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.. , .. , ..

IP


2001

01 - Title.p65

26.11.2001, 11:16

621.395.34
63
32.881
.., .., ..

63

IP+. .: , 2001.
336 .: .
ISBN 5256015850
IP+ +

. . +
+ IP+,
, .323,
SIP, MGCP, MEGACO, QoS, +
IP+ .
, , , +
IP+. +
. , +
.

3003
ISBN 5256015850

.., .., .., 2001

B.S. Goldstein, A.V. Pintchuk and A.L. Souhovitsky

IP+Telephony, Moscow, Radio i Sviaz, 2001.


The success of IP+telephony is today the most clear proof of the necessity
and inevitability of the convergence of the telecommunication networks and ser+
vices. The book is devoted to this new and promising technology. Discussed here
are system and networking aspects of IP+telephony, voice coding methods and
algorithms, H.323, SIP, MGCP, and MEGACO basic approaches and protocols,
Quality of Service (QoS) issues, IP telephony equipment implementation and test+
ing aspects.
The book is primarily intended for engineers, programmers, managers,
and professionals involved in the development and maintenance of IP+telephony
systems and facilities. For college students and post+graduates studying in these
areas. For all those who are interested in state+of+the+art telecommunications
technologies.

Scientific and technical edition

Copyright B.S. Goldstein, A.V. Pintchuk and A.L. Souhovitsky, 2001

01 - Title.p65

26.11.2001, 11:16


.......................................................................... 9
1 ............................................13
1.1 ............................................. 13
1.2 IP ................................... 15
1.3 ...................... 19
1.4 IP ........................................... 21
1.5 IP ............
1.5.1 H.323 .........................
1.5.2 SIP ...............................................
1.5.3 MGCP MEGACO ..........................................
1.5.4 IP ...

23
23
30
35
41

2 IP ...................................45
2.1 IP ...................................... 45
2.2 TIPHON ......................................................................... 54
2.3 IP ..................... 62
2.4 IP .................................................. 64

3 IP .............................................67

02 - Contents.p65

3.1 IP ........


3.1.1 ..........................................................................
3.1.2 ...................................................................................
3.1.3 .............................

67
67
71
72

3.2 ....................................................
3.2.1 ............................................
3.2.2 ()
....................................................
3.2.3
.........................................................
3.2.4 ,
IP ...........................................

74
76
78

3.3 , ITU ............................................


3.3.1 G.711 ......................................................................
3.3.2 G.723.1 ...................................................................
3.3.3 G.726 ......................................................................

86
86
86
87

26.11.2001, 11:16

81
82

3.3.4 G.728 ...................................................................... 87


3.3.5 G.729 ...................................................................... 87
3.4 ETSI ................................................... 88
3.5 DTMF ......................................................... 88
3.6 ..................................... 90
3.7 ................................. 92

4 .............................................95
4.1 ab ovo ........................................................................ 95
4.2 ................................................... 99
4.3 .............................................................................. 100
4.4 ................................................ 104
4.5 IP 4 .............................................................. 106
4.6 IP 6 .............................................................. 109
4.7 TCP .........................................................................
4.7.1 , ,
..................................................
4.7.2 TCP .........
4.7.3 ........................
4.7.4 ...........................
4.7.5 .............................

115
116
117
118
119
120

4.8 UDP ........................................................................ 121


4.9 IP ...................................... 122
4.10 RTP RTCP ......................................................... 125
4.11 ..................................................... 128

5 .323 .................................................... 131


5.1 ......................................... 131
5.2 ISDN ... 134
5.3 IP ........................................... 137
5.4 .323 ...................................................................... 139
5.5 H.323 ............................................................................ 141
5.6 ............................................................................ 142

02 - Contents.p65

26.11.2001, 11:16

5.7 ................................ 144


5.8 .323 ............................................ 146

6 .323 ................................................... 153


6.1 .323 ................................................. 153
6.2 RAS .........................................................................
6.2.1 ..............................................
6.2.2 ..........................
6.2.3 ............................................
6.2.4 ......
6.2.5 .....................................
6.2.6 .......................
6.2.7 ...............................
6.2.8 .................................................................

154
155
156
159
160
161
162
163
163

6.3 .225.0 ...................................................... 167


6.4 H.245 ......................................................
6.4.1 ................................
6.4.2 ..........
6.4.3 .......................
6.4.4 ..........................

172
173
174
177
179

6.5 ,
. .....................................................
6.5.1 .................
6.5.2 ................
6.5.3 ......................
6.5.4 ..............
6.5.5 ..................

183
183
187
189
189
191

7 SIP ...... 193


7.1 SIP ........................................................ 193
7.2 SIP IP ................................... 195
7.3 .............................................................................. 197
7.4 SIP ..............................................................
7.4.1 ........................................................................
7.4.2  ................................................................
7.4.3 ...................................................
7.4.4 ....
7.4.5 SIP .............................................................

198
198
199
200
200
201

7.5 SIP ...................................................... 202

02 - Contents.p65

26.11.2001, 11:16

7.5.1
7.5.2
7.5.3
7.5.4

.....................................................
.....................................................
..........................................................................
..........................................................

202
204
208
211

7.6 ..................................... 217


7.6.1
............................................................... 217
7.6.2  ... 218
7.7 SIP ...... 220
7.8 .323 SIP ......................................... 222

8 MGCP .................. 229


8.1 ............................................... 229
8.2 ......................................................... 232
8.3 ..................................................... 233
8.4 MGCP ..................................................... 235
8.5 ................................................................... 243
8.6 ............................................... 247
8.7 ......................................................... 249
8.8 , ............. 251
8.9 MGCP .... 254
8.10 MGCP ..................... 256

9 MEGACO/H.248 ....................................... 257


9.1
MEGACO/H.248 ...................................................... 257
9.2 ................................. 258
9.3 MGCP MEGACO ............. 262
9.4 ................................................... 265
9.5 ................... 271

10 IP .... 283
10.1 QoS? ..................................................... 283
10.2 .......... 285

02 - Contents.p65

26.11.2001, 11:16

10.3 IP ................................... 286


10.4
Diff Serv .......................................... 287
10.5 IntServ ............................... 289
10.6 RSVP ......................... 290
10.6.1 ......................................... 290
10.6.2 ........................... 291
10.7 MPLS .................................................................. 295
10.8 .......................................................
10.8.1 ..................................
10.8.1.1 Tail Drop ......................................................
10.8.1.2 Random Early Detection (RED) ......................
10.8.2 ....................................
10.8.2.1 FIFO ...........................................................
10.8.2.2 ............................................
10.8.2.3 Class Based Queuing (CBQ) .........................................
10.8.2.4 .................................................
10.8.3 .................
10.8.3.1 Leaky Bucket ...............................................
10.8.3.2 Token Bucket ............................................

299
299
299
300
300
301
301
302
303
304
304
305

11 ............................................ 307
11.1 IP ................................................ 307
11.2 IP .......... 311
11.3 IP ITG ............................................ 312
11.4 GK ........ 315
11.5
IP ....................................................................... 316
11.6 ............................................ 318
11.7 ..................................................... 322
11.8 IPU
IP ...................................................... 323
11.9 IP .............................. 325

.......................................................................... 328
.......................................................... 332

02 - Contents.p65

26.11.2001, 11:16

02 - Contents.p65

26.11.2001, 11:16


1829 
:
!

, . 
.
1) , 
.
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 .
AT&T,
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AT&T British Telecom 
IP 10 
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IP 1983 ,

03 - Preface.p65

26.11.2001, 11:16

10

. , 
, 
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Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN)
. . 
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80 
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IP 
VocalTec, 1995
(DSP),
, ,

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1 2.
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GSM, 5:1 
, TrueSpeech DSP
Group, Inc., 18:1 
. 
3 . 
G.7xx, 
(ITU) H.323, 
5 6.
IP SIP, MGCP MEGACO 
7, 8 9, .
/
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.

03 - Preface.p65

10

26.11.2001, 11:16

11

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, 
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nio1@loniis.spb.ru,
Web www.loniis.ru.

03 - Preface.p65

11

26.11.2001, 11:16


1.1
, 
. , ,
? , 
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?.
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, .

POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service), 
, 
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, 
()

, . 
( ) 

IP, .


, :

04 - Chap 1.p65

13

26.11.2001, 11:16

14

,
,
.

:
,
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, 
.

, 
. 

, ,
, .
1996 .
(.1.1)
( 30% 3% ).
1999 . 

. IP 
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.
, , 
, 5% ,
, 

. 
. 
,
. : 
.


. IP 

, .

IP Voice over
IP (VoIP) IP.

04 - Chap 1.p65

14

26.11.2001, 11:16

15

()

()

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

. 1.1 ()

Voice over IP 
,
IP , 

.
, 
Multiprotocol Label Switching
(MPLS), Resource Reservation
Protocol (RSVP), 
Differentiated Services (DiffServ) . 
IP,
Synchronous Digital Hierar
chy (SDH),
Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM). 

. RTP,
RTSP, Diffentiaten Services ,
. , 
TCP/IP 


, 
, , 
, ,
IP, .

1.2 IP"
, 
.1 , 

04 - Chap 1.p65

15

26.11.2001, 11:16

16

(
.1.2). , 
,
20042006 , ,
. 
, ,

.
,
Dataquest (. 1.2),
.1.2.

(, , ),
20022003 .
,

1,000

800

600

400

200

0
1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2002

2004

2006

()
,

1,000

800

600

400

200

0
1996

1998

2000

()

. 1.2 , ()

()

04 - Chap 1.p65

16

26.11.2001, 11:16

17

, 
, 
, 
. (IN) 
, 
. 

(),
[8].


.

.
, 
IP (, , .) 
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:
.

.
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IP.
, IP 
IP, 
.1.3 , 
. 
, Internet Protocol
,
, , , 
.




PO
TS

IP

POTS

POTS

IP

IP

. 1.3

2. ..

04 - Chap 1.p65

17

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18

IP
, 

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IP 70%
, 6080% , 
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[13].
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04 - Chap 1.p65

18

26.11.2001, 11:16

19


 , IP

:
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.
;
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,
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.

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1.3
, 
, 

, 
.
Frame Relay, ATM
IP 
, , 
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. 

, 
(.1.4).

04 - Chap 1.p65

19

26.11.2001, 11:16

20

a)

) Frame Relay

) IP

. 1.4 :
a)VoATM, )VoFR, )VoIP



, 
xDSL ( ) SDH/
Sonet ( ). 
, 

04 - Chap 1.p65

20

26.11.2001, 11:16

21

.

. 


.
Frame Relay 
, 
:
, 
. Frame Relay, 
, 
, 
.
Frame Relay 
. Frame Relay
: , 
.

IP , , 
IP 
: ,
,
.
, 
, 
, 
. IP, 
IP , 
,
. 

, 10, 
. IP
( )
Frame Relay, .
, IP 
, , 
.

1.4 IP"
Voice over IP 
.
IP,
( ).

04 - Chap 1.p65

21

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22

, , 
: RTP (Real Time
Transport Protocol), UDP
(User Datagram Protocol), , ,
TCP/IP IP. ,
RTP/UDP/IP 
.
4, 
. ,
IP 

. 
, 
, , 
, , 

RTP/UDPD/IP. ITUT 
150 . 
IP, 
. 
10, .

. , 
,
, 
. 
, , 


 . 

, ,
7 [6, 7]

[8].
. 
IP 
.
: RIP Routing Information Proto
col, IGRP Interior Gateway Routing Protocol, EIGRP Enhanced Interi
or Gateway Routing Protocol, ISIS Intermediate SystemtoIntermedi
ate System, OSPF Open Shortest Path First, BGP Border Gateway
Protocol . IP
. 
, IP ( 3) 
IP ( 6, 7, 8 9).

04 - Chap 1.p65

22

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23

, 
H.323 ITU, , ,
, , , 
H.323 . 
5 6.

SIP ,

. 
7.
SGCP , 1998 ,
,

. IPDC SGCP,
, SGCP,
(OAM&P). 1998 MEGACO IETF
MGCP, , , 
SGCP, OAM&P. 
MGCP 8.
MEGACO , 

, MGCP, MEGACO.
H.323 ( Gateway Con
trol Protocol) ITUT H.248.
MEGACO/H.248 9.

1.5


IP"
,
, 
, ,

.

1.5.1 H.323
IP

(ITU) H.323 [42]. 
H.323
ISDN,
. ,
IP Q.931 [44] 
, ISDN.

04 - Chap 1.p65

23

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24

H.323
,
IP . 

.
H.323, .
( ) ,
H.323 
. , 
(call transfer) 
H.450.2.
IP, 
H.323, 
, 
(IP)
. 
RAS, H.323,
, 

.
1.5.
H.323. : (Terminal),
(Gateway), (Gatekeeper)
(Multipoint Control Unit MCU).

.323

.323

.323
IP ,

.323

V.70

.324

ISDN

.320

. 1.5 .323

04 - Chap 1.p65

24

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25

H.323 IP
, (
) H.323, 
.
IP 
IP H.323. 
, 
, ,
IP. , 
DSS1 OKC7 
.323 
ITU H.246.
IP.
, .323,
(. 1.6). 
IP, : 
, , , 
.
H.323
.

. 1.6 .323

:
;
IP
RAS;
alias. (
, , 
.)
IP (IP + TCP);
,
;

04 - Chap 1.p65

25

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26

.323 .
IP, 
ITU H.323, , 
RAS.
, H.323,

() .

. 
.323 (. 1.7):
(.. MCU, 
), 
( 
 ) .

F
A B C

. 1.7 H.323


, 
.

, IP 
IP
(IP multicasting). , 

.

(Multipoint Control
ler MC), , , 

04 - Chap 1.p65

26

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27

(Multipoint
Processor MP). 
, ,
, ,
.

. 
, ,
, 
,
, , .
,

, 
.
, 
MC, MP,
. MP 
, .
.
H.323 . .323,
.. .
, 
.  ,
(H.323 ) , 
.  
:

, 
(RSVP).  
IP 
;
H.323
;

, H.323 
;
H.323.
H.323 
5,
, H.323.

04 - Chap 1.p65

27

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28

RAS (Registration, Admission, Status) 


. 
: 
, ,
, 
.
UDP.
H.225.0 (Q.931) ,
.

TCP.
.245 
,
. , 
RTP/UDP/IP, 4.
, RAS, 

H.323. H.225.0
(Q.931) .245.
:
.245
H.225.0, RAS 
.
H.323 . 1.8,

. , 
IP . 
, 
; 6.
.
1. A 
SETUP
B TCP 1720.
2. B
SETUP ALERTING, , 
, 
.
3. , B ,
A CONNECT TCP
H.245.
4. H.245 
(G.729, G.723.1 ..),

04 - Chap 1.p65

28

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29

,
RTP, 
.
5. 
.
6.
RTP; , 
RTCP.

.323


.323

Setup
.225
, 1720

Alerting / Connect



.245
TCP,




RTP
UDP

RTP

. 1.8
H.323


H.323 1. 2 H.323 
, 
, SETUP H.225.0
H.245. 
(Fast Start)
. 
, H.323 

ITU H.450.. H.323 
6.

H.323. , 
, , transportQoS
ARQ RAS,
. H.323

04 - Chap 1.p65

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30

(RSVP) 
, 
RSVP. , 
RSVP ,
H.323 
. IP,
H.323.

RTCP, RTCP
, . 
10, 
IP.
1.5.2 SIP
IP,
MMUSIC IETF RFC 2543 [54],
SIP Session Initiation Protocol.
SIP  , 
,
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 
(Resource Res
ervation Protocol, RSVP, RFC 2205),
(RealTime Transport Protocol, RTP, RFC 1889), 
(RealTime Streaming Protocol,
RTSP, RFC 2326), (Session De
scription Protocol, SDP, RFC 2327), (Ses
sion Announcement Protocol, SAP). SIP
.
,
H.323,

SIP. 
H.323 . ,
SIP , 
, 
IP.
SIP IP
, H.323, 
. ,
SIP, HTTP,
,
. SIP
IP, 
.

04 - Chap 1.p65

30

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31

, SIP 
(IN), () , 
[8], SIP
,

. 
SIP , ..

,

. SIP , , , 
H.323 
. ,
IP . 

.
,
SIP (. 1.9).


SIP


SIP





SIP

SIP

SIP

. 1.9 SIP

SIP : 
,  .
(User Agent SIP client) 

: (User Agent lient UAC)
(User Agent Server UAS),
. UAC SIP
, .. . UAS
, ..
.

04 - Chap 1.p65

31

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32

, SIP: 
() . 
SIP 
(statefull),
(stateless). SIP, 
stateless,
, .323, 
.
. (Proxyserver)
(UAC) (UAS). 

(. 1.10). 
, .
1

(Endpoint1@Site1)

2
INVITE En
dpoint2@Sit
e2

,
,

Endpoin


(Endpoint2@Site2)

t2

ite2
int2@S
Endpo

INVITE Endp
oi

nt2@Site2

100 Trying

100 Trying

200 OK

200 OK

ACK
ACK

. 1.10 SIP 


SIP :
1.  INVITE 
.
2.  
(location server).
3.  INVITE 
.
4. 

, INVITE ( 100). 
, ,
.

04 - Chap 1.p65

32

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33

5. ,
 ( 200), 
, , 
.
6.
ACK,  
. , 
.
(Redirect server) 

(. 1.11). 

, 
RFC 2543 .
1


(Endpoint1@Site1)


(Client2@Site3)

INVITE
E n dp o
int2@S

,
,

ite2

rarily
ed Tempo
302 MovEndpoint2@Site3
:
Contact

Endpoin

t2

Site3

ACK

INVITE Endpoint2@
Site3
100 Trying

OK

ACK

. 1.11 SIP


SIP
:
1. 
INVITE
,
.
2. 
. , INVITE
.

3. ..

04 - Chap 1.p65

33

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34

3. 
ACK.
4.
INVITE , .
5. 

, INVITE
( 100).
6. , 
( 200). 
, 
.
,

.
SIP.
, SIP TCP,
UDP.
SIP 6 . 
SIP 
,
.
INVITE
. 


, 
.
ACK 
INVITE .
OPTIONS 

.
.
BYE 
. 
, ,
.
CANCEL
,
.

04 - Chap 1.p65

34

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35

REGISTER 
SIP.
SIP 7.
1.5.3 MGCP MEGACO
IP,
MGCP [56],
IETF, MEGACO.
MEGACO 
, 
(.1.12):
Media Gateway (MG), 
,
, , 
IP ( 
RTP/UDP/IP,
);
Call Agent,
;
Signaling Gateway (SG), 
,
,
.
Call Agent

,7

MGCP

RT

RTP

E1
RTP

. 1.12 MGCP

,
,
.

04 - Chap 1.p65

35

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36

STP
7.
.
.
. ,
,
. , MEGACO
. , 
MGCP, 
H.323, SIP ISUP/IP.
MGCP 
UDP. SIGTRAN 
IETF 
.

7 (
TP)
, , 
. IP
Q.931 .
SIGTRAN 

IP. , 
, 
TCP. SIGTRAN 

Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP), 
TCP, 
, 
, 
.

(), 
, 
.
, MGCP

, .
MGCP master/slave . ,
, 
, ,
Call Agnt.

.

04 - Chap 1.p65

36

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37

,
, , 
. ,
, 
, .
, IETF ( 
MEGACO), 
IP,
. MGCP
8.

MGCP. 
MGCP c 7 (. 1.13).

TGW1

Call
Agent

TGW2

ISUP: IAM
MGCP: CRCX
MGCP: ACK
MGCP: CRCX
MGCP: ACK
ISUP: IAM
ISUP: ACM

ISUP: ACM
ISUP: ANM

MGCP: MDCX
MGCP: ACK
ISUP: ANM
ISUP: REL
ISUP: REL

MGCP: DLCX
MGCP: ACK

MGCP: DLCX
MGCP: ACK
ISUP: RLC
ISUP: RLC

. 1.13
MGCP ( 1)

1.  SG1 

IAM ISUP [6]. . 1.13 
SG1 SG2 TGW1 TGW2
. SG1 IAM 
, ,
 TGW2.

04 - Chap 1.p65

37

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38

2. TGW1 ( ).
C CreateConnection.
, TGW1 
( recvonly), ,

.
3. TGW1 
.
4. TGW1, CRCX
TGW2
.
5. TGW 2 , 
, CRCX.
CRCX

. , TGW2
, ,

.
6. IAM .
7. IAM  ACM,
.
8. ,  
ANM.
9. TGW1 recvonly
MDCX.
10. TGW1 .
11. ANM , 
.
12. 
. .
 REL 
.
13. REL, 
.
14. 

.
15. RLC 
.

04 - Chap 1.p65

38

26.11.2001, 11:16

39

16.

17. TGW1

.
18.  
RLC, .
MGCP
c 7 H.323 (. 1.14).

TGW1

Call
Agent

H.323

ISUP: IAM
MGCP: CRCX
MGCP: ACK
RAS: ARQ
RAS: ACF
H.323: SETUP
RAS: ARQ
RAS: ACF
H.323: ALERTING
ISUP: ACM
MGCP: MDCX

H.323: CONNECT

MGCP: ACK
ISUP: ANM

H.323: RELEASE COMPLETE

ISUP: REL
MGCP: DLCX
MGCP: ACK
RAS: DRQ
RAS: DCF
RAS: DRQ
ISUP: RLC

RAS: DCF

. 1.14
MGCP ( 2)

1.  SG1 
(
IAM). . 1.14 SG1 
TGW1. SG1 
IAM ,
, 
H.323.

04 - Chap 1.p65

39

26.11.2001, 11:16

40

2. TGW1 (
). C CreateConnec
tion. TGW1
( recvonly).
3. TGW1
.
4. TGW1, 
.323 ARQ alias
.
5. ARQ ACF
.
6. SETUP
,
Fast Start. SETUP
.
7.
ARQ.
8. ARQ 
ACF.
9. ALERTING,
.

,
,
.
10. ALERTING
ACM, .
11. 
, CONNECT.
12. TGW1 recvonly
.
13. TGW1 
.
14. ANM , 
, 
,
RTP/UDP/IP, RTP
, 
RTP
. RTCP
RTP .

04 - Chap 1.p65

40

26.11.2001, 11:16

41

15. 
. ,
,
,
RELEASE COMPLETE, .
16. RELEASE  c 
.
17. , DLCX.
18. 
.
19. 

. 
RAS
DRQ,
DCF.
20.  RLC,
.
, SIP
MGCP .
MEGACO IETF 
,
, MGCP, MEGACO.
4 
.323 . 

Media Gateway Controller
H.323 MEGACO, 
.248 Gateway Control Protocol.
MEGACO 
MGCP, 
, 
MEGA
CO . , 
MEGACO, 9.
1.5.4 IP,

IP
.323 MGCP. , SIP 
,
( H.323 SIP 7).

04 - Chap 1.p65

41

26.11.2001, 11:16

42

, MGCP,
, ITU
H.323: 
7 , 
IP. , 
.323, 7,
, 
.225.0 (Q.931).

. 
,
 
, . 
. 

. 

. , MGCP
, 

(IP). , , 
MGCP,
SIP.
, IP
, 
, MGCP ( ,
SIP) ,
IP H.323.
IP
MGCP ( SIP), 
. , , 
H.323,
IP.
( 4 
.323) ITUT , 
. 

MGC (Media Gateway Controller)
MEGACO/.248. 4 .323 
7
IP

.225.0.

04 - Chap 1.p65

42

26.11.2001, 11:16

43



IP,
. 
, 
 ,
, 
.

04 - Chap 1.p65

43

26.11.2001, 11:16

2

IP
2.1 IP

: IP? 
,
,
: IP?

IP:
;
;
.
 
, 
.
IP 
. 2.1.

 (),
8000 /, 8 /, 64 /.

4:1,
8:1 10:1. 
. 
, ,

05 - Chap 2.p65

45

26.11.2001, 11:17

46

IP IP,
. , 
, 
, ,

() 
.
IP
, . IP, 
. 2.1, ,
Intranet. , 
IP, 
IP, 4.

IP

. 2.1 IP ""


(),
IP.
, , 
, , IP
. 


, , 


05 - Chap 2.p65

46

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

47

Web,
I. IP 
,
.164, IP.

Microsoft NetMeeting, 
Microsoft.
. 2.1
 .


IP. , IP ,
.
.
1. IP, 
H.323.
2. IP
, H.323.
3.
Domain Name System (DNS),
IP
Return.
4. IP DNS (

) , 
IP.
5. DNS IP .
6. IP IP 
H.225 Setup.
7. H.225 Setup
.
8. IP 
H.225 Connect.
9. IP 

H.245.
10. H.245 

IP.
, 
, IP

05 - Chap 2.p65

47

26.11.2001, 11:17

48

.
,
IP.
5 11 , 
.
 . 2.1 
IP

.

IP
. . 2.1 
. 2.2. 
  , 
, . .
.323

.323

IP

. 2.2 IP
"" ( .2.1)

.
, 

, . 2.1. 
, 
.
,
IP
. 
 IP
, , .. , 
, 
, , H.323.
, 

, IP,
, :
, ISDN GSM.
, . 
. 2.1 2.2 

05 - Chap 2.p65

48

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

49

, IPc (
, IP).
TIPHON, , 
, 
. , . 2.3,
IP
,
(). , 
(),
ISDN,
GSM .

/ISDN

H.323

H.323

IP

IP

Phase
1

. 2.3 IP "".


IP CKK

 
 ,
. 
, WWW  , 
. 
, ,
. 
Web ( 
).
, 
. 
, 
.

(, 
, , . .) 
.

4. ..

05 - Chap 2.p65

49

26.11.2001, 11:17

50

TIPHON
IP:
( IP) (a
), ,
IP , , 
 ;
IP 
E.164 IP
.
TIPHON ,

.

IP
(. 2.4). 
, IP.

IP
H.323


IP

/ISDN

. 2.4 IP
"  "

(GW) IP 

IP.
.

IP
,
(. 2.5).

05 - Chap 2.p65

50

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

51

IP
H.323

/ISDN

. 2.5 IP
"  "


. 2.5 IP 
. 
,
,
IP. 
, (,
), (PIN) 
, ,
.
,
. , 
, ,

(, , 
, ..) 
.


.
(. 2.4) 
. 
IP 
IDT Net2Phone DotDialer,
.

IP 
 ,

05 - Chap 2.p65

51

26.11.2001, 11:17

52


.
 
IP 
,

. 
IP 
IP.
, IP
. IP

,
,
.
IP 

,
IP/Intranet, . 
IP
, , 
/ .
,
.
,
Frame Relay ATM.
. 2.6, IP 
 IP
IP. 
, .
, 
(PIN) 
(Calling Line Identification). 
,
, 
. 
, 

.

, 

.

05 - Chap 2.p65

52

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

53

IP

/ISDN

/ISDN

. 2.6 IP
""



. , , 
, , 
PIN,
.
.
: 

.
, , 
.
2.1.
2.1


IP
IP
IP

IP

05 - Chap 2.p65

53


IP
IP

IP

IP
IP

IP
IP

IP

26.11.2001, 11:17

. 2.1 2.2
. 2.3
. 2.5
. 2.4
. 2.4
. 2.5
. 2.6
.

54



( IP) 
, .
TIPHON 

Europe Telecommunications Standardization Institute (ETSI).
IP,



IP. , , 
IP ITUT IETF 
IP. 
IP ITUT, ,
[H.246]
IETF. ITUT
IP 5 6, 
.323, IETF
7, 8 9.
TIPHON

2.1 .
,
. , ETSI, ITU
,
.

2.2 TIPHON
TIPHON (Telecommunication and Internet Pro
tocol Harmonization over Networks) ETSI 
1997 . 
IP 

.
, ISDN GSM.
40 
. ,

15 48 1999 . . 
TIPHON
.

05 - Chap 2.p65

54

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

55

TIPHON
, 
, 
, ,
IP.

, 
.

, , , , 
IP.
ETSI TIPHON
, , , , 

IP (. 2.7).

IP

IP
ISDN

. 2.7 TIPHON

TIPHON , 
, . 

(QoS) 
. , 
, . 
, TIPHON 
, 
.
TIPHON :
TIPHON
;
 (MMI) 
;

05 - Chap 2.p65

55

26.11.2001, 11:17

56


; 
(QoS).
TIPHON



.
, , 
, 
, , ,
.
TIPHON 
, 
. 
, 
, 
; .164
IP; ;
. 
, TIPHON 
, 
. 
TIPHON.
, 
, 
, 
, , 
.
,
IP
, 
. 
, 
.
, 
, 
, , 
. 
DTMF 
.

05 - Chap 2.p65

56

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

57

.164 IP. 
IP, , , 
IP 
. , 

.164 IP.
.
: ,
, , 
. :
, , .
.
. 
,
, , , ,
.
. 
, 
. ,
GSM 
DECT, ,
,
ISDN, , 
. 
, IP 
, .
.
IP
.

, , , 
TIPHON. 
.
ITUT .323,
TIPHON , 
IP .
IP, TIPHON,
, .323 (, , 
), 
 . (SG),
(MG) (MGC).

05 - Chap 2.p65

57

26.11.2001, 11:17

58


IP . 
/ .
 
, , 
, DTMF .. 
MGC 
.323, ITUT .323, .225
(RAS Q.931) .245, 
.323. 
, .. , 
, ..
, ,
(, 
IP)
. TIPHON
, .323. ,
, , ,

.
, MGC , 
.
. ,
ITUT .323.
TIPHON ,
( ) 
, . 2.8. 
TIPHON, .
, D 
,
MGC . N
MGC MG. 
, ; 
; 
; , 
.
. 2.8 (backend)
, , .


.

05 - Chap 2.p65

58

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

59

.323

(backend)

(MGC)

(SG)
J

(MG)
B
E, a

E, a 
IP /ISDN
E, b 
IP /ISDN

E, b

/ISDN

. 2.8 TIPHON

(SG, MG, MGC)


, 
. , 
,
. 
, 

.

05 - Chap 2.p65

59

26.11.2001, 11:17

60


.

TIPHON. 
, , 
.. 
, 

,
. E.164.

IP,
(URL).
IP 
, 

, IP . 
, IP
, ,

, 
.
URL 

. ,
,
, ,
, IP .
, , 
, , ,

.

,
E.164,
. 
IP 
, 
4 TIPHON,
, IETF.
TIPHON 
. 

05 - Chap 2.p65

60

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

61


(, , ),
,
. TIPHON 
, 
, ,
( 2.2).
2.2 TIPHON

K

,

K
(4)
,
G.711
<150

(3)

(2)

,
G.726
(32 K/)

, 
GSMFR

<250



<1,5
<4
IP,


<2
<5
.164 IP, *


<3
<8
.164 IP

, **


<4
<10
.164 IP, **


.164 IP
<6
<15

, **


<4
<13

IP,
*  IP .
**  IP.

(1)

<350

<450

<7

<7

<10

<10

<15

<15

<20

<20

<30

<30

<25

<25


, , , ..
(, 
, ) 
.
,

( ).

05 - Chap 2.p65

61

26.11.2001, 11:17

62

2.3 IP
IP
. 

IP. 

,
, , 
. 
B. . 2.9
IP,
.

E1

IPc

E1

. 2.9 IP

H.323, 
IP. 
E.164 IP
H.323.
. , 
,
(settlement provider) , 
,
IP . 
IP
, ,
.

(Open Settlement Protocol).



05 - Chap 2.p65

62

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

63

, 
.
. 2.10, 2.11 2.12 

, , ,
.1.8 . . 2.10 
.
1. .
2. 
( 
). .
3. , 
, , 
.
(2)
(3)

(1)

IPc

. 2.10 : 1

. 2.11 .
4. .
5.
.
6. E.164 
IP
() . 
.

IPc

(4)
(5)
(6)

. 2.11 : 2

05 - Chap 2.p65

63

26.11.2001, 11:17

64

. 2.12:
7. H.323 IP 
.
8. 
.
9. 
/ 
.
(9)

(9)

IPc

(7)

(8)

. 2.12 : 3

2.4 IP
,
 
,
, , 
, 
.
.
IP 
IP , 
, , :

IP; 
,
IP


,
,
,
IP .
IP
. 

IP .

05 - Chap 2.p65

64

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

65

, , US West Inc. (, )
xDSL , 
Worldcom Inc. (, ) 
Uunet Technologies Inc. ( ,
) MCI Communications
Corp. (, ).

. 

6 ,
1 2 .
, 
, 1980 , 

. ,


IP,
. 
, 
.
, ( 
) .
, IP 

. , IP

. , 
, 
.

. ()
, 
,
ATM, 
, , 
1 /c.

, 
.
32 ( ), 
10 / 
130,000 
64 /. 
.

5. ..

05 - Chap 2.p65

65

26.11.2001, 11:17

66

,
,
N M .

64 /.

5,3 /.
,
,
.
90 .
G.729, 8
, 
8 / , 
. CS
ACELP. , G.729A, ,
, 
.
G.723.1 
12 5,3 6,3 /.
,
.
5,3 / ACELP, 6,3 /
MPMLQ.
,
, 
. 

,
. 
.
, , G.723.1,
G.729;
.
DSP, , 
, 
. ,
. 
.

05 - Chap 2.p65

66

26.11.2001, 11:17

3

IP
3.1


IP

, IP
, ()
, 
. 
,
, IP
, , , ,
,
.

3.1.1
IP ,
, , , , 
. , 
, .
( )
, , 
. , 

.

06 - Chap 3.p65

67

26.11.2001, 11:17

68


, 
. , 
, , 
,
. , 
. 
, , 
, , 
, .. . 10, 
(QoS), , 
, 
.

IP ( )
, 
 , Windows Linux.
( 
, 
) 
, IP 
Socket.


, 
,
. , 

, 
, ,
.
, 
, . 
, 
IP
(VxWorks, pSOS, QNX Neutrino ..),

, , 

.
, ,
(
, 

06 - Chap 3.p65

68

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

69

RTP ..), 
. 

, 

, .. ,
. 
IP, Dialogic, Audiocodes,
Natural Microsystems. IP
IP,
.


. 
(, 20 ),

, 
. . 3.1.
IP


A
T1

B
T2 = T1

C
T3 = T 2

. 3.1
()


T ( 
)
j, : = T j .
, ,
.. . 

06 - Chap 3.p65

69

26.11.2001, 11:17

70

,
(). , , 
, . 
RTP.
 
,
.

,
.

. 
.


/
, . 
, , 

. ,
,
. 

.
, , 
, . , 
,  ,
RTP/UDP/IP,
, 

. , 
, 
, ,
.
ITUT G.114
. ,
150 (. 3.2).
IP
( )
6070 . , 90
IP
, 

.

06 - Chap 3.p65

70

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

71

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

()

. 3.2

, 
,
IP. . 3.2 
,
250 ,
( ). 
, 250300. 
G.114, ,
. , 

. , , 
, .
3.1.2

, .
. , 
(
).
.
.
IP.

,
.
, 

[6] (

, .. 
). 
( ) 
, (hybrid). 

06 - Chap 3.p65

71

26.11.2001, 11:17

72


, 
.
(, ..),
( , 
) .

. 
, 
, 
.
(
), 
.
1520,
.
, 
.
,
,
.


.
, , IP
, , , 
,
IP.

, , 
. 
,
, ,
,
. 
.
3.1.3
, 
: .
70 . 
,
. 

06 - Chap 3.p65

72

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

73

(speakerphones), 
, ..
, , .
, 

(. 3.3). 
, ,
.
,
,
. 


( ).

2

4

. 3.3 

,

. 
, 
, ,
 . 


,
IP
IP . 
IP
.
, 

. , , 
,

06 - Chap 3.p65

73

26.11.2001, 11:17

74


. , 
, , .

IP. 

, , 
3264 . 

, ,
, 
IP.

3.2
,
, , 
.


, ,
, , .

,

.

, 

.
,
, (sampling), ..

, , .. 
(
). .. 
(), 
, 
IP (
IP).
,

, , ,

06 - Chap 3.p65

74

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

75

, .
, 
, 0.3 3.4 ,
.
 
8,
.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

. 3.4


, , ,
. , 
( 
, ), 
12/13 
.
 , 
,  
().
,
() , ..
, .
,
.

:
 . 
, 12 13 ,
.
( 


06 - Chap 3.p65

75

26.11.2001, 11:17

76

/). , 
, . 

 ,
,  . 
8 , , 
. 

, 64 /. 
:
4 000 2 = 8 000 /, 8 000 / 8 = 64 /,
.
, 
, 
, 64 /,
, , 
. 
ITUT 
G.711.
(
)
, 
, .

, ,

, , 
. 

( ,
).

; :
(waveform coding),
(source coding) ,
.
3.2.1
 , ,
.
, 
.

, 

06 - Chap 3.p65

76

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

77

.
, 
.

.

. ,

. , 

,
, 
, (
). 
,

,
.
, ,
. ,
,
, 
.
y(i), 
i
p :

^
y(i)=a
1y(i1)+a2y(i2)+...+apy(ip)
ai .
^
e(i)=y(i)y(i)

, 
.

,
. 
,
e(i),
, , 1025 .
( , ,
)
 (), 

, , , 
.

06 - Chap 3.p65

77

26.11.2001, 11:17

78

, 
, 
 (),
ITUT G.726. 

. , 

, 
, ,
. 
G.726 40, 32, 24
16 /c, 5, 4, 3 2 
. , G.726
32 /c , 
G.711.
,

,
, .
,

.
3.2.2 ()


, . ,
,
(voice coding).

, 
, , , . 
.
,
, . 

( ). 
, ,
( ). 


, 
. 
, .

06 - Chap 3.p65

78

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

79


, 
, 
, 
.
. 3.5 
. , 
, , , 
, 
(/ ,
, ..).

. 3.5

LPC (Linear
Prediction Coding ), 

. , 
, 
LPC10, 10 
. 
2.4 /, 


.
, 

, . 


2432 /. LPC () 

06 - Chap 3.p65

79

26.11.2001, 11:17

80


12002400 /c, 
.

(ABS) 


616/.
,

( ), 

LPC. ,
,
, . ABS

, (. 3.6),
.. , 
,
. ABS 
(. 3.7).

. 3.6  ABS

. 3.7  ABS 

06 - Chap 3.p65

80

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

81

3.2.3

,
,
(DSP Digital Signal Processor) .
( ,
)
.
DSP , 
,
.
, 
, 
.
DSP
,
.

.

, 
. DSP
, 
.
DSP
, ,
.

.
DSP, 
, ,
. IP

,
() ,
, , 
, 
( )
IP
, 1.
DSP 
Texas Instruments (www.ti.com), Analog Devices (www.analog.com),
Motorola (www.motorola.com), 
DSP .

6. ..

06 - Chap 3.p65

81

26.11.2001, 11:17

82

IP DSP c 
,
( , , 
). , , 
. , 

(G.723.1, G.729), 
.
VoIP (Cisco, Dialog
ic .), DSP , 
,
, 
.
3.2.4 ,
IP
,

IP.

, 
, 1.2 64 /. 
, 
. 
. 
MOS (Mean Opinion Score), 

. 
, , 
.. :
45 ;
ISDN, ;
3.54 (toll quality); , 
32 /.

.
toll quality;
33.5 , , ,
;
2.53 , 
. 
(,
).

06 - Chap 3.p65

82

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

83

(toll quality)
5 /.
(VAD, CNG, DTX)
, , 35 
. , , 
, 
,
. 
50%, 
(
) . 
56,
. 
.
, 

: , ,

, 
, 
.
(Voice Activity Detector VAD) 
, 
. VAD , 

;
VAD .
VAD ,
, . 
,
, 
. VAD 
, 
. 
, , , 
, 
.
(Discontinuous Transmission
DTX) ,
VAD . 
,
(
, ), , 
.

06 - Chap 3.p65

83

26.11.2001, 11:17

84

(Comfort Noise Generator CNG)


. , 
, 
.
. , ..
( ..), 
, , ,
 , 
, .
CNG .

,  , 
, . 
(G.723.1 Annex A, G.729 Annex B) 

, 
.


, (frames), 
,
, 
.
, 
( 
) 
. 
, , 
, 
.
, , ,

. , , , 
, , , ,
IP
(20 ), UDP (8 ), RTP (12 ). 
30 
10.6 /c,

.

,
. 60
. , 

06 - Chap 3.p65

84

26.11.2001, 11:17

IP

85

, .. 
, 
.
, ,
: 
( ), .

IP.
, , 
.
,
(
forward error correction), 
.

,
.

, 
IP , .. 
, , ,

.
(,
),
, , , 
, .
,
. ,
, 

, 
,
.

. ,
N G.711, 
N125 .
,

, ,

20
150 .

06 - Chap 3.p65

85

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86

G.723.1 ,

3% , 
.

3.3 , ITU
3.3.1 G.711
G.711 
, ITUT 1965 .


. MOS 4.2.
, , , 
VoIP  G.711. ,
VoIP 
.
3.3.2 G.723.1
G.723.1 ITUT 1995 . 
IMTC G.723.1 IP
.
G.723.1 30 
7.5 .
: 6.3 / ( 189 , 
24 ) 5.3 / ( 158 , 
20 ).
. .
MOS 3.9 6.3 / 3.7
5.3 /.

, . 

16 MIPS.
G.723.1 

. (Annex A) 
G.723.1.
4 .
, .

06 - Chap 3.p65

86

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IP

87

3.3.3 G.726
( ITUT G.726, 
1990 .) . 
G.711 40, 32, 24 16 /, 
MOS 4.3 (32 /),
(toll quality). 
IP ,

(. ).
3.3.4 G.728
G.728 
LDCELP (low delay code excited linear prediction) 
MOS, G.726 
16 /.

,
( 5 ),
. 
Bell Labs 1992 :
0.625 . 2.5 ,

.

20 MIPS 13 MIPS 
.
3.3.5 G.729
G.729 
Frame Relay. CSACELP (Conjugate Struc
ture, Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction).
10 8 /.

5 .
:
G.729 ( ITUT 1996), 20 MIPS
3 MIPS .
G.729A ( ITUT 1995), 
10.5 MIPS 2 MIPS
.
G.729 VAD, CNG DTX.
15 
, .

06 - Chap 3.p65

87

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88

3.4 , ETSI
ETSI 

(GSM).
GSM Full Rate,
GSM 06.10, 1987. , , 
,
. 
( MOS
3.7 ).
20 , 13 /c. 

4.5 MIPS . 
IP, 
,
(open source), 
.
GSM FR G.711, .
GSM Half Rate, 
1994 , GSM Enhanced Full Rate, 1995 . 

, ,
( 30 MIPS). IP
, , 
.
, ,
ITUT ETSI, .. 
.
VoIP, , 
ITUT ETSI,

.
.
, Lucent/Elemedia SX7003P,

, Voxware RT24,
(2.4 /) 
( MOS 3.2).

3.5 DTMF
, (DTMF)
, , 

06 - Chap 3.p65

88

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IP

89

.
,
G.711 
, , 

.
, 
, , , , 
. DTMF 

.
 

(,
),
DTMF IP. ,
, , 
, 
. 
, , #,
; ,
.
DTMF
IP.
. H.245
(UserInputIndication) *, #.
TCP,
. 
TCP ;
, VoIP.
H.323v2 
fastStart H.245.
DTMF RTP, 
,
.
, ,
. RTP DTMF 
,
.
, ,

,
, .

06 - Chap 3.p65

89

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90

IP
DTMF, . 
, ,
,
.

3.6
IP, ,
. (
facsimale ) 
1843 , 33
. ( 
) IP

. 

; .
, , 
3,
ITUT T.30. 
. , 
, 3, 
, . 
, , ..
4, 
. , ,
, , ( 
, ..)
(
, ), , ISDN,
4, 
.

 3, , 
,
IP.
 .
 
(Store & Forward). 
,
. , 
, 
, 

06 - Chap 3.p65

90

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IP

91

,
, , . 


, ( ) 
. Store & Forward Fax .37.

, IP
.

: , 
. Store&Forward 

, 
, , 
.

IP ,

, 
. , 
3
. ITUT 
T.38, 
3 
IP.

, , ,
, 

, , .
: 

, 
, .
,
, 
, ,
.. , 
. 
, , 
.
, 
, , 
. , 100 

06 - Chap 3.p65

91

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92

,

.
.38 
IFP, /
. IFP, ,
TCP UDP, 

, 
. T.38 
H.323. 
TCP IFP,
UDP . IFP 
(
). 
TCP, :
IFP, H.225.0/Q.931,
.
, ITU 
TCP ,
IFP UDP.
,

, .
, T.38 DSP,
, , 
, 
TCP , 
. , .38 
UDP 
. IP 
IP UDP, TCP 
, 
, .

3.7
, 
, ( ) 
, , 
IP. :

, ,
DSP. ,

06 - Chap 3.p65

92

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IP

93

IP
,
, knowhow .
IP
, .
. , 
. ,
, ,
. 
, 
,
,
1.
, ,
.


DTMF
.
IP
, , 
, 
, 
IP.

06 - Chap 3.p65

93

26.11.2001, 11:17


4.1 ab ovo

RPA .
1971 . &
. &
, : ,
. & ,
& , , .
, &
,
.
, ,
, .
1957 &
.
(Department of
Defense DoD) Advanced Research Projects
Agency (ARPA), ARPANET &
, &
. , &
, , &
&
&, .
1961
Information Flow in Large Communication Nets.

07 - Chap 4.p65

95

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96

1964 (Paul Baran, RAND) On


Distributed Communications Networks
1965 , ARPA,
TX&2 MIT Lincoln Lab AN/FSQ&32 System Development Corporation
(Santa Monica, CA)
1200 /. 1967 , &
, &
ARPA, RAND NPL. ,
(National Physical Laboratory NPL), &

768 /, , &
.
1969 & DDP&516 Honey&
well 12K
ARPANET: & (University
of California Los Angeles UCLA), (Stanford Re&
search Institute SRI), &
. AT&T &
50 /.
(Charley Kline) UCLA,
SRI. 29 1969 .
G LOG&
IN. , ARPANET &
&
&
,
. RFC
(Request for Comments) &
(hosts) .
, ,
1970
ARPANET: ., ., .. &
ARPA.
1971 15 (23 ),
&
.
:
(SENDMSG) &
(CPYNET). Mod&
el 33 Tomlinson 1972 . @ &
.

Ethernet. Alto &
Xerox PARC, Ethernet 1973 . &

07 - Chap 4.p65

96

26.11.2001, 11:17

97

Alto Aloha System. ARPANET 1973


2000.
Merit .25, &
,
, ARPANET.
1974 (Vint Cerf, Bob
Kahn)
IEEE Transactions on Com&
munications A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunica&
tion TCP, &
. &
C (11, 1999).
, TCP,
. , ,
, , &
MCI
.
&
MsgGroup. &
SF&Lovers.

(RFC 733). 1976 (Bell Labo&
ratories) AT&T UUCP (&
Unix&Unix), &
UNIX.
1978 TCP TCP IP, &
TCP/IP.
1980 , 1983

ARPANET, NCP
(Network Control Protocol), 1970 . &
TCP/IP,
ARPA &
Berkeley UNIX, TCP/IP.

, ,
TCP/IP,
, TCP/IP.
ARPANET 1983 :
DARPANET ( ) MILNET ( ).
, ARPANET
1990 , . , TCP/IP
&
, & , &

7. ..

07 - Chap 4.p65

97

26.11.2001, 11:17

98

, , ,
. 1984
(DNS). IP& .
1984 , Neuromancer, &
. , &
, 1000, 1987
10000.
, &
, &
1985 NSFNET ( ).
NSFNET ,
. &
1988 &
56 /. 1986 NSFNET &
, .
NSFNET &
OC&3 (155 /) . NSFNET &
1995 , MERIT.
, MERIT , &
,
NSFNET, .
1988 A (Jarkko Oikari&nen)
Internet Relay Chat (IRC). &
, 1 1988 Internet
Worm 6000 .
1989 100000 ,
1990 300000. &
, & (Tim Ber&
ners&Lee) CERN, , &
World Wide Web (WWW). &
WWW &
, . 1992 &
1 , 1993 &
www.whitehouse.gov
president@whitehouse.gov . . 2 ,
&
, , , www.vatican.va.
1995 Sun Microsystems
(James Gosling) &
Java, &
&.
1996 25 ,
, , 10 .

07 - Chap 4.p65

98

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99

2000 300 &


. &
80 . ,
, &
2004 &
.

4.2
, &
. &
, ,
. &
& . , &
, &
, &
. &
; ,
, .
,
. &
CERT,
IAB, IETF, IESG, IRTF, ICANN The Internet Society ( &
, ISOC).

(CERT) &,
, &
. CERT ARPA 1998
,
.
(IAB), *
,
12 ,
& , &
. IAB &
() : IETF IRTF. ,
.
(IETF) , &

, , &
.
(RFC).
,
(IESG).

07 - Chap 4.p65

99

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100

* (IRTF)
,
.
(ICANN)
, 1999 . ICANN
,
IANA ,
IP& . &
16& 0
65 536.
0 1 023 &
. :
25 SMTP ( ),
80 HTTP ( )
107 Telnet. /
TCP/IP, &
, &
. ICANN IP& ,
;
.
(ISOC) ,
&
. &
IESG .

4.3
& ,
, , , &
.
&
&
. .
. &
, &
, &
. , &
, , &
, . &
: ,
,
.

IPv4 ( 4),
IP, &

07 - Chap 4.p65

100

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101

. IPv4,
RFC 791,
32 , 232 ( 4 294 967 296) .
IP&
.
, , ,
, ( A, B,
C, D E). (Network ID) &
, Host ID
1 .
0. &
(
128 27). 24 &
,
16 777 216 (224 ). &
. &
IBM Corpora&
tion, Hewlett&Packard Company, Ford Motor Company .
B &
10. 14 &
, 16 384 (214).
16 , &
65 536 (216).
C &
110. 21 ,
2 097 152. 8
, &
256 (28).
C.
D
1110.
, 28 &
.
E
1111. &
.
, IP&, &
. 32&

xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, &
0 255, (28 = 256 0&255).
1&127, 128&191,
192&223.
1
,
, .. .

07 - Chap 4.p65

101

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102

,
(ICANN) IP& ,
. IP& , &
,
. , ,
,
.
IP& .
IP&
. , &
.
IP& &
IP& , &
, &
.
IP& .
IP& &
, DHCP ( *
). ,
xDSL, &
IP&.
xDSL , &
.
, IP 4 &
32 , 232 ( 4 294 967 296) &
.
TCP/IP IPv4 &
,
, , , &

.
,
,
. , &
,
. , &
( &
) 10 000 , &
, 100 1000.
, , , &
IETF 90& RFC 1518
RFC 1519 *
(CIDR). CIDR (su*

07 - Chap 4.p65

102

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103

pernetting), , &
. &
, (,
194 195). CIDR, &
, , &
,
. , CIDR
IP&, , , &
IP& .
IPv6
128 , 2128 &
, 340.282.366.920.938.463.463.374.607.431.768.211.456.
,
, 32
, , .
IP& &
, , , &
, &
IPv6 . IPv6 &
,

.
IPv4. ,
, IP&
. ().
(DNS), &
ICANN, , &
, , :
... 45
( ) &
(TLD) . TLD,
,
: (net, com, org)
(ru, fi, ua).
ICANN IANA &
&. IANA,
TLD
(InterNIC) Network Solutions Inc. &
,
. , InterNIC &
.com $70 $35 &
. 1999 InterNIC &
, 1999 &

07 - Chap 4.p65

103

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104

25
1999 . ICANN , &
,
.
, &
IP&; &
,
.

4.4
&
,
&
.
,
&
,
. &
, &
. ,
, , , &

(Open Systems Interconnection OSI), &
ITU&T
. ,

, .
. 4.1 ,
ARPA, OSI, &
.
ARPA
, , &
, , ,
. , OSI
,
&
, .
.
ARPA
&
, .. OSI &
.
, ,

07 - Chap 4.p65

104

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105

, , &
(,
CSMA/CD Ethernet), . 2
, &
, ( , &
, ..),
.

OSI

ARPA

,
,
.
.
& HTTP, FTP, SMTP ..


(Application Layer)

(Presentation Layer)


.
( )
7, .
& TCP, UDP.


(Session Layer)

(Process/ Application Layer)


(Host&to&Host Layer)


(Transport Layer)
.
(
ICMP). , IP.
OSPF.


(Network Layer)

(Data Link Layer)

(Physical Layer)

.

, .
& PPP, LAPD, L_2 Ethernet.


(Internet Layer)


(Network Interface
or Local Network Layer)


.
, ,
.
E1, V.35, SDH, Ethernet.

. 4.1 OSI

,
(datagram), . &
,
TCP/IP. , &
, &
. &
,
TCP/IP . &
, ,
IP. , &
.
,
&
, RIP, EGP,
BGP, OSPF .
2
(Ethernet, HDLC)
(frame).

07 - Chap 4.p65

105

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106

(Address Resolution Protocol


ARP) IP& , &
(, Ethernet). , &
, ARP
IP,
.
Internet Control Message Pro&
tocol (ICMP) &
&

. ICMP &
TCP/IP.
,
. &
&
. , &
,
. &
TCP UDP.
&
. ,
. , &
FTP. Web&
HTTP. FTP HTTP
TCP. Telnet &
. SNMP &

, ,
. ,
, RTP ,
. X Window
.
.
, IP
,
, . , IP, ARP, ICMP, TCP,
UDP TCP/IP &
,
( FTP, Web ).

4.5 IP 4
&
TCP/IP IP, &

07 - Chap 4.p65

106

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107

, &
. IP &
, &

. IP &
IP&,
&
. , Internet Protocol &
: IP

.
IP ,
.
(flow&control). &
, ,
, .
IP , &
. &
, IP, &
,
,
,
. &
, , ,
,
.
, IP&,
IP&, &
, . &
,
IP &
3 .
. 4.2
IP .
(version) &
IP, 4. &
,
.
(header length), 4 , &
, &
32 .
5.
3
IP 6
, .

07 - Chap 4.p65

107

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108

(Version)

. 4.2 IP&

(Type of Service) ,
&
.
IP& &
.
10.
(Total Length) &
(), .
65535 , &
, ,
, 576 . ,
, &
.
IP 3 &
/ . , &
, ,
, .
(Identifier)
, &
.
(Flags)
, , &
.
(Fragment Offset) &
,
8 .

07 - Chap 4.p65

108

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109

(TTL Time To Live) &


, . &

, , TTL &
. TTL &
, , ,
& , ,
.
(Protocol)
(TCP, UDP ..).
(Header Checksum) &
.
, &
.
IP&
(Source) (Destination), &
.
IPv4 RFC&791.

4.6 IP 6
90&
, &

.
&
TCP/IP, &
RSVP, MPLS .. ,
&
IP, &

.
, &
,
.

IP.
, &
&
, .
, , &
IP.

07 - Chap 4.p65

109

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110

IETF
IPng, &
IPv6.
IP,
&
, .
, &
,
IPSec .
IP &
, :
;

;
.
IP 1992 , &
&
. IETF ,
1998 &
, IPv6
(RFC 2460 Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification), &
(RFC 2373 IP Version 6 Ad&
dressing Architecture).
, IPv6.
. IP &
&
128 . &
, , &
( &
), &
. &
,
.
(
) IPv6
,
.
,
(CIDR), &
. , &
&
(anycast), IPv6 &
.

07 - Chap 4.p65

110

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111

6 IP ,

, &
. , &
,
:
FEDC:0A96:0:0:0:0:7733:567A.
, IPv4 IPv6,
4 &
, :
0:0:0:0:0:FFFF:194.135.75.104.
. IPv6
:
unicast;
multicast;
anycast.

, .
unicast &

IPv4. &
6
.
multicast , &
.
11111111 , &
.
, . &
, . &
IPv6 scope, ,
,
, , &
. , , &
, , &
.
anycast , , mul&
ticast, .
, & , , &
. &
unicast
. Anycast
. &

07 - Chap 4.p65

111

26.11.2001, 11:17

112

unicast anycast
. anycast &
. , &
&
, anycast, &
. &
&
.
IPv6 &
, .. ,
. &
: , (Link&Local),
, (Site&Local),
.
15% &
IPv6, &
, .
.
&
, &
, , &
, , &
, .

, ,
, &
, . &

, .
IPv6 40
(. 4.3).

(4 )


(8 )

(16 )


(20 )
.
(8 )
(8 )

(128 )

(128 )

. 4.3 IPv6

(Traffic Class)
(Type Of Service),

07 - Chap 4.p65

112

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113

(Hop Limit) (Time To Live) IPv4, &


.
(Flow Label) &

. &
.
(Next Header)
(Protocol) IPv4 ,
.
Next Header. &
, , &
TCP, UDP, OSPF,
.
IPv6
.
Routing , &
.
Fragmentation &
.
Authentication ,
.
Encapsulation ,
.
Hop&by&Hop Options &
.
Destination Options
.
. &
IPv6
, &
.

.

.

.

. &
(
Path MTU discovery

8. ..

07 - Chap 4.p65

113

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114

IPv4) ,
. ,
IPv6, , &
ICMP
, &
.
&
, ,
.
, &
(, ),

.

MAC& ,
ARP.
IP 6. IPv6 &
,

, &
. , &
IPv6 IPv4,
:
&
, , &
, &
TCP/IP.
.
,
IPv4 IPv6 . &
. &

IPv4& IPv6,
, IPv4.
, &
.
&
. ,
. &
IPv6 6Bone,
IPv6
,
.

07 - Chap 4.p65

114

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115

4.7 TCP
Transmission Con&
trol Protocol (TCP)
. TCP
&
, .
, TCP &
. &
.
, &
, , &
. &
, , &
, TCP
. , TCP &
&
. , &
, , &
.
TCP
,
, &
, , , IP.
TCP &
, , , &
, , &

. &
&
. TCP&
, , IP.
TCP& , TCP& &
.
TCP&
,
.
, &
TCP/IP Internet,
. 4.4.
, ,
, , . &
Ethernet, &

07 - Chap 4.p65

115

26.11.2001, 11:17

116

. &

TCP/IP.

TCP

UDP

IP

ARP

Ethernet
Ethernet

. 4.4
TCP/IP

,
TCP.
4.7.1 , ,

&
, Internet&
, & (sockets), &
. TCP& &
Internet IP& &
TCP&.
, &
. TCP &
TCP.
, TCP, FTP (File Trans&
fer Protocol, ). &
: FTP/TCP/IP/Ethernet. &
UDP (User Datagram Protocol, &
) &
UDP. UDP &
, , SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol, &
). &
: SNMP/UDP/IP/ Ethernet.

. ,
&

07 - Chap 4.p65

116

26.11.2001, 11:17

117


. &
.
TCP, UDP Ethernet
n x 1. , &
.
1 n. ,
&
( Ethernet& ). &
Ethernet& Ethernet,
ARP, IP. (&
, &
Ethernet&.)
IP& IP, &
TCP, UDP, &
Protocol IP&. TCP&
TCP, ,
, &
TCP&.
, &
, ,
.
,
, , .
&
. TCP ,
, , &
. ,
, &, , &
HTTP, FTP, SMTP ., &
, . ,
&
, . , Internet&,
, &
, 80 (
WWW). ,
, &
n x m, . . &
.
4.7.2 TCP,
TCP& &
. &
TCP&
TCP& .

07 - Chap 4.p65

117

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118

, &
(, HTTP, SMTP . .). &

TCP&. , &
. &
, &
.
TCP&
. , TCP&,
SYN,
.
SYN ACK,
. &
, TCP&,
SYN ACK &
ACK.
&
, . &
,
, .. &
, , &
.
, &
, FIN. &
.
4.7.3
, ,
&
.

.
TCP , &
, &
. &
( TCP, ),
, . &
,
&
. ,
. &
, &
. , TCP &
.

07 - Chap 4.p65

118

26.11.2001, 11:17

119


, , &
, &
. &
&
. , . .
. TCP& (ac&
knowledgment number), &
. ,
: .

.
&
, &

.
,
. &
, ,
, .. &
&
. &
&
, , ,
.
, 32&&
ISN (Initial Sequence Number). &
32 ,
4 ( 4,55 ). &
. ,
MSL Maximum Life Time,
. ,
&
.
&
, &
.
4.7.4
TCP
.
,
() & &
( TCP&),

07 - Chap 4.p65

119

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120

, &
. , &
, &
,
.
&
, .
, &
(acknowledgment number). &
,
,
. , &
.
,
, &
. &
, , , &
.
.
TCP
&
.
4.7.5
IP&&
. TCP .
TCP . 4.5.




U A PRS F
&

RSS Y I

G HNN

. 4.5 TCP

(Source Port, 16 ).
(Destination Port,16 ).
(Sequence Number, 32 ). &
SYN,
. SYN , &
(ISN),
ISN+1.

07 - Chap 4.p65

120

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121

(Acknowledgment Number, 32 )
,
. &
.
(Data Offset,4 )
32& TCP&.
(Reserved, 6 ) .
( ):
URG ,
, ,
PSH ,
RST ,
SYN ,
FIN .
(Window, 16 ) &
, ,
, .
(Checksum, 16 ).
(Urgent Pointer, 16 ).
,
.
URG.
(Options) ,
.
(Padding) , &
, 32&.
TCP RFC&793,
RFC&1180.

4.8 UDP
User Datagram
Protocol (UDP) &
TCP &
, &
.
UDP IP &
,
IP. UDP &

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122

, .. ;
,
, . . &
UDP.
IP& UDP &
UDP& (. 4.6).

. 4.6 UDP&

(Source Port)
, . &
. ,
.
(Destination Port) &
, .
(Length) UDP& &
, , .
.
(Checksum) &
,
. , &
.
IP, , &
IP& UDP,
, UDP.
IP UDP
, .
, , . UDP TCP &
(RFC&1071),
UDP& &
. , UDP& &
, , , &
, .
UDP
RFC&768.

4.9 IP1
3 &
, &

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123

IP. &
( ) &
. ,
,
.
.
&
, , , &
.
.
, &
E1.
(, ,
) &
, .
, &
, &
.

. ,
/,

4 32 /, &
64 /, / &
/ (HDTV), (&
, , ..). &
. ,

12 (G.164), 400
. , 3, &

, .
(, &
) 500 , &
&
&
.
&
(),
. &
&
.
, &
. , 0,1%

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124

, , &
&
99,9% . ,

, , , &
.
&
, , &
, &
. , &
&
, ..
, .
, &
, .
. ,
, &
, .
, , ,
&
, .
&
, &
.
, &
. , &
( , &
..), &
.
, &
( , &
, ) &
.
IP& ,
&
.
&
.
.
IP& , &
, .
, 24 7
, .. . ,
, , &

07 - Chap 4.p65

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125

99.999%,
3 40 (!) . &
, &
. , &
, , &
, . &
IP &
IP&.
, , ,
, &
(WWW, &
, ..), , , &
, &
, &
.

4.10 RTP RTCP


, &
,
(, UDP).
&
,
. , &
, (, ) &
, &
. &
, ,
, &
, &
. IETF &
Realtime Transport
Protocol (RTP), &
, &
.
IP& &
() ,
, , ,
. ,
&
, .

. &
10 ,

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126

. , ,
, , &

.
RTP
.
, , &
,
. &
,
,
. RTP UDP &
, &
.
, &
, TCP,
. &,
.
, ,
. &, &
TCP &
. &
,
. &
, &
, ,
. &
&
, .
RTP &
, &
. RTP&
, .


.
, RTP &
&
,
. ,
RTP &
. , RTP&, , &
, &
,

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127

,
.
. 4.7 RTP&, &
, ,
, , ,
.
0

2 3 4
V=2 P X

8 9
CC

31

16


SSRC
CSRC
...

. 4.7 RTP&

V (2 ) .
.
(1 ) . &
. , &
, &
, , 32 .
(1 ) . ,
, &
RTP.
(4 ) . &
, , &
.
(1 ) . &
.
. &
.
.
(7 ) .
, .

, &
,

(Real&Time Transport Control Protocol).
(Sequence Number, 16 ).
, &
RTP.

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128


. &
,
, , , , &
.
(Timestamp, 32 ). , &
. ,
,
. .
SSRC (Synchronization Source Identifier, 32 )
.
, &
. &
, &
.
CSRC (Contributing Source Identifier, 32 ) &
,
RTP&. () &
SSRC , &
RTP&.
: 0 15. 15,
15. , &
RTP&
SSRC. & &
CSRC.
SSRC.
RTP&
RTCP (Real Time Control Protocol).
RTCP &
&
. RTCP (
, ) &
, , ..

, &
.
RTP RTCP RFC&1889.

4.11
&
&&
&&.

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129

TCP/IP
. , &
(unicast) &
&
.

, , &
(broadcast). &
, ,
. &
&
, ,
.
&
, &
, &
.
, .
IP& multicast.
, &
IP&, IGMP (Internet Group
Management Protocol), DVMRP (Distance Vector Multicast Routing
Protocol), PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast).

9. ..

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