Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 512

1

1.1

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1.2

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1.3

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1.3.1

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1.3.2

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1.3.3

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1.4.1

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1.4.2

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1.4.3

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1.5

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1.6

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1.7

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1.8

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1.4

2.1

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2.2

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2.2.1

(6<<14) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.2

(15<<39) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.3

(40<<100) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.4

(>101)

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2.3

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2.4

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2.5

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(216)

10

3.1

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10

3.2

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10

3.3

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10

3.4

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10

ii
4

Android
4.1

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12

4.2

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13

4.3

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14

4.3.1

Android Developer Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

4.3.2

Google Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

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15

4.4.1

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16

4.4.2

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16

4.5

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16

4.6

16

4.7

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17

4.8

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17

4.9

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18

4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

4.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

CleverBot

22

5.1

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22

5.2

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22

4.4

12

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Inspiration Mars Foundation

23

6.1

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23

6.1.1

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24

6.2

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24

6.3

24

6.4

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24

6.5

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25

6.6

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25

6.7

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25

6.8

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25

6.9

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25

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Mars Direct
7.1

7.2

27

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27

7.1.1

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27

7.1.2

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27

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28

7.2.1

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28

7.2.2

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28

7.2.3

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28

7.2.4

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28


7.3

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28

7.3.1

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

7.3.2

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28

7.3.3

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29

7.4

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29

7.5

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29

7.5.1

Mars Semi-Direct

29

7.5.2

Design Reference Missions

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30

7.5.3

Mars Direct SpaceX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

7.5.4

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30

7.6

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30

7.7

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30

7.8

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31

7.9

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31

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Mars One

32

8.1

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32

8.1.1

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32

8.1.2

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32

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33

8.2.1

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33

8.2.2

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33

8.2.3

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34

8.2.4

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34

8.2.5

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34

8.2.6

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35

8.3

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35

8.4

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35

8.5

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35

8.6

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35

8.7

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36

8.8

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36

8.8.1

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36

8.8.2

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36

8.8.3

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36

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37

8.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

8.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

8.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

Mars Sample Return Mission

39

9.1

39

8.2

8.9

iii

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iv

9.2

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39

9.3

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39

9.4

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39

10 OSIRIS-REx

40

10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

10.2

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40

10.2.1 OCAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

10.2.2 OLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

10.2.3 OVIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

10.2.4 OTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

10.2.5 REXIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

10.2.6 TAGSAM

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41

10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

10.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

10.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

11 RQ-16 T-Hawk
11.1

42

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42

11.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

11.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

12

43

12.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

12.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

12.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

12.4

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44

12.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

12.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

12.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

12.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

13

45

13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1.1

45

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46

13.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

14

47

14.1

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47

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47

14.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

14.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

14.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

14.2

14.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
15.1

50
51

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51

15.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

15.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

15.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

15.3

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52

15.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

15.4

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55

15.4.1 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

15.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

15.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

15.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

15.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

15.7.1 GPS-

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58

15.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

15.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

15.10

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59

15.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

16

61

16.1

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61

16.2 XXI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

16.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

16.3.1

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63

16.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

16.3.3 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

16.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

16.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

16.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

16.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

16.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

16.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

16.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

16.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

16.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

17

68

17.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

17.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

17.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

vi

17.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

17.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

17.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

17.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

18 2

71

18.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

18.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

18.1.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

18.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

18.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

18.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

18.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

18.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

18.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

19 2033

75

19.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

19.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

19.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

19.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

19.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

19.3 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

19.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

19.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

19.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

20

77

20.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.2

77

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

20.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

20.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

20.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

20.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

20.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

20.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

20.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

20.3

21
21.1

81
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

21.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

21.3

82

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii

21.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

21.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

21.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

22
22.1

84
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

22.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

22.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

22.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

22.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

22.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

23

86

23.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

23.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

23.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

23.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

23.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

23.3.3 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

23.3.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

23.3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

23.3.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

23.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

23.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

23.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

23.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

23.4

24

91

24.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

24.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

24.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

24.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

24.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

24.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

25

93

25.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

25.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

25.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

25.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

25.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

25.4

viii

25.4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

25.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

25.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

25.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

25.4.2

26
26.1 XVIIXX

98
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26.2

98

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

26.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

26.2.1

26.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
26.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
26.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
26.2.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

26.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
26.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

26.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
26.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
26.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
26.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
27
27.1

104

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

27.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

27.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
27.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
27.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
28
28.1

107

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

28.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
28.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
28.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
28.5 NPC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

28.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
28.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
29

112

29.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
29.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
29.1.2 ,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

29.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

ix

29.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
29.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
29.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

29.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
29.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
29.3.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

29.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
29.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
29.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
29.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
29.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
29.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
30 1

116

30.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
30.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

30.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
31

117

31.1 (2010 )
31.1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

31.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
31.1.3 Mycoplasma genitalium (2008 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
31.1.4 Mycoplasma mycoides (2010 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
31.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
31.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
31.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
32

121

32.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
32.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
32.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . 122

32.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
32.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
32.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
32.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
32.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
32.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
32.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
32.5.1
32.5.2
32.5.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

32.5.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

32.5.5
32.5.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

32.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
32.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
32.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
32.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
33

132

33.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

33.2 XIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133


33.3 XX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
33.4 XXI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
33.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
33.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
33.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
33.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
34

141

34.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
34.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

34.3 XVII - XVIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144


34.4 XIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
34.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

34.6 XX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
34.7 XX - XXI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

34.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
34.7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

34.8 XX - XXI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152


34.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
34.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
34.9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
34.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
34.11 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
34.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
34.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
35

158

35.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
35.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

35.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
35.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

xi

35.3.1 KEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160


35.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
35.3.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

35.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

35.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
35.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
35.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
35.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
36

163

36.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

36.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
36.1.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

36.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
36.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
36.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
37

165

37.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
37.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
37.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
38
38.1

166
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

38.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
38.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
38.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
38.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
38.4.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

38.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
38.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
38.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
38.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
39 ()
39.1

170
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

39.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
39.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
39.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
39.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
39.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
40

172

xii

40.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
40.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
40.3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
40.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

40.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
40.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
40.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
40.6.2 Lunar Oasis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

40.6.3 XXI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175


40.6.4 XXI
40.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

40.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
40.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
40.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
40.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
41

179

41.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
41.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

41.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

41.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
41.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
41.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
41.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
41.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
41.3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

41.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
41.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
41.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

41.5.1 Mars One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184


41.5.2 Inspiration Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
41.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
41.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
41.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
41.8 ()
41.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

41.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
41.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
41.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
41.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
41.13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
41.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

xiii

42

189

42.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
42.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
42.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
42.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
42.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
42.1.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

42.1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
42.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
42.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
43

191

43.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
43.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
43.1.2
43.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

43.2.1 . . . . . . . . . 192
43.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

43.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
43.3.2 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
43.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
43.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
43.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
43.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
43.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
43.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
43.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

43.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
43.9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
43.9.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
43.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
43.10.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

43.10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
43.11

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

43.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
43.13

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

43.13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
43.14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
43.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
43.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
44

201

xiv

44.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

44.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
44.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
44.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
44.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
44.5.1
44.5.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

44.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
44.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
44.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
44.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
45

206

45.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
45.2
45.3
45.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

45.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
45.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
45.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
45.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
46
46.1

209
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

46.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

46.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
46.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
46.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
46.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
46.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
47

211

47.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
47.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
47.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
47.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
47.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

47.2.1 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
47.2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

47.3 : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
47.3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

47.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

xv

47.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
47.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
47.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
48

215

48.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

48.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
48.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
48.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
48.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
48.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
49

217

49.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
49.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
49.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
49.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
49.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
49.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

49.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
49.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
49.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
50

219

50.1
50.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

50.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
50.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

50.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
50.4.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

50.4.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

50.4.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

50.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
50.6
50.7 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

50.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
51

224

51.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
51.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
51.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
52 -

225

xvi

52.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
52.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

52.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
52.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

52.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
52.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
52.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
52.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
53
53.1

230
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

53.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
53.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
54

231

54.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
54.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
54.2.1 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
54.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

54.4
54.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

54.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
54.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
54.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
55
55.1

234

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

55.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
55.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
55.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
56

235

56.1
56.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

56.2.1 ( 1945 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236


56.2.2 -

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

56.2.3 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
56.2.4 1957 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
56.2.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

56.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
56.4 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
56.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

56.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

xvii

56.6.1 () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
56.6.2
56.6.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

56.6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
56.6.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
56.7 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
56.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
56.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
56.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
56.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
57 ( )

243

57.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
57.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
57.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

57.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
57.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
57.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
57.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
58 9

247

58.1 71
58.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

58.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

58.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
58.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
58.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
58.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
58.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
58.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
58.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
59

251

59.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
59.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
59.3
59.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

59.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
59.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
59.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
59.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
59.5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

xviii

59.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
59.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
59.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

59.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
59.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
59.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
59.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
59.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

59.8.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

59.8.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

59.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
59.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
59.9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
59.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
59.10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
59.10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
59.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
59.11.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
59.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
59.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
59.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
59.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
60 500

276

60.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
60.2 14- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
60.3 105- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
60.4 520- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
60.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
60.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
60.6.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

60.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
60.6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
60.6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
60.6.5 -

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

60.7 -

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

60.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
60.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
60.10

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

60.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
60.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
60.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

xix

60.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
61 79

285

61.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
62

286

62.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

62.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
62.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
62.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
62.1.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

62.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
62.1.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

62.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
62.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
63

291

63.1
63.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

63.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
63.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

63.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
63.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
63.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
63.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
64

295

64.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
64.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

64.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
64.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

64.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
64.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
64.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
64.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
65 2033

299

65.1 2033

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

65.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

65.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

65.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

65.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
65.5 2033 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

xx

65.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
65.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
65.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
65.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

66 ()

303

66.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
66.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

66.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

66.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
66.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
66.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
66.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
66.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

66.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
66.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
66.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
66.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
66.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
66.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
67

309

67.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

67.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
67.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
68

311

68.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
68.1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

68.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
68.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
68.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
68.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
68.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
68.3.2 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
68.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
68.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
68.4.2 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
68.4.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

68.4.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

68.4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
68.4.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

xxi

68.4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
68.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

68.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
68.7
68.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

68.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
68.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
68.9.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

68.9.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
68.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
68.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
68.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
69
69.1

319
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

69.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
69.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

69.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
69.5 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
69.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
69.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
69.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
70

322

70.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

70.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
70.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

70.3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

70.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
70.4.1 3D

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

70.4.2 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
70.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
70.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
70.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
70.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
70.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
70.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
71 - 2010

326

71.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
71.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
72

327

xxii

72.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

72.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
72.1.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

72.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
72.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
72.1.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

72.1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
72.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
72.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
72.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
72.3.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

72.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

72.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
72.4.2
72.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

72.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
72.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
73

336

73.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

73.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

73.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
73.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
73.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
73.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
74

338

74.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
74.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
74.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
74.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
74.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

74.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
74.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
74.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
74.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
75

342

75.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
75.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
75.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
75.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

xxiii

75.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
75.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

75.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
75.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
75.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
75.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
76
76.1

346

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

76.1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

76.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
76.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
76.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
76.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

76.2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

76.2.3 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
76.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
76.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
76.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
76.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
76.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
76.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
76.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
77
77.1

356

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

77.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
77.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
77.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
77.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
77.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
77.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
77.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
77.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
77.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
77.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
78
78.1

360
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

78.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
78.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
78.2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

xxiv

78.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

78.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

78.4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

78.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
78.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
78.4.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

78.4.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

78.4.6 -

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

78.4.7 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
78.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
78.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
78.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
78.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
78.5.4 (AI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
78.5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
78.5.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
78.5.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
78.5.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

78.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
78.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

78.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
78.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
78.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
78.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
78.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
79 ()

369

79.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
79.2
79.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

79.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
79.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
79.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
80
80.1

372
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

80.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
80.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

80.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
80.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

80.4.1
80.4.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

xxv

80.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
80.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

80.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
80.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
80.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
80.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
80.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
81

380

81.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
81.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

81.2.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
81.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
81.2.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

81.2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

81.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
81.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
81.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
81.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
82

382

82.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

82.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
82.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
82.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
82.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
83 ( )

384

83.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
83.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
83.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
83.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
83.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
83.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
83.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
83.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
84 ,

387

84.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
84.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
85
85.1

388

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388

xxvi

85.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
85.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
86
86.1

390

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

86.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
86.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
86.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
87

391

87.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
87.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
87.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
88
88.1

394
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

88.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
88.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
89

395

89.1 , . . . . . . . . . 395
89.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396

89.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
89.4

. . . . . . . . . . 399

89.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
89.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
89.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
89.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
89.4.5 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
89.4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
89.4.7 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
89.4.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
89.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

89.5.1 -
89.6
89.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

89.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
89.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
89.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
89.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
89.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
89.13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
89.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407

xxvii

89.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
90

409

90.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
90.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
90.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
90.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
90.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
90.4.2 -

. . . . . . . . . . . . 410

90.4.3 . . . . . . . . . 411
90.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
90.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
90.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
90.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
90.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
91

413

91.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
92
92.1

414
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

92.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
92.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
92.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
92.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
92.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
93
93.1

417

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417

93.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
93.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
93.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
93.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
93.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
94
94.1 ?
94.2 ?

419

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419

94.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
94.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
94.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
94.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
94.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420

xxviii

94.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
95 -

421

95.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
95.1.1
95.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422

95.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
95.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423

95.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
95.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
95.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
95.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
95.7.2
95.7.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

95.7.4
95.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427

95.8.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428

95.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
95.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
95.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
95.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
96 - 2

433

96.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
96.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

96.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
96.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
96.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
96.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
96.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
97 2

435

97.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
97.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
97.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

97.3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

97.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
97.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
97.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
98

437

98.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
98.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

xxix

98.2.1
98.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

98.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
98.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
98.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
99

439

99.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
99.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
99.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
99.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
100

441

100.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
100.1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

100.2 () () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
100.3 2016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
100.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
100.3.2 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
100.3.3 2016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
100.4 2020 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
100.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
100.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
100.5- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
100.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
100.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
100.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
100.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
100.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
101
101.1

449
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

101.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

101.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450

101.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
101.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
101.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
101.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
101.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
101.6 * [13]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

101.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

xxx

101.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
101.9 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
101.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
101.9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
101.9.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468

, .

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(predestination)* [5].
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1.6.
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).

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2. . . . , 1997.
3. / . ., 1993.
4. . . :
. .,1990.
5. . . 2- . .,1995.
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8. , . .
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, ,
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, Google* [2], * [3]
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Linux* [5] Java Google.
Android Inc.,
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(OHA),
. Android Java-,
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2009 . , 1.1
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,
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*
*
Android [8] [10].
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*
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Android
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OpenGL ES 1.0 ES 2.0 ( ); Surface Manager (
2D/3D); WebKit ( ; HTML, JavaScript); FreeType
( ); SQLite (
, ); SSL (,
). Linux Android * [54]: Content Providers
; Resource Manager
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JPEG; Notification Manager ; Activity Manager .
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Kit), x86- Linux, Mac OS X (10.4.8
), Windows XP, Windows Vista Windows 7.
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Android
Java ( Java 1.5).
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2013 Google 29 2015 Google
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. 30 * [62].

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275 . )* [60].
27 2009 ADC2
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., ., . Google
Android:
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, 2011. 736 . ISBN 978-5-459-005301.

21
, . Android 4
.
= Pro
Android 4. .: . 880 . ISBN 9785-8459-1801-7.
., . Android.
. .: , 2010.
400 . ISBN 978-5-9790-0113-5.
. Android:
= Android Application Development
For Dummies. .: , 2011. 336 .
ISBN 978-5-8459-1748-5.

4.11.
Android

(.).

2013.

19

Android Developers (.). Google Groups.


Google on Android (.). Google Developers.
Android-.

Google Android
Android Market. 3DNews.
Google Android 2009 . 3DNews.
Google Android . 3DNews.

CleverBot
Cleverbot ( . ) ,


(
, ). 1988
(. Rollo Carpenter),
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, Cleverbot

.
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[1] No, A 'Supercomputer' Did NOT Pass The Turing Test
For The First Time And Everyone Should Know Better |
Techdirt
[2] Software tricks people into thinking it is human tech
06 September 2011 New Scientist

5.2.
CleverBot

22

Inspiration Mars Foundation


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Mars Direct
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1990, 1996 The Case for
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two or three decked vertical cylinders ~8 m in diameter
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4
.* [15]

7.8.
[1] The Mars Society http://www.marssociety.org/home/
about/purpose Retrieved 9/30/12
[2] Remarks on the 20th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon
Landing (2012). 1 2012.
[3] 90 Day Review: The 90 day review of President H.W.
Bush's SEI plan (October 19, 2010). 1 2012. 28 2004.
[4] Thompson, Elvia Daniel Saul Goldin (November 4,
2009). 1 2012.
29 2006.
[5] Scott J. Gill (Director), Joshua B. Dasal (Writer), Scott J.
Gill (Writer). The Mars Underground [Documentary].
[6] Zubrin Robert. The Case for Mars. 1st Touchstone.
Free Press;. P. 51. ISBN 0684835509.
[7] Lat-Lon LLC. Colorado Secretary of State.
[8] Professor H.G. Sderbaum. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1912 (2 Sep 2012). 2 2012.
[9] Mark Wade. Ares Mars Direct. 1
2012.
[10] Mars Direct: Humans to Mars in 1999! (1990)
[11] Kanas Nicholas. Space Psychology and Psychiatry.
2nd. El Segundo, California, and Dordrecht, The
Netherlands: Microcosm Press and Springer, 2008.
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near-term piloted Mars missionsin AIAA932089,29th AIAA/ASME Joint Propulsion Conference..
:Citeseerx.
[13] D.Willson and J.D.A Clarke A Practical Architecture
for Exploration-Focused Manned Mars Missions Using
Chemical Propulsion, Solar Power Generation and InSitu Resource Utilisation. Proceedings of the 6th
Australian Space Science Conference, p.186-211, 2006
[14] Mars Society Australia Mars-Oz web site 12 2014 Wayback Machine
[15] :

31

7.9.
Mars Direct / The Mars Society (.)
Mars Direct: Humans to the Red Planet within a
Decade / Dr. Robert Zubrin (Pioneer Astronautics)
(.)
The Promise of Mars, Robert Zubrin // Ad Astra
May/June 1996 (.)
Mars Direct / Encyclopedia Astronautica (.)
MARS DIRECT: HUMANS TO MARS IN 1999!
(1990) / Wired, 2013-04-15 (.)

Mars One
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[6] Mars Ones CEO Bas Lansdorp answers questions about


mission feasibility. Mars One (19 March 2015). 14 2015.
[7] Tiny Greenhouse Could Fly Plants to Mars in 2018.
space.com (06.01.2015).
[8] Anne Sewell. Mars One: Human settlement on Mars in
2023. Digital Journal (1 June 2012). 6
2012.
[9] What are the qualifications to apply?. 16 2013. 22 2013. (.)
[10] 100
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30 2013.
[11] Jennifer Juarez, Elizabeth Landau. More than 100,000
want to go to Mars and not return, project says (.).
CNN (15 August 2013). 30 2013.
[12]
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2013). 30 2013.
[13] Deadline approaching: Ten days remain to join aspiring
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August 2013). 30 2013.
[14] // , 21.01.2014
[15] Over 200,000 apply to first ever recruitment for Mars
settlement. 10 2013.
[16] Mars One
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[17] Mars One:
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[18] http://aspiringmartians.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/
02/Round2Infographic22_zps1dd31954.png
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8.11.

[22] One-Way Mars Colony Project to Simulate Red Planet


on Earth

[1] Mars Transit Vehicle (.)

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Bengtson

[2] -
[3] About Mars One*
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[5] Mars One

[24] Mars One. The Mars 100: Mars One Announces Round
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[25] Mars One. Meet the Mars 100
[26] Mars One Astronauts Mission Mars One
[27] Mars One: How long does it take to travel to Mars?

38

8. MARS ONE

[28] Mars One 24 210- .


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[31] Contributors - Mars One. 27 2013.
29 2013.
[32] MarsOne-donate
[33] Mars One Suppliers
[34] SSTL selected for first private Mars mission
[35] Mars One Selects Lockheed Martin to Study First Private
Unmanned Mission to Mars
[36] Mars One How much radiation will the settlers be
exposed to?
[37] Measurements of Energetic Particle Radiation in Transit
to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory
[38] Measurements of Energetic Particle Radiation in Transit
to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory C. Zeitlin, D. M.
Hassler, F. A. Cucinotta, B. Ehresmann, R. F. WimmerSchweingruber, D. E. Brinza, S. Kang, G. Weigle, S.
Bttcher, E. Bhm, S. Burmeister, J. Guo, J. Khler, C.
Martin, A. Posner, S. Rafkin, and G. Reitz Science 31
May 2013: 340 (6136), 10801084.
[39] F. A. Cucinotta, L. Chappell, M. Y. Kim, Space Radiation
Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties-2012 (NASA
Technical Paper 2013-217375, NASA STI Program,
Hampton, VA, 2013)
[40] Mars One
// Look At Me, 2014.
[41] Mars One // Lenta.ru, 18 2015.

8.12.

(.). YouTube.
26 2012.

Mars One: 2011 2035 (.)


(9 2014).

Mars One,
.

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10

OSIRIS-REx
Origins
Spectral
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Resource
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4 .* [12]

10.5.
[1] ,
. NASA. 6 2012. (.)
[2]
2016 . NASA.
26 2012. (.)
[3] NASA Aims to Grab Asteroid Dust in 2020 (26 May
2011)..
[4] NASAcronyms: How OSIRIS-REx Got Its Name
[5] NASA To Launch New Science Mission To Asteroid
In 2016. NASA. 24
2012.
[6] UA gets $1.2M to aid in asteroid mission (26 May 2011).
[7] OCAMS
[8] The Instruments of OSIRIS-REx. The University of
Arizona. 4 2012.
22 2013.
[9] OLA
[10] OVIRS

10.2.6. TAGSAM

[11] OTES

Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism [12] REXIS


(TAGSAM) [13] TAGSAM
. , ,
,

,
.

,
.
.
. ,
60
.* [13]

10.3. .

11

RQ-16 T-Hawk
RQ-16 T-Hawk
().

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DARPA.
. - .
2007 7,5 20
.
. 2008 . 186 , 372 ( ). T-Hawk
2011 .

11.1.
, 6,6

, .. 6
, / 81
3200
, 11
, 40

11.2.
11.3.

42

12

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12.8.
Chronology of Lunar and Planetary Exploration
NASA
ESA


, , 2009

13

DER 01 2005 ,

- , . ,

. Repliee
.

Repliee Q2 , ,

,
(. Kokoro Company Ltd.).

2003 . ,
-.

13.1.
,
,
. 42 , 47.
.

45

46

13.


, . - , .

. NextFest
2006 - , .
Actroid DER2 . ,
.

, . ,
,
. , , , .

2006- .
, ,
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,
.

. , , . - :
, .

.
, . , - , .
.
. ,
,

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,
, .

13.1.1.
Repliee Q1 Repliee
R1, 5- .
Expo
2005 , . . Repliee Qi-expo
NHK. , Repliee Q2
.
Actroid DER2 -

2011- , .
Deminoid DK,
,
.

13.2.
MacDorman, Karl F.; Ishiguro, Hiroshi (2006).
The uncanny advantage of using androids in social
and cognitive science research (pdf). Interaction
Studies 7 (3): 297337. DOI:10.1075/is.7.3.03mac.
ISSN 15720373. 2008-05-25.
Jacquemin, Christophe 'Repliee', ou l'inexorable
marche vers le robot androde? (.)(
). Le Monde (22 2005).
25 2008. 12 2005. (Google translation)

Christensen, Bill New robot looks strikingly human.


LiveScience (28 2005). 25 2008.
22 2013.

Whitehouse, David Japanese develop 'female'


android. BBC News (12 2005). 25
2008. 22
2013.

Schaub, Ben (2006-10-12). Meet my android


twin. New Scientist. 2008-05-25.
Hornyak, Tim (2006-07-20). Meet the remotecontrol self. Wired. 2008-05-25.

14

( . - , -oid .
) .
.

, .
George (1949).

14.1.

,
- - (1752 1791)* [1]* [2],

-. HenriLouis Jaquet-Droz ( - ) androde ( ).
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.

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.

,
.
,
Kokoro 2005 ()

14.2.

* [3].
-,
(. L've future)
, (Hadaly). -

47

Aiko
: , , , * [4].
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* [5].

48

14.

ASIMO , , , ()* [6].


. . Einstein Robot
, ,
. ,
* [7].
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: 1,6 , 50 - - . , EveR ,
, , .
, * [8].
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.
158 , 43 . , 42, , , ,
* [9].

14.3.

Repliee R-1 , * [10].


Repliee Q2 - Repliee Q1expo World Expo,
(Aichi), . ,
. , ,
Repliee Q2
* [11].
, .
(2010 ) . .
, . . - , , : .
, ,

,
* [12].
() , - ,
2011 .
* [13].

, Pulp-
1890-1910 . - .



. ,
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. , , ,

14.3.
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, ,
1999 ,
,
.
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: (Star Trek: The
Next Generation) ,
. , , . , , .

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Dream of Electric Sheep?).
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1, :
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49

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.

50
Android Apocalypse (2006)
.
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-.
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.

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14.

14.4. .
Android


-

14.5.
[1] . . . . . . . . .
.
[2] . . . , 1978
[3] , . ,

[4] Aiko - . .
[5] TOPIO
[6] ASIMO
[7] . .

(2012) .

.

[8] -
[9] -
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(2013)
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,
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.
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, - ,
, -

.

[12] -
[13] Woollaston V. Meet Frank, the world's first walking,
talking bionic man complete with artificial limbs and a
beating HEART (.) // Daily Mail : . 2013.
18 October.

15



, , , : :
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1
1 ;
600

50 ,
35 ;
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12 910 ;
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, . ,
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.
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52

15.

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, ,
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.

15.1.2.

15.2.

, .

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, ,
-, (GPS
, * [2].
).

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VME, VxWorks, XOberon). , , ++, 2, SA 95.
- 201

:
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15.3.

,
2015 2020 . : 45 % , 25 %
, 13 % ,
10 % , 6 % ,
1 % * [2].
, (, , , , , -

141 , 1974

1899 .

15.3.

53

1910 , ,

.
,
, .
, , The
Kattering Aerial Torpedo, Kettering Bug,
. Feldermaus.
1933
Queen Bee.
Fairy Queen,
. ,
,
, . DH82A Tiger Moth - 1934 1943 . 1940
Radioplane OQ-2 -.

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Hs 293 Fritz X (. Fritz X), Enzian (.
Enzian) ,
. , Fritz X Hs 293 . 1 ,
, . 1942
2, ,
.
.
1930 1940 . - (1 2)
:
- . 1940 .

100 ( 700
/). . 1941
3 .

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. , 1944

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,
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.

15.3.1.

23 1957

. 121 25 1960 ,
.
,
123 , 143
141 ,
1964 1979 . 143
- 1970-
Radioplane OQ-2 , .
141 -

54

15.

. 143
, (1984), , (1982),
. 1984 , ,
* [7].
1970- 1980-
143 950 .
1960- -

, RB-47 U2,
Red Wadon ( 136). .

61 , 1990

,
,
, ,
,
, .
,

18 .
. , - -
. , 147E. , 1991
, , , - ( ), - . , 75 , - , Pioneer, Pointer, Exdrone, Midge,
- Alpilles Mart, CL-89. Al Yamamah,
. Makareb-1000, Sahreb-1 Sahreb-2.
, 15 , 1973
530 , .
1700 . 28 - , 12, .
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, .
.
1992 - -
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, . ,
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15.4.

55

- , - 5 * [12]. .
, -
- 2000-2005 - , . 7* 2010 : , , - [12]:
.
,
, .

, 50 2002 , 500
2009 , .

,
.* [12]
2010 ,
,
IAI ,
. 400
; . 2011 .* [11]* [13]. ,
2012


()* [14].

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. ,

- 2011 , .

2015 X-47B (-) () -
* [8].
- () .

15.4.
15.4.1. ,
141 ( : 19791989).
123 .
17 1959 .

,
, . - 600,
MQ-1 Predator. . 2 .
5 ,
1
.

, , -, , * [9]* [10].
. , 15.4.2.

. 2008 , - . .
* [11],
- .
,

2009 - .
Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) - -
,
.* [12]

56

15.

. * [15].
, 0,6
*
, 2007 . [22]
, .
, -
* [16].
2011- , (--)
Schiebel Schiebel Camcopter S-100 ( " S100"). 2013

* [17]* [18]* [19].

,
2020, ,
.
8
24 (
) 14 2012 , - .
- .
-
. . 1700 ( . . . :
-
130) (2005 .). 400 /,
- 500 / (2005 .). 10 ,
2013 . , 1000 .
10 .

2012 . . 50
.
, 2012,
10
* [20].


,
-
, * [23]* [24]* [25]* [26].

2012
, , 10 20 .
2014 * [21].
* [23].
,
18 2012 ,
, * [27].
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-
.

,
, (
,
) 4 1,3 . ,
40 .
200 ,
4 . , -

2015 "500 .
,
6000 , 50 , 30 ,
500 . 2017 -
2018 * [28]* .

15.6.

57
2010 400 * [34].

15.6.

Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk.

15.5.

. ( 2005-2013 4.62 ).
1969 .


- ( 26 .,
- 737) .
- , , 2012 - , , ..
( , 7494 , ,
10767 ). .
RQ-11 Raven
:
5346 * [29].

MQ-1 Predator, AGM-114C
Hellfire.
2002 ,
, * [30]* [31].
2008 MQ9 Reaper 174- * [32]. . .
F-16:
, , * [32].

AeroVironment* [33]. Wasp (), Raven () Puma () 5,5 6,5 . , .
, . * [33].

;
;

15.7.
GPS , , / ,
,
, * [35]* [36].

* [37]

,
. , , ,

58

15.
. , . , Global
Hawk
50 /* [38].

- GPS
(2013).* [39]

15.7.1. GPS-
2012

GPS-* [40].
, ,
GPS-
, GPS* [41].
150 , , , , , .* [42],* [43]

15.8. .





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, , ( 2012)
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[20]
2013 // , 2012-10-09
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[24] 62 / Paralay,
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:
,
http://uav-sam.com
World UAS classification
, bp-la.ru
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modernarmy.ru
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, http://uav-sam.com
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// , 1-2, 2012. .7075
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[37]

, . : .. : , , . 2010. - 5. C. 56 - 60. (2010).

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. (.) // : . 2015.
(. 248, 2). . 39-43.
., . . (.) // :
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44-46.
.
(.) // .
: . 2015. ( 10). . 71-73.

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15.

15.11.
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,
. 160508
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:
//
bp-la.ru
// vokrugsveta.ru
// vokrugsveta.ru
:
popmech.ru

//

: // topwar.ru
() . //
modernarmy.ru

// nvo.ng.ru, 2008-07-25
// o4em.com


. ?, Security News

"
" ",

",

:
Playstation, newsru.com


2011 , ,
armstass.su
,

:
2013

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2012.

16

Swords () Special
Weapons Observation Reconnaissance Detection Systems ( )


, .

16.1.
1910 , ,

.
.

, , , The
( ) - Kattering Aerial Torpedo, Kettering Bug (
, Bug), .
, , : , , - 1931 , .
. .
- , .
, - 26, (. , ), ( , - ). 1940 (
61
- . , ,
61

62

16.
.

. - , (9.5 /), ,
(10 ),

.
.
, , , , ,

.
1948
AQM-34.
1951 ,
.
1959 .
-
17.* [1]

26 (217- 30- ), 1940.

1971 , - .
26.

: , ,
.
.
, , ,
. .

1979 , .
. ,
01.

16.2. XXI
XXI . 2007 2013 ,

2010 4 .* [2]
2000 , * [3].
2005 - .
, 100 .


, 1945 .

2006 -,
.* [4]

Foster-Miller
, -

16.3.

63
2012
DARPA Avatar.* [6]

(,
, ).* [7].

BigDog - ( )

2015 MegaBots,
, - * [8]
2016
9. , .
, . 30-
272 7,62 ,
. .
, .* [9]

16.3.
16.3.1.

. 2007
,
80 .* [5]
2007 143
, . 37
,
(, ).
137

01
.

64

16.

1 1
1 1997
2
3
123 (1)
, 1964
130
141
143
243 - , 1987
300
, 2007 .
ZALA 421-08
-
, MarkV-A1.
,

.

16.3.2.
, ,
:
Guardium .
SWORDS ( Special
Weapons Observation Reconnaissance Detection
Systems)
Wheelbarrow Mk7 (
Alvis Logistics, )* [10]
Crusher (, ) -.* [11]
Gladiator TUGV .
MULE - SWORDS .
Lockheed Martin(
Multifunction Utility Logistics Equipment).* [12]
Telemax

Rheinmetall, .

MarkV-A1
Northrop Grumman Corporation, ().

16.4.
MAARS ( Modular Advanced
Armed Robotic System
)* [13]
- .* [14]
iRobot Corporation - PackBot, SUGV,
Warrior* [15]* [16].

65
.
REMUS ( Remote Environmental
Monitoring Unit System) - , 100 , 20-
.* [19]

100 ,
.


27, 27, 25 , 25, 25, 46,
2, -- (
) (16.4.

-
.
16.4.1. )


, 3, 1600
,
( , , : . . . )
(), ,
, , , ,
- * [17]
, , .

16.4.2.
( )
,
() ( "2) . , , Code Geass,
.
, "

", ,
- - ( )
.
400 406 - -, - 400 .
, , The Transformers, :
, :
, : ,
16.3.3. ( - .

. , ,
, . , :

16.4.3.

,
Command & Conquer, Anarchy Online, HalfLife, StarCraft, Supreme Commander, Walking War
Robots, MechWarrior, Warhammer 40,000, Total Annihilation,
Transphibian - MechCommander, Metal Gear Solid, Battlefield 2142,
- Company of Heroes (),
, (RF Online), Deus Ex: Human Revolution, Call of Duty.
, . ,
16.5. .
.* [18]
micro

66




,

16.

[12] Army Guide MULE


[13] igvestia.ru
[14] - BEAR BEAR
Vecna GizMobi.Ru
[15] iRobot Warrior:
[16] SUGV
[17] "3":

16.6.
46
, :
46
-

16.7.
[1] 17. 25 2013.
27 2013.
[2] KM.RU.
[3] .

[18] How IRobot Took the Plunge into Underwater Vehicles


[19] . 2 |
3DNews Daily Digital Digest

16.8.
P. W. Singer Wired for War: The Robotics
Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century, 512
pages, Penguin (Non-Classics); Reprint edition
(December 29, 2009), ISBN 0143116843, ISBN
978-0143116844
, . : .. : ,
, . - 7 (139). C. 66 - 79. (2014).

16.9.
27 //
robocom.kz

[4] :

//
student.km.ru

[5] 10 ,
RB.ru


// student.km.ru

[6] ..,

MULE.

[7] .

[8] MegaBots Inc. on Twitter: We're totally gunna lay the
smackdown on Japan!! http://t.co/pHjv4e4xX5"
[9] :: :: 9
[10]
[11] - , ,


.
// membrana.ru
// membrana.ru
Membrana.ru :
// membrana.ru
// membrana.ru

16.9.

67

Boston Dynamics
BigDog


: . , SWORDS MAARS //
bratishka.ru, 2011
. ()
Crusher UGV (UGV ) ()
()
Defence Tech News (.)
Boston Dynamicss BigDog. (.)
Youtube search results for BigDog.
14 2007. (.)
en:Dragon Runner (.)
en:Category:Military robots (.)
Foster-Miller (.)
- (.)
Russia Arms
EXPO ()

002-57

17


2009 ,
Brigade Combat Team
Modernization. ,
( SUGV),
FCS
* [2],
().

Future Combat Systems

17.1.
1996 FCS Army
Vision 2010* [3], Concept for Future Joint Operations:
Expanding Joint Vision 2010* [4].

XM1202 MCS FCS

(. Future Combat
Systems) FCS 2003 .
, . ,

,
.
FCS * [1], . FCS
.

* [5],


FCS




,
.

,
(, . .)
.

,

Boeing C-17 Globemaster III
.
2009
FCS * [6].

68

17.3.

17.2.

XM1219
MULE

69
() 120-
Mounted Combat System (MCS)
XM1202,

Non-Line-ofSight Cannon (NLOS-C) XM1203,
Non-Line-of-Sight Mortar
(NLOS-M) XM1204,

Field Recovery
and Maintenance Vehicle (FRMV) XM1205,
Infantry Carrier
Vehicle (ICV) XM1206,
Medical
Vehicle Evacuation (MV-E) XM1207
Medical Vehicle
Treatment (MV-T) XM1208,
- Command and
Control Vehicle (C2V) XM1209.
System of Systems Common Operating
Environment (SoSCOE),

FCS Network. SoSCOE
Boeing* [8].

MGV

17.3.

FCS 300
, 125 * [1]. CSBA FCS Unmanned 18,1 * [9].
Aerial Vehicles (UAV),


FCS (FCS Network, Future Force Warrior) 18 * [1], :

-
Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV),

17.4.

Unattended Ground Sensors


(UGS),

XM1203 (2009)

8 Manned Ground Vehicles (MGV)


* [7] ( 75 %):

-
XM1207/XM1208

Reconnaissance and Surveiliance Vehicle


(RSV) XM 1201,

XM1206

K- XM1209
- SUGV
- RQ-16 THawk

70

17.5.
[1] . .
(.) //
. 2009. 3. . 44-47.
[2] Lessons from the Armys Future Combat
Systems Program
RAND
[3] Army Vision 2010 (Defense Technical Information
Center)
[4] Concept for Future Joint Operations: Expanding Joint
Vision 2010
(Defense Technical Information Center)
[5] The Armys Future Combat Systems Program and
Alternatives
[6] Military Budget Reflects a Shift in U.S. Strategy
New York Times, 7 2009
[7] . MCS (.) //
. 2011. 3. . 38-50.
[8] Challenges in Developing and Demonstrating Future
Combat System's Network and Software // US Future
Combat & Weapon Systems Handbook. International
Business Publications, 2009. . 90. 300 . ISBN
9781438754475.
[9] Harrison Todd,. Analysis of the FY 2012 Defense
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Center for Strategic and Budgetary
Assessments, 2011. . 36. 75 .

17.6.
. NLOS-LS:
(.) // : . 2010. (
06). . 36-47. ISSN 1728-9203.
. ! (.) // :
. 2010. ( 08). . 18-24.
ISSN 1728-9203.
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ISSN 1728-9203.
. //
: . .:
-, 2011. 9. . 62-67.

17.7.

www.arms-expo.ru

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(Future
Combat Systems FCS)

www.naukaxxi.ru
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) realityzone.ru
vpk-news.ru
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Systems: Future Force2004 US Army

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[3] BBC. :

[4]
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. : , 19691978.
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,
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Youtube:

Infuture.ru:
Infuture.ru:



Scientific.ru: ?
Mars, Water and Life
23.01.2013, . . (,
)

21

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, , , * [20]
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,
.
.

2014 .
,
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. ,
MOLA, Mars
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,
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ESA News (.)

26

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)

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1351 , .* [16]

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: - * [20].
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.* [21]* [22]

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, Curiosity,
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.
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(Nora
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, ,
. , , : MISS (Microbially Induced
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,
(.)
, ,
pravda.ru
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)
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04.12.2013,
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27.5.
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28


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articial intelligence) ,
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107

108

28.

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28.3.
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S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: ,
2007 ,
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2002 ,
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2008 .
.* [7]

109
(en:Line of sight (gaming))
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28.6.
[1] . Heroes of
Might and Magic V. Gamer.ru (29 2006 ).
21 2010.
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- . GameTech
(13 2008 ). , .
14 2009. 29 2012.

"" , . !
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22 2009. 28 2012.

29


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1 (. . , . ,
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30.3.

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30.1.
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116

China to launch first Mars probe in 2009 (.).


(22.05.2007). 21 2010.
22 2012.

31


, .
,
, .

(. watermark, ),
19
,
.
.

,
31.1.1.
, . , , .
1977 , -
X174 5375 * [2]. 18
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- 830 137 * [3].
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25 (19852010 ) , ,

.
8 .
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, ,
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(2010 )
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2010 Mycoplasma mycoides 1 077 947 * [1].
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capricolum, , .
JCVI-syn1.0. Mycoplasma mycoides, -

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).
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580 . . 1999 ,
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2005 382* [7].

, .


- () -.

.
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genitalium
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2003 Nanoarchaeum
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Mycoplasma ,
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(, . Articial intelligence, AI) 1)
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135

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33.4. XXI

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49


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[1] Out of this world Russia unveils the design for its first
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Mail Foreign Service UPDATED 10:10 GMT, 17 August
2011
[2] Russias $165,000 per night space hotel Russia may have
come in second in the race to the moon, but it plans on
being first in the race for boutique space hotels By The
Week Editorial Staff August 17, 2011
[3] Orbital Technologies

(CSS)
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[4] PHOTOS: Russian Company Unveils Plans For First
Space Hotel Linette Lopez and Dina Spector Aug. 16,
2011, 9:51 AM
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ISBN 1-57356-335-8.
[10] .
//
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1964. 10. . 97-99. ISSN 0028-1263.

229

53


53.3.


,


.

Orbital
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2016 .

53.1.
Genesis ,
Bigelow Aerospace
Genesis I ( 2006)
Genesis II ( 2007)

53.2. .



230

54

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55


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56

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[4] . . . -
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[5] . . . .

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[10] : $48,8 // -

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57.7.
1.htm, - 1(15)



NSSDC
Lunar and
University

Planetary

Department

Moscow

Exploring the Moon (1969 1976) a diary


of significant events in Soviet lunar exploration,
including those associated with the Lunokhod
programme
Don P. Mitchells catalog of Soviet Moon Images
including many from the Lunokhod programme
Lunakhod article at Lunarpedia
Tests of breadboard models of lunokhods on
moonodrome(
moondrome in
Russian) near Simferopol in 1969
Remote control lunokhods and planetrovers (.)
Crews lunokhods (.)
Details of the cameras used in the Lunokhods
(about half way down the page, or search the page
for Lunokhod)

58

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Mariner-I)
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58.10.
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9 NASA
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NASA
9,
NASA
William Sheehan The Planet Mars: A History of
Observation and Discovery
9 This Month in
NASA History: Mariner 9, November 29, 2011Vol. 4, Issue 9 NASA

NASA

59

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[2] Anime Glossary G4tv.com
[3] Mark Gilson, A Brief History of Japanese Robophilia,
Leonardo 31 (5), . 367369 [368].
[4] Pacific Rim (2013) Taglines (.). Internet Movie
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[5] 2
[6]
[7] Timberjack Walking Machine YouTube

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1. "Microrobotic Ballet". Duke University. 2008.
Retrieved 2014-08-24.
2. Hauert, Sabine (2014-08-14). Thousand-robot
swarm assembles itself into shapes. Ars Technica.
Retrieved 2014-08-24.
3. Misra, Ria (2014-04-22). This Swarm Of InsectInspired Microbots Is Unsettlingly Clever. io9.
Retrieved 2014-08-24.
4. Temple, James (2014-04-16). SRI Unveils Tiny
Robots Ready to Build Big Things re/code.
Retrieved 2014-08-24.
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[1] / : . , . . .:
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. [2]

. .

[3] , , 1990, . 3.
, - [4] , , 2003, . 101.
, ILERT. - [5] , , , 1978, . 11.
[6] , 1983, . 26.
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: , [8] , , 1990, . 9.
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[10] Air Muscles from Shadow Robot
. ,
[11] , , 2003.
[12] , 2007.
.

:
Mechatronics Control Kit
Festo Didactic

[13] T.O.B.B. Mtoussaint.de. 27 2010.


24 2011.
[14] nBot,
a
two
wheel
balancing
robot.
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2010. 24
2011.

378

80.

[15] ROBONAUT Activity Report. NASA ( 2004).


20 2007. 20 2007.

[35] 3D One-Leg Hopper (19831984). MIT Leg Laboratory.


22 2007. 24 2011.

[16] IEEE Spectrum: A Robot That Balances on a Ball.


Spectrum.ieee.org. 27 2010.
24 2011.

[36] 3D Biped (19891995). MIT Leg Laboratory.


24
2011.

[17] Rezero Focus Project Ballbot. ethz.ch.


11 2011. 4
2012.

[37] Quadruped (19841987). MIT Leg Laboratory.


24 2011.

[18] Carnegie Mellon (2006-08-09). Carnegie Mellon


Researchers Develop New Type of Mobile Robot That
Balances and Moves on a Ball Instead of Legs or Wheels.
-. 2007-10-20.
[19] Spherical Robot Can Climb Over Obstacles. BotJunkie.
27 2010. 24 2011.
[20] Rotundus. Rotundus.se. 27 2010.
24 2011.
[21] OrbSwarm Gets A Brain. BotJunkie (11 2007).
27 2010. 24 2011.
[22] Rolling Orbital Bluetooth Operated Thing. BotJunkie.
27 2010. 24 2011.
[23] Swarm. Orbswarm.com. 27 2010.
24 2011.
[24] The Ball Bot : Johnnytronic@Sun. Blogs.sun.com. 27 2010. 24 2011.

[38] Testing the Limits. Boeing. 9 2008.


24 2011.
[39] Air Penguin
[40] Air Penguin Festo
[41] Air-Ray Ballonet, .
[42] AirJelly Festo, .
[43] Ma, Kevin Y.; Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Fuller, Sawyer
B.; Wood, Robert J. (May 2013). Controlled Flight of
a Biologically Inspired, Insect-Scale Robot. Science 340
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22 2007. 24
2011.
[46] ACM-R5

[25] Senior Design Projects | College of Engineering &


Applied Science| University of Colorado at Boulder.
Engineering.colorado.edu (30 2008).
27 2010. 24
2011.

[47] Swimming snake robot (commentary in Japanese)

[26] JPL Robotics: System: Commercial Rovers

[50] Stanford University: Stickybot

[27] , 1976.

[51] Sfakiotakis, et al. (1999-04). Review of Fish Swimming


Modes for Aquatic Locomotion (PDF) (IEEE Journal of
Oceanic Engineering). 2007-10-24.

[28] , , 1984.
[29] Multipod robots easy to construct
[30] AMRU-5 hexapod robot
[31] Achieving Stable Walking. Honda Worldwide. 22 2007.
24 2011.
[32] Funny Walk. Pooter Geek (28 2004). 22 2007.
24 2011.
[33] ASIMO's Pimp Shuffle. Popular Science (9
2007). 22 2007.
24 2011.
[34] Vtec Forum: A drunk robot? thread

[48] Capuchin at YouTube


[49] Wallbot at YouTube

[52] Richard Mason. What is the market for robot fish?.


24 2011.
[53] Robotic fish powered by Gumstix PC and PIC. Human
Centred Robotics Group at Essex University.
25 2007. 24
2011.
[54] Witoon Juwarahawong. Fish Robot. Institute of Field
Robotics. 25 2007.
4 2007.
[55] , , 2004, . 18.
[56] , , 2004, . 1618.

80.10.

80.9.

379

80.10.

. ., . . :
. .: ; -
, 2003. 349 . (: ). ISBN 5-02-013159-8.

ROBOmaniac.com.ua

. . . . . : , 1983. 639 .

Linux-

. . .: , 1976. 541 .
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.: , 1978. 400 .
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.: , 1978. 416 .
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. .: , 1984. 310 .
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. . .
.: , 1984. 336 .
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. .: , 1989. 624 . ISBN 5-03000805-5.
. ., . . : . .: , 1990. 224 . ISBN 5-06-0016447.
, . / . .
.: , 1990. 527 . ISBN 5-03-001375X.
Hirose S. Biologically Inspired Robots: Snake-Like
Locomotors and Manipulators. Oxford: Oxford
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. ., . .
// .
2003. . 2, 1. . 347.
. ., . . . 2- .
.: - . . . , 2004.
480 . ISBN 5-7038-2567-9.
. . // -
. 2007. . 5, 5.
. 6369.

Microsoft Robotics Studio

TehPlaneta.ru

81

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83.5.
[1]
(14 2016). 21
2016.
[2] ExoMars MediaKit, 2016, p. 5.
[3] ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter and Schiaparelli Mission
(2016) (.). (14 2016). 16
2016.
[4] Schiaparelli: the ExoMars Entry, Descent and Landing
Demonstrator Module (.). (14 2016).
17 2016.
[5] First light for ExoMars
[6] ExoMars MediaKit, 2016, p. 10.
[7] .
ExoMars: ) (.).
(14.04.2016).
[8] ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli descent sequence (.).
(26 2016). 18 2016.
[9] ExoMars 2016 landing site (.). (13
2016). 25 2016.
[10] Schiaparelli science package and science investigations
(.). (27 2016). 30
2016.

83.6.
Emily Baldwin, Stuart Clark, Daniel Scuka and Karen
OFlaherty. ExoMars MediaKit / Communication,
Outreach and Education Group Directorate of Science.
. 2016.

83.7.
Schiaparelli: the ExoMars Entry, Descent and
Landing Demonstrator Module
Schiaparelli science
investigations

package

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84

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[2]
gazeta.ru
[3] Offering Funds, U.S. Agency Dreams of Sending
Humans to Stars nytimes.com (.)

86.4.
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390

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[1] Johnson, Holbrow. Space Settlements: A Design Study,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1977).

Vanquish
, .

[2] ibid. NASA Study, pg 1, The Overall System, pg 60,


Summary

The Ark in
space Revenge of the Cybermen .

[3] ibid. NASA Study, pg VII, Preface


[4] Gerard K. ONeil, The High Frontier, William
Morrow & Co., 1977, p149

87.3.

[5] Von Braun, W.:Crossing the Final Frontier, Colliers,


March 22, 1952
[6] Herman Potonik Store norske leksikon (.)
[7] Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums Der
Raketenmotor von Hermann Noordung (.)
[8] ibid, NASA study, p46
[9] ibid. NASA Study, Chap. 5
[10] .

393

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89.14.
[1] Science Fiction Citations: terraforming (.).
21 2012.

Lost Planet: Extreme Condition


N.E.V.E.C. E.D.N.III
.
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, .

[2] Hickman, John The Political Economy of Very Large


Space Projects (.). JOURNAL OF EVOLUTION
AND TECHNOLOGY (1999). 21 2012.

Red Faction ( )

[5] Lunine, Raymond, Quinn High-resolution simulations of


the final assembly of Earth-like planets 2: water delivery
and planetary habitability (pdf). (.)

, .
Destiny Sphere
.
Galactic Civilizations II .

[3] Martyn J. Fogg Terraforming: Engineering Planetary


Environments // SAE International. Warrendale, PA,
1995.
[4] Sibling
Rivalry:
A
Mars/Earth
Comparison.
21 2012.
(.)

[6] Stars and Habitable Planets. 21 2012. (.)


[7] Sheldon, Kasting, Whittet Ultraviolet radiation from F and
K stars and implications for planetary habitability.. Orig
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Red Colony (.)
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The Terraforming of Worlds (.)
Notes for 51 Pegasi (.)
51 Pegasi system description (.)
Star: 51 Peg (.)
The Mars Society (.)
EasySpace. Aus Wissenschaft und Forschung
(.)
Terraforming des Mars (.)
How terraforming Mars will work (.)
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92.5.
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-- (7 2012). 24 2012. ( 7 2012)
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!

429
(.)
Dear Colleagues !
We need your support in the project
Phobos-Soil, because:
Two ignitions of Phobos-Grunt engine
unit are planned to put spacecraft onto
interplanetary mission to Mars. But
unfortunately in both cases the operation
of spacecraft engine is invisible from Russian
ground stations. It is planned to record
data about system work during engine
operation on-board and when reaching the
visibility area of ground stations in Russia
to transmit these data to ground. But it
is not so comfortable approach especially
in case of some deviation from nominal
scenario including failure. So there is the
idea to observe the engine operation by
optical instruments, i.e. telescopes, taking
into account the position of spacecraft in
eclipse part of the orbit during engine burn
and brightness of engine plume ( engine
propellant is nonsymmetrical Hydrazine and
Nitrogen tetroxide, consumed with the rate of
6 kilos per second). Such approach with fast
enough delivery of the results of observations
may allow to confirm the very fact of the
engine operation and to reach more reliable
forecast of spacecraft position when the
visibility area from Russian ground stations
will be reached.
Many thanks for your cooperation!
-
(.)

.* [46]
Space Track (.),
, * [60]* [61]* [62] . ,
, * [63]* [64].
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430

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martian moon Phobos
[11] , .
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roscosmos.ru

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[38] . , (5
2011). 5 2011.

[59] 2005 YU55 8


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[39]

[60] Jesus Diaz. U.S. Strategic Command Mysteriously


Deletes Russian Mars Spacecraft's Tracking Data After
Sabotage Accusations, Gizmodo (18 2012). (.)

[40] , - (16.01.2012).
( 16 2012)

[61] -

[41] , , -, (9 2011 ).

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96.5. .
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96.6.
[1]
-2, planeta.moy.su (24.01.2012).
[2] ,
planeta.moy.su (24.01.2012).
[3] -,
ntv.ru (23.01.2012).
[4] -2 -
, ria.ru (27.08.2013).
[5] 2018 ,
.Ru (01.02.2012).
[6] -
, (01.02.2012).
[7]
"-" 2024
(05.05.2015).

96.7.
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96. - 2

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Collaboration Sample Return Working Group (.)

435

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[5] DLR Asteroid Lander MASCOT
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NASASpaceFlight.com (December 2, 2014).
4 2014.

97.6.
Asteroid explorer Hayabusa
Agencys Report from ISAS/JAXA(
01-12-2014 (576 ))
2
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98.5.
[1] Boston Dynamics: Changing Your Idea of What Robots
Can Do

98.6.
Membrana.ru :
Membrana.ru : Land Walker
,
http://www.mechaps.com (.)
http://www.sakakibara-kikai.co.jp (.)

John Deere walking tractor
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6 2012.
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99.4.
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YouTube* [10]).
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Ireland On-line: Wheelchair-bound Japanese man


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Pentagon to Develop Super-Suits (.)
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Kertcjes, Anyone-fun, Kuznetsev, Mvk608, Arbnos, , ZroBot, 1995, EugenG, OneLittleMouse, KrBot, U-leo,
-, Kirill24, Magazelka, Addbot, Kandidov, , Mordashik : 36
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%B1%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BB%D1%8E%D0%
B4%D0%B8?oldid=78933650 : BotCat, CommonsDelinker, Alex Smotrov, VolkovBot, , Artm
PoYu, SieBot, INSAR, Andreykor, , Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, Dencher, FrankyLeRoutier, Anton4488, Xqbot, Vade Parvis,
U-bot, Ljrfnfvfhe, , Paranoid Android, Dinamik-bot, Artemus filer, Andrei0404, Valdis72, EmausBot, Voropz, Arbnos, Dianar,

101.9. ,

457

Erenin, WikitanvirBot, Andrybak, MBHbot, Lekis, , Dmitry Veliky, Addbot, Glovacki, TemirovBot, MixhelSZD, AHercog,
Intyre, , Person or Persons Unknown : 30
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%B1%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%
BA%D1%81?oldid=78709418 : Messir, , Cheops, Infovarius, Carn, Eklipse~ruwiki, CommonsDelinker, VolkovBot,
Aleksandrit, ShinePhantom, Cantor, Peni, Loveless, Yaroslav Blanter, David.s.kats, Rubin16, TwoWings, Alexbot, Bff, Qkowlew,
, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot, Xqbot, Trycatch, Vorval 0, Mikhael 666 mikhailovich, WindBot, Jack X, KamikazeBot, Charmbook,
Mvk608, EmausBot, Animal-wiki, Lexusuns, OneLittleMouse, MGriBot, MerlIwBot, Konstantin Yufa, Addbot : 14
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%B1%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B3?oldid=78539411 : Wind, Maximaximax, Ilana, Melirius, Sergey9, YurikBot, Butko, A.I., Bezik, Eugrus, Roxis, Serg00, Messir, NickShaforostoff,
UNV, , Toyota prius 2, , , Koterpillar, Bomzhik, , Milton, Idot, Thijs!bot,
JAnDbot, Futureuser, Sasha1024, Kostisl, CommonsDelinker, Rei-bot, VolkovBot, Zhitelew, Idioma-bot, Redmond Barry, Aibot, Nino
Verde, TXiKiBoT, Grisha1995, SieBot, Alex.ryazantsev, , Yaroslav Blanter, , Dvic, Petrov Victor, ZHirnov
Maxim, BOTarate, DarkCherry, Afanasovich, Duken~ruwiki, Dunno, Archimond, Larrikin.ru, Drawiz, Abiyoyo, FiriBot, Sciolist,
Fon butterfly, Sanja565658, Goga312, Kyle the bot, Forajump, Luckas-bot, Nikonoff, Postoronniy-13, Okras, ., Xqbot,
, STALKERftv, Vade Parvis, DenisKrivosheev, Zofo, , , Coll, AntiKrisT, WindBot, Angstorm, , HOBOPOCC, VAP+VYK, Paranoid Android, TobeBot, Surek, Krassotkin, Mvk608, EmausBot, Arbnos, Drakosh, ,
LankLinkBot, Radisto, WikitanvirBot, Mjbmrbot, Sergey Kalmykov, STARSHIP TROOPER, WebCite Archiver, Hisoka, Lesless, Gork,
Sprtsmen., , FantaZR, Vitalijchik, NellyFutardo, RasabJacek, Makecat-bot, Red-fox0, Addbot, Iudjinj, Nebydlogop, Snayals,
, Q-bit array, Mikekiborg, Rose7812, 777 : 120
() : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F_
(%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%81)?oldid=77856865 : Dims, Dirl, YurikBot, VitalyLipatov, Anton n, A5b, Gruzd,
Mercury, Maksim-bot, Precender, Mashiah Davidson, Tempus, ZsergheiBot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Lawgiver, Alex Smotrov, Beaumain,
Glossologist, Tv0r0g, Idioma-bot, Aibot, Mevo, TarzanASG, Cantor, SieBot, Viplux, Tempe, QZip, Siver-Snom, Alecs.bot, Zaqq, EichelStreiber, Longbowman, Sciolist, CarsracBot, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot, Dmartyn80, WindEwriX, Springhead, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot,
Mistery Spectre, Wikiarius, Xqbot, , , Alex6122, AntiKrisT, Tpyvvikky, Andrej 1950, Polskivinnik, EmausBot,
ZroBot, ArtTrapeza, Ivs282, Mikhail Ryazanov, Stas000D, Nusquam, MerlIwBot, MBHbot, "" , YFdyh-bot,
IvanShavruk107, Sergiybranek, Addbot, , Citing Bot, : 26
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%
D0%B7%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D0%9B%D1%83%D0%BD%D1%8B?oldid=78637804 : Paul Pogonyshev,
Amikeco, Eraser, LFSTweaker, Dirl, YurikBot, Passenger, Roboto de Ajvol, Winterheart, Igrek, Sir sigurd, Vald, KR, Vip, Smartass2006,
Diver, NSU Spray, Rasim, Mikki Okkolo, User101, PPark, ZsergheiBot, TuvicBot, Thijs!bot, Futureuser, Ldv1970, JuliaTl, Radziun,
VolkovBot, Victoria, CraigFatman, Travkin Vladimir, Smolov.ilya, Art-top, Vizu, Avdeeff, Donskoy, SieBot, Calibrator, BotMultichill,
1e0nid, Asper.ru, Viplux, Anahoret, Mariluna, Sly G, MUSTANG16, Bilderling, APh, Alexbot, , Duken~ruwiki, Dunno,
SilvonenBot, VlsergeyBot, Zukaz, Jimmy Slade, Kiolp, Peti610bot, , LaaknorBot, V0d01ey, Luckas-bot, Igel B TyMaHe,
Meteor126, Rubinbot, WindEwriX, Zboris, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Sathandi, BerG NN, Ace111, Xqbot, Wolf-17x, 2009,
Evatutin, Acodered, Profywld, VAP+VYK, RedBot, TobeBot, Tpyvvikky, Neck, Jollyfish, Freidom, Fauust, MorganBot, Arbnos,
Kristian Larsen, Kalendar, Pavtan2006, Oleksiy.golubov, ZroBot, Courcelles, Joy rostie, LarBot, MaxBioHazard, ChuispastonBot,
Brateevsky, 11KJ, 22, , BIT1982, KrBot, WebCite Archiver, SpaceRu, MBHbot, Alindarka, HiW-Bot,
Ttwwss98, Yanpas, AEGolubev, Shogiru, DvoreBot, Minamoto no Yoshinaka, Addbot, Trampetino, Brocgauz, 1, A200b
: 84
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%
B7%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%81%D0%B0?oldid=79044342 : Ramir, Wind,
Monedula, Obersachse, YurikBot, Dm, A.I., Rokur, Passenger, Ququ, Winterheart, Incnis Mrsi, Gruzd, Igrek, ID burn, Vald, Rozzo, KWF,
Vip, Diver, Illythr, Edwardspec TalkBot, Mister Slig, Gero, , Golddim, Escarbot, PPark, , Thijs!bot,
JAnDbot, , Alex Spade, Ldv1970, Cypok, 333~ruwiki, , Ifomichev, , Gorgonzajaz,
Radziun, Dabystru, SashaT, VolkovBot, Flavis, Idioma-bot, SpadeBot, Simon the Dragon, , Krass, Vizu, Kaze, Freiman, Eugene
Yakovlev, INSAR, Jack who built the house, AlleborgoBot, Viplux, , PipepBot, Worobiew, Mariluna, Mim, , Akron96~ruwiki, Jeka3000, , Eleferen, Bilderling, DarkCherry, Oklas, LatitudeBot, Zukaz, WinKi-tyan, Uragan.
TT, Wau777, , Luckas-bot, , Homoatrox, , WindEwriX, Sz-iwbot, Luch4, DerLetzteRegenbogen,
Alex Mak, Radioaktive, Alex May, , LucienBOT, Mr Soika, MastiBot, Sigwald, Evatutin, Acodered, Dmitriy01, WindBot,
Skip01, Partyzan XXI, Roland0000, , HWR, Lasuri, Feb7, , VAP+VYK, RedBot, Miosw, Neck, Thecakeisalie.bot,
Haliullin, Knec58, ., Morihei Tsunemori, UeArtemis, Ilmari91, Ripchip Bot, MikeVentris, EmausBot, , Kristian Larsen,
Gamliel Fishkin, Bosik GN, Raye Penber, SpecialAdviser, Baccy, ZroBot, , Alemand, Damien86, Morganvolter,
Courcelles, Lokator4, OneLittleMouse, Ilya3L, Yanyarv, LarBot, Eternal Sledopyt, H2Bot, Byzantine, Binc, WikitanvirBot, Arthur
Ignatyev, 11KJ, Andshel, 22, Movses-bot, KrBot, Sergey 4, WebCite Archiver, , MerlIwBot, Lesless, Social Theorist,
Jusbonumque, DemoN2099, SvetoslavHorobre, , Kolega2357, Charlag, AEGolubev, Bloodyritual, Essetoi, TheVovaNik,
Minamoto no Yoshinaka, Addbot, Kryptozh, FriendsKenny, Alex1961, Bankomata, Q-bit array, , , RenderFox
: 199
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%
D0%B7%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D0%9C%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BA%D1%83%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%8F?
oldid=78145518 : Maximaximax, Dirl, YurikBot, Passenger, Nxx, Vald, Diver, Pipboy, , WaW, Escarbot, 80 254
110 49, Thijs!bot, Radziun, Toto, RussianSpy, UncleMartin, Loveless, Cmapm, FlrnBot, APh, DarkCherry, , Luckas-bot,
Ptbotgourou, Obersachsebot, LucienBOT, Acodered, , Pavel.nps, TranceStation, RedBot, Oldfox2003, LankLinkBot,
SmesharikiAreTheBest, LarBot, 22, , Movses-bot, KrBot, Gork, DemoN2099, Addbot : 13
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BD%
D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D0%A1%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%87%D0%BD%
D0%BE%D0%B9_%D1%81%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BC%D1%8B?oldid=78068363 : YurikBot, Bezik,
Passenger, Vald, Sasha Krotov, Vip, Diver, Samvlamix, SieBot, UncleMartin, Redvaiz, , Luckas-bot, Drapik, RedBot,
Arbnos, 2, Kalendar, 22, PtQa, MerlIwBot, KLBot2, MBHbot, Renju player, RotlinkBot, DvoreBot, -2107,
Oatenslly, H-Remix, Alex NB IT, Dmitro1977 : 7

458

101.

: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%
B7%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D0%A2%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0?oldid=79082671
:
Dodonov, Victoria, Ob ivan, Pessimist2006, Luckas-bot, GennadyL, , ArchiDevil, Pasteurizer, ,
Maksa, Bopsulai, , Kalendar, Kirill Borisenko, Deepak-nsk, Christian Valentine, Diatarveden, BIT1982, KrBot,
Stas000D, WebCite Archiver, MBHbot, Sealle, Social Theorist, Faustgoth27, Shogiru, Addbot, Glovacki, AryanBot, Saramag,
Dmitro1977 : 15
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%
D0%B7%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D0%A6%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%8B?oldid=78133766 : Dodonov, Elk Salmon, Infovarius, Carn, Bogomolov.PL, Victoria, , INSAR, Almir, Aborisov, Alexbot, Zaqq, Stellar Grifon,
Zero Children, Skip01, , RedBot, , EmausBot, Kirill Borisenko, , Mullanur, 22,
, KrBot, WebCite Archiver, Autumn Leaves, Social Theorist, DemoN2099, RotlinkBot, Shogiru : 8
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%
D0%B7%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B8%D0%B4%
D0%BE%D0%B2?oldid=68413538 : , Vald, Movses, Eleferen, MystBot, Luckas-bot, Dmartyn80, Drapik, Xqbot,
, Krassotkin, UeArtemis, Drakosh, Rinby, Dorif, Ain92, Binc, !Silent, Addbot : 7
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%
D0%B7%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BC%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%B0?oldid=
76370305 : Oleg326756, Robbot, Andrew Bronx, Dionys, Paul Pogonyshev, Passenger, Roboto de Ajvol, Kofe, ,
Winterheart, Nxx, Imrek, Anton n, Vald, Sasha Krotov, Diver, Precender, Xexsus, User101, 80 254 110 49, Alex Smotrov,
Vlad2000PlusBot, Idioma-bot, Be nt all, RussianSpy, GrinD, TarzanASG, Aborisov, LatitudeBot, Jackie, Zorrobot, ,
Rubinbot, Obersachsebot, , , Dinamik-bot, Green4world, MikeVentris, EmausBot, Arbnos, Kirill Borisenko, Raye
Penber, Oldfox2003, Sodmy, Ilya3L, LarBot, 22, Movses-bot, Wise-Bear, Philip J.1987qazwsx, MerlIwBot, Gork, -,
Zarazaaa, Telharr : 47
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%
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BA%D0%BE%D0%B2_%D0%AE%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0?oldid=78673488 : Hgsippe
Cormier, GranD, 80 254 110 49, Prilutsky, CommonsDelinker, Toto, Vlad2000PlusBot, ButkoBot, , Viplux, FlrnBot, Bilderling,
DarkCherry, Alecs.bot, Longbowman, Luckas-bot, Drapik, VAP+VYK, Fauust, Kirill Borisenko, LarBot, Diatarveden, WebCite
Archiver, MBHbot, Stas1995, RotlinkBot, Shogiru, Addbot, Glovacki : 24
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BC%D0%
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87%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F?oldid=
78244586 : Torin, Dodonov, Igrek, Nickispeaki, Alex Smotrov, Obersachsebot, Alex May, Alex6122, EmausBot, Arbnos,
SpecialAdviser, Nord777, MBHbot, Sealle, RustamAug : 14
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BF%D1%8C%D1%8E%
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78618590 : Rasim, JAnDbot, Huzzlet the bot, TXiKiBoT, Vs64vs, WW, Jorunn, SieBot, Peni, Gerakibot,
(14.04.1987), Kay27, Sergey539, Mozenrath, SergeyJ, Vprisivko, Luckas-bot, Wikiarius, Mikhael 666 mikhailovich,
VAP+VYK, Arbnos, Bosik GN, GrouchoBot, Ermishin, WikitanvirBot, MBAXAXAX, MBHbot, Addbot, Glovacki : 25
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%87%
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D1%8F?oldid=78085587 : U-bot, , VAP+VYK, Tpyvvikky, EmausBot, Drakosh, Rinby, TEXHNK77, W2Bot
Thereisnous
- : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%
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83%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B8?oldid=78989555 : Dodonov, APTEM, , Levg, Grebenkov,
Saidaziz, Fractaler, Abiyoyo, , Nokta strigo, Bopsulai, , EmausBot, SaintSatanist, , Rinby,
LarBot, Mullanur, KrBot, W2Bot, Shenf, Social Theorist, Mustafaalmas, GBV, Rounvelis : 18
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%
B5%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C?oldid=51687699 : Dodonov
Igrek
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%
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:
Torin, Dodonov, Xchgall, YurikBot, A.I., , Winterheart, Igrek, Rozzo, Alghenius, Batareikin, Algen, Asta~ruwiki, WASD,
Edwardspec TalkBot, User101, , Thijs!bot, Sagqs, Knyf, Alex Smotrov, Rei-bot, Bot-Schafter, SashaT,
VolkovBot, Samvlamix, Vizu, TarzanASG, SieBot, Loveless, BotMultichill, Divine Moments Of Truth, UnC0Rr, Samal, Agent001,
Starless, Eugene M, Mosn, Marhorr, Petrov Victor, UR3IRS, Siver-Snom, , , Shadow178, Cosmowaiim,
Michaello, Luckas-bot, , LEMeZza, , Ivan A. Krestinin, Zboris, ArthurBot, Asanin, , Dmottl, Xqbot,
AshikBot, Pms196, D'ohBot, Jazyru, Cattani, , , RedBot, Tpyvvikky, Neck, Convallaria majalis, Jasiejames,
Valdis72, EmausBot, Arbnos, Lebmed, Kalendar, Yuri Rubtcov, Nord777, Qweasdqwe, ZroBot, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse,
97, Diatarveden, Dennis123, WebCite Archiver, Lesless, , Dima st bk, "" , Rebivan,
Lessya6136, Pfr46, RustamAug, YFdyh-bot, Stranatur, Addbot, Pnetmon, KazakhWikiMan : 56
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%87%
D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B5_%D0%BF%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%
D0%B5?oldid=76294400 : Vald, Loveless, , , Lankier, Sanja565658, Igel B TyMaHe,
Alex May, , Mvk608, EmausBot, Arbnos, Averaver, MerlIwBot, Draa kul, . , Ferdinandus, Um simples
Wikipedista, , Niruku, Addbot, Glovacki : 8
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B0%
D0%B2%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0?oldid=79152892 : Kneiphof, Yadra, Kemen, Fleminra, Ygrek, Monedula,

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Maximaximax, Igorivanov, Lich, Nikiforov, Dodonov, Paul Pogonyshev, Nebm51, , HedgeBot, Bersi~ruwiki,
Def, Kaganer, Basla, Wolf3003, Serguei S. Dukachev, Eraser, Ustas, Butko, Silsor~ruwiki, A.I., Phoenix, Passenger, ,
Shargin, PuzzletChung, ~ruwiki, Mr. Bot, . ., , Anton n, A5b, Bobcho, Nickuzhov, Vald, RuLavan, Redline,
Alghenius, Maksim-bot, Fireman, Vlad2000Plus, , LoMaster, DR, Demokrat, , Startreker, Alex977, Sasha l, Leon II,
Escarbot, --Huji, ZsergheiBot, Sergey kudryavtsev, Abune, ELRiK, Alex Spade, Vicpeters, Fusanari Shimizu, Alex Smotrov, VolkovBot,
Vlad2000PlusBot, Idioma-bot, Travkin Vladimir, ButkoBot, Samvlamix, Vizu, , SieBot, Divine Moments Of Truth,
Bot vh16, Vlsergey, AndreyA, Grag, Worobiew, Almir, MYury, Olegwiki, Ruslan Sharipov, LA2-bot, Ilya Mauter, APh, , Jackie,
Lord Trof, Lankier, Permjak, , Qkowlew, Abiyoyo, Stellar Grifon, , Michaello, AVB, Luckas-bot, Dim,
Rubinbot, Drapik, DmitrySA, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Xqbot, , Baz.77.243.99.32, Schrike, Evatutin, ,
, IlyaMart, RedBot, TobeBot, Tpyvvikky, KamikazeBot, Moscow Connection, Krassotkin, Convallaria majalis,
, EmausBot, , Kristian Larsen, Gerard, ArtTrapeza, Goranosis, Aleksey Efremenko, AbiyoyoBot, Rucar,
EugenG, Amename, OneLittleMouse, , LarBot, Njkzy, Andshel, ZloAlien, KrBot, Zooro-Patriot, WebCite Archiver,
MerlIwBot, Lesless, MBHbot, SteSus85, Shenf, Aleksey g.repin, Alindarka, Belikal768, MSConsist, Illustrator, Oleg-ch,
, Stimpunk, RotlinkBot, Dimaniznik, Addbot, -2107, Attendant, Gromadina18, Glovacki, West123446,
, Q-bit array : 112
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Obersachse, Wolf3003, Roboto de Ajvol, Redline, Alghenius, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Anahoret, Tropican, Victor-435, VlsergeyBot, Erud,
Luckas-bot, Zboris, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Sathandi, Xqbot, Ghossen, Rumlin, , RedBot, Tpyvvikky, ,
, EmausBot, Kristian Larsen, FightinG FalcoN, GrouchoBot, Ta2Ed, Aidarzver, Terraflorin, Mikhail Ryazanov,
KrBot, SpaceRu, MerlIwBot, MBHbot, Akrav, , , Shogiru, Addbot, Maksim irkutsk : 23
9 : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%80-9?oldid=
78489156 : Dodonov, Eraser, YurikBot, Chobot, Anton n, Gruzd, Redline, Alghenius, Edwardspec TalkBot, Escarbot, Thijs!bot,
MSBOT, UnCursed, Alex Spade, Wybot, Rei-bot, Snushka, VolkovBot, Vlad2000PlusBot, , ShinePhantom, SieBot,
Viplux, Alex717, Jasminkaa, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot, Ivan A. Krestinin, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Xqbot, , WindBot, ,
Andrej 1950, Vlaskin, EmausBot, Arbnos, ZroBot, , Byzantine, WikitanvirBot, Forwhomthebelltolls, KrBot, Stas000D,
SpaceRu, MBHbot, Addbot, Botalo : 5
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Suisui, Sergiusz, Kemen, Ramir, Robbot, Ctac, Fleminra, Head, Monedula, Maximaximax, Torin, Spider, Nikiforov, Renato
Caniatti~ruwiki, Dodonov, Paul Pogonyshev, HedgeBot, MuDavid, Hiparick, Oleg VG, Hashar, Asp, Bricktop, Dirl, YurikBot, Eugenius,
Al Silonov, Stassats, PCode, Nk, Egor, Rokur, Passenger, Mr. Bot, Gruznov, Tavork, Ormed, Purodha, Chobot, Winterheart, Ltwiki-bot~ruwiki, Skirienko, , AKA MBG, Andrs, Imrek, Anton n, Arruah, A5b, Gruzd, Igrek, ID burn, Vald, Vladimir
Solovjev, Taurus, Redline, V1adis1av, VIP, Kaaa, Maksim-bot, Sasha Krotov, Lite, , , Yaleks, Mashiah Davidson,
Dstary, Asta~ruwiki, I1481, , Alexei Kouprianov, Levg, Aqui, , Startreker, Golddim, Anton Khorev, Escarbot, ZsergheiBot,
Ivan Pozdeev, Abdulla, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Sergey Marchenko, Blacklake, KRSK, Vicpeters, Cromo4130, Wesha, Rdfr, Alex
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Calibrator, Fedor Yavorskiy, INSAR, Cmapm, Sooko, 1e0nid, Divine Moments Of Truth, AlleborgoBot, Chronicler, Vlsergey,
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DarkCherry, Oklas, LatitudeBot, UR3IRS, Purbo T, Brxx, Zaqq, Fractaler, Qkowlew, Zukaz, Potekhin, MelancholieBot, Eilandor,
Uragan. TT, Abiyoyo, Longbowman, Hammunculs, Vanuan, Fon butterfly, Stellar Grifon, CarsracBot, DirlBot, Shanghainese.ua,
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Alexey Victorovich, Van der Hoorn, Alex May, Ole Frsten, Tossha, , , Sirartemcamelot, , IGW, Beaber,
Rydberg, Alex6122, Sigwald, Daryona, Acodered, Shee-un, Nonexyst, Eto on, WindBot, Nikita Kozyrev, Roland0000, , Artem
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Hayastan, , Lefthander, ZroBot, Arusland, HRoestBot, Maxtirdatov, Helgi-S, Ta2Ed, 67, 113, Andrushinas1985, EugenG, Sceler, Mr Jefferson, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, El-chupanebrej, LarBot, Mullanur, FlyEngine,
Kozlovalexandrv, , ChuispastonBot, , H2Bot, Brateevsky, Habilis, WikitanvirBot, Mjbmrbot,
Malbakov Korkem Shamshievih, , 22, , , StarDeg, Movses-bot, Mr.Buzz,
KrBot, Alexander Shatulin, , MrTwisterKRR, Stas000D, Alemann, Zooro-Patriot, WebCite Archiver, Kasirbot,
SpaceRu, MerlIwBot, 1yurok, -, W2Bot, Autumn Leaves, Gork, KPu3uC B Poccuu, Dulat K, Sealle, AvicBot, IluvatarBot,
AvocatoBot, , Vikdialog, 8, DL DiNO, Ya-osiris, Hotamart, FoxBot, Gafnium, Serg1017, , Divik, , Roman2299, LAZ~ruwiki, , JYBot, 762bot, , 144, , Stas1995,
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Citing Bot, Nebydlogop, West123446, Milez189, , Apollon 112, TemirovBot, H-Remix, Q-bit array, , , Red Legioner, TextworkerBot, Imaginary Rainbow, Bugar15, Galaxy Milky Way100000 : 504
500 : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%81-500?oldid=77814469 : Dodonov,
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Yakovlev, Ferol, , Schurens, Lord Trof, Gastro, Akim Dubrow, Amirobot, MystBot, Luckas-bot, ArthurBot, Zerkalo-w,

460

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Xqbot, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, U-bot, Kolchak1923, LucienBOT, , Boodjoom85, Alvanius, IndigoRoman, Neck,
, Kristian Larsen, Ang15, Shliphmash, Kirill Borisenko, SpecialAdviser, Yuri Rubtcov, Deepak-nsk, KirDiesel, Snurik,
Voyagerim, , ChuispastonBot, Byzantine, , KrBot, WebCite Archiver, Nusquam, SpaceRu, Sealle, WellInformed Optimist, , Volovik Vitaly, Bloodyritual, Addbot, Citing Bot : 39
79 : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%81-79?oldid=78988800 : U-bot,
EmausBot, Arbnos, 2, Nord777, HRoestBot, ArtTrapeza, LarBot, Mullanur : 6
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oldid=77862050 : Maximaximax, Maxim Razin, YurikBot, Butko, Alma Pater, . ., Winterheart, Dart evader, Incnis Mrsi,
, Moj surok so mnoyu, Stansult, Infovarius, , Thijs!bot, CommonsDelinker, Suvorow, DorganBot, Redmond
Barry, Pikryukov, Krass, Vladimir Ivanov, SieBot, Munroe, Yaroslav Blanter, Grebenkov, Monfornot, , DarkCherry,
CarsracBot, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot, Dmartyn80, WindEwriX, Xqbot, , Ortemko, AntiKrisT, Mr cureit, Sabunero, Mvk608,
Arbnos, Animal-wiki, Baccy, VIbot, ArtTrapeza, Syrio, , LarBot, Oleg Yunakov, Zolumov, , FantaZR,
, Sozertsatel, YasBot, , Addbot, Ioanndemidov : 22
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%B0%D0%
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SilvonenBot, Alecs.bot, MystBot, Luckas-bot, Meteor126, Dmartyn80, WindEwriX, Jonah.ru, WindBot, VAP+VYK, Andrej 1950,
Mvk608, VIbot, GrouchoBot, ZroBot, Mikhail Ryazanov, Maksim Fomich, Nusquam, GBV, Shogiru, Addbot, Evgenyradionov, Ivangrig,
TemirovBot : 16
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ButkoBot, Johnny Rotten, Vizu, Chath, TarzanASG, DarkCherry, JackieBot, WindEwriX, Obersachsebot, TemurD, ,
LucienBOT, A man without a country, RaySys, VAP+VYK, RedBot, Tpyvvikky, Andrej 1950, Mphet, Dmitru, EmausBot, Kristian
Larsen, Kirill Borisenko, 10, ZroBot, ArtTrapeza, OneLittleMouse, Eternal Sledopyt, Hatifnatter, SpaceRu, MerlIwBot,
1yurok, Roman Kuptsov, Dmitralex, , , HeavyAtoms, AEGolubev, Hipatia, YFdyh-bot, IvanShavruk107,
Macroemperor, Shogiru, Addbot, West123446, An-vad81 : 41
2033 : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE_2033?oldid=79430693 : Snch, JukoFF, A.I., Varnav, Winterheart, Messir, Hitech, Iv660, KR, Illythr, BotCat, -, Shumei, , APL, Esp, Tempus,
Kmorozov, Zac Allan, Kartmen, Lockal, Vicpeters, , Knyf, , Alex Smotrov, Beaumain, Rave,
, Redmond Barry, TXiKiBoT, 231-567, Zooh, DmitTrix, Cantor, Kuzkostya, Nikit, , Romson, HORD,
, Sashka2005, Eleferen, Richkom, Orange-kun, Mozenrath, , Monthstay, Netrat, LatitudeBot, Faust-RSI, Qkowlew,
Fastboy, Bpcreep, LL99, Jorg Wasinton, El barroco, La Rose Noire, CaseLogic, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot, AmDDRed, Sergius1989,
AlexNet88, , Gromolyak, Skorp24, MAXXX-309, Mistery Spectre, Okras, ., IVM, Metrofanat, Xqbot,
My-witch, MatiOmlet, Sigwald, , ., Tretyak, ClaymoreBot, WindBot, Partyzan XXI, DarkSTALKER, Elvira
123, , 2009, Nogin, KamikazeBot, Biathlon, Zottig Eule, Uvarchev.victor, CrayonOutline, WikiNikki, Ripchip Bot,
EmausBot, Arbnos, 2, GrV, PRED4T0R, Sablezub81, VIbot, ZroBot, Arpjke, Panchomoscow, -, Codmal, ,
Centurion198, Snapelex, Sceler, Zordrak88, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, Riv-ks, Vyacheslav Basko, MGriBot, H2Bot, Byzantine,
WikitanvirBot, Movses-bot, KrBot, WebCite Archiver, , MBHbot, Miztreated, DENAMAX, Demon 123,
Cirujano, Artem Safarov, Fright, -Loarrat-, , LatChemist, , Niruku, Amiko-chan, Addbot, , Wolfdog30,
Facenapalm, Kadavr2000, Oashnic, SergeiZhilinski, : 255
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:
KVK2005,
Idot, CommonsDelinker, , Dangaard, Alex.ryazantsev, UncleMartin, 1e0nid, Jack who built the house, Saidaziz, SSneg,
Zaqq, NeD80, Goga312, Ptbotgourou, JackieBot, Peter Porai-Koshits, Obersachsebot, , Vade Parvis, Oleum, TjBot, Mvk608,
EmausBot, Animal-wiki, TuHan-Bot, Basilius von Poljakow, H2Bot, XoRys, Rubinbot III, MBHbot, AvocatoBot, JonesTom, 762bot,
Gplover, Challenger 1996, , Addbot, TemirovBot, NikNikif : 29
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YurikBot, Dm, Butko, A.I., IgorMagic, SergV, , Koveras, OckhamTheFox, KVK2005, Nxx, Cheops, Gato, Tassadar, Zserghei,
Vald, Taurus, Valodzka, Parametr~ruwiki, Erelen~ruwiki, BotCat, Sansei, Altes, Maxxicum, MaKS, Carn, Zac Allan, Raoul NK, Wesha,
Arachn0, UncleMartin, Ozza, , Arastior, Saidaziz, SilviaSaint, , , Pk~ruwiki, ZooL SmoK,
Abiyoyo, Vanuan, , Luckas-bot, Dmartyn80, Obersachsebot, Luch4, M. Dick, , Igqirha, JustApex,
Phaggi, Grilius, VAP+VYK, Odinborg, WillNess, 2, ZroBot, Sigod, ArtTrapeza, Wikifido, Lesless, MBHbot, Dulat K, Illustrator,
Quaerite, Addbot, Ambuldog64, Zeerke, Freehck, TemirovBot, QBA-bot : 60
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VlsergeyBot, LynXzp, Nikita666, Rubinbot, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, GAndy, Constantinidis, VAP+VYK, Aceregid, EmausBot,
Deepak-nsk, Nata83, ZroBot, OneLittleMouse, El-chupanebrej, Nicerobot~ruwiki, Movses-bot, KrBot, Runner1616, OkladVadim,
Kron7, Dima st bk, Sozertsatel, Serpent Vlad, Kavboy, Deux17, Nad.Chel, Addbot, DmitryElj, Vladis13, Phone86, Citing Bot, Vendian,
Q-bit array, Webzarina : 34
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Lite, Screenwriter, Denisbaltin, Idot, Thijs!bot, EvgenyGenkin, CommonsDelinker, KPanic, Rei-bot, Victoria, Zhitelew, TXiKiBoT,
Chath, Dadesign, Rlu, BPK, Loveless, Ajiotaj, , NR, Mim, Oleg Kenunen, SergeyJ, , Akkit,
Dark NirK, Akim Dubrow, Abiyoyo, , Michaello, Ptbotgourou, Rubinbot, Maximos, ArthurBot, , Inside
me, Fejanor, Xqbot, , MerlLinkBot, , Mikhael 666 mikhailovich, Baz.77.243.99.32, Anzgar, Partyzan XXI, Duskman,

101.9. ,

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Artem Korzhimanov, SUPER ROBOT, Oban666, , RedBot, Sandegud, TobeBot, , Nichita1975, EmausBot, ZroBot,
Diegomonte, LankLinkBot, Fedor Babkin, Radisto, Wikifido, ChuispastonBot, Movses-bot, Sealle, Az1989~ruwiki, Draa kul, , BookBoy77, Megotrend, Yurik Bel, Eggmanwarlrus : 79
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: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%
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Vs64vs, Viplux, Francois, Eleferen, , Petrov Victor, AlanNova, Duken~ruwiki, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot, Ivan A. Krestinin,
Peter Porai-Koshits, Obersachsebot, DerLetzteRegenbogen, Xqbot, Alex May, Mikhael 666 mikhailovich, MacLeod-I, ,
, VAP+VYK, RedBot, UeArtemis, Dmitru, MrLotus, EmausBot, 2, 2, Kristian Larsen, Nord777, Deepak-nsk,
KirDiesel, VIbot, ZroBot, 67, Armendok, OneLittleMouse, Kirian, Microzaur, Movses-bot, Absconditus, WebCite Archiver,
Quaritch, W2Bot, Gork, MBHbot, AvocatoBot, DENAMAX, MSConsist, Veep, Grimnir11, , Alexej67, Shogiru, Alexey
Timatkov, , Evgenyradionov, KOT-TOK, CleverStep, Vdymars, , Q-bit array, , Alex NB IT,
Thereisnous : 79
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Tempus, Carn, Thijs!bot, , Rave, Zhitelew, Berserkerus, Nak-Nak, Volucer, Orfei, Zaqq, Fractaler, Abiyoyo, Longbowman,
., ArturZaratustra, Antonu, Flatline~ruwiki, Zofo, , WindBot, Alysander, Sandegud, Arbnos, 10, ,
LankLinkBot, Movses-bot, KrBot, Sanya3, MBAXAXAX, Alpha962, Gipoza, Vitalijchik, Sozertsatel, Dovgannn, RasabJacek, Bnman,
Igor 1111 : 37
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Wulfson, YurikBot, Solon, Winterheart, JaroslavleffBot, Anton n, KR, Redline, , , Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, VolkovBot,
Johnny Rotten, ShinePhantom, DmitTrix, SieBot, Alex.ryazantsev, UncleMartin, Loveless, BotMultichill, AlleborgoBot, Viplux,
GENVELES, Ilyan, Bilderling, Alexbot, SilvonenBot, FiriBot, Givi Kats, Zorrobot, Louperibot, LaaknorBot, AVB, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot,
Gowr, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Abeshenkov, Abc82, Xqbot, Van der Hoorn, Faddeev, A man without a country, Feb7, Alexandronikos,
VAP+VYK, RedBot, Tpyvvikky, Andrej 1950, EmausBot, Kirill Borisenko, Zverenysh~ruwiki, ZroBot, Maxtirdatov, LankLinkBot, , Aleksey83, Stas000D, WebCite Archiver, Philip J.1987qazwsx, Rubinbot III, MBHbot, Sealle, -, Addbot,
Botalo, Merdiginn : 9
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WebCite Archiver, , Taavikar, Shogiru, Addbot, Imterus, VasiliiSh, NapalmBot : 10
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Xqbot, , Mikhael 666 mikhailovich, Imaniac, Evatutin, Victor Korniyenko, , Tpyvvikky, KamikazeBot, Krassotkin,
Max Voropaev, A-a-andreev, Hullernuc, EmausBot, Mixabest, Marxist~ruwiki, ZroBot, SEA99, Ain92, OneLittleMouse, MBHbot,
Alexandrmoscow, Diademodon, Addbot, , Q-bit array, Doremax, OlgaKUKA : 37
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Askusnov, Victor-435, DeNULL, Mihaild, Kamarado, Ivan A. Krestinin, IvanKesson, ArthurBot, , Pliskin, Dmitriy01,
Newpavlov, VAP+VYK, Tpyvvikky, EmausBot, Kirill Borisenko, ZroBot, Hatifnatter, H2Bot, Mikhail Ryazanov, DAN8887, Fumela, Dragobrath, Vbif-routine : 15
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Roxis, KVK2005, Nzeemin, Anton n, Obakeneko, Vald, UNV, SONY, Alghenius, Dorongov, Yms, Mashiah Davidson, Mister Slig,
Klink, , Gero, ManN, Escarbot, Movses, , ZsergheiBot, Old ivan, Typhoonbreath, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Blacklake,
EvgenyGenkin, BetBot~ruwiki, Kujah~ruwiki, Sagqs, Alexei Kopylov, CommonsDelinker, Suvorow, Knyf, RedElf, Rei-bot, Rave, Nick
F0x, Bot-Schafter, Nickst, VolkovBot, L90, Vlad2000PlusBot, Zhitelew, Pk boot, Idioma-bot, Redmond Barry, Al99999, TXiKiBoT,
231-567, Trgl, Holop, Rlu, Lvova, Yury Chernavsky, Cantor, SieBot, YonaBot, Eugene Yakovlev, Berserkerus, Pavel52, Loveless,
GreatStarMaster, BotMultichill, , Divine Moments Of Truth, AlleborgoBot, Viplux, Mim, , Linnear, Dragon
Zankovich, Jeka3000, Benderlio, 7 , (), Gorelov, Siver-Snom, VlsergeyBot, Qkowlew, Rambalac,
DirlBot, Shanghainese.ua, DragonflySixtyseven, FRL, Michaello, Guyver1988, Vadt, Amur-blindman, Forajump, AVB, Luckas-bot,
Rubinbot, , Peter Porai-Koshits, Zboris, Abah, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Skye~ruwiki, Gromolyak, Georg Pik, Mistery Spectre,
, WinterheartBot, Xqbot, , Obstacle 2, STALKERftv, Mikhael 666 mikhailovich, U-bot, Pal ga, AshikBot, Botov,
Imaniac, Boolevar, Sigwald, TwoPizza, Gweorth, Maksimos, WindBot, Michgrig, Partyzan XXI, Victor Korniyenko, ,
, Sabunero, VAP+VYK, Tucvbif, TobeBot, Tpyvvikky, Neck, Vovkvant, Sasha Nahayko, Krassotkin, Convallaria majalis,
, , TjBot, Nazgul m, TuFED, Ignatus, EmausBot, micier Dzikaski, Robalex, Mixabest, Tymbler,
AndreyIGOSHEV, , Wolf volkov, TuHan-Bot, 67, Skyraven, EugenG, Melly82, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse,
El-chupanebrej, LarBot, GutorovIV, W2, , ChuispastonBot, Autayeu, Byzantine, Habilis, Alkanchik, XoRys, KrBot,
WebCite Archiver, Teilly, MBAXAXAX, MerlIwBot, W2Bot, Gork, Sedoff, Green Ivan, Rubiroid, DENAMAX, Zhinchenko, Bierce,

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Vcohen, Bikeit, Sostav Vagonov, Red-fox0, Quaerite, Vadim248, Diademodon, Addbot, Evgenyradionov, Rgovorov, Pnetmon, DimaBot,
, 5, Raisa Bogacheva90, , TextworkerBot, Prost900, KVAZAR14 : 238
() : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%BE%D1%82_(%D0%BF%
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, Andrs, A5b, Zserghei, Vald, Mercury, Shattered, The Wrong Man, , , Putnik,
ZsergheiBot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, AVRS, Stacatto, Rei-bot, TXiKiBoT, RedAndr, Neombot, SieBot, YonaBot, Peni, Loveless, NBS,
DragonBot, BodhisattvaBot, Aqetz, Bff, Innv, Michaello, AVB, Luckas-bot, Finstergeist, Mikhael 666 mikhailovich, , X7q,
VAP+VYK, Krassotkin, EmausBot, ZroBot, Vladislavus, Gnnwikifikator, WikitanvirBot, MerlIwBot, MBHbot, Justincheng12345-bot,
YFdyh-bot, Addbot, Oleg3280, Q-bit array, 31 : 35
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%82%
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Mitrius, Yurik, Stassats, Bezik, , CodeMonk, Fdsc, Roxis, MaxSem, Maksim-bot, Diver, Dipsy, AntonR, Old ivan,
JAnDbot, Alexei Kopylov, CommonsDelinker, KleverI, Zhitelew, Redmond Barry, Phlegma, TXiKiBoT, RedAndr, 1, Rlu,
SieBot, Analyzer (KODEP), Dmitry Rozhkov, Jeka3000, Bilderling, OKBot, Twdragon, Alexbot, VanBot, SpBot, CarsracBot, EdBever,
DrFO.Tn.Bot, MystBot, Luckas-bot, Nallimbot, ArthurBot, , DSisyphBot, Xqbot, , Mikhael 666 mikhailovich,
LucienBOT, Imaniac, SKolyubin, Gweorth, Maksimos, Neoniks, Victor Korniyenko, VAP+VYK, RedBot, Konstantin Pest, Krassotkin,
Smiga big, EmausBot, GrouchoBot, ZroBot, Xapc, OneLittleMouse, MaxBioHazard, Silver7487, ChuispastonBot, Autayeu, Byzantine,
WikitanvirBot, Cybernew, WebCite Archiver, Philip J.1987qazwsx, MerlIwBot, MBHbot, Unixcontrol, UG72, EnzaiBot, MahdiBot,
Lctechnology, Makecat-bot, Red-fox0, Diademodon, Root721, Addbot, Kadavr2000, Vadimmalimonov, Vbif-routine : 65
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%85%D0%
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, Alex May, U-bot, IndigoRoman, Arbnos, ArtTrapeza, AEGolubev, Addbot, RpycckeN : 9
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%86%D0%
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B8%D0%BD%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%BF?oldid=78949351 : Cheops, Deerhunter, Bilderling, U-bot, Igorp lj, Mvk608,
Sergius-eu, AbiyoyoBot, KrBot, Glazyrin sergey, MBHbot, , Kadavr2000 : 10
( ) : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B0%D0%
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, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%
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Kemen, Ygrek, , Kaganer, Stassats, Winterheart, V1adis1av, Alghenius, Beaumain, WW, Calibrator, Grag, Almir,
Eugene M, , Chinger, Victor-435, , VAP+VYK, Tpyvvikky, Nickcd, Arbnos, WindWarrior, OneLittleMouse,
PtQa, MerlIwBot, Stas1995, Parachute500, Glovacki : 23
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%
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B4%D0%BE%D0%BA_%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%B1%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B5_
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ArtTrapeza, MaxBioHazard, MBHbot, Shogiru, AVProk, Shogiru-r : 6
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B5%
D1%82%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BA%
D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%BB%D1%8C?oldid=63739907 : A5b, Shattered,
User101, TXiKiBoT, Vs64vs, LaaknorBot, Sergei Gutnikov, , Alex May, , EmausBot, Changall, Kristian Larsen,
Andrushinas1985, LarBot, Oleg-ch, Astera1896, Shogiru : 8
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D1%82%D1%8D%D0%BD%D1%84%D0%BE%D1%
80%D0%B4%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80?oldid=79113040 : Spider, Dodonov, A5b,
, Infovarius, Be nt all, TXiKiBoT, Vs64vs, UncleMartin, 1e0nid, Irker, Fractaler, Abiyoyo, WolfDW, Manscreed, Luckasbot, Peter Porai-Koshits, Indeps, Xqbot, Dmitriy01, AntiKrisT, Skip01, Cheburgenator, SerYoga, Vx68, Tw4w3t, ,
GadZZillA, Kristian Larsen, Treez3den, HAL9000, H2Bot, Cinemantique, Movses-bot, Lesless, MBHbot, Mustafaalmas, Divik, Makecatbot, Red-fox0, Niruku, Addbot, Mishel Tali, : 29
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BB%
D1%8C%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0?oldid=77909242 : Kitaets, Peni, UncleMartin, Luckasbot, Mikhael 666 mikhailovich, Ser1375, Charmbook, EmausBot, Vanjka-ivanych, Animal-wiki, ZroBot, LankLinkBot, -

: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84%D0%
:
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Oleg326756, Dmitri83, Wind, Monedula, Paul Pogonyshev, Kaganer, Amikeco, Serguei S. Dukachev, Melirius, Xchgall, Snch, Dirl,
JukoFF, A.I., Rokur, Gruznov, Eugrus, Chobot, OckhamTheFox, Winterheart, Serebr, Skirienko, Nxx, Igrek, AstroNomer~ruwiki, Vald,
MaxSem, , Vip, AndyVolykhov, Kirill Skorobogat, Illythr, Xexsus, Dstary, Dendr, Jenp, Digr, Keeper B, GriffinX,
Miroslav~ruwiki, RB, Vinograd19, ManN, Qwestor, Rasim, Afinogenoff, SkyBon, Escarbot, Ivan Pozdeev, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, ,
YuriPopoff, ManQ, M81pavl, =Yan=, 333~ruwiki, Vaya, CommonsDelinker, , Vikiped, Labibov Rasim Ravshanovich, Claim,
, Rei-bot, Radziun, Jeck2006, Toto, , SashaT, VolkovBot, Alik Kirillovich, Vlad2000PlusBot, DodekBot~ruwiki,
Zhitelew, Gralgar, Idioma-bot, ButkoBot, Chronolegion, 231-567, Grisha1995, Krass, Carver, Vladimir Ivanov, Xotabu4, RussianSpy,
Vizu, Chath, DmitrySokoloff, ShinePhantom, SieBot, Berserkerus, Urutseg, BotMultichill, INSAR, Asper.ru, Moroser, Zirnis, Niklem,
Knkd, StreetStrider, , , Aborisov, Atitarev, , Njarlatotep, JawBreaker, SiPlus, LatitudeBot, Uter,
Hamlett, Hyperfilik, , Qkowlew, Uragan. TT, Abiyoyo, KosTuk, , Luckas-bot, Finstergeist, Samant, Rubinbot,

101.9. ,

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Dmartyn80, Freezeman, Taamu, Grattractor, , Digital0000, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Kays666, BerG NN, Sirius957,
Xqbot, SassoBot, , , , Orlexx, Nemesismax, Dmitriy01, , WindBot, Mr cureit,
, Ereocero, Vort, VAP+VYK, RedBot, , KaysBot, UeArtemis, Fauust, Zatvornik, Mvk608, EmausBot, , Kirill
Borisenko, Zamzavkaftyaf, Pavtan2006, Dianar, Yuri Rubtcov, Baccy, 10, ArtTrapeza, Pereslavtsev, Oldfox2003, Litavoro,
LarBot, Timakoff, H2Bot, Byzantine, WikitanvirBot, Mikhail Ryazanov, Arthur Ignatyev, Zoq-Fot-Pik, , Dennis
Tagiev, Alexander Shatulin, , WebCite Archiver, MBAXAXAX, W2Bot, MBHbot, Sealle, -, Alindarka,
, Reinstall, INSARbot, GBV, SvetoslavHorobre, Ferdinandus, 762bot, Stas1995, Krolik X, RotlinkBot, Addbot, Vladislav
Chernyy, Imterus, Ruslan199700, Vbif-routine, NikitaGamer64, , , FenDar Pirozhok : 183
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Ivanvlasov, Mithril, Beaumain, Rei-bot, Radziun, Flavis, Victoria, Stefan Iljic, MUDOR, Krass, Dark Ranger, BlackboX, Kolas,
VVVBot-temp, UncleMartin, Loveless, INSAR, Viplux, Niklem, Avenger911, Almir, , , APh,
, Oklas, LatitudeBot, Artemka373, Abiyoyo, , E2v, MystBot, Luckas-bot, Grattractor, , Mac alastair,
Ilya, Acodered, Anzgar, Alysander, , Feb7, VAP+VYK, Tpyvvikky, , KaysBot, EUvin, MikeVentris, Arbnos, Sapalex,
Kristian Larsen, ZroBot, LarBot, H2Bot, Mjbmrbot, CocuBot, , KrBot, WebCite Archiver, Philip J.1987qazwsx,
MBHbot, Social Theorist, Djvergon, Stas1995, RotlinkBot, Dimaniznik, , Addbot, Dwanx, Glovacki, NapalmBot
: 59
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D1%85?oldid=70068050 : , Seorl, GennadyL, , EmausBot, GBV, Shogiru, AryanBot : 2
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Zukaz, Stellar Grifon, Nbs, VAP+VYK, Maksa, Andrej 1950, P.Fisxo, , Vlaskin, EmausBot, Arbnos, ScanMacher, ArtTrapeza,
WebCite Archiver, SpaceRu, MBHbot, . , DryominG, AEGolubev, IvanShavruk107, TheVovaNik, Addbot,
Vladislav Chernyy, Artificial123, Illustr, , TemirovBot : 2
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Ljrfnfvfhe, Krassotkin, EmausBot, Robalex, CyberTrone, Vanjka-ivanych, ZroBot, El-chupanebrej, LarBot, Mullanur, Glider73,
KrBot, Philip J.1987qazwsx, Gork, Addbot, Dmitry Suvorov, Saramag, Animaloid : 7
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Seelwe, Luckas-bot, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, , , JGod, DenisKrivosheev, WindBot, Stargazerclover,
EmausBot, ZroBot, W2, Mjbmrbot, DENAMAX : 19
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Kaaa, Batareikin, Illythr, 20, I1481, Vashot, Golddim, Naive rm, ZsergheiBot, Thijs!bot, UnCursed, JAnDbot, , CommonsDelinker, Rdfr, Rei-bot, DorganBot, VolkovBot, Idioma-bot, Smolov.ilya, Samvlamix, Esps, Hagoromo, Cunning,
, AlleborgoBot, Viplux, GENVELES, Worobiew, Almir, Alex717, Eleferen, Bilderling, BOTarate, LatitudeBot, Exequthor,
Zukaz, DirlBot, Fisha99, MystBot, Luckas-bot, Leoni, Kiot, Rubinbot, Ivan A. Krestinin, JackieBot, Peter Porai-Koshits, Mevedech,
ArthurBot, 4th-otaku, Clockwork, AndreiK, Xqbot, Kolchak1923, Esssenin, DumZiBoT, , IGW, Evatutin, Acodered, Pline, Victor
Korniyenko, IndigoRoman, Rumlin, , , VAP+VYK, Tpyvvikky, Andrej 1950, Dinamik-bot, Gossamer, EmausBot,
Arbnos, Kristian Larsen, Kalendar, , Dim4IQ, Yuri Rubtcov, Nord777, Sonearth, ZroBot, HRoestBot, ArtTrapeza,
Pavel Kolotilov, Gennadiy Andreev, , ChuispastonBot, H2Bot, Byzantine, WikitanvirBot, Movses-bot, KrBot, WebCite
Archiver, SpaceRu, MerlIwBot, W2Bot, MarkShishkin, Gork, MBHbot, Anderson alchevsk, Greatvovan, AvocatoBot, Darth Yakutsk,
Sinysee, Oleg-ch, !, Vova-goc, RotlinkBot, Addbot, Citing Bot : 121
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Movses-bot, SpaceRu, , AEGolubev, Lola Rennt, Shogiru, Mlan1982, Glovacki, Citing Bot : 7
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SpaceRu, MBHbot, , Shogiru, Addbot, Shogiru-r : 5
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A8%D0%B0%D0%B3%D0%BE%D1%85%D0%BE%D0%B4?oldid=
76869837 : , Softy, Wassily, Idot, . , Jazz, Chath, Dangaard, Deerstop, ,
, FRL, SX88, Sapien2, Spectorman, Peter Porai-Koshits, Okras, , Vade Parvis, Mikhael 666 mikhailovich, AntiKrisT,
Partyzan XXI, Ghossen, , Snark.wiki, Zottig Eule, Valdis72, EmausBot, Yesape, HAL9000, XoRys, Movses-bot, ,
, Vladis13, BookBoy77, Shushpan, Yurik Bel : 33
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A8%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%BE%D1%82?oldid=
67404477 : Torin, Bezik, Kosun, , Zboris, , EmausBot, Autayeu, Movses-bot, WebCite Archiver, RotlinkBot
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81?oldid=79256564 : Winterheart, A5b, Elk Salmon, Rdfr, Shureg, 1, Calibrator, GENVELES, RoadTrain, Ufim,
Oklas, Leoni, Rubinbot, Ivan A. Krestinin, 4th-otaku, Likhobory, VAP+VYK, Maksa, RedBot, Tpyvvikky, Andrej 1950, P.Fisxo,
, Vlaskin, EmausBot, Arbnos, Drakosh, Kristian Larsen, Kalendar, SpecialAdviser, Yuri Rubtcov, ZroBot, ArtTrapeza,
, Andrushinas1985, HAL9000, H2Bot, Byzantine, Adamkein, AktiNo, BIT1982, KrBot, Tomasnuclear, WebCite Archiver,
SpaceRu, W2Bot, Roman Kuptsov, , MBHbot, AvicBot, MSConsist, Sozertsatel, Llecco, Grimnir11, DryominG, AEGolubev,
IvanShavruk107, Shogiru, Starkby, Addbot, Vladislav Chernyy, Artificial123, Illustr, L Li (bot), Saramag, Milez189, Q-bit array,
Sonemax : 44
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Coder, Idot, , Zac Allan, Thijs!bot, Cromo4130, Jazz, Vikiped, Knyf, Beaumain, VolkovBot, DodekBot~ruwiki, Zhitelew,
, MeshKnoT, Stebanoid, , Atr2006, G0rn, LameClock, Dr.Stein, Dvic, , Alexbot, DiMor,
LatitudeBot, Alecs.bot, Fastboy, MelancholieBot, Uragan. TT, Rambalac, Apatzi, Goga312, , SX88, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot,
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123, , , Vadim248, DvoreBot, NT44EX, Vladis13, Alexandr Kalabuhov, Kokulenko, Genialissimus, Vbif-routine,
Caucasianium, Luterr : 153

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[1] : -.

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101.9.3.
User:SKopp
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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/Mars_Valles_

Mars_Valles_Marineris.jpeg : Mars_Valles_Marineris.jpeg: NASA picture


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101.9. ,

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Whiskey.
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