,
, ,
, g:
a) honest, herb, heir, hour
b) Ohm, exhibit, vehicle, yoghourt /jgt/
) hurrah, oh
d) ghastly, ghetto, ghost
73

:
answer /A:ns / -
doubt /daUt / -
listen / lIsn / -
hour / aU / -
wrong /rN / -
write / raIt / -
vehicle /vi:Ikl/ - . ,
know / nU / -
knowledge /nlIdZ / -

could / kUd / - . can


should / SUd / - shall
would / wUd/ will
island / aIlnd / -
often / fn / -
autumn / :tm / -
knife / naIf / -
weight / weIt / -

l (l) .
:

/:/

a+ll

all, ball, fall, small

a+lk

talk, chalk, walk

a+lt

salt, malt, halt, cobalt /kUb:lt/

, af, half, /A:/.

4.2

, ,
.
:
/eI/ a+nge
/U/ o+ld

strange, range
old, cold

74

i nd, ld,
/aI/ ( ).
:
kind
mild
find
bind
mind
grind

/kaInd/
/maIld/
/faInd/
/baInd/
/maInd/
/graInd

, ,


, ;

gh i:
high
height
light
night
bright

/haI/
/haIt/
/laIt/
/naIt/
/braIt/

,
, s ed-.
, 3
(Present Simple) - s. (p, t, k, f)
/s/: heats, thinks, speaks. ( )
/z/:
acid acids
flame flames
new news
funnel funnels
carbon carbons
alloy alloys

75

/s, Z/ - s
/Iz/:
base bases
rise rises
face faces
gas gases
-ed, ,
(Past Simple)
II.
, - ed
:
) /d/:
cool cooled
/ku:ld/
form formed
/f:md/
enter entered
/entd/
) /t/:
work worked
/w:kt/
watch watched
/wtSt/
) t d /Id/:
heat heated
/hi:tId/
select selected
/selektId/
prevent prevented /prIventId/
paint painted
/peIntId/
found founded
/faUndId/
end ended
/endId/
part parted
/pA:tId/

1.

:
Phosphorus, mind, salt, phenol, gases, physics, cold, kind, phi76

losophy, acids, long, hour, weigh, weight, mild, English, range,


formed, stored, prevented, weighed, founded, grind, sulfur, halt,
range, cobalt, exhibit, worked, malt, kind, molybdenum, ball, bold,
received, vehicle, acted, acts, carbons, think, things.
2.
:
/lN, w:l, laIt, slfju:rIk, haI, raIt, h:lt, TIN, sIdIfaI, kaInd,
kUld, sItIN, Uld, streIndZ, entd, A:gn, fleImz, fUtU, fsfrs,
fIzIkl, ftgrfI, kemIstrI, QntImnI, fUtkrUm, slf, QsId /.
3. ()
, :
p#enol
o#d
#ange
co#l
c#ld
#ld

#ind
#ind
#ind
fun#el
#lame
#arbon

t#ing
#hink
c#alk
w#rk
f#und
fo#m

b#se
bas#c
fa#l
c#rome
#hysics
b#ll

4. ()
.
oil
boil
boiler
tail
weight
closed
care
route
method
phenol
sulfur
sulfuric
cell

wrong
listen
phone
short
bomb
hard
great
without
bismuth
funnel
flame
paint
stile

know
knowledge
hour
lock
soft
four
group
key
thermal
found
range
phosphorus
filter
77

moist
group
acid
acidic
heavy
automatic
chloride
solution
cobalt
phthalocyanine
grind
flask

cycle
heat
still
chemistry
mathematics
mechanic
launch
scheme
initial
saccharide
pneumatic
funnels

steel
kind
alloy
physics
enthalpy
philosophy
technique
device
machine
cathode
science
hydrocarbon

5.
, :
Salt, device, knife, force, cell, chemistry, cup, black, cycle, kind,
atom, sharp, acid, side, physics, cite, phosphorus, ice, technology,
phone, note, pencil, peace, short, hard, type, home, ready, act, look,
observe, term, tube, book, occur, check, stir, fat, thermal, test, fire, finish, valency, return, summary, scholar, shelf, cook, film, commercial,
steady, automation, ethyl, voice, autumn, house, pound, cell, scheme,
without, come, branch, launch, article, pollution, cathode, nation,
school, partial, halt, walk, know, mind, lead, issue, species, bauxite,
flask, funnel, abstract, task, cobalt.
6.
,
.
A true fool will choose to drool in a pool to stay cool. Who knew
that such fools were in schools, used tools, and flew baloons? Lou
knew and now you do, too.

78

5


5.1.


( ) - , , .
,
.
:
1. ase , ,
, : amilase.
2. a (silica), , ,
.
:
alumina
aluminium .
3.

ein ene /in/:

protein /prUti:n/
acetylene /setlin/
: benzene (benzene ring)
, toluene .
(
, ),

79

: benzol, toluol.
10-30 % .
4. ine (in), , ,
, /i:n/:
chlorine /klrin/

fluorine /flUrin/
iodine /aIdin/

benzine / benzi n/ ,
.
caffeine /kQfi:n/

saccharin(e) /sQkri:n/
glycin(e) / glaIsi:n/
-ine /aIn/: crystalline, bovine, divine, etc.
5. ide (bromide, chloride) .
,
:
sodium chloride .
6. -ite /aIt/ , : dolomite, , , . E.g.
sodium sulphite.
: granite /grQnIt/
7.

ane /eIn/:

ethane /iTeIn/
alkane /QlkeIn/

80

8.

ate /eIt/:

phosphate /fsfeIt/
sulphate /slfeIt/
, ate, -
, , /eIt/ /It/.
9.
/aIm/:

ile ime , /aIl/

nitrile /naItraIl/
enzyme /enzaIm/
oxime /ksaIm/
10. () :

-ol
-ose
-yl

phenol /finl/
quinol /kwinl/
glycol; /glaIkl/
glucose /glukUz/
methyl /meTIl/

11. ic , , .
.
, : acrylic,
organic, inorganic, acidic, etc.
, : hydrochloric, sulfuric, alkylphosphonic, etc.
12. -ous : sulfurous, alkylphosphonous

81

5.2.

, .

(. , : ultraviolet, anticorrosive).
,
.
,
, .
9


ab- (=off, away)
ad-(=to, toward)
bi- (=twice, two)
cis- (= on this side of)
- (=joint, jointly)


abnormal, abstract, abbreviated
adapt, addict, adhere, adhesive, addition
bicarbonate, bicycle, bicolour, bifunctional
cisbutadiene, cispolymer
cohere, collide, connect, coenzyme, coworker, coordinate, cooperate, copolymer
com- (=with) (used before communicate, compare, combine, compose
b, p, m)
contra- (= against, opposite) contradict, contrastive, contrariwise
de- (=from, off)
decrease, degrade, decurrent, depart, deform
dis- (=apart)
dissolve, discharge, dissemble, displace
dif- (=dis- before f)
different, differentiate, diffract, diffuse
e- ( =out, variant of ex-)
effect, emerge, emit, emerge, evacuate
ex- (=out, out of, away)
exclude, export, extract,, exhibit, exhaust
ex- (=former)
ex-member, ex-president
extra- (=outside of)
extrasensory, extracellular, extracurricular
in- (=not)
inactive, incomplete, ineligible, inconstant
il- (=in before l)
illegal, illegible, illiterate, illiquid
im- (=not before b,m,p)
imbalance, immaterial, immobilize
ir - (=in, before r)
irregular, irrelevant, irresistible
inter-(=between, among)
international, interaction, intercellular
intra- (=within)
intramolecular, intranet, intramuscular
intro- (inside, within)
introduce, introspection, introvert
82

ob- (op-) (to, over, against) object, obtain, oppose, opponent


over- (=too much, too, overact, overestimate, overcharge
above,etc)

post-(=after, behind)
pre (=before, prior to)
pro- (=for)
re-(=to undo, do again)
semi- (=half, partially,
somewhat)
sub- (=under, below)
sup- (=sub before p)
super- (=above, beyond)
trans-(= across, through)
ultra-(=beyond, extremely)
uni- (=one)

postpone, postdoctoral, post-Darwinian


predict, precede, preface, prefix, prepare
proclaim, produce, protoxide, protactinium
remove, restore, return, recycle, reduce
semiautomatic, semidetached, semiplastic
subacid, subatomic, subclass, subscript
suppress, supply, suppose
superfine, superconductivity, superphosphate
transaction, transgenic, transformation
ultrafilter, ultraviolet, ultrasound, ultralight
unicycle, uniformity, uninucleate, univalent

, ,
,
, . , 10, , .
10


mono- /mnV/

uni- /ju:nI/

di- /daI /
tri- /traI/
tetra-/tetr/
penta- /pent/
hexa- /heks/
hepta-/hept/
octa- /kt/
poly- /plI/
hemi- / hemi/
sym- (syn-) /sIm, sIn/

bi- /baI/
ter- /t:/
quadric-/kwdrI/
quindi- /kwIndI/
sexton- /sekstV/
septo- /septV/
octo- /ktV/
multi-/mltI/
semi- /semi/
co- /kU/

,
, 3-
, 4-
, 5-

,
,

83

bi- , di- ,
: dibasic= bibasic.
, : monomolecular (unimolecular).
,
,
,
.
:
hyposulfite /haIpUslfeIt/
orthochromatic /:TUkrUmQtIk/
polyurethane /plIjUreTeIn/

5.3.

.
, , , 9,
,
, .
:
) non-, in-, un- , non- , in-, un-
. , nonscientific , a unscientific (. - ).
b) in- , . ,
incohesion
inconvertibility ()
inelasticity , .
) , l, il- (illogical, illegal), b, m, p im-: imbalance, immeasurable, improper, impurity,
d) r ir- : irrelevant, irregular, irreducible, etc.

84

1.
:
1. Butane, pentane, methane, ethane, heptane, hexane, octane.
2. Carbonate, acetate, borate, chlorate, iodate, sulphate, cyanate, nitrate, chromate, hydrate.
3. Protease, esterase, ribonuclease, emylase.
4. Benzene, ethylene, buckmisterfullerene, methylene, toluene, butylene, carotene, propylene, naphthalene.
5. Carbide, oxide, chloride, fluoride, iodide, halide, cyanide,
amide, boride.
6. Bromine, fluorine, phosphine, iodine, gasoline, quinine,
crystalline, alkaline.
7. Magnesite, tellurite, graphite, granite, anthracite, bauxite,
sulphite, colebrite.
8. Alcohol, glycerol, naphthol, thanol, quinol, cresol,
methanol.
9. Ketone, sulfone, acetone, quinone, pyrrolidone.
10. Alkyl, aryl, butyl, ethyl, propyl, vinyl, oryl, phenyl, carbonyl, cenzyl.
11. Dextrose, cellulose, maltose, sucrose.
12. Gelatine, kaolin, penicillin.
2.
. /s/ acetate, cyanide, acetone. ,
/ts/. , .
acetic /sItIk/
acetate /QsIteIt/
cyanate /saIneIt/
cyanide /saInaId/
anthracite /QntrsaIt/
glycerine /glIsrin, glIsrIn/
saccharin(e) / sQkri:n/
acetone /QsItUn/
85

cellulose /seljUlUs/
penicillin /pensIlIn/
acetylene /setlin/
naphthalene /nQfTli:n/
phthalocyanine /TA:lUsaIni:n/
3.
:
chlorine chlorate chloride
nitrate nitrite nitrile
sulfur sulfate sulfide, sulfite, sulphonate
phosphorus phosphate sodium phosphate
aluminium alumina
glycerine glycine glycogen
carbon carbonates
ammonia ammonium ammonium nitrate
Monoacetate, monoalkyl, monocyclic; unipolar, unicellular
Biacidic, bifluoride, bicyclic, bivinyl, bisulfate
Diethyl, trifluoride, tetraboride, pentocyclic, octocyclic, hexahydrobenzen
Isobutyl, hypochloride, pyrophosphate, pyrrole, nanoparticle
4.
,
, .
:
A form of liquid in which the droplets are so small that they stay
suspended in the air rather than setling.
Aerosol /erUsl/
1) A compound composed of the elements chlorine, fluorine,
and carbon _______________________________________________
2) A biochemical catalyst, a protein that influences the rate
and direction of a chemical reaction __________________________
3) A generic disease in which the body cannot properly metabolize the amino acid phenylalalanine ________________________
4) A claylike mineral made up of aluminium, silicon, and
oxygen; often used as a water softener or catalyst ________________
86

5)
The process by which atmospheric gases such as CO2,
CH4 and H2O trap and return a major portion of the heat (infrared radiation) radiated by the Earth.

& , , , CFCs, .
5
,
.
, 9, 10.
Hypochlorous acid ______________________________
Hydrofluoric acid _______________________________
Macrocyclic____________________________________
Microelectronic _________________________________
Pyrometallurgy _________________________________
Nanotechnology _________________________________
Biodegradation __________________________________
Chlorine monoxide_______________________________
Coenzymes_____________________________________
Macronutrients__________________________________
Disaccharides___________________________________
Heterogeneous catalysis___________________________
6.
- .
.
Acetic, aminobensoic, aprotic, antimonic, anionic, aromatic,
bensoic, bensilic, boric, borinic, boronic, bromic, brom(o)acetate,
bromobutyric, butyric, carbonic, carboxylic, chloric, cholic, chromic,
citric, cyclic, ferric, fluorisilicic, formic, gluconic, glutaric, glutamic,
fluceric, glucolic, hexabasic, hydrochloric, iodic, lactic, nitric, tartaric.
7.
sulfuric - sulfurous.
, .
Phosphonic - ____________________
Phosphoric - ____________________
87

Nitric - _________________________
Alkylphosphonic - ________________
Arsenic - _______________________
Sulfostanic ______________________
Cupric - ________________________
8.
. .
Ferric bromide ferrous bromide
Stannic acid stannous acid
Cupric acetate cuprous acetate
Auric iodide aurous iodide
Mercuric nitrate mercurous nitrate
Cobaltic chloride cobaltous chloride
Germanic oxide germanous oxide
Vanadic fluoride vanadous fluoride
9
-
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

10
, . ,
.
Increase decrease (v.)
Internal external
Induction deduction
Active inactive
Incline decline
Sensitive insensitive
Ionize deionize

include exclude
deactivate reactivate
compose decompose
flux, reflux- deflux- influx
input output
soluble insoluble
produce reproduce
88

11.
,
, .
1) When the decomposition begins, the heat liberated hastens
the decomposition and the reaction often becomes explosive.
2) Monosodium glutamate is used to flavour food.
3) Pollute means to make dirty or impure.
4) Internal combustion is the process by which power is produced by the explosion of gases or vapour inside a cylinder.
5) Elements are undecomposible substances, while all compounds are decomposable, from which two or more elements can be
separated.
6)
Chlormethylation of zinc phthalocyanine was investigated,
and a typical procedure involved dissolving the zinc phthalocyanine in
a sulphuric acid chlorosulphonic acid mixture and generating the
chloroalkylating agent by addition of paraformaldehyde and sodium
chloride.
. 9.
(sulfonic acid bromide, sulfonic acid chloride, sulfonic acid fluoride, sulfonic acid halide, sulfonic acid iodide)

6

61.

, , .
: ( one, two, three) ( en, el,em ).
89

:
NaCl
/en eI si: el/
HgO
/eItS dZi: U/
F2O5
/ef tU U faIv/
2H2+ O2 = 2 H2O /tu: eItS tu: pls tu: gIv tu: eItS tu: U/
H+
hydrogen ion /haIdrdZn aIn/
(univalent positive hydrogen ion)
++
divalent positive cuprum ion /daIveIlnt
Cu
pzItIv kjuprm aIn/
+++
Al
trivalent positive aluminium ion / traIveIlnt
pzItIv QlmInim aIn/
Cl

negative chlorine ion /neg tIv kl:ri:n aIn/

: , , :
..
:Cl:
.. .. ..
:Cl:
:Cl:
..
.. ..
:Cl:
..

H
H H
H

/si: si: el f:/


/si: eItS f:/
, = ::
:
O = C =O /si: U tu:/
' forms is formed from
100 C
320 F

Centigrade /sentIgreId/
Farenheit /fQrnhaIt/

. . , , .

90

:
=

>
<

=>

x2
x3
x4

loge

plus / and
minus / take away
plus or minus / approximately
(is) multiplied by / times
(is) divided by
is equal to / equals
is not equal to / does not equal to
is more than or equal to
is less than or equal to
less than
more than
infinity
per cent
implies
(square) root
cube root
/eks/ squared
/eks/ cubed
/eks/ to the power of four
the integral of
angle
minute
second
degree
natural logarithm or logarithm to the base

3:9 :: 4:16

three is to nine, as four is to sixteen

6.2.

- . 11. ,

.

91

11
-

Alpha
Beta
Gamma
Delta
Epsilon
Zeta
Eta
Theta
Iota
Kappa
Lambda
Mu
Nu
Xi
Omicron
Pi
Rho
Sigma
Tau
Upsilon
Phi
Chi
Psi
Omega

/Qlf/
/bi:t, beIt/
/gQm/
/delt/
/epsln/
/zi:t, zeIt/
/i:t, eIt/
/Ti:t, TeIt/
/aIVt/
/kQp/
/lQmb/
/mju:/
/nju:,nu:/
/zaI, ksaI/
/Umkrn, mIkrn
/paI/
/rV/
/sIgm/
/taV/
/psln, jUpsln/
/faI/
/kaI/
/saI, psaI/
/UmIg, Umeg/

1.
:
1)
2)
3)

()
()

Yield: 30%.bp:128C
4HCl+O2 = 2Cl2+2H2O
H2+J2 2HJ
92

4)
5)
6)

3C6H6+CCl4 + AlCl3 (C6H5)3 CCl-AlCl3+ 3HCl


R-Li+ R- + Li+
286 kJ + H2O(l) H2(g) + O2 (g)

2.
, , .
1) Priestley, in England, discovered oxygen on the 1st of August 1674, when he heated oxide of mercury by means of the suns
rays concentrated by a burning glass. It was afterwards discovered independently by Scheele, in Sweden, in 1775.
2) Among the commonly occurring sulfates are gypsum, calcium sulfate, CaSO42H2O, heavy spar, barium sulfate, BaSO4, green vitriol, ferrous sulfate, FeSO47H2O, glauber /glaVb/ salt, Na2SO410H2O.
3) John Dalton (1808) formulated a theory which accounted
in a completely satisfactory manner the remarkable constancy of the
exact proportions in which the elements were found together in compounds.
4) Amino acid is a compound containing a carboxylic acid
group (-COOH), a basic amino group (-NH2), and a characteristic
identifying group; amino acids polymerize to form protein.
5) Mole is one Avogadro number of anything; 6.02 x 1023 atoms, molecules, electrons, etc.
3.
, .
1) Because of the difference in the shape of the alpha and beta
bonds, the cellulose molecule presumably does not fit the active site of
the enzyme that break down starch into glucose unit.
2) The smaller value corresponds to potentials 50 mV, the
larger value to 150 mV.
3)
The room temperature values of static magnetization of
the K and P alloys are in the range of 180 to 189 A.m2/kg depending
on milling time.
93

4) Fig.12. Ex situ IR absorbance spectra of an Fe2V4O13 film


(400C, 1 h): a) charged to -0.06 mCcm-2nm-1, b) discharged from 0.06 mCcm -2nm-1.
5) Using the domain sizes determined XRD (Table 2) and =
10 nm, we obtained a value of for UFG Cu with Al2O3 which is
higher by factor of 1.4 than for pure UFG Cu.
6) Researches of Ernest Rutherford in Canada and England
led to the identification of two major forms of radiation. Rutherford
named them after the first two letters of the Greek alphabet, alpha ()
and beta (). It was subsequently discovered that a third form of radiation, gamma () radiation, is frequently associated with the emission
of an alpha or beta particles.
4.
. , . .
Experimental
Specimens
Pure copper of purity 99.99% and a mixture of copper (99.9%)
with 0.5 wt. % Al2O3 nanoparticles (GlidCop Al-15) were studied. In
order to fabricate the UFG structure, the specimens were subjected to
HPT at 6 Gpa and room temperature. The true logarithmic strain can
be expressed as e = ln( r/l), where is the rotation angle in radians,
and r and l are the radius and thickness of the disk, respectively. In our
case, e = 7, which corresponds to 7 rotations. The HPT technique has
been described in detail in Refs. [1-3]. The microstructure of the asprepared state of the specimen was investigated by PL and and XRD
spectroscopy. Subsequently, the specimens were subjected to isochronal annealing. The temperature step was chosen as 30C, and specimens were annealed for 30 minutes at each temperature, i.e. the corresponding effective heating rate was 1C /min.

94


1. .. . ., 1977.
2. .., .., ..
. - , 1991.
3. .., .., ..
. . 1 . , 2006.
4.
.. ( XIV-XX ). , 2000.
5. .. . ., 1999.
6. Brown J. Listening to Spoken English. Moscow, 1984.
7. Chemistry in Context. Applying Chemistry to Society. A Project
of the American Chemical Society. (ed. by M.Johnson). WCB, 1994.
8. Chernukhin A.E. Technical English Textbook. Moscow, 1970.
9. Cook A. American Accent Training. N.-Y., 2002.
10. Kelly G. How to Teach Pronunciation. Longman, 2003.
11. Wells J. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Longman, 1994.

95

THE ELEMENTS

Symb Atomic
ol
No.

Symb Atomic
ol
No.

Actinium

Qk tInim

Ac

89

Dysprosium

dIs pr Uzim

Dy

66

Aluminum

QlmInim

Al

13

Einsteinium

aInstaInim

Es

99

Americium

QmrIsim

Am

95

Erbium

:bim

Er

68

Antimony

QntImnII

Sb

51

Europium

ju
rUpi m

Eu

63

Argon

A:gn

Ar

18

Fermium

f:mim

Fm

100

Arsenic

A:snIk

As

33

Fluorine

flUri:n

Astatine

Qstti:n

At

85

Francium

frQnsim

Fr

87

Barium

berIm

Ba

56

Gadolinium

gQdlInim

Gd

64

Berkelium

bZ:kili m

Bk

97

Gallium

gQlim

Ga

31

Beryllium

b rIlim

Be

Germanium

dZ:meInim

Ge

32

Bismuth

bIzm T

Bi

83

Gold

gUld

Au

79

Boron

b:rn

Hafnium

hQfnim

Hf

72

Bromine

brUmi:n

Br

35

Helium

hi:lim

He

Cad mium

k Qdmim

Cd

48

Holmium

hUlmim

Ho

67

Calcium

k Qlsim

Ca

20

Hydrogen

haIdrdZn

Californium

k Qlf:nim

Cf

98

Indium

Indim

In

49

Carbon

k A:bn

Iodine

aIdi:n

53

Cerium

sIrim

58

Iridium

IrIdim

Ir

77

Cesium

si:zim

Cs

55

Iron

aIn

Fe

26

Chlorine

kl :ri:n

Cl

17

Krypton

kr Ipt n

Kx

36

Chro mium

kr Umim

Or

24

Lanthanum

lQnTnm

La

57

Cobalt

k Ub:lt

Co

27

Lawrencium

lrensim

Lr

103

Copper

k p

Cu

29

Lead

led

Pb

82

Curium

kjUrim

Cm

96

Lithium

lITim

Li

96

Sym- Atomic
bol
No.

Sym- Atomic
bol
No.

Lutetium

luti:Sm

Lu

71

Rubidium

rubIdim

Rb

37

Magnesium

mQgni:zim

Mg

12

Ruthenium

ruTi:nim

Ru

44

Manganese

mQNgni:z

Mn

25

Samarium

smerim

Sm

62

Md

101

Scandium

skQndim

Sc

21

Hg

80

Selenium

sli:nim

Se

34

Mo

42

Silicon

sIlIkn

Si

14

Mendelevium mendli:vim
Mercury

m:kjUri

Molybdenum mlIbdnm
Neodymium

ni:UdImim

Nd

60

Silver

sIlv

Ag

47

Neon

ni:n

Ne

10

Sodium

sUdim

Na

11

Neptunium

neptju:nim

Np

93

Strontium

strntim

Sr

38

Nickel

nIkl

Ni

28

Sulfur

slf

16

Niobium

naIUbim

Nb

41

Tantalum

tQntlm

73

Nitrogen

naItrdZn

Technetium

tekni:Sim

43

Nobelium

nUbi:lim

No

102

Tellurium

telUrim

52

Osmium

zmim

Os

76

Terbium

t:bim

Tb

65

Oxygen

ksIdZn

Thallium

TQlim

Tl

81

Palladium

pleIdim

Pd

46

Thorium

T:rim

Th

90

Phosphorus

fsfrs

15

Thulium

Tju:lim

Tm

69

Platinum

plQtInm

Pt

78

Tin

tIn

Sn

50

Plutonium

plu: tUnim

Pu

94

Titanium

taIteInim

Ti

22

Polonium

plUnim

Po

84

Tungsten

tNstn

74

Potassium

ptQsim

19

Uranium

ju reInim

92

Praseodymium preIziUdImim Pr

59

Vanadium

vneIdim

23

Pm

61

Xenon

zi:nn

Xe

54

Pa

91

Ytterbium

I t:bim

Yb

70

Promethium

prUmITim

Protactinium prUtQktInim
Radium

reIdim

Ra

88

Yttrium

Itrim

39

Radon

reIdn

Rn

86

Zinc

zInk

Zn

30

Rhenium

ri:n im

Re

75

Zirconium

z:kUnim

Zr

40

Rhodium

rUdim

Rh

45

* Only 103 elements are listed, as there is no international agreement for the names of elements104-109.
^ Mass number of most stable or best known isotope.

97

98

,
,
Angstrom A.J.(1814-1874)
Arrhenius S. (1859-1927)
Avogadro A. (1770-1856)
Becquerel H. (1852 -1908)
Berzelium (1779-1848)
Bohr N. (1885-1962
Boyle R. (1627 -1691)
Bunsen R.W. (1811-1899)
Cavendish H.( 1731-1810)
Celsius A. (1701 -1744)
Chadwick J.I ( 1891- 1974).
Curie M ( 1867 -1934)
Dalton J. (1766-1844)

/QNstrm/
/A:reIni:s/
/QvVgA:drV/
/bekrl/
/bzi:lis/
/b:/
/bIl/
/bnsn/
/kQvndIS/
/selsis/
/tSQdwIk/
/kjVri/
/d:ltn/

Davy H. (1776-1829)
Doppler C. (1803-1853)
Edison M. (1847-1931)
Eistein A. (1879-1955)
Fahrenheit D.G. (1686-1736)
Faraday M. !1791-1867)
Fermi H. (1901-1954)
Galvani L. (1737-1798)
Huygens C. (1629-1695)
Joule J.P (1818-1889)
Lewis G.N. ( 1875 -1946 )
Planck M. (1858 -1947)
Roentgen W.C. (1875 -1923)
Rutherford E. (1871-1937)
Van der Waals J.D. (1837-1923)
Volta A. (1775-1827)
Watt (1736-1819)

/deIvI/
/dpl/
/edIsn/
/aInstaIn/
/fQrnhaIt/
/fQrdeI/
/f:mi/
/gQlvQni/
/haIgns/
/dZu:l/
/lu:I s/
/plQNk/
/rntgn/
/rDfd/
/vQnd w:lz/
/vVlt/
/wt/

99

Angstrom unit
Avogadro number

Bunsen burner

curie
D. law of combination,
D. atomic theory
Davy lamp
Doppler effect

F. scale
Faraday number

Joule second, joule


Lewis structure ( a dot)
Plank constant
Roentgen, R, r.
Van der Waals forces
Volt, voltmeter
watt

. .


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20.12.2006. 6084 1/16.
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. . . 6,86. .-. . 7,61. 250 .


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153000, . , . . , 7.

100