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. . , . .

. . , . .

2003

313 73-4
537+338
M............
. ., . . . : . : 2 ./ . . . , 2003. . I. 221 .
,
, ,
. , , , . . , . .
.
. , . .
, , -
,
. (I- ).
- 2016.

, 2003


1.1 . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9
11
12
15
16


2.1 . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 . . . . . .
2.4 . .
2.5 . . .

.
.
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.

50
52
53
55
59
62


3.1 . . .
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90
91
96
98

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4
108
4.1 . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4.2 , .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115


124
5.1 . . . . . 126
5.2 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131


137
6.1 . . . . . . . . . . 138
6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . 142
6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
6.4 . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
6.5 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
6.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
6.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

185
7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
7.2 . . 188

,
1.1 .
. . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 . . . . . . .
1.4 .
2.1 . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

191
.
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .

191
192
192
194
194
195

2.3
2.4
3.1
3.2
4.1
4.2

5.1
5.2
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.1
6.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
. . . 200
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
- . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
. . . . . 206
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
. . . . . . . . . . 208
. . . . . . . . . . . 209
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
. . 216

217

218

- .
,
, , ,
. .
, , ,
; , : . , ,
,
, . , , .
, . , ,
,
. , ,
: , ( , ).
, ( , ,
).
-

: 1) ,
; 2) , ; 3) , ; 4)
, , .
, , .

. , , ,
, . , , .
.
,
.

. . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . ,
. , , .
. . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . ,

; . . , .
, .

1.

~ = 4 , rot E
~ = 0,
div E
(1)

ZZ
I
~ = 0,
~ dl
EndS = 4q ,
E

(2)


E1n| E2n | = 4 , E1 | = E2 | , (~n = ~n21).

(3)

( )

~ r) = q ~r .
(4)
E(~
r2 r
~ = PE
~ i. E


Z
Z
Z
~
r
~
r
~ = dV + dS + ~r dl .
E
r3
r3
r3

~ = grad = ,
~
E
A = q(1 2) .

El dl =

q
+C.
r

(5)

(6)

(7)

C 0.
q W = q.

10

1X
1
W =
q i k =
2
2
i6=k

1
8

Z

dV +

dS +

dl

(8)

E 2dV .

()
(9)

= 4 , = 0 .

1 2 (n
1 2.
1 2
1 = 2 ,

= 4 .
(10)
n
n

q
= 4(~r) , = + C .
(11)
r

(~r) =

Z
V

(r~0) dV 0
+
0
~
|~r r |

Z
S

(r~0) dS 0
+
0
~
|~r r |

Z
L

(r~0) dl0
|~r r~0|

(12)

r >> a, a ,


q p~~r 1
3xx
= + 3 + Q
3 + ... ,
(13)
r r
2
r5
r

1 02
0k 0k
q = qk , p~ = qk~rk , Q = qk x x 3 rk , x0k
qk , rk02 = (x0k )2.
~ = q
~ = W
~ .
F~ = q E

1.1 . .

11

~ , N
~ = [~p E]
~ .
W = (~pE)
~ p E)
~ = (~p )
~ E
~.
F~ = (~
1.1. . .

1.1. . , E.
. T rmin =
1013 ? mp = 1, 67 1024 , k = 1, 38 1016 /.
1.2.
a (
+e, M ) ( +e,
me  M ) .
.
1.3. m q .
a. , +q.
? ?
1.4. q1 q2 A B, AB = a. m q AB. v
,
A?
1.5. ,
Q. k1 ,
k2 . ?
1.6. 0 ,
.
r . U .

12

1.7.
R a .
, q , A1 A2.
q1 q2 .
1.8. R .
v. ,
C?
1.9. . 0 0,
~ 0 . 0,
E
.
1.10. q1 q2
a. q1. ?
1.11. ` > R
R q. :
) ; ) .
1.12.
a h . q.
1.13. , .
, , , a . R.
1.14. R -

1.2

13

. ,
a .
~ 1.15. E
z: ) R,
z = 0; ) R. ; ) .
1.16.
+, .

a.
O1O2 = d. O1, O2
.
1.17.
a
. O.
1.18. , R, Q.
1.2.

1.19. , : ) , ; ) ;
)
.
1.20. ,
,

14

a , - +.
1.21. ,
.
~ = 4~n,
1.22. , E
~n , .
1.23. , : ) a ( ); ) a ( ); ) 2a ( ).
1.24. R, , ,
R1,
~ .
a (a + R1 < R). E
1.25. ,
s1 , 1 2 .

s2
00
00
10 , 20 1 , 2 .
1.26. , R1 R2 (R1 < R2)
~ (r) = r n. q E
. R2 R1 q = const.
1.3. .

1.27.
p~.
1.28. , p~ q.

1.3 .

15

1.29. ,


~ ?
. p~ E

1.30.
( +q q) ,
v0. , .
. .
1.31. ~ . d,
.
1.32. ) , p~ P
(  qi = 0)
r~i0 = ~a + r~i .
P
) ( qi 6= 0), ~a p~0 =
0?
1.33. R =
0 cos . .
1.34. R z s
+, . (r, )
y
(r  R).
+s
1.35. y
-s
+, . x +s R
.

16

1.36. :
, a ,
.
1.37. ( ) a a
a
. ( !) .
1.38. ,

. (r, ) -
QZZ = Q; QXX = QY Y = Q/2.
1.39. (r) a b q q : ) r  a, b ) r  a, b.
1.40. R
q q.
. ( x > 0
XY ).
1.41. , a,
h .
1.42. : ) q, 2q, q
Z a ( );
) q , X Y ,
, +q ( ).
1.43. .

1.4

17

1.44. .
1.45. 2n-,
a .
1.4.

1.46.  ,
= qr exp ar .
1.47. , , , : ) , ; ) ,
; ) 2a, . ( R).
1.48. r1 r2, U .
1.49. z = 0 (x, y) = 0 sin (x)
sin (y), 0, , .
.
1.50.
(e)

= e/a3 exp (2r/a),
a , r .
: ) ; )
; ) .
1.51. R , ~ 0. E
. , ,
?

18

1.52.
( ).
1.53.
U . .
.
1.54. , ( R,
d  R)  R
Q
= 2R
ln 8R
, Q .
1.5.

.1. a ( +e , M ) (
+e , me  M ) . .

e2
ee
ee
ee
U =2
+2
+ 2 = (4 + 2) .
a
a
a
a 2
1/m , me  M ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
c , .
:
e2
mee2
e2
+ ,
(4 + 2) = 2
a
2
a 2

1.5

19

me  M
 2 
1/2

e
e =
1/ 2 + 4
.
me a
:

M p2
e2
=2
,
2
2a

2
, , p ' (e / 2M a)1/2 me  M .
.2. . O
0,
~ 0. O,
E
.
O .
, O ,
, 0/2.
, O 0/2. , O, ,
O . ~ 0
E
,
2/3. , ,
E0. ,
,
E0. , ,

20

. O (
~ 0 ), . . E
.
.3. m q , . Q, l,
a. ?
, dz , d ,
d =

Q
dz
p
.
l a2 + (d + z)2

, ,
p
Q d + l + (d + l)2 + a2

= ln
.
l
d + d2 + a 2

d ,
, . .
d d=l/2 .

m 2
Q
l2 + 4a2 + l
= q ln
,
2
2
2
l
l + 4a l


1/2
2qQ
l2 + 4a2 + l
>
ln
.
ml
l2 + 4a2 l
.

1.5

21

.4. m ( q )
a , .
~0 , , .
,
, r0 = a/ 2 ? , : ) 0 2
; ) 0 2 .
, ,
. ,
, .
, ..

( ).

(r, ) ,
mr2
m2
q2
q2
4
+4
4 + 2 = E0 ,
(1)
2
2
2r
r 2

2
q2
2q
m02
E0 = 4
4 +
.
2
a
a
M = 4m0r0 = 4m r
(1) ,
mr2
M12
q2
q2
+
+
= E1 ,
2
2mr2 r 2 4r
E1 = E0/4, M1 = M/4 .

(2)

22

(2)


2
M1
q 2 2 1
U =

.
(3)
2mr2 r
4
M1 6= 0 , . , E1 < 0,
, E1 0 . E1
U ,
. r U
, , r1
, U ,
M12
4

.
(4)
r1 =
mq 2 2 2 1
r = r1 (3),

4
mq 2 2 1 2
(U )min =
.
2M12
4

E1 = (U)min , 0, , :
 q 2 22 1 1/2
0 =
,
mr0
4

r0 = a/ 2 . 0 , (4) r1 = r0.
) 2
0 , . .


2
1 q 2 2 1 1/2
=
,
2 mr0
4

1.5

23

7q 2 2 1
E1 =
.
8 r0
4
E1 = U (r) , r2 = r0/7 r3 = r0. ,

r0/7, r0. ,
, U . . r = r0/7 ,
.
) 2 , E1

q2 2 2 1
E1 =
.
r0
4
2

, .
.5. r1 < r2 <
r3 , Q,
.
, .
,

1 =

Q
Q
Q
, 2 =
, 3 =
.
r2
r2
r3

1 > 3. , r3 r1 . Q1, +Q1. r > r3 E = Q/r 2 ,

24

. ,
3 = Q/r3 .
r2 < r < r3, . . ,
Q Q1
Q Q1
,

=
+ const .
r2
r
r = r3 ,
const = Q1/r3.
E=

E=

Q1
,
r2

Q Q 1 Q1
+
r
r3

r2 < r < r3

Q1 Q1 Q
+
+
r
r3 r2

r1 < r < r2 .

1 3 , . 1 = 3 ,
r1 r3 r 2
Q1 = Q
.
r2 r3 r 1

.6. ,
U , h r . , , , . d .

E = U/d.
= U h/d.
. , , ,

1.5

25

. q = r = U hr/d.
.7. q1 q2 a.

q1.
?
O
b q1
, q1 q2 (. ). M , R, ,

q2
q1
q1
q2

,
R1 R2
R2 + b2 2Rb cos
R2 + l2 2Rl cos
(1)
l q2 .
(1) :
"
1/2  2
1/2 #
2
2 2
2
b
2b
q
lq
2lq
q1
1+ 2 cos
=
12 + 2 12 12 cos
,
R
R
R
q2 R q2 Rq2
=

, ,
:
b2
q12
l2q12
(2)
1 + 2 = 2 + 2 2;
R
q2 R q2
lq12
b
=
.
R Rq22
(3) l = a + b
q12
b=a 2
.
q2 q12

(3)

26

b (2),
q1 q2
R=a 2
.
q2 q12

R = aq1 q2/(q22 q12), b = aq12/(q22 q12) (. ),


, q1 < q2. q1. q2 < q1,
q2 , q1 q2.
q2.
R = aq1q2/(q12 q22), q2 b = aq22/(q12 q22). ,
, .
, q/R1 = q/R2
, , R1 = R2. , , , . . .
~ :
.8. E
) Z R; ) ; ) Z R, z = 0.
.
~
E
~ =0
rot E

(1)

, , , .. ,

, ,
.
,
,

1.5

27

.

~ = grad .
E
(2)

~ E
(1), . ~ (2) + const, E
. ,
.
.
,
A
:
Zd
Zd
~ d~l) = (grad d~l) =
A = (E
c

Zd
c

dy +
dz) =
( dx +
x
y
z

Zd
c

d = (c) (d) .

, .
.
,
.

X qi
,
(3)
=
R
i
i
Ri qi ,
.
Z
Z
Z
Z
dq
dv
ds
dl
=
+
+
,
(4)
=
R
R
R
R
V

28

, , ,
; R , dv , ds ,
dl ; dv , ds , dl , , . , 6= 0,
, 6= 0, , 6= 0.
,
,
,
(4) , (3)
,
.
~ , = 4. E,

(. .9), , (1),
Z
~ dR)
~ + const,
= (E
(5)
, .
) (4).
r dr. dl = r d
dq = dl dr = r dr d .
,

z , dq/ z 2 + r2.
, r
dr

1.5

2r dr
d =
.
z 2 + r2

= 2

29

ZR
0


r dr
2
2

= 2 z + R |z| ,
z 2 + r2

(6)




z
z
Ez =
= 2

.
(7)
z
|z|
R2 + z 2
)
(x, y). ,
~ z
E
. ,
.

R (7) , R .
z
Ez = 2 .
|z|
, (6) .
(4), .
, (5):
= 2|z| + const .

. , .
= 2|z| .

, 4, E2n |
E1n | = 4.

30

) , , : , , R,
.


z
z
z
z
Ez = 2
2

.
= 2
2
2
2
2
|z|
|z|
R +z
R +z

Z

= Ez dz + const = 2 R2 + z 2 + const .

, , (0) = 2R.
.9. , :
) a ;
) a ;
) 2a
.
, ,
, , ,
~ E
~ . E
,
: S ,
( 4 CGSE).

I
Z
~ d~s) = 4 dv,
(E
(1)
S

1.5

31

d~s , ds, , . . , ; .
~ S.
E
~ d~s, E
~ ds. E
, ,
, .
(1) , , ,
E , E
~
E.
)
. ~ , E
~ . E
R :
I
I
~ d~s) = E ds = E 4R2,
= (E
S

~ - R
~ = E 4R2 , E
~ E
~ E
~ d~s
R,
(-1).
,
Z
4
4 dv = 4 R3

Ra
3
V

Z
V

4
dv = 4 a3
3

R > a.

32

~
~ = 4 R

R a,
E
3
~
4
Q~
3 R
~
E = a 3 = 3 R

R > a,
3
R
R
Q = 43 a3 .
,
,
. .
) , ,
.
~
Z E
~r.
l r < a r > a.
~ E

I
I
~ d~s) = E ds = E 2rl.
= (E
S

, > 0, , ,
~
d~s ~r. E
~ ~r .
, E
,
Z
Z

4
4 dv = 4 2 dv = 2 r2l

r < a,
a
a
V
V
Z
4 dv = 4 a2l = 4 l

r a.
V

1.5

33

(1),
~ = 2 ~r
E
a2

r a,

~ = 2 ~r
E

r > a.
r2
) (x , y).
~ z
(x , y), E
, ,
, .
, . S
~ 2ES.
, E
~ d~s
, E
. , 2ES.
, (1)
: 4S |z|, z a, 4S 2a, z > a.
~ = 4~z |z| a ,
E
~ = 4a ~z |z| > a .
E
z
.10. a,
, ,
b , l ,
~ .
(l + b < a). E
, ,

34

: a, ,
b, . +() =
0. , .9,
~ 4 ~r = 4 ~l .
~ = 4 R
E
3
3
3
, , .
.11. , P~ q.
, q,
, q:
(1)
F~ = F~1 + F~2 = Q(E~2 E~1 ) ,

E~1 ,
q ( Q); E~2
.

, , E~2
~ R
~ + ~l ) =
E~2 = E(

~
~
~
E
E
E
~
~
~ E
~,
E(R) + lx
+ ly
+ lz
E~1 + (~l )
x
y
z
~ E
~
(~l)

~ = ~i +~j +~k . E~2 (1) ,

x
y
z

1.5

35

~ = Q3 R,
~ ,
P~ = Q ~l, E
R
:
 ~


q
R
~ = q Px
~
+
P
+
P
.
(2)
R
F~ = (P~ )
y
z
R3
x
y
z R3


~


 1 
~
~ 
~i
R
1 R

3
R
~
= Px
Px
= Px
+R

x ,
3
3
x R
R x
x R3
R3 R5

~

~
~
~ 
~ 
~j 3R
R
R
k 3R
y , Pz
z ,
Py
= Py
= Pz
y R3
R3 R5
z R3
R3 R5

~i, ~j, ~k
X, Y , Z. (2),
~
~ R)
~ R
~
3(
P
P

.
(3)
F~ = q
R3
R5
, , , . (3) ,
~
, , - R
,
~ R
~
3(P~ R)
P~
~
.
E = 3
R
R5
~
, E,
~ = [P~ E].
~
N
~ = q R/R
~ 3,
E
~
[P~ R]
~
,
N =q
R3

36

~ -,
R
q , .
.12. ) , P~ P
qi = 0
i
.
) d~
P
0
~
P = 0,
qi 6= 0?
i

) - ~ i,
qi R
P ~
P~ =
qiRi.
i

~
d,
~0 = R
~ i d~
R
i
X
X
X
X
0
0
~
~
~
~
~
~
q i Ri =
qi(Ri d) =
q i Ri d
qi = P~ ,
P =

qi = 0.

) P~ 0 = 0,

~i
qi R
.
d~ = iP
qi
i

~ .13. (R)
a b q q : ) R  a, b; ) R  a, b.

.
R0
(x, y). 0
. X ~
, Z R.

1.5

37

~ - . , R
dl = R0 d, (R, )
d =

q
R0 d
p
.
2R0 R02 + R2 2RR0 cos 0

, :
=

q
2

Z2
0

d
p
.
2
2
R0 + R 2RR0 cos 0

(1)

, ,
R0/R . , , :
1
1
1
p
q
=
'
2
2
R
R
2R
R0 + R 2RR0 cos 0
1 + ( R0 )2 R0 cos 0
'

1
1 R0
R0
1+
cos 0 +
R
R
2 R

2

(3 cos2 0 1) + . . . .

(1),
 2
q
q R0
= +
(1 3 cos2 0) .
R 4R R

cos 0 = sin sin . ,


a b
q q
(R, ) =

q
2
2
2
(a

b
)(1

3
cos
0 )
4R3

a, b  R.

38

R0 R0  R :
(R, ) =

q
R
q
+
R0 2R0 R0

2 Z2
0

1
(3 sin2 sin2 1) d =
2

 2
R
q
q
+
(1 3 cos2 0).
=
R0 4R0 R0
a, b  R




1
1 1
qR2 1
3 (3 cos2 1) .
(R, ) = q

3
a b
4 a
b

.14. ( ) a .
( ) .

~ = (2/R2)R,
~ R
~
E
-, , ,
.
2 ln R + const.
= 2 ln r1 2 ln r2 2 ln r3 .

. ~r1 = ~r ~b1,
r1 = (r2 + b2 2rb sin )1/2 .

r2 = r + b 2rb cos( + 30 )

1/2

r3 = (r2 + b2 + 2rb cos( 30))1/2 ,

1.5

39

b = |~b1 | = |~b2| = |~b3|. ,




1
2b
b2
ln r1 = ln r + ln 1 sin + 2 .
2
r
r

b/r,
b
b2 1
b3
2
3
ln r1 ' ln r sin + (1 2 sin ) 2 + (12 sin 16 sin ) 3 .
r
r
3!
r
ln r2 ln r3 , ,
b3
= 6 ln r 2 3 sin3 b << r,
r

b = a/ 3.
.15. (r) R, E
E0. ?
~ = 4
div E
E0
1
(rE0) = 4, =
.
r r
4r
1 = E0r+C,
C .
,



2
r
= 0.
r
r

2 = A ln r + B,
A, B . 1(0) = 0

1(R) = 2(R),

40



2
1
=
,
r r=R
r r=R

1 = E0r

r R,


r
2 = E0R ln + 1

r > R.
R
.16. R = 0 cos 2, Z, ~
. E
.
1
2 r ( ).



1

1 2
r
+ 2 2 = 0.
(1)
r r r
r

(1) r < R r > R


= f (r) ().
(1)


r
f (r)
1 2()
r
=
.
f (r) r
r
() 2

(2)

r ,
1 2()
2

=
C
,
(3)
() 2


r
f (r)
(4)
r
= C2 ,
f (r) r
r

1.5

41

C . (3) () = cos C.




1
2

= 40 cos 2 ,
(5)
r r=R
r r=R

, C = 2. (4)

2
df (r)
2 d f (r)
r
4f (r) = 0.
(6)
+
r
dr2
dr
f = ar b.
(6), , b = 2.
, r > R
, r 2, r (- ). r < R, ,
, r 2,
r = 0.
1 = A1r2 cos 2

rR,

2 = A2r2 cos 2

rR.

(5) ,
1(R) = 2(R), , A1 = 0/R, A2 = 0R3.
r R
 2
r
cos 2,
1 = 0R
R
r
1
= 20 cos 2,
r
R
1 1
r
=
= 20 sin 2,
r
R

Er1 =
E1

42

~ = 20
|E|
r R

r
;
R

 2
R
2 = 0R
cos 2,
r
 3
R
Er2 = 20
cos 2,
r
 3
R
E2 = 20
sin 2,
r
 3
~ = 20 R .
|E|
r

.17. , P~
. ; ,
a. , .
(r, , z) Z (0, P, 0).
~ = 2~r/r 2. , :
E
~ = P 2 ~nr = 2P ~n ,
~ E
~ =P E
F~p = (P~ )
r
r r
r2
~nr , ~n . F~ , :
2P
F~ = F~p(a) = 2 ~n .
a

nr ,
~

1.5

43

~nr ( + ) ~nr ()
~nr = lim
=
0

~nr
= lim
= ~n .
0
.
:
2P
2
~ = [P~ E(a)]
~
M
= 2 [P~ ~a] =
~nz .
a
a
.18. , , , :
) a,
;
) a, ;
) 2a, .
)
1 = 4 R a 2 = 0 R a.




1

1
2
R
= 4

R a,
R2 R
R



2
R2
=0

R > a.
R
R

44

. ,
2
A1
1 = R2
+ B1

R a,
3
R
A2
2 = + B 2

R > a,
R
A1, B1, A2, B2 .
1 1/R. ,
1/R 2,
R 0 .

,
. ,
, A1 = 0. ~ = 0 , B2 = 0. rot E



: E1 R=a = E2 R=a.
, 1(a) = 2(a).
~ = 4 ,
div E


E2n
E1n
= 4,
R=a

R=a

~ E2n , E1n E;
. ~
, E
.
2
A2
,
a2 + B1 =
3
a
4
A2
a =
,
3
a

4
A2 = a3 , B1 = 2a2 .
3

1.5

45

:
2
1 = (3a2 R2)

R a,
3
4a3
2 =

R > a.
3R
) Z
1  1 
r
= 4

r a,
r r
r
1  2 
r
=0

r > a,
r r
r

. , :
1 = r2 + A1 ln r + B1,
2 = A2 ln r + B2.

r = 0, A1 = 0,
. ,
B1 = 0. r = a
A2 = 2a2,

B2 = 2a2 ln a a2.

,
= /a2,
r2
1 = r = 2

r a,
a
a
2 = 2 ln

r a.
r
) ,
2

46

X Y .

z, z = const .
d21(z)
= 0 z a,
dz 2
d22(z)
= 4 a < z < a ,
dz 2
d23(z)
= 0 z > a.
dz 2

(1)

:
1 = A z + B 1 ,
2 = 2z 2 + A2z + B2 ,
3 = A 3 + B 3 .
, z = 0,
B2 = 0. ,
, , , z .
,

d2
= 0,
dz z=0

A2 = 0. , , z =
a.
A1 = 4a , B1 = 2a2 ,
A3 = 4a ,

B3 = 2a2 .

1.5

47

,

2z 
2
1 = 2a 1 +

z a ,
a

a z a,
2 = 2z 2


2z
3 = 2a2 1

z a,
a
:

2z2
 a z a ,
2|z|
(z) =
|z| a .
2a2 1
a

.19. z = 0
(x, y) = 0 sin x sin y, 0, , . .

2 2 2
+
+
= 0.
x2 y 2 z 2

(1)






(2)
E2z z=0 E1z z=0 = 4 .
, x, y,
(1)
(x, y, z) = f1(x) f2(y) f3(z) .

(3)

(3) (1)
,
 2

2(f3 (z))/z 2
(f1(x))/x2 2(f2(y))/y 2
=
+
. (4)
f3(z)
f1(x)
f2(y)

48

(4) x, y, z, .
2(f3(z))/z 2
= 2 .
f3(z)

f3(z) = A ez + B ez .
, z , f3(z) ,
. , , , :
f (z) = A e|z| .
3

2(f1(x))/x2
= 12 ,
f1(x)

2(f2(y))/y 2
= 12 ,
f2(y)

2 = 12 + 22 .

. ,
, (2),
f1(x) = sin x , 2 = 12 ;
p
, = 2 + 2. ,

f2(y) = sin y ,

22 = 2;

= A e|z| sin x sin y .

Ez = /z .


E2z z=0 = A sin x sin y ,

E1z z=0 = A sin x sin y .

1.5

49

(2), , A = 2 0/.

20 |z|
(x , y , z) =
e
sin x sin y ,

p
= 2 + 2.
.20. a , ~ 0. E
. ,
.
.
Z , ,
~ 0. ,
E
.
.
,

R .






(R,
)
1

(R,
)
R2
+
sin
= 0 . (1)
R
R
sin

,
R, :
(R , ) = 1(R) 2() .
1(R) 2(),
(1).




1

(R
1

()
1
2
R2
=
sin
.
1(R) R
R
2() sin

50

R ,
, ,
, . .


1
d

(R)
d
1
R2
=C,
(2)
1(R) d R
dR


1
d
d 2()
sin
= C .
(3)
2() sin d
d
(3) 2() = cos C = 2,
. (2) R:
1(R) = A Rn .
(2) n
n2 + n 2 = 0, n1 = 2 , n2 = 1.
,


A2
(R , ) = A1R + 2 cos .
R
A1 A2 .
, R , .
. lim Ez (R, ) = E0,
R

.
z
, z = R cos , A1 = E0.
. R = a, (a, ) = 0
,
A2
A1 a + 2 = 0 .
a
, A2 = E0a3
~
~ 0 R)
a3 (E
E0a3 cos
= E0R cos +
R a.
= E0z +
R3
R2
Ez =

1.5

=0

51

R a.

, , , , ~ 0 a3 .
d~ = E
~ = grad . E
~
,
 
3
a
~ = ()
~
~ 0 (
~ E
~ 0 R)
~ a 3 (E
~
~ 1 .
~ 0 R)
E
=E
R3
R3
~ E
~ 0R):
~
(

 

~ 0 [
~ = E
~ R
~ + (R
~ )
~ E
~0 .
~ [
~ E
~ 0 ] + (E
~ E
~ 0 R)
~ R]
~ + R
~ 0 )
(
~ 0 = const [
~ R]
~ = rotR
~ = 0 ,
E
~ = (E
~ 0 )
~ R
~ =E
~0 .
~ E
~ 0 R)
(
,
 
~
3R
1
~
= 5.

R3
R

~ R
~
~
3(d~R)
d~
3

R > a,
~ = E0 +
5
E
R
R

R < a,

~ 0a3 , d~ = E
~ 0.
E



3
1
= E0 cos .
() = ER
4
4
R=a

52

~ = E
~ 0, E
.

Z
Z/2


3
3

|Q| = ds =
E0 cos 2a2 sin d = E0a2 .
4
4
0

, .
2.


~ = 4 , rot E
~ = 0,
div D
(1)
~ = E
~ + 4 P~ = E
~ . P~
D
~
, P~ = 1
4 E .

I
ZZ
DndS = 4q ,
El dl = 0 ,
(2)
S

D1n| D2n| = 4 , 1E1n| 2E2n| = 4 , E1 | = E2 | .


(3)
( )
~ r) = q ~r .
E(~
(4)
r2 r

Z
q
= El dl =
+C.
(5)
r

53

C 0.

1X
1
W =
q i k =
2
2
i6=k

1
8

Z

dV +

dS +

dl

(6)

E 2 dV .

() ,
= 4 , = 0 .

(7)

1 2 (n
1 2):
1
2
|
| = 4 .
(8)
n
n

q
= 4(~r) , = + C .
(9)
r

1 | = 2 | ,

(~r) =

Z
V

(r~0) dV 0
+
0
~
|~r r |

Z
S

(r~0) dS 0
+
0
~
|~r r |

Z
L

(r~0 ) dl0
.
0
~
|~r r |

(10)

r >> a, a ,


q p~~r 1
3xx
3 + ... ,
= + 3 + Q
(11)
r r
2
r5
r

54

, x0k
q = qk , p~ = qk~rk , Q =

qk , rk02 = (x0k )2.


~ = q
~ = W
~ .
F~ = q E
~ , N
~ = [~p E]
~ .
W = (~pE)
~ p E)
~ = (~p )
~ E
~.
F~ = (~
0k
qk x0k
x

1 02
3 rk

2.1.

2.1. , .
~
2.2. E
1, 2,
.
2.3. , q,
, ~ ,
E
.
2.4. q
1 2.
,
.
2.5. R ( q)

1 2. ,

.
2.6. , q, ,
1, 2, 3, (1 + 2 + 3 = 2). 1 , 2, 3 ,

2.2

55

.
2.7. 1 2 . ~ 1,2 .
~ 1,2 D
. E
2.8 . a 1 2.
~ 0 .
E
,
.
~ 0 2.8 . E
.
, . .
2.2.

2.9. .
2.10. : )
h  a  ` ) a  `.
2.11. ,
= 0(x + a)/a, a , X , S. ,
, U .
2.12. -, d~0, ,
h. n0.
. .

56

2.13. a
b

1 = const a r < c
(r) =
,
2 = const c r b

a < c < b. ,
.
2.14.
,
. a b,
. .
2.15. a, b  2a.
2.16. ( a, b  a).
2.17. S K A `, G2 a
G1 b. U1,
G2 U2. G1,
.
2.18. A, B C d1

d1
d2. A q,

U B C . d2

B C , U , A C . . S.

2.3

57

2.19. ,
U , h r. , , ,
. d.
2.20.
1
2

3
R1
R2
.
U
2.21. C q1, q2 , q3 . .
, .

q1

q2

q3

2.3.

2.22. q a
. , ,
, , .
2.23.
.
. .
2.24.
. q.
: ) = 90o; ) = 60o; ) = 45o.
2.25. , , a, Q. h.
.

58

2.26. q a . , a  d
(d ).
2.27. q () () a `, . ,
.
2.28. q ` a < ` Q. .
?
2.29.



a ,

q
q

q0 . ` 
l

q. q.
2.30. `
a. P~0
, a < `. : ) ; )
, .
2.31. , , `. h
`.
.
2.32.
a. .
b > a q. ,
Q, .
0

2.3

59

2.33. , ,
~ 0 , z
E

.
a.
R ()
(R) , F ,
.
2.34. , , a. Q


Q a,
O . O .
2.35. a
z

r
Q b > a.
q
. : ) (z)
z
; )
(r, ) r  b.
2.36. Q b
z
a ,
Q
, r
b q
(. ). :

) (z) z ; )
(r, )
r  a, b.
2.37.

60

a `
l
. ,
.
2.38. a. q .
h. (R) .
2.39. q a 1 2 ( 1).
.
2.40. ,
1 2, q, a
( 1).
2 , ?
2.41. h 1 2.
p~ . :
) , ; ) .
2.42. : 1 2. ,
,
. , h .
2.43. : 1, 2. ,
, : q1, q2 q3. q2, q1 q3 a

2.4 . .

61

q2. , q1.
2.44. 1 2 , . q1 q2 ,
a .
F~1 F~2 , .
?
2.4. . .

2.45. , , A . ,
?
2.46. , , ,
A?
. . .
2.47. S d , . . , ?
: ) E;
) ,
. ,
.
2.48.

62

. Q, R.
2.49. ,


= 8e/a3 exp (4r/a),
a , e . .
2.50. p~1 ,
p~2 - ~r.
.
?
2.51. p~
. , , . a, .
2.52. p~0 r
R. , , . r R
(r > R).
2.53. ` ` q.
. ,
. .
2.54. ( , E )
. , d.
?

2.4 . .

63

2.55. q
,
. l
+q
( ). D
d
F (x), x -q
, (x
) . , .
2.56. R, m , , a
. ,
?
2.57. q . , ,
?
2.58. Q a
. ?
2.59. a, ~ ,
E.
~ , E.
.
2.60. ( e, m,
v)
R.
2.61. (
e, m, v), a, : )
; ) ; ) ; ) v E 2.

64

2.62. , ,
.
2.5.

.21. q
1
2. , .

R (. ).
, (z = 0)
:
1) E1 |z=0 = E2 |z=0
1|z=0 = 2|z=0 ; 2)
~ = 4,
D1n|z=0 = D2n|z=0 , div D
.

, :
q
1 = a 1

z 0,
R
q
2 = a 2

z 0.
R
.
z = 0 a1 = a2 = a,
, = aq/R. ,
~ = grad = aq R/R
~ 3.
E

2.5

65

, , ,
~ z = 0. En = 0, R
, : D1n |z=0 = D2n|z=0 = 0,

~
~
R
R
~
~
~
~
D1 = 1E = 1aq 3 , D2 = 2E = 2aq 3 .
R
R
~
a, D
R :
= D12R2 + D22R2 .
, = 4q.
, a = 2/(1 + 2).
,
~
2 q
2q R
~
=
,
E=
,
1 + 2 R
1 + 2 R 3
~
21 q R
~

z<0,
D1 =
1 + 2 R 3
~
22 q R
~
D2 =

z>0.
1 + 2 R 3

, ,
.
.22. a 1 2.
~ 0. E
,
.

66

= 0 . Z
~ 0, R a
E
(. .20)
~ 0R
~
E
E0 cos
2 = E0z + A2 3 = E0R cos + A2
.
R
R2
( E0z ) , .
E0. R a
1 = C1E0z C1E0R cos ,

. . , . (. .20)
, , , . ,
~ 0 . E
.
C1 A2 ,
, 1 2 . 1(a) = 2(a)



1
2
1
= 2
R R=a
R R=a
,
32
1 2
,
A2 = a3
.
C1 =
1 + 22
1 + 22
,
1 2 3 ~
a E0 .
d~ =
1 + 22

2.5

67


32
1 =
E0 z

Ra,
1 + 22
~
d~R
E0 cos
2 = E0z+ 3 = E0R cos +A2

Ra.
R
R2
, .20,
~ 1 = 32 E
~0

R < a,
E
1 + 22
~ R
~
d~
3(d~R)
~
~
E2 = E0 + 3 +

R > a.
R
R5
E0,
2 > 1, E0, 2 < 1.



= P1n R=a P2n R=a, P1n, P2n . ~n
.

~
~ E
~
( 1)E
D
~
=
,
P =
4
4



1

=
(1 1)E1n R=a (2 1)E2n R=a .
4
E1n E2n :

32
1
E1n R=a =
=
E0 cos ,
R R=a 1 + 22


2
2(1 2)

E2n R=a =
=
E
cos

+
E0 cos .
0
R R=a
1 + 22

3 1 2
=
E0 cos .
4 1 + 22

68

~ 0 .23. E
.
,
. .
.22, ,
,
,
~0
3E
~
.
E=
+2
( ,
, 1/R3 .) ,
. .
, , ,
~ 0 /( + 2). E
~ = 3E
~
E
~ =
E

3 ~
9
~0 .
E=
E
1 + 2
(1 + 2)(2 + )

.24. q () () a l .
, .
.
,
. , , -

2.5

69

, .
~ = 0 . ,
, rot E
,
~ = 0. , E
. ,
.
,
, , .
. ,
,
. .
, , ,
, , . , (
), , .
, ,
.
,

, , , :
) ;

70

) ,
4
=
(1)

. , .
) . .
, : (a) = 0.
.7, .
q l
a,
q= qa/l,
l = a2/l
. ,
, q ,
,
q q:
q aq
=

R a,
r l r
~ = q~r q a ~r

R > a,
E
r3
l r 3
r r q q.
(a) = 0.
. = 0. , . , , : = 0.

2.5

71

. ,
~ = grad = 0 R < a.
E
.
,
, . ,
. ~ = 0.
: = 0, div E
. , ,
, .
, , . .
.
. , 1 2,


E2R R=a E1R R=a = 4.
E1R R=a = 0,


1
= E2R
.
4
R=a

. ,
~ = ~r + ~l ,
R

~ = ~r + ~l.
R
,

 R


1
R
l
~l
~ =q
~+
E
R
.

3
3
3
r
lr
lr
r3
,
. r = rl/a l= a2/l,
 a3
 R


 a3 l 3

1
1
l
~l

=
3 ~l = 3 3 3 3 ~l = 0 .

3
3
3
lr
r R=a
lr
r
l ar
r

72

,
, ,
1


R
~
~ .
E
R
=q 3
R=a
3
r
lr
r r (R , , )
1/2
2
2
r = R + l 2Rl cos
,
2

r= R + l 2Rlcos

E2R

1/2

q(l2 a2)
= 2
.
a(a + l2 2al cos )3/2

q(l2 a2)
=
.
(2)
4a(a2 + l2 2al cos )3/2
, q.
ad a sin

dQ = 2a2 sin d .

, q,

Z/2
q(l2 a2) sin d
2
Q1 = 2a
4a(a2 + l2 2al cos )3/2
0



1
q(l2 a2)
1

.
2l
a2 + l 2 l a
:


q(l2 a2)
1
1
Q2 =

.
2
2
2l
a+l
a +l

2.5

73

, ,
a
Q = Q1 + Q2 = q .
l
, q, . , ,
~ q q. E
, q,
,
q, I
~ d~s) = 4q. ,
q, . . (E

q.
) . .
, , q = q. . -
~ E
~ E.
, , q,
Q, , , 4:
I
~ d~s) = 4Q .
(E

Q = 0, .
q,
I
~ d~s) = 4q,
(E

, ,
q 00 , q,
q 00 = q.

74

q 00 , .
.
~ =
(R)

q q q
+
r r R

R a,

~
q~r q~r qR
~
~
E(R) = 3 + 3 3

R > a.
r
r
R

~ = (a) = q
(R)

R a,
l
~ = 0. , .
E
q.
q(l2 a2)
q
=
+
=
4a(a2 + l2 2al cos )3/2 4al


a(l2 a2)
q
a
=

.
4a2 l (a2 + l2 2al cos )3/2
) . .
, .
, , ~ , , ,
E
~ = 0. , E
(q), q.
q (q)
. ,
~ = 0, = 0.
. E

2.5

75

, ,
,
q.
q
, . ,
, .

q ,
q, :
~
qR
~
~

R > a,
E(R) = 3
R
~ = q

R a.
(R)
R
, q.
, = 0
~ = 0
. = const E
. , : ,
(q), , (+q). ~ = 0 , = 0. .
E

~ = q + q + const
(R)

R a.
r r
, const = q/a. q q -

76

: q q , q
q. q q , .

~ = q~r q a ~r
E

R < a.
r3
l r 3
, (2), :
q(a2 l2)
=
.
4a(a2 + l2 2al cos )3/2




q(a2 l2)
1
1

Q1 =

,
2
2
2l
a

l
a +l


2
2
q(a l )
1
1
Q2 =

.
2l
a+l
a2 + l 2
,
, Q1 + Q2 = q.
) . .
, ,
= 0, q
.
=0

~ =0
E

R a,
R > a.

,
, .
~ =
(R)

q q
+
r r

R a.

2.5

77

, , .
.25. q a
. , ,
, , .
, q , , q q = q

. ,
q q - A



1 1
=q

z 0.
(1)
r r

(r = r),
(. .24) q (q). (1)
= 4q(~r) z 0, (~r) .
(~r) = 0 z = 0.
. , , .
~ = q~r q~r

z > 0,
E
r3 r 3
~ =0
E

z < 0.
q ,
q = q , -

78

, .

2
~z
q
F~ = 2 .
4a z

1
q
3
= Ez
=
cos
,
z=0
4
2a2


z = 0 . Ez
z=0
, z = 0 .
, :
Q=

Z/2
0

q
3
2 sin
d = q .
cos

2a
2a2
cos3

.26. q l a < l Q. .
?
q ,
~ ,
q. F~ = q E(l)
~ E(l)
, q. ~
E(l)
(. .24).
.24, ,
: q= qa/l , l= a2/l , ( q),

2.5

79

. , , ,
q ( q ) , ,
. ,


~ 

3
2
2 ~
Q
+
qa/l
qa/l
Q
qa
(2l

a
)
l
l
~ =
E(l)

,
l2
(l l)2 l
l2
l3(l2 a2)2 l


2 3
2
2 ~
q
a
(2l

a
)
Qq
l
.
F~ = 2 3 2
l
l (l a2)2 l

a3(2l2 a2)
Q>q 2
,
l(l a2)2
q.
a3 (2l2 a2)
Q<q 2
l(l a2)2

q.

a3(2l2 a2)
Q=q 2
,
l(l a2)2

. , , (F~ ).
.27.
a b (a > b) c
q. .
, , , b, :
b
b
bb
bb
b b2
b b2
b b3
Qb = q + q q + q
q 2 + q 2 q 3 + ... =
c
a
ca
aa
ca
aa
ca



b(a c)
b
b
b b2 b3
= q + q 1
+ 2 + 3 + . . . = q
.
c
c
a a
a
c(a b)

80




b(a c)
a(c b)
Qa = q q
= q
.
c(a b)
c(a b)

, , , : b
(0) =

Qb q Qa
+ +
= 0,
b
c
a

. Qa + q + Qb = 0,
a, . ,
.
.28. a
Q b > a.
. :
) (z) z
;
) (r, )
r  b .
.
b Q
a l = a2/b
q = Qa/b.
) (z)
z > a

Q
Q a/b
Q
Qa
(z) =

b=

.
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
4
z +b
b z +a
z +b
b z +a

2.5

81

) .13, ,
 2 2
Q Q b2
Qa/b
a
Qa/b
2
2
(r, ) = +
(13
cos
)
(13
cos
) =

r 4 r3
r
4r3
b




5
Q
a
Q
a
=
1
+ 3 b2 3 (1 3 cos2 ) =
r
b
4r
b




Q
a5
a
Qb2
=
1
+ 3 1 5 (1 3 cos2 ) r >> b.
r
b
4r
b
.29. : 1 2. ,
,
. , h .
, 1 q h .
~ 1 q , E
. q , , q
O, O , . .
~ 1 = q ~r + q~r ,
E
1r3 1 r 3
~r ~r -, q q .

82

~ 2 E
q, 2, q, . .
~ 2 = q~r .
E
2 r 3
, ~1 E
~ 2
, E
.
~ = 0 rot E
~ = 0 div D

~ E E:
~
Dn D
q cos qcos = qcos ,
q
q
q
sin + sin = sin .
1
1
2

2 1
22
q=
q , q=
q.
2 + 1
2 + 1
,
~1
E
~ 2 .
E
,
.
, z .
, , h ,
~
F~ = E(h)
,
~
E(h)
z = h, , ,

2.5

83

:
~ 2(h) + E
~ 1(h) ,
~
~ 1(h) + E
E(h)
=E
~ 1(h) z = h, E
, z 0
1

(2 1)
;
2 + 1

~ 2(h) , ,
E
z 0 1
~ 1(h) 22/(2 + 1); E
, z < 2h
, 1.
~ 1(h) E
~ 1(h) z = h.
E
~ 1(h). dE
~ 1(h),
E
(2 1)
dz ,
2 + 1

~ 1(h) =
dE

(2 1) dz ~z
.
1(2 + 1) (z + h)2 z

~ 1(h) =
E

~ 1=
dE

(2 1) ~z
.
1(2 + 1)h z


~ 2(h) =
E

2
~z
,
(2 + 1)h z

84

~ 1(h) = ~z .
E
1 h z
, , ,
2
2
(2 1 ) ~z
F~ =
.
h 1 (2 + 1) z

.30. : 1, 2. ,
, : q1 , q2 q3.
q2, q1 q3 a
q2. , q1 .
, q2 , (. .21)
~2 = E
~ =
E

~
2q2 R
.
2 + 1 R 3

(. .29), , ,
q1 ,
2 q3,
E3=

2 q 3 1
~z
.
(2a)2 1(2 + 1) z

q1 ~ 1:
E
~ 1= q1 (2 1) ~z .
E
4a2 1(2 + 1) z
, , q1 :


2
2q
q
q
q
q
(

)
~z
2 1
3 1
2
1
F~ = 2
+ 2
21
.
a (2 + 1) 2a (2 + 1)
4a 1(2 + 1) z

2.5

85

.31. , ,
. Q, a.

:
Z
1
~ D)
~ dv
W =
(E
(1)
8

Z
1
W =
dq ,
(2)
2
~ D
~
E,
, dq.
~ 6= 0, , E
.
, . (. .9) = 1,
1
W =
8

Za 
0

2

4
R24R2 dR+
3

Z
a


3 Q2
4 2 a 6
2
4R dR =

,
3
R4
5 a

Q = 43 a3 .



Q Q
R2
(R) = +
1 2

a 2a
a

R a.

(2),
1
W =
2

Za 
0


R2 
Q Q
3 Q2
2
+
1 2
.
4R dR =
a 2a
a
5 a

86

, , .
R, , dR,
dQ = 4R2 dR. , ,

dR,
4 R3
3Q2R 4
2
dR .
dA = 4R dR =
3 R
a6
,
3Q
W =A= 6
a

Za

3 Q2
R dR =
.
5 a
4

.32. ( e, m,
0)
a.
: e = ea/r (e), r = a2/r,
r (. .24).
, , ,
- . -
, ,
.
-

2.5

87

,
mr2 m2
m02
U+
+
=
,
(1)
2
2
2
r , ~r , U

e2 a3
U = 2 2
.
2r (r a2)

(1), M = mr,
mr2
m02
+ U =
,
2
2

(2)

M2
e2 a3
U =

(3)
2mr2 2r2(r2 a2)
, ( r)
.
U .
(2) , ,
m02/2, ,


U
, max
r0, ,
m02
U (r0) =
.
2

88

U
,
max
 
M .
. U
max
r (3)
dU/dr = 0,
M 2r4 2r2X + a2X = 0 ,

(4)

X = M 2a2 + m e2a3. (4),

me2a3
2
2
r = r1 r1
,
(5)
M

me2a3
2
2
r1 = a +
M2


, U , U (r1) = 0 .
(5) +, r < a. ,
r
 
me2a3
2
2
,
U
= U (r2) .
r2 = r 1 + r 1
max
M2
r2
m02
U (r2) =
,
(6)
2
M0, 0 (M0 = m00) , , M < M0
.
(6)

r


me2a3
m0
r1 +
= 1,
M0
M

2
M0
2 me2a3
2

=
a
.
(7)
m202
m0

2.5

89

(7) M0 m00,
s


2
ea
20 = a2 1 + 2
,
m02

= 20 = a2 1 + 2


e2 a
.
m02

.33. (
e, m, 0),
a, :
) ;
) ;
) .
, ,
. (X,Y ) , .
P~1 , P~1 , sin = P1y/P1. sin ,
P1 P1 = m0, P1y/m0. ,
P1y=

Fy dt.

t r

90


dt '

dx
,
0

r 2 ' x2 + 2 ,
Fy = F r

'

2
m02

,
r

r dr
dx ' p
,
2
2
r

dr
Fr p
.
r 2 2

(1)

) .

e= ea/r, r = a2/r (. .24).
, :
e2ar
Fr = 2
.
(r a2)2

(1) r  a,
ae2

,
2m022

a2e2

.
(2)
2m02
d
d = 2() d. d = 2 sin d 2 d
,


d
1 2 d

.
(3)
d 2
2

2.5

91

d
ae2 1

.
d 4m02 3
) .
, ,

2e2a3
Fr 5 .
r
(1),

3a3 e2

.
4m024

3a3 e2 1
,

4m02

(3)
s
2
d
a
3e2/a 5/2

.
d
8
m02
2

) .

2

Fr = e ( 1)

X
l=0

l(l + 1) a2l+1
.
(l + l + 1) r2l+3

, r  a,
2( 1) a3
Fr = e
,
( + 2) r5
2

3 a3e2 ( 1) 1
=
.
4 m02 ( + 2) 4

92


1/2
d a2 3 e2/a 1
5/2 .
=
2
d
8 4 m0 ( + 2)

3.

q J.
J = dq/dt.
~j = ~v = en~v .
~
: ~j = E.
J = U/R, R = l/(S).

I
dq/dt = j1ndS,

: /dt = div ~j.


div ~j = 0,
j1n| = j2n|.
~ E1 | = E2 | j1 | = j2 |.
E
1
2

~ = , E1 | = E2 |, 1E1n | = 2E2n |.
= 4, E

~ ~j = E
~
E
~j.
P
P
P
Ji = 0,
Ek =
JR.
R i 2i
R j2
: N = E dV = dV .

3/2:
q
1
2e U 3/2
j = 9
m d2 .
, Jd~l = ~jdS = ~v dq.

3.1 . .

93

3.1. . .

3.1. , -
a, . e, v, n. ,
, .
: j1,2 (R).
3.2. m q ~
E
`. ,
j0,
.
3.3. Q. , . . ,
e .
3.4.
1 2.
3.5. a, b
(r) = r n. . : U (a) = 0, U (b) = U0.
3.6. (R1, R2) , . U , J.
.
3.7. a b,

94

,
0.

U . j(r)
. .
3.8. J
R0 .
, R1 R2.
.
3.9. E U , `1, `2
1, 2 1, 2.
.
3.10. 0 ( d) ,
= 1 + x (x ,
; 0  ).
,
U .
3.11.
a, b (b > a) 1 2 1 2.
, , c. U .
.
3.12. r , .
`0, `1, `2  r, 0, 1, 2. -

3.1 . .

95

0 E0,
.
.
3.13. a, b c 1 2.
U . .
3.14. R , V
r = r0 V , , r0
. ,
U .
3.15. n A 1,
A2, ..., An ( ). AA 1,
A1A2, ..., Anan+1 R.
. E Ri
A. An+1 Ra . .

(r = 0),
? Ra = 0.
3.16. .
1/0 . . ,
. J(x)
(x) .

96

3.17. a 1/0 (
)
E Ri. Ra. J(x)
. Ri = Ra = 0.
(1/0 = 0).
3.18. a, (
1 = const). b,
,
2. .
3.19. ( a1 a2),
, . `  a1, a2, .
.
3.20. . ,
,
R.
3.21. ,
`  a  h. .
( ) .
3.22.
.
3.23.
R1 R2
. q. : )

3.1 . .

97

; ) .
3.24. , ~j0, ,
R ( = 0).
~j(~r).
3.25.
n .
a.
0. ,
(na3  1).
3.26. ,
0, . a .
,
?
3.27. 0. j
,
s
1 . s
2

a. , ~j0.
J, .
3.28. ~j0
, s
1.
s2
s
, Z ~j0. 0

98

2. 1. b
a. ,
?
3.29. , 1, a J0. 2. ~j(x, y, z)
. , (2 = 0)
(2 ).
3.30.
s j=I/4pr a,
s=0
( = 0). `
S

S
l
( j ' J/4r 2 ).
j() .
,
S.
3.31. , ,
U , , , b. a.
r
, J
J .
2

3.2.

3.32. ( S, d), (
"3/2"). , (-

3.2

99


).
3.33. "3/2" .
3.34. "3/2"
.
3.35.
( -
), ?
3.36. ,
U . ( (e), m), ,
( +e, M ), ,
. . . d.
?
E/x = d
.
3.37. U , , . . ,
, , . .
3.38. ( a).
3.39. ()
C, U0. U (t) ,
"3/2": J = P U 3/2 .
3.40. 1, 2, U1 U2,

100

, O U = 0. , 2
,
d0  2d. .
3.41. ( d, "3/2", v c
( r  d) J. ,

.
3.42. (r  d) (d , r
).
3.43. (  1)
( a, J), , d (d  a).
.

3.3.

.34. Q0. , . .
, e .
t V ,
Q0, Q(t). dt

3.3

101


dQ =

Z
S

(~j d~s) dt ,

(~j d~s) S,
S

V ; ~j .
~ ,
~j = E,
Z

dQ
~ d~s) = 4Q.
=
(D
dt

Q(0) = Q0,
4
t
t

= Q0 e ,
Q = Q0 e

, e = /4.
.35.
1 2.
div ~j = 0, j1n| = j2n|.
, . ,
~ = 0,
rot E
E1 = E2 .
~
~j = E,
2
j1 = 1E1 ,
j2 = 2E2 = j1 .
1
j1 /j1n = tg (. ),
tg 1 1
=
.
tg 2 2

102

.36. a b,
,
0. U . j(r)
. .
j = j . j r, E = j /
r. :
U=

(2
Z 0)r

~ d~r) = E (r)(2 0)r,


(E

E (r) =
, ,

U
(2 0)r

U
.
(2 0)r
:
j (r) =

J=

Zb

j (r) dr =

U ln b/a
.
2 0

J = U/R, ,
:
R=

2 0
.
ln b/a

.37. , ~j0, ,

3.3

103

a ( = 0). ~
~j(R).
~ = 0, ~j(R)
~
div ~j(R)
~
. ~j = E
~ = grad , E

= 0

(1)



1
2
= j2R
1
= 2
.
1(a) = 2(a); j1R
R=a
R=a
R R=a
R R=a
(2)
(1) (2)
: 1 2, 1
1, 2 2. ,
.22 1 = 0, 2 = , :
3
R a
2 E0 z
~ 0 R)a
~ 3
=
(
E
E0z
R a
2R3

~0
32 E
R < a
~ =
3 ~
3 ~ ~ ~
E
E
a
3a
(E0 R)R
0
~0 +
E

R > a,
2R3
2R5
~ 0 = ~j0/ E
~ ,
. ~j = E


3
~ R
~
a
3a3 (~j0R)
~
R > a
~j = j0 1 + 2R3
2R5

0
R < a.

104

.38.
n .
a.
0. ,
( na3  1).
, , , .
~
. ~j E
,
~,
~j = E

(1)

~
. ~j 0E,
V . ,
Z
1
~ dv = ~j 0E
~.
(~j 0E)
(2)
V
V

, , ~j = 0 ,
Z
1
~ dv = 2na30E
~.
(~j 0E)
(3)
V
V

~
, (. .37) 3 E/2,
. . , . -

3.3

105

(2) (3) (1),


= 0(1 2na3 )

na3  1 .

.39. (~r)
(~r)
~j(~r). (~r)
.

~
~j = E.
div ~j = 0, .
.
~ = div E
~ +E
~ grad = 0;
div( E)

~ = E(grad
~
div E
)/.

(1)

~ = 4; div D

1
~ = 1E
~ grad + div E).
~
div(E)
4
4
~ (1),
div E
=

~
~j
E
( grad grad ) =
( grad grad ).
=
4
4 2

grad
, 0 grad
=

.
, (~r),

(~j grad )
(~r) =
4 2

= 0.

106

.40. - (
J U ) . S,
d. ( e, m) (
"3/2"). , .
x,
( ): 4(x) = 4, = p
j/v. mv 2/2 = e(x), v(x) = 2e/m (x).
,
r
2
m J 1/2
d
=
4

A1/2
2
dx
2e S
r
2m J
A = 2
, (0) = 0, (d) = U, (d/dx)x=0 = 0.
e S

 2
d d2
d
1
dx
2 = A1/2 d = d
dx dx
2
dx
, 2:
 2
Z
d
= 2A 1/2 d = 4A1/2 + C1,
dx

C1 = 0 (0) = 0 E(0) = 0.

1/4
d
= 2 A .
dx
:
Z

4
2 Ax = 1/4 d = 3/4 + C2. C2 = 0 (0) = 0.
3

3.3

107

(d) = U ,

4
9
2 Ad = U 3/4 , Ad2 = U 3/2.
3
4

r
2m J
A = 2
,
e S

r
2m Jd2
9
2

= U 3/2,
4
e
S
. .
r
2 e S
3/2
J=

U
.
9 m d2
.41. - ( a, ). . l.
.
:
r


d(R)
4J
m 1/2
1 d
R
= 4(R) =

(R),
R dR
dR
2Re 2e
. .
r


d
d
J 2m 1/2
= A1/2 ; (0) = 0; (a) = U.
R
=

dR
dR
l
e
(R) = CR .

C( 1)R1 = AC 1/2 R/2 .

R : 1 = /2, = 23 .
= 23 R2/3,
C:
9
C = AC 1/2 ,
4

108

C=
,

(R) =

4aA
U=
,
9

4A
9

2/3

4A
9

2/3

r
2 2 l e 3/2
J=

U .
9
a m

.42. 1 2, U1 U2, ,
O U = 0.
j2, 2 . d0 0 1
2d 1 2.
xm 1 (U (xm) = 0)?
1 2
U1 U2 - "" U (x) ,
xm 1. ( d0 << 2d
, xm 0). 1.
3.
1 j1,
3 j3 2 j2: j2 = j1 j3.
2 j2max
, j 3 -

3.3

109

, . .
j2max = j1,

j3 = 0.

(1)

, , ,
.
U1, U2.
2d U 2 (. 40):
r
3/2
2 e U2
.
(2)
j0 =
9 m (2d2

3/2

3/2

AU2
AU1
j2 =
,
j
=
1
(2d xm)2
x2m

= j0

U1
U2

2

(2d)2
.
x2m

(3)

k = (U1/U2)1/2 l = xm/2d, l < 1.


j1 j2 (3) (1)
j0, 1/(1 l)2 = k 3/l2, l
: l2 = k 3 2k 3l + k 3l2.
: (k 3 1)l2 2k 3l +
k 3 = 0

k 3 k 6 k 6 + k 3 k 3 k 3/2
= 3
.
l1,2 =
k3 1
k 1
, l < 1.

. .

k 3 k 3/2 k 3/2 (k 3/2 1)


k 3/2
1
l= 3
=
=
=
,
k 1
(k 3/2 )2 1
k 3/2 + 1 1 k 3/2
xm
1
.
=
2d
1 + (U2/U1)3/2

110

,
xm =
j2max

4.

2d
,
1 + (U2/U1)3/4

2
3/2
3/2
3/2 
AU2
AU2
AU2
1
=
=
=
1
=
(2d xm)2 4d2(1 l)2
4d2
(U2/U1)3/4
2
A  3/4
3/4
= 2 U1 + U 2
.
4d

r
2
2
e  3/4
3/4
j2max =
U1 + U 2

.
9 (2d)2
m

( = 1):
h
h
ii h
h
ii
~j2 ~j1 ~r12 dV1dV2
J1J2 d~l1 d~l2 ~r12
=
=
dF~12 =
3
3
c2r12
c2r12
[~v2 [~v1 ~r12 ]] dq1 dq2
=
.
3
c2r12
:
dF~ =

~
J d~l B
c

h
i
~ dV
~j B
c

h
i
~ dq
~v B
c

~ = H)
~
( = 1, B
h
i h
i
~j ~r dV
J d~l ~r
[~v ~r]
~ =
dH
=
=
dq
cr3
cr3
cr3
~
~
~
~
H[/]
= 1, 26 102H[].
B[]
= 104B[],

111

( = 1)

~ = 0, rot B
~ = 4~j, B
~ = H.
~
div B
c
:
ZZ
I
ZZ
4
jndS.
Bl dl =
BndS = 0,
c
:
i
h
4
~ 1 | H
~ 2 | =
B1n| = B2n|, H
I~ ~n21 .
c
m , ~j 0



1
2
= 2
.
m = 0, 1m| = 2m| , 1
n
n
~ (B
~ = rot A)
~ A

4 ~
~ + 1 = 0.
j, div A
c
c t
~j
d~l
~v dq ~v
~
dA =
dV = J =
=
d.
cr
c r
cr Z c
h
i
[
m
~

~
r
]
1
~ =
, m
~ =
~r ~j dV.
A
3
r
2c
~=
A

m
~ =
,
~
~ = [m
~
F~ = (m
~ H),
N
~ H].

JS
n.
c ~

112

4.1. . .

4.1. a
J. , : )
, 1, 2;
) ; ) . n.
4.2. a ( Q),
h .
4.3. ) R , , . N . J.
.
) Q .
4.4. , , i = const. : )
; ) .
4.5.
b a.
J . .
.
4.6.
: H = H0(W, , ), W , = A/a, = b/a
. H0
W?

4.1 . .

113

4.7.
` a  `, N  1 J ,
(  a).
4.8. , .
a b,
d (b > a + d). J .
4.9. , ,

j. .
, d.
4.10. , . N ,
J, .

J.
4.11. , a.
J, .
. .
4.12. J. r
z . ?
4.13. J a. =

114

const , ,
a, .
4.14. H/H=0,01 , J, R = 10 . O1O2 = R,
, .
4.2. , .

4.15. : I) : ) , ) , ) ; 2)
; 3) .
4.16. ,
J, . 2a.
4.17. .
4.18. J .
r  a: ) ; ) . Z.
4.19.
2a.

(J, J, J, J). ~
H(x,
y) ~ y) A(x,

4.2 , .

115

p
(r = x2 + y 2  a).
4.20. , a (a  ), ~j.
,
.
4.21. a
3J,
2J, J.

r  a a/r.
4.22. (), . e, a.
4.23. () a q
() .
();
() m.
~
4.24.
r (r  S) . J, n, S.
4.25. , .
, , . .
4.26. , m
~1 m
~ 2.
. m
~1km
~ 2.
4.27. , , ,

116


, .
4.28. q1, q2
a1, a2
1, 2 ,
~ 1,
~ 2 ~`, (`  a1, a2). .
4.29.
? P ,
R, J. : ) h  R; )
h  R. .
4.30. ,
.
4.31.
a = 1 , m = 40 ,
R = 10 ,
B0 = 105 .
~
4.32. B
~v ( a
). `  a.
(~v ~`).
4.33. , , , (
). m, e.
~
4.34. m e H
~ (~v H).
~s m
~ , ~s = g m.
~ -

4.3

117

,
~s ~v d/dt = (g/2g0 1)eH/mc; t = 0
~v k ~s. g0 = e/2mc.
4.35. , , ,
sin , ,
.
4.3.

.43. a
J. , :
) , 1 2;
) ;
) .
n.
~ d H,
J d~l,
~ =
dH

J ~
[ dl ~r] ,
cr3

(1)

r
. (1) . ,

~ =
H

~ = ~ez
dH

dHz ,

~ez Z.

118

z- dHz ,
I
I
2aJ cos 2J
a2
J cos
Hz = dHz =
dl =
=
.
cr2
cr2
c (a2 + z 2)3/2
(2)
(2), ,

Hz

2J
.
z=0
ca
) ,
1 2. (2), , z = 0 , n dz , z

=

2J
a2
n dz .
dHz =
c (a2 + z 2)3/2
, , z = 0:
Hz =

2Jna
c

z0 +l
Z

z0

dz
,
(a2 + z 2)3/2

l . z ,
a d
a
.
z = a ctg ,
dz = 2 ,
sin =
sin
a2 + z 2

Z2
2nJ
2nJ
Hz =
sin d =
(cos 2 cos 1) .
(3)
c
c
1

4.3

119

) 1 = /2 , 2 = 0, (3)
2Jn
Hz =
.
c
) 1 = , 2 = 0 (3)
4Jn
Hz =
.
c
.44. :
1) :
) , ) , ) ;
2) ;
3) .
~ B
~ A

~ = rot A
~
B
(1)

~ = 0.
div A

(2)

~
, , A

~ = 4 ~j ,
(3)
A
c
~j . (3)
Z ~ ~

j(R) dV
~ R)
~ =
A(
,
(4)
~
~
c
|R R|
~
~ ) dV
R
~j(R
.

120

~ Z. Az = 0, 1a) B
~ (X,Y ). A
(1) ,
Az = 0
Ay Ax

= Bz ,
x
y
Ay
= 0,
(5)
z
Ax
= 0.
z
.
, Ay Ax x y
Ax Ay
+
= 0.
x
y

(6)

(6) , ,
Ay = 0,

Ax = A1(y).

(5),
Ax = Bz y.
(6)
Ax = b x + A1(y) ,
Ay = b y + A2(x) ,

b . (5),
A2(x) A1(y)

= Bz = const .
x
y

4.3

121

1
1
A1(y) = Bz y ,
A2(x) = Bz x .
2
2
b = 0,
1
1
Ax = Bz y ,
A y = Bz x , A z = 0 .
2
2
1) ( z, r, ) (1)

1
1 Ar
(rA )
= Bz ,
r r
r
1 Az A

= 0,
r
z
Ar Az

= 0.
z
r
Az = 0, ,

1 Ar
1
(rA )
= Bz ,
r r
r
A
= 0,
(7)
z
Ar
= 0.
z
Ar = 0, (7)
1
A = B r.
2
1) ( R,,)
~ :
B
BR = B cos ,

B = B sin ,

B = 0 .

~ ( ) A
~ A
~
, B.

122

A . AR = A = 0, ,
(1),
1
(8)
(sin A ) = B cos ,
R sin
A A
+
= B sin .
(9)
R
R
(8),
1
A = BR sin + f (R) ,
2
f (R) R. , A . A (9),
f (R)/R = 0, , f (R) , f (R) = 0.
1
A = BR sin .
2
2) .
J Z . (3) ,
Z. - : H = 2J/cr. (1)
- :
2J
Az
=
.
(10)
cr
r
3 = 1. (10),
AR = A = 0 ,

2J
ln r + const .
c
. , , .
3) R0 (X, Y ).
Az =

4.3

123

~
, - R.
(4) :
I
J
d~l
~
~
A(R) =
.
(11)
~ R
~ 0|
c
|R

~
X , Z R
(. ).
(11) :

~R
~ 0) 
R0
1
(R
1

1+

 1.
2
~
~
R
R
R
|R R0 |


I
I
1
J
~R
~ 0) d~l .
~ R)
~ =
(12)
d~l + 2 (R
A(
cR
R
.
~R
~ 0)d~l = RR2 cos 0(~nx sin + ~ny cos ) d =
(R
0
= RR02 sin sin (~nx sin + ~ny cos ) d ,

(13)

~nx, ~ny X, Y .

d~l = (~nx sin + ~ny cos )R0 d ,
cos0 = sin sin .
(13) (12)
,
2
~
R
J sin
[m
~ R]
0
~
~
A(R) =
~nx =
,
cR2
R3

m
~ =

R02 J
nz
c ~

R0 J.

124

.45. (),
~ . Q, a.
) . , + d. ,
, ,
1
Q sin d ,
4
= a sin , = Q/4a2
.
dJ = a d =

dJ ~s a2Q~ 3
dm
~ =
=
sin d .
c
4c
, :

Z
2 Z
Qa
~
~
Qa2
3
m
~ = dm
~ =
sin d =
.
4c
3c
0

) .
, R dR :

~ R2
dm
~ =
dQ ,
3c
dQ .
Q
3QR2 dR
2
dQ =
4R dR =
,
4a3/3
a3

4.3

Q~
m
~ = 3
ca

125

Za

Qa2
R dR =

~.
5c
4

.46. q1 , q2
a1 , a2
~1
~ 2 ,
~ 1,
~ 2
~l, ( l  a1 , a2).
.
(1). Z

~ 1,
l
( X , Y ). .
, 2
1.
, :
~ R
~m
3R(
~ 1) m
~1
~
~
~
~
~ 2 )H1 ,
H1 =

,
Fm = (m
R5
R3
~ 1 , ~ 1,2 /5c; H
m
~ 1,2 = q1,2 a21,2
m
~ 1 , m
~ 2
(2). m
~ 2 Z,
~ :
m
~ 2
~ = m2 ,
(m
~ 2 )
z

 ~ ~

m
~

3
R(
R
m
~
)
1
1

F~m = m2
.
z
R5
R3

126

, z,
 ~ ~

~ 15z 2 m1R
~
3m
~ 1z 3m1R
3R(
Rm
~ 1)
=
+

.
z
R5
R5
R5
R7


m
~1
3m
~ 1z
.
=

z R3
R5

~ = ~l,
z = 0 , R

3m1m2~l
~
.
Fm =
l5
, l  a1, a2
~l
3 q1 q2
q1 q2~l
~
F =
1 2 5 + 3 .
25 c2
l
l
:
!


~
~

)(
R
m
~
)
m
~
)
3(
R
m
~
(
m
~

2
1
2
1
~ 1 )
~ 2H
=
grad

=
F~m = grad(m

~ ~
5
3

R
R
R=l
~ ~l
R=
!
(m
~ 2m
~ 1)
3m1m2~l
= grad
=
.

~ ~
R3
l5
R=l

5.

:
i
h
i
h
~j ~r dV
J d~l ~r

[~v ~r]

~ =
=
=
dq
dB
c
r3
c
r3
cr3

127

:
i
h
i
h
i h
~ dV
~ dq
~
~j B
~v B
J d~l B
=
=
dF~ =
c
c
c
~
M
~ dV, ~j = c rot M
~.
dm
~ =M
~ =H
~ + 4 M
~.
B
:
~ = 0, rot H
~ = 4~j, H
~ =B
~ 4 M
~.
div B
c
:
ZZ
I
ZZ
4
Hl dl =
jndS.
BndS = 0,
c
:
i
h
4
~ 1 | H
~ 2 | =
B1n| = B2n|, H
I~ ~n21 .
c
= 1 , & 1 ,
. 1 , = 0 ( ),
 1 .
R 2
E = H
8 dV ,
R
R H 2
Fn = pdS = 8 dS.
:

k = 0,

EM =

EM =

4
JN.
c

k Jk ,

128

5.1. . . .

5.1. ,
1, J ( Z).
( a ) .
~ H
~ .
2. B
5.2. a
1
2. J.
~ B
~
H
.
5.3. J a, b
(a < b). 1, 2.
~ .
B
5.4. J ,
Z. ,
1, 2, 3 (1 + 2 + 3 = 2).
1, 2, 3.
.
5.5. , () .
5.6. a
1
~ 0 2. H

5.1 . . . 129

J. .
~ 0 a 5.7. H
1. , m
~ ~j, . 2.
5.8. a, . , , .
5.9. ( ~ 0. ) H
.
1, 2.
5.10. 5.7, , , .
~
5.11. H
R. ,
.
5.12. a b (a < b)
~ 0, . H
1, 2. .
1  2.
5.13. 1 2. , H0, .
5.14. J 1 2 ( 1).

130

a. .
5.15. 1,
2. Z
a Y J1 J3, Y
J2. ,
J1. Z.
5.16. J
b .
a(a < b), .
, .
5.17. J ,
. b
. a
. , .
5.18. , m,
~ . ,
.
5.19.
.
5.20.
(b  `, a).
5.21. a, N ( `), J, "" R,

5.2 .

131

 1.
"". (R  `).
5.22.
, .
5.23. .
5.24. 2
R = 10 , 1
B(H) = 4B0(1 + HH0 ),
0,5
1
1
B0 = 2T ,
2
H0 = 100 .
a
5.25. 1 B
B1
2. ().
H
o H B H () B1 = Hc = 3 .
d
.

p x

5.2. .

5.26. r ` N - k . J.
5.27. r
R .
r/R.
5.28. (  1) ,
J. ( ) ( ).
5.29. R = 0, 1 J = 1 .

132

H = 100 ,
. .
5.30. J1 J2 a .
b > a. ,
.
5.31. J2 ,
o a
J1. a. J
1
J
a 2
OO 0 .
o r
5.32. . B
, .
a
` . U
B,
(. ).
l
, U ? d.
5.33.
R J. .
5.34. , a n
J.
5.35. , , h
` R  `, h,
N J. , .

5.3

133

5.3.

.47. ( ~ 0. ) H
.
1, 2.
~ 0 . ,
M

~ = 0, div B
~ = 0, , rot H
H1 | = H2 |; B1n| = B2n| (
). ~ = grad . H
, 2 = 0. ,
(. .22).

~ 0 R)
~ 0 R)
~ + b 1 (M
~
1 = c1(H

R a.

, ~ 0 , H
.
i
1 h ~ ~
~
~
~
~
2 = (H0 R) + 3 b2(M0 R) + b3(H0 R)

R a.
R
~ 0.
. Z H
:
1 = c1H0R cos + b1M0R cos 1

R a,
b3H0 cos b2M0 cos 1
+

R a.
2 = H0R cos +
R2
R2

134

~ 0 - R
~
H
, 1 ~0
M
~ 0. R
1(a) = 2(a).
H1 = H2 :




b2 M 0
b3 H 0
H0 a c 1 H0 a 2
cos =
b1M0 cos 1 .
a
a2


1, cos cos 1 .
b1 =

b2
,
a3

c1 = 1

b3
.
a3

~ - R.
~
B

~ 1 = 1 H
~ 1 + 4 M
~0
B

R > a,

~ . ~ 0 , H
M
~ 2,
~ 2 = 2 H
B


1
B1R = 1
+ 4M0 cos 1 =
R
= 1c1H0 cos 1b1M0 cos 1 + 4M0 cos 1 ,


2
22
B2R = 2
= 2H0 cos + 3 (b2M0 cos 1 + H0 cos ) .
R
R
~
B
B1R (a) = B2R (a)


2
4 2b2 2
b3
.
c1 =
1
,
b1 =
1
a3
1 a 1

5.3

135

32
c1 =
,
22 + 1
1 =

4
b1 =
,
22 + 1

4a3
b2 =
,
22 + 1

4
32
~ +
~
~ 0 R)
~ 0 R)
(H
(M
22 + 1
22 + 1
~
(m
~ R)
~
~
2 = (H0 R) +

R3

b3 =

2 1 3
a .
22 + 1

R a.

R a,

4a3 ~
1 2 3 ~
m
~ =
M0 +
a H0 .
22 + 1
22 + 1

~ 1=
~ 1 =
H

32 ~
4
~0
H0
M
22 + 1
22 + 1

R a,

~ m
~
3R(
~ R)
m
~
~
~
~
H2 = 2 = H0 +

R > a.
R5
R3
~ 2 ~1 H
H

grad (1 2) = 1 grad 2 + 2 grad 1 ;

~ B)
~ = [A
~ rot B]
~ + [B
~ rot A]
~ + (A
~ )
~ B
~ + (B
~ )
~ A
~
grad (A

~0 = 0
~ = rot H
~ 0 = rot M
rot R
~ 0 )
~ )
~ H
~0 = 0,
~ R
~ =H
~0 ,
(H
(R
 
~
1
3R
grad
= 5.
R3
R
~ 0 = 0),
(M
~1 =
H

32 ~
H0 ,
22 + 1

136

~2 = H
~0 + H
~ ,
H
~ , H

1 2 3 ~
m
~ =
a H0 .
22 + 1
.48. J ,
. b
. a,
. , .
~H
~ , ,
B
J, ~ = 0, rot H
~ = 0. div B
~
A
,
:
~ = 0;
2 A
2 = 0 ,

(1)
(2)

~ = rot A,
~ H
~ = grad .
B
, , . , J, A b
, ( J), l = a2/b . l
, r2/r1
a: r2/r1 = a/b,

.

5.3

137

,
J1 J2,
A 0.

(. .44)
2J
Az = ln r + const .
c
(1).
, (. ):
A1z =

2J
2J
ln r1 +
ln r2 + c1
c
c

A2z =

2J1
2J2
ln r1
ln r + c2
c
c

r a,

(3)

r a.

~ , H
, 4J/c,
J1 + J2 = J.

(4)

.
(. .49)
H =

2J
.
cr

H = 1r
,

2J
= .
c

138

, ,
1 =

2J
2J
1 +

c
c

2 =

2J1
2J2
1

c
c

r a,

(5)

r a.

1(a) = 2(a), A1z (a) = A2z (a),



H1 (a) = H2 (a) B1r (a) = B2r (a) ,
~ = 0 , rot H
~ = 0. (5)
div B
(4) = 1 J= J2.
:


2J a
2
2J2
J( 1) J2 + J ln r1 = c2 c1
ln a
ln (6)
c
c
c
b

r2 = r1a/b (4).
(6) , , r1,
J( 1) J2 + J= 0 ,
c2 c 1 =


J2 =

1
J,
+1

2J2
2J a
ln a +
ln .
c
c
b

J=

1
J,
+1

J1 =

2
J.
+1

, J,
~
[J~ B]
~
,
F =
c

139

~ J,
B
, J . J.

2
~b 2( 1)
2JJ
J
~b .
F~ =
=
2
2
2
c (l b) b
+ 1 c (a b )

> 1 , , < 1 .

6.

1) l << = T /c = 2/(c);
1 D
2) j = E >> j =
.
4 t
1
1
E =
=
c t
c

:
1
=
c
:
N=
:
W =

JEdt =

ZZ

ZZ

BndS =

BndS.
LJ
.
c

dn, = N 0.

JL J
L
dt
=
c2 t
c2

J 2
J2
JdJ = 2 =
=
.
2c
2c
2L

140

: 1) ( ); 2) t << M = l2/c2 .
-

.
:
1 Hq1
1 Hq2
1 Hq3
=
=
.
h1 q1
h2 q2
h3 q3
.
- :
~ r, t)
~ r, t)
E(~
2E(~
= 4
x2
t

~ r, t) = E
~ 0e z ei(t z ) ,
E(~

= c/ 2 .
:
~ = c [E
~ H].
~
S
4
6.1. .

6.1.
a < b,
. .
6.2.
a. .

6.1 .

141

6.3. , R0, R1, R2. 1,


2.
6.4. R r0  R.
J,
. : ) ; )
.
6.5. S1

S2

S1
( (`  S)) ,
S2
. ( ).
. .
6.6. ( = 1) L.
,
,
.
6.7. ( ) .
S, n.
6.8. h2, N ,
S,
m
h
.
h
6.9. .
b, N , a.
1

142


b (N/b = const).
, a, h. , , , ,
, ?
6.10. N  1,
a
,
= const,

Z
N
n () =
sin , n () ad = N .
2a
0

6.11.
I
h `, , l
( d  `, h), h
I
-I
. .
6.12.
.
, a b, h. ,
J.
6.13. d N .
S, , `. .
d
N
6.14. , N , ` S1,

`, N2 S2

(`  S1, S2), .

6.1 .

143

, . : I) ;
2) .
6.15.
L1 = 0, 5 L2 = 0, 7 .
? .
6.16. (1,1)
1 2
(2,2) . 0,05
1 2
. , : I) 1 2 ,
1 2; 2) 1 2 , 1
2; 3) 1 2 1 2
?
6.17. , .
6.18. a b,
b
h .
6.19.
a r0, N , .
a  r0.
6.20. Z b h
Z q
O
a(a  b) a
Z .
b
O
.
6.21. S
1

144

`  S , .
l
. N1 N2 .
6.22.
d
- ,
N
d  a (. ).
a
M12 = M21.
2a
S

N1

6.2.

6.23. S1 S2 S3. H. .
6.24. ab, b
P a b.
,
H0. . h(t), (h  a, b)
.
6.25. L, J,
~ 0. J 0, .
H
S.
~ 0 .
H
6.26. L -

6.2

145

(
0). ,
.
, ?
6.27. B , , R.
, . ,
,
. .
6.28. 6.27 : 1) , ; 2) ; 3) , .
6.29. J,
N , `, a (` 
a), . ?
6.30.
R
r, . . .
6.31. b
B0 B
a . B H O H0 H
-H0
B = B0(1 + H/H0) (. ).
, -

146

. B :
.
6.32.
P2 ,
H0 P1
o 2R r2 zH (. r
). : ) H2 P2, , H 0
z H1 z + (z = 0 ); )
z + , P1.
6.33. m `
,
H1 . ,
( ). , , (H1 = 5 , H0 = 1 , = 106 , m/` = 1 /.
).

6.34. `, S(`  S),


, v0, -
(L  `)
. H0.
?
1

6.3.

6.35.
J. ` = `0+a cos t.
.

, ?
6.36.

6.3

147

( ` = 50 ,
r1 = 2 , r2 = 5 ).
= 106 B0 = 5
B1 = +5 . , . - (1 = 1, 6 1012 ).
6.37. P ` , ~ C. B
. , ( ).
6.38. ,
. B.
. , , S.
6.39. OA
O , ~ . O A,
M
`.
6.40. a
~ 0 ,
Z
M
M0
~ 0 XZ (. M
Y ). , R, X, Y .
X
6.41.
`,
O
. C
g
, l
~
H,
A
. O

148

C.
. .
6.42. a, H0,
~ 0. ,
, H
, . R, L.
6.43. a
d  a . 1 a
, d
, b 2
(b  a).
1 J(t), J  Jc/d. 2 R. , 2.
R 0.
6.44. H = H0eit ( 16 ), .
S = 10 2, N = 102, L = 103 , R = 1 .
,
H0 = 103 .
6.45. B = 102 L = 0, 6 .
R = 0, 1 , a =
0, 1 , = 1, 75 108 .
~ . ,
B
~ . B
, , :
) = 1 ; ) = 104 .
6.46. R m

6.3

149

q.
. .
,
a < R 2B0,
- B0. .
?
6.47.
, ... , . ,
,
2, , 1, ,
( 2:1).
6.48. J(t), N ,
(
R
V W
n, S),
(.
; N = 1). ..., ( ).
6.49. R C ( ) R
S.
C
T S
(B =
const). .
6.50. . -

150

Q A

, "", q R
a b. J =
J0 sin t. A R
O
2a 2b
Q, ,
, R  a, b OA OZ .
6.51. ( J a)
( b). ( v0). Ez .
6.52. Ez
( a J0) , ( b), .
6.53. ( N1 N2, D1
D2, D  D1, D2) . , . ... .
.
6.54.
.
6.55. a
. a
s
+, .
w

Z

6.4 . .

151

. + .
6.55. ,
, , . ~ =B
~ 0eit,
. B
. ,
m, q.
6.56. ""
b ( R, L).
2b
q
, .
2a
(. ). ,
, ( ) H(t) =
H0eit a  b.
6.4. . .

6.57.
. ,
R
T (. ).
r
U(t)

C
U(t)
. U
.
tK ,
T
t
6.58.

K
e1 R
, .
e2 C R

?
6.59. ( ).
0

152

C
R
6.60. C1 C
C2.
6.61.
a
R
C1
. R
, ,
C2
"". a.
6.62. ()
.
U (t), RCC
R
. : )  RC; )
 RC. (`/v  ).
6.63. , R C,
: U1(t) = U0 0 t T U1(t) = 0 t < 0,
t > T . R.
dU/dt( )?
6.64. , R L,
: U1(t) = U0 0 t T U1(t) = 0
t < 0, t > T . R R.
U dt( )?
6.65. C (
) R
R
,
C O
R
R
R
R1,
A
- R4 C4. , , J = J0 + J1 sin t,
1

6.4 . .

153

(J0  J1), J0
R, - (). T ,
, ,
2J0J1R1
sin ,
mc =
T
m - , T - . ,

J0 dR1
J0 dR1
Z =R+
T cos i
T sin
J1 dT
J1 dT
mC ,
J0 dR1
T cos  R1, 2R12C 2  1
J1 dT
( ).
6.66. ""
A
e~
(. 6.48)
L
, R
C
C
R
B
(R0, L0, C0 - , E - ..., ).
R1 C1 A, B
. C1 = 0?
6.67. ( S, `,
) (S
N1, N2, L1, L2 ), L ,R
L ,R
N N
,
J. t = 0
( R). ,
.
6.68. ( )
0

154
n+1

N (N  1)
.
.
6.69. ( 6.68) .
6.70.
` . . ( 6.68).
6.71. J x
Ux
`, . : )
; ) ; ) ,
. .
6.72.
, 2r = 4
d = 10 . (
,
, .)
6.73.
, 2r = 8 , 2R = 40 . ( .
6.72.)
6.74. = 5 107 ,
2r = 2 d = 12 .
, : I) `1 = 2 ; 2)`2 = 3 ; 3)`3 = 3, 5
; 4)`4 = 7, 5 . , - (
L

n-1

C C

n+1

C C

6.5 -

155

, ,
... ).

6.5. -

6.75. , ,
.
6.76. Z 0 .
0
E0e-iwt
Z = 0 x
y
1
~ = E
~ 0eit. : ) E
1
s,m
; )
z
R
~

W = 0 (~j E)dz,
Z
(1 1).
6.77. Z 0 . Z = 0 ,
E0 E1. 10 . W , Z
.
6.78.
2a
a, b, 2`
(a  b, `)
(. ).
b
-

156

-.
6.79. ( `, a, ; = 1)
-.
6.80.
a . ,  a.
6.81. , x = h,
J = J0eit. ,
n, . ,
. (  h) (  h) -.
6.82. a

H(t) = H0eit. ,
.
6.83. ,
.
. a,
, . . , (. .
a). ,
.
6.84. . H = H0eit. , ,

6.5 -

157

(R = R0/n) ?
-.
6.85. , "" a,
n. , . ,
) - a; ) a.
6.86. a, r  a
~ ~r,  c2/2a2).
~ =H
~ 0eit , (H
H
.
6.87. r 0 = 1
J = J0eit.
h = 10r0 ( = 9
/3). d = r0/2,  c2/(d2).
J .
6.88. ,
a, h(h  a),
H(t) = H0eit .
. . h  a,
.
6.89.
, . . . ?
6.90. (h  R)
~ =
H
h
~ 0 sin t. - H
m
.
R
.
6.91. H = H0eit -

158

R r (R r  r),
( 1). - . . .
6.92. H =
H0eit
, .
: ) ; ) -.
= 1.
6.93. H =
H0eit , . ( = 1) .
6.94.
H = H0eit , , , . -
( = 1).
6.95. a h , .
- (h  ).
6.96. ,

1
, J1 = J2 =
I2
J0 cos t. -
a
~j(x).
6.97. ( a,
h  a, -

6.6 .

159

~ =H
~ 0eit.
H
- (h  ).
6.98. , a ( , ,
( = 1)), . ~ = H0(~ex
H
i~ey )eit . -.
6.99. -
, . (
.) 10 ., 1 =
1, 2 = 2, 3 = 3.
~ = H
~ 0eit
6.100. H
( ), ( ab, h; h, b  a > 2d,
~
d). , H
. .
6.101. d
a .
, ( ) ,
.
6.6. .

6.102. a `  a
J. ,

160

, .
6.103. , ,
. , , , , , .
6.104.
.
,
; E = const.
6.105.
P U J. , , .
6.106. ,
.
6.107. ~j. , u, , I) ; 2) U
, d
; 3)
, ,
?

6.7

161

6.7.

.49. a.
.
, J. . , ~
H:
I
Z
4
Hl dl =
(~j d~s),
(1)
c
S

~j .

- H ( z , r , )
Z . , ~ r < a
H
,
I
Hl dl = H 2r .

j = const, (1)
Z
4
4 J 2
4
(~j d~s) = j r2 =
r .
c
c
c a2
S


H =

2J
r
ca2

r a.

~
H,
, -

162

.
1
W =
8

~ H)
~ dv =
(B
8

J 2
H dv = 2 .
4c
2

(2)

~ =
, , B
~ , W = LJ 2/2c2.
H.
(2), L = /2.
.50. , R0, : R1, R2. 1,
2.
R 0,
,
R1 R2 .
J. (.
.49):
2J
H =
r

r R0 .
cR02
.
~ (. .49), ,
H
1) R0 r R1
H 2r = 4J/c,
H =
2) R1 r R2

2J
;
cr

4J 4J r2 R12

H 2r =
,
c
c R22 R12

6.7

163

R22
2J
2Jr
H =

.
c r R22 R12 c (R22 R12)
r > R2 H = 0. , ,
1
W =
8

1
+
8

~ H)
~ dv = 1J + 2
(B
4c2
8

ZR1 

R0

ZR2

R1

2J
cr

2

2r dr+

2
 2
R2
(2J)2
r 2r dr =
c2(R22 R12)2 r

2J 2 R1 1J 2R24 ln(R2/R1)
1J 2R22
,
= 2 ln
+
2 2
c
R0
c2(R22 R12)2
2c (R2 R12)
~ = H.
~ , W = LJ 2 /2c2, L B
. ,

R1
21R24
R2
1R22
+
ln

.
L = 22 ln
R0 (R22 R12)2 R1 R22 R12

.51. ( = 1) L.
,
,
.
= LJ/c, , J , L ~ 0 . H
. ,
~ 1 = aH
~ 0, H
~ 2 = bH
~0 .
H
~ 0,
H
.

164

~ 0 ,
B
a = b, ~0
H1 = H2 . H

I
Z
~ 0 d~l) = 2 (H
~ 0 d~l) = 4J ,
(H
c
(1)

~ 0 d~l) .
(H

(1)

,
Z
Z
4J
~ 1 d~l) + (H
~ 2 d~l) =
= (H
c
= b

(1)

~ 0 d~l) + b
(H

(1)

(2)

~ 0 d~l) = b( + 1)
(H

(2)

~ 0 d~l) .
(H

(1)

,
b=

2
,
+1

a=

2
+1

, ,
~ 1 = 2 H
~0 ,
H
+1

~2 =
H

2 ~
H0 .
+1


Z
~ 0 d~s).
= (H
=

2 ~
2
(H0 d~s) =
0 ,
+1
+1

= LJ/c,
L=

2
L0 .
+1

6.7

165

.52. N  1,
a
, =
const, :
 Z

N
n() =
sin ,
n() a d = N .
2a
0

~ 2 , H
m
~ ( )
~ ~r) m
~
~ 2 = 3~r(m
H

.
r5
r3
m
~ .
~ 1 ,
H
(. .47). H - ,

,
m
4 JN
sin

+
H
sin

=
sin ,
1
a3
c 2a
3m cos m cos 2m cos
H1 cos =

=
.
a3
a3
a3
,
4N J
.
H1 =
c ( + 2)a
dn , ,
d = Ha2 sin2 n() a d .

166

N
2

2 N Ja
=
c
+2

8 2N 2Ja
sin d =
.
3c ( + 2)
3

8 2
L=
N 2a .
3 +2

- :

LJ 2
24
3
=
W
+W
,

W
=
H
a

1
2
1
1
2c2
3
~ 1;
H
Z
1
W2 =
H22 dv ,
8

3~r(m
~ ~r) m
~
2JN a2
~
3,
m = mz =
.
H2 =
r5
r
c( + 2)
.53. , N1 , l
S1,
l, N2

S2 ( l  S1 , S2). . ,
. , - , , :
) ;

6.7

167

) .
J,
4J N1

R2 R R1 ,
c l
4J N1 4J N2 4J (N1 + N2)
H2 =
+
=

R < R2 ,
c l
c l
c
l
H3 = 0

R > R1 .
H1 =

) , :

2 

Z
4J
1
1
H 2 dv =
(N1 +N2)2S2l+N12(S1 S2)l =
W =
8
8 c l
2J 2 2
(1)
= 2 (N1 S1 + N22S2 + 2N1N2S2) .
cl
, W = LJ 2/2c2, L .
, :
4
L = (N12S1 + N22S2 + 2N1N2S2) .
(2)
l
) ,

4J
(N1 + N2)N2S2 .
cl

2 =

4J
4J
4J
(N1+N2)N1S2+
(S1S2)N12 =
(N1N2S2+N12S1) .
cl
cl
cl

4J 2
= 1 + 2 =
(N1 S1 + N22S2 + 2N1N2S2).
cl
= LJ/c, (2).
1 =

168

.54. mg l
, ~ C. B,
. ,
(
).
~ .
B
01230 - . ... , ,
1
1
= lB y ,

= Bly ,
c t
c
y . . , , .. .... ...
, . ...,
. Uc = E.
, Uc = Q/C, Q , C
. ,
E =

lB yC

.
(3)
c
( ).
m~g , ( y), , .

JBl
,
m
y = mg +
c
Q=

6.7

169

g , J , y
dQ
. (1) , J =
,
dt

g
y =
.
l2 B 2C
1+
mc2
.55.
b ( R, L). ,
. (. ). , ,
( ) H(t) = H0(t) exp(it)
a  b.
, ..
(... ).
1
E =
,
(1)
c t
Z
~ d~s) .
=
(B

. Z
. ,
~
B

Bz B. b  a, ~  a B
~ m,
B
m
~
~ m
~
3R(
~ R)
m
~
~

.
(2)
Bm =
R5
R3

170

m
~ = ac J0 ~nz ; J0 , ; ~nz Z. ,
n dz , z , dB = Bmn dz, Bm -
. (2)
Bm =

3m
cos sin .
R3


p
1

cos = (b ctg 0 z) , sin = , R = 2 + (b ctg 0 z)2


R
R
z dB,
B = 3mn

Z
0

(b ctg 0 z) dz
2 + (b ctg 0 z)2

5/2 =

mn
.
(2 + b2 ctg2 0)3/2

Bz , ,
Bz = mn

Z
0

mnb ctg 0
2(b ctg 0 z)2 2
dz
=

.

5/2
2 + b2 ctg2 )3/2
(
0
2 + (b ctg 0 z)2

~ = mn ~r ,
(3)
B
r3
r = (2 +b2 ctg2 0)1/2 . (3)
. . 0
(3) r b/ sin 0
0.
z, , r.

6.7

171

, , 0 = H0 a2,

k = 0

0
4

Z0

2 sin d =

0
(1 + cos 0) .
2

,
0
(1 + cos 0) eit .
2
(1), ...
=

0
(1 + cos 0) ei(t/2) .
2c

s
 2
L
i
Z = R2 +
e
,
c2
E=

tg = L/c2R.
E
J = =
Z

2c

0 (1 + cos 0)
i(t+/2)
r
e
.


R2

L/c2

-
= b,
J=
2c

0 (1 + cos 0)
r

 sin(t + ),
R2

L/c2

mn 3
sin 0 cos t .
b2
, d~l J, ~ :
B,
B =

172

~
J[d~l B]
~
dF =
.
c
,
ZT

1
Fz =
T

"

cos

1
T

ZT

20 (1 + cos 0) sin3 0
r
J 2b B dt =

2
4 c2b R2 + L/c2
cos t sin t dt + sin

1
T

ZT

cos2 t dt .

(4)

, mn = 0/4. (4) ,
.. ,
1
T

ZT

cos2 t dt =

1
,
2

T = 2/. (4)
L/c2
sin = r

2 ,
R2 + L/c2

3
2 2

L
(1
+
cos

)
sin
0
0
0
Fz =


2 .
8c4 b
R2 + L/c2

.56. C1, C2.


1 U0. Q0 = U0C1.

6.7

173

, .. ... (II ):
U1 + U2 + JR = 0,
(1)

U1, U2 1- 2- .
(-) U1 ,
(.) (1) (-)
(+).

(2)

Q1 + Q 2 = Q 0 ,

Q1 Q2 1- 2- .
(1) :
U1 =

Q1
,
C1

U2 =

Q2
,
C2

J =

dQ1
,
dt

(2),
Q1
Q0
dQ1
=
+
,
dt
RC RC2

(3)

C2
C = CC11+C
. (3), 2
, t = 0 Q1 = Q0 ,

Q0 
t/RC
Q1 =
C2 e
+ C1 ,
C1 + C 2



U0
t/RC
U1 =
C2 e
+ C1 .
C1 + C 2

.57. , -

174

R C, :

U1(t) = U0

U1(t) = 0

0tT,

t < 0,t > T .

R.
dU
dt ( )?
II
Q
JR + = U0

0tT,
(1)
C
J , Q
. J = dQ/dt Q(0) =
0, ,


t/RC
.
Q(t) = U0C 1 e


UR = JR = U0 et/RC

0tT.

t > T
Q
dQ1
+
= 0.
dt
RC
(2) ,


T /RC
Q(T ) = U0C 1 e
,

(2)

,


(tT )/RC
t/RC
Q(t) = U0C e
e

t>T,

UR = U 0 e

t/RC

(tT )/RC

t > T.

6.7

175

, = RC, .. T  RC,
T , ,
,
.
.58. , R L,
:
U1(t) = U0
U1(t) = 0

0tT,
t < 0,t > T .

Z R.
U (t) dt ( )?


...
1
L J
E =
= 2
,
c t
c t
J , . II , :
L dJ
JR + 2
= U0

0tT.
(1)
c dt
1 dUR
JR = UR , dJ
dt = R dt ,
(1) :
L dUR
= U0

0tT.
(2)
UR + 2
c R dt

176

(2) UR (0) = 0, ,


UR = U0 1 et/

0 t T,

= L/c2R.

L dUR
=0

t>T.
c2R dt
, t = T


UR (T ) = U0 1 eT / ,
UR +

UR (t) = U0 e+T / 1

et/

t>T.

(1) 0 t0:
RJ(t0 ) +

Zt0

J(t) dt =

Rc
L

Zt0

U0 dt

0 < t0 T .

(3)
T /  1, (3)
. , J(t)
J(t0 ),
R

Zt0

J(t) dt < RJ(t0 )

t0
 RJ(t0) ,

t0/  1.
RJ(t0) = UR (t0)

Zt0
0

U0 dt ,

6.7

177

.. T
, .
.59. z 0 , .
z = 0
~ = E~0 exp(i t). :
E
) ;
)
R
~ dz, W = (~j E)
0

z
(1 1).

, ,
~
1 B
~
,
rot E =
c t
~ = 4 E
~,
rot H
c
~ = 0,
div B
(1)
~ = 0,
div D
~
~j = E,

~ = H,
~
B

~ = E,
~
D

. , , :
~
4 E
2~
.
(2)
E= 2
c
t
~
, E
z .

178

(1):
E1 = E2 .
~ = E~0 exp(i t).
E
exp(i t). (2) , ,
~
2E
~ = 0,
+ k2E
2
z

1i
c
4 i
2

k=
(1i)
=

=
=

.
c2
c

2
,
z , 
exp (1 i)z/ .
z = 0, :
z
z
z
z

i(
t

i(
t

~
~
~
~

).
E=E e e
,
j = E e e
0

, , ,
.
. -

: 1/ . , , ,
.
.
dW ,
dv ,
~ dv = E 2 dv ,
dW = (~j E)
~ . ~j E
.

6.7

179

,
Z
W = E 2 dz .
0

~ , ~j E
:
1
W =
2

Z
0

~ ) dz =
Re (~j E

E02
2

2z/

E02
.
dz =
4

.60. R
-.
a, l, , = 1.
~
Z E
z- r.
(..59) :
2E 1 E
+
+ k2E = 0 ,
2
r
r r

1i
c
, =
,
E = Ez .

2

k=

Ez = A1 I0(kr) + A2 Y0(kr) ,
I0(kr) , Y0(kr) . E , A2

180

: A2 = 0, Y0(0) = . ,
Ez = A1 I0(kr).
kr  1, ( a/  1),
(kr/2)2
(kr/2)4
I0(kr) = 1
+
...
(1!)2
(2!)2

"
 2
 4 #
i r
1 r
ei t .
Ez ' A 1 1

2
16

jz = Ez . J W ,
,
J2 :
W
R=
,
2
J
a
 4 !
Z
2
2
l
a l A1
1 a
W =
Re (Ez Ez ) 2r dr '
1+
.
2
2
24
0

, :
"
 2
 4 #
Za
i a
1 a
J = jz 2r dr = a2 A1 1

ei t .
4
48
0



2 4 2 2
4
1

A
1
a
1
J 2 = Re (JJ ) =
1+
2
2
48 4




 !
4
2 2
l
1 a
l
1
a
R= 2
1+
=
1+
a
48 4
a2
12
c

 a.

6.7

181

(  a) .
(. .59)
ar
ar

i(
t

).
Ez = A 1 e e

, ,
al A21
W =
,
2

J 2 = 2a2 2 2 A21 .

, ,
R=

W
J2

l
2a

 a.

.61. a
~
~ 0 exp(i t). ,
H(t)
=H

.
, ..
, ,
. ,
4i ~
H
c2
.
.43, ,
( )
~ = 3 H
~ 0 ei t ,
H
+2
(R, , )
. Z,
~ =
2 H

182

~ 0. ,
H

~
1 B
~
rot E =
(1)
c t
~ 0,
, H
Z.
.
: j = E . , ~ ,
E
~ = 4 E
~ = 0.
rot H
c
(1)
I
1
El dl =
,
c t
, ~
, E
. R sin ,

3 i H0R sin i t
E =
e
2 ( + 2)
c
, ,
3
H0R sin i( t/2)
j =
e
.
2 ( + 2)
c
,
3 H0R
sin sin t .
j =
2 ( + 2) c
,
dv = 2R2 sin d dR,
j2
2R2 sin d dR .
dW =

6.7

183

,

2
6 H0
W (t) =
a5 sin2 t .
5 ( + 2) c
, ,
1
W =
T

ZT

3 2 2 H02a5
W (t) dt =
5 c2( + 2)2

 a.

2.
.62. ,
.
.
a, , .
. , (..
a).
.

.  a.
, .. ,
. .
~ 0, m
~ = bH
.47
~ m
~
m
~
3R(
~ R)
~
~
H = H0 3 +
R
R5

R > a.

184



BR R=a = 0
H0 cos

bH0 cos 3bH0 cos


+
= 0,
a3
a3

~ 0a3/2 , b = a3/2
m
~ = H
-. ,
3
~
H(R
= a) = H0 sin ~n ,
2
~n ,
(R, , ). ,

. (. .59)
h
h
3

i(
t

~
) ~
H = H0 sin e e
n ,
2
HR = H = 0 ,

= c/ 2, a h
.
, , ..
~ :
S,
Z
Z 

c
~ H]
~ d~s .
~ d~s) =
W = (S
[E
4
~ = 4 E/c
~
rot H

~ ~n],
~ = c (1 i) [H
E
4
~n ,
.

6.7

185

:
~ = c [E
~ H]
~ = c Re [E
~ H
~ ] =
S
4
8

!
c
9 c2 H02 sin2
?
~
~
Re (1 i) [H ~n] H
~n .
=
32 2
128
2
~ ,
S
W =

S 2 a2 sin d =

3 2 2
H ac
8 0

 a.

.
.63. a
= 1 J = J0 exp (i t). -
,
. .

, (. .59, .60)
h
h
E = A e ei( t ) ,
z

= c/ 2, A , a h . Z .
~ = 1 B~
rot E
c t

A 2 c h i( t h )

4 .
e e
H =

186

A , j =
Ez
J0.
!
Za
h
Re 2 A e (i 1) (a h) dh = J .
0

2
J0
.
ac
, a/  1. A
, , ~ ,
H
, , 4/c (~ = 4~j/c):
rot H

A 2c
4

cos 2 a = J0
.

4
c
,
:
r
J0
2
Ez =
cos t ,
ac

2 2J0

H =
cos( t ).
ac
4

r 


2
J

c
0
~ H]
~ =
~ = [E
~n, (1)
cos +cos 2 t
S
4
2 a2 c
4
4
A=

~n , . , E H, ,

187

, ,
.
E H = T /4 = /2 , , , . ,
,
. ,
,
, :

~
W = 2 a S
.
(1) ,
r
r
2
2

J0
~ = J0
cos
~
n
=
~n;
S
2 a2 c
4
4 a2 c

r
J02

W =

 a.
a c 2
.60.

7.


~ + q[~v B]/c.
~
dP~ /dt = eE

P~ c2 d~r
2 ~
2
~
= .
P = m0~v ; E = m0c ; P /E = ~v /c , .., ~v =
E
dt

p
~
~
P = q Et, E = E0 + (cqEt)2 .

188


q h ~i
E d~v q h ~ i

~
P = ~v B , 2
= ~v B
c
c dt
c


1
1
=
F
4 U0

Zb

U 00
dz,
U

Zb

Hz2dz


q
1
=
F
8mc2U

7.1. . .

7.1. q, E0 P~0 = (0, P0 , 0)


~ = (E, 0, 0).
E
7.2. q
~
H.
, .
7.3. ,
.
0 .
7.4. d = 10 U = 100 .

7.1 . .

189

~ H ( m, e),
H.
, (
)?
7.5. m, q,

. , .
7.6.
?
7.7. 7.5, F~ .
7.8. , , H, P~ =
~
P~ + ec A
I
1
I=
P~d~r = 3cP~2 / (2eH) .
2
7.9. 1,2
H 3, Hm (" ").
~ I . P~ H
, H Hm 3
, ?
7.10.
. R ?

190

7.2. .

7.11. ,
, 2 + ~ E,

x = gctg, y = g 1 12 sin2 ,
g =

mv02
eE .

7.12. ,
, , U ,

/2 2 = 63, 6o. ,
, .
mv02/2 = q, = U/2 ln(r2 /r1).
7.13.
~ v, q, m.
H.
7.14.
, ~ v, q,
H?
m.
7.15. , , z
ER R2 E
z .

7.16. ,

7.2 . 191




R U 00
d dR
=
U
dz
dz
4 U

r
dz
2qU
= v cos v =
.
vz =
dt
m
7.17. , F
7.16
Zb 00
1
1
U
dz,
=
F
4 U0
U
a

U0 - , .
7.18. , F

U = U0(x2 y 2)/h2

Fx1 = p sin p` p2`,

Fy1 = pshp` p2`,


p
p = qU/mv02/h.
7.19. , , d,
Fx = F , Fy = F XY
90o ,
X Y F 2 /d d  F .
7.20. , 7.15,
e m, U , :
1

Z
e
2
dz
.
F =
H
z
8mc2 U

192

7.21. , qm = bxy :
Fx = (p sin p`)1, Fy = (p sh p`)1, p = mvqb0c .
7.22. () , J = 0, 5 , E = 300 . ` = 10
, R = 1 . . , . E0 = mpc2 = 1 .

193

,
1.1. . . .

1.1. rmin =
1.2.
1.3.

e2
E/2 ;

e2

10
2rmin k ' 3, 35 10 K.
 2 1/2
2
1/2
e /a 4 2+1
e /a 1
, v = M 2
.
v = m 2
h2

i1/2
 2
q /a
v= m
31
, E = 32
3 1 qa .

T '


2q 1/2
q2
ma


q1 q1 < q2; v = 0 q2 < q1.

1.4.v =
1.5. Q = k1k2Q.
0
= Ez = 0.
1.6. E = U /
r , Er 


R R2 +a2
1.7. q1,2 = qa2
A1,2 R2 + a2 A2,1 R .
2

mv
1.8. T = 18 mv
C e2 /R .
1.9. = 0/2; , /3 .


q1 q2
1.10. R = a q2q2 ,
1

q2

1
x1 = a q2q
2 q1
1

q2. x1 = R |q1/q2| |x1 (a x1)| = R2.


1.11. ) = q/`; ) Q = qR/`.
1.12 = 2 q 2 1/2 , Ez = 2 qh2 3/2 .
(a +h )
(a +h)

2
1.13. Ez = 2R
1 a2R+R2 .
a2


2
2 Ez = 2R
3 + a2R+R2 . a2


2
Ez = 2R
3 a2R+R2 .
a2

1.14. = 2R2
a, = 2R.
;
1.15. ) = 2 R2 + z 2, Ez = 2z
R2 +z 2

194





1
1
) = 2
R2 + z 2 |z| , Ez = 2z |z| R2+z 2 ;
z
) = 2 |z| , Ez = 2 |z|
.
2d
1.16. Ez (O1) = Ez (O2) = 2d
,
E
(O
)
=

.
z
3
2
2
2
2
a +d
a +d /4

~ = 0.
1.17. E
Q2
1.18. P = 8R
4.

1.2.

~ = 2~z/|z|; ) |E| = 4q/S,


1.19. )E
~ = 0; ) E
~ = 22 ~r.
E
r
1.20.
.

2
E+ = 2
,
E
=
3.

a
a
1.21. E2n E1n = 4, ~n 1 2.
1 2

= 4.
n
n

4
4
a 3
~
~
1.23. ) E = 3 ~r (r a) ; E = 3 r ~r (r a);
~ = 22 ~r (r a) ; E
~ = 22 ~r (r a) ;
) E
a
r
~z
~z
~
~
) E = 2 a (|z| a) , E = 2 |z|
(|z| a).
~ = 4 ~a, ~a - .
1.24. E
3

1.25. = 20 = 12 (1 + 2) , 100 = 200 = 12 (1 2) .


4
2
1.26. q = 3n
R23n R13n n 6= 3; q = 4 ln R
R1
1
~ = 0 r R1, E
~ = q~r3 r R2, E
~ = q~r3 (r/R1)3n
n = 3. E
3n
10

~ =
n 6= 3 E

q~r ln(r/R1 )
r3 ln(R2 /R1 )

r (R2 /R1 )

n = 3 R1 r R2.

1.3. .

1.27. =

p~~r
,
r3

~ = p~3 + 3(~p~5r)~r ; p~ q +q.


E
r
r

1.3 .

195

p]
~ = q [~r~
1.28. F~ = q rp~3 3q(~pr~r5)~r , N
.
3
r
 
~ p~E
~ .
~ p~E
~ ; p~ E,
~ F~ = 1
1.29. F~ =
2

1.30. v(0) = v0
1.31. r = C sin2 .
P
P
1.32. ) ~a = qi~ri/ qi.
1.33. =

i
i
4
3 0 r cos ,

~ = 4 0 ~z ;
E
3
|z|

R
~ = p~3 + 3(~p~5r)~r ,
= 4

cos
,
E
0
2
3
r
r
r
4
3
p~ = 3 0R ~ez .
3
1.34. (r, ) = 2 Rr2 cos .
~ = 8~ey .
1.35. E
p~r)
1.36. (~r) = 2(~
, p~ = ~a, ~a -
r2
~ =
+ , . E
4(~p~r)~r
p
+
.
2~
2
r
r4
3
1.37. (r, ) ' 6 ln r + 32 3 ar3 cos 3.

1.38. (r, ) = 34 rQ3 3 cos2 1 .

q (b2 a2 )
2
3 cos 1 r  a, b;
1.39. (r, ) ' 4r3




2

1
1 1
qr
1
2

(r, ) ' q

3
cos

1
(r  a, b) .
a b
4 a 3 b3

1.40. (~r) '

12qRxz

3/2 , Ey = 0, Ez =
(R2 +z 2 )
(
)
. |z|  R (~r) = (~pr~3r) ,

(R2 +z 2 )

5/2

p~ =

4qR
ex ;
~

4qRx

3/2
R2 +z 2

; Ex =

4qR

(~r) .
 2

1
a
2
2
~
1.41. Q = a , p~ = Qh,Qxx = Qyy = 2 Qzz = Q 4 h .

196
qa2
r3

1.42. ) (r, ) '


3 cos 1 ; ) (r, ) '
p
1.43. r = c sin2 |cos |.

3qa3
2
1.44. (r, ) ' r4 5 cos 3 cos .
n
1.45. ' qr ar .
2

3qa2
2r3

sin2 sin 2.

1.4.

r/a

q e
1.46. (r) = q (r) 4a
2 r .

3
2
2
2
1.47. ) = 3 3R r ; = 4R
3 r;

2
) = 1 r R2 , = 2 ln r/R;
) = 2z 2 , = 2a (a 2 |z|) .
~ = U ~r2 .
1.48. E
ln R2 /R1 r
p
20 |z|
1.49. (x, y, z) = e
sin x sin y, = 2 + 2.


 r/a
e
r
e
r
r2
1.50. ) = r 1 + a e
; ) Er = r2 1 + 2 a + 2 a2 e2r/a;
2

) W = ea .
~
~ = 0, E
~ = E
~ 0 P~3 + 3(P5~r)~r , P~ = E
~ 0 R3 ; =
1.51. E
r
r
3
4 E0 cos .
1.53. a, b, c X, Y, Z
z = c U . (x, y, z) =

P
m
Anm sin nx sin my sh nmz, n = n
a , m = b , nm =
m,n=1
p
16U
2,A
n2 + m
nm = 2 nm sh(nm c) n m,
Anm = 0 .
2.1.

2.1. 2E2n 1E1n = 4, ~n


 
1 2. E1 =
 E2 .
2.2. E2n E1n = 12 1 E1n = 1 21 E2n;
1 = P1n =

1 1
4 E1n ,

2 = P2n =

12
4 E2n .

2.2

197

q
~ 0 | sin2 + cos22 .
2.3. |F~ | = q|E

~ 1,2 = 2q ~r3 , D
~ 1,2 = 1,2 E
~ 1,2 =
2.4. E
1 +2 r
2.5. 1,2 =

21,2 ~r
1 +2 r3 ,

2q 1
1 +2 r .
q(11,2 )
.
2R2 (1 +2 )

1,2 =

q1,2
2q 1
1 +2 r , 1,2 = 2R2 (1 +2 ) , 1,2 =
2q
2q
1 ~
~r ~
1 1 +2 2 +3 3 r , Ei = 1 1 +2 2 +3 3 r3 , Di

~ i,
2.6. i =
= i E
i = 1, 2, 3.
~ i = 4i ~r2 , i = 1, 2.
~ i = 4 ~r2 , D
2.7. E
1 +2 r
1 +2 r
32
2.8. = 1+22 E0r cos ,
2
3 cos
= E0r cos + 11+2
E
a
;
0
r2
2
~
~ = E
~ 0 P~3 + 3(P5~r)~r , P~ = 12 E
~ = 32 E
~ 0, E
~ 3
E
1 +22
1 +22 0 a ;
r
r
3 1 2
= 4
1 +22 E0 cos .
9
~ 0.
~ =
E
2.8. E
(1+2)(2+)

2.2.

2.9. C ' 20 (C '

h
2 ln h/R ,

2.10. ) C '

2.11. C =

h ' , 2R ' ).

`
`
2(+ln `/a) ; ) C ' 2ln `/a . 
0 S
1
CU
4a ln 2 , |=0 = 1 0
S ;

CU a 1
|=U = 1 210 CU
S , = 0 S (x+a)2 .
2.12. U = h4n0hd0.


 1 1 1 i1
q
1 1
1
1
2.13. C = 1 a c + 2 c b
; (a) = 4a2 1 1 ,




q
q
1
1
1
(c) = 4c2 2 1 , (b) = 4b2 1 2 , q
.
 ab
2.14. C = 1 + 1

4
ba .
2.15. C ' a2 (1 + ab ).
2.16. C ' 4 ln1b/a .


U1
U2
S
2.17. Q = 4 `b + ba .

198

2.18. qB =

SU
4

1
d1

1
d2

, qA =

1
2

SU
2d1

2.19. Q = U hr/d.
1 +R2 )C1 +R2 C3
2.20. Q = U C2 (R(R
.
1 +R2 )(C1 +C2 +C3 )
2.21. qi0 = qi q, q = 13 (q1 + q2 + q3 ).

, qC =

1
2

SU
2d2

2.3.

2.22. 1 =
~ 2 = 0;
E
=

q
r+

q
r , 2

~ 1 =
~ 1,
= 0, E
2

aq
2 (a2 +R2 )

q
3/2 , q = q; Fz = 4a2 .

2.23. Fx = a , (y) =

a
.
(a2+y2)

2.24. ,
:

2.25. (0) =
2.26. F =

Q( R2 +4h2 R)

,
R R2 +4h2
8q 2 ad(2i+1)

2 2
2
i=0 [(2i+1) d 4a ]

Ez (0) =
'

8q 2 a
d3

i=0

2Qh

(R2+4h2)

1
(2i+1)3

2.27. ) , :
q (a2 `2 )
q q0

=
+
,

=
0;

(r
)
=

4ar3
R r r0
q = dS = q.

) , : =

'

3/2

8q 2 a
.
d3

2.3
q
r

q0
r0

199

q
a;

q
4a2

+ + = 0; (r ) =

) , :

0
= qr + qr0 ,
q = q a` .

= 0, (r ) =

q (a2 `2 )
, q
4ar3

= 0.

q (a2 l2 )
4ar3 ,

) , :

q
r

q0
r0

q0
r0 ,

0
qa ; (r)
 0
2

q0
4a
2

q = 0. `0 = a `, q = qa/`0. F =
2 28. U =
Q=

Qq
`

qa3 (2`2 a2 )
`(`2 a2 )

2.29. F =

q0 q
`2

q 2 a3
,
2`2 (`2 a2 )

F =

Qq
`2

q 2 a3 (2`2 a2 )
`3 (`2 a2 )

q (a2 `2 )
,
4ar3
q 2 a`

(`2a2)

.
2

+ q`3a

q 2 a`

2.
(`2a2)
3
(P~0R~ ) (P~ ~r)
2.30. ) = R3 + r3 , P~ = P~0 a`3
, P~0 ,
~ ~r P~0
a2/` ; R
P~ ; = 0;
3P0
~
) = 4a
3 cos , - P0
.
2`a
a2 `
0
2.31. = 2 2 2
,

`
=
-
2
h2 +`2
02
0

h +`

` +(h h)

, h0 =
2a`(h0 h)
. Ez = 2 2 02 0 2 3/2 .
h +` [` +(h h) ]
2.32. = q/r1 q/r2 + q 0/r3 q 0/r4,
2
q 0 = q ab ,b0 = ab ; ri


2

Q = q 1 bb ba
2 +a2 .


E0
a3

2.33. () = 4 1 3 ;
() =

0
3E
4 cos ; Fz =

9 2 2
16 a E0 .

a2 h
h2 +`2

200

5 51
2.34. = 205 aQ2 .
2.35. ) (z) = a2q+z 2 a4qa
;
+b2 z 2


 qb2

q
a
a5
) (r, ) = r 1 b + 4r3 1 b5 3 cos2 1 .
0
Q0
0
2.36. ) (z) = b2Q+z 2 + 02 Q

b
2
|z+a|
b +(z+az 0 )

= b a2a+b2 -

, Q0 = Q a2a+b2 - z 0 =
- ;
4 cos
) (r, ) = Qr + Qa
3/2 2 .
2
2
a
+b
(
) r
2a
2.37. Fr = `2
2 a2 .
aq
2.38. (R) =
3/2 .
2 (a2 +R2 )
2 1
2.39. 1 = 1qr1 + 11 q 11
+2 r2 ,
2 = 12 q 12+2 2 r11 .
2 a
2.40. = q1 11
+2 2R3 ,
2 , = 2qaR3 (. 2.22.)

a3
a2 +b2

3p2 1 2
2.41.Fz = 16h
4 ( + ) , N = 0.
1 1
2
2 2 1 2
2.42. Fz = 1h 1+2 .
q12 1 2
q1 q3
2.43. F = 4a2 1+2 + ( 2q+1q2)a2 + 2a2(
.
1
1
2
2 +1 )
q12 2 1
q22 2 1
q1 q2 21
2.44. F1 = 4a2 1+2 + 4a2 1+2 , F2 = 4a2 1+2
1
1
2

+ 4aq22q1

22
.

2 1 +2

2.4. . .

2.45. A = A/ 2, . . A q 2/`.
2.46. A = 6A.
2
(1)Q2
2.47. ) W = (1)CU
;
)
W
=
2
2C , A = W , C =
2.48. W =
2.49. W =

3 Q2
5 R.
5 e2
4 a.

S
4d .

2.4 . .

201

~r)(~p2~r)
p1 p2
2.50. W = (~pr1p3~2) 3(~p1
=
5
r
 r3 (sin 1 sin 2 cos 2 cos 1 cos 2),
1 = ~rc
, p~ , 2 = ~rc
, p~ , - (~p1, ~r)
1

(~r, p~2); Fr = 3W/r, F , ,


Fmax = 6p1p2/r4 (!).

p2
2
2.51. W = 16a3 1 + cos , = (p~d
, ~ez );
2

p sin 2
Fz = 3W
,
N
=

a
16a3
Q(~p0~r )
2r3

(~p0 p~)
2r3

3(~p0~r )(~p~r )
,
2r5

2.52. W =
+


3
3
Q = (~pr~3r) R p~ = ~p0 Rr3 + 2 (~pr0~2r)~r Rr3
p~0 r = r R2/r, ~r, ~r - -

.
 p~0
2
2
2
p0 R(R +r cos2 )
c
= p~, ~r , W =
,
3
2(r2 R2 )
p20 Rr (R2 +2r2 ) cos2 +3R2
p20 Rr2 sin 2
Fr =
, N0 = 2 2 3 .
4
2(r R )
(r2R2)
2.53. F = F = 2q 2/`2.
2.54. h =

1 E 2
8g d2 .

2.55. F =

2Dd(Dd)q 2
.
a[b(Dd)+xd]2

2.56. q = R ( + 1)
2.57. Q = q/2.

2.58. F = q 2 4R2.

2
1

2
3
3 R g

2.59. F = (9/16) E02a2.




q
2
2.60. = R2 1 + 2 emv/R2 .

2 61. )

d
d

R2

d
d

2
R2 e R 3
8 mv 2 /2

=
q

; )

2
3 e /R 1 5/2
;
mv 2 +2

d
d

d
d


mg .

R2
8

2
3 e /R 5/2
;
mv 2

1 3 15 e3 7/2
.
16
2 mv 2

202

3.1. . .
2
3.1. j = envr/2,
j
=
enva
/2r.

p
3.2. ~j = ~j0, v = v02 + 2qE`/m, n = j0/ (qv) .
3.3. = / (4) .
3.4. tg 1/ tg 2 = 1/2, - ""
.
3.5. (r) = U [1 (a/r)n]/[1 (a/b)n]; R = [(b/a)n 1] / (2max n),
max = bn. 
 

R2
r
3.6. (r) = U ln R1 / ln R1 .
U/(20 )
, R = 2
r
ln b/a .
R1 = 42JRz 3 ln R11/R2 , R2 = 42RJ2z R
1
1 2

3.7. j =
3.8.

ln R11/R2 .

z - . , R1 =
R2 = 0, z .
U
(1 2 1 2 )
1 (2 1)2 (1 1)
3.9. E1,2 = `122,1
+`2 1 , = 4(`1 2 +`2 1 ) U, = 4(`1 2 +`2 1 ) U .
.
U 2
1)
3.10. (x) = U ln(1+x/
,

(x)
=
.
ln(1+d/1 )
4( +x)2
1

3.11. =
3.12. E0 = k (2`1 + 1`2) E0, E1 = k2`0E0, E2 = k1`0E0,
k = 0/ [`0 (`012 + `102 + `201)], E0 = E. `0 - ...
. (E0 < 0). q01 = r2 (E1 E0 ) /4, q12 = r2 (E2 E1) /4, q20 =
r2 (E0 E2) /4.
U i
3.13. (ji)r = r ln
b/a , i = 1, 2.


q
3.14. J = U R r0 + (U R r0)2 + 4U R /2R.
2 1 1 2
U
.
2

(1/c1/b)+
4c 1
2 (1/a1/c)

3.1 . .

3.15. Ak Ak+1 Jk =

203
E ch(k)

,
Ri ch +
Rr
sh(+1/2)
p

sh (/2) = R/r/2 tg =

Ra ch n+ Rr sh(n+1/2)

. Jn.
Ra sh n+ Rr ch(n+1/2)
(r , 0, n + 1/2 + Ra/R) ... Ri ch + Rrsh(+1/2)
. Ra = 0 = n + 1/2.
EE0 = [R
i +Ra +(n+1)R] ch(n)
2

1 d d J
3.16. (x) = 0 dJ
dx , J = dx , dx2 = J 0 , dx2 = 0 . : [] = /, [0] = . p
(xx0 )

3.17. J (x) = Ri chExch0+


/0 , x0 0 sh x0 , =

th (x0 a) = Ra/ 0. Ra = 0 (
ch (ax)
E ch (ax)

) J (x) = Ri chEa+
0 sh a ' a Ri +0 /` .
(1/0 0) J (x) = E/ (Ri + Ra + `) = const.

1
1
1
1 1
3.18. R = 22 a b + 2
.

1 b


1
1
1
4
1
1
1
3.19. R = 2 a1 + a2 ` ' 2 a1 + a2 .

3 20. C = 4R
.
`/a
U`
U `
3.21. R = +ln
2` , E ' 2r2 ln `/a , U ' 2r2 ln `/a .
3.22. k = 4/.
~ = 0, r < R1, Er e 4t

R1 < r < R2,


3.23. ) E

2
q
1
1
Er = rq2 = const r > R2; ) Q = 2
R1 R2 .


3
~
3
R
3 (j0~r)~rR ~
~
~
3.24. j = j0 1 + 2r3 2 r5 , j = 0.

3.25. = 0 1 2na3 .
1+/0
3.26. J/J0 = 1+/3
.
0
2

1
2
3.27. J = 3a
j
'
3a
j0 .
0
+2
1
0
41 2
3.28. J/J0 = ( + )2(
2 2 2.
1
2
1 2 ) a /b

3.29. 1 =
2 =

J0 1
J0 1 2 1
41 r1 + 41 1 +2 r2 ,
J0 21 1 ~
~
41 1 +2 r1 , ji = i i

204

3.30. j () =

J sin
4Ra

n=0

1
n+1


R n 0
Pn (cos ) , Pn (cos ) -
a

.

eJ
2 2
3.31. T = eU v0 1 + 2 ln b/a r /a , v0 -
.
3.2.

3.32. j =

1
2e U 3/2
9
m d2 .
cU
.
2d2 p

3.33. j =
3.34 j ' j0 kT /eU , j0 -
, , T .
3.35. .
q
q
q
h
i1/2
ji
mU
M
3.36. Ea = 16 2e je (1 )
, = je m , ji je M
m.
( = 1) 1.63 je/j0 1.97, j0 , "3/2".
p
9 kU 2
3.37. j = 32 d3 , k - ([k] = 3/).
q
U 3/2
3.38. J = 29 2e
m a .

2

3.39. U (t) = U0 1 + P U0t/2C .


q 3/2
 3/42
 2 
U1
d0
U2
1
1 + U1
, j0 = 9 2e
3.40. jmax = j0 2d
m d2 -
0

( d0, U1)
2d
1,2; x =
3/4 .
c2 d 2
M
v 2 r2
3
mc r

d2
r2

1+(U1 /U2 )

3.41. FE /F
 1.
3
3.42. J = e d , mce ' 17kA - .

3.43. d2 ' jd2 c ' J0 (d/a)2.

4.1 - . .

205

4.1. - . .

4.1. Hz =
1,2

2Ja2
3/2
c a2 +z 2

. ) Hz =

(
)
= arccos 2`z

a +(`z)2

2Jn
c

(cos 1 + cos 2) ,

- , -

z; ) Hz (0) =2Jn/c; ) Hz = 4Jn/c.


2 2h a2 +h2
a2 +2h
4.2. Hz (h) = 2Q
.
ca2
a2 +h2

2 Q
4.3. ) Hz (0) = JN
cR . ) Hz (0) = 3 cR .
4.4. ) H = 4i
c H = 0 ; ) H = 0
~
H = 4i
c . H
.
4.5. Hr = Hz = 0 ; H = 2Jr
r a, H = 2J
cr
ca2
a r b H = 0 r > b.

 1/2 q
+
2 + 2
8
1
W

4.6. H0 = a
ln
, - c
2 1
2
1+

1+

. H0 = 3 = 2;

1/2
W []
.
H0 [] = 0, 179 []a[]
4.7. tg = 2`/4N a.
4.8. Hx = Hz = 0, Hy =

- ,
(
)
Y , .
4.9. Hx = Hz = 0, Hy = 2j
c d, Y - , .
4.10 Hz = Hr = 0, H = 2JN
cr , r -
.


(xa/2)2 +y 2
2J
a+2x
a2x
J
4.11. Hx = ca arctg 2y + arctg 2y , Hy = ca ln (x+a/2)2+y2 ,
Hz = 0; Y
,


p
2Jy
2Jx
2
2
a  x, y, Hx = cR2 , Hy = cR2 , Hz = 0, R = x + y .
2j
c d,

j =

4.12. Hr = Hz = 0 ; H =

2J
cr

b2 a2

,H = 0 

. Hr = Hz = 0, H =

J
cr

1 + r2z+z 2 .

206

2J
4.13. H = 2J
cr ; H = cr (1 cos ), - . 

2
4
J

4.14. Hz (r, z) = 532


1 1, 670 Rr 2 1, 152 Rz 4 cR
, 5
r, z O1O2
. q
p

r = R /1, 67 ` = 2R 4 1,152
.

r=0,775 `=6,1 ; V = r 2`=11,5 3.

4.2. , . .

~ Z, : ) Ax = H y,
4.15 1) H
Ay = Az = 0 Ax = H y/2, Ay = H x/2, Hz = 0; ) Ar =
Az = 0, A = H r/2; ) Ar = A = 0, Az = Hr sin /2. 2)
J Z, Ar = A = 0 Az = 2Jc ln r. 3)
2 Jr
Z , Ar = Az = 0 A = a
3/2
c(r2 +z 2 )

a  r2 + z 2.
(a+x)2 +y 2
J
4.16. Ar = A = 0, Az = c ln (ax)2+y2 ; Hx = 8Jc raxy
2 2 , Hy =
1 r2


2J ax
a+x
+
, Hz = 0, r1(r2) - 2
c
r1
r22
(x, y) , , J(J),
(a, 0)(a, 0) .
~ = 4J ~ex + rot A,
~ - A
~ = (0, Ay , 0);
4.17. H
ca


P
2nx
2nz/a
Ay =
n e
sin a + n . n, n n=1

, .
[m~
~ r]
4.18. ) Ar = A = 0, Az ' 4Ja
cr cos A = 2 r2 ,
m
~ = 2J [~a~ez ] - (2~a -
J J , ), r -

4.2 , . .

; ) Hr = 4Ja
sin , H = 4Ja
cos , Hz = 0
cr2
cr2
~ r)~r
~
~ = 2m
H
+ 4(m~
.
r2
r4
2
8J
8J
4.19. Ax = Ay = 0, Az = 4Jr
cos
2;
H
=
y,
H
=
x,
x
y
2
2
ca
ca
ca2
Hz = 0.
4.20. Ar = A = 0, Az = 2ja
c ln a.
3Ja
4.21. Ar = A = 0, Az = 2Jc ln r 6Ja
cr cos ; Hr = cr2 sin ,
6Ja
H = 2J
cr cr2 cos , Hz = 0.
2
2
4.22. m
~ = ea3c
~ m
~ = ea5c
~ .
~ r)~r
~
~ = m
4.23. () H
+ 3(m~
, m
~ -
r3
r5
~
~ = 2e~ = 2m
(). H
,
3ca
a3
~ - r, m
m
~ - .
q
~
r
JnS
~ = m3 , qm =
4.24. H
- .
r
h c i
R
~ = m
~ , m
4.25. F~ = 0, N
~ H
~ = J ~nds -
c

.
~ 1m
~ 2)
3(m
~ 1~r)(m
~ 2~r)

;
4.26. U = (m
3
5
r
r
~ 2 (m
~ 1~r) + m
~ 1 (m
~ 2~r) + ~r (m
~ 1m
~ 2)] 15
(m
~ 1~r) (m
~ 2~r) ~r,
F~2 = F~1 = r35 [m
r7
~ 2 m
~ 1]
~ i = [m
r - - . N
+
3
r
3[m
~ i ~r](m
~ i+1 ~r)
i = 1, 2 (i + 1 = 2, 1). r5
(m
~ 1 = m1~n, m
~ 2 = m2~n, ~r = r~r0, ~n, ~r0 - ),
3m1 m2 [2~n(~n~r0 )~r0 (5~n~r0 )2 1]
~
F2 =
.
4
4.28. F '

r
3q1 q2 a21 a22 1 2
25c2 `4
2 2

+ q1`2q2 .

1/4

4.29. ) h = R
; ) h = 2RJ / c P .
 3J  / 8c P
~ m
~ .
4.30. F~ =
~H
q
a3
0
4.31. v ' H0 4m
' H4
' 80 /, -
.
 2 B 2 a6
4.32. F ' 6 2 1
.
2+
`4
~.
~ = e M
4.33. m
~ = gM
2mc
2

208

5.1. . . .

~
5.1. H = 2J
cr , Hz = Hr = 0; H = 0 .
~ i = iH.
~
B
5.2. Hr = Hz = Br = Bz = 0 ; H = B = 2Jr
r a,
ca2
21 J
22 J
H = 2J
cr B = cr z > 0 B = cr z < 0 r > a.
5.3. Br = Bz = 0 , (B )i = i 2J
cr i = 1, 2 a r b;
2J
B = cr .
2
5.4. B = 2J
, Hi = B /i, i = 1, 2, 3.
cr (1 /1 +2 /2
+3 /3 )
~ = 1B
~ + 1 1 B~
~ n ~n, B
~ - , ~n 5.5. H

.
2
1 2
H0r sin ,
5.6. (Az ) = 1caJr2 + 21+
2


22 J
1 2 a2
a
(Az ) = c ln r + 1 + 1+2 r2 2H0r sin ; Ar = A = 0
~ = rot A
~ .
; H
3(m~
~ r)~r
1 2 ~ 3
~
~ = 32H~ 0 , H
~ = H
~ 0 m
5.7. H
H0 a
3+
5 , m =
1 +22

1 +22

- , . ~j = 0, 3 1 2
i = 4
1 +22 cH0 sin .
~ = 3 H
~ 0.
5.8. H
1+2
~ = 32 H
~
H
1 +22 0

~0
3(m~
~ r)~r
4 M
m
~
~
~
,
1 +22 , H = H0 r3 +
r5
2 3 ~
4
~ 0.
m
~ = 11+2
a H0 + 1+2
a3 M
2
2
3(m~
~ r)~r
~
1 3~
~ = H
~0 m
5.10. H = 0, H
+
,

m
~
=

3
5
2 a H0 .
r
r
3
~j = 0, i = 8
cH0 sin .

9
~
5.11. F~ = 64
H 2a2 1 + 12 sin2 , H

5.9.

.
41 2
~ =
5.12. H
2
( + ) (
~ =
H

42 /1 ~
H.
1a2 /b2 0

2 2 2
2 ) a /b

; 1  2

5.1 . . . 209
22 ~
~
~ 2 = 21 H
H
,
H
0
1 +2
1 +2 0 .
1
5.14. A1z = 2c1J ln r1 2c1J 21
+2 ln r2 ,
~ i = rot A
~i =
A2z = 2c2J 12+1 2 ln r1, B

~1 =
5.13. H

iHi, i = 1, 2.

2
5.15. Fz =
J1 11
2 + 4J2 + 2J3
2
5.16. (Az ) = 2Jc 1+
ln r1 + c1,
2J 1
(Az ) = 2J
ln
r
=

1
c
c 1+ ln r2 +
2J 1
2
2
2
2br cos ,
c 1+ ln r + c2 , r1 = r + b

r22 = r2 + b12 2rb0 cos , b0 = a2 b, c1 c2
1
c1 c2 = 2J
c 1+ ln a.
2J 2 a2 /b 1
Fr = c2 b2a2 1+ .
(
)

J1 1 2
c2 a 1 +2

5.17. (Az ) = 2Jc ln r1 + 2Jc 1


1+ ln r2 + c1 ,

2J 1
2
ln
r
+
(Az ) = 2J
1
c 1+
c 1+ ln r + c2 ,
r1 r2 , 5.16, c1 c2 =
2J 1
2J 2 a 1
[(

1)
ln
a

ln
b].
F
=
.
r
c 1+
c2 (b2 a2 ) +1

3 m2 1
m2 1
2
5.18. Fz = 16
1
+
cos

,
N
=
sin 2,
a4 +1
16a3 +1
~n .
4Jn
4JN
5.19. H = c(d+`
S/S ) ' cd .
5.20. H = 4JN/cb.
R2 a2
4JN a2
5.21. H1 = 4JN
,
H
=
2
2
c
c `R2 .
`R
5.22. H (x) ' H0e3x/d .
3(m~
~ r)~r
~
4a3 ~
~ . = 8 M
~ = m
~ 0, H
5.23. H
+
,

m
~
=
+2
+2 M0 ,
r3
r5
~ 0 .
M

5.24. Bmax =
5.25. H =

B0
1+B0 /2H0 ' 2H0
2dHc
h+2dHc /B1 1 .

= 200 .

210

5.2. .

2

5.26. x '
.
5.27. r  R
r ' R.
2
5.28. p = (1)H
.
8
5.29. T = JHR
c =0, 1 .

2JN
r
c` k

4J1 J2
1 b2ba2 .
c
W
5.31. F = W
r , N = ,
4r2 +a2 +4ar cos
W = J1cJ22a ln 4r
2 +a2 4ar cos .
BU
5.32. tg = `cdg
.
2
5.33. p = 22Jc2R2 .
5.34. F (r) = 2ne2r/ 2 = a2Jer
2 c 2 ,

5.30. F =

5.35. Fz =

JN R2
c`

2 

2h
3/2

(4h2+`2)
.

= vc , = 1 2 .
1

4h1 2 , Z -

6.1. .

6.1. L = 2 ln b/a.
6.2. L = /2
21 R24
1 R22
R2
1
+
ln

.
6.3. L = 22 ln R
R0
R1
R2 R2
R2 R2
2

6.4. ) Hr = Hz = 0 , H =
; ) L 4R ln (R/r0).
6.5. L = 4(S1`S2) .
2
6.6. L0 = +1
L.
6.7. L = 4n2S.

h1
4N 2 S
6.8. L = h2
1 + ( 1) h2 .

2J
cr

H = 0

6.2

211


2
2
6.9. L = 4N b b a , L 4n2S ( n = N/ (2nb)).
2b+a
L = 2N 2h ln 2ba
.
, L N 2 .
2 N 2 a
.
6.10. L = 83(+2)
2

6.11. L = 4`d
3h .

6.12. L == 1 + 2 ln h2/ab .
2S
6.13. L = 4N
d+`/ .

4
2
2
6.14. L = ` N1 S1 + 2N1N2S2 + N2 S2 .

6.15. M = L1L2 0, 6 .
6.16. 1) L = 0; 2) L = 0, 2 ; 3) l = 0, 05 .


6.17. M = 4 b b2 a2 .
6.18. M = 2b ln (1 + a/h) .

2
6.19. M = 2N a r0.
2 2 2

6.20. M = 2 2a b 2 cos
3/2 .
(b +h ) 
6.21. M = N1N2S 2 `3.
1 N2 S
6.22. M12 = M21 = 4N
15a+4d .
6.2.
3
6.23. = HS2 SS11S
S2 .

H02 h20 ab
.
8h2 m
cH0 S
L cos .

= P +
6.24. h
m

6.25. J 0 = J
6.26. J = c0 /L.
2
6.27. J = cRL B , A =

2 R4 B 2
2L .

6.28. 1) ; 2) H = B 1
.
2 2 2 2
6.29. A = 2 Nc2`J a .

H 2 ab

0
h0 h0 8mg
.

2 2 R
L

; 3) .

212
4

6.30. H = r
R > x > r, H
= 0
cR2


x > R, H = cR2 2R2r2 2x2 R2 r4 x < r.


B0 (b2 /a2 1)
6.31. B = B H +b2 a21 .
/
0/ 0
B0
B = B H +b
2 /a2 1 .
0/ 0
2
6.32. ) Hz (P2) = H0 R4 (H1 H0) 2 z2 3/2 ,
(z +r2 )
2
Hr (P2) = R4 (H1 H0) 2 r22 3/2 ;
(z +r2 )
p
r0 H0/H1, H0r02 H1R2,
) r =r


H1
R2
r = r0 1 + r2 1 H0 , H0r02 H1R2.
0

6.33. H =
6.34. v

H12
H0
H0

6.3.

6.35. J1
= J a` .
2 r1 )
6.36. T = e`B(r
' 15 .
c

 2 
2 2
6.37. a = g 1 + CB ` g c P .
6.38. E = (BS/c) sin (t + 0) , 0 -
.
6.39. E = H`2/2c.
3
6.40. E = (2m/cR) sin (t + 0) , m = 4
3 a M0 0 -
~
M
.
r 

`
CH 2 `2
6.41. T = 2 g 1 + 2mc2 .
6.42. J (t) =

2
q a H0
c R2 +(L/c2 )

sin (t ) = J0 sin (t ) ,,

6.4 . .

213


= 1 J 2R,
tg = L/ c R . N (t) = 1c a2H0J0 sin (t ) , D
2 0
L , R ,
~

  H0.
 
2

6.43. Fz =

24J Jd
R

a2
cd2

N SH0 /c

6.44. J =

R2 + 2 L2 /c4

; R 0 Fz =
' 10 ; hi '

24J 2 d
c2 L

1
2 N SH0

a2
d

R
L/c2

2

50

.
4 B 2 a2 R 3
2 B 2 R4
6.45. ) A = 16c02 ' 3 105 ; ) A = 2L0 ' 0, 08 .

6.46. v = q a2 + R2 B 0/ (2mcR) .

6.48. E = SnN J.


T /RC
6.49. q (T ) = C BS
e

1
.
c


b2 a2 cos t.
6.50. F = Jc20Rsin
2

2
2
0
6.51. Ez = 2J
r

a
0 r a Ez = 0 a r b.
c 2 a3 

2

6.52. Ez = cJ2 1 ar 2 + 2cJ2 ln ab 0 r a Ez = 2cJ2 ln rb


a r b.

6.53. E = 2N1N2D12J/ c2` .
6.54. . =
H0 (1 k) , H 0
a
k = W + a2W 2 + 4L2 R2c4 2L1 2 . a = 12 nc2RH0S;
L, R, S W .

6.55. + = 1+c2/4
.
( 2 a2 2 )

qa2 B0
it
6.55. (t) = 4cJ 1 e , J = ma2/2
.
2 L2 sin3 (1+cos )
6.56. Fz = 8c4b 0R2+2L2/c4 , 0 = H0a2.
(
)
6.4. . .
R
6.57. uc = u T R+r
.
2 +E2 R1
6.58. q = C E1R
R1 +R2 .

214

RRc
1e
, = R+R
6.59. Uc (t) =
C, C c
, R , Rc .
t/
RC1 C2
2e
6.60. U = U0 C1+C
C1 +C2 , = C1 +C2 , U0
C1.
t/1
2
6.61. U (t) = E (R1+R12
et/2 , i = RiCi, i = 1, 2.
)(C1 +C2 ) e
Rc
U0 R+R
c

6.62. U (t) =

t < ;
U0et/RC 0 <

U0 1 e /RC e(t )/RC t <

J`
U0 = Q
C = vC
t/RC
6.63. UR (t) = 0 t < 0, U (t) = U0e
t
tT
0 t T , UR (t) = U0 e RC e RC
t > T . , RC 
T.

6.64. UR (t) = 0 t < 0, UR (t) = U0 1 et/ 0 t <
t

tT

T , UR (t) = U0 e + e t > T , = RcL2 , ,


 T .

2
2J12
R3
1
6.65. mc ' 2R C R3+R2 dR
dT , J ,
4 4
.
6.66. c2L 2 , C  R, C = C0 + C1, R = R0 + R1,
.
6.67. J1 = J LL121 (1 et ), = 1L2 R/L L L12 = 4N1`N2 .
k
2N ,

12

1 2

6.68. k = 20 sin
0 =
k = 1, 2, ..., N
( ), .
6.69. J U J
2J
2J
; LC
+
RC
=
, L, C
2
2
t
c t
x2
J
L U
J
. JcU : C U
=

=
2
x
x .
C t
. t
LC k = n/`, n = 1, 2, ....
6.70. = vk, v = c
c
LC

6.5 -

215

6.71. ) Jx = J0 sin vk x , Ux = U0 cos vk x , k = kv


` ;
k x
k x
) Ux = U0 sin v , Jx = J0 cos v , k = kv
` ;
sin vk x , Ux = U0 cos vk x , k = (2k+1)v
.
) Jx = J0q
2`

U0 =

L
C J0 .
1
vC =

4 ln(d/r)
6.72. =
; [] =
v
120 ln (d/r) ' 468 .
R
6.73. [] = 60
r ' 970 .
ln2`
6.74. Z. = ctg , = 2`
n ,
(n = 1, 2, ...). 1) Z. = 130 (). 2) Z. = ( ). 3)Z. = 347
(). 4) Z. = 0 ( ).

6.5. -

= 1 E 2.
6.76. ) Ex (Z) = E0 eZ/ ei(tZ/)
;
)
W

4 0
1
2
2

6.77. W = 4 E0 0 + E1 1 , 1 = c/ 2i, 0 =
1 = 0, 10.
2`
6.78. R ' b
.
 ?

2 
2
1
a
6.79. - R = R0 1 + 12
,
c2

R0 = 1 a2 ; R = R0a/2 = 1/2a.
1
6.80. R ' a
.



2x
2x
2h
2 h 1/2
6.81. H (x) = H0 Sh + cos
Sh + cos
, H0 =
4J0n/c. - (  h) H (x) ' H0; - (  h) H (x) ' H0e(h|x|)/ .
~ . = 3 H
~
6.82. j = i r2csin H., H
+2 0

216

; (
5
2 2 2
~ 0*). Q
= 3 a H0 2 .
H
5 c2 (+2)
(1i)z

6.83. Hr = H = 0, H = 32 sin e , z
; p
~ 0. Q
= 3 H 2a2c .
 H
8 0
2

6.5 = c 2 k = (1 i) //
6.84. - n2
, - n .
6.85. ) - ' 1 2na3; )
3
- ' 1 + 4n 1
+2 a .
2 2 H 2 a10

6.86. F = 300c40r4 .

h3 c
gh ' 106 .
6.87. J0 = 23 r
2
0
6.88. H = 2H0/ (ka sh (kh) + 2 ch (kh)).
4
sin kx
2
exp
(t),

k
=
, 6.89. H (x, t) = H sin
kh 
c2
tg 2 + kh = kh Rh . H (. 5.12), H0, h c2
. (R  h) (kh)min ' , . . min ' 4h
2.
6.90. H = 2H0/[kR sh (kh) + 2 ch (kh)].



2x
2x
2d
2d 1/2
6.91. H (x) = H0 ch + cos
ch + cos
.
2
4(m~
~ r)
~
ka 2 ~
~ =H
~ 0 2m
6.92. ) H
+
,

m
~
'
2
4
16 a H0 ;
r
r




Hr = H0 cos 1 k 2r2 8 1
k 2 a2 4 ,  

H = H0 sin 1 3k 2r2 8 1 k 2a2 4 , Hz = 0.
2
~ ' 0,
) , (a), m
~ ' a 2H0 ; H
(ar)/ .
~ ' 2H~ 0 eh/ H
~ 0, h .
6.93. H
a
6.94. Q/Qk =
2.
q
2
6.95. H ' H0
1 + ah
.
2


J a
b
b2+x2 .
6.96. j (x) =
a2 +x2

6.6 .

217

q
2 2
6.97. H0 ' H0
1 + 4a9h4 .

6.98. Mz = H02a4/ 3 2 .
2 1 +3
6.99. L = 4
a 1 +2 +3 ' 0, 16; -
2
L = 4
a ' 0, 25. .

ka
6.100. Hz ' H0 ch kd + sh kd .


6.101.  4bd b b2 a2 ac2, b
d  a.

6.6. .

r2
6.103. dW
=
2CJU
ln
dt
r1 , C
, J U .
JU
d2
6.105. Sy = Sz = 0, Sx = 4 ln(d/r
, r0 2
0 ) x (xd)
.
~
1 D
u U
6.107. 1) j. = 4
t = 0; 2) j = 4 d2 ; 3)
.

6.1. . .
E0
7.1. x = qE
ch PqEy
.
0C
7.2. x = x0+r [sin (t ) + sin ] , y = y0+r [cos (t ) cos ],
qH
Z = Z0 + v0Z t, v cos = v0x , sin = v0y , = mc
, r = v .
p
qH
7.3. 1,2 =q 02 + L2 L 0 L, 3 = 0, L = 2mc
.

7.4. H >

2mc2 U
ed2

' 100 .

218

7.5. ~r (t = 0) = 0, ~v (t = 0) = (v0, 0, 0) Ey /H  C
cE
vx =
x = v0 sin t + Hy t, y = v0 (cos t 1), = eH
mc , v. = ~
E
c Hy .
E
7.6. v = c H
.
~ H
~]
[E
7.7. ~v. = c eH 2 .
p
7.9. sin >p H/Hm.
7.10. R = 1 H/Hm.
6.2. .

7.13. F =
7.14. F =
7.22. F =

2mvc
qH .
2mvc
qH .
EEcR2
2eJ` =

10  `.

219

1:


`
1 ()
102
m
1 ()
103
t
1 ()
1
F
1 ()
105
E, W
1 ()
107
p
1 ()
10 /2
J
1 ()
3 109 3/2 1/2 /2
e, q
1 ()
3 109 3/2 1/2 /
E 1 / ( ) 13 104 1/2 /(1/2 )
1

1 ()
102 1/2 1/2 /
3
C
1 ()
9 1011
1
R
1 ()
1011 /
9
H
1 / ( ) 4 103 ()
B
1 ()
104 ()

1 ()
108 ()
L
1 ()
109


c = 3 1010 ,
e = 4, 8 1010 CGSE = 1, 6 1019
me = 9 1028
mp = 1, 67 1024
40 = 1CGSE = 107/2
/
40 = 1CGSE = 107 /
= 5 1017 1 6 107 11
k = 1, 38 1016 /= 1, 38 1023
/= 0, 86 104 /
h = 6, 62 1027 c= 6, 62 1034 =
4, 14 1015
N = 6, 02 1023 1
R = 8, 3 107 1 1

220


[1] .. . .: , 1955.
[2] .. . .: , 1959.
[3] . -. .: , 1970.
[4] . . .: , 1965.
[5] . . .: .., 1958; . .: ..,1953.
[6] .. . .: , 1971.
[7] .. . .: , 1957.
[8] .., .., . .: , 1973;
. .: , 1982.
[9] .. ,
. .: , 1972.
[10] .. . .: . .,
1983; . .: . ., 1985.
[11] .., .. . .: , 1987.
[12] ., . . .:
, 1963.
[13] . .: , 1971-1974. . 2.
. . .: , 1971. . 3.
. . .: , 1974.
[14] .. . . 3: . .:
, 1977.

221

[15] . . .: . .
1954.
[16] .. . ,
1971.
[17] . . . .: ,
1948.
[18] .. . .: , 1966.
[19] ., ., .
. .: , 1966. . 5, 6.
[20] . . .: , 1972.
[21] .. . .:, 1937.
[22] .., .. . .: , 1970.
[23] .. . .: .
., 1966.
[24] / ..,
.., .., ... .: .
. 1972.
[25] ., ., .
. .: , 1971.
[26] .. . . .: , 1985.
[27] . .: , 1977. . 3.
.. . . .4.
.. . .
[28] ., .. . .: , 1976.




I. . 2-x

250 .

60 84/16
.-. . 5.5

- ;
; 630090, -90,
. , 2.

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