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()

()

..

2005
621.396

..
: . :
, 2005. 178 .

.
, ,
,
, .

.

, , .
,
552500, 654200 , 654100 ,
.

....
2.
()
..
2.1.

1.

5
5
5
7

13
15
.
15
2.2.
17
..
18
2.3.

27
35
...
38
2.4.

42
.
46
2.4.1.

49
..
53
2.4.2.

53

2.5.

56
...
2.6.

57

58
.
58
2.7.

64

64
2.8.

67
...
70
2.9.

71
.
74
2.10.
75

75
2.11.

76
..
77
2.12.
80
..
80
2
2.12.1.
80
....
83
2.12.2
. 84

94
94
...
94
2.12.3
. 98
10
...
1
2.12.4.

10

4
10
..
6
2.13. 10

.
3.

..
3.1.

..
3.2.

..
3.3.


3.4.

...
3.5.

.
3.6.

.
3.6.1.

...
3.6.2.

3.6.3.


4.

4.1.

..
4.2.

.
4.3.

4.4.

.
5.

()

5.1.

..
5.2.

..
5.3.

()

5.4.

.
5.5.

6.

6.1.

..

6
10
8
11
2
11
4
11
6
11
9
12
4
12
4
13
1
13
8
13
8
14
4
14
5
14
7
15
2
15
4
15
7
15
9
15
9
16
1
16
1
16
5
17
0
17
6

6.2.

17

6

6.3.

...
6.4.

...
6.5.

...
6.6.

...
7.

...
7.1.

...
7.2.

.
7.3.

...
7.3.1.

...
7.3.2.
...
7.3.3.

.
7.4.

.
7.5.

...
7.6.

..
7.7.

8.

..
8.1.

...
8.2.

8.3.

.
8.4.

..
8.5.

..
9.

..
1.

( )

.

,
.
[1,2]. , ,
,
,
, .

,
.
, ,
" ",
,

.
2.
2.1.

, - .
().
,

() .

.
.

, ,
.
:
-
() ;
- ( f =0 )
. ,

:
( 20 20000 )
;
() ( f 300 );
() ( f 300 ).

1.1.
1.1 -

3 - 30000
-

30
300
3
30

300
3000
30
300

300 - 3000

3 - 30

30 - 300

300 - 3000

, :
(

2, ( f f) f0 );

f0 - ;

f
(

2).


-, - ;
,
, .;

, ;

, ..

, , ..

2.2.

. (.2.1):

Z . Z
;
Z . Z
;
:
.

K U :
.

K=

= K exp(j ) ,

U
- .
,
0 , .
:
0, dB = 20lg K 0 .
n- ( ):
= 1 * 2 * ...* n ,
, dB = 1, dB + 2, dB + ...+ n , dB;
.

K I :
.

I = I / I =| K I | exp(j ) .

n
K I
.
:
= P / .
n- K
,
, dB = 10lg K P .
, ,
.
:
.

= U / ,
- .
:
= nom / P0 ,
Pnom - ; P0
, .
.
-
. :
,
. LC
, .

- ()
().

. ,
.2.2.

Y - () :
Y =| K | / K 0 ,
Y , dB = 20lgY .

10

n

Y .

:
= 1/ Y = K 0 / | K |,
M , dB = 20lg M .

n-



.

f f ,

f , :
f = f f .
,
.
LC ,
.

,
, .2.3.


, LC .
, ,
().

11

()
U = f (t)
() ( ).

.
(.2.4).

:
ty , ..
0,1U m 0,9U m ;
,
U U m;
t
0,1U m.

U m :
,%=

U m
100%.
Um

n- (
)
:
2
ty = ty21 + ty22 +... + tyn
,
= 1 + 2 + ...+ n .

12


( ).

.2.5.
( )
.

,
(, )
, ,
(, ) ( )
(
- ):
= (U 22 +U 32 + ...+U n2 ) / U1 =
= (I 22 + I 32 + ...+ I n2) / I 1 =
(P2 + P3 + ...+ Pn ) / P1.

n- ( ):
2
= 21 + 22 + ...+ n
.

, (, ):

13

2 = 20lg(U1 / U 2) .


: , .

.
R (,
R ) f
,
:
_ 2

= 4kTRf

k - ; -
.
F,

:
F = (Pc / P ) /( / );
F , dB =10lg F .


:
= 0 (F 1) ,
0 - , 0 = 290 (
).
( ):
F = F1 + (F2 1) / K p1 + (F3 1) / K p1K p2 +...;

Tc =Tc1 + (Tc2 1) / K p1 + (Tc3 1) / K p1K p2 +...,

K p1, K p2 . . -
.
.
.2.6.

D
U . max (

)
(

/ ):

14

U . min

D = U . max / U . min ,
D, dB = 20lg D.


,
.
(, ..)
,
.
2.3.

, ,
()
[3].
, ,
,
.
[3].
(), Y. Y-

. ,
Y- [3].
:
[3];

ij ;

(
)

Y- ;
.
, ,
[3],
:
Yij = ji / ii , jj ,
Zij = ij / ,
K ij = ij / ii .

i, j - , ; ii , jj
- .
,
,
, :

Y = G + jC,

15

Y = G + jC,
( j) = K 0 /(1+ j ).

- , G, G -
.

.

.
[4].

2.4.
2.4.1.
()
( ) p-n- ( ) ,

.
Y-
.
- .
, (0,2...0,3) fT ( fT )
,
.
.2.7.

16


:
r = / C ,
- ;
r = 25 ,6 / I ,
I r ;
= 1/(2 fT r ) ,
fT - , f T =h21 f ;

=H 21 /[(1+ H 21 ) (1+ jf / fT )],
H 21 - .
r =(0,51,5) ;
,
H 21 , fT ( h21 f ), ,t oc( r )
.
- U :
(U 2 ) = (U 1) U 1 / U 2 .
,
, 2.3,
Y- ,
:
Y11 = g 1/(r + (1+ H 21 )(r + r )),
Y21 = S0 H 21 g,
Y12 0,
Y22 0.
Y11 Y21


, ,
. . Y :

17


Y Y Y , ,
Y =

Y11
Y21

Y12
Y22

Y =

Y11
Y21
(Y11 +Y21 )

Y12
Y22
(Y12 +Y22 )

(Y11 +Y12 )
(Y21 +Y22 )
Y11 +Y12 +Y21 +Y22

, ( ,
), Y- .
2.4.2.
()
,
- , .
, , , .
Y- .

, .2.8.



,
Y- ,
.2.3:

Y 11 = jC
.

Y 12 = jC ,
.

Y 21 = S0ej ,

Y22 = gi + jC .

18

, ,
, ;
- , = / S0 .
fT :
fT = 1/ 2 .
Y- ,
,
,
S0 .
gi ,
gi 0 .
Y-
, .
2.5.

,
K p , 2.9.
, .
R I 0 = ( U 0) / R . I 0 = H 21I 0
. - U 0 = I 0R . ,
U 0 ( 0,50,8 ).
, ,
, . R ,
, ..
. ,
1800.

19

,
,
() [5,6].
g ,
. - , I , U
,

.
(
- R=, - R ) 2.10.
,
, .. (. .2.2),
.

[5,6].

20


:
R= = R;

R = R ||R.
(U 0, I 0,U 0, I 0 )



,
() .
,
.
,
(. 2.10):
U 0 = U + U ,
U - ,
U =1...2 ;
I 0 U / R ,

I 0 = I 0 / H 21,
U 0 = 0,6...0,8 (),
U 0 = 0,4...0,6 (
).


U 0 I 0 , , 2 1 , ,
,
,
.

, 2.3, ,
2.4.1.

21

.2.11.
(.2.9)
( R1, R2, R ),
, .
R
( ,
).
(.2.12).

22



, (. .2.2),
.
2.13.

, , ..
( 1, 2 ) ( )
, .

, ,

R R ||R;
G12 = 1/ R12 = 1/( R1 || R 2 ) ;

K 0 = S0R,

g g + G12,
g g = 1/ R .

,
g22 g g . (
)
. ,
.

23

2.14.

.
2.4,
:
.

0
,
1+ j

- .
:
= + 1 + 2 ,
S

- ( S = 1+ j0 ),
=

S0r
;
2f

1 - ,
1 = S0Cr R ;
2 - ,
2 = R.
:
.
Y G12 + g + jC,
- ,

+ (1+ 0) = / r + (1+ 0) .

Y g + jC,

- , = S0r .
Y
:

24
1
Y = / 0 =
,
1+ j
.

Y = Yej ,
Y =

1
1+ ( )2

= arctg ,
= 1/ Y

.
f
f =

2 1
.
2

n-
,
fi
fi = f 21/ n 1.
2.15.

( 1, 2 )
( ) .

, .

N

, = i, ,
i =1

N - .
2 .
2.4, :
= 0 /(1+ 1/ j) ,
- .

25

= (R + R ) ,

R - , (
),
R - , (
).
:
2 = 2(R + R) .

:
.

Y = K / 0 =

1
,
1+ 1/ j

Y = Yej ,
Y = 1/ 1+ (1/ )2 ,

= arctg1/ ,
= 1/ Y

.
.


f =1/ 2 2 1 .

,
/ S0 ..
1/ S0 (. 2.4.1), R
, .. 1/ S0 << R .
,
.
n-
,
fi = f / 21/ n 1.

2.6.


(, .). ,
. , ,
.
,
- I 0.

26


,
I 0 : ,
-, U 0 , -,
I , , , H 21 .
,
,
( 2.16).
I 0 .

U 0 ,
I = f (U ) , I 01 :
I 01 = S0 U T ,
U T

- U 0 , :
U =| T | T ,

- (),
-3/., -
( 25 oC):
= ,
= + P RT ,
RT , ,
, -:
= I 0 U 0 ,

RT =

max Tmax
Pmax



:
R T = 0,1 . .. 0,5 ./ .

, - .

I 01

27

,
,

, 2.17.
I 02 ,
() I :
I 02 = I (H 21 + 1) ,
I :
I = I ( ) [exp(T ) 1] ,
- , =0,13.
, I , ,
,
,
, .
, I 02
I ,
I ( I
( n 10 7 ...n 10 6 )A , (n106...n105) A , n=(1...9).
, H 21 ,
:
I 03 = H 21 (I 0 + I 0 ) ,
H 21 = kT H 21 T , kT 0 ,005 . ./.
, , :
I 0 = I 01 + I 02 + I 03.

. ,
:
ST = I 0 / I 0 .
I 0 ,
,
, :

28
I 0 = ST1 I 01 + ST 2 I 02 + ST 3 I 03.

ST 2 ST 3 , I 02 I 03
:
I 0 = ST1 I 01 + ST 2 (I 02 + I 03) .
I 0
.
.
.
2.18.

:
R =

U 0
/ I 0 ,
I 0

.. >> U 0 .
, I 0 "" R ,
(
). :
ST1 =

1
,
1+ gR

ST 2 =

gR
.
1+ gR

, (
ST 2 1).
. 2.19.

29

:
R =

U 0 U 0
U 0 / I 0 ,
I 0

.. U 0 >> U 0 .

(), R .
:
I 0 U 0 I 0 I 0 ,

, ,
. :
ST1 =

1
,
1+ gR + S0R

ST 2 =

gR
.
1+ gR + S0R

, ( ST1
ST 2 ), .

, .
. ,
, 2.19,.

30


,
()

2.20.
:
U I >> I 0, U const.
R .
R .
U 0 :
U 0 = U U R .
:

I 0 U R
U
0 I 0 I 0

, ,
.
:
, R 1 R 2 :
I = (3...10)I 0 ;
U R = (0,1...0,2) (1...5) , R :
R =

U :

U R
;
I 0 + I 0

U = U R + U 0;

31

R1 = U / I ,

R 2 =

E U
,
I + I 0

= U 0 + U R + I 0R , R .
:
ST 1 1 / ( 1 + S0 R) ,
R12
).
H 21
R
- R1 R2 .
ST 2

( 1 +

R12

I U R .
,
R R12 .
.
2.21.

D,
()
. U 0
0 , I 0
.
, U T (-
I ).
,
.

32

, , . ,
, ,
2.22.

, , ""
U , R =

U 0
, ST 2 1/ H 21 .
I 0


.
2.7.

2.23, - 2.24.

33

" ", ..
:
I = I / I = I / I = H 21 /(1+ H 21 ) = H 21 .


, , , .
R , , ..

. , .

2.5.

2.3, 2.4.1.
, ( 2.25,,):

, :
K 0 = S0R,
R R ||R;
g = (S0 + g) + G S0 ,

G = 1/ R ,
S0 >> g G .

34

g g = 1/ R .

,
g22 g
g . ( )

. ,
.
:
.

0 ,
1+ j

- ,
.
.
Y g + jC,
- , = S0r .
.

Y S =

S0
S0
=
,
1+ j 1+ jx

.. ,
.

:
L = r / 2fT m,

m=(1,2...1,6).
Y

2.5
.
:
= 0 /(1+ 1/ j) ,

- .
, ,

:
/ g ,
1/ g ,
R12 , R12 >> 1/ g .
2.8.

2.26.

35

2.27.

" "
"
",
..

,
.

,
, . R
, ..
. ,
.

36

,
, U
U . U (
U ),
, ,
, ,
U , .. ,
100%-.

(.
2.5).

2.3,
2.4.1.
,
( 2.28,,):

, :
0 =

S0R
,
F

F = 1+ S0R-

37

R = R ||R ,

R = R12 ||R ,

R -

,
R = r + (1+ H 21 ) (r + r + R) ;
R = R ||R ,
R - ,
R =

R
1
+
1/ S0,
S0 + g 1+ H 21

.. S0 >> g (
R = R12 ||R )
.
R 1/ S0,
, , , R >> 1/ S0 .
:
.

0
,
1+ j / F

- , = ( + R) / F ; .
Y 1/ R12 + (1/ R + jC ) ,
= + /(H 21 +1) , ..
, ;
.

Y S =

S0
S0
=
,
1+ j 1+ jx

.. ,

.

:
L = r / 2fT m,

m=(1,2...1,6).
Y

2.5
.
:
= 0 /(1+ 1/ j) ,

- .
, .
2.1.
2.1

38

KU

>>1
>>1

>>1
<1

KI
KP

K I KU

KU


,

<1
>>1
KI

2.9.
, ,
, .
2.29
,
.
- p-n-p n-p-n,

, , .
2.29, p-n n-.

.

39

()
2.30. ,
,

.

.
.
R U 0 = I c0 R ,
I c0 .

40

:
U c0 U + U R ,

U R -
( 2.30), U R (1..2)B ;
I c0 U / R ,

R = Rc ||R - ;
U 0 = U (1 I c0 / I ) ,

U - , I c - U = 0 (
U = 2U , . 2.33
2.10).
R ,
,
,
(
),
.
,
,
.
.
, , ,
.
2.31,, , ,
,, .

41


, 2.3, ,
2.4.2.
:
K 0 = S0R,
R R ||R ;
g 1/ R ,
g g = 1/ R .
,
g22 g
g . ( )

.
:
.

0 ,
1+ j

42


, R;
.

Y g + jC,

C = + (1+ 0) ;
.

Y gc + jC.

Y

2.5
.
:
= 0 /(1+ 1/ j) ,

- .
, .

2.10.
, , , 2.32.

n- ,
,
2.33,,, p-

43

( 2.29)
,

, 2.33,
- ( ) - 2.33.

( 2.34),
U 0 .
[1] :

44

S0 =
S =

2 I I c 0
| U |

2 I c
,
| U |

2.33, S -
I c .

( ):

( ) I c0 ;

I c0 .
,
( 2.35).



[1]:
U U 0,63 ;

2
I cT = 0,4 I /U
(0,1...0,6) ;

S0T I cT / 0,32.

I cT , ,

.

(
) , ..
I c0
(1+ S0R ) .

,

45

.

.
2.11.


2.36, , ,
, 2.37,,.

46

" "
" , .., ,
,
,
.

(. 2.5).

2.3,
2.4.2.
, :
0 =

S0R
,
F

R = R ||R, F = 1+ S0R- ;

R R ,

R = R ||R ,

R - ,

R 1/ S0,
, , , R >> 1/ S0 .

R 1/ S0 .

47

0
,
1+ j / F

- ,
;
Y 1/ R + jC ,
= + (0 +1) ;
.
Y S0 + jCc .
Y

2.5
.
:
= 0 /(1+ 1/ j) ,
- .
, .
( 2.38)

, . ,

( 1/ S0 ), -
.

2.2.
2.2

48

KU
KI

>>1
-

>>1
1


,

<1
-

2.12.
2.12.1.

.
.
, ..
.

( ).

- ().
(),

(),

,
()
.

f(t) ("")
f(p) ("")
:

f (t )exp( pt )dt = f ( p ) .

:
f (t) =

p = + j .

1 c+
f ( p) exp(pt)dp (t 0) ,
2j c

49

""
f(t)
f(p) [6],
2.3.

2.3

f(p)
1
p

1
p( p +b)

1
p+b

f(t)

f(t)

1 ebt
b

ebt

, f(t) f(p),
:

l i mf (t) = l i mp ( pf )
t
t 0

h(t) :

p 0
p

l i mh(t) = l i mY ( p)
t
t 0

50

p 0 ,
p

Y(p) j p, ,
"" 1/p (. 2.3).
,

() ()
, t (.
2.5).
,
:
Y(j ), j
"" h(p);
, h(p) "" h(t);
h(t) , ty ,
;
h(t) ,
;
,
.
-
(
)
( 0,5 fT ),
,
,

( ) .
-
t (. .2.4),
( 2.39).

51

,

.
,
p-n-p
n-p-n - .
2.39
(Q 10). Q

.
( , ) ,
:
I 0

U
;
R Q

Q 1
U 0 U +U (
).
Q

2.39
(Q>10).
, :
U 0 U + U .
I 0

, I 0 (3...10) .

:
U U + 0,5U ;
I

U
.
2R

"" (Q=2)

52

.
,
,
.
2.12.2.

:
Y ( j) = 1/(1+ j ) .
:
h ( ) = Y ( ) / = 1/ (1+ ) .
2.3 "":
h (t) = 1 exp(t / ) .
(.
2.4), :
h (t1) = exp(t1 / ) = 0,1;
exp(t1 / ) = 0,9;
h (t2) = exp(t2 / ) = 0,9;
exp(t2 / ) = 0,1;
exp[(t2 t1) /] = exp(ty / ) = 9;
:
ty = 2,2 .
h (t) ,
t = (3...4) , ,
0 -
, , :
(3...4) .
t

:
t

0,23
.
S0 r

2.12.3.


:
Y ( j) = j /(1+ j ) .

:
h ( ) = Y( ) / = /(1+ ) .

53

2.3 "":

h (t) = exp(t / ) .
h (t)

,

t
=

,
( 2.40)

( 20%):

h(t) = exp(t / ) 1 / = 1 ,

= / .

2.12.4.

..
,
. :
f = 1/ 2 ,
f = 1/ 2 ,
t = 2.2 ,
= / .
= = 3 :
f = 2,2/ 2 = 0,35/ ty ,
f = / 2T .
2.13.
, ,
,

54

.
()
.
-
.

()
2.41.

f

(
ZLc ). ty
( ,
, ty ) ,
R ,

Lc .
[6]
,
R >> Rc ,
:
.

Y ( j ) = S0 Z/ 0 =

1+ jLc / Rc
.
1+ jCRc (1+ jLc / Rc )

55

1+ jm
,
(1 m2 )2 + j
- , = , = R ;
.

Y ( j) =

m - ,
( Q )
Lc RcCR (. 2.41), m Lc /(CRc2) = Q2 .

:
Y () =

1+ m22
(1 m2)2 + 2

, m=0,414 [6].
Y () =0, ..
=0.
:
= arctg[(m1) m23] .
, m=0,322 [6]. Q = 0,5

Lc RcCR , m 0,25
, .. .
2.42

m.


D :
= 0 f ,
D = 0 / ty ,
=0,35 D .
2.42,

56


(
), 1,73 [6] . ,
R >> Rc ,

.
(
2.41)
-
.
, S = S0 /(1+ j ) .

[6]:
.

Y ( j ) =

1+ j m
,
1+ j (1+ j mx )

= + 1 + 2 - ;
m= Lc /(R ) x = ( + 1) /
;

.
,

, ,
, , , [6].
,

(
) , 0,5S0r , .. ,
( 20, 210).
,
,

.
, ,
,
. ,

,
,
.
( 2.43).

57

VT2

L = (r + R) / 2fT k ,

k=(1,21,6).
R
( -
).
()
() .
-
( 2)
2.44.
f



ZC .
,
2.44.

58

, R = ,
R R 2[6].
R =(1...2)R ,
(1020)% :
/(R ) .

59

3.

3.1.
()
, .. .
. ,
.
,
.
( )
.
-
. , , ,
.
3.1.


.
,

, .
.
:
.

= U oc/U .

,
( ):
.
.
. 0
F = / ,
0

.

- .


.

, .

60

[6].
,
.
.
.
,

,
,

. ,
:
.
. .
F = 1 K .

.
.
.
.
. .
= / F = K /(1 K ) .
.

K >0 - (), K <0 (),


.
. .
F =1+ K ,
.

= / F = K /(1+ K ) .

,
,
,

, , ,
.

, (
) ( ).
, ,
.
.
,
. ,

, ..


. .

.
,
(..
).

,

61

(..
).

,

(
), ,
(
).
,
(.3.2):

(- , Z),

(, H- ), (, Y-) (,G).

() .
3.2.
()
3.3.

62


( 3.3 R ),
U .
U
. ( =0)
0 = K 0 / F = K 0 /(1+ K 0 ) .
2.3, :
0 = K 0 / F = K 0 /(1+ S0R) .
K 0 = S0R(. 2.9), (F>10)
K 0 R / Roc . ,

.
,
F
,
(),
. 8.1
,
.
:
= / F .

(

3.3).

.
, F , ..

63

R = R F .


,
2.3, :
R = R12 ||[r + (1+ H 21 ) (r + r + Roc)].

.
R (.
2.9),
.

.
, F
, ..
R = R F .
() ()
Rc
R , .
3.3
.
, ..
.
( R ) , |F|
,
| K oc | .
ty
,

, U oc ,
, , ,
, , , , ,
ty .

( =0). ,
(. 2.4.2), ,
F=const,

.

2.3,

( , R ) :
.

K oc =

K0
,
1+ S0Roc[(1+ j ) /(1+ j oc)] + j

= RocCoc .

= . :
.

0
,
1+ j

64

= / F (.

2.9).

f ( ty ) .

:
= 0 f = 0 f .


,
:
(1/ S + Roc) .
,
:
F = K 0 / K 0OC , F = f / f .
Roc = (F 1) / S0 Coc = 1/( R) .

.
, ,
- ( =0)
:
.

= / F + 1 / F + 2

0
,
1+ j

(. 2.5).
,
- ( =0) 2 << ( + 1) , ..
.

2.3,

:
.

0 (1+ j )
,
1+ j [( + + ' ) / F ] + ( j )2 / F

= RocCoc , ' = K 0RocC .


f

( ty ) (
).
[6].
F :
= / r / F + (1+ K 0OC )C / F .

( R
),
:
= (1/ S0 + R ) .
3.3.

65


. ,
()
F , ..
R = R F .

.
, F
, ..
R = R / F .

,
, ,
.
,
100%- ( 2.8, 2.11),
-
( Roc ,
3.4).

3.4.
,
(||)

66

,

.
R

U = ,
- .
0 :
= /(1+ 0) =0 /(1+ 0 ) .
|| ( 0 >>1) :
/ .
|| :
R = R / FI ,
FI =1+ I K I , I = I oc / I .
, ||,
:
R R / F .
, ||

,
.
|| 3.5.
0

|| ,
Roc Loc . (. 2.6)

,
||. ||
, 3.5.

67

2.3,
.
:
R
Roc
K0
,
R + Roc
R + Roc
.. S0Roc >> 1, R = R ||R. Roc > R, 0
. 0 , ,
0 = (S0Roc 1)

||,

.
|| :
Roc + R
R = R12 ||
.
1+ g(Roc + R) + 0
0 >> g(Roc + R) , Roc > R 0 >> 1,
R
R R12 || oc .
0

|| :

R (1+ gRoc) + Roc


1+ Roc(g + 1/ R )
R ||
,
1+ R (g + S0 )
S0
.. S0 >> g S0R >> 1.
R = R ||


(. 2.5),
,
||, ..
R = R ||R || - S0OC = S0 1/ R .
,
() ()
Roc
L .
(). ||

( R R
),
Roc /(10...20) .
,
() () .
().
|| (
3.5)

||:
0 = (S0Roc 1)

.. S0Roc >> 1, R = R ||R .

R
Roc
K0
,
R + Roc
R + Roc

R = R ||

Roc + R
.
1+ 0

,
0 >> 1,

68

Roc > R

Roc
.
0
R + Roc
R + R
R = R ||
R || oc
,
1+ RS0
S0R
R R ||

.. S0R >> 1.
|| ()
.
|| ,
,
, .
3.5.
3.6 ,
(||),
R .

R2 ,

,
, I ,
R .
I I . ||
,
:
K I OC = K I / FI ,
FI =1+ I K I - .

69

,
K I

(.. ), K I OC (Roc + R2) / R2 . R >>
R2 , K I OC Roc / R2 . , ||
.

, :
R = R / FI .

, :
R R FI .

,
.
3.6.
3.6.1.
.

( 3.7) - R1 ||
R2 .

()
, , -
(
). R1 R2 , ,
,

70

,
, R
R -||, :
0 K 0 / F1,
R2
,
0
1+ R2(g + 1/ R )
R R ||
,
S0
goc = 1/[r + (1+ H 21 ) (r + r + R1)], S0OC = S0 / F1, F1 = 1+ S0R1.
R R12 ||

[8].
3.6.2.
,
, , 180
.
, , .
,
, 180.
, ,
,
. 180,
=360 ( ), , , >>1 (

71

),

.
- , -
F 9, ,
,
F 5 , F 4 F 3
, .
, ,
,
6.6.
3.6.3.
..
, -
Z ( 3.8)
() .
( ) Z
U ,
,
.
,
<1 ( ,
<0,5).
-
F .
,
F ,
0,5 (1,06 ),
<0,06, ..
, ,
, .
,
,
( ) , R

( 3.8 3.9).

72


,
.
R


= 1+ (R)2 ,

2
=
1/ R .

73

, ,
, , .
,

50 100 , .
, ,
,
, , , (23)D
, D - .

4.
4.1.
()
.

74

.
,
.
:

;
;
.
:
- ;

;
- A, B, AB, C, D.
:
( ..);
.
4.2.

. .
, , (. 2.10)
,
, I 0
.
( I 0,U 0 )
,
,
.

, (
1% ).

, , (
, ) = 1800.
,
, ,
( - 50%, - (3545)%).
, ,
.

, = 900 ( 4.1).

75


,
.
70%.
.
- ( 10%).

.
I 0(
4.2),

.

76

(120130), -
.
U ( 4.3),
= 900 , , .

,
, , ,

77

.
-
D .
, - ,
, ..
.
,
( ), ( , , , D).
.
4.3.

() (),
, ()
( )
. -
25%.
50%

( 4.4).

R R n2,

78

n -
,
n = U1 /U 2.

- :
;
;
;
.

, , [5,6].
4.4.
, ,
D .
4.5
.

, R2
. 1
2

. 1
(. 4.5
).


VT 2 , -
VT1.


, , [5,6].
,

79

70%,
1,5 .
,
,
2 ,
2 .
,
,
.

, .
, (
)
.
,
. ,
"" ( 4.6).

(.
4.2 4.6). .. ,
.
""

,
.

.
.

, 4.7.

80

-
(), - .

( 4.8).

SR

0
0
, R = I R R = R , 01 02 = 1+ S R 1.
0

,
,
- 0 R ,
.

() ( 4.9).

81

, , R
VT1 VT2 ,
, R
.
, ,
, VT1 ( )
R


VT2 ( ), R 1/ S0.
R >> R(
R

,
),
Roc (.
3.2) R :
A = 1+ S0 R 1+ S0 / S0 = 2.

, ,
, . ,
VT2 VT1 ,
,
01 02 0 / 2, ..

.

, 4.10.

82

VT1 VT2,
, (,
315-361, 502-503, 814-815 .)
180 .
,
,
, 4.11. , ,
, .

83

, , ,
4.12.

, ,
.
.

,
,
, , .
,
, ,
4.7,
.

. .
.

, , , ,
.
4.13
.

84


VT1
.
VT2
. ,
R .

,
.

. 100% 0 1.

,

. ,
.

( > 10%),
.
, 4.14.

85


R1 R2 , VD1 VD2 .

. ,
0,7 ,

(.

2.6).
R

.

VD1 VT1 "
,

.
VD2 VT 2 ,
.

,
( 4.15),
VT1
VT 2 ,
, 829.

86

-
n- p- ,
-, ,
, .
4.16.


R Rc . a

"",

,
VT1 .
,
, .

87

""
.
,
.
4.17,
.


- , , ,
.
[1,9].

88

5.
5.1.
() ,
. 5.1
.

, ,
()
.
:
;
()
.
5.2.
, ,
. ( )

.
,
.
, ,
:
;
("")
;

89

;
;
.
.

, ,

.

(. 2.2 2.10),

, .
U

.
,
:
= U / U .

, , ..
.
:
;
;
,
;
.

.
,
3.4.
R1, R2 R3,
,
.


,
"-",
.
R ,
.

. ,

90

,
, .

, ,
.
, ,
,

.
R R
( 5.2).


2.5 3.3,
2.9 .

,
.

, ..
.
, 5.3.

91


0 40 U
.
,
.
(
).

, .

() . 5.4

,
.
U

,
,
U .
(-
),
.

92


. ,
, ,

.


.

,

.
5.3.

(- )
.
(118, 1981 .).
5.5
() .

93

,
R1 R2 , VT1 VT 2 . R
. R 1 R 2
, , R
.
()
()
.
U 1
VT1
.

, I 1,
U 2 VT 2 ,
I 2 .

,
R

, ,
.
,
,
R , .

2.5 2.12
, 4.4. ,
KU
(. 4.4) KU = 2 U = 0 , ..

.

94

,
()
KU ,
.. KU .

.
.
,


, ..

.
, , . R
,

, .

0 .
3.2 :
K U 1 R1 / R ,
KU 2 R2 / R .
KU :
KU R / R ,
R =| R1 R2 |.

(),
.
,
(
- 3%) R .
R (

), -
.

,
(),
5.6.

95

R (. 5.5),
R1, R2 , R VD1 (
5.6), R1 ( 5.6).

, -
, .

, 100.
,

.
5.4.
: ,
,
, .

5.7 ,
.

96


(. 4.9).

5.8.


(
) (
). ,
KU
. R
, .

,
VT 3 VT 4 ( 5.9).

97

VT1
U 1, VT 3 (
) I 1.
VT 3 ,

VT 4 . , - VT 4
, I 1,
.
VT 2

U 2 . ,
I 2 .
I 1 + I 2 , ..
.
,
.

- .
, ,

, (.
4.4).
5.5.

, ,
.

.
()

98

-
U ,
.
U , ,
'
I 1 I 2 (U ),
''
R1 R2 (U ).
:
'
U
= ln(I 1 / I 2 ) ,
''
U
= 2 R / R .
U

.
dU / dT /

U .

I , () (
). R
, ,
.

I = I 01 / H 211 I 02 / H 21 2.
I .

I = (I 01 + I 02) / 2 = I 0 / 2H 21 .
R , I ,
. KU
, .

H 21 . ,
I > I .
U ,
, .

, , .
6.
6.1.

99

()

, .
-
(, ,
.).
.
, , , ,
, ..
.
,

, , .
,
.

( K u O = ), ,
,
. ,

,
.
6.1 - ()

().


,
6.2.

100

,
6.2, 6.3.

(VT1 VT 2 )
(VT 3 VT 4 ), (VT 5 ) (VT 6 ),
VT 7 VT8 .
( ), (VD1,
VD2 .), ..

.
.
,

6.3.
6.2.

K u O ,
.
K u O 0 .
,
.
5.5,
:
U ;

dU / dT ;
I ;
I .

101

R R ,
.
, I
R min ,
.
.
6.4.


=
20 lg(E / U ) .
(60120).

, () I
. , I -
, , I ,
- .
:
()
U max ( );
;
;
;
.

f ( f1), .. ,
K u O =1.
,

102



.
, .
()
6.5 U = f (U )
.
U = 0,
U ,
( 6.5 U ).

,
, K u O =(lg f ) .
(), 6.6 (
14010).

K u O

103

.

, = 3
() (. 6.6); = 1/ = 2 f .
K u O 1/ , :
K u O = 20lg K u 0 20lg 1+ ( / )2 .
K u O = 20lg K u 0 , .. ,
. ,
K u O 20
(6 ). >>
:
K u O = 20lg K u 0 20lg( / ) .
,
20/.
, , (
f ).
f
3 (. 6.6),
,
.
, 20/
,
.
K u O
f K u O = fT / f , K u O 0 = fT / f.
6.6 (),

.
6. ,
=45 f , f - 90. ,

90.

. , ,
,
.
K u O = K u 0 / 1+ ( )2

6.3.

.
6.7.

104

R1
, R ||.

,
R2 ,
(" ", " ").
: I = I , .. E / R1 = U / R . :
KU = U / = Roc / R1,
.. KU
.
I , ..

I = I oc + I

( U ) / R1 = (U U ) / Roc + U / R ,

, .. .
:
KU =

Roc / R1
R .
1 Roc
1+
1+
+ oc
KU
R1 R

10,

..

KU O / KU = F > 10, KU

10%,
.

,
- , ..
R ,
- ,

R ( 6.7) .
:
Roc1 Roc2

.
R1 Roc3
, Roc1 = Roc2 >> Roc3 , R1
, R3 .
KU =

105

R

, :
R = R1 + (Roc / KU +1) ||R R1,
.. K u O
R1.
R
R ,
F. F>10 :
R = R / F = R / KU / K u .

(. 6.6),
f = fT / KU .
KU =1, ..
.
:
R = R / K u .
U = 0
U , U I .
U ,
, .. R2 = R1 ||R (. 6.7).
KU >10 :
U U KU + I R .
U
(
) .

(. 2.5).
6.4.

6.8.

106

. U U
, :
U = U R1 /(R1 + Roc ) ,

:
K U =1+ Roc / R1,

KU =1+ | KU |.

F>10.
R

R :
R = R F = R K u / KU .

, ..
:
R = R / F = R / KU / K u .

, , ..
f = fT / KU .

,
, :
R = R1 ||R.
R
( R ),
-
.

( : R
) U ,
.
KU =1, ..
,
6.9.

107

100%
,

, ,
. :
U U + I R I R ,
.. .


,

(. 2.5).

,
.
6.5.

()
6.10.

U
. :
U = KU U 1 + KU U 2R3 /(R2 + R3) .
, R1 = R2 R3 = R , , R3 / R2 = Roc / R1 = m.
, :
U = m(U 2 U 1) ,
R2 = R3 :
U = U 2 U 1.

.

,
.

108



.
, ,
( 6.11).


,
.

, 6.12.

P-n VD .
, I 1 I 2 .
p-n {I = I 0 [exp(U / T ) 1]}, :
U / R = I 0 [exp(U / T ) 1] ,
:
U = ln(U / I 0R) = T (lnU ln I 0R) ,
,
, ln I 0R .
, ,
.
VD R
.

109

,

. 6.13
.
,
.

,
, U 1, U 2 U 3,
, R , ..
U 1 / R1 + U 2 / R2 + U 3 / R3 = U / R,

U =

Roc
R
R
U 1 + oc U 2 + OC U 3 .
R1
R2
R3

,
,
KU . Roc = R1 = R2 = R3 KU =1
U = U 1 +U 2 +U 3.
R4 = Roc ||R1 ||R2 ||R3 ,
U =U (KU +1) , KU = Roc /(R1 ||R2 ||R3) ,
, KU .

,

.
R ( 6.14)
,
.

110

I 1 I 2 , :
U / R1 = C

U =

dU
,
dt

1 t
U dt.
R1C 0

, K u O .
,
, .
6.6.


, , .
, , -
,
.
( KU >> 1),
,
.
6.6
,

K
>
1
u O
<90
,
20/.
.

111



(, ), 20/
,

( 6.15)


,
135
. ,
K u O 20/.

, :
" ,

20/". , ,

KU ( KU ) 20/.

, .


. , = R

112

, 1/ 2 f.


, ,
.
6.16.

K u O 20/,
, 135.

( ) (
) .
()
. RC
( 6.17).

113

R1 ,
R .
.
RC ,
20/,
.
,
, .

.
,
( ),
K u O 0 ,
.
,
.

( 6.18).

114


(., [2]).
(,
[10]).

7.
7.1.

( )
(

),

),

..
, .
,
, ,
. , ,

115


. ,
.
Dp ,
.
.

,

, , R .
,
.


, ..
.
-
.


( 7.1),

Rp ,
.

116

.

. 7.1
R1C1 C2 .
R1C1 ,
C2 ,
, 7.1.

40,

.
20
()
Rp ()
7.2.

117

Rp = (Dp 1) / S0 ,

S0 -
( ), Dp - .

Rp ,

,
( ) (.
2.13)
.

, ( 7.3).

- , ,
.

,
,
R1C1 = R2C2 , C2
, C2
,

118

.

(.. R = R = R0 , R0 -
),
- - [11] (
7.4,).

-
:
R1
R2

-
:

R0 (D +1)
D 1

R0 (D2 1)
2 D

,
.

R0 (D 1)
,
D +1
2 D R0
R2
.
D2 1
R1

18 75
, (0
150), .7.5.

119

-
.
SA1 SA3 0
18 6 .

. ,

, ,
,
.
, -
, [12],

, .
(
7.6) ,
, .

120

( 7.6)
VD1 VD2 ,
.

40 (02.2).
:
;
, ;

.
(
7.6), .. .
( 7.6)

,
.

( 7.6),
.

. p-n ,
, ,

,
.

121

.


,
, , S0 (. 2.4).
7.7 ,
( 7.7), ( 7.7)
( 7.7).
(6070)
Dp .

(
7.7).


U Z = KU XU Y ,
- .


1% [12],
.
.
,
,

122

( 7.8).



,
, , .
-

.

,
().
[12].

7.2.

:
, "", "",
"" ..,
12, , ..

(), ,
(), ..
,
50 75 .
,
, ..

. 2.1

123

2 , - 100.

,
- .

(),

()
-


.
,
.
,
( ).
,
,
( )
.

, -
.
7.9,
( 7.9) -
( f / f > 2).

124


. ( 7.10)
.
-
( 7.10),
.

() ( 7.11)

.
.

- ( 7.12),
,

. R1 R2
VT1 VT 2 .
,

125

, f .

( 7.13)
,
.
()
.


S- ( ).
,
, ,
( 7.14).

126

S-

( , ,
Y-), ,
, ,
, :
S11 =

b1
|a =0 -
a1 2

;
S22 =

b2
|a = 0 -
a2 1

;
S21 =

b2
|a = 0
a1 2

;
S12 =

b1
|a = 0 -
a2 1

.

,

Y-

:
Y11 =

2 S22 + 1 1

,
Z
s
Z

127

Y12 =
2
S
21 ,
ZZ s
2 S11 + 1 1
Y22 =

,
Z s
Z

2
S ,
12
ZZ s

Y21 =

s = (S11 +1) (S22 + 1) S12S21.

) ,
:
Sij = kij ji / ij ,
kij - , :
1/ Z - Sii ,
1/ Z - S jj ,
2
ZZ

Sij

S ji

ij - , ij =1, i=j, ij =0, i j.


,
.
,
, ,

.

,
.
,
, -
( )
.
, .
-
.
, ,
. ,

(, - ).

.

.

,

0,5,

128


20 ,
,

.

.
, " ".

.

.


. ,
109 ,
,
, .
, ,
,
- ,

..

, ,
, ,
( ).
,

, .. ,
,
.
7.3.
7.3.1.
( )
RC- .
:
;
;
;
.

129

;
;
.
,
-
f .

, .
,

,
,
.
- .

: (), () ().

( ),

(
) .
.
:
K(p)=A(p)/B(p),
.
- . (
,
) .
,
20/, - 40/, - 60/
..
,

. ,
:
Y (x) =1/ 1+ 22 (x) ,
() - ; = / - ; ;
-
.
, ()
( ) ,
, . 7.15
.

130

( )

.
:
U = U / 1+ ( f / f )2n ,
n - .
( )
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
.

, , ,
.. ,
,
.
( ) , ,
7.16.

, .
( 7.16) :
K ( j ) =

1 = C1R1.

R2
j 1

,
R1 1+ j 1

131

11 =1,

f1 = 1/ 2 1.

( 7.16) :
K ( j ) =

R2
j 2

,
R1 1+ j 2

f2 = 1/ 2 2 .

2 = C2R2 .
( 7.16) .

, .
, 7.17.
40/,
, 7.17,,
, . ( 7.17)
. [13]:
:

132

K ( p) =

1
R1 R1R2
;
+
C2 p + (R1 + R2) p + R1R2C1C2 p2
R
R

R1R2C1C2 p2
K ( p) =
;
1+ R1(C1 + C2 + C3) p + R1R2C1C3 p2

R2R3
C1 p
R1 + R2
K ( p) =
.
RR
RR R
1+ 1 2 (C1 + C2) p + 1 2 3 C1C2 p2
R1 + R2
R1 + R2

:
0 =

R1 + R2
.
R1R2R3C1C2

:
0 =1/ R2R3C1C2 ;
0 =1/ R1R2C1C2 .

133

.
- , " "
( 7.18) ,
0 ( 7.18).

. ,
. ,
, ..
. ,
R1 R2 , .
,
Q 2000.

R = R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 / 2 C = C1 = C2 = 2 C3 , R = R3 = R4 C = C1 = C2 ,
f0 =1/(2RC ) ,
3 > (R1 + R2) / R1, .. 0
1/3.
-
, 7.18,
.

, R3 R4
.
(,
), 7.19.

134

DA1
DA2 DA3 , .
R5C1 = R6C2 = RC , f0 =1/(2RC ) .
40/.
( 100).

.
7.3.2.
,

,
..

.

.
7.20
, ,
- ( Roc 1).

135

1 ,
.
.
,
, , .
,

[12]:
L = R1RocC1.
[12]:
Q = 0,5 R1 / Roc .

,
. ,
, .
(
).
7.3.3.
() ()
.
, (
).
.
7.21.

136

, ,

( R1, R2, R3,C1) ( R4, R5,C2 ) .
20
[9]:
R1 = 0,11 R2 () ,
C1 =

159103
() ,
f( ) R2 ()

R3 = R1,

R4 = 0,33 R1,
C2 =

4,34106
() ,
f ( ) R2()

R5 3,7 R2 ,
f
f

,
.

,

.
,
, f ,
7.22.

137


[9].

7.4.
, ,
.


- ().



.
, ,
,
.
,

, .
-
,

. ,
, 7.7,

u
x ,
uy .
uy

,
ux . ,

138

[13]

U = 2 0
H

21
0 = 1+ H

21

U ,

R1 = R2 = R

uxuy R

T R2

u
x
T

u
1 x
T 2

(1+ e

- ,

; - , = 25,6 .
ux << T , U :
U uxuyR

1
.
2 R2

. , ux = 0,1T
10%.


" - ".
7.23.

DA1 DA2
, DA3 ,
:
U 0 = k1(ln ux + ln uy ) = k2 ln uxuy .
DA4

139
U = k3anti ln U 0 = k3uxuy

,
,
. k1 ,
k2, k3 ,
.

. , 10
100,
1 10 [13].


,
, ,
, .
,
.
.

5251 7.24.

VT 7 ,,VT10 .
,
.
VT 3 ,,VT 6 VT11,,VT14 ux uy
. VT1 VT 2
Y.
Y X
VT 7 ,,VT10 .

140



. [12]
I Z = I pX

I X IY
2U X 2U Y

I pX I pY
RX
RY ,

I X I Y - , RX RY ; I pX I pY X Y.
,
, [12]
U Z = I ZU Z =
2R

I Z R 2U XU Y R
=
= K U XU Y ,
2
I pY RX RY

K = I R R - .
pY X Y
7.24 , R1 R2 ,
. .


R4 R5.
,
.
,

.

141

7.25

7.25.

, , ,
( 7.25).
,

(sin2 f t)2 =

1 sin2 (2 f ) t

.
2
2

, f
,

( 7.25).
[12].

142

7.5.
,
U
U .
:
U = U 1 , U <U ,
U = U 0 , U >U .

7.26.


,

U =U . , U .

.
-
, , - . U =0
-
.
-
U ( 7.27).

143

,
( 7.27).
,
. 7.27,
, .
U 2
U ,
U = U1 -
U .
:
U =U 2R1 /(R1 + R2) ,
U = U1R1 /(R1 + R2 ) ,
U = U U = R1(U 2 U1) /(R1 + R2) .
,
,
, ..
"" .

,
.

.
.
[12,14].
7.6.
,

. ()
(,
..)

144



7.28 , .


:
| K |1,
= + = 2n ,
- ,
, n - .

,
.
,
,
. 7.29
.

145

LC-
(
7.29)

R
, 2 R3
, R2 R3

= R3 /(R2 + R3) K 1.
,

K = R / R1,
R - .
LC-

f0 = 1/ 2 LC .

RC-.

RC-, RC-
( 7.29) .
f0 = 1/ 2RC =0
,
,
, ..

146

0 = R2 /(R1 + R2 ) = A0 ,
A0 3,3

, .
,
0 >> A0

. .
RC-
( 7.29)
,
. ,
.

,
, ..
.

, LC-
(103...104 )% 1 , RC- -
.
( 7.29).
,
,
.
, .
,
, ,
1,

XC1 = 1/ 2 f0C << R .



108 % 1 .

, ,
( 7.29 ), , , ( 7.29).

( 7.30).

147


( ROOC C1).
,
,
.
U , , ( ROC R1),
. U
C1 ROOC . C1
,
, .
U ,
. ,

"".

t = ROOC C1 ln(1+ 2R / R1) .
[12].
7.7.

,
.

,

148

, .

7.31

.

.
, .. 100% .

, .

,
( 7.31).
(VT1,VT 2 ,VT 3 ) .

I max = I O max H 211 H 212 H 213 .

VD , ,
R1 R2 .
, ..
, VT 3 .
[12,
14].
8.
8.1.

.

149

( U
= 25.6 ) [15].
.

= 22 + 23 ,
2 3
(
).
2 3,
, :
U
,
2 (1+ )2
U 2 (1 2)
3 = 2
,
6 (1+ )4

2 =

- ( ).


I = I 0 exp(U / )
I = I 0 +

I 0
I
I
2
3
U + 02 U
+ 03 U
+ ....

2
6


. :
=

R + r + (1+ H 21 )(r + r + Roc)


,
r (1+ H 21 )

R - ( R
); Roc - (. 3.2,
Roc = 0).
||

B=

r + R
{(r + R) +
r (1+ H 21 )

,
(R + R ) [r + (1+ H 21 ) (r + r + R + R )]
+
}
Rocr (1+ H 21 )
R = R ||R, R - || (. 3.4).

B=

R + r + (1+ H 21 ) (r + r + R)
,
r (1+ H 21 )

R = R ||R (. 2.8).

B=

r + R (1+ H 21 )
.
r (1+ H 21 )

150

2 3,
,
:
U A
,
S0(1+ )2
U 2 A2 2
3 = 2
,
S0 (1+ )4
2 =

- ,
, [15]
2
A = I c /U
,
I
U
. 2.33.

. :
B = S0(Roc + r ) ,
Roc - (. 3.2,
Roc = 0).
|| :
B = S0RR / R ,
R = R ||R , R - || (. 3.4).

B = S0 (R + r ) ,

R = R ||R (. 2.11).

B = S0 ((R ||R ) + r ) .

r -
, r 1/ S , S - . 2.10,
r =(10200); R - . 2.38.

,
[4],
[6].
8.2.

, Y-,

[2]:
k=

2 ReY11 ReY22 Re(Y12 Y21)


.
|Y12 Y21 |

k>1 , k<1 -
, ..

151

.

:
k=

2 Re(Y11 + 1/ Z ) Re(Y22 + 1/ Z ) Re(Y12 Y21)


.
|Y12 Y21 |

k>1 , k<1 - , k=1


.
Y- ,
2.3, .

.
[6].
8.3.

,
. ,
, .

.
,

,
,

, ..

,
- ( "")
p-n-.

.
.
.
.
,
1/f.
-, .
1/f
.

.

( 8.1) ( 8.1).

152


(. 2.2):
U = 4kTRf ,
I = 4kTGf ,
f - ; k =1,381023 - ; ; R - , G , G = R1.

=290
:
U = 1,31010 Rf ,
I = 1,31010 Gf .

[17]:

FRU =

2
dU
(t)
= 4kTR ,
df

FRI =

2
dI
(t)
= 4kTG ,
df

dU 2 (t) , dI 2 (t) -
t,
df.

( 8.2)
.

153

[16]

R = FRU / 4kT , G = FRI / 4kT F ,
,
.
, :
R = r + 0,2I r2 + 0,02I S02 ,
G = 0,2I + 0,02I g2S02 ,
F = 1+ 0,02I r + 0,02I gS02 ,
I I , g S0 .
- f 10
:
I ' = (1+ 500/ f )I ,
I ' = (1+ 500/ f )I .
, :
R = 0,75/ S0 ,
2
2
G = R 2
= 40R f 2C
,
F = 1+ R = 1+ 6,28 R .

.
,
[16] :
F = (R + R + GR + 2FR ) / R .
,
R opt ,
F :
R opt = R / G .
, R opt
R , f (
R opt > R ).
(
8.3).

154


(
),
R opt .

RC
.

( )
.
,

.
,
.
,
[16].
8.4.

.
(
)
( .. )
.


(, ..),
,
, , ..
Si y
xi

155
Si =

dy .
dxi


y(x) , x = (x1,..., xi ,..., xn )
dy
1 n n dy
xi +
xi xj + ....
2 i =1 j =1dxi dxj
i =1dxi
n

y(x + x) = y(x) +

,

y(x) :
n
dy
xi = Si xi .
i =1dxi
i =1
n

y(x) = y(x + x)

:
dy
Si = dx ,
i
n

y = Si xi ;
i =1

d ln y

r
i
Si = d ln x = y Si ,
i

y n r xi
= Si
;
y i =1
xi

Qi =

d ln y 1
dy
= Si , Qir =
= xi Si .
dxi
y
d ln xi


, ,
.
K ( j ) =| K | exp(j )
( )
( ):
.

Sir K =

xi d[|K | exp(j )] xi d | K |
d

+ jxi
= Sir |K | + jQir .
.
dx
|
K
|
dx
dx
i
i
i
K


,
. ,

,
.
n ,
.

, [17].

,
,

, " - "
( 8.4).

156


, ,
, .


.
8.4

. n! ,
n+1 .
,

,
n [18].

S- ,
[Y].
,
[S],
[Y] (. 7.2).

.

(
) ,
. ,

.


, , .

157
n

d
=
dYij

S-
(. 7.2)

d Yij ij
i =1

dYij

= ij

Sij = kij ji / ij .


yo
k l (. 8.5)

Sy0ij = dSij / dy0 = kij ( ji (k+l )(k+l ) (k+l )(k+l ) ji ) / 2 =


= kij j (k+l )(k+l )i / 2 = kij [( jk jl )(ki li )] / 2.


[3]:
(i + j )(k+l ) = i (k+l ) + j (k +l ) = (ik il ) + ( jk jl ) ,
ij kl il kl = ij ,kl .

, , (.
2.4.1), S-
g = 1/ r
k, l, p, q
( 8.5):
S

Sgij = dSij / dg = kij [( ji (k+l )(k+l ) +ij (k+l )( p+q) )


((k+l )(k+l ) +(k +l )( p+q) )ij ] / 2 =
= kij (k+l )i ( j (k+l ) + j ( p+q) ) / 2 =
= kij (ki li )[( jk jl ) +( jp jq ) / 2,

158
S

S ij = dSij / d = kij ( ji (k+l )( p+q) (k+l )( p+q) ji ) / 2 =


= kij j ( p+q)(k+l )i / 2 = kij [( jp jq )(ki li )] / 2.

, (.
2.4.1),
S, p, q k, l (
8.5),
S

SS ij = dSij / dS = kij ( ji (k+l )( p+q) (k+l )( p+q) ji ) / 2 =


= kij j (k+l )( p+q)i / 2 = kij [( jk jl )( pi qi )] / 2.

Y-
( 8.5), , ykl ,
S

Syklij = dSij / dykl = kij ( ji ,kl kl ij ) / 2 =


= kij jl ki / 2.

ykl
x (. 8.5) S-
,
,
S
S
Sx ij = (dSij / dykl )(dykl / dx) = Syklij Sxykl .

.

( KU , Z, Z .)
,

.
, i- j-
K ij = S ji /(1+ S11) x (,
Sij = f (x) Sii = (x) )
K
S
Sx ij = dKij / dx= [Sx ij (1+ Sii ) SxSii Sij ] /(1+ Sii )2 .
Z() ( Zii ( jj ) )
Zii ( jj ) = Z() (1+ Sii ( jj ) ) /(1 Sii ( jj ) ) ;
Zii ( jj )
S
Sx
= dZii ( jj ) / dx= 2Z() Sx ii ( jj ) Sii ( jj ) /(1 Sii ( jj ) )2 .

.
8.5.
2.3
,

159

.
( ,
Y, nn, n-
),
.

( , ,
, ..). ,

, (
p ,

).

,
[4].
, ,
, ,
.

AI = 0,
A- [4], , I
- .

V AtVn = 0,
V Vn - ,
, At - .
, ,
:
YV + ZI =W ,
Y Z - ,
, W - ,
,
.

:
V AtVn = 0;
YV + ZI =W ;
AI = 0;

160

1
Y
n 0

0
Z
A

n
At V
0
=
0 I W
0 Vn
0


TX=W.
,
, ,

, .
,
. ,

. ,
,
,
.

-
[4].
;
, ,
.
,
, ,
.

() .

n
m

n
Yn1
.

m
Vn = J n
I 2 W2

TmX =W ,

n- Yn1
(n- ); m-
; J n -
; I 2 - ; W2 , ,
,
.


Tm (n+m)*(n+m)
Tm = G + pC .

161

, -
,
, .. .
, - L/U [4].

j , ,
,
.

(G + pC) X = W .

Gx+ Cx' = W ,

Cx' = W Gx.

.
,
[4],
( ) .
[0,T] h
tn+1 = tn + h, tn
xn x(tn )
:
xn+1 = xn + hxn'
( );
'
xn+1 = xn + hxn+1
( );
'
xn+1 = xn + (h/ 2)(xn + xn' +1) ( ).
xn' +1 (n+1)-
.
,
i=CdV/dt,
V=Ldi/dt,
,
8.6,
.
(, ) .

162


.
, ,
f(x)=0.
,
, f(x)
.
.
f(x)
- [4].
x0 , ,
| (xn+1 xn ) / xn+1 | ,
(n- ):
xn+1 = xn J 1 f (xn ) ,
J- ( ) (m*m)
df1(xn ) / x1

.
df (xn )
J =
=

.
dxn

dfm(xn ) / x1

df1(xn ) / xm

.
.
.

dfm(xn ) / xm


f (xn ) J;

J (xn+1) xn ) = f (xn ) .


.

,
-
.
:
V AtVn = 0;
p(V, i ) = W ;
AI = 0;

163


p(V, i ) = W


, .
n-
1

J = Gn
0

Gn =

dp
dV

Xn

Rn =

dp
di

Xn

0
Rn
A

At

0 ,
0


,
.
( )

.
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
-
,
. , ,
,
:
f (x', x,W, t) Ex' + Gx + p(x) = 0,
E G- ,
p(x).

[4] -,
.
, ,
()
, q ( ) .

,
.

.


,
.

164

,
[4]. [19]
Electronics Workbench.

9.

.
,
.
,


[19, 20].


., . :
: . .-.: , 1982.-512.: .
2. . :
. . - .: , 1977.-500.: .
3. .. . - : . . . .,
1963. - 200.: .
4. ., .
: . . - .: , 1988. - 560.: .
5. .. . - .: , 1971. - 368.: .
6. .. . - .: , 1977. - 360.: .
7.
..

:
200700,
201600. - ,
, 1970. - 44.: .
8. .
: . . - .: . , 1970. - 236.: .
9. . : .
.. - .: , 1991. - 446.: .
10.

:
/
.. . - .: , 1981. - 160.: .
1.

165

11.
..

. - .: , 1971. - 40.: .
12.

..

. - : , , 1990. 400.: .
13.
: / ..
.; . .. . - .: - , 1993. - 416.: .
14.
.., ..
. - .: , 1990. - 256.: .
15.
..
:
200700, 201600. - , , 1987. 54.: .
16.
: . /
.. .; . .. . - .: . ., 1982 190.: .
17.
.
: . . - .: . , 1973. - 200.: .
18. .., ..
:
"

",
1. - : , 1981. - .117.
19. ..
:
. - : ,
2002. 42.: .
20. .. :
. - :
, 2000. 42.: .

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