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W,

() ,
.
: . .
: . .
: . .
: 8,511,0
: Adobe Text Pro 14/ 17
, 2013


4
Who/ which/ that 4
must= ? 5
In hospital/ at work etc. .5
6
7
......................................................................................................................7
..............................................................................................................................8
..............................................................................................................................11
too/ enough so/ such 11
Present Simple (Indefinite) 14
Present Continuous (Progressive) 15
Present Perfect......................................................................................................................16
Present Perfect Continuous 17
Past Simple (Indefinite) .18
Past Continuous (Progressive) .19
Past Perfect............................................................................................................................20
Past Perfect Continuous .21
Future Simple (Indefinite) .22
Future Continuous (Progressive) .22
Future Perfect.......................................................................................................................23
Future Perfect Continuous .23
23
31
a/ an 32
the 33
37
may/ might/ be allowed to 43
can/ could/ beableto 45
beableto 48
or/ nor/ neither 50
all/ the whole/ the entire 53
54
55
56


, , , building
()
.
, , Glazier Building,

.

city

Kansas City

company

Blaisden Company

store

Books Galore

holiday

Christmas

month

May

weekday

Wednesday

water body

the Atlantic Ocean

land

France

Who/ which/ that


,
/ :
Anna told me about her new job, which shes enjoying alot.
anew job which shes enjoying alot. :
Grace works for acompany that makes furniture.
acompany that makes furniture, . :
1) We stayed at the Park Hotel, which afriend of ours recommended.

2) We stayed at the hotel (that) you recommended.


(Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use Extra: Relative clauses 1: clauses with
who/ that/ which. Fourth Edition Cambridge University Press 2012, P. 190)

must= ?
/ must .
, must .
Joe is ahard worker. joe? You must be joking. He doesnt do anything.
We used to live very near the motorway. Did you? lt must have been
noisy.
Must + :
Youve been travelling all day. You must be tired. (Travelling is tiring and
youve been travelling all day, so you must be tired.)
Louise must get very bored in her job. She does the same thing every day.
Cant couldnt ,
+ :
Youve just had lunch. You cant be hungry already.
(Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use Extra: Must and Cant. Fourth Edition
Cambridge University Press 2012, P. 56)

In hospital/ at work etc.


In hospital/ in prison/ in jail, : at work/ at school/ at university/ at
college , , , ,
, .
In the hospital / in the prison / in the jail, : in the
school/ in the university/ in the college , ,
, , .

at sea

in the sea

in/ at the shop

in/ at the shop

at the hotel

in the hotel

in/ at the restaurant

in/ at the restaurant

in Paris/ in avillage

in Paris/ in avillage

at the station

in the station

in prison

in the prison

at church

in the church

(Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use Extra: In/ at/ on (position) 3. Fourth
Edition Cambridge University Press 2012, P. 250)


21 99 :
forty-five.
, :
an apriori argument, aSturm und Drang drama, atte--tte approach.
:
athree-year-old, : seven years old
sodium chloride sodium chloride solution
emerald-green tie, : his tie is emerald green
northeast, southwest, : east-northeast, a northsouth street, the street
runs northsouth
ahalf hour, : ahalf-hour session
one-half, two-thirds, three-quarters, : one twenty-fifth
the 33 m distance, a2 kg weight, a3 ft. high wall
aone-and-a-half-inch hem, : one and ahalf inches

on the third floor, : third-floor apartment


(The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Hyphenation Table. The University of Chicago
2006, 2007, 2010. chicagomanualofstyle.org)


, Websters, (
), ,
Websters.
, Websters, .
pasha, weltanschauung, in vitro, a priori, recherch, the kaiser, de
novo, eros and agape
:
He never missed achance to pater les bourgeois.
mise en
scne , , mise en bouteille, Websters,
, .
(The Chicago Manual of Style: Roman for familiar foreign words. 16th Edition.
University of Chicago Press. 2010, P. 959)


(Reported Speech) : , .
: ,
.

1.
,


.

She said, I am well today.


She said she was well that day.

2.
,
.

She said she was/ is in London.

3.

,
.

She says she is flying to London.

4. PastSimple Past Perfect

He told me he had been to London.

5. -
, told/
said to:

He told me he had been to London.


He said to me he had been to London.

6. , said.

He said he had been to London.


What did he say toyou?
What did he tell you?

7.
ask :

wondered
wanted toknow
replied
answered

8.
.

All right agreed/liked


No refused
Lets suggested (doing)

9. told (smb.) ask (smb)


, .

Keep quiet! He told me to keepquiet.


Shut the door! He asked me to shut the
door.

11.


.

can could
may might
shall should
will would
to be to was/ wereto
to have to hadto
must had to

12. , can
may could
might.

We could go (
)
We were not able to go
( )

We might go ()

We were not allowed to go


( )

13. :

would/ should bedone


would/ should have beendone

14. :

would be beingdone
would have been being done

Present Simple

Present Simple/Past Simple

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Past Simple

Past Perfect

Past Perfect

Past Perfect

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

10

Future Simple

Future-in-the-Past Simple

Future Continuous

Future-in-the-Past Continuous

Future Perfect

Future-in-the-Past Perfect

Future Perfect Continuous

Future-in-the-Past Perfect
Continuous

now

then

today

that day

tomorrow

(the) next day, the following day


yesterday

the day before, the previous day

next week

the next week, the following week


next year

the next year, the following year


last week

the previous week

last year

the year before

here

there

this, these , ,

that, those , ,

11

You are pretty.


You are so intelligent.
You dance sowell.
Youve got [have got] lovelyhair.
Ill never forget this day.

He said Iwas pretty.


He said Iwas so intelligent.
He said Idanced sowell.
He said Ihad got lovelyhair.
He said he would never forget that day.

Do you like ballet?


Have you ever been to Boston?

He asked me if/whether Iliked ballet.


He asked me if/whether Ihad ever been
to Boston.

Where do youstudy?
What are you reading?
When will we meetagain?
Why dont you stay longer?

He asked me where Istudied.


He asked me what Iwas reading.
He asked me when Ishould meet
himagain.
He asked me why Ididnt stay longer.

Give me your telephone number, please.


Ring me up tomorrow.
Help me to translate an article from
English!

He asked me to give him my telephone


number.
He asked me to ring him up the next
morning.
He asked me to help him to translate an
article from English.

:
It will have been raining for amonth by the time we come back if the forecast is right.
It would have been raining for amonth by the time we came back if the
forecast was right.

too/ enough so/ such


too , . enough , ,
, ,
.

12

such ( ) .
so ( ) / .

She is very young to drink alcohol.

She is too young to drink alcohol.

He is not very tough to play football.

He is not tough enough to play football.

We were blessed with so good weather on


the trip.

We were blessed with such good weather


on the trip.

We were blessed with such agood


weather on the trip.

We were blessed with such good weather


on the trip.

So

so +

The meal was so good! It was worth the


money.
The music is so loud Icant sleep.

so +

He paints so well! Iam sure he is going to


become afamous artist.
She spoke so quickly that Icouldnt
understand her.

so + many/ few + . .

I never knew you had so many brothers!


She has so few friends! Its really quite
sad.

so + much/ little + .

They have so little food! We need to do


something to help them.
Jake earns so much money that he has
lost all sense of what adollar is worth.

13

so + much/ little/ often/ rarely

Earl drinks so much!


My sister visits us so rarely!

Such:

such + . + .

Don has such abig house that Iactually


got lost on the way to the bathroom.
Shelly has such beautiful eyes that she got
ajob as amake-up model.

such + .

He is such an idiot that nobody would


hire him.

such + . (/
)

She usually doesnt receive such criticism.

Too

too + .

She has too much money.


He is too old to ride the Merry-GoRound.

too + .

He is driving too fast.


Youve got the telly on too loud.

Enough

. + enough

Tony was tall enough to play on the


basketball team.

. + enough

Did they respond enough quickly to help?

enough + .

I have enough money for the CD player.


There arent enough people to make
ateam.

14

enough

I have had enough of this nonsense.


Enough is enough!

Present Simple (Indefinite)

1) / / /
.

Theres atrain at 10.30.


He retires next year.

2) .

If we go by bus, it will be cheaper.

3)
.

It rains alot in winter.

4) .

Moscow is the capital of Russia.

5) .

Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

6) .

The program automatically shuts down


after you have finished the burn process.

7) .

He comes in and closes the window.

8) , .

So what happens next?

9) .

I am adoctor.
I live in Moscow.

10) / .

There comes the hero

11) /
(
,
Present Continuous).

I declare the meeting open.

12) ,

(

, Present Perfect).

I understand you are from Chicago?

15

13)
(
,
Present Continuous).

I want aham sandwich.

14)
,
( Present Continuous).

Why do you laugh?

15)
( Future).

Wherever you go, Ill be waiting.

16)
( Future).

Those, who pass the exam, may take part


at the experiment.

17)
Make sure you choose the right path.
make sure/ take care (
Future).
18)
hope ( Future).

I hope he doesnt make amistake.

19)
( Future).

What do you say?

20) (
Past).

Batman returns!

21) /
/

Puff-the-Ball hasnt got parents. He


wants to have friends.

22) Historical Present (


, Past).

Something heavy hits me on the head.

Present Continuous (Progressive)

1)
.

Im reading now.

2) .

Hes not working next week.

16

3)

.

What are you doing to me?

4)
( ).

Replace the batteries in case you are not


using the unit.

5)

.

Im going mad each time Isee her.

6)


.

Why are you hating me so?

7)
(
, ).

Im thinking of avacation.

8) .

Im wondering if you can join me.

9)
.

Youre always losing your umbrellas.

10)

.

He never talks while he is working.

11)
.

The number of patients is increasing.

12)
.

Life will never be the same. Life is


changing.

13) ,

.

Where are you studying German this


year?

14) ,
.

The boys are playing. The girls are


cooking.

15)
, .

Now that Ilook at the course, the white


horse is rushing forward.

17

Present Perfect

1) ,
(
,
).

Has your boss returned?

2)
(
).

Theyve just arrived.

3) -

( ,
Present Perfect Continuous).

Ive known him for two years.

4)
( Present Perfect Continuous).

Ive worked here for 10 years.

5)

( Present Perfect Continuous).

I havent slept for 2 days.

6)
.

I havent seen him this week.

7)
/
( Future Perfect).

Ill call you after they have left.

Present Perfect Continuous

1) -
,
,
.

Shes been working hard of late.

18

2)

,

(
).

Shes been often coming here since her


husbands departure.

3)
,
,

.

Somebody has been using my computer.


Now it doesnt work.

4)
(
).

How long have you been waiting?

5)

.

Ive been hearing all about the way you


tried to do it.

6) /
( Future Perfect Continuous).

Dont wake him up before he has been


sleeping for at least 3 hours.

Past Simple (Indefinite)

1) .

I came home late last night.

2)
.

We always had dinner at 5.

3)
.

During the war we lived in Siberia.

4)
.

He went into the compartment, opened


the suitcase and took some boxes of
cigarettes out of it.

5) ,

( Past Continuous).

The voices in the next room were growing


louder and now Iheard every word.

19

6)
Past Simple Past Continuous.

She stood by the window.(


)
She was standing by the
window.(
)

7)
.

The picture hung on the wall.

8) When/ What time.

When did you come?

9)
/
.

He promised to contact me when he


returned.

10)
.

What did you want?

Past Continuous (Progressive)

1)

.

Hello! Who were you talking to?

2) ,
- .

.

It was raining all day long.


: It rained all day long.

3)

,
Past Continuous.

He was swimming on and on while they


looked helplessly at each other.

4)
Past Simple.

While they quarreled, the boys sat in the


next room.

5)
Past Continuous.

While he was trying to calm down, they


were talking to his wife.

20

6)
,
.

She was constantly complaining of her


neighbours.

7)
.

Im sorry, Iwas being such abore last


night.

8)


.

He says he was wanting to see me all day


long.

9) /
.

He explained he was leaving the


following day.

10) ,
,
.

He was leaving yesterday, but suddenly


felt ill. He was going to do it, but changed
his mind.

11)
/
( Future-in-the-Past
Continuous).

She promised to look after Jane while


Iwas shopping.

12) .

I was just wondering

Past Perfect

1)
-
(, ).

She had had her cup of coffee before the


phone rang. ,
,
.
: She had her cup of coffee when the
phone rang.
,
.

21

2) ,
;
,
.

And then he remembered. He had stayed


with Mr. Simpson at his country house.
There had been dozen of people there.
Everything went on as usual.

3)
( Past Perfect Continuous,
.. -

).

He had known that since childhood.

4)
(
,
).

She explained she had lived (had been


living) there since she married.

5)

(
,
).

He hadnt slept those two nights.

6)
He asked her to come as soon as she had
-
looked through the papers.
( ).
7) Present
Perfect Past Perfect.
,

.

She said she had seen the movie.

Past Perfect Continuous

1) -

.

He looked tired: he had been running.

22

2)


.

I felt free now. The desire to see her Ihad


been having for weeks had gone.

3) -

(
since/ for).

He said he had been staying there for two


weeks.

4)


.

Before it got dark Ihad been wanting


eagerly to return.

5)
,

.

Then the whole picture rose before my


eyes: Ihad been sitting on the bench
while the boys had been swimming in the
bay.

6) Present
Perfect Continuous.

He said hed been waiting for her for two


hours.

Future Simple (Indefinite)

1) , ,
; ,
.

What shall we have?


I think Ill go now.

2)
.

I hope youll be here in time and well


have dinner together.

3)
( )

/ .

If Ihave time Ill come around.

23

Future Continuous (Progressive)

1)
/
.

Ill be staying at the Palace hotel.

Future Perfect

1) , Ill have done everything by five.


.

Future Perfect Continuous

1) ,

.

It will have been raining at least for


amonth by the time we come back if the
forecast is right.


: , .
E e,
-er, -est :
large larger.
, :
big bigger, fat fatter, hot hotter.
, -y -y -ier/ iest:
happy happier happiest.

24

fun () funny ():

funnier

more funny

funniest

most funny

The party was fun (=enjoyable), but the party last week was more fun. The
party Lauren threw last year was the most fun though.
Joe is funny, he is even funnier than Jane. In fact, he is the funniest person
Iknow!
, fun ():
We had more fun today than yesterday.
fun ():
Instagram is afast, beautiful and fun way to share your life with friends
and family.
Fun -er/ the -est:

more fun

funner

most fun

funnest

- unique, perfect, round .


again, almost, before, ever, never, here, there, now, then,
there, thus, too, twice, very .
, , , clever, narrow, quiet, shallow, simple
-er/ the -est, more / the most

25

, -y, -er, -ow, :

lazy

lazier/ more lazy

laziest/ most lazy

fancy

fancier/ more fancy

fanciest/ most fancy

friendly

friendlier/ more
friendly

friendliest/ most
friendly

lovely

lovelier/ more lovely

loveliest/ most lovely

risky

riskier/ more risky

riskiest/ most risky

clever

cleverer/ more clever

cleverest/ most clever

slender

slenderer/ more slender

slenderest/ most
slender

tender

tenderer/ more tender

tenderest/ most tender

shallow

shallower/ more
shallow

shallowest/ most
shallow

yellow

yellower/ more yellow

yellowest/ most yellow

,
, :

quieter, quietest
simpler, simplest
gentler, gentlest
more stable, most stable
more noble, most noble
more common, most common
more polite, most polite
more pleasant, most pleasant
more handsome, most handsome

26

, as as,
:
Shes twice as old as her sister.
. more/ most.

early (.,
)
early (.,
)

-er

the -est

earlier

the earliest

more

most

more early

most early

, -ly
:
She ran quicker ( more quickly) than me. She ran the quickest
( most quickly).
much, much more, agreat deal, far:
Im feeling much better.
, ,
:
She ran more quickly than he did ( than him).
less ( ):
I have less time than you.
smaller ( ):

27

Alice is little, but Jack is smaller. He is the smallest in their family.


more ( ):
I have more time than you.
bigger/ larger ( ):
His car is bigger than yours.

old

older
()
elder

()

oldest
eldest

near

nearer

nearest
next

late

later
( )
latter
( )

latest
last

far

farther
(
) further
,
(
)

farthest

furthest

, 1 :

green

-er

the -est

greener

the greenest

28

2 :

-er

the -est

polite

politer

the politest

remote

remoter

the remotest

easy

easier

the easiest

narrow

narrower

the narrowest

clever

cleverer

the cleverest

simple

simpler

the simplest

2 , , (-ed, -ing),
-ful, -ish, -al, -able:

more

the most

crowded

more crowded

the most crowded

boring

more boring

the most boring

careful

more careful

the most careful

more

the most

beautiful

more beautiful

the most beautiful

interesting

more interesting

the most interesting

good

better

the best

bad/ ill/ evil

worse

the worst

3 :

29

much, many

more

the most

little

less

the least

, 1 :

fast

-er

-est

faster

fastest

2 -y:

easy

-er

-est

easier

easiest

2 -y:

often

more

most

more often

most often

2 , -ly:

quickly

more

most

more quickly

most quickly

more

most

3 :

30

carefully

more carefully

most carefully

well

better

best

badly

worse

worst

little

less

least

much

more

most

far

further/ farther

furthest/ farthest

, ,
, :
1. As amember of the student council, Im working (tireless/ tirelessly)
to make improvements at our school.
2. Im trying to work (more cooperative/ more cooperatively) with the
other council members.
3. I wish we could get our new policies passed (easier / more
easily). However, the school administrators dont always accept our
recommendations.
4. The truth is, our student council is disorganized, so how can we expect
the school administrators to take us (serious/ seriously)?
5. The student council needs to work (more effective/ more effectively)
as aunit.
6. Today, the tone of our discussion was (harsher/ more harshly) than
usual. We discussed whether or not to remove Tater Tot Tuesdays from our
cafeteria lunch schedule.
7. Some of the council members arent crazy about tater tots. They think
(higher/ more highly) of smiley fries. This rebel group is in favor of replacing
Tater Tot Tuesdays with Smiley Fridays.

31

8. Im a(real/ really) big fan of smiley fries. Even though tater tots have
been around a lot longer and are practically an institution, smiley fries
deserve achance, too.
9. Maybe the council would be (clearer/ more clearly) on the issue if we
had an organized debate.
10. The debate might go (smoother / more smoothly) if the speaking
points were followed by ataste test.
: 1. tirelessly 2. more cooperatively 3. more easily 4. seriously
5. more effectively 6. harsher 7. more highly 8. really 9. clearer 10. more
smoothly


(Participle)
, .
(Participle I / Present
Participle) (Participle II/ Past Participle)
, .
:

reading

being read

( )

read

reading

having read

32

being read

( )

being read

( )

having been read

( )

:
who read ( ).


:
who has read/ who had read ( ).

a/ an
a , / -,
, .
eu/ u.
an h (.: a horse, an hour;
aEuropean, aunion, an umbrella; . aone).

1)
.

: , .

We need anew car.


(-).

2) .

a hundred years
adozen eggs

33

3)
little, few, good
many, great many
dozen
, score .

a great many years


afew stars

4) T , ,
.

all of asize ,

two at atime

5)

, -.

two coffees and atea


6) .

A dog has four legs.


.
twice aday

7)

.

a Van Gogh

8) .

a Mr. Henry Green


9)
.

a Cicero in eloquence

10)
.

She married an Evans.


.

11)
many.

many aman
many abook
many aday

the
the / , / ,
/
.

34

1) ,

;

,
,

.

the door of the room ()

the students in our class



on the other side of the road
()
the flowers are in the vase

2)
()

.

the wolf is apredator

the pen is mightier than the sword



Popov invented the radio.
.

3) )

,
.

the sun
the air
the universe
the world
the earth
the sky
the Bible
the Pope

)
, , , (
, ..);
.

the Thames ()
the Alps
the Argentine
the Oxford Road

)
,

,

.

the Black Sea


the United States of America

35

)
, .

the spring
the day
the night
the wind
the clouds

4) )
,
.

ould you tell me the time, please?


, ?
at the moment ,

)
,
.

in the 2000

5)
;
, ,
.

the Times ()
the Mona Lisa ()

6) )

,
,

.

e took him by the hand.


.

)
.

the wife
the mother

)
, ,


(
).

His secretary had gone down with the


flu. .
I have the toothache.
.

7) ()
,
,
.

the Coliseum

8)
.

the King
the Duke

36

9)
,


.

He is the man Itold you about.


,
.

10)
( ,
),

( of).

The Oxford of 19 century was


unsympathetic. 19
.
the Rome of my youth

11) , ,
(
,

).

He is not the person to lay before us the


work of absolutely the finest quality.
,

.
This is the place to eat.
.

12) )
,

( , ),


.

the poet Virgil


William the Conqueror

)
,
;

,

.

the old John


Alfred the Great
Peter the First

13) )
, ,
. (the= , ).

the Russians
the English
the Americans

37

)
.. (
);
( ..).

the Smiths
the Tudors

14)


.

This is the most interesting book Ive ever


read. ,
- .
the second bottle

15) )
, ,
, .

the good
the evil
the who
the what
words borrowed from the German
,

)



( ,
).

the poor ,
the dead


, ,
c .

I could swim.

.

.

I must go.
Ihad to go.

Must= have to= to be to Can= to


beableto May= to be allowed to

38


,

.

I must go.
Ihad to go.
Iwill have to go.


,
.

Can you swim?

not
,
.

I cannot swim.



,


do.

Do Ihave to return the car to this


location?
You dont have to be there.


, do
.

Are you able to fix it?


Will you beableto fix it tomorrow?
Iwont beableto fix it tomorrow.


,
.

I shall do it. .
Ishould do it. (
) .




.
,
:

I must go= Ishould go= Ihave to go=


Ive got to go (I gotta go)= Ineed to go

have

a.

It musta been him.

need (
should have to)
:

I need to go. Ineednt go= Idont need to


go. Need Igo?= Do Ineed to go?

39

have
:

Had he asister?= Did he have asister?

, , , , - to ( ought to). ,
.
would
:


2 3

He told us he would come.


, .

He told us he would come.


, .

We would meet often for lunch. ,


, .

, :

He would do it. .

He wouldnt say where he had picked up the


information. ,
.

That would be her cat. , , .

40

Would you please help us.


.

He would sooner die than face them.


, .

,
, :

He could have spent his holidays at the


Carribeans, but he fell ill.


, .
(
)

He could not have done it.

. (
)

Could you be so kind as to tell me the


time, please?

, ?
( -. )

I could fly for joy.

She could burst for anger.


. ( ,
,
-. )

can could : feel


, hear , see , smell
, taste ;
: believe , decide , remember , understand , :

I could see the mountains through the


window. .
(
)

41

,

.

I can remember vividly my mother telling


me horror stories about her school days.
,

.

He must sell his car

( )

He mustnt sell

( )

He must be selling now

, ()

He must be selling tomorrow

He must have sold

He probably didnt sell his car

Maybe he didnt sell

He might have sold

() ( ,
)

He cant have sold

(
)

He should have sold

(
)

He should sell

He neednt have sold

( )

He didnt need to sell

(
)

He didnt have to sell

He had to sell

He was to sell

He may sell

, ,

42

He might sell

()

He can sell

He is allowed to sell

( )

He will be allowed to sell

()

Is he allowed to sell ?

()

He is able to sell

()

Can he sell

Can he be selling ?

( )

Can he have sold ?

He ?

He cant sell

( )

He cant have sold

, ()

You cant sell

( )

You may sell

( )

I may sell

, ,

You might/ may as well sell

Need he sell ?

Does he need to sell?

He neednt sell

( )

He doesnt need to sell

( )

He will sell

( )

He could sell

(,
)

He was able to sell

( )

He could have sold

()

43

He would sell

( )

He would be selling

( )

He would have sold

( )

He would have been selling

( )
( )

Must I ?

Shall I ?

( ) ?

Should I ?

( ) ?

Why should I ?

May I ?

Can I ?

Can you ?

Could you ?

If Icould

If only Icould

If you should

Would you please ?

, will you?

, ?

Would you like to

Its strange that you should ask.

, .

It must be done.

. ()

It should have been done

()

may/ might/ be allowed to


May , might , be allowed
to .
May/ might= :

44

I may come to the party.

, , .
( )

I might come to the party.

, , .
( )

May= be allowed to= :

I may come to the party. (I am allowed to .


come to the party.)
()
You may not come here. (You are not
allowed to come here.)

.
()

May = :

May Icome in?

Am Iallowed to come in?

Might :

After Ifinish my work Imight


have arest for awhile.

, ,
. ()

Might :

I was allowed to see the papers after


Ihad been granted the permission.

I might see the papers after Ihad been


granted the permission.

May :

45

Will we be allowed to go to the movies


late in the evening?

May/ might + have done= :

He may have been busy.

, , . (
)

He might have been busy.

, , . (
)

can/ could/ beableto


can, beableto:

Can you help me with my homework?


Are you able to help me with my
homework?

,
?
()

Can you help me with my homework?


Are you able to help me with my
homework?


, ?
()

Can you help me with my homework?


Are you able to help me with my
homework?

-
? ()

Can= beableto:

He cant help you

He is not able to help you

He can help you tomorrow

He will beableto help you tomorrow

He could help you

He was able to help you

46

Can= might beableto:

Tom can come tomorrow.

Tom might beableto come tomorrow.

Can not ()= might not beableto:

She can not come

She might not beableto come

Yet you can look at the future of it in this


very objective way.

Yet you are able to look at the future of it


in this very objective way.

/ :

I ran fast so Icould catch the bus.

, ,
,

I ran fasts so Icould have caught the bus.


(I ran fast so Icould catch the bus but
Ididnt run fast enough.)

I ran fast, so (and therefore) Iwas able to


catch the bus.

Was/ were able to= managed to= :

We were able to finish work earlier last


Tuesday. (We managed to finish work
earlier last Tuesday.)

47

I wasnt able to lock the door yesterday.


(I didnt manage to lock the door
yesterday.)

Could= :

Finally we could finish work.

,
.

Could= :

We could finish work earlier last


Tuesday.

I couldnt lock the door yesterday.

Could + see/ hear/ smell/ taste/ feel/ remember/ understand:

When we went into the house, we could


smell burning

When we went into the house, we were


able to smell burning

, n be able to,
:

I might beableto help you with the essay.

I might can help you with the essay.

Can present perfect:

48

I havent been able to sleep recently.

I couldnt sleep recently.

Can :

He will beableto walk in two months

He can walk in two months

+ can:

This can be done.

This is able to be done.

This fact can disprove their hypothesis.

This fact is able to disprove their


hypothesis.

could:

We tried hard but we couldnt persuade


them to come with us.

We tried hard but we were not able to


persuade them to come with us.

Alf played well but he couldnt beat Jack.

Alf played well but he wasnt able to beat


Jack.

can (be) able to/ cant (be) able to:

What if you wont beableto serve


someone in small claims court?

What if you cant (be) able to serve


someone in small claims court?

beableto
can, could
beableto :

49

,
-
-, can

could
. an could

beableto, , can could
.

He can (is able to) speak ten


languages. ()
.
He could (was able to) swim when he
was small. () ,
.

, -

,
beableto, could
. Could
,
-
.

They didnt want to sell the house but we


were able to persuade them.
,
.
She could play the piano quite well.

.

beableto :

Look, Ican swim! , !


( )


bedone

This chemical can be used as invisible


ink.

.

beableto :

50


to, -ing ,
,
Perfect,
.
Can could
.

In either case, the firms competitors


would have been able to sell lower
priced furniture


.

-,
,
will
beableto. can
.

No doubt in the morning he will


beableto explain everything
, ,
.

-
-
can.

We can go to the cinema tomorrow.


.

or/ nor/ neither


Nor neither. or, , ; nor or. ,
and .
Nor Neither
Nor neither .
I like neither hot dogs nor mustard.
nor :

I like neither hot dogs nor mustard nor


ketchup.

I like neither hot dogs nor mustard or


ketchup.
I like neither hot dogs or mustard or
ketchup.

51

Neither , .
Neither the man nor the woman is agood surfer.
She wont agree in neither case.
, , .

Neither the men nor the woman is agood surfer.


Neither the woman nor the men are good surfers.

Nor neither. , , , nor,


, .

I dont usually wake up at 6 a.m., nor do


Ilike to wake up at 5 a.m.

I dont usually wake up at 6 a.m., nor


Idont like to wake up at 5 a.m.

Or Nor
,
, or.

He is not interested in math or science.

He is not interested in math nor science.

She didnt speak slowly or clearly.

She didnt speak slowly nor clearly.

Nor Or
( ),
nor, or, .

52

Santa will not permit naughty behavior or even consider bringing presents.
Santa will not permit naughty behavior nor even consider bringing presents.
Santa will not permit naughty behavior and will not even consider bringing presents

He will study neither his lesson nor do his


chores.

He will neither study his lesson nor do his


chores.

A) Iwant neither persimmons nor kiwis.


B) Iwant neither persimmons or kiwis.

A) Idont want persimmons nor kiwis.


B) Idont want persimmons or kiwis.

A) Neither the trees nor the flower inspires me.


B) Neither the trees nor the flower inspire me.

A) Squiggly didnt want to go to the library nor the principals


office.
B) Squiggly didnt want to go to the library or the principals
office.

A) Aardvark neither wondered about the outcome nor cared.


B) Aardvark wondered neither about the outcome nor cared.

53

: 1:A 2:B 3:A 4:B 5:A


(Mignon Fogarty. When to Use Nor. 2013 Macmillan Holdings, LLC.)

all/ the whole/ the entire



.
, ( , ), (),
.
all day/ the whole day/ the entire day, the
entire bus/ the whole bus, all bus.
all . all computer,
.
All / all the c
(all passangers),
,
, (all day/ all cheese).

I love all music.

I love all the music.

All children like ice-cream.

All the children like ice-cream.

All of us love dancing.

I hate you all.

Im there all day.


: Ive been there for the whole day.

The whole , , .
The entire c , .

54

the entire planet

,
,

the whole planet

the whole life

the entire life

I have stayed there for the whole day.

the entire day.

a whole number

the whole nine yards

,
,

the

my brothers

the

, only

first

,
other, many

three

*

()
small

favourite

new
red

*

()


()

outstanding

small

little, old, new

only

literary

brick

dacron

55

cottages

jacket

critic

(*) (, ), (, ) (, ). , ( ,
) ().


: .
.
(?
?)

. (
?

?)

She

opened

Lisa

goes

will always
remember

am never
ill

My brother

never
speaks

He

. .
(?)

. .
(?
?)

.
. (
?
?..)

(?
?)

(?)

to work

everyday

isnt

here

yet

There

is no milk

in the fridge

It

is nice to
see you
again

lent

lent

some
money

to John

lent

it

to John

Put on

your coat!

the door

.
(?)
quietly

you

to me

John

some
money

56

.
(?
?)

. (
?

?)

. .
(?)

. .
(?
?)

Put

your coat
on!

Put

it on!

must give
back

the book

must give

the book
back

must give

it back

His shoes

are too big

am tired,
too

She

isnt tired
either

.
. (
?
?..)

.
(?)

(?
?)

(?)

So am I
Who

saw

you?

Who (m)

did you
see?

He

went in

He

is sure to
come

want

the work
(to be)
done

Do you

know

where she
is?

dont know

if/ whether
she is here

to the
house


, , I .
?

57

,
.
Hi, Mom. Hey, Granny.
,
, , .
Aunt Zelda, Uncle Rob, Mayor
Muttonchops McGee.

mom, aunt, mayor,


,
.
My mom is agood cook.
I have an aunt in Michigan.\
A mayor has an important job.

, ,
, ,
.
Have you read Treasure Island?
My paper is titled Friendly Adjectives.

(the, to, in
..),
.
I am reading The Adventures of
Huckleberry Finn.
Have you read War and Peace?

, .
Monday, Tuesday, etc. January,
February, etc.

.
Apple blossoms bloom in the spring.
Families build snowmen in the winter.

(,
).
Im taking Grammar 1.
Im enjoying Algebra 2.
I like History 101.
, .
Hank is failing English.
He is French.

,
.
I dont do so well in algebra or science,
but Im getting As in Spanish.

earth, sun, moon


.
Planet Earth orbits the Sun.
,
.
I want to learn more about Jupiter.

earth, sun, moon


.
The moon is beautiful tonight.
The sun is shining and the birds
are singinga perfect day to diagram
sentences!

lake, river, ocean .


I went walking around Lake
Coochicomma.
The Run-on River runs to the Pacific
Ocean.

lake, river, ocean


.
Lets jump in the lake.
How far is the ocean from here?

58


.
Charley said, The grammar book is
boring.


(- ).
Miss Mustardseed said good morning
to the class.

street, boulevard, drive, place


.
English teachers dont get stars on
Hollywood Boulevard.
My address is 4365 Spell-check Place.

street, boulevard, drive, place


.
This is the main boulevard.
Why is afamily of ducks walking down
the street?

north, south, east, west,


.
The Civil War was fought between the
North and the South.
Saudi Arabia is in the Middle East.

north, south, east, west


.
Drive north till you get to afork in the
road.
Its just south of the Anti-Grammarian
Restaurant, my favoritist food.

, ,
.
On Thanksgiving, people thank God for
their blessings.
All Iwant for Christmas is my two front
teeth.
Tomorrow is Passover, aJewish
holiday.

(,
, ).
He is so muscular that he looks almost
like agod.
I wish that Greek mythology included
Grammarius, the grammar god.

.
The Civil War took place in the
nineteenth century.
Charlie thinks the Valentines Day
Massacre occurred because gangster Al
Capone didnt get any valentines.

.
This is the best day of my life.

(Tim Mathews. The Adventures of Genius Boy and Grammar Girl: Capital Letters.
aGrammar Textbook. Preview Edition. Grammar Nation, Inc. 2009, P. 21-23)

59

INDEX
A
a/ an.................................................................................................................................... 32
all.......................................................................................................................................... 53
at............................................................................................................................................ 5

B
be able to....................................................................................................................... 45, 48
be allowed to....................................................................................................................... 43

C
can........................................................................................................................................ 45
could.................................................................................................................................... 45

E
enough................................................................................................................................. 11

F
Future Continuous (Progressive)......................................................................................
Future Perfect.....................................................................................................................
Future Perfect Continuous.................................................................................................
Future Simple (Indefinite).................................................................................................

22
23
23
22

I
In............................................................................................................................................ 5

M
may...................................................................................................................................... 43
might.................................................................................................................................... 43
must....................................................................................................................................... 5

N
neither................................................................................................................................. 50
nor........................................................................................................................................ 50

60

O
or.......................................................................................................................................... 50

P
Past Continuous (Progressive)..........................................................................................
Past Perfect..........................................................................................................................
Past Perfect Continuous.....................................................................................................
Past Simple (Indefinite)......................................................................................................
Present Continuous (Progressive).....................................................................................
Present Perfect....................................................................................................................
Present Perfect Continuous...............................................................................................
Present Simple (Indefinite)................................................................................................

19
20
21
18
15
16
17
14

S
so.......................................................................................................................................... 11
such...................................................................................................................................... 11

T
that......................................................................................................................................... 4
the........................................................................................................................................ 33
the entire............................................................................................................................. 53
the whole............................................................................................................................. 53
too........................................................................................................................................ 11

W
which..................................................................................................................................... 4
Who....................................................................................................................................... 4