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-

(, 710 2009)

31.27-05
621.316.925:681.5:621.311(06)
56

ISBN 978-5-903564-03-3

.., ..,
.. , 2009
-
, 2009



. , . , . (Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
400

. , . (ABB AB, SA Products, ), . (Svenska Kraftnat, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


.. , .. , . - (Cairo University, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

.. , .. (Cooper Power Systems, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39


.. , .. (Cooper Power Systems, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49


.. (NTB Technoservice, ), . , . (Siemens AG, ),
. (CHEFS, ), . (FURNAS, ),
. (ELETRONORTE, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

.. , .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
6750
.. , .. , .. , .. ( , ). . . . . . . . . 79


.. , .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
635

.. , .. , .. ,
.. ( , ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90


.. (, ), .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

.. , .. ( , ),
.. ( , ), .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . 105
:
.. , .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
3



. , . (GE Digital Energy, ), . (RasGas, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122


.. (, ), .. (
, ), .. (, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

.. (Comision Federal de Electricidad, ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
off-line on-line
. , . , . (Texas A&M University, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
,

. (University of Magdeburg, ), . (Fraunhofer Institute
for Factory Operation and Automation Magdeburg, ), . (University
of Magdeburg, ), . (Siemens AG, ), A. (Virginia Tech, ) . . . . . 160


.. ( , ),
.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

.. , .. ( , ), .. ( , ),
.. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

.. , .. , .. , .. (, ),
.. ( , ), .. ,
.. ( ZHERSU, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182


.. , .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
:
. , . , . (Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

. , . (ABB AB, SA Products, ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209


.. (TNS Gallup, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
GOOSE- IEC 61850
. , . , . (Siemens AG, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

, 710 2009 .

GOOSE- IEC 61850



. , . (ABB AB, SA Products, ), . (HEP, ),
. (Koncar, ), . (ABB, ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

61850
. (GE Digital Energy, ), . , . (GE Digital Energy, ) . . . . . 256
,
IEC 61850
. (Federal University of Campina Grande, ), . (CHESF, ),
. (Federal University of Campina Grande, ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265


.. , .. , .. , .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

IEC 61850-9.2
. (AREVA T&D, ), . (AREVA T&D, ),
. (AREVA T&D, ), . (AREVA T&D, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

.. , .. , .. , .. ( , ),
.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
, .
IEC 61850
.. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. ( -, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

.. , .. (, ), .. (, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

. (ABB AB, SA Products, ), . (Megger Sweden AB, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

. , . (ABB AB, SA Products, ),
. (ABB AG, Transformers, ), . (ELEQ bv, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

.. , .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
220750
.. , .. ( , ),
.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
-
.. , .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

,

. (GE Digital Energy, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353


. (GE Digital Energy, ), . ,
. (Powertech IST Energy, ),
. , . , . , . (Eskom, ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

. , . (GE Digital Energy, ),
. (Scottish Power, ), . (GSS, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378


.. , .. (
. . , ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

()
.. ( EFR , ), .. ( , ),
.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395


.. , .. (
. . , ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401


.. , .. , .. ,
.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409


.. (, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416


.. , .. , .. (, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
100-
.. , .. , .. (, ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

.. ( , ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439

.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

, 710 2009 .


web-,

. (Vattenfall Europe, ), . (NetCeler, ),
. (Siemens AG, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
100%- ,
,
.. , .. (, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470

.. , .. , .. ( , ), .. ,
.. , .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475


.. (NTB Technoservice, ), . (Siemens AG, ),
. (University of Magdeburg, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
,

. , . , . (Areva T&D, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492

. , . (Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

.. , .. , .. ( , ), .. ,
.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511

.. , .. ( ,
, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518

PMU
.. , .. , .. ( , ), . ,
. ( , ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

-
.. , .. , .. , ..
( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535

.. , .. ( , ), .. , .. ,
.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543


.. ( , ), .. ,
.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547


.. ( , ), .. ,
.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555

-
.. , .. , .. ( ,
), .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
-

.. , .. , .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568


.. , .. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576

500

.. , .. ( , ), .. ,
.. ( , ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
(PMU)

. , . , . (Areva T&D, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594


.-. (Siemens AG, ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603

. (Siemens AG, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613


.. , .. , .. , .. (, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623

, 710 2009 .



ROY MOXLEY, KEN FODERO, AND HECTOR J. ALTUVE
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

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, 710 2009 .


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[1] C.R. Mason, The Art and Science of Protective Relaying, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1956.
[2] SEL-421 Reference Manual, p. R.1.109. :
http://www.selinc.com/instruction_manual.htm.
[3] D. Carroll, J. Dorfner, T. Lee, and K. Fodero, Resolving Digital Line Current Differential Relay Security
and Dependability Problems: A Case History, proceedings of the 29th Annual Western Protective Relay
Conference, Spokane, WA, October 2002.
[4] S. Sanchez, A. Dionicio, M. Monjaras, M. Guel, G. Gonzalez, O. Vazquez, J. Estrada, H.J. Altuve,
I. Muoz, I. Yanez, and P. Loza, Directional Comparison Protection Over Radio Channels for
Subtransmission Lines: Field Experience in Mexico, proceedings of the 34th Annual Western Protective
Relay Conference, Spokane, WA, October 2007.
[5] R. Hunt, M. Adamiak, A. King, and S. McCreery, Application of Digital Radio for Distribution Pilot
Protection and Other Applications, proceedings of the 34th Annual Western Protective Relay Conference,
Spokane, WA, October 2007.
[6] Using Spread Spectrum Radio Communications for Power System Protection Relaying Applications,
IEEE/PSRC Working Group H2, July 2005.
[7] M. Gugerty, R. Jenkins, and D. Dolezilek, Case Study Comparison of Serial and Ethernet Digital
Communications Technologies for Transfer of Relay Quantities, proceedings of the DistribuTECH
Conference and Exhibition, San Diego, CA, February 2007.

(Ken Fodero)
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL)
. , . SEL Pulsar Technology, . , . Pulsar Technology
15 RFL Electronics,
.
(Roy Moxley) BSEE .
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL) 2000 . SEL General Electric ,
(T&D), .
, ,
,
.
. (Hector J. Altuve) BSEE 1969
, , , Ph.D. 1981 ,
. , . 1969 1993 Dr. Altuve
. Graduate Doctoral Program
, , , 1993
2000 . 1999 2000 Schweitzer , . 2001 Dr. Altuve
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL),
.
100 , . , . Dr. Altuve IEEE
PES.
22

, 710 2009 .


400
Z. GAJIC, ABB AB, SA Products, , zoran.gajic@se.abb.com
I. BRNCIC, ABB AB, SA Products, , ivo.brncic@se.abb.com
F. RIOS, Svenska Kraftnt, , fidel.rios@svk.se


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, 710 2009 .


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IDIFF L1 RMS

IDIFF L2 RMS

IDIFF L3 RMS

NEG SEQ DIFF

one

5000

d)

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-5000

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L3-DIFF

. 6: L2- 7 1

6.
,
. .
.
.


[1] ABB Document 1MRK 505 186-UEN, Application manual, Line differential protection IED RED 670 ,
Product version: 1.1, ABB Power Technologies AB, Vsters, Sweden, Issued: March 2007.
[2] Z. Gaji, I. Brni, T. Einarsson, B. Ludqvist: Practical Experience from Multiterminal Line Differential
Protection Installations, International Conference on Relay Protection and Substation Automation of
Modern EHV Power Systems, Moscow Cheboksary, Russia, September 2007.
[3] S. Holst, I. Brni, D. Shearer, R. Mangelred, K. Koreman: Problems and Solutions for AC Transmission
Line Protection under Extreme Conditions caused by Very Long HVDC Cables, Study Committee B5
Colloquium, Madrid, Spain, October 2007.
[4] ABB Document 1MRK 506 081-UEN, Technical reference manual, Line differential and distance
protection Terminal REL 561, Product version: 2.3, ABB Automation Products AB, Vsters, Sweden,
Issued: 2001.
29



TAMER S. KAMEL, M.A. MOUSTAFA HASSAN,
AHDAB EL-MORSHEDY
*Electrical Power and Machines Department,
Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
Arab Republic of EGYPT
Corresponding E-Mail: mmustafa@eng.cu.edu.eg


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32

, 710 2009 .

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33

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34

, 710 2009 .

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36

, 710 2009 .

5.2.3.
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. 4:

[1] Sunil S. Rao, Switchgear and Protection, 10th Edition, KHANNA Publishers, Delhi, 1994.
[2] W. Mark Carpenter IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Transmission Lines, IEEE Std
C37.113, 1999.
[3] Jacek M. Zurada, Introduction to Artificial Neural Systems,1st Edition, PWS Publishing Company,
Boston, 1995.
[4] Kevin M. Passino and Stephen Yurkovich, Fuzzy Control, 1st Edition, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.,
California, 1998.
[5] Dalia Farouk Mohamed, A New Design of an Intelligent Digital Distance Protective Relay PhD
Dissertation Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Cairo University, 2007.
[6] SlavkoVasilic, Fuzzy Neural Network Pattern Recognition Algorithms For Classification Of The events
In Power System Network, PhD Dissertation Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M
University 2004.
[7] Abeer Galal Saad ,Digital Relaying of High Voltage Transmission Lines by Artificial Neural Networks,
Master Dissertation Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Cairo University 2004.
[8] P.K. Dash, A.K. Pradhan, and G. Panda: A Novel Fuzzy Neural Network Based Distance Relaying
Scheme, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 902-907, 2000.
[9] D.V. Coury and D.C. Jorge, Artificial Neural Network Approach to Distance Protection IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 102-108, 1998.
[10] Huisheng Wang and W. W. Keerthipala, Fuzzy-Neuro Approach to Fault Classification for Transmission
Line Protection IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 1093-1104, 1998.
[11] M. Jayabharata Reddy and D.K. Mohanata, Performance Evaluation of Adaptive Network Based Fuzzy
Inference System Approach for Location of Faults on Transmission Lines Using Monte Carlo Simulation.
This paper has been accepted for publication in a future issue of IEEE journal, but has not been fully
edited, 2007.
[12] MATLAB R2008a.
[13] ATPDraw version 3.5.
[14] Tamer S. Kamel, and M. A. Moustafa Hassan, On-Line Trained Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference
System for Distance Relay of Transmission line Protection, Accepted for presentation at The 2009 World
Congress on Electronics and Electrical Engineering, (WCEEENG09), April 6-9, 2009, Cairo, Egypt.
[15] Tamer S. Kamel, and M.A. Moustafa Hassan, Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System For Fault
Location in Transmission Lines, Accepted for presentation at The 2009 World Congress on Electronics
and Electrical Engineering, (WCEEENG09), April 6-9, 2009, Cairo, Egypt.
38

, 710 2009 .

. , T. 2

Cooper Power Systems


USA


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Ljubomir.Kojovic@CooperIndustries.com
Marty.Bishop@CooperIndustries.com Marty.Bishop@CooperIndustries.com

39

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44

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, 710 2009 .

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. ( , , ,
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- IEEE, IEEE
CIGRE.
-38
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8 150 .
. Cooper Power Systems
. ,
, .
AdPro,
Cooper Power Systems. Cooper Power Systems
, ,

. B.S.E.P.E. M.S.E.P.E. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New
York MBA The Keller School of Management.

[1] Lj. A. Kojovic, M. T. Bishop, Field Experience with Differential Protection of Power Transformers Based
on Rogowski Coil Current Sensors, Actual Trends in Development of Power System Protection and
Automation 7-10 September 2009, Moscow, Russia.
[2] ANSI /IEEE Standard C57.13, Requirements for Instrument Transformers.
[3] IEEE Std C37.235, Guide for the Application of Rogowski Coils used for Protective Relaying Purposes.
[4] IEEE Std C37.92, Analog Inputs to Protective Relays from Electronic Voltage and Current Transducers.
[5] IEC Standard 60044-8, Instrument transformers Part 8: Electronic current transformers.
[6] Lj. A. Kojovic, Innovative Non-conventional Current Transformers for Advanced Substation Designs
and Improved Power System Performance, CIGRE 2008, Paris, France, 2008.
48

, 710 2009 .




LJUBOMIR A. KOJOVIC , MARTIN T. BISHOP
1

Cooper Power Systems


USA

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Marty.Bishop@CooperIndustries.com
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, 710 2009 .

Power
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52

, 710 2009 .

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, 710 2009 .

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. ( , , ,
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Cooper Power Systems. Cooper Power Systems
, ,

. B.S.E.P.E. M.S.E.P.E. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New
York MBA The Keller School of Management.
58

, 710 2009 .

[1] Lj.A. Kojovic, M.T. Bishop, Advanced Protective Relaying Based on Rogowski Coil Current Sensors,
Actual Trends in Development of Power System Protection and Automation 7-10 September 2009,
Moscow, Russia.
[2] IEEE Document C37.235, Guide for the Application of Rogowski Coils used for Protective Relaying
Purposes.
[3] IEEE Standard C37.92, Analog Inputs to Protective Relays from Electronic Voltage and Current
Transducers.
[4] IEC Standard 60044-8, Instrument transformers Part 8: Electronic current transformers.
[5] Lj.A. Kojovic, M.T. Bishop, D. Sharma, C. Birkbeck, Application of Differential Protection on Electric
Arc Furnace and Substation Transformers, Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition, May
5-8, 2008, Pittsburgh, PA.

59




B.M. BUCHHOLZ, NTB Technoservice
V. HENN, R. KREBS, Siemens AG
G. ARRUDA, CHEFS
R. DUTRA, FURNAS
P. CAMPOS, ELETRONORTE


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66

, 710 2009 .

5.

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IF2 = VS / XL ( 1 / (0.1 + 1.0)) = 0.91 VS / XL
68

, 710 2009 .

DIFF = | 1.66 + 0.91 | VS / XL = 0.75 VS / XL


STAB =( | 1.66 | + | 0.91 | ) VS / XL = 2.57 VS / XL.
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[1] Johns, A.T.: Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). ISBN 0-85296-771-3, IEE, UK.
[2] Anderson, P.M.; Farmer R.G.: Series Compensation in Power Systems, ISBN 1-888747-01-3, PBLSH,
Encinitas, CA, 1996.
[3] Kimbark, E.W.: Improvement of System Stability by Switched Series Capacitors. IEEE Summer Power
Meeting, Detroit, 20. June 2. July, 1965, pp. 180-188.
[4] Krebs, R.; Kumar, A.; Pretorius, C.; Retzmann, D.: Real-Time System Studies for FACTS and Protection. International Conference on Power System Technology (ICPST), Beijing, China, 1994.
[5] Krebs, R.; Kumar, A.; Retzmann, D.: Real-Time Simulation for Evaluation of Transmission Line Protection
Under Transient Conditions. 8th National Power System Conference (NPSC), New Delhi, 1994.
70

, 710 2009 .

[6] Hofmann, S.; Krebs, R.; Kumar, A.; Wokusch, M.: A Novel Series-Capacitor Bank Protection Scheme.
Validity Tests with RTDS. 3rd International Conference on Digital Power System Simulators (ICDS),
Vasteras, Sweden, 1999.
[7] Claus, M.; Holbach, J.; Krebs, R.: Fast Protection Under Difficult Conditions. Real-Time Testing of
Protection Relays on Series Compensated Lines. 12th International Conference on Power System Protection, (PSP 2000), Bled, Slovenja, 27th-29th September, 2000.
[8] Ziegler, G.: Numerical Distance Protection Principles and Application. ISBN 978-3-89578-318-0,
Publicis, Erlangen, 2008.
[9] Ziegler, G.: Numerical Differential Protection Principles and Application. ISBN 3-89578-234-3, Publicis, Erlangen, 2005.
[10] Krebs, R.; Henn, V.; Holbach, J.; Morais, P.; Arruda, G.: Series Capacitors and Distance Protection
Subsynchronous Frequencies and Real-Time Test of Distance Protection Relays. CIGRE B05 National
Conference, 9th-16th September 2005, Calgary.

71


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76

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tn-1 tn.

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78

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88

, 710 2009 .

UA = 20920 0
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[3] .. . .: , 2006.
[4] .., ..
// . 2007. 7. . 3137.
[5] : . . . 2-, .
. / . .. . .: , 2007.

98

, 710 2009 .




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[1] .. . .-.:
, 1965. 210 .
[2]
/ .. , .. , .. , .. . ,
1967, 12, . 3943.
[3] .., ..
. , 1971, 4, . 2732.
[4] .., .. . .: , 1983. 184 .
[5] Haeg H., Forster M. Elektronischer Sammelschienenschutz. Brown Boveri Mitteilungen, Bd. 53, Nr
4/5, 1965, s. 326339.
[6] Evans F.J., Wells G. Use of Sampling to Detect Transient Saturation in Protective Current Transformers.
IEEE Transaction on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. im-19, no 3, august 1970, s. 144147.
[7] ..
110220 // . . ... . .
. , 2002, 22 .
[8] .., ..
. .: , 2003, 39 .
[9] .., .., .. . . 1.
, . , 2006, 10, . 210.
[10] ..
// . . ... . . . , 2009, 23 .
[11] ..
. , 1975, 7, . 7477.

104

, 710 2009 .


.. , .. , ..

..

romanov_uv@ic-bresler.ru

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106

, 710 2009 .

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2.4.
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108

, 710 2009 .

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110

, 710 2009 .

(6)
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3.
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,
. (
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.
2.
;

.
3. ,
.
.
4.
.

[1] ..
// 66343, 1944.
[2] .. . .: ,
1957.
[3] .. . .: , 1976.
[4] .., .., ., ..
// , 2009, 1, . 3244.
[5] .., .., .. //
, 1999, 3, . 8-15.
[6] .., .., .., .., . . . 1, 2, 3 // , 2001, 2, . 16-23; 3, . 16-24; 12,
. 9-22.
[7] Liamets Y., Efimov E., Nudelman G., Zakonjek J. The principle of relay protection information perfection // CIGRE SC 34 Colloquium, Romania, Sibiu, 2001, Paper 112.
[8] .. . .: , 1987.
[9] Liamets Y., Ivanov S., Podchivaline A., Nudelman G., Zakonjek J. Informational analysis new relay
protection tool // Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Power System Protection, Slovenia, Bled, 2002, P. 197-210.

111

:

.., ..

klimatova_is@ic-bresler.ru


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116

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118

, 710 2009 .
Rf

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119

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5.
1. , ,
. , , .
2. ,
,
.
,
.
3. ,
,
.

[1] Liamets Y., Podchivaline A., Chevelev A., Nudelman G., Zakonjsek J. Informational tasks of relay protection // CIGRE SC B5 Colloquium, Sydney, Australia, 2003. Paper 213.
[2] .., .., .., .., Zakonjsek J.
//
2002: . XV - . ., 2002. . 93-97.
[3] Liamets Y., Ivanov S., Podchivaline A., Nudelman G., Zakonjsek J. Informational analysis new relay
protection tool // Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Power System Protection, Bled, Slovenia, 2002. P. 197-210.
[4] Liamets Y., Podchivaline A., Ivanov S., Nudelman G. Interval transform of information and its applications in relay protection // Proc. Int. Conf. IEEE St-Petersburg PowerTech, Saint-Petersburg, Russia,
2005. Report 31.
[5] .., .., .., Zakonjsek J.
// . . 2002, 6. . 65.
[6] Liamets Y., Ivanov S, Nudelman G. The phenomena of uncertainty and ambiguity in identification of
faults in electrical systems // CIGRE, Session B5 papers, Colloquium and meeting, Calgary, Canada,
2005, Report 312. P. 1-7.
[7] . . 7. 35-750 //
. .. .. . .: , 1966, 172 .
[8] .., .., .. // . -. .
, ,
,
70- . , , () , ., 19-20 . 2001, - . . 106-111.
[9] Liamets Y., Kerzhaev D., Ivanov S., Podchivaline A., Zakonjsek J., Nudelman G. Electrical power system
conditions hierarhy in metodology of relay protection education // CIGRE SC B5 Colloquium, Madrid,
Spain, 2007.
[10] Modelling an Impedance Relay using a Real Time Digital Simulator // Proc. 8th Annual Conference on
Developments in Power System Protection DPSP 2004, Amsterdam Netherlands. P. 665-668.
[11] Implementation of Dynamic Distance Relay Scheme Evaluation Testing Guidelines using Analogue and
Real Time Digital Simulators // Presented at DPSP 2001, Netherlands, April 2001.
120

, 710 2009 .

[12] Apostolov A., Vandiver B., Tholomier D. Testing of distance protection relays // Conference CIGRE Relay Protection and Substation Automation of Modern Power Systems, Cheboksary, Russia, 2007, Report
S2-4.
[13] .., ..
-51// Conference
CIGRE Relay Protection and Substation Automation of Modern Power Systems, Cheboksary, Russia,
2007, Report S2-3.

121




,
GE Digital Energy,

RasGas,
Jorge.Cardenas@ge.com

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124

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10,2345953

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1,060670344

4,221467968

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11,8017689

17,8207918

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31,6814076

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128

, 710 2009 .

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129

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RTDS

.


[1] Application of Current Differential Protection to Tapped Transmission Lines. B. Kaztenny, Ilia Voloh,
M. Adamiak, J. Zeek. GE Multilin. 54th Annual Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. College
Station, USA, April 3-5, 2001.
[2] An Improved Transformer Restrain Algorithm Bogdan Kasztenny, Ara Kulidjian. GER-3989 GE
Multilin.
[3] Applying Distance Protection to Cable Circuits. B. Kasztenny I. Voloh, J.G. Hubertus. GE Multilin.
[4] RasGas Fault Analysis. J. Cardenas. GE Multilin. May 2006.


Universidad de Ingenieria () 1977
MBA Universidad Politecnica de Madrid () 1998 .
Utility Electroperu () ,
1987 ABB (), , - . 1989
GE, .
GE Digital Energy-Multilin. ,
.
B5.31 Cigre.
Bangalore University () 1997 .
GE Power controls 1998 ,
2002 , .
2005 Siemens ( ), . 2006 GE Digital Energy-Multilin
.
Mapua Institute of Technology ()
1982 . 1983 National Power Corporation
( Philippine Nuclear Power Plant). 1992
Saudi Consolidated Electric Company,
. 1995 Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority , 2007 . 2007
RasGas Company Limited (RasGas), .

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ENRIQUE MARTINEZ MARTINEZ
Comision Federal de Electricidad CFE
Mexico
E-mail: Enrique.martinez03@cfe.gob.mx

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[1] Enrique Martinez M. and J.J. Lopez M. Application of Phasor Measurement Units in the Adaptive
Protection of Interconnected Systems, Power Systems and Communication Systems Infrastructures For
the Future, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China, September 2327, 2002.
ez, Nicolas Juarez, Armando Guzman, Greg Zweigle, and Jean Leon, Using Synchronized
[2] Enrique Martin
Phasor Angle Difference for Wide-Area Protection and Control WPRC, Spokane, WA, USA 2006.
[3] Joana Rasmussen and Preben Jorgensen Synchronized Phasor Measurements of Power System Event in
Eastern Denmark IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 21, No.1, February 2006.
[4] Enrique Martinez Analysis of Contingencies with PMUs, Causes and Effects in Power Systems and
Their Components CRIS, Third International Conference on Critical Infrastructures, Alexandria, VA,
September 2006.
[5] Daniel Karlsson and Xavier Waymel System Protection Schemes in Power Networks Task Force 38.02.19
CIGRE, June 2001.
[6] IEEE Synchrophasors for Power Systems, IEEE Standard C37.118-2005.
[7] S.H. Horowitz, A.G. Phadke, and J.S. Thorp, Adaptive Transmission System Relaying Paper N 87 SM
625-77, in Proc. IEEE PES Summer Meeting, San Francisco, CA, July 1987.
[8] V. Centeno, J. De La Ree, A.G. Phadke, G. Michel, R.J. Murphy, and R. Burnett, Adaptive out-of-step
relaying using phasor measurement techniques Memoria T ecnica del Segundo Simposio Iberoamericano
sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia, Monterrey, N.L., Mexico, 14 al 19 de Noviembre
de 1993.
[9] Enrique Martinez Wide Area Measurement & Control System in Mexico The Third International
Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies Nanjing China
6-9 April 2008.
[10] Enrique Martinez SIMEFAS: A Phasor Measurement System for the Security and Integrity of Mexicos
Electric Power System IEEE power & Energy Society 2008 General Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
USA 20-24 July 2008.

Enrique Martinez Martinez


1986 . 1986 (
). ,
CFE, . 1995 1998
Martinez Transmission Project Coordination CEF
. 1998 2005

CEF. 2005 CEF.

149


- -
MLADEN KEZUNOVIC, JINFENG REN, CHENGZONG PANG
Texas A&M University
U.S.A
kezunov@ece.tamu.edu

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.

[1] U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force, Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the
United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations, April 5, 2004. [Online]. Available: http://
www. nerc.com
[2] N. Zhang and M. Kezunovic, A Real Time Fault Analysis Tool for Monitoring Operation of Transmission
Line Protective Relay, Electric Power Systems Research Journal, Vol. 77, No. 3-4, pp. 361-370, March
2007.
[3] O.A.S. Youssef, Fault Classification Based on Wavelet Transforms, IEEE T&D Conf., Atlanta, GA,
Oct. 28Nov.2 2001.
[4] J. Jiang, C. Chen, C. Liu, A New Protection Scheme for Fault Detection, Direction Discrimination,
Classification, and Location in Transmission Lines, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 3442, 2004.
[5] A.A. Girgis, M.B. Johns, A Hybrid Expert System for Faulted Section Identification, Fault Type Classification and Selection of Fault Location Algorithms, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 4, No. 1,
pp. 978-985, 1996.
[6] M. Kezunovic, J. Ren, New Test Methodology for Evaluating Protective Relay Security and Dependability, IEEE PES General Meeting, Pittsburgh, July 2008.
[7] P.G. McLaren, C. Henville, V. Skendzic, A. Girgis, M. Sachdev, G. Benmouyal, K. Mustaphi, M. Kezunovic, Lj. Kojovic, M. Meisinger, C. Simon, T. Sidhu, R. Marttila, D. Tziouvaras, Software Models
for Relays, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 238-246, April 2001.
[8] M. Kezunovic, B.A. Pickett, M.G. Adamiak, G.E. Alexander, K.R. Carr, G. Chirco, J. Esztergalyos,
M. Jerosolimski, W.C. Kotheimer, R. Marttila, J.L. McElray, S.M. McKenna, P.G. McLaren, R.J. Murphy,
J. Nordstrom, Digital Simulator Performance Requirements for Relay Testing, IEEE Transactions on
Power Delivery, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 78-84, January 1998.
158

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[9] Power System Relaying Committee, EMTP Reference Models for Transmission Line Relay Testing
Report, draft 10a, Dec. 2004. [Online]. Available: http://www.pes-psrc.org
[10] M. Kezunovic, Y.Q. Xia, Y. Guo, C.W. Fromen, D.R. Sevcik, Distance Relay Application Testing Using
a Digital Simulator, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 72-82, January 1997.
[11] S.K.M. Kodsi, C.A. Canizares, Modeling and Simulation of IEEE 14 Bus System with FACTS Controllers, Technical Report 2003-3, Waterloo, Canada, 2003. [Online]. Available: http://www.power.
uwaterloo.ca
[12] IEEE Standard Common Format for Transient Data Exchange (COMTRADE), IEEE Standard C37.1111999, March 1999.
[13] Test Laboratories International, Inc. Relay Assistant-Digital Simulator Software, 2004. [Online]. Available:
http://www.tli-inc.com.
[14] S. Vasilic, M. Kezunovic, Fuzzy ART Neural Network Algorithm for Classifying the Power System
Faults, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 1306-1314, April 2005.
[15] M. Kezunovic, B. Perunicic, Automated Transmission Line Fault Analysis Using Synchronized Sampling
at Two Ends, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1996.
[16] M. Kezunovic, and C. Pang, Improved Transmission Line Protection During Cascading Events, CIGRE
B5 Colloquium, Madrid, Spain, October 2007.
[17] N. Zhang, M. Kezunovic, Verifying the Protection System Operation Using an Advanced Fault
Analysis Tool Combined with the Event Tree Analysis, NAPS2004, 36th Annual North American Power
Symposium, Moscow, Idaho, August, 2004.
[18] J. Giarratano, G. Riley, Expert Systems Principles and Programming, PWS Publishing Company, Boston,
1994.
[19] X. Luo, M. Kezunovic, An Expert System for Diagnosis of Digital Relay Operation, 13th Conference
on Intelligent Systems Application to Power Systems, Washington DC, USA, November 2005.
[20] J.C. Giarratano, CLIPS Users Guide, Version 6.20, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston,
TX, 2002.
[21] PSerc Project S29 Final Report Part I, Detection, Prevention and Mitigation of Cascading Events,
PSerc Publication 08-18. [Online] Available: http://www.pserc.org.
[22] C. Pang, M. Kezunovic, Information Management System for Detecting Cascading Events, PowerCon
2008 and 2008 IEEE Power India Conference, New Delhi, India, October, 2008.

159


,


MARCIN GURBIEL
Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg,
PRZEMYSLAW KOMARNICKI
Fraunhofer Institute for Factory Operation and Automation,

ZBIGNIEW STYCZYNSKI
Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg,
JOERG BLUMSCHEIN
Siemens AG,
ARUN PHADKE
Virginia Tech.,

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.

[1] North American SynchronPhasor Initiatibe (NASPI), Performance and Standards Task Team (PSTT),
PMU System Testing and Calibration Guide, 5 November 2007.
[2] IEEE Standard for Synchronphasors for Power Systems (IEEE C37.118TM-2005, revision of IEEE Std
1344TM-1995), Power System Relaying Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society, Approved
1 February 2006 American National Standards Institute Approved 21 October 2005.
[3] IEC 61850-9-2 Communication networks and systems in substations Part 9-2: Specific Communication
Service Mapping (SCSM) Sampled values over ISO/IEC 8802-3, Apr 1, 2004.
[4] Instrument transformers Part 8: Electronic current transformers, IEC 60044-8, July 2002.
[5] IEC 61000-4-13 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4-13: Testing and measurement techniques
Harmonics and interharmonics including mains signaling at a.c. power port, low frequency immunity
tests.
[6] Phadke, A.; Kasztenny, B.; Synchronized Phasor and Frequency Measurement Under Transient Conditions, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, January 2009.
[7] Komarnicki, P.; Dzienis, C.; Styczynski, Z.A.; Blumschein, J.; Centeno V.: Practical Experience with
PMU System Testing and Calibration Requirements. IEEE General Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
USA, July 2008.
169

[8] Komarnicki, P.; Dzienis, C.; Styczynski, Z. A.; Phadke, A.; Blumschein, J.; Optimized Testing Procedures
for Phasor Measurement Units. APE Conference, Subsection II.2, pp. 145-152, Jurata, Poland, 13-15
June 2007.
[9] J. Depablos, V. Centeno, Arun G. Phadke, M. Ingram, Comparative Testing of Synchronized Phasor
Measurement Units, IEEE Power Engineering Society, 2004.

170

, 710 2009 .




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[2] . . . ., ,
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[3] Ernst L.J., Hinman W.L., Quam D.H., and Thorp J.S. Charge Comparison Protection of Transmission
Lines Relaying Concepts, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 7, No 4, October 1992, pp. 18341852.
[4] Tziouvaras D.A., Altuve H., Benmouyal G., Roberts J., Line Differential Protection with an Enhanced
Characteristic, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. 2350 NE Hopkins Court, Pullman, WA 99163
USA.
[5] .., .., .., .. , - //
, 2, 2003.
[6] .., .. 110-750 . CIGRE Relay protection and Substation Automation of Modern EHV Power Systems (Moscow
Cheboksary, September 10-12, 2007).

197

:

BOB MORRIS, ROY MOXLEY, AND CHRISTINA KUSCH
SCHWEITZER ENGINEERING LABORATORIES, INC.
- ,
. , ,
.
.
, .
, ,
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2.
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1.

198

, 710 2009 .

. 1:
10-6

300

100

100

()

10

50

( )

20

. 1:
;
4, 4.1.

, 1
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(. 5) 2 2010-6 .
1 ,
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-
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30 . (MTTR)
- . -
9010-6.
199

. , 32 ( , , , ):
( ) + ( ) + (( +
+ - ) ( +
+ -
)) + ( . ) + (32 ) =
, 2 1.

, ,

(30010-6)+(31010-6)+(5010-6)

0.00038

(10010-6+10010-6+9110-6) (10010-6+
+10010-6+9010-6)

0.00000008

322010-6

0.00064

0.00038 + 0.00000008 + 0.00064

0.0010208

. 2: 1

32-
.

3.

. , , [3].

3.1.
KD,
IRD-8, CVE, NVG TD-5.
.
/, .
, .. ,
. , ,
.

. -
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.

200

, 710 2009 .

. 2:

2. .
,
, .
[1] 100
, 2 10010-6.
, 20 ( 2000 ) ,
50010-6. . MTBF
100500 , .
, . ,
3: 150010-6.
, .
: , .

. 3:
201

3.2.
2,
. ,
4 4 12
144 . , 2 , 12 . , 8 , 144 96, 240 .
,
. , ,
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4 8
, 1920 .
4, .

. 4:

, . 3 14 .
8
. 5.
, . ,
- , . ,
,
.
. , 8 14 , 8/14 1920 = 1097.
2010-6,
2119410-6.
110 [4]. ,
, , . ,
, ,
, , 44 (24 /, 20 ).
8 , ,
352 2010-6352 = 704010-6.

202

, 710 2009 .


. 5:

,
50% [5]. 14%
.

3.3.

. , . , , , , , .
. ,
, , ,
, .
, 3.
, 53 ; , . [1] 10010-6. , ,
19/5310010-6 = 3610-6.
, 10000 , . , .
, ,
.
, . 6
, 5 , .
, 1. ,
, ,
.

203

. 3





1/3



#

3
3

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3/ [6]

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2


(
)

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53

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. [2] , 1/500 1/50.000
. ,
.

3.4.
. KD 6.
, .
. .
, .

. , , 10010-6 . ,
.

204

, 710 2009 .

. 6: KD

, (. 4),
. .
, .


-6

(10 )

(10-6)

100

1500

7040

21194

100

36

90

100

, , ,

.

380 ( 2)

, , ,

.

380 ( 2)

7710

23210

. 4:

4.
.
. .
, .
, .

4.1.
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. , .
205

. 7:

, ,
.
/ .
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7.

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52 , ..) , ,
. /
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, , 7, , 4 5.
( ), ,
. Ethernet-
, .
352 (. 3, 3.2) 176. 1762010-6 = 352010-6.

206

, 710 2009 .

(10-6)

(10-6)

(10-6)

(10-6)

100/333
100/333
100/333
100/333

90
90
90
90


100/333

100

90
/

90
/

100/333

90


(176
)

7040/704
350/352
3600/360
5480/548
(88


)
(88
, 2
(136 )
, 1
2 10-6
)


100

100

100

100
, ,

.

380 ( 2)

7710/7943/
1607

, ,


.

380 ( 2)

, ,

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4190/4423/
1255

380 ( 2)

4740/5439/
2199

, ,

.

380 ( 2)

6250/6483/
1551

. 5:

, ,
, (4 ).
,
; . 207

1802010-6 = 360010-6. :
( ). ,
.
/
.
5.
30 ,
, . 5. ,
,
()
.
20 2 .
.
,
.
,
B C. , ( ) . .
, 5
.

5.
1. ,
. -
, , .
2. .
, .
3. .
4. .
5. .


[1] E.O. Schweitzer, III, B. Fleming, T. Lee, and P. Anderson, Reliability Analysis of Transmission Protection
Using Fault Tree Methods, proceedings of the 24th Annual Western Protective Relay Conference,
Spokane, WA, October 1997.
[2] G. Scheer and R. Moxley, Digital Communications Improve Contact I/O Reliability, proceedings of
the 7th Annual Western Power Delivery Automation Conference, Spokane, WA, April 2005.
[3] J. Richard, Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc., Electromechanical In-Service List.
[4] SEL-421 Protection, Automation, and Control System Users Guide, Fig. 2.30.
Available: http://www.selinc.com/instruction_manual.htm.
[5] R. Moxley, Analyze Relay Fault Data to Improve Service Reliability, proceedings of the 57th Annual
Conference for Protective Relay Engineers, College Station, TX, 2004.

208

, 710 2009 .



Z. GAJIC, ABB AB, SA Products, , zoran.gajic@se.abb.com
S. HOLST, ABB AB, SA Products, , stig.holst@se.abb.com

, , .

1.

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(, ).
, .
, , ,
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.
:
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.

. : 400/400/130
; 400/231/10.5 ; YNautod5 [1]. , , 150,
1.
, . (),
( ) [1], [4].
:
S = 3 U220 I220 = 3 U220 (I400 + ICW) = 3 U220 I400 + 3 U220 ICW = SG + ST,
S ; U220 220 ; I220
220 ; I400 400 ; ICW ; SG () 209

, ; ST
, ( ).
400kV
L1

L2

L3

' 
 


:B

L1
L2
L3

400/400/130 
400/231/10.5 
YNautod5

220kV

L1_400

L1_220




:B

L3_10.5

150o

L2_10.5

L2_220

L3_220
L3_400

L2_400
L1_10.5

B &
 

:B,  


 
$ !  

L1

L2

L3

10.5kV

. 1: ,

, (.. ST)
. , (..
)
. , (
) :
SrT =

Ir_220 Ir_400
Ir_220

Sr =

Ur_400 Ur_220
Ur_400

Sr =

400 231
400 = 169 MVA
400

, 400 , 169 . ,
, , ,
[4].
Yyd, 2a, , , 2b
2c.
210

, 710 2009 .

a) 3-

b)

c)

. 2:

(). 3 . , ,

(.. wye), ( ).
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[7] [8].
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.

2.
-

. - ,
. - :
N
N1 I1 + N2 I2 = 0 I1 + 2 I2 = 0,
N1
N1 ; I1 ; N2
; I2 .
211

. 3:

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:
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212

, 710 2009 .

,
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. [5]
.

2.1.

. ,
()
[8]. [7]. , ,
. :
SBase = SMax [MVA].
,
, :

IBasePri_Wi [A] =

1000 SBase[MVA]
,
3 Ur_Wi[kV]

: IBasePri_Wi , , ; SBase ; Ur_Wi


. .
.
:
IBaseSec_Wi_CT=Y =

IBasePri_Wi
CTRWi

: IBaseSec_Wi_CT=Y (wye); IBasePri_Wi ; CTRWi


, .
213

, . () (.. 400
). (.. 169 ).
.

,

400

400

400 MBA
= 577 A
3 400

220

231

400 MBA
= 1000 A
3 231



( )

10,5

400 MBA
= 21 994 A
3 10,5

3 10,5 = 18,187

400 MBA
= 12698 A
3 18,187



( )

. 1: 400

( )

400 231 = 169

169 MBA
= 577 A*
3 169

231

169 MBA
= 422 A*
3 231

3 10,5 = 18,187

169 MBA
= 5365 A
3 18,187

. * ,
400 .
. 2: (.. 169 )

,
. ,
,
. ,
.

214

, 710 2009 .

3.


3.1. ,

,
, ,
[1]. , Yy0(d) [1].
.
3.
, , , .

W1

W2

[]

400

400

[]

400

231

[A]

577

1000

y0

()

()

(. 3)

[A]

0.721

0.833

. 3: 1 2

2 -1 -1 L1_ 400 _ TT 1
2 -1 -1 L1_ 220 _ TT 2
Id _ L1
1
1

Id _ L 2 = 1 1 -1 2 -1 I
.
+
-1 2 -1 I

0.721 3
L 2 _ 400 _ TT 1 0.833 3
L 2 _ 220 _ TT 2

-1 -1 2
-1 -1 2
Id _ L3
I L3 _ 400 _ TT 1
I L3 _ 220 _ TT 2

(1)

:
, ,
.
:

- ;

;
,
, - .

215

3.2. ,

, , .
, , , .
,
, ,
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. Yyd [1].
.
,
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) 4.

W1

W2

W3

[]

400

400

400

[]

400

231

10.5

[A]

577

1000

21994

y0

d5

()

()

/ ()

(. 3)

T1

T2

T3

[A]

0.721

0.833

15.71

. 4: 1, 2 3

Id _ L1
Id _ L 2 =

Id _ L 3

2 -1 -1 L1 _ 400 _ TT 1
2 -1 -1 L1 _ 220 _ TT 2
1 1
+ 1 1 -1 2 -1 I
+ 1
-1 2 -1 I
2
_
400
_
1
2
_
220
_
2
L
TT
L
TT

0.833 3

15.71
0.721 3
-1 -1 2 I
-1 -1 2 I

L 3 _ 400 _ TT 1
L 3 _ 220 _ TT 2

1
3

-1
1

0
-1
1

L1 _ 10.5 _ TT 3
. (2)
0 I
L 2 _ 10.5 _ TT 3
-1

I
L 3 _ 10.5 _ TT 3
1

:
,
.
:

- ;

.

216

, 710 2009 .

4. ,


,
, , ,
( ) , , , .
.

, , ,
.

4.1. 1

, 4.
, ,
, . ,
, .
5.

W1

W2

W3

[]

400

400

400

[]

400

231

3 10,5 = 18,187 *

[A]

577

1000

12698

y0

y0*

/ ()

/ ()

/ ()

(. 3)

T1

T2

T7

[A]

0.721

0.833

3.175

* ,
. 5: 1, 2 7

Id _ L1
Id _ L 2 =

Id _ L 3

1
1
0
0.721
0

L1 _ 400 _ TT 1
1
1

+
0 I
0
L 2 _ 400 _ TT 1 0.833
1

0
I L 3 _ 400 _ TT 1

L1 _ 220 _ TT 2
1
1
+

0 I
0
L 2 _ 220 _ TT 2 3.175
1

0
I L 3 _ 220 _ TT 2

L1 _ 10.5 _ TT 7

.
0 I
L 2 _ 10.5 _ TT 7
1

I L 3 _ 10.5 _ TT 7

0 0

0 0

0 0

(3)

:
,
;

;

217

, , (..
);
,
.

:
, , ,
.

4.2. 2

.
,
,
( 2).
, . , .
6.

W1

W2

W3

[]

169

169

169

[]

169

231

3 10,5 = 18,187 *

[A]

577

422

5365

y0

y0*

/ ()

/ ()

/ ()

(. 3)

T1

T5

T7

[A]

0.721

0.844

1.341

* ,
. 6: 1, 5 7

Id _ L1
Id _ L 2 =

Id _ L 3

1
1
0
0.721
0

L1 _ 400 _ TT 1
1
1

0 I
+
0
L 2 _ 400 _ TT 1 0.844
1

0
I L 3 _ 400 _ TT 1

L1 _ N _ TT 5
1
1

0 I
0
+
L 2 _ N _ TT 5 1.341
1

0
I L 3 _ N _ TT 5

L1 _ 10.5 _ TT 7

.
0 I
L 2 _ 10.5 _ TT 7
1

I L 3 _ 10.5 _ TT 7

0 0

0 0

0 0

(4)

:
, ;

, ;
218

, 710 2009 .

, , (..
);
,
.

:

220 ;
220 ( 220 ).

5. ,
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,
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, [2].

5.1. 1

, 5.
, , ,
. , .

7.

[]

W1

W2

W3

W3

400

400

400

400


[]

400

231

10,5
3
= 9,093 *
2

[A]

577

1000

25396

25396

y0

y0

y0

/ ()

/ ()

/ () / ()

10,5
= 9,093 *
2


(. 3)

T1

T2

T7

T8

[A]

0.721

0.833

6.349

6.349

* ,
. 7: 1, 2, 7 8

219


:
Id _ L1
Id _ L 2 =

Id _ L 3

1
1
0
0.721
0

L1 _ 400 _ TT 1
1
1

0 I
+
0
L 2 _ 400 _ TT 1 0.833
1
0

I L 3 _ 400 _ TT 1

L1 _ 220 _ TT 2
1
1

0 I
+
0
L 2 _ 220 _ TT 2 6.349
1
0

I L 3 _ 220 _ TT 2

I
L1 _ 10.5 _ TT 7
0 I
L 2 _ 10.5 _ TT 7
1
I L 3 _ 10.5 _ TT 7

0 0

0 0

0 0

.
+ I
L 2 _ 10.5 _ TT 8

+ I
L 3 _ 10.5 _ TT 8
+ I

L1 _ 10.5 _ TT 8

(5)

:
, ;
,
;
, , (..
).
:
,
.

5.2. 2

, 6.
, , , . , .

8.

W1

W2

W3

W3

[]

169

169

169

169


[]

400

231

[A]

577

422

10730

10730

y0

y0

y0

/ ()

/ ()

/ ()

/ ()


(. 3)

T1

T5

T7

T8


[A]

0.721

0.844

2.683

2.683

10,5
= 9,093 *
2

10,5
= 9,093 *
2

* ,
. 8: 1, 5, 7 8


:
220

, 710 2009 .

Id _ L1
Id _ L 2 =

Id _ L 3

1
1
0
0.721
0

L1 _ 400 _ TT 1
1
1

0 I
+
0
L 2 _ 400 _ TT 1 0.844
1
0

I
L 3 _ 400 _ TT 1

L1 _ N _ TT 5
1
1

0 I
+
0
L 2 _ N _ TT 5 2.683
1
0

I
L 3 _ N _ TT 5

I
L1 _ 10.5 _ TT 7
0 I
L 2 _ 10.5 _ TT 7
1
I
L 3 _ 10.5 _ TT 7

0 0

0 0

0 0

.
+ I
L 2 _ 10.5 _ TT 8

+ I
L 3 _ 10.5 _ TT 8
+ I

L1 _ 10.5 _ TT 8

(6)

:
, ;

, ;
,
;
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).

:

220 ;
220 (
220 ).
, ,
, , ,
, .

6.

( 1),
,
. , ,
, ( ), .
,
[6].

6.1.
,
, 220 (.. ).
. 9.

W1

W2

W3

[]

400

400

400

[]

231

231

231

221

W1

W2

W3

1000

1000

1000

y0

y0

(. 3)

T1

T2

T6

[A]

1.25

0.833

2.00

[A]

. 9: 1, 2, 6

1
Id _ L1
Id _ L 2 = 1 0

1.25
Id _ L 3
0

L1 _ 400 _ TT 1
1
1

0 I
+
0
L 2 _ 400 _ TT 1 0.833
1

0
I
L 3 _ 400 _ TT 1

L1 _ 220 _ TT 2
1
1

0 I
+
0
L 2 _ 220 _ TT 2 2.0
1

0
I
L 3 _ 220 _ TT 2

L1 _ N _ TT 6

.
0 I
L 2 _ N _ TT 6
1

I L 3 _ N _ TT 6

0 0

0 0

0 0

(7)

, :
;
, ;
;
,
, .
,
:
, (..
);

;
;

.

6.2.

(REF)
.
, .
.
REF
10.
222

, 710 2009 .

W1

W2

[A]

1000

1000

1000

(. 3)

[A]

1.25

0.833

1.00

. 10: REF 1, 2, 4

REF :

I L1_ 400 _ TT 1
I L1_ 220 _ TT 2
1
1

1
[1 1 1] I L 2 _ 400 _ TT 1 +
[1 1 1] I L 2 _ 220 _ TT 2 +
I N _ TT 4 .
Id _ REF =
1.25
1.25
1.0
I L 3_ 400 _ TT 1
I L 3_ 220 _ TT 2

(8)

REF [6].

REF :
;
, ;
;
.

REF :
, (..
);

;

.

7.
,

,
,
.
, . ,
.

7.1.
,
,
, , .
223

, , , .
,
. , , ,
.
11.

W3

W3

130

130

3 10,5 = 18,187 kV

3 10,5 = 18,187 kV

4127

4127

y0

(. 3)

[A]

1.032

1.032

[]
[]
[A]

. 11: 7 9

Id _ L1
1 0 0 L1_10.5 _ TT 7
1 0 0 L1_10.5 _ TT 9
Id _ L 2 = 1 0 1 0 I
+ 1 0 1 0 I
.

1.032
L 2 _10.5 _ TT 7 1.032
L 2 _10.5 _ TT 9

Id _ L3
0 0 1 I
0 0 1 I
L3 _10.5 _ TT 9
L3 _10.5 _ TT 7

(9)

:
,
,
, , ;
, .
:
,
;
,
, , ;
,
.
.
224

, 710 2009 .

7.2.
,
, , ,
, ( 4).
, , ,
.
150 .

:
,
.

:
,
;
,
;
,
.

. 4:
,

8.
,
, , .
: T1, T2, T4 T7 ( , 3).
, (.. 5)
.
.
L2 . ,
225

(L2-L3-Gnd). 5 , :
a) 400 (.. 1) ();
b) 220 (.. 2) ();
c) (.. 5) ();
d) , (.. 7
, , , ,
) (.. 4) ( );
e) , 3 (1);
f) , 5 (3);
g) , 6 (4);
h) (REF) , 10 (9).

a)

b)

226

, 710 2009 .

c)

d)

e)

227

f)

g)

h)

. 5:

5 , 1,5% . , , ,
.

228

, 710 2009 .

9.
. ,
:
(.. , );
, ;

.
,
.
[6].
, ,
, . ,
(, , 3
4) ,
(, , 6, 8 10).
(, ,
5, 4 6).
( ), .

[1] Power transformers International Standard IEC 60076, Edition 2.1.


[2] IEEE Guide for Protecting Power Transformers, IEEE Standard C37.91-2008.
[3] Z. Gaji, Differential Protection for Arbitrary Three-Phase Power Transformer, PhD Thesis, Lund
University, Sweden, February 2008, ISBN: 978-91-88934-47-5; available at: http://www.iea.lth.se/
publications/pubphd.html
[4] G. Bertagnolli, Short-Circuit Duty of Power Transformers, Appendix 10, ABB Book, Legano Italy,
December 1996.
[5] ABB RET 670 Technical reference manual, Document ID: 1MRK 504 086-UEN.
[6] ABB Application Note, Differential Protection Schemes for Auto-Transformers, Document ID:
SA2008-000519; available at: http://www.abb.com/substationautomation
[7] ABB RADSB Users Guide, Document ID: 1MRK 504 002-UEN.
[8] Instruction for Planning Differential Protection Schemes, Document ID: CH-ES 53-10 E, BBC
January 1980.

229




TNS Gallup,
E-mail: eva.fosby.livgard@tns-gallup.no

, , , ,
,

1.

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. ,
. ?
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,
.
TNS Gallup
,
. 2006 , 2007
(2009).
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, ,
.

, , ,
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TNS Gallups Energy Barometer
1000 , 1997 . , ,

.

. , ,

, .

2.
2.1.
2007 230

, 710 2009 .

.
, ..
.
.
,
,
. , .
0,6
2013 .

,
. , ,
, ,
. ,

. 2 .
, .

2.2.
, (60%)
, .

. , .
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, 72% 12% , . ,
30% ,
.
,
. 20,000
25,000 .

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web- , 37%
. . 50% .
. 85% , ,
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web- (. . 1).
, 10% .
(82%) . , 57% ,
, .
231

. 1:
. .
,

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. :
.

2.3.
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, , 47% 2006
57% 2009 (. . 2). , , 77% 82% .
,
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[1] TNS Gallup Energy Barometer 1997-2009.

236

, 710 2009 .

GOOSE-
61850
H. DAWIDCZAK, H., DUFAURE, TH., DR. ENGLERT, H.
Siemens AG

Henry.Dawidczak@siemens.com

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238

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240

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, 710 2009 .

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243

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[1] IEC 61850-5, Communication networks and systems in substations Part 5: Communication requirements for functions and device models, Ed. 1, 2003.
[2] IEC 61850-8-1, Communication networks and systems in substations Part 8-1: Communication Service
Mapping (SCSM) Mappings to MMS (ISO 9506-1 and ISO 9506-2) and to ISO/IEC 8802-3, Ed. 1,
2004.
[3] Dawidczak, Dufaure, Konfiguration and Diagnose der Goose-Kommunkation der IEC61850, VWEW
Energieverlag, Frankfurt/Main, Zeitschrift Netzpraxis, Jg, 47 (2008), Heft 6.
[4] Dawidczak, Englert, Querkommunikation mit IEC 61850-Goose, VWEW Energieverlag, Frankfurt/
Main, Zeitschrift Netzpraxis, Jg.46 ( 2007), Heft 6.

244

, 710 2009 .

GOOSE-
61850

Z. GAJIC, ABB SA Products, , zoran.gajic@se.abb.com
S. AGANOVIC, ABB SA Products, ,
samir.aganovic@ se.abb.com
J. BENOVIC, HEP, , josip.benovic@hep.hr
G. LECI, KONCAR, , goran.leci@koncar-ket.hr
S. GAZZARI, ABB, , sergio.gazzari@hr.abb.com

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246

, 710 2009 .

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2007
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[1] ABB Document 1MRK 504 086-UEN, Technical reference manual, Transformer Protection IED RET
670, Product version: 1.1, ABB Power Technologies AB, Vsters, Sweden, (2007).

255



61850
(D.G.), (M.G.),
(J.C.)
GE Digital Energy
,
Maciej.Goraj@ge.com

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260

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()
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[1] IEC International Standard Communication networks and systems in substations Part 9-2: Specific
Communication Service Mapping (SCSM) Sampled values over ISO/IEC 8802-3, (IEC Reference
number IEC/TR 61850-9-2:2004(E), IEC, Geneva, Switzerland).
[2] IEC 61850-9-2 LE: Implementation Guideline for Digital Interface to Instrument Transformers Using
IEC 61850-9-2, UCA International Users Group.
[3] M. Adamiak, B. Kasztenny, J. Mazereeuw, D. McGinn, S. Hodder Considerations for Process Bus
deployment in real-world protection and control systems: a business analysis presented at 42 CIGRE
Session, Paris, August 24-29, 2008, paper B5-102.
[4] B. Kasztenny, D. Finney, M. Adamiak, E. Udren, J. Whatley, J. Burger, Unanswered Questions about IEC
61850 What needs to happen to realize the vision? (Proceedings of the 31st Annual Western Protective
Relay Conference, Spokane, WA, 2005).
[5] M. Adamiak, D. McGinn, V. Muthukrishnan, Designing Copper Wiring Out of High Voltage Substations:
A Practical Solution and Actual Installation (Proceeding of 63rd Annual Georgia Tech Protective
Relaying Conference, Atlanta, USA, 2009).

264

, 710 2009 .


,
61850
JACQUES SAUVE1, IONY PATRIOTA2, WAGNER PORTO1
1
Federal University of Campina Grande 2Companhia Hidro-Eletrica
do So Francisco
Brazil
jacques@dsc.ufcg.edu.br

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265

. 1.1 CIGRE 5.32


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266

, 710 2009 .

2: M





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267

. 4: UML


1.1

Timer1 = TestTimer()

1.2

Arbiter1 = TestArbiter ()

1.3

Xcbr1_In = DigitalInput (XCBR1)

, XCBR1

1.4

Xcbr1_Out = DigitalOutput (XCBR1)

, XCBR1

1.5

Tctr1 = CurrentOutput (TCTR1)

, TCTR1

1.6

Tctr2 = CurrentOutput (TCTR2)

, TCTR2

1.7

Xcbr2_In = DigitalInput (XCBR2)

, XCBR2

1.8

Xcbr2_Out = DigitalOutput (XCBR2)

, XCBR2

1.9

Pdif = NetworkSimulator (PDIF)

, PDIF

1.10 Operator1 = Operator (IHMI)

, IHMI


2.1

Xcbr1_Out->SetDigitalOutput (1)

XCBR1

2.2

Xcbr2_Out->SetDigitalOutput (1)

XCBR2

2.3

Xswi_Out->SetDigitalOutput (1)

XSWI

2.4

Tctr1->SetACCurrentOutput (0,0)

TCTR1

2.5

Tctr2->SetACCurrentOutput (0,0)

TCTR2

2.6

Xcbr1_Out->StartDigitalOutput ()

XCBR1

2.7

Xcbr2_Out->StartDigitalOutput ()

XCBR2

2.8

Tctr1->StartCurrentOutput ()

TCTR1

2.9

Tctr2->StartCurrentOutput ()

TCTR2

2.10 Pdif->GetMessageSequence (1min)

1 . PDIF

2.11

Xcbr1_In->GetDigitalIinputSequence
(1min)

XCBR1
1

2.12

Xcbr2_In->GetDigitalIinputSequence
(1min)

XCBR2
1
268

, 710 2009 .


3.1

Tctr1->SetACCurrentOutput (5,0)

5A TCTR1

3.2

Timer1->Start ()

3.3

Pdiff->StartNetworkSimulator()

/ PDIFF

3.4

Time1=Tctr1->StartCurrentOutput ()

5A TCTR1


4.1

Wait (2min)

2 .

4.2

Tctr1->SetACCurrentOutput (0)

TCTR1

4.3

Tctr1->StartCurrentOutput ()

TCTR1

4.4

Pdiff->StopNetworkSimulator()

/ PDIFF


5.1

Time2 = Pdif->FirstPICOMTo (CSWI1,22)

PDIF CSWI1

5.2

Time3 = Pdif->FirstPICOMTo (CSWI2,22)

PDIF CSWI2

5.3

Time4 = Xcbr1_In>FirstDownInputTransition ()

XCBR1

5.4

Time5 = Xcbr2_In>FirstDownInputTransition ()

XCBR2


6.1

Verdict1 = Arbiter1->TestArbiterConfirm
(Time2-Time1 <100)

PDIF CSWI<100

6.2

Verdict2 = Arbiter->TestArbiterConfirm
(Time3-Time1<100)

PDIF CSW2<100

6.3

Verdict3 = Arbiter->TestArbiterConfirm
(Time4-Time1<100)

XCBR1<100

6.4

Verdict4 = Arbiter->TestArbiterConfirm
(Time5-Time1<100)

XCBR2<100

6.5

Verdict5 = Operator1->OperatorConfirm
(PDIF Trip)

PDIF

6.6

Verdict6 = Operator1->OperatorConfirm
(XCBR1 Trip)

XCBR1

6.7

Verdict7 = Operator1->OperatorConfirm
(XCBR2 Trip)

XCBR2

. 1:

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(<100),
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269

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. ,
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270

, 710 2009 .

4.1. Smash

. 5: Smash

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272

, 710 2009 .

, .
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Smash Protection relay injection test set, .
.
, .
Smart Diagnostics
Campina Grande .


[1] Functional Testing of IEC 61850-Based Systems Technical Brochure, Cigre Workgroup B5.32, December
2008.

274

, 710 2009 .



.. , .. , .. , ..

nio5@niipt.ru

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[1] First IEC 61850 Multivendor Project in the USA, Protection, Automation and Control
World Magazine.
[2] Applying IEC 61850 to Real Life: Modernization Project for 30 Electrical Substations, Sergio Kimura and
Andre Rotta, Elektro Eletricidade e Servicos S.A., Ricardo Abboud, Rogerio Moraes, Eduardo Zanirato,
and Juliano Bahia, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
[3] CONSIDERATIONS FOR IEC 61850 PROCESS BUS DEPLOYMENT IN REAL-WORLD
PROTECTION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS: A BUSINESS ANALYSIS, M. ADAMIAK, General
Electric U.S.A., B. KASZTENNY J. MAZEREEUW D. MCGINN S.HODDER, General Electric
Canada. CIGRE 2008.
[4] Process bus: Experience and impact on future system architectures Luc HOSSENLOPP, Denis
CHATREFOU, AREVA T&D, France, Damien THOLOMIER, AREVA T&D, Canada, Dac Phuoc
BUI, Hydro Quebec, Canada. CIGRE 2008.

281



IEC 61850-9.2
S. RICHARDS1, D. CHATREFOU2, D. THOLOMIER3, F. GILLES4
(. , . , . , . )
1
AREVA T&D
, ,
(simon.richards@areva-td.com)
2
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(denis.chatrefou@areva-td.com)
3
AREVA T&D ,
, (damien.tholomier@areva-td.com)
4
AREVA T&D ,
, (fabrice.gilles@areva-td.com)

, , , IEC 61850, .


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be synchronous

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Digital Interface
IEC 61850-9-2

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80 or 256s/cycle
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. 7:

[1] D. Tholomier, D. Chatrefou, S. Richards. , 4- , CBIPr (), . 2007 .

290

, 710 2009 .

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, , .
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298

, 710 2009 .

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.. , .. , .. ,
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ivanov@prosoftsystems.ru

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[2] .. . .: , 1984.
[3] IEC 61850. Part 8-1: Specific Communication Service Mapping (SCSM) Mappings to MMS (ISO
9506-1 and ISO 9506-2) and to ISO/IEC 8802-3.

304

, 710 2009 .



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PopovMG@eef.spbstu.ru

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, 710 2009 .

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, 710 2009 .

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[1] .., .. . 2 ., . . .: , 1991, 336 .


[2] .., .. . . (. ). .: - . -,
2007. 108 ., . .

309



Z. GAJIC, ABB AB, SA Products, , zoran.gajic@se.abb.com
A. BONETTI, Megger Sweden AB, , andrea.bonetti@megger.com


, , .

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120 ,
A-C-B ( 1d).

310

, 710 2009 .
Three-Phase Currents
90

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IA2=|IA2|2
IB2=|IA2|(2+120o)
IC2=|IA2|(2+240o)

,
:
IA = IA0 + IA1 + IA2,
IB = IB0 + IB1 + IB2,
IC = IC0 + IC1 + IC2.

2.1.

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Va_W2

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312

, 710 2009 .

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316

, 710 2009 .

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322

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[14],
.

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

Elmore W A, 1995, Protective Relaying Theory and Applications, ABB.


RADSB Users Guide, 1MRK 504 002-UEN, ABB.
RET670 Technical reference manual, 1MRK 504 086-UEN, ABB.
RET521 Application manual, 1MRK 504 037-UEN, ABB.
Electrical Transmission and Distribution reference Book, Westinghouse Electric Cooperation.
ABB Transformer Handbook, Document Number 1LAC 000 010.
F. Mekic, Z. Gaji, S. Ganesan Adaptive Features on Numerical Differential Relays, (29th Annual
Western Protective relay Conference, Spokane, WA, October 22-24, 2002).
[8] Z. Gaji, Differential Protection Methodology for Arbitrary Three-Phase Power Transformer, DPSP
2008 Conference, Glasgow, UK, March 2008.
[9] Z. Gaji, Differential Protection for Arbitrary Three-Phase Power Transformer, PhD Thesis, Lund
University, Sweden, February 2008, ISBN: 978-91-88934-47-5.
[10] C.F. Wagner, R.D. Evans, Symmetrical Components, Mc Graw-Hill, 1933.
[11] J.L. Blackburn, Symmetrical Components for Power System Engineering, Marcel Dekker, 1993, ISBN:
0-8247-8767-6.
[12] Application Note Universal Testing Method for Power Transformer Differential Protection, SA2008000355, ABB, available at: www.abb.com/substationautomation.
[13] Instruction for Planning Differential Protection Schemes, CH-ES 53-10 E, BBC January 1980.
[14] FREJA 306 and FREJA Win Users Manual, ZP-ZP-CF02E, NOV 2008, Programma Electric AB.

323



Z. GAJI, ABB AB, SA Products, , zoran.gajic@se.abb.com
S. HOLST, ABB AB, SA Products, , stig.holst@se.abb.com
D. BONMANN, ABB AG, Transformers, ,
dietrich.bonmann@de.abb.com
D. BAARS, ELEQ bv, , Douwe.Baars@eleq.com

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[1] ABB Document 1MRK 504 086-UEN, Technical reference manual, Transformer Protection IED RET
670, Product version: 1.1, ABB Power Technologies AB, Vsters, Sweden, (2007).
[2] A.H.M. Arnold. Leakage Phenomena in Ring-Type Current Transformers, Transactions IEE, 74,
pp. 413-423, (1934).
[3] D.A.W. Baars. Invloed van een uitwending magnetisch veld op een ringkernstroomtransformator, ELEQ
Report FR405R04a, (2005).
[4] Z. Gaji. Differential Protection Solution for Arbitrary Phase Shifting Transformer, International
Conference on Relay Protection and Substation Automation of Modern EHV Power Systems, Moscow
Cheboksary, Russia, (2007).
[5] IEEE Special Publication. Protection of Phase Angle Regulating Transformers (PAR), A report to the
Substation Subcommittee of the IEEE Power System Relaying Committee prepared by Working Group
K1, (1999).
[6] International Standard IEC 62032/IEEE C57.135. Guide for the application, specification, and testing
of phase-shifting transformers, First edition (2005).
[7] K.W. Jones. Addressing Window Type Transformer Proximity Errors, 59th Annual Conference for
Protective Engineers, Texas A&M, College Station, USA (2006).
[8] R.A. Pfuntner. The Accuracy of Current Transformers Adjacent to High-Current Busses, AIEE.
Transactions, 70, pp. 1656-1661, (1951).
[9] S. Seely. Effect of Stray Flux on Current Transformers, IEE Journal of Science & Technology, 37,
pp. 115-120, (1970).
[10] H. Yu, J. Yuan, J. Zou. Design of Novel Structure Current Transformer with Shielding Coils for Overcoming the Saturation of Core, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, volume 42, pp. 1431-1434, (2006).

332

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[1] Liamets Y., Ivanov S., Podchivaline A., Nudelman G., Zakonjek J. Informational analysis new relay
protection tool // Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Power System Protection, Slovenia, Bled, 2002, P. 197-210.
[2] -04-94() 110-500
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[1] RasGas Fault Analysis. J. Cardenas. GE Multilin. May 2006.


[2] Protective Relaying Principles and Applications. J. Lewis Blackburn.
[3] Protecciones en las Instalaciones Electricas Evolucion y Perspectivas. Paulino Montane.
[4] F60 Feeder Protection System UR Series Instruction Manual. GE Industrial.


Universidad de Ingenieria () 1977
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:
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:
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:


372

, 710 2009 .


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. ,
, ESKOM.
374

, 710 2009 .


[1] IEEE Std. C37.99-2000: Guide for the Protection of Shunt Capacitor Banks, June 2000.
[2] Kasztenny B., Brunello G., Wester C.: Capacitor Bank Fundamentals and Protection, Proceedings of
the 56th Annual Conference for Protective Relay Engineers, College Station, TX, April 8-11, 2003.
[3] Capacitor Bank Protection and Control Relay, Instruction Manual, General Electric Publication, 2008.
[4] Fundamentals of Adaptive Protection of Large Capacitor Banks, Bogdan Kasztenny General Electric,
Joe Schaefer & Ed Clark Florida Power & Light Company.


Universidad de Ingenieria () 1977
MBA Universidad Politecnica de Madrid () 1998 .
Utility Electroperu () ,
1987 ABB (), , - . 1989
GE, .
GE Digital Energy-Multilin. ,
.
Cigr , B5.31.
Pretoria Technikon
1994. ESKOM 1991 . ,
. 1999 Powertech IST Energy, : , ,
.
, .


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GE Digital Energy,
: jorge.cardenas@ge.com
Scottish Power
GSS


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, 710 2009 .


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400 . ,
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, 2001 . 275
400 Strathaven,
Glasgow (SPT), Harker, Carlisle (NGET).

STRA TH A V EN
275kV
STRA TH A V EN
400kV

L IN M IL L
132kV

C O A L B U RN
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400kV

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,
.

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Coalburn Elvanfoot, Elvanfoot Moffat, Moffat Harker, Strathaven Elvanfoot, Elvanfoot Gretna
Gretna Harker (Moffat , ). .
. .
Scottish Power Transmission
.
380

, 710 2009 .

4.

Strathaven 400
25 , 5 .

.
PROT-16-009
Issue 1 [7].

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382

, 710 2009 .

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.

.

.
, Strathaven,
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2008 .
,
( 2009 ).
, SCADA.
61850
Microsol RTU 61850. SCADA c
61850 .
ICD.

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.
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.
10 ,
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384

, 710 2009 .

, ,
Form C 0,6 .
1
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:
64 /c: 14.1 + 5 = 19.1 .
128 /: 13.5 + 5 = 18 .
2,
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) 5 ( C37.94),
:
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128 /: 16.6 + 5 = 21.6 .
,
25 , .

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, .. .
.

Strathaven 400 .
, C37.94 .
-, .

. 8:
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Strathaven

(
)
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. 9:

Coalburn, Elvanfoot (SPT) Harker (NGET)


SDH Ethernet
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8.
,
.

9.
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,
:




P[ 4 GOOSE-] = .01176^4 = 1.8e-8 ( )
P[ ] = 160/100,000 = .0016
P[ ] = .0016 * .0016 = 0.00000256
P[ 5 RC]= 1e-25 * 2.328e-10 = 2.328e-35 (
0)
5 .
, 2.328e-10.

10.
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386

, 710 2009 .

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[1] IEC61850 Communication networks and systems in substations Part 7-2: Basic communication structure
for substation and feeder equipment Abstract communication service interface (ACSI); www.iec.ch
[2] IEC61850 Communication networks and systems in substations Part 8-1: Specific Communication
Service Mapping (SCSM) Mappings to MMS (ISO 9506-1 and ISO 9506-2) and to ISO/IEC 8802-3;
www.iec.ch
[3] Implementation and Operational Experience of a Wide Area Special Protection Scheme on the SRP
System. Jon Sykes - Salt River Project. Mark Adamiak, Gustavo Brunello GE Multilin. 58th Texas A&M
Relay Conference April 5-7, 2005.
[4] IEEE Power Engineering Society Power System Relaying Committee System Protection Subcommittee
Working Group C-6 Wide Area Protection and Emergency Control.
[5] Design and Implementation of Wide Area Special Protection Schemes. Vahid Madani PG&E Oakland, CA
Mark Adamiak & Manish Thakur GE Multilin. 58th Annual Georgia Tech Protective Relaying Conference.
April 2004.
[6] Application Considerations of IEC 61850/UCA 2 for Substation Ethernet Local Area Network Communication for Protection and Control. IEEE PSRC H6: SPECIAL REPORT.
[7] PROT-16-009 Issue 1 Technical Specification for Command Based Teleprotection. SP Power Systems
Ltd.

388

, 710 2009 .


Universidad de Ingenieria () 1977
MBA Universidad Politecnica de Madrid () 1998 .
Utility Electroperu () ,
1987 ABB (), , - . 1989
GE, .
GE Digital Energy-Multilin. ,
.
Cigre, B5.31.
, ,
University of Deusto (Spain). IRT Industria de
Radio y Television (), GE 2003, ,
GE
Digital Energy-Multilin. 5.6 Cigre.

University of Strathclyde 1995
2004 . Scottish Power 1995 ,
. 5.12 Cigre.
/ Newcastle Polytechnic 1986 .
Eastern Electricity Board , SCECO
East 1994 . 1998 Toshiba International T&D . 2004
GE Energy
GE Energy. 2006
Global Substation Solutions Ltd , .

389




.. , ..

. .

mark2002@mail.kz

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, 710 2009 .

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[1] .. . .: , 1984. 520 c.


[2] .., ..
// . 1992. 2. . 1923.
[3] . 19883 , 7 H 02 H 7/04.
Y/ / .., .., ..
. 30.06.2006. . 15.08.2008. . 8. 4 .: .

394

, 710 2009 .



()
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dvs@parma.spb.ru

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, 710 2009 .



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, 710 2009 .

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408

, 710 2009 .




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kdm@npmes.elektra.ru

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415




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, 710 2009 .

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417

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423

[1] Benmouyal G., Schweitzer E.O., Guzman, A. Synchronized phasor measurement in protective relays
for protection, control, and analysis of electric power systems // in Proc. Int. Eighth IEE International
Conference on Developments in Power System Protection. Amsterdam, Netherlands, 5-8 April 2004.
pp. 814820.
[2] .., .. //
, . 421. , 1986. C. 111123.
[3] Mokeev A.V. Spectral expansion in coordinates of complex frequency application to analysis and synthesis filters // in Proc. Int. TICSP Workshop Spectral Meth. Multirate Signal Process. (SMMSP 2007).
Moscow. P. 159167.
[4] .. - //
. .. . : DSPA2007. , . . 1. . 4347.
[5] .. // . 2009. 1. . 2530.
[6] .. -, //
. .. . :
DSPA-2008. : X-1. .: . . 4347.
[7] ..
- // . . 27. . 117122 (2005).
[8] .., .. : . .: ,
2004.
[9] .. .
4. . : - . . . -.
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424

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[4] .., .. . .: , 1975. 212 .
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[10] .. . , 2002. 312 .
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.: . 136 .
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// . .: . .. . 1990. . 9395.
[14] ..
// . . .. . . . 2001. 2. . 5054.
431

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[1] .. . .:
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[9] .., .. . . . , 1969, 9, . 1025-1030.
[10] .., .. / . .. . .: , 1974, 206 .
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[1] Liamets Y., Ivanov S., Podchivaline A., Nudelman G., Zakonjek J. Informational analysis new relay
protection tool. Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Power System Protection, Slovenia, Bled, 2002, P. 197-210.
[2] Liamets Y., Efimov T., Nudelman G., Zakonjek J. The principle of relay protection information perfection. CIGRE SCS 34 Colloquium, Romania, Sibiu, 2001, Paper 112.
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.. . 4- ., . . .: , 2008. 2. / . .. .. . 632 ., .
[6] .., .. . , 2009,
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452

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JENS HAUSCHILD, Vattenfall Europe,
LUC PHILIPPOT, NetCeler, , lphilippot@netceler.com
GUENTHER FLEISCHER, Siemens AG,

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Europe Conference, 26-28 June 2007, Madrid, Spain.

460

, 710 2009 .



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[1] United States Canada Power System Outage Task Force: Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout
in the United States and Canada. Causes and Recommendations, April 2004.
[2] GRTN Press Release: Blackouts the events of 28 September 2003, Rome, October 2003.
[3] Report of RAO EES Rossii regarding the investigations of the disturbance in the Russian grid from 25th
May 2005, Moscow, June 18, 2005.
, c 25 2005 .
[4] UCTE: Final Report System Disturbance on November 4, 2006.
www.ucte.org/-library/otherreports/final-report-20070130.pdf
[5] Krebs R., Lerch E., Ruhle O., Blackout prevention by dynamic security assessment after severe fault
conditions Protection and Substation Automation of Modern EHV Power Systems, Cheboksary, Moscow,
Russia, Sep. 9-12, 2007.
[6] Ganjavi M.-R., Krebs R., Styczynski Z. Design of a pilot knowledge-based expert system for providing
coordinated setting values Modern Electric Power Systems Conference, Wroclaw, Poland, Sep. 6.-8., 2006.
[7] Ganjavi, M.-R.; Krebs, R.: Protection settings using expert systems for security improvement of power
network operation. Critical Infrastructures Society CRIS, DIGESEC-Workshop, Magdeburg, Germany
6.-8. Dec. 2006.
[8] Ganjavi, M.-R.; Krebs, R.; Styczynski, Z.: Design of a Pilot Knowledge-Based Expert System for
Coordinated Settings of Protection Devices: Power System Protection Conference PSP2006, Bled,
Slovenja.
[9] Chacraborty, P.; Ganjavi, M.-R.; Krebs, R.: Blackout prevention by protection and dynamic network
security assessment after severe fault situations. 4th Int. Conf. on Power System Protection and Automation, 21.-22- Nov. 2007, New Delhi, India.
[10] Komarnicki P., Styczynski Z., Mller G., Krebs R., Ruhle O. Intelligent blackout prediction using
synchrophasors measurement. Simulation study case 3rd Int. Conf. On Critical Infrastructure, New
Alexandria, USA, 2006.
[11] Lerch, E.; Ruhle, O.; Kerin, U.: DSA-Visualisation, monitoring and ranking of dynamic behaviour. IFAC,
Seoul, Korea 2.-6. July 2007.
[12] Fu, C. and Bose, A. (August 1999). Contingency Ranking Based on Severity Indices in Dynamic Security
Analysis. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 14. No. 3, pp. 980-986.
[13] Tang, C.K., Graham, C.E., El-Kady, M, Alden, R.T.H. (August 1994). Transient Stability Index from
Conventional Time Domain Simulation. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 9. No. 3, pp. 15241530.
[14] Xue, Y., Xu, T., Liu, B., Li, Y. (August 2000). Quantitative Assessment for transient Voltage Security. IEEE
Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 15. No. 3, pp. 1077-1083.
491


,

B. CVOROVIC2, H. KANG1, P. HORTON2
AREVA ART (T&D, UK)1, AREVA SAS (T&D, UK)2

harmeet.kang@areva-td.com


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[1] B Cvorovic, P Horton, P44Y Out Of Step Detection/Tripping Setting Free Technique Investigation
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Report, 2005.
[2] H Kang, P44Y Algorithm Test Results ( ) Excel, 2006.
[3] Applied Protective Relaying ( ) Westinghouse.
[4] EPRI 400kV Specification ( 400).doc
[5] Nigeria 330kV Specification.

498

, 710 2009 .



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, 710 2009 .

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, 710 2009 .

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525


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[1] . - . -
. 1. ,
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, . , 2002.
[2]
(
). 01.04.2008 104/1.
[3] . . // . : - ,
2003. 248 .
[4] 13109-97.
. , 1998.
[5] .., .. // .
.: . , 1981. 271 .
[6] .. . 2- ., . .
.: , 1989. 352 .: .
[7] .., ..
. , 2008, 11, . 24.
[8] 3435-001-50756329-2006. --01.04.06.53-3111-4.

526

, 710 2009 .



PMU
.. , .. , ..

. ..

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voropai@isem.sei.irk.ru

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, 710 2009 .

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533

d85
= 44 /).
dt

( ,
),
. (, ), , , ,
.
, ,
.

[1] .., .. . .: , 1988, 416 .


[2] Pourbeik P., Kundur P.S., Taylor C.W. The anatomy of a power grid blackout. IEEE Power and Energy
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and Russia. Proccedings of the IEEE, 2005, Vol. 93, No. 11, p. 1942-1955.
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between substations. IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, 1990, Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 661-667.
[8] Quintana V.H., Mueller H. Particioning of power networks and application to security control. IEE Proc.:
Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1991, Vol. 138, No. 6, p. 535-545.
[9] Wang X.M., Vittal V. System islanding using minimal cut sets with minimum net flow. IEEE PES General
Meeting, Denver, USA, June 6-10, 2004, 6 p.
[10] .., .. . , 2005, 8, . 15-21.
[11] Phadke A.G., Thorp J.S. Synchronized phasor measurements and their applications. Berlin: Springer,
2008, 288 p.
[12] Centeno V. e.a. An adaptive out-of-step relay. IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, 1997, Vol. 12, No. 1, p. 131138.
[13] Bozchalui M.C., Saaye-Pasand M. Out-of-step relaying using phasor measurement unit and equal area
criterion. IEEE Power India Conference, April 10-12, 2006, 6 p.
[14] Padiyar K.R., Krishna S. Online detection of loss of synchronism using energy function criterion. IEEE
Trans. Power Delivery, 2006, Vol. 21, No. 1, p. 163-171.
[15] Li Li, Liu Yutian, Mu Nong, Yu Zhangxun. Out-of-step splitting scheme based on PMUs. DRPT2008
Int. Conf. Nanjing, China, April 6-9, 2008, 6 p.
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. : , 1999, 256 .

534

, 710 2009 .



-

.. , .. , .. , ..

, iaes@iaes.ru

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.

4.
[1] CIGRE Defense Plan Against Extreme Contingencies, CIGRE Task Force C2.02.24, April 2007.
[2] W.R. Lachs, Controlling Grid Integrity After Power System Emergencies, IEEE Trans. Power Syst.,
vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 445-450, May 2002.
[3] W.R. Lachs, Voltage Instability in Interconnected Power Systems: a Simulation Approach, IEEE Trans.
Power Syst., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 753-761, May 1992.
[4] The Current Set of Standard FIPA Specifications, Available: http://www.fipa.org/repository/
standardspecs.html.
[5] F. Bellifemine, G. Caire, D. Greenwood, Developing Multi-Agent Systems with JADE, England: Wiley,
2007.
[6] S.D.J. McArthur, E.M. Davidson, V.M. Catterson, A.L. Dimeas, N.D. Hatziargyriou, F. Ponci, T. Funabashi, Multi-Agent Systems for Power Engineering Applicationz Part I, IEEE Trans. Power Syst.,
vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1743-1752, Nov. 2007.
583

[7] S.D.J. McArthur, E.M. Davidson, V.M. Catterson, A.L. Dimeas, N.D. Hatziargyriou, F. Ponci, T. Funabashi, Multi-Agent Systems for Power Engineering Applicationz Part II, IEEE Trans. Power Syst.,
vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1753-1759, Nov. 2007.
[8] C.W. Taylor, D.C. Erickson, Recording and analyzing the July 2 cascading outage, Comput. Applicat.
Power Syst., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 26-30, Jan. 1997.
[9] W.R. Lachs, A New Horizon for System Protection Schemes, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 18, no. 1,
pp. 334-338, Feb. 2003.
[10] F. Bellifemine F, G. Caire, T. Trucco, G. Rimassa, JADE Programmers Guide, CSELT & University
of Parma, 2000. : http://www.jade.tilab.com/doc.
[11] F. Milano, An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 20, no. 3,
pp. 1199-1206, Aug. 2005.
[12] F. Milano, Documentation for PSAT version 2.0.0, February 14, 2008. [13] Modified 24 bus IEEE
One Area RTS-96 test system, : http://panasetsky.net/wp-content/uploads/FILES/
d 024 my.mdl.
[13] 24 IEEE One Area RTS-96 , : http://
panasetsky.net/wp-content/uploads/FILES/d 024 my.mdl.

584

, 710 2009 .


500


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AREVA ART (T&D, UK)1, AREVA SAS (T&D,UK)2

harmeet.kang@areva-td.com

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, 710 2009 .

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600

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602

, 710 2009 .




H-J. HERRMANN, Siemens AG,
Energy Automation


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[1] B. Wartmann and other. Die Energie, die sich nicht stren lsst. Netzqualitt von ewz. (Energy that does
not tolerate interference network quality from ewz). Bulletin SEV/AES 7/03.
[2] 7UT51 V3, Numerical Differential Protection Relay for Transformers, Motors and Branch Points. (Manual
Company Siemens, No C53000-G1176-C99, 1995).
[3] Fault Record Analysis SIGRA 4. (Manual Company Siemens, No E50417-H1176-C070, 2001).
[4] Schuster, N.; Steynberg, G.: Differential Protection of Multiterminal Lines. (Israeli Engineering Association Conference, Control & Automation. 9.3.2000).
[5] Gross, R.; and other: Substation Control and Protection Systems for Novel Sensors. (PS2-paper 03,
CIGRE SC34, Paris 2000).
[6] Electromagnetic compatibility Part 4-30: Testing and measurement techniques Power quality
measurement methods. (IEC 61000-4-30, first edition 2003-02).

612

, 710 2009 .



MARKUS WACHE
Siemens AG

markus.wache@siemens.com

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[1] CIGRE Session 2008, Special Report for Group C2 System Operation and Control, by Special Reporters Paulo Gomes, Gerhard Krost, Rui Pestana.
621

[2] CIGRE Session 2008 Paper C2-112: T. Sezi, J. Warichet, B. Genet, J.-C. Maun: Bringing New Vizualization Tools for the Detection and Mitigation of Dynamic Phenomena in the Transmission System.
[3] A.G. Phadke, J.S. Thorp: Synchronized Phasor Measurements and their Applications, Springer Verlag
2008.
[4] C. Rehtanz, K. v. Sengbusch, T. Sezi, R. Simon: Schutz- und berwachungskonzepte auf Basis zeitsynchroner Messungen (in German).
[5] CIGRE Session 2008 Paper C2-101: B. Ayuev, P. Erokhine, Y. Kulikov: PMU Application for IPS/UPS
Dynamic Performance Monitoring and Study.

622

, 710 2009 .




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shuin@rza.ispu.ru


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[1] .. //
. . 8. .: . 1959. . 7797.
[2] .. . .: , 1971.
[3] .. / .. , .. , .. . .: . 1988.
[4] .. / .. , .. ,
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631





-
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-
115230, , ., . 5, . 1


107045, , , . 4

24.08.2009. NewtonC.
210 297 . . . . 39,5.
300 . 3792
CtP.

ISBN 978-5-903564-03-3

9 785903 564033

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