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. . , . . , . .

II
162500

2013


( )

. . , . . , . .

II
162500

2013

:
- , . .
. 2 162500 .

162500.

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.

21 2013
26 2013 .


2 162500.
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162500 .



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1 1 252
218
18
16

1 2 216
192
12
12

2
144
118
12
14


612
528
42
42
2 .

4
5.
4 . . . . .
5 . . .

.

. , , .
1. , . .
2. , ,
(), , , .
3. , . , ,
, .
4. , , (. ).
() ,
0 10.
3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

4
5
1.1 2.1 3.1 4.1
5.1 6.1 7.1 8.1 9.1 10.1 11.1 12.1
1.2 2.2 3.2 4.2
5.2 6.2 7.2 8.2 9.2 10.2 11.2 12.2
1.3 2.3 3.3 4.3
5.3 6.3 7.3 8.3 9.3 10.3 11.3 12.3
1.4 2.4 3.4 4.4
5.4 6.4 7.4 8.4 9.4 10.4 11.4 12.4
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5
1.6 2.6 3.6 4.6
5.6 6.6 7.6 8.6 9.6 10.6 11.6 12.6
1.7 2.7 3.7 4.7
5.7 6.7 7.7 8.7 9.7 10.7 11.7 12.7
1.8 2.8 3.8 4.8
5.8 6.8 7.8 8.8 9.8 10.8 11.8 12.8
1.9 2.9 3.9 4.9
5.9 6.9 7.9 8.9 9.9 10.9 11.9 12.9
1.10 2.10 3.10 4.10 5.10 6.10 7.10 8.10 9.10 10.10 11.10 12.10

5. , , . , .
6. .
7. . , ,
, ,
, , , .
8. ,
.
9. , , ,
.
,
. .
.
.

4
1.

an .

n=1

n
,
n4 + 3
n
=
,
n2 + 1
1
=
,
3
n+1
n+1
,
= 2
2n + 3n + 1
1
=
,
n (n + 3)


n + 2 3n
,
=
2n + 1
n2 + 5
= 3
,
n + 3n2 + 4
3n + 2
=
,
4n 1
n
,
=
(n + 1)(n + 2)
1

=
,
n n+1

1.1.

) an =

) an =

1.2.

) an

) an =

1.3.

) an

1.4.

) an

1.5.

) an

1.6.

) an

1.7.

) an

1.8.

) an

1.9.

) an

1.10. ) an

) an =
) an =
) an =
) an =
) an =
) an =
) an =
) an =

n!
5nn
2
n!
n2
3n
en
n
3n
nn
n 2n
n
3
n
2nn
10
n!n
3
4n n!
n!

2n

an xn . 2.
n=1
.
1
n
2.1. an = 3
2.6. an = n
n
6
1
n
2.2. an =
2.7. an =
n (n + 1)
2n + 3
1
1
2.3. an = n
2.8. an =
2 (n + 1)
n
n
1
2.4. an =
2.9. an = n
n+1
3 n
n
2n
3
2.5. an =
2.10. an = n
n
3
Rb
3. f (x) dx
0, 001.
3.1.
3.2.

f (x) = x2 ex ,
f (x) = x3 cos x,

b = 0, 5
b=1

3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.8.

f (x) = x cos x, 
ln 1 + x2
f (x) =
,
x
2
f (x) = e2x ,
1
,
f (x) = 4
x +1
f (x) = sin x2 ,
f (x) = e

2
x2

1
,
1 + x3

3.10. f (x) = x ln 1 + x2 ,

3.9.

f (x) =

b=1
b = 0, 5
b = 0, 5
b = 0, 5
b=1
b=1
b = 0, 5
b = 0, 5

4. f (x) .
f (x) = x 1,
f (x) = x
 + 4,
x, 3 < x < 0
4.3. f (x) =
,
0, 0 6 x < 3
4.4. f (x) = x,

x, 1 < x < 0
4.5. f (x) =
,
0, 0 6 x < 1
4.6. f (x) = 2x + 3,
4.7. f (x) = 1 x,
4.8. f (x) = x
 + 1,
x, < x < 0
4.9. f (x) =
,
0, 0 6 x <

0, < x < 0
4.10. f (x) =
,
2x, 0 6 x <

4.1.
4.2.

(1; 1)
(2; 2)
(3; 3)
(5; 5)
(1; 1)
(; )
(; )
(2; 2)
(; )
(; )

4
1.
. , .
.
1. .
a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , an , . . . .

an = a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an + . . . ,

(1)

n=1

a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , an , . . . , an
n . n
1, 2, 3, . . . ,
.
n (1) n-
Sn ,
Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an1 + an .
Sn n.
,
S1 = a1 ,
S2 = a1 + a2 ,
S3 = a1 + a2 + a3 ,
.........................
Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an .
(1)
S1 , S2 , S3 , . . . , Sn , Sn+1 , Sn+2 , . . .
,
lim Sn = S,

, . S
(1). lim Sn = , (1)
n
.
.
2. .
(1) , an
n ,
lim an = 0.
(2)
n

P
: lim an 6= 0,
an n
n=1
.
. ,
1 2 3 4
+ + + + ...
2 3 4 5

. an =

n
.
n+1

n
= 1,
n n + 1

lim an = lim

(2) . ,
.
. ,

1
1 1 1 1
1 + + + + + ... + + ...
2 3 4 5
n
. an =

1
.
n

1
= 0,
n
n n
.
. lim an = 0
n

an . , , lim an = lim

n=1

. ,
.
3. .

an = a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an + . . .

(3)

n=1

bn = b1 + b2 + b3 + . . . + bn + . . .

(4)

n=1

(3) (4) n 0 6 an 6 bn ,
1) (4), (3);
2) (3), (4).
. (3)
(4), n0 n > n0
0 6 an 6 bn .
.
1+

1
1
1
1
+ 2 + 3 + . . . + n1 + . . .
2 3
4
n
8

1
. an = n1 .
n

1
1
1
1
1
1 + + 2 + 3 + 4 + . . . + n1 + . . .
(5)
2 2
2
2
2
1
(5) , q =
< 1. 2

1
1
(5), n1 6 n1 n N. ,
n
2
.
.
1
1
1
1 + + + ... + + ...
2
3
n
1
. an =
n
1
bn = , , , .
n
, .
.
1
1
1
1
1+
+
+
+
.
.
.
+
+ ...
1 5 2 52 3 53
n 5n
.

1
1
1
1
+ 2 + 3 + ... + n + ...
5 5
5
5
1
1
,
<
,
n 5n
5n
.
4. .
(3) (4) (an > 0, bn > 0
n)
an
= k 6= 0,
lim
n bn
k ( ) , (3) (4)
, ,
.
1+

.
1
1
1
sin 1 + sin + sin + . . . + sin + . . .
2
3
n
9

1
. an = sin . n
1
bn = . .
n

 
1
sin
an
 n = 1 6= 0
lim
= lim
1 n
n bn
n
( ), .
1
. , , an = 2 ,
n
1
.
. bn =
n (2n + 1)
. .

1 n2
an
n (2n + 1)
lim
= lim 
= 2 6= 0.
= lim
n bn
n 1
n2
(n (2n + 1)) n
, bn =

1
.
n (2n + 1)



1
. an = ln 1 + 2 ,
n
1
, bn = 2 .
n
. .
 


ln 1 + 1 n2
1
an

= lim n2 ln 1 + 2 =
lim
= lim
1 n2
n
n bn
n
n
"
n 2
n 2 #


1
1
= ln lim 1 + 2
= ln e = 1 6= 0
= lim ln 1 + 2
n
n
n
n

( ). , .
5. .

.


P
q < 1 (q > 0),

qn
q > 1 ,
n=1


P
p 6 1 ,
1

p
n
p > 1 .
n=1
6. .
10

X
an = a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an + . . . ,

an > 0,

(6)

n=1

an+1
= q,
n an
lim

1) q < 1 (6) ,
2) q > 1 q = + (6) ,
3) q = 1 (6)
.
.

X
1
.
n!
n=1
.

1
1
, an+1 =
.
n!
(n + 1)!


1 (n + 1)!
n!
1

= lim
q = lim
= lim
= 0.
1 n!
n (n + 1)!
n
n n + 1
q = 0 < 1, .
an =

X
5n
.
n

(n
+
1)
n=1
.
5n
an =
,
n (n + 1)

an+1

5n+1
=
.
(n + 1) (n + 2)


an+1
5n+1 n (n + 1)
5n
q = lim
= lim
=
lim
= 5.
n an
n (n + 1) (n + 2) 5n
n n + 2
q = 5 > 1, .
.
1+

22 33
nn
+ + ... +
+ ...
2! 3!
n!
11

nn
an = ,
n!

an+1

(n + 1)n+1
=
(n + 1)!

(n + 1)n+1 n! (n + 1)n (n + 1) n!
an+1
=
=
=
q = lim
n an
(n + 1)! nn
n! (n + 1) nn




(n + 1)n
n+1 n
1 n
= lim
= lim
= lim 1 +
= e.
n
n
n
nn
n
n
q = e > 1, .
7. .

an = a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an + . . . ,

an > 0,

(7)

n=1

lim

an = q,

1) q < 1 (7) ,
2) q > 1 q = + (7) ,
3) q = 1 (7)
.
.

1
.
(ln n)n

n=1

.
an =

1
.
(ln n)n


q = lim

an = lim

1
1
= lim
= 0.
n
n ln n
(ln n)

q = 0 < 1, .
.


X
3n + 1 n
.
n

5
n=1

12

an =

3n + 1
n5

n


q = lim

s

an = lim

3n + 1
n5

n

3n + 1
= 3.
n n 5

= lim

q = 3 > 1, .
8. .
f (x) [1; +) , ,

X
an = a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an + . . . , an = f (n),
n=1


Z+
f (x) dx.
1

.
, 1.
.
1
1
1
1 1
+ +
+
+ ... +
+ ...
2 5 10 17
1 + n2
.
. f (x),
1
n x. , f (x) =
. 1 + x2
f (x) [1; +) ,
,
.
Z+
1

dx
= lim
1 + x2 A+

ZA

h
iA
dx

=
lim
arctg
x
=

=
.
1 + x2 A+
2 4
4
1

, .
.

X
1
.
n

(n
+
3)
n=1
13

.
1
. f (x) =
. ,
x (x + 3)

ZA 
Z+
ZA
1
1
dx
dx
1
= lim
= lim

dx =
x (x + 3) A+ x (x + 3) A+ 3
x x+3
1
1
1


h
i
A
1
x A
1
lim ln x ln(x + 3 ) =
lim ln
=
=
3 A+
3 A+
x+3 1
1



1
A
1
1
3
=
lim ln
ln
= ln 4 = ln 4.
3 A+
A+3
4
3
, .
.

X
n=2

1
.
n ln n

.
1
. . f (x) =
x

ln
x

Z+
2

dx
= lim
x ln x A+

ZA

h
iA
d ln x
= lim ln ln x =
A+
ln x
2

= lim (ln ln A ln ln 2) = +.
A+

, .
.

X
1
,
p
n
n=1

p .
1
. an = p . p 6 0,
n
an n . ,
, .
p > 0 . f (x) =
1
. .
xp
14

1
1. p = 1. an = , n
.
Z+

dx
= lim
A+
x

ZA

h
iA
dx
= lim ln x = lim (ln A ln 1) = +.
A+
A+
x
1

, .
2. p > 1.
Z+

 p+1 A
ZA
dx
x
p
=
lim
x
dx
=
lim
=
A+ p + 1 1
xp A+
1
1




1 A
1
1
1
1
lim
=
lim

1
=
.
=
1 p A+ xp1 1
1 p A+ Ap1
p1

dx
= lim
xp A+

ZA

, p > 1 .
3. p < 1. , 2,
Z+




dx
1
1
1
1p
A

1
= +
=
lim

1
=
lim
xp
1 p A+ Ap1
1 p A+

.
, p > 1
p 6 1.
9. . .
,
( ),
. ,
. :

(1)n1 an = a1 a2 + a3 a4 + . . . + (1)n1 an + . . .

(8)

n=1

(1)n an = a1 + a2 a3 + a4 . . . + (1)n an + . . . ,

n=1

an (n = 1, 2, 3, . . .) .
15

(9)

: (8) (9) ,
1) lim an = 0,
n
2) an > an+1 n.
, (8), a1 ,
(9), .
.
1

1
1 1 1
+ + . . . + (1)n1 + . . .
2 3 4
n

. .
,
1 1 1
1
= 0 1 > > > > ...
n
n n
2 3 4
, .
lim an = lim

2.
x,
,

an (x x0 )n = a0 + a1 (x x0 ) + a2 (x x0 )2 + . . .

n=0

. . . + an (x x0 )n + . . . , (10)
x0 , , a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 , . . .
. , x0 = 0,

an x n = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + . . . + an x n + . . .

(11)

n=0

, (10) (11) x = x0
x = 0 .
(10)
{x : |x x0 | < R} . (10) , .
R . R = 0,
x = x0 . R = +,
,
x (; +). R > 0, (x0 R; x0 + R), ,
.
16

R
q
1
= lim n |an | ( ).
(12)
R n
R


an
( ).
R = lim
(13)

n a
n+1

R 6= 0 (10) x = x0 R x = x0 + R
.
2.

X
X
X
xn
xn
3n xn
;
)
;
)
.
)
2
n
n
n!
n=1
n=1
n=1
. )

X
3n xn
n=1

n2

3
, x0 = 0. (12).
n2
r
n
1
1
n 3
= lim
=
3
=
R
=
.
R n n2
3

1
1
1
3n
n
x = x = . x = , an x = 2
3
3
3
n
 n

n
n
X
1
(1)
(1)

=
.
.
2
2
3
n
n
n=1
 n

X
3n
1
1
1
1
n
= 2 .
x = , an x = 2
3
n
3
n
n2
n=1
( p = 2 > 1).
,
 1 1
;
.
3 3
)

X
xn
.
n
n=1
an =

an =

1
. (13).
n


an
= lim n + 1 = 1.
R = lim
n n
n a
n+1

17

, (1; 1). , x = 1
x = 1. x = 1, , (. ). x = 1,
, .
, [1; 1).
)

X
xn
.
n!
n=1

1
1
, an+1 =
.
n!
(n + 1)!
(13).


an
= lim (n + 1)! = lim (n + 1) = +.
R = lim
n
n a
n
n!
an =

n+1

R = +,
x.
3.
f (x)
x0 = 0 .
.

X
xn
x2
x3
xn
x
e =
= 1 + x +
+
+ ... +
+ . . . , |x| < ,
n!
2!
3!
n!
n=0

2n+1
2n+1
X
x3 x5
n x
n x
sin x =
(1)
=x
+
. . . + (1)
+ ...,
(2n
+
1)!
3!
5!
(2n
+
1)!
n=0
|x| < ,

2n
x2 x4
x2n
n x
cos x =
(1)
=1
+
. . . + (1)
+ ...,
(2n)!
2!
4!
(2n)!
n=0
n

|x| < ,
ln(1 + x) =

(1)n1

n=1

xn
x2 x3
xn
=x
+
. . . + (1)n1 + . . . ,
n
2
3
n
1 < x 6 1,

ln(1 x) =

X
n=1

xn
x2 x3
xn
= x+
+
+ ... +
+ ... ,
n
2
3
n


1 6 x < 1,
18

1
1+x
1
1x

1 x + x2 x3 + . . . + (1)n xn + . . . ,

1 + x + x2 + x3 + . . . + xn + . . . ,

(1 + x) = 1 +

X
m(m 1)(m 2) . . . (m n + 1)

n!

n=1

|x|
|x|

<

1,

<

1,

xn =

m(m 1) 2 m(m 1)(m 2) 3


x +
x + ...
2!
3!
m(m 1)(m 2) . . . (m n + 1) n
... +
x + . . . , m R, |x| < 1.
n!
, n
= 1 + mx +

n! = n (n 1) (n 2) . . . 3 2 1,
, 1! = 1, 2! = 2 1 = 2, 3! = 3 2 1 = 6, 4! = 4 3 2 1 = 24,
7! = 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. , 0! = 1.

.
f (x0 ) f (x),

f (x) =

an x n ,

|x| < R,

x0 (R; R).

(14)

n=0

f (x0 ) = a0 + a1 x0 + a2 x20 + . . . + an xn0 + . . .


f (x0 ) n
Sn = a0 + a1 x0 + a2 x20 + . . . + an1 xn1
0 ,
f (x0 ),
|rn (x0 )| = |an xn0 + an+1 xn+1
+ . . . |.
0

(15)

(14) x = x0 ,
n Sn f (x0 )
. f (x0 )
(15),
Sn .
, .
.
3. 0,001
19

Z2

dx
.
1 + x2

Z2

Z2

dx
=
1 + x2

(1 + x2 ) 3 dx.

(1 + x)m
1
( m = ) x x2 .
3
1
1
2
14
(1 + x2 ) 3 = 1 x2 + x4 x6 + . . .
3
9
81


1
0;
2
(1; 1),
1

Z2
0

Z2 


dx
1 2 2 4 14 6

1 x + x x + . . . dx =
=
3
3
9
81
1 + x2
0

 12
x3 2x5 14x7
1
1
1
7
= x
+

+ ... =
+

+ ...
9
45
567
2 72 720 36288
0

0,001. , ,
.
1

Z2
0

dx
1
1
39
1
+
=
= 0,4875.

2 72 720 80
1 + x2

, .
0,001 0,487.
4.
f (x) (l; l)

a0 X 
nx
nx 
f (x) =
+
an cos
+ bn sin
,
2
l
l
n=1

20

(16)

an

1
=
l

bn =

1
l

Zl

f (x) cos

nx
dx,
l

(n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .),

(17)

f (x) sin

nx
dx,
l

(n = 1, 2, 3, . . .).

(18)

l
Zl
l

, l = , f (x) (; ),
f (x)

a0 X
f (x) =
+
(an cos nx + bn sin nx) ,
2
n=1

(19)

an

1
=

bn =

f (x) cos nx dx,

(n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .),

(20)

f (x) sin nx dx,

(n = 1, 2, 3, . . .).

(21)

, f (x) (l; l),


bn , (18) . (17)

,
(0; l).
, f (x) (l; l)

a0 X
nx
f (x) =
+
an cos
,
2
l
n=1

2
an =
l

Zl

f (x) cos

nx
dx,
l

(n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .).

, f (x) (l; l),


X
nx
f (x) =
bn sin
,
l
n=1

Zl
2
nx
bn =
f (x) sin
dx, (n = 1, 2, 3, . . .).
l
l
0

21

4.
) f (x) (; ).

2, < x < 0,
f (x) =
3, 0 6 x < .
) f (x) (2; 2),

0, 2 < x < 0,
f (x) =
x, 0 6 x < 2.
. ) f (x)

a0 X
+
(an cos nx + bn sin nx) .
f (x) =
2
n=1
a0 , (20) n = 0.

0
Z
Z
Z
1
1
f (x) dx = 2 dx + 3 dx =
a0 =

 1
1
[2x]0 + [3x]0 = (2 + 3) = 1.

an (n = 1, 2, 3, . . .) (20).
0

Z
Z
1
an = 2 cos nx dx + 3 cos nx dx =

0

0

 !
1
2 sin nx
3 sin nx
=
+
= 0.

n
n

(21) bn .
0

Z
Z
1
bn = 2 sin nx dx + 3 sin nx dx =

0
0

 !

1
1
2 cos nx
3 cos nx
=
+
=
(2 2 cos(n) 3 cos n + 3) =

n
n
n

0
(
10
5
5
2 n
=
(1 cos n) =
2 sin
= n n ,
n
n
2
0 n .
an bn (19),
f (x) (; )


1 10
1
1
1
f (x) = +
sin x + sin 3x + sin 5x + sin 7x + . . . .
2

3
5
7
22

x, (; ) x = 0, 2 + 3
1

= ,
2
2
.
) (17)
(18), l = 2 ,
x.
0

 2 2
Z
Z2
1
x
1
0 dx + x dx =
= 1,
a0 =
2
2 2 0
2
0

2
0

nx
nx
Z
Z2
cos
sin
1
nx
nx 1
2
2

an =
0 cos
dx + x cos
dx = x n +
2 2 =
2
2
2
2
n
2
0
2
4
0
(
4
2
= 2 2 (cos n 1) = n2 2 n ,
n
0
n ,

2
0

nx
nx
Z
Z2
sin
cos
1
nx
nx 1
2
2

bn =
0 sin
dx + x sin
dx = x n +
2 2 =
2
2
2
2
n
2
0
2
4
0

n ,
2
n
cos n =
=

n
2 n .
n
(16),
f (x).


1
4
x
1
3x
1
5x
f (x) = 2 cos
+ 2 cos
+ 2 cos
+ ... +
2
2
3
2
5
2


2
x 1
2x 1
3x 1
4x
sin
sin
+ sin
sin
+ ... .
+

2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
5. ,
1 9. , ,
. ,
1 3 13, 3 1
31. A.
23

5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.
5.7.
5.8.
5.9.
5.10.

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.

6. a b . 2
. , :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
6.1. a = 4, b = 5;
6.6. a = 7, b = 4;
6.2. a = 6, b = 4;
6.7. a = 6, b = 5;
6.3. a = 7, b = 3;
6.8. a = 5, b = 7;
6.4. a = 5, b = 3;
6.9. a = 4, b = 6;
6.5. a = 3, b = 6;
6.10. a = 3, b = 7;
7.
20 30 . , 5% 2%
.
1) , .
2) .
?
7.2. . , ,
5%, 7%.
1) ,
.
2) . ?
7.3. 10 0, 8,
0, 7,
0, 6.
1) ,
.
2) .
?

7.1.

24

7.4.

7.5.

7.6.

7.7.

7.8.

7.9.

10
, 15 20 . ,
0, 2, 0, 1, 0, 05.
1) , .
2) .
?
30% ,
25%, .
1% , 2%, 3%.
1) , .
2) .
, .
: 50% , 30% ,
20% . ,
0, 7, 0, 8, 0, 9 .
1) , .
2) .
, .
0, 4 0, 0, 6 1. - .
1, 0 0, 05.
0, 1 0, 1.
1) 1.
2) 1. ,
1.
5 6 ,
5 3 . .
.
1) , .
2) . ,
.
60% ,

T 0, 95. , , 0, 7.

25

1) , T .
2) , , T , .
7.10. .
0, 15. 0, 9. ,
0, 05 .
.
1) , .
2) ,
.
8. r%
s% . , :
1) m
) ;
) ;
2) 500
[a, b];
3) 500 .
8.1. r = 40%,
s = 0, 5%,
m = 5,
a = 180,
b = 210
8.2. r = 50%,
s = 0, 4%,
m = 4,
a = 230,
b = 260
8.3. r = 60%,
s = 0, 3%,
m = 6,
a = 280,
b = 310
8.4. r = 70%,
s = 0, 1%,
m = 4,
a = 330,
b = 360
8.5. r = 80%,
s = 0, 2%,
m = 5,
a = 380,
b = 410
8.6. r = 40%,
s = 0, 3%,
m = 6,
a = 180,
b = 210
8.7. r = 50%,
s = 0, 2%,
m = 5,
a = 230,
b = 260
8.8. r = 60%,
s = 0, 1%,
m = 5,
a = 280,
b = 310
8.9. r = 70%,
s = 0, 2%,
m = 6,
a = 330,
b = 360
8.10. r = 55%,
s = 0, 4%,
m = 4,
a = 255,
b = 285
9. .
1) p.
2) F (x) .
3) M (X), D(X), (X).
xi -1 0 1 2
3
xi -2 -1 1 3 4
9.6.
9.1.
pi 0,2 0,1 p 0,3 0,2
pi 0,3 0,1 0,2 p 0,1
9.2.

xi 0
1 3 5
6
pi 0,1 0,3 p 0,2 0,1

9.7.

xi 1
2 4 6
8
pi 0,2 0,3 p 0,2 0,1

9.3.

xi 1 2 3
4
5
pi 0,1 p 0,1 0,2 0,3

9.8.

xi -2 2 3 5
6
pi 0,2 0,4 p 0,2 0,1

26

9.4.

xi -2 0 2 4
6
pi 0,1 0,2 p 0,2 0,1

9.9.

xi 2
4 5 7
8
pi 0,1 0,2 p 0,3 0,2

9.5.

xi 1
2 4 5
6
pi 0,2 0,1 p 0,2 0,3

9.10.

xi -1 1
2 4 6
pi 0,2 0,3 0,3 p 0,1

10. X
F (x).
1) f (x);
2) ;
3) M (X), D(X), (X);
4)
X > M (X).

0
x 6 0

2
10.1. F (x) = 2x x 0 < x 6 1

1
x > 1

x 6 1
0
2
10.2. F (x) = 1 x 1 < x 6 0
1
x > 0

x 6 1
0
3
10.3. F (x) = x + 1 1 < x 6 0
1
x > 0

0
x 6 1

2
10.4. F (x) = (x 1) 1 < x 6 2

1
x > 2

0
x 6 2

2
x 4
10.5. F (x) =
2 < x 6 6

32
1
x > 6

0
x 6 2

2
10.6. F (x) = (x 2) 2 < x 6 3

1
x > 3

0
x 6 1

2
x x
10.7. F (x) =
1 < x 6 2

1
x > 2

0
x 6 1

2
x 1
10.8. F (x) =
1 < x 6 3

1
x > 3

27


0
10.9. F (x) = x3
1

2
x
10.10. F (x) =

9
1

x 6 0
0 < x 6 1
x > 1
x 6 0
0 < x 6 3
x > 3

11. X , a .
1) f (x)
X;
2) M (X), D(X), (X);
3) P ( < X < );
4) f (x) x = a x = a ,
;
5) , P ( < X < ).
11.1. a = 1,
= 2,
= 1,
=3
11.2. a = 10,
= 2,
= 12,
= 14
11.3. a = 20,
= 2,
= 15,
= 20
11.4. a = 5,
= 2,
= 4,
=6
11.5. a = 8,
= 2,
= 9,
= 10
11.6. a = 2,
= 0, 5,
= 1,
=2
11.7. a = 3,
= 2,
= 2,
= 10
11.8. a = 5,
= 1,
= 4,
= 12
11.9. a = 7,
= 2,
= 5,
= 10
11.10. a = 3,
= 2,
= 1,
=4
12. X .
X, .
1) .
2) : ,
, ,
.
3) , X , ,
X
,
.
4) ( ) = 0, 95
a = M (X) X.

28

12.1.

12.2.

12.3.

12.4.

12.5.

12.6.

12.7.

12.8.

12.9.

12.10.

[0,2)
3

[2,4)
9

[4,6)
19

[6,8)
50

[8,10)
11

[10,12) [12,14]
6
2

[1,3)
5

[3,5)
15

[5,7)
23

[7,9)
27

[9,11)
20

[11,13) [13,15]
6
4

[2,6) [6,10) [10,14) [14,18) [18,22) [22,26) [26,30]


7
13
20
30
13
10
7
[5,9) [9,13) [13,17) [17,21) [21,25) [25,29) [29,33]
6
7
10
40
20
12
5
[0,6) [6,12) [12,18) [18,24) [24,30) [30,36) [36,42]
5
9
25
24
22
10
52
[4,5)
7

[5,6)
10

[6,7)
15

[7,8)
40

[8,9)
16

[9,10)
7

[10,11]
5

[3,7) [7,11) [11,15) [15,19) [19,23) [23,27) [27,31]


2
3
20
40
30
3
2
[1,5)
7

[5,9)
15

[9,13)
20

[13,17) [17,21) [21,25) [25,29]


25
15
12
6

[0,9) [9,18) [18,27) [27,36) [36,45) [45,54) [54,63]


4
5
25
30
25
6
5
[3,6)
4

[6,9)
8

[9,12)
20

[12,15) [15,18) [18,21) [21,24]


25
24
15
4

5
5. .
,
. .
( )
, . A, B, C .
, , . ,
, .
A, B C = A + B,

29

, A B, .
A B C = AB, A B.
A B ,
().
A A,
, A . A A .
A1 , A2 , . . . , Ak ,
.
() 1 , 2 , . . . , n , . .
= {1 , 2 , . . . , n }.
A - m 1 , 2 , . . . , m . ,
A m ,
, n ,
:
m
(22)
P (A) = .
n
. (
m = n), ( m = 0),
A 0 < P (A) < 1.
, A
0 6 P (A) 6 1.
. . , .
: n1
n2 ,
n1 n2 .
: n1 n2 ,
n1 + n2 .
5. ,
1 9. , ,
. ,
1 3 13, 3 1

30

31. A
.
: (), ,
= {12, 13, 14, . . . , 19, 21, 23, 24, . . . , 29, . . . , 91, 92, . . . , 98}.
.
, , .
n = 9 8 = 72 .
,
(22).
{27, 64},
m = 2, , A
P (A) =

2
1
m
=
= .
n
72 36

6. .
A B , P (AB) = 0.
A B ,

P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B).

(23)

.

P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B) P (AB).

(24)

A1 , A2 , . . . , Ak ,
.
, , 1.
P (A1 ) + P (A2 ) + . . . + P (Ak ) = 1.
. A A , , P (A)+P (A) = 1.
B, , A, P (B|A).
A B,
P (B|A) = P (B), A B .

31


P (AB) = P (A)P (B|A) = P (B)P (A|B).

(25)


P (A|B) = P (A) P (AB) = P (A)P (B).

. .
6. 5 6 . 2
. , :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
: ,
. : K1 , M1 , K2 ,
M2 . , K1 M1 ,
K2 M2 ,
..
P (K1 ) = P (M1 ) = 1 P (M1 ) P (K2 ) = P (M2 ) = 1 P (M2 ).
11 , 5 ,
m
5
6
= , P (M1 ) = .
n
11
11
K2 : .
.
. 10 , 4 ,

4
2
P (K2 |K1 ) =
= .
10 5
,
P (K1 ) =

6
3
= .
10 5
. 10 , 5 . ,

P (M2 |K1 ) =

P (K2 |M1 ) =

32

1
5
= .
10 2

,
5
1
P (M2 |M1 ) =
= .
10 2
, .
1) A
. .. A = K1 K2 .
(25),
2
5 2
= .
P (A) = P (K1 K2 ) = P (K1 )P (K2 |K1 ) =
11 5 11
2) B
, , . .. B = K1 M2 + M1 K2 . K1 M2 M1 K2 , ,
(23) (25)
P (B) = P (K1 M2 + M1 K2 ) = P (K1 M2 ) + P (M1 K2 ) =
6 1
6
5 3
+
= .
11 5 11 2 11
3) C ,
. .. C = M1 M2 . , P (C) = P (M1 M2 ) = 1 P (M1 M2 ). ,
3
6 1
= ,
P (M1 M2 ) = P (M1 ) P (M2 |M1 ) =
11 2 11

8
3
= .
P (C) = 1
11 11
= P (K1 )P (M2 |K1 ) + P (M1 )P (K2 |M1 ) =

7. .
A H1 , H2 ,
. . ., Hn , , A

A = A(H1 + H2 + . . . + Hn ) = AH1 + AH2 + . . . + AHn
A
P (A) = P (H1 ) P (A|H1 ) + P (H2 ) P (A|H2 ) + . . .
. . . + P (Hn ) P (A|Hn ) =

n
X

P (Hi ) P (A|Hi ). (26)

i=1

Hi , A ,
P (AHi )
P (Hi ) P (A|Hi )
P (Hi |A) =
= P
, i = 1, 2, . . . , n.
(27)
n
P (A)
P (A|Hi ) P (Hi )
i=1

33

P (Hi |A), , .
7. , 5% 0, 25% .
) , , ,
?
) C . , ?
: : M , W . ,
1
P (M ) = P (W ) = . M W . 2
5% , D

5
1
P (D|M ) =
= .
100 20
, 0, 25% ,
0, 25
1
=
.
P (D|W ) =
100
400
) D . ( ,
) (26):
1 1 1 1
21
+
=
= 0, 02625.
2 20 2 400 800
) K
.
(27):

P (D) = P (M ) P (D|M ) + P (W ) P (D|W ) =

P (K) = P (M |D) =

P (M )P (D|M ) 0, 5 0, 05 20
=
= .
P (D)
0, 02625
21

8. ,
n ,
A p.
, A n m , Pn (k)

Pn (m) = Cnm pm q nm , q = 1 p, Cnm =

n!
.
m! (n m)!

(28)

n ,
.
34

n
m
Pn (m)
e , = np (p 6= 0, p 6= 1)
m!

Pn (m)

1
(x),
npq

(29)

(30)

x2
1
m np
(x) = e 2 ,
.
x=
npq
2
(x) (. 1).
, , (x) .
(29) , p ,
A , n . (n > 40, npq 6 10).
(30) , p 0 1,
n . npq > 10.
A n a b , - ():




a np
b np

,
(31)
P (a 6 Sn 6 b) =
npq
npq

(x) ,
(. 2). , , (x)
, () = 0, 5, (+) = 0, 5 x > 4
, (x) = 0, 5.
8. 40% 0,4%
.
1) , 4 : )
; ) .
2) , 500 :
) [150, 180]; )
.
: : A 4
, B 4
, C 500
[150, 180], D
500 .
1) p = 0, 4 (40% 35

). A B (28). , 4
,
4!
0, 16 0, 36 = 0, 3456.
P (A) = P4 (2) = C42 0, 42 0, 642 =
2! 2!
1) , 4
,
P (B) = P4 (0) + P4 (1) + P4 (2) =
= C40 0, 40 0, 64 + C41 0, 41 0, 63 + C42 0, 42 0, 62 =
4!
4!
4!
=
1 0, 1296 +
0, 4 0, 216 +
0, 16 0, 36 =
0! 4!
1! 3!
2! 2!
= 0, 3456 + 0, 3456 + 0, 1296 = 0, 8208.
2) C n = 500, p = 0, 4, q = 1 p = 0, 6, npq =
= 5000, 40, 6 = 120. , npq > 10
- (31):




150 200
180 200

P (150 6 S500 6 180) =


120
120
(1, 83) (4, 56) = (1, 83) + (4, 56)
0, 4664 + 0, 5 = 0, 0336.
2) , p=0,004.
npq = 500 0, 004 0, 996 = 1, 992 < 10
- .
(29).
a = 500 0, 004 = 2
P (S500 6 2) = P500 (0) + P500 (1) + P500 (2) =
20 e2 21 e2 22 e2
1
2
2
5
=
+
+
= 2 + 2 + 2 = 2 0, 67667.
0!
1!
2!
e
e
e
e
9.
, , . ,
.

xi x1 x2 . . . xn
pi p1 p2 . . . pn
36

(32)


n
X

pi = 1,

i=1


X
pi .
F (x) = P {X < x} =
xi <x

x xi ,
x. F (x) .
F (x):
1) F (x) ;
2) lim F (x) = 0;
x

3) lim F (x) = 1.
x+
, .
,
(32), M [x]

n
X
M [X] = x1 p1 + x2 p2 + . . . + xn pn =
x i pi .
(33)
i=1

M [X] .
:
1) M [c] = c, c = const;
2) M [cX] = cM [X];
3) M [X1 + X2 ] = M [X1 ] + M [X2 ] X1 , X2 ;
4) M [X1 X2 ] = M [X1 ] M [X2 ], X1 , X2 .
M [X] = a D[X] [X]. ,



D[X] = M (X a)2 =
n
X
2
2
2
= (x1 a) p1 + (x2 a) p2 + . . . + (xn a) pn =
(xi a)2 pi ,
i=1

 
 
D[X] = M X 2 (M [X])2 = M X 2 a2 =
=

x21 p1

x22 p2

+ ... +

x2n pn

a =

n
X
i=1

37

x2i pi a2 . (34)


[X]
q
[X] = D[X].
(35)
:
1) D[c] = 0, c = const;
2) D[cX] = c2 D[X];
3) D[X1 + X2 ] = D[X1 ] + D[X2 ], X1 X2 .
, M [X], [X]
, D[X] X.
9.
X.
xi -2
-1 1 2
3
pi 0,15 0,25 p 0,15 0,2
: 1) p; 2) F (x)
; 3) M (X), D(X), (X).
: 1) .
0, 15 + 0, 25 + p + 0, 15 + 0, 2 = 1,
p = 0, 25. , :
xi -2
-1
1
2
3
pi 0,15 0,25 0,25 0,15 0,2
2) , , :
x 6 2, F (x) = P (X < x) = 0;
2 < x 6 1, F (x) = P (X < x) = 0, 15;
1 < x 6 1, F (x) = P (X < x) = 0, 15 + 0, 25 = 0, 4;
1 < x 6 2, F (x) = P (X < x) = 0, 15 + 0, 25 + 0, 25 = 0, 65;
2 < x 6 3, F (x) = P (X < x) = 0, 15 + 0, 25 + 0, 25 + 0, 15 = 0, 8;
x > 3, F (x) = 0, 15 + 0, 25 + 0, 25 + 0, 12 + 0, 2 = 1.
, 1.
F (x)

0, 15

0, 4
F (x) =
0, 65

0, 8
1

x 6 2
2 < x 6 1
1<x61
1<x62
2<x63
x>3








0,1

-2

-1

. 1. F (x).
38

3) .
M (X) =

5
X

xi pi =

i=1

= 2 0, 15 + (1) 0, 25 + 1 0, 25 + 2 0, 15 + 3 0, 2 = 0, 6,
D(X) =

5
X

x2i pi M 2 (X) =

i=1
2

= (2) 0, 15 + (1)2 0, 25 + 12 0, 25 + 22 0, 15 + 32 0, 2 0, 62 =
= 0, 6 + 0, 25 + 0, 25 + 0, 6 + 1, 8 0, 36 = 3, 14,
q
p
(X) = D(X) = 3, 14 = 1, 77.
10.
X , (, ) , ,
F (x) = P (X < x), (, ), F 0 (x),
.
f (x),

F 0 (x) = f (x).
(36)
:
1) f (x) > 0;
R
2)
f (x) dx = 1.

, X
(a; b),
Zb
P (a < X < b) = f (x) dx = F (b) F (a).
a


Z
M [X] =
xf (x) dx.

X
Z
D[X] =
(x M [X])2 f (x) dx.

39


Z
x2 f (x) dx (M [X])2 = M [X 2 ] (M [X])2 .
D[X] =


q
[X] = D[X].
, , , .
10. X

0
x 6 1


1
F (x) =
2x3 + 3x2 + 12x + 7 1 < x 6 2

27
1
x > 2
1) f (x).
2) .
3) M (X), D(X), (X), X > M (X).
: 1)
(36)
0
x 6 1


2
f (x) = F 0 (x) =
x2 + x + 2 1 < x 6 2

9
0
x > 2
2) F (x) (. . 2)
f (x) (. . 3) X.
F (x)
6

f (x)
6

0,1

0,1

-1

. 2. F (x).

-1

. 3. f (x).

3) .

40


Z+
Z2
Z2 
2x3 2x2 4x

M (X) =
x f (x) dx = x f (x) dx =
+
+
dx =
9
9
9

 4
2

 

2x3 2x2
8 16 8
1
2
2
1
x
+
= +
+

+
= ;
= +
18
27
9 1
9 27 9
18 27 9
2
Z+
D(X) =
x2 f (x) dxM 2 (X) =

Z2

 2

2
1
=
x2 x2 + x + 2 dx
9
2

Z2

 5
4
3 2

1
2
x
x
2x
1
x4 + x3 + 2x2 dx = +
+
=
4 9
5
4
3 1 4
1




2
32
16
2
1 1 2
1 2 63 1
9
= +4+

+
=
= ;
9
5
3
9
5 4 3
4 9 20 4 20
r
q
9
3
(X) = D(X) =
5 = 0, 671.
=
20 10
X > M (X) X 6 M (X), ,

2
=
9

P (X > M (X)) = 1 P (X 6 M (X)) = 1 F (M (X)).


M (X) =

Z2

Z2

P (X 6 M (X)) =

 
i 21
1
f (x) dx = f (x) dx = F (x)
F (1) =
=F
2
1
1
!
 3
 2
 
1
1
1
1
1
=
2
+3
+ 12
+7 0= ,
27
2
2
2
2
h

P (X > M (X)) = 1

1 1
= .
2 2

11.
,
(xa)2
1
f (x) = e 22 ,
2
a ,
X.
X (; )
41

a
P ( < X < ) =

1
(x) =
2

Zx


a

(37)

t2

dt.

(x) ,
(. 2).
, ,
 

.
P (|X a| < ) = 2

, a = 0,
 

P (|X| < ) = 2
.

, = t,
P (|X a| < t) = 2(t).
, t = 3 :
P (|X a| < 3) = 2(3) 0,9973 1,
, 99, 73% (a 3; a + 3).
11. X , a = 4 = 3.
1) f (x)
X.
2) M (X), D(X), (X).
3) P (2 < X < 9).
4) f (x) x = a x = a ,
;
5) , P (2 < X < 9).
: 1) X
, ..
1 (x4)2

f (x) =
e 18 .
3 2
2) :
M (X) = a = 4;

(X) = = 3;

D(X) = ((X))2 = 9.

3)
(37). ,
42




94
24
P (2 < X < 9) =

(1, 67) (0, 67) =


3
3
= (1, 67) + (0, 67) = 0, 4525 + 0, 2486 = 0, 7011.


4) f (x) x = a x = a :
1
x = a = 4 f (x) = 0, 133;
3 2
1
1
1
0, 081.
x = a f (x) = e 2 =
3 2
3 2 e
5) ,
P (2 < X < 9),
4 5.
f (x)

6
0,133

f (x)

6
0,133

-4

12

-4

. 4.
.

12

. 5. ,
P (2 < X < 9).

12.
( )
X n. xi X , , ,
.

xi ni (
n)
ni
wi =
(38)
n
( ).

43

( , ).
, (x1 , n1 ), (x2 , n2 ), . . ., (xk , nk ), xi ni .
,
(x1 , w1 ), (x2 , w2 ), . . ., (xk , wk ), xi
wi .
,
.
,
,
ni
( ).
,

i- ni , i- . , . .
n.
,
, wi
,
(

). i- wi , i- . , . . .
M (X)
D(X) X,
. ,
, , , i- ,
xi . :

8
P
xi ni X
8
i=1
=
xi wi ,
(39)
x =
n
i=1

8
P

D =

i=1

(xi )2 ni

(x )2 ,

n

p
= D 5, 385,

44

(40)

(41)

( )
n
200
S2 =
D =
29 29, 1,
(42)
n1
199

(43)
S = S 2.
,
.
( )
a X
x
t
t
x < a < x + ,
(44)
n
n
x ,
, t (x) (.

2), (t) = ;
2
( n 6 30)
t S
t S
(45)
x < a < x + ,
n
n

x , S = S 2 , t n (. 3).
( ) X S

S (1 q) < < S (1 + q), q < 1,
(46)
0 < <S (1 + q), q > 1,
(47)
q (. 4) n.
12. X .
i = [xi , xi+1 ] X,
ni .
i [6,10) [10,14) [14,18) [18,22) [22,26) [26,30) [30,34) [34,38]
ni
4
15
38
58
50
26
8
1
1) .
2) : ,
, ,
.
45

3) , X , ,
X
,
.
4) ( ) = 0, 95 a = M (X) X.
: 1)
n = 4 + 15 + 38 + 58 + 50 + 26 + 8 + 1 = 200,

ni
wi = , i = 1, 2, . . . , 8
n
( ),
xi + xi+1
.
xi =
2

, .

wi
hi = ,

= 4 .
:
i [6,10) [10,14) [14,18) [18,22) [22,26) [26,30) [30,34) [34,38]
xi
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
ni
4
15
38
58
50
26
8
1
wi 0,02 0,075
0,19
0,29
0,25
0,13
0,04
0,005
hi 0,005 0,019 0,048 0,073 0,068 0,032
0,01
0,001
,

(. . 6).
2)
M (X) D(X) X, .
, , ,
, i- ,
xi ( ).

46

h
0,073

h
0,073

6i

6i

q
q
q
q

q -

10

14

18

22

26

30

34

38 x

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

. 6. () () .
,
8
P

x =

i=1

xi ni
n

1
(8 4 + 12 15 + 16 38 + 20 58 + 24 50+
200
+28 26 + 32 8 + 36 1) = 21;


8
P

D =

i=1

(xi )2 ni

1
82 4 + 122 15 + 162 38+
n
200

2
2
+20 58 + 24 50 + 282 26 + 322 8 + 362 1 212 = 29, 08;
(x )2 =


p
= D 5, 393;

S2 =

n
200
D =
29 29, 23.
n1
199

3) .
x = 21 = 5, 393. ,
X , a = 21
= 5, 393.
X
f (x) =

(x21)2
1
e 25,3932 .
5, 393 2

47


X f (x) xi x = 21
f (x).
1 x2

(x) =
e 2.
2
,

xa
1
(u), u =
.

, , (x) .
f (x) =

xi
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
ui
-2,411 -1,669 -0,927 -0,185 0,556 1,298 2,040 2,782
(ui ) 0,022 0,099 0,260 0,392 0,342 0,172 0,050 0,008
f (xi ) 0,004 0,018 0,048 0,073 0,063 0,032 0,009 0,002

. X ( ). ,
, X.
hi
6

0,073

r
r
r
r

r
0

r 10

14

18

22

26

30

34

38 x

4)


t S
t S
x , x +
,
n
n

x , S = S 2 , t n (.
3).
,
p
t S
= 0, 749.
x = 21, S = 29, 23 = 5, 406, t = 1, 96,
n
48

,
M (X) (21 0, 749; 21 + 0, 749) = (20, 251; 21, 749).
, = 0, 95 ,
M (X) (20, 251; 21, 749).

1. . . . .
.: , 2007.
2. . . , . .: , 2006.
3. .. . .: , 20052011.
4. .. . .:
, 2000-2011.
5. ..
. .: , 2000-2011.

49

1.
x2
1
(x) = e 2
2

x
x

0,0 0,3989 0,3989 0,3989 0,3988 0,3986 0,3984 0,3982 0,3980 0,3977 0,3973
0,1 0,3970 0,3965 0,3961 0,3956 0,3951 0,3945 0,3939 0,3932 0,3925 0,3918
0,2 0,3910 0,3902 0,3894 0,3885 0,3876 0,3867 0,3857 0,3847 0,3836 0,3825
0,3 0,3814 0,3802 0,3790 0,3778 0,3765 0,3752 0,3739 0,3725 0,3712 0,3697
0,4 0,3683 0,3668 0,3653 0,3637 0,3621 0,3605 0,3589 0,3572 0,3555 0,3538
0,5 0,3521 0,3503 0,3485 0,3467 0,3448 0,3429 0,3410 0,3391 0,3372 0,3352
0,6 0,3332 0,3312 0,3292 0,3271 0,3251 0,3230 0,3209 0,3187 0,3166 0,3144
0,7 0,3123 0,3101 0,3079 0,3056 0,3034 0,3011 0,2989 0,2966 0,2943 0,2920
0,8 0,2897 0,2874 0,2850 0,2827 0,2803 0,2780 0,2756 0,2732 0,2709 0,2685
0,9 0,2661 0,2637 0,2613 0,2589 0,2565 0,2541 0,2516 0,2492 0,2468 0,2444
1,0 0,2420 0,2396 0,2371 0,2347 0,2323 0,2299 0,2275 0,2251 0,2227 0,2203
1,1 0,2179 0,2155 0,2131 0,2107 0,2083 0,2059 0,2036 0,2012 0,1989 0,1965
1,2 0,1942 0,1919 0,1895 0,1872 0,1849 0,1826 0,1804 0,1781 0,1758 0,1736
1,3 0,1714 0,1691 0,1669 0,1647 0,1626 0,1604 0,1582 0,1561 0,1539 0,1518
1,4 0,1497 0,1476 0,1456 0,1435 0,1415 0,1394 0,1374 0,1354 0,1334 0,1315
1,5 0,1295 0,1276 0,1257 0,1238 0,1219 0,1200 0,1182 0,1163 0,1145 0,1127
1,6 0,1109 0,1092 0,1074 0,1057 0,1040 0,1023 0,1006 0,0989 0,0973 0,0957
1,7 0,0940 0,0925 0,0909 0,0893 0,0878 0,0863 0,0848 0,0833 0,0818 0,0804
1,8 0,0790 0,0775 0,0761 0,0748 0,0734 0,0721 0,0707 0,0694 0,0681 0,0669
1,9 0,0656 0,0644 0,0632 0,0620 0,0608 0,0596 0,0584 0,0573 0,0562 0,0551
2,0 0,0540 0,0529 0,0519 0,0508 0,0498 0,0488 0,0478 0,0468 0,0459 0,0449
2,1 0,0440 0,0431 0,0422 0,0413 0,0404 0,0396 0,0387 0,0379 0,0371 0,0363
2,2 0,0355 0,0347 0,0339 0,0332 0,0325 0,0317 0,0310 0,0303 0,0297 0,0290
2,3 0,0283 0,0277 0,0270 0,0264 0,0258 0,0252 0,0246 0,0241 0,0235 0,0229
2,4 0,0224 0,0219 0,0213 0,0208 0,0203 0,0198 0,0194 0,0189 0,0184 0,0180
2,5 0,0175 0,0171 0,0167 0,0163 0,0158 0,0154 0,0151 0,0147 0,0143 0,0139
2,6 0,0136 0,0132 0,0129 0,0126 0,0122 0,0119 0,0116 0,0113 0,0110 0,0107
2,7 0,0104 0,0101 0,0099 0,0096 0,0093 0,0091 0,0088 0,0086 0,0084 0,0081
2,8 0,0079 0,0077 0,0075 0,0073 0,0071 0,0069 0,0067 0,0065 0,0063 0,0061

50

1 ().
x
x

2,9 0,0060 0,0058 0,0056 0,0055 0,0053 0,0051 0,0050 0,0048 0,0047 0,0046
3,0 0,0044 0,0043 0,0042 0,0040 0,0039 0,0038 0,0037 0,0036 0,0035 0,0034
3,1 0,0033 0,0032 0,0031 0,0030 0,0029 0,0028 0,0027 0,0026 0,0025 0,0025
3,2 0,0024 0,0023 0,0022 0,0022 0,0021 0,0020 0,0020 0,0019 0,0018 0,0018
3,3 0,0017 0,0017 0,0016 0,0016 0,0015 0,0015 0,0014 0,0014 0,0013 0,0013
3,4 0,0012 0,0012 0,0012 0,0011 0,0011 0,0010 0,0010 0,0010 0,0009 0,0009
3,5 0,0009 0,0008 0,0008 0,0008 0,0008 0,0007 0,0007 0,0007 0,0007 0,0006
3,6 0,0006 0,0006 0,0006 0,0005 0,0005 0,0005 0,0005 0,0005 0,0005 0,0004
3,7 0,0004 0,0004 0,0004 0,0004 0,0004 0,0004 0,0003 0,0003 0,0003 0,0003
3,8 0,0003 0,0003 0,0003 0,0003 0,0003 0,0002 0,0002 0,0002 0,0002 0,0002
3,9 0,0002 0,0002 0,0002 0,0002 0,0002 0,0002 0,0002 0,0002 0,0001 0,0001

x (x) = (x).

51

2.
1 Rx t2
(x) =
e 2 dt
2 0
x
x

0,0 0,0000 0,0040 0,0080 0,0120 0,0160 0,0199 0,0239 0,0279 0,0319 0,0359
0,1 0,0398 0,0438 0,0478 0,0517 0,0557 0,0596 0,0636 0,0675 0,0714 0,0753
0,2 0,0793 0,0832 0,0871 0,0910 0,0948 0,0987 0,1026 0,1064 0,1103 0,1141
0,3 0,1179 0,1217 0,1255 0,1293 0,1331 0,1368 0,1406 0,1443 0,1480 0,1517
0,4 0,1554 0,1591 0,1628 0,1664 0,1700 0,1736 0,1772 0,1808 0,1844 0,1879
0,5 0,1915 0,1950 0,1985 0,2019 0,2054 0,2088 0,2123 0,2157 0,2190 0,2224
0,6 0,2257 0,2291 0,2324 0,2357 0,2389 0,2422 0,2454 0,2486 0,2517 0,2549
0,7 0,2580 0,2611 0,2642 0,2673 0,2704 0,2734 0,2764 0,2794 0,2823 0,2852
0,8 0,2881 0,2910 0,2939 0,2967 0,2995 0,3023 0,3051 0,3078 0,3106 0,3133
0,9 0,3159 0,3186 0,3212 0,3238 0,3264 0,3289 0,3315 0,3340 0,3365 0,3389
1,0 0,3413 0,3438 0,3461 0,3485 0,3508 0,3531 0,3554 0,3577 0,3599 0,3621
1,1 0,3643 0,3665 0,3686 0,3708 0,3729 0,3749 0,3770 0,3790 0,3810 0,3830
1,2 0,3849 0,3869 0,3888 0,3907 0,3925 0,3944 0,3962 0,3980 0,3997 0,4015
1,3 0,4032 0,4049 0,4066 0,4082 0,4099 0,4115 0,4131 0,4147 0,4162 0,4177
1,4 0,4192 0,4207 0,4222 0,4236 0,4251 0,4265 0,4279 0,4292 0,4306 0,4319
1,5 0,4332 0,4345 0,4357 0,4370 0,4382 0,4394 0,4406 0,4418 0,4429 0,4441
1,6 0,4452 0,4463 0,4474 0,4485 0,4495 0,4505 0,4515 0,4525 0,4535 0,4545
1,7 0,4554 0,4564 0,4573 0,4582 0,4591 0,4599 0,4608 0,4616 0,4625 0,4633
1,8 0,4641 0,4649 0,4656 0,4664 0,4671 0,4678 0,4686 0,4693 0,4699 0,4706
1,9 0,4713 0,4719 0,4726 0,4732 0,4738 0,4744 0,4750 0,4756 0,4761 0,4767
2,0 0,4772 0,4778 0,4783 0,4788 0,4793 0,4798 0,4803 0,4808 0,4812 0,4817
2,1 0,4821 0,4826 0,4830 0,4834 0,4838 0,4842 0,4846 0,4850 0,4854 0,4857
2,2 0,4861 0,4864 0,4868 0,4871 0,4875 0,4878 0,4881 0,4884 0,4887 0,4890
2,3 0,4893 0,4896 0,4898 0,4901 0,4904 0,4906 0,4909 0,4911 0,4913 0,4916
2,4 0,4918 0,4920 0,4922 0,4924 0,4927 0,4929 0,4931 0,4932 0,4934 0,4936
2,5 0,4938 0,4940 0,4941 0,4943 0,4945 0,4946 0,4948 0,4949 0,4951 0,4952
2,6 0,4953 0,4955 0,4956 0,4957 0,4959 0,4960 0,4961 0,4962 0,4963 0,4964
2,7 0,4965 0,4966 0,4967 0,4968 0,4969 0,4970 0,4971 0,4972 0,4973 0,4974
2,8 0,4974 0,4975 0,4976 0,4977 0,4977 0,4978 0,4979 0,4979 0,4980 0,4981
2,9 0,4981 0,4982 0,4982 0,4983 0,4984 0,4984 0,4985 0,4985 0,4986 0,4986

52

2 ().
x
x

3,0

0,498650 0,498736 0,498817 0,498856 0,498893 0,498965

3,1

0,499032 0,499096 0,499155 0,499184 0,499211 0,499264

3,2

0,499313 0,499359 0,499402 0,499423 0,499443 0,499481

3,3

0,499517 0,499550 0,499581 0,499596 0,499610 0,499638

3,4

0,499663 0,499687 0,499709 0,499720 0,499730 0,499749

3,5

0,499767 0,499784 0,499800 0,499807 0,499815 0,499828

3,6

0,499841 0,499853 0,499864 0,499869 0,499874 0,499883

3,7

0,499892 0,499900 0,499908 0,499912 0,499915 0,499922

3,8

0,499928 0,499933 0,499938 0,499941 0,499943 0,499948

3,9

0,499952 0,499956 0,499959 0,499961 0,499963 0,499966

4,0

0,499968 0,499971 0,499973 0,499974 0,499975 0,499977

4,1

0,499979 0,499981 0,499983 0,499983 0,499984 0,499985

4,2

0,499987 0,499988 0,499989 0,499989 0,499990 0,499991

4,3

0,499991 0,499992 0,499993 0,499993 0,499993 0,499994

4,4

0,499995 0,499995 0,499996 0,499996 0,499996 0,499996

4,5

0,499997 0,499997 0,499997 0,499997 0,499997 0,499998

4,6

0,499998 0,499998 0,499998 0,499998 0,499998 0,499999

4,7

0,499999 0,499999 0,499999 0,499999 0,499999 0,499999

4,8

0,499999 0,499999 0,499999 0,499999 0,499999 0,499999

4,9

0,500000 0,500000 0,500000 0,500000 0,500000 0,500000

x (x) = (x).

53

3.
t = t(, n)

0,95

0,999

0,95

2,780 4,600 8,610

15 2,150 2,980 4,140

45

2,016 2,692 3,527

2,570 4,030 6,860

16 2,130 2,950 4,070

50

2,009 2,679 3,502

2,450 3,710 5,960

17 2,120 2,920 4,020

60

2,001 2,662 3,464

2,370 3,500 5,410

18 2,110 2,900 3,970

70

1,996 2,649 3,439

2,310 3,360 5,040

19 2,100 2,880 3,920

80

1,991 2,640 3,418

10 2,260 3,250 4,780

20 2,093 2,861 3,883

90

1,987 2,633 3,403

11 2,230 3,170 4,590

25 2,064 2,797 3,745

100 1,984 2,627 3,392

12 2,200 3,110 4,440

30 2,045 2,756 3,659

120 1,980 2,617 3,374

13 2,180 3,060 4,320

35 2,032 2,720 3,600

0,99

0,999

0,95

0,99

0,99

0,999

1,960 2,576 3,291

4.
q = q(, n)

0,95

0,999

0,95

0,99

0,999

1,370 2,670 5,640

15 0,460 0,730 1,150

45

0,220

0,320

0,460

1,090 2,010 3,880

16 0,440

1,070

50

0,210 0,3000 0,430

0,920 1,620 2,980

17 0,420 0,660 1,010

60

0,188

0,269

0,380

0,800 1,380 2,420

18 0,400 0,630 0,960

70

0,174

0,245

0,340

0,710 1,200 2,060

19 0,390 0,600 0,920

80

0,161

0,226

0,310

10 0,650 1,080 1,800

20 0,370 0,580 0,880

90

0,151

0,211

0,290

11 0,590 0,980 1,600

25 0,320 0,490 0,730

100 0,143

0,198

0,270

12 0,550 0,900 1,450

30 0,280 0,430 0,630

150 0,115

0,160

0,211

13 0,520 0,830 1,330

35 0,260 0,380 0,560

200 0,099

0,136

0,185

14 0,480 0,780 1,230

40 0,240 0,350 0,500

250 0,089

0,120

0,162

0,99

0,999

0,95

0,99

0,70

54


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1. (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2. (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3. t = t(, n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4. q = q(, n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

55