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10

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= 5 6 7 ,
2)
 

11

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0  ",

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lim 0  = 0()


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0  = 9
< 0 .


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)

0,)

0  = : 
0,5 = 0 .

:

1) 0  = || = 0

2) 0  = ; 

, ;  = %0, ; 1, 

12


. .
.
0  % 
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 0  .
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 0
().

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= <  % ,
%  .
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  $ = 0 , = < .

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:

%   .
< :  = <  
< = .
,  . 0 :
$ = 0   0  = 0-<. = .

13

- $ = 0  , 
, 
. $

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2 = 0  $.

. - 0 
, , $ lim 0 , lim 0( ) , 
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: 0  , .

, .

%0 | < :  < ,


(0  0  0( )) .
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= *+ 0  , ..
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+ 
|0 
| < , ..
.

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.
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 = 0  $ , (   $ ) $ $ ,
$ < $  (?!).

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:
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0  =
[, ].
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, 2= = >.

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x .
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= . - %   . 
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lim 0  
.

0  =
lim 0   = 0( ), 0 
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0  =

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% 

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lim 0 
 = lim 

= 0 . 
< < 

n, 0 

0 

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n.
lim 0 

= 0 , lim 


= 0( ), .. 0  =
.
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, 0 + 0 0 
 = 0 0  < 0 + 0 0  0  = 
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- 0  (?!
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).

3. - 0( )
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2, 0  , 0  ().
. -
.

14

-: , , , , , ,
, , , , .

15


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I .
- sin / 0 1.
: 0 < sin < < tg
( 0 < < 8/2) sin
1 < /+ < 1/  .
( 8/2, 8/2), . . -
. - 0 ,
1, sin / 
1.
0
. - 0  = 1 + 
.
:

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( ).
,
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#0  '# < . 
/

:
 = 1 + 1/(1 + )

 = 1 + 1/ .
' (   lim (1 +
1/) = '), , N,

# '# <  #  '# <  ( e).
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0, (
#0  '# < .  = [1/ ].

 <  + 1. 1 + 1/(1 + ) < 1 + < (1 +

1/). -
 ' < 1 + 1/ ' <
 '. (= )
( ).

%   ,
, ,

1. $ =  ,

 = 

 

.


0(  ) = lim (1 + $ ) .

$

 

lim  = lim (1 + $ )

lim (1 + $ ).

$ > 0, $ 0, lim (1 + $ ) = '


.
.

. - 0  = *(1 + )/ = 1 0.
:

lim
= lim ln(1 + )/ = lim ln ' = 1


16

. -
, ,
- .
,
- 0.
: 0 < 0, 0  > 0,
%  = % , |0  < 0.
 =   = ,
. .
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0  > 0. (?!)
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, .
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:  <
< .
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. - , 
:
< = 0
= 
< 0, <  = 0 
= 
> 0.
, 
, 0@
= 0, 0@ =
.

17

,
( )

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, , .
:
: - .

 ,  , 0   > .

- .
-

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.
,  ( 6, .1).
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.
.

18

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( )


% , :
1. %B 0  ,
2.  > 0 %B:
0  >  .
. -
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:

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,
 .
.
 , ..
0  < . -

.
( ) =
 

, .


A ,
,
 

0   . 
( 2- ).
.


19


% ,
 > 0 ( > 0, . .
,  % , |
 | < (:
|0
 0  | < .

1. 0  / %  / . % .
2.
 > 0 (.
3. 0  / %  / - % .

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.
: , -

.  ( (
)

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 0  # .
( = 1/.
  
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# 
 # < 1/, #0   0 

# . - % 

( , ),
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E.
@ , . - D 

E
. -
, .

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)E
0@,

#0- 
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(   ). .

: $ = +(1/ ) / 
, 1,
(0,1)

- , .
-
F = 
- .
. -
,
, -
( )
, , .

20

, , .

, G ,
, + G
. G
.

G$ = 0 + G  0( ).
:
G$ G 0. (lim! $ = 0)
/ .

G 0
( , ).
"()


0
  = lim!
= lim
"



!,
$ ,
,
$ = + ( ) ,
G , G 
.

1 = 2! !,
x
, H1
H1 = 2(!)H!.
= + ( ) : = 0( )G
$; I G ; ()
, G .
.

,
,
.
:
.

$ = + ( ) G . G = 0 (
) .

.
. G 
0
 . -
G 0 , 0.
G G = 0 ( ) G +
(G )G .

21

- , , -.
- -

. - ,
.
: GJ, GK, G$
- J , K( ), $( ) ,

G .

G$ = 0 + G  0( ) /
(J + G K ) / ( J K )
GJ GK.
. - <( ) - t, -
0( ) = <( ). -
$ = 0(<( )) t,
0 (<( ))<( ).
: t
t. G = <( + G ) <( ),
, ,
G$ = 0 + G  0( ).
G$ = 0() G + (G)G. G
, G 0.
G /G , <( ), a
(G) , 0 (G 0 G 0

= <( )).

. - $ = 0 
.
-
0.

$ = 0( )
1/0 ().

: 0( ) -
,
$.

G$ 0,

G = 0  $ + $ +
0  ($). - G
. L!/L = M/(L/L!). G$ 0.

G 0.

G$:
= 0  ($),
+ = 0  ($ + $), $ + $ = 0( + ).
!
= 1/0
( ).
1/
"

- :
(sin ):
-. .
(cos ):
+(/+/2 ).
(tg ):
.
(ctg ):
.
-, .
(log  ):
.
(  ): 1/(log  $).
(arcsin ): 0  ($).
(arccos ): 0  ($).
(arctg ):
0  ($).
(arcctg ): 0  ($).

 # 
= - $%  . = # $%  : .
(. 205)

-. .
-

22

I$ = 0( )I ,
- - = N( )
.

.
: - $ = 0 
- - = <( ).
,
I$ = O0-< .AI , I = < I ,
0-< . = 0
 <
 .

I$ = 0
 <
 I =

 I .

$ = 0( ).
I$ G$. -
, G , :
G$ I$. (G$ I$)/G
.

:
0 +  0  + 0
  ,
(G ) 0( ) .
:

1,01 = %0  = 0
  0 + ; = 1, = 0,01

= 1 + |'  0,01 = 1 + 0,0025 = 1,0025


&

23

, .
,

- 0  , .
0
  ,
.
: I  $ = 0    = 0   |

.  2,
, .
, I  = = I  = 0.
I  $ = 0 () ( )I  ,
.
I  $ = 0 () ( )I  x.
 #  =  1   + 1 #
  () =   ln 

sin  = sin 6 + 7
cos  = cos 6 +





arctg  =
sin Q 6 4 + 7R
 /
!

( 
)

= (I )(1)






! ( + I)() 

: J , K   -.
JK



= S T J K  =


'

= J() K + T J( ) K () + + JK () .


: . ,
()

T =
, T + T = T
.
!

,
$ -
$ = U( ))
(): 9
.
= < 
: I$ = U( )I , I = <( )I .
$( ) = I$/I = U( )/<( ).

24

0  , ( > 0,
.. 0  < 0  (,  0  > 0   , (.
0 
(), ( > 0, .. 0  0  []   .
- .
- 0  > 0, -
.
()
.
: 0
( ) = lim

-

0
 V <
 = 0( ) , V


0
( ) 0 < | | < (. ,
()
> 0,
..
,

3  :

0  < 0  (,  0  > 0   , (.

- .
-
, 0( ) = 0.
:
0( ). -
,
, .

. ,
0( ) = 0.

25

( )

. - 0( )
[, ] .
, , 0() = 0( ).
, 0  = 0.
: -
,

(,  ).
:
 = . 0( ) =  =  =  .
0
.
> . ,

, . - 0( )
. -
0( ) - @,
0.
.
, , ,
,
.

26

( ).

. -
[, ] (, ),
,
0( ) 0() = 0(@)( ).
: [, ]

-
( ) = 0( ) 0()

(
(

( ).

. ,
[, ] , ( ) = 0.
- .
.
,
, .
- :
0  +  0   = 0
  + W ,
  +  [, ] 0 < W < 1.
. -
(, )
0,
- .
: 

. [  , ] [ ,  ]


. 0(  ) = 0( ) (0
 = 0) .
. ,
(, )
, ,

.
:
. 0
( ) 0  
,  <  . -
[  ,  ],
. ..
0@ 0  <  , , ,

0(  ) 0(  ) > 0.

. - -
[, ]. -
,
.
( 24,
).
. , -
,  , 0 
.
: -
, 0@ > 0 .
.
( , + (), ( > 0
0( + 0). ,
,
.
:


lim (0  0( )).
( , + ().
[ , ] .
.
( , )
.
,
.
.

(, ),

,
.
:

, (
).
, -
.

27


( )

(
). - 0  4( )
[, ]
,  , , 4( ) 0
, @ ,  ,

(

*(*

 (+)

* +

: , 4()
4 . ,
@, 4@ = 0,

4 4( ).

-
  = 0  0 X

(
*(*

Y -4( ) 4().. -

, 
. , ,
() = ( ). ( )
: @ , , 
@ = 0.
.

28


( )

T = 3  - 0( ) 4( )
T ,
, 4( ) .

 > 0.

lim 0
 4
  = ,  , /2
 >  :
- 0 
/0 

I 0/0.

lim 0( ) = lim 4  = 0.
lim

 

* 

, lim



*

= lim

 

lim

* 

: %   ,  .
0 = 4 = 0. 0 , 4 
3 .
,  . -
-, 4
  0,
. (, 0 = 4 = 0).
@ ,  , .. 0  4   = 0
( )4
 .
  . .. @ ,  , . .-.
@ .
( )
-
 ,
.
, 0(  )/4(  ) 0(  )/4(  )
.

II

lim

* 

0( ) = lim 4  = .

, lim



*

= lim

 

* 

: , lim

 
* 

= .

%    (  > ),
(  < ). ..  T
@,  , ,  . ,

-. 

/. 

- 0 

/ 0 

*( )/*( )
( )/( )

= 1.

, \ = |(| / > 0,   , ..
/

  :

1/(. )//(. )
1-(. )/-(. )

= M + ]3 , , < \.

 

* 

= +  + , , + , .


( -), , , .

. . ,
lim
lim

 

* 
*


= , lim

= 0,

* 

= 0 I

 

lim
*

= .

. ,
1) T = (,  + (),  + 0;
2) T = , ( ((, +), - = 1^ ,
5 6
 
  = 0-1^ ., lim
= lim
4 7 6

 * 

3) T = ((, +), + - = 1^ , 0 + 0

/.
lim
 

= ? + [3 ,  , |, | < /2.

1/. /. 
1-. -. 

1, 0, 0 0/0,/.
= 0  * , ,
0 1, 0 , 4 0 . $
0. ,
, ,
0/0,
I .

29


( -)

. -
  + 1.
, ,

,
/

. 
, .. :
0  = 0 +

 
  +

!
!
 8 ()
6 7
0
(@)
8
!

 +  ( ),

 () 

   =

.
:

<( , )

,
.
,    = 0  < , .
, ,
   ;
,
( > ).

, ,

U  U( ) =
9
0( ) <( , )   ( ),   = .
: ;

- , 

( 0 () ). ,
U = U  = 0. ,
,  , ..
U@ = 0.

6

!

U  = 0  +

(6)
!

 6
!

  +

  + /   ( ). ,


U  =
+ /   ( ).
!
= @ , U@ = 0,
 .   .
 6



.
: <  ,  = 0  .

30

, .
.

@  ,
0 < W < 1, @  = W , @ =
 (1 W). :
  1 W  ()
0
[ + W ]
   =
! /

/ =  + 1:

:
  ()
0
[ + W ]
   =
( + 1)!

/ = 1:

:
  1 W ()
   =
0
[ + W ]
!


  , .. .

0   1 
 .  ( ) =
0  < , .
,

_1 (!) = `[! " ].

: .. < ,  0  ,



  = 0,   = 0, ,  . -,

lim

9 


= 0.

     -  1
,
 
.
 1
:

lim

9 


9 9 

!



lim 
.

= = lim

9 

!

.   


.
, 0   ,   0: #2 !# a-,
! = b.

|  | = ! |0  W |


||

 ! . 
| <|

31

- - .
- -


 = 0.
0  0 
0
0
++
+  ( )
0  = 00 +
1!
!
:
  ()
0
[ + W ]
   =
( + 1)!
:
  1 W ()
   =
0
[ + W ]
!
-:


 
+    <
'=
' = 1 + + + +
 + 1!
1! 2!
!

 

+ = + + 1
+    <
2 + 1!
 + 2!
3!





+    <
 = 1 + + 1
 + 2!
2!
2!

1


+    <
ln1 +  = + + 1
+1
2


   + 1 
1 + , = 1 + + +
+ (  )
1!
!
 


 4 = + + 1
+    <
 + 2!
3
2 + 1
:

'  =  = 1, |  | ! < '/.
 '
'/.

sin  = ,  = 10&

|  |

/&
!

&

< 10& ,  + 2 = 7.

32

.
.

  -
0  , , ,  -  
-  , 0 .
. -
.
.   0 ,
  0 
  =   + T.
- , 

0 

- 0 
c 0 I .
:
1) I c 0 I = 0 I
2) c I I =   + T
3) c[0  4 ]I = c 0  c 4  ()
4) c[ 0 ]I = c 0 , = 

:
c 1  =  + 
c 0  = 

c   =


+1
+1

+

= ln|| + 

c + I =  + T
)
c ?$@  = 4 + T
)
 + + T )
cB = d

  + T
)
c = ln V + e  1V + T
B 

c  I = + T
)
c ?C  = + T

c   I = > + T
c  I = + + T
)
c @A  = 4 + T
 4 + T )
)
cB = 9
 4 + T

)


) )V + T
c
= ln V






c I =  + T
)
c @C  = + T

33


( , )

.
0  - - % 
%  - -.
4  - %  - f .
- %  - 4< <
 
-, f< .
.

-
0  = 4< < .
:
c ' D + I = c ' 6 I = ' D + T

= < ,

c  = % = 3 E , I = 4375  I  = &F c 6 


 )

)6

c D = c @A  = % = + , I =  I  = c 6


)

D )

)6

.
. - J( ) K( ) -
% 
- K J
 . - % 
- J K
 ,
: c g Hh = gh c h Hg.
. JK
= JK + JK.
I . .. % 
c KJI c(JK)I = JK + T,
c JKI .

c  * I = {J = * , IK =  I IJ =  , K =  }
c  4 I = {J =  4 , IK = I }
i = c '   I = %J = '  , IK =   = j
j c '  + I = %J = '  , IK = + I  = j j& i
.
)

:
I. *< ,  <+I0. J  = *< ,  <.
II. c +  cos , sin , '  . n ,
J  =  + , .
III. c '  sin , cos ;c sin, cos (ln )


i .

34

-
( )


. (,

, ).
G
1.
, Q(x)
H

 . :
G
8
=  + 

H

I()

. . .
=

G

H

+ + + +

-
.

:
k/
.
 1 . .
:
  .
 . I
.

.
   #
= .
.
:
I. l


 + 
 + 

II. l
III. l 
IV. l 
 J
 + / + \K
+ / + \

I II = .
III
 + / + \ = 6 + 7 + (\


 = e\

/ /4.

: c



  L

).

= + ,

+ 6
c
 6 

&

6 )6




7c

)6
6 

IV


6 )6
, : c 
c +
=
6




7c

)6

(6  )

. i = c

 L
)(6  )
(6  )

, jK = c

(6  )
)6

(6  )

i , jK

: jK =


(6  6 ))6
(6  )

jK

%2 , J =  =



)(6  )

(6  )

 K6  

c (6 ) =
 )6

=
+

K
 K

jK

- -
-

35

-  m , n

(

)

I 0

t= e( + )/( + I), =

)6 (
6

, I =

)(6
6 

I .

( ,   + + )
:
  + + =  I ( > 0)
: =

  + + =

6 (6
6(

, I = 2

6 (6

:6(;

6 

6(

I .

  + + = - II ( > 0)
=



B (

=



 




,   + + =

6 (6


N2 OPN+QO
= 2   .

III (   )

, 
+  +  =

1 2 
2

,  =

2

,

  
.
 

sin , cos 

= 4 :
sin  =

 

 = 2arc tg,



cos  =

 =




 






l sin, cos  I

,  & = sin .
,  :
1)   , = sin , cos
2) ,  (), = tg , ctg
3) ,  > 0 ,
@A 
?$@ 
?$@ 
,sin =
, cos  =
sin cos =


sinR cos (SR)


( = 2p,  = 2q,  )


1.

.
() () .............................................................. 3

2.

.
. ........................................................................ 4

3.

. ............ 5

4.

. .............................. 6

5.

(). , , ............... 7

6.

. . ..................................... 8

7.

-. -.
- ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.

( ) - ........................................... 10

9.

- ( ) .
.................................................................................................................................................. 11

10. , .
- . . -. ..................................................... 12
11. .
. ................................................................. 13
12. . ............................................................................................... 14
13. . ................................................................................. 15
14. .............................................................................................................................. 16
15. . .......................................................................................................................... 17
16. .................................................................................................. 18
17. , ( ) ..................................................................................... 19
18. , , ( ) ................... 20
19. . .................................................................................................................................... 21
20. ......................................................................................................................... 22
21. - , , -. - -......... 23
22. -. .
-...................................................................................... 24
23. , . , ........ 25
24. .
................................................................................................ 26
25. ( ) ................................................................................................ 27
26. ( ). ................................................................................. 28
27. ( ) ........................................................................................................................... 29
28. ( ) .............................................................................................................................................. 30
29. ( -)....................................................................................... 31
30. , . ......................................................................................... 32
31. - - .
- - .............................................................................. 33
32. . .
..................................................................................................................................................................... 34
33. ( , ) ................................................................................. 35
34. - ( ) ............................................ 36
35. - - - .................................................... 37