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(ISBN 5845903637), .
( ) 
:
http://webservices.cnet.com/cgi/Glossary.asp;
http://www.webopedia.com;
http://www.whatis.techtarget.com.

10BASE2. IEEE
Ethernet 10 /.


, 185 .

24 ;
.

100BASET.
Ethernet. 
5
. 
100 /.

, 32 32
; ,
.

80287. , 
Intel 

10BASE5. IEEE ,
Ethernet 10 /.
. 80287



, 286,
, 500 .

386DX; , 
10BASET.
50 .
Ethernet 10 /. 
3,
80386. . 80386DX.
, 
80386DX. ,
.
Intel 32 

100BASEVG.
100 / Ethernet, 
HewlettPackard AT&T.

5, , 10BASET.


25 M .

80386SX. ,
Intel 32 
, 16 24
.
386DX; 
,
.
80387. , 
Intel

, 
. 
, 
386DX; ,
50 .

1000BASET. Ethernet
1000 /, 

5. 1000BASET,
Gigabit Ethernet,
80486. . 80486DX.
100BASET,
80486DX. ,

Intel 32 
( 100 ).
, 32 32
286. . 80286.
. 
386. . 80386.
8  
486. . 80486.
, 387DX;
3GIO. PCI Express,
, 

.
PCI.
80486DX2. 486DX,
56K. , 
56 /.
. V.90, X2, Kflex.
586. 
, Intel
Pentium.
80286. , 
Intel 16 ,
16

, 
.
33 ,
DX2 66 . 
DX2 , 
;
DX2 
overdrive.

80486DX4. 486DX,
, 
.
33,33 , DX4
100 .
80486SX. ,
Intel 32 
, 32 32
. 486SX 
486DX, 
,
. , 
.
8086. , 
Intel 16 ,
16 20
;
.
8087. , 
Intel.


, .
8087 
, 8086
8088; ,
50 .
8088. , 
Intel 16 ,
8 20 
;
.
8086.

AC (Alternating Current). .

. 
220 , 50 .
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power In
terface 
). , 
Intel, Microsoft Toshiba,

. 
APM.
Acrobat. Adobe Acrobat, 

PDF.

. Acrobat Reader,
( ) PDF,
Web www.adobe.com.
Active partition. ,
.
ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line).
,
Bellcore 
ANSI T1.413.
AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port
). 

, Intel; 32
, 66
1 2 ( 1 2).

AHA (Accelerated Hub Architecture). 


Intel,
800 
8514/A.  (Memory

Controller Hub MCH),
IBM PS/2. , , 
EGA VGA,
 (Input/Output Controller
(1 024768 ) Hub ICH), .
256 64 
AHA
. 
266 /,
, 
PCI.

ANSI (American National Standards Institute
,

.
). , 
Interlaced.
, 
A+. CompTIA A+,  .
. 
 API (Application Program Interface 
). 
.
, 
A+
. PC
MSCE (Microsoft Certified
ROM BIOS DOS 
System Administrator
, 
Microsoft).


.

ATA 100 PB (petabyte


1 000 000 000 000 000 ).

APM (Advanced Power Management 


). ,
Intel Microsoft,


,
. APM 

.
ACPI.

ATAPI. ,

IDE, CDROM.
, ATAPI
SCSI IDE.

Athlon 64. AMD (


Clawhammer) 64 
. Athlon 64 32
x86
Intel AMD. 
Application Layer. . OSI.
Socket 754 
DDR (
ARCnet (Attached Resource Computer
Network).  ),
HyperTransport,
2,5 /. 
(John Murphy) AGP, PCI ,
.
Datapoint Corporation.

ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request 
MMX AMD 3DNow!.
).

, 32
,
Athlon XP.
.
Athlon. 
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information AMD, 
Interchange Intel Pentium III/4.
). ,  (
1965 .
Thunderbird) 
(Robert W. Bemer) 
,
. 
. MMX AMD
ACSII
3DNow!, 
128 ( 0 127) , , . Athlon, 
,
Slot A, 
.
462
1981 IBM  Socket A. Athlon 4
ASCII : ; Athlon MP 
8  ; Athlon XP
128 255
.

Athlon XP
,
QuantiSpeed, 
, .
Athlon XP Pentium 4
ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engi
. ,
neers). 
Athlon XP 2600+, 
.
Pentium 4
 (2,6 ), 2,1 .
. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode
: http://www.asme.org.
). ,
ATA/ATAPI5. 2000 .
UDMA/66 80 ,
, 
. .
ATA/ATAPI6. .
,
UDMA/100 (100 /),
.

ATX. , 
, Intel
1995 ;

, 
;
.


. 
, .

. ,


() .

BNC (British National Connector). 


,
. 

.
,
Ethernet ARCnet,
.

Bit map ( ).
,
( )
, 
Autoexec.bat. ,
( ).
DOS
,
.

. ,
AVI (Audio Video Interleave

). 
 ,  
Microsoft.  .

Bluetooth.

,
.
PDA. 2,4 ,
,
Backbone. Internet
Ethernet 802.11b WiFi.

,
.
, 12 /.
Balun (balanced/unbalanced 
BMP (Bit MaP). 
/). ,
 , Windows.

BASIC (Beginners Allpurpose Symbolic


Instruction Code).
.
(John Kemeny)
(Thomas Kurtz) 1960 . 
,

.

Bug. .

BURNProof (buffer underrun errorproof).


,
Sanyo 
BBS (Bulletin Board System).

. BBS
CDR. 
, 
 CDRW.
( , ).  
,

CDRW
.
. BURNProof 
, .
Benchmark. , 
Ricoh 

. JustLink.

Burst Static RAM (BSRAM
Ziff ).
Davis Media,
, .
Web http://www.zdnet.com.
Busmaster. ,
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System
). , 


.

B.
.
ISDN 64 / . 74 
( / 90 ) 
C. ;
.

, 
 .
C3. Socket 370, 
VIA Technology 
Cyrix National Semiconductor. 

,

.

CD Video. , 
1987 , 20 
6 
(4,75 ) 
.
CD+G Compact DiskGraphics. 
,
.
Warner New Media.

Caddy. CD
DVD.

,
DVDRAM.

CDDA (Compact Disc Digital Audio


 ).
,
.
(), 44,1 ,
CAM (Common Access Method 16 .

). ,
CDROM. 
1988 , 

. 
80 . CDDA 
 44,1
SCSI. ,  , 
.
IDE,
ATA.
CDI.  
, 
CardBus. 32
. NV Philips Sony

Corporation 1991 .
33 , 
,
CardBus
.
CAV (Constant Angular Velocity
). 
,
.
(
). CAV
( CLV) 
.
CCITT. ,


.

CDMIDI. ,

, ,
MIDI. 
Warner New Media.
CDR (Compact Disc Recordable 
). 
, 
. CDR 

. CDR
CDROM, CDROM XA .

CDROM (Compact Disc ReadOnly Memory


 ). 
. 
Philips Sony 1983 .
CCS (Common Command Set
). SCSI,  CDROM 
650 .
ANSI.
SCSI .
CDROM XA (Compact Disc ReadOnly Mem
CD (Compact Disk   ory eXtended Architecture
CDROM ). 
).
XA, Sony,
4,75 (12 ), 

Philips Microsoft 1988 . 


, 
,
. XA 
, 
, 
.

CISC 
,
( ) (
RISC,
, ).

CLV (Constant Linear Velocity


). 
CDRW (Compact Disc ReWritable 
,
). 
,
, ,  , 
, .
.
CDRW 
,
, . CLV 
CDR.

CDWO (Compact Disc Write Once  . ,
, 
). 
. 
, , ,
.
. CD
CMOS. ,
WORM CDR.
. AT

CDWORM. . CDWO.

Celeron. Pen CMOS.
tium II Pentium III,
 . CMYK (Cyan Magenta Yellow Black ,
, , ).
CERN. .
, 1989
COBOL (COmmon BusinessOriented
World Wide Web.
Language).
CGA (Color Graphics Adapter 
.
). ,
, , 
IBM 12 1981 . , 
.
.
8025 16 . CODEC (COderDECoder). , 

88 .
, 

, 
320200 16
.
640200 .
COMDEX.
CHS (Cylinder, Head, Sector ,
.
, ). .
, Command.com. ,

BIOS IDE,
. 
528 . . LBA.
DOS.
CIF (Common Image Format
CompactFlash. , 
). , 
 PC Card. CompactFlash 

HDTV.
PC Card Type I Type II.
CISC (Complex InsrtructionSet Computer
COM. ,
). 
,  RS232. . RS232.
. 
Config.sys. DOS
,

Intel 80xxx, .  .

,
DOS ..
CP/M (Control Program/Microcomputer
/).

, 
(Gary Kildall), Digital Re
search. 8 
,
8080, 8085 Z80.

OLE
(Object Linking and Embedding
).

DDR2 (double data rate 2).


SDRAM
, 
. DDR2

,
DDR. 
DDR2
CPS (Characters Per Second 
). ,  PC3200 (DDR2, 400 ),
PC24300 (DDR2, 533 ), PC25400

(DDR2, 667 ) PC26400 (DDR2,
. 
, 2 400 / (bps) 800 ).
8
DEBUG. DOS,
(10 )
,
240 (cps).

, ,
CPU (Central Processing Unit
).  ..
( ). 
,
.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).



(), 
DAT (Digital Audio Tape IP .

). 
, IP
.
4 .
DAT
Dhrystone. , 
1987

.
, 
/

2/4 DDS, , 
4/8 DDS2, 12/24 DDS3 
20/40 DDS4.
. 
, 
DB25. 25 ;
,
Dhrystone 
.
.
DB9. 9 ;  Dhrystone

1984 Ada, 1989 
.
,
DC (Direct Current). ; C Pascal.

Digitaltoanalog converter (DAC). 
.
(),
DC600 (Data Cartridge). 
, 3
1971 ,
1/4 600 .


. VGA 
, ,
, 
DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange
). ,  .
Microsoft Windows  DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module 
). 168
. 
,

Pentium;
.
DIP. 
.
Direct Rambus DRAM. . RDRAM.
DirectX. 
API, 


. DirectX 
, 
.
DLC (Data Link Control 
).
(Data Link)
OSI. (NIC)
DLC 
DLC (DLCI),
. Ethernet DLC 
MAC (Media Access Control
).

Double Density (DD). 


MFM
.
DPMI (DOS Protected Mode Interface
DOS).
,
DOS
Intel 286 ; 
Intel.
DPMS (Display Power Management Signaling
).
VESA , 

: .

DRAM. 
.
. 
, 


. 
15 ( ).
DLL (Dynamic Link Library). 
Microsoft Windows, 

( ).
.
DMA (Direct Memory Access). .
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line). 
.
;
DMI (Desktop Management Interface 
).

,
DMTF
(Desktop Management Task Force) 
. 


,
.

Internet 
. . ADSL.
DSP (Digital Signal Processor 
).
, ,
,
.

Dumb terminal.  
, ,

. 
DNS (Domain Name System or Service
.
). Internet,
Duron.

Athlon, 
IP. DNS 
.
IP.
462 Socket A.
DOCSIS. .
DVD (Digital Versatile Disk 
CableLabs.
).
DOS. . 
; 
, 
.
,
4,7 , 


.
8,5 .



17 . DVD
DVDA.
, CDROM. DVDR.
DVD+R.
DVD, DVD 
DVD, DVD 
DVDROM. DVDR, 
DVDROM. DVD+R
Pioneer,
DVD+RW Alliance
DVD Forum (www.dvdforum.org)
(www.dvdrw.com),  1997 .
Microsoft, Sony, HP Dell.

DVD+RW 
,

4,7 . DVDR 
4,7 . DVD+R/RW  .
DVD, DVDRAM. DVD,

Panasonic, Toshiba
Mount Rainier ( EasyWrite),
Hitachi, DVD Fo
Windows Longhorn ( rum. DVDRAM 
2005 ). DVD, 

,  ,
, DVD.
 DVDRAM DVD
.
,
DVD+R/RW  DVD.
, 
DVDRW. DVD,
DVD.
Pioneer 
DVD+RW. DVD,
DVD Forum 1999 .
DVD+RW Alliance;

DVD+RW ,
2001 . DVD+RW  , CDRW.

,
, , CDRW,
CDRW DVDRW.
. ,
DVD+R/RW DVD 
DVD+RW,
Mount Rainier

( EasyWrite), .
Windows Longhorn (
2005 ). DVI (Digital Video Interactive 
). ,
 
RCA Laboratories, 
,
Intel 1988 . 
,  , , , 
.
DVD+R/RW  .
,  , 
.
DVD.
DVDA. DVD,

. DVDA 
24
96 ,
, CDAudio (16 
44,1 ).
DVD, DVDA
CD, 

10

D. ISDN 16 /, 
.
E2000 (Energy 2000). ,

.

5 .

ECC (Error Correcting Code


). ,

, .
ECP (Enhanced Capabilities Port
). 
, 
Microsoft HewlettPackard.

.

, 
386

.
Emm386.exe DOS.

EMS (Expanded Memory Specification


). 
, 
Lotus, Intel Microsoft.
() EMS
32
EEPROM. . 
, EEPROM,
( 64 ). EMS
, 
, 
286
.
,
EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter  .
). 
Energy Star. , 
PC, IBM
10 1984 .  
. . , 
Energy Star,

8025 , 30 
16 .
.
825 . 
640350 
16 ( 64).
EGA
15,75, 18,432
21,85 .
EIA (Electronic Industries Association
). 
, 
.
EIDE. Western Digital 
ATA2.

EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port


). ,
Intel, Xircom
Zenith Data Systems, 
,
ISA.
EPROM. .
,

.

ESCD (Extended System Configuration Data



EISA. ISA,
IBM AT.  ). ,
EISA Compaq Corpo Plug and Play.
ESDI (Enhanced Small Device Interface
ration,
).
(AST, Epson, HewlettPackard, NEC, Olivetti,

Tandy, Wyse Zenith).
, Maxtor 
ELF (Extremely Low Frequency
22 
). 
;
,
,  1024 /.
. Ethernet.
.
MPR II.
EMM (Expanded Memory Manager Expanded memory. . .
). , 
Extended memory. . .

Extrahigh Density (ED). 
(expanded) . , 
36 
, 
.

11

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions 


). ,

.

Footprint.  
. . .

Format. DOS
. 
FAT (File Allocation Table  , ,
). , .
,
() , (FAT),
.

() .
FAT 32. ,
Microsoft; 32
FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator
FAT 16. 
).
2 .  ,
Windows 95 OSR2,
.
Windows 98 Windows 2000.

Fault tolerance ().  . 
, 


. 
, , 
,
. IBM
. 
, ( )  (John Backus) 1954 , 

, 
(Harlan Herrick).

.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol


). Internet.
Fdisk. ,
Ghost.
.
Symantec,
Fiber optic ( 

). ,
.

. 

, 
.

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format


).
,
CompuServe. LZW
1,5:1 2:1.

FIFO (FirstIn FirstOut , 


).  GPU (graphics processing unit).
, , 
.

, , 
Firewall (). 
,  .

GeForce 3 GeForce 4 Ti NVIDIA,
.
Radeon 7xxx, 8xxx 9xxx ATI
FireWire. 
Matrox Parhelia.
 
Green Book.
400 800 /, 3,2 /.
CDI.
IEEE 1394.
GUI (Graphical User Interface
Flash ROM. EEPROM, 
Intel,  ).
, 
. . EEPROM.
,
FM. ,  .

.

12

Hard reset. ,

, 
/. ,
, 
. . (cold boot).


4 800 / .

HomePNA. , 


11 /.

HT, 2002 ,
Xeon
(Intel), 2,8 ;
,
HT,
Pentium 4 3,06 .

HTML (HyperText Markup Language).


Web.
, 

HDTV (highdefinition television ,
). ,
.

HTTP. ,
( ),  Internet.
NTSC,
PAL SECAM. HDTV
Web ( HTML).
655 2125 ,
Hub (). ,
5:3 ( 1,67:1), 

3050 ( 5 , 
. ,
NTSC).

300 .
HDTV  . 
35 , 

, .
. , 
High Density (HD). . , 
MFM 15
.
18 .

HMA (High Memory Area
,
). 64  .
( ),
.
Himem.sys. . Switch ().
 Hyperthreading technology ( 
HMA
). (
. DOS 5.0 
HT), 
HMA 
Intel
.
.

HomeRF.
, 
11 /.
Host. , 
. 
, 
, 
,
.

HyperTransport.
AMD 

( ) . 
HyperTrans
port 
PCI (800 / 133 /).

Lightning Data Transport (LDT). Hyper
Transport
,
AMD NVIDIA.

HST (HighSpeed Technology 


).
, U.S.Robotics
( V.32

).  I/O (Input/Output ). 
.

13

IA64. 64
Intel, 
Itanium.

, ..
interleave 1:1,
.

Ibmbio.com. DOS, 
. 
. 
ROM BIOS.

Internet. ,
, 
. TCP/IP.

Ibmdos.com. DOS, 
. 
DOS. Ibmbio.com,
Command.com.
ICH (I/O Controller Hub). 
Intel 8xx,

, PCI, USB,
ATA, ,

. ICH
MCH (
)
. Intel
8xx ICH2 ICH4.
. MCH.

Io.sys. DOS,
. 
.
ROM BIOS.
IP address (IP). 
TCP/IP. IP 
32 ,
, .
, 
0255. TCP/IP

IP.
IPX.
Novell NetWare,
.

IRQ.
.
IDE. ,  IRQ 
.  , 
ATA
.
ISA PC
ISA. , 
.
8 
IEEE 1394. . FireWire.
IBM PC 1981 
16 IBM
IEEE 802.11.
PC/AT 1984 . ISA 
Ethernet.
802.11a (54 / 5 ) 
802.11b (11 / 2,4 ). , 
PC 99.
802.11b WiFi.
ISDN. 
IEEE 802.3. . 10Base2.
Impedance ( , ). ,
,
,
.
.
Interlacing. 
,
. 
,
.

. 
interlaced
.
Interleave. ,
/
. ,
interleave 3:1,
, 

14

ISO (International Standards Organization).


,
,

. ISO

(ANSI).
ISO 9660. , 
CDROM
.
Itanium. Intel
( Merced), 
,
64 IA64. 



EPIC (Explicitly Parallel
Instruction Computing 
).
Itanium 
, 
(),
.


.


CRC (cyclic redundancy checking)

ARQ (Automatic Request for Retransmission)
.

ITU (International Telecommunication Union



). ,
CCITT,
.

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display 


). ,
,
.


, , 
.
,

.

Java.  
, C C++; 
Sun Microsystems 
.
JEDEC (Joint Electron Devices Engineering
Council).
, 
.
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group).
.
,

(30
), .
, ,

.
Jumper (). ,
,

.

LBA (Logical Block Addressing


). , 
SCSI IDE 
, ,

BIOS.
528 .

LIF. , 
.
LTO (linear tapeopen).
, 
2000 . LTO 
Seagate, IBM HP. 
Ultima 100
, Accelis 25 .
LZH (Lempel Zev Welch). , 
GIF.
Mainframe. ,
, 

.

MCA. , IBM
PS/2
2 1987 . 
; MCA 
Kernel. . 
Kflex. Rockwell  .
MCGA. , IBM
56 /,  2 1987 ;
.
. 
56 / V.90.
8025
16 ,
LAPM (linkaccess procedure for modems
 ).  816 .
,  
320200 265
CCITT Recommendation V.42.
MNP HST, 
Kermit. ,

.

15

MMO (mobile module ).


Intel 
,
MCH (Memory Controller Hub).
Intel 8xx,  
, 

, , , 
.
. MCH
MMX. 57 
. MCH
ICH (  Intel, 
)  
.
. . ICH.

( 263 144 ) 640480


.

MCI.
.


, 
.

MNP. ,
,
Microcom, Inc. 
. 
MNP,
V.42bis.

MPC (Multimedia Personal Computer). 


, 
;
Tandy Corporation
Microsoft. 1995
MPC 3 ( Pentium 75 , 8
, 540 , 16 
Mebibyte. , 1 048 576 , ,
65 536 ,
(1 0241 024). 
CDROM, Microsoft
.
Windows 3.1 DOS 6.1 ).
MIDI.
MPEG.

. ,
, 
.
. 
MPR. 
, ,
, , ; MPR II.
. MIDI
Msdos.sys. DOS,

. 
, . Io.sys, Command.com.
MIDI
MTFB (Mean Time Between Failure). 
MIDI, , 

. MIDI
; . 
, .
, 
MIPS (Million Instruction Per Second .
).
MTTR. ,
,

;
( ).
.
NetBEUI. ; 
MMDS (multichannel multiport distribution
Windows NT .
service).
Microsoft NetBEUI

Windows XP,
. 
, 

, 
Internet.
.
Hybrid (www.hybrid.com).

MDA. ,
IBM 12 1981 ; 
: 
8025 , ,
914 .
MDA IBM 
.

16

NetBIOS.
, IBM
Sytek ,

( Layer 4 Layer 5 OSI).
NLX. , 
.
NLX 
, ,
AGP, USB .
Node (). , .
, 
.

, 
.
Online fallback. 


. 

.
Orange Book. 
.
.

OS/2. ,
IBM Microsoft Corporation.
Noise (, ).
.
1
4 
NTSC.
. .
1941 , 
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection 
, 
). OSI, 
RS170A ( NTSC).
1980 
NTSC 525 (ISO), 
60 . 


,  . 
FM . 
. (Application
PAL
Layer), 
SECAM, NTSC, 
OSI, 
.
; 
(Presentation Layer)
NVRAM. , 
.  
.
.
(Session Layer),
OCR (Optical Character Recognition  , 
).
(Transport Layer), 


.  . (Network Layer) 
,  ,
OCR ; (Data Link
.
Layer) 
OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer
. , 
). (Physical Layer)
,

.
.

Overdrive. Intel 
.
.
OLE (Object Linking and Embedding 
). 

(DDE),
, 
, , 

PAL. ,
1961 , 
. ,
625 25 
, PAL
, 
NTSC, .

17

Pascal.
, 
(Blaise Pascal) (1623
1662). 1970
(Niklaus Wirth) 

.

Pentium 4. Intel 
( Willamette), 
32 
. 
,

400 .

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect).

, Intel; 
,  3,2 /. 
256
ISA.
 ,
PCL (Printer Control Language  , 
). 1984
, 
HewlettPackard . 128 
HP LaserJet. 

PC. PCL  ,
,

HP
. ,
.
SSE2, 144 
PCM (Pulse Code Modulation 

).  
,  , . 

Socket 423 
.
Willamette, Socket 478 
Northwood.
PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card In
ternational Association  Pentium II. Intel,

Pentium Pro c
). , MMX. 
1989 ,
, 
(Single Edge Contact SEC).
, .
Pentium III. 
PCMCIA  Intel, 1999 . 
PC Card, 
SSE, 
PCMCIA card PC Card. .
PCMCIA
, Pentium Pro. Intel 32
, 64
, , , 
36 .
, ,
 
.
, Pentium, 256
Peertopeer. ,  512  , 
( . 
) , 
( );  Pentium 
.
, .
Pentium. Intel
PGA. 
32 , 64
. 
32 . IBM (
 , ).
8
8 . Phosphor (). 
,  , 
 
486 
(). 
, .

18

,
.

Printer (). ,

.

Phosphorescence (). 
 PROM (Programmable ReadOnly Memory
.

). , 
Photo CD.


( ).
CDR,
Eastman Kodak Phillips. 

2 0483 072 . 

(24) . 
( 
).
Physical Layer. . OSI.

PUN (Physical Unit Number 


). ,
SCSI.
SCSI ID.
SCSI SCSI
, 
PUN ID 7 0.
SCSI 
ID, 7.
, 
, ID 6, 
.

PIF (Program Information File 


). , 
Windows
, 
QAM. , 
Windows.
,
Plug and Play (PnP). Intel 
.


,
. V.32bis 
PnP . 
PnP  .
, ,
QIC. ,
,
USB IEEE1394. PnP 

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,
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.
expensive Disks
PostScript.  
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.  
,


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, PostScript .

RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic RAM).
.
, 
PPGA (Plastic Pin Grid Array).
Rambus, Inc. 
Intel .
Intel. 
PPP. ,  1 /
Internet 
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.
RDRAM 
PPP ,  Intel
SLIP. ,
Pentium III/4.
SLIP, .
Red Book. 
Presentation Layer. . OSI.

, CDDA.

19

Rendering (). 

,
.
Reverse engineering. 


, .
RFI. ,
.
RGB (Red Green Blue).
,
, .
RIMM (Rambus Inline Memory Modules).
,
RDRAM.
RISC (Reduced InstructionSet Computer).
.
RISC 
, 
. 


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RJ14.
.

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SCSI (Small Computer System Interface
). 
. 
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). , IBM

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Network Architecture 
). , 
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.
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, .
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,
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NTSC () .
Serial ATA. . SATA.

RJ45.
.

Server (). , 

, 
.

ROM BIOS. BIOS, .

Session Layer. . OSI.

RS232. ,
1969
; 
.

Silicon (). , 
. 
(Si) 

.

S/PDIF (Sony Philips Digital Interface). 


 

.
RCA; 
S/PDIF.

SIMD (single instruction multiple data, 


). ,
MMX
SSE, Intel.
,
SATA (Serial ATA).  , 
, 
,
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UltraATA. Serial ATA 1.0 SIMM. .
7 , 


.

SLIP.
150 /, , Ul
traATA133. Serial ATA II SATA () , 
TCP/IP 
. . Ultra DMA.

20

. 

,
Internet.
Slot 1. 
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Slot 2. 
Pentium II/III Xeon.
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,
DMI (Desktop Management Interface 
).
SMPTE.
.
SMPTE , 
, .
Socket 18. 

486, Pentium Pentium Pro.
Socket 462. . Socket A.
Socket 478. 478 , 
Pentium 4 Northwood.
Socket A. 462 , 
AMD Athlon Duron.
SODIMM (small outline dual inline memory
module
).
144 , 

.
Sound card ( ). ,
.
SPI (SCSI parallel interface
SCSI). 
SCSI. . SCSI.

ST506/412. , 
Seagate Technology 
1980 5
ST506. 
PC ,
ESDI, IDE SCSI.
Stack (). , 
, 
, , .
LIFO (lastin, first
out , ).
Standby power supply.
,
.
SVGA (Super VGA). 
800600.
,
,
640480.
SVideo (Y/C). , 
(Y/C)
. 
NTSC,

. 
Hi8 SVHS.
SWEDAC (Swedish Board for Technical Ac
creditation 
). ,
, , MPR1
MPR2, 
, 


.

Switch (). (
),

SRAM. .
,
SRAM  . 
, 
. 
,
,
.
. ,
DRAM . SRAM , 


.
. . Hub ().
SSE (streaming SIMD extensions
Tape drive ( ).
SIMD). 70  ,
Intel
.
MMX,
TCO (Total Cost of Ownership
Pentium III. . MMX SIMD.
). 

21

.
, 

.
TCO. 
. . MPR.
TCP/IP. ,
Department of Defense;
.
, Internet.
1970 Department of Defenses Ad
vanced Research Projects Agency
.
, , 
,
.
TFT (Thin Film Transistor
). 
. 

.
TIFF. , 
Aldus Corporation, Microsoft Corpora
tion .
Token Ring. , 

()
.
, , 
,
,
. 

16 /. 
,
Ethernet, 
.
Tower (). ,

.

24 , 16,7 .
.
TSR. .
, 

. 

 
.
TTL. , 
TTL.
UART. 
,
RS232.
UMB (Upper Memory Block
). 
(UMA),
384 , 
640 1 .
URL (Uniform Resource Locator 
).
World Wide Web. 

,
.
USB (Universal Serial Bus 
). 
12 / (1,5 /)
. 
127 .
UTP. ,

. 


.
V.21. ITU
300 /.

V.22. ITU
1 200 / 
Transistor ().
, Bell Labs
1947 ( 1948 ),  600 /.
V.22bis. ITU
, 
.  2 400 /.
 
1 200 /.
.

V.23. ITU
100 . .
1 200 600 /; 
75 /.
Truecolor images. 24 

, 
.

22

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9 600 4 800 /.
V.32
4 800 /
9 600 /
.
V.32bis. ITU,
V.32 
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14 400 /. V.32bis 

, ;

. ,
.
V.32terbo. , 

;
V.32
18 800 /.
, ,
.


800600, Super VGA.
VGA. , IBM
2 1987 ;
. 

8025 16
( 916 ). 

320200
256 ( 262 144 )
640480 16 .
VLBus (VESA Local Bus). 
486. 
PCI.
VLink.
VIA (266 /)

VIA, P4X266 ( Pentium 4)
KT266A/333 ( Athlon/Duron). VLink 
, PCI,

.

V.34. ITU, 
V.32bis, 
VMM (Virtual Memory Manager
28 800 /,
). 
V.32bis.
Windows, 
V.34+. ITU, 
.
V.34, 
Volatile memory ( ).
33 600 /.
, 
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. 
V.42bis. (Dynamic RAM), 
, 
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V.42bis.  .
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( 48 /), 
modemonhold (
,
Internet). 
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VESA. ,
1980 NEC Home Electronics

VRAM.
. VRAM 
DRAM, 


. ,

.
VxD (Virtual Device Driver
). 
Windows. 
, 
.
Wait state ( ). ( 
), 
 ;

23

. 


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, , 

.

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. 

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86 .

Whetstone. 1976  1 024768 256
( 262 144) 640480

,  65 536 .
.
XMM (eXtended Memory Manager
 ). ,
.

ALGOL. 1980  286 ,
, C Pascal. Himem.sys DOS.
White Book. ,  Xmodem. 
Philips JVC  300 1 200 /. 
MPEG.
1970
CP/M.
Wintel. 
Intel,  XMS (eXtended Memory Specification
Microsoft Windows.
).
Workstation ( ). ,  Microsoft , 
, 
,  .
, 
Yellow Book. , 
.
CDROM.
Extended Architecture (XA).
World Wide Web (Web). 
,
Ymodem. ; 

Xmodem. 
, Internet. 128 1 024 .
WORM. Y. Y , 
.

. .
WORM 200 .
Zero wait states ( ).
X2. U.S. Robotics (3Com),
. Wait state ( ).

ZIF. ,
56 /; V.90.
.
x86.
Zmodem. ,
Intel. Pentium,
Xmodem Ymodem.
Pentium Pro, Pentium II Pentium III
. , 
,
( )
.
. , CPU Central
Xeon. 
Processing Unit, .
Intel,

Pentium II/III/4. Pentium II/III
, .
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( Pentium 4  .

)
.
Socket 602. Xeon

.

24

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,

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,

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. ,

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, 
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 L2,
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; ,
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, .

.
,
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, 
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.
; 
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(cold boot).  . , 


.
.
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().

41


,
, . 
, 

.
,
.
, 
.


. 

.
.

.
. ,
.

.  . ,
 ;
Intel. Intel 8xx
.

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,  PCI (33 ) 
.
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.
USB .
,
. 
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, .
,  
. DMA. . , MCH,
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.
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,

42

. ,

.
(allocation unit). . .