Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 459

" "

" ", .
,
, .
, .
,
, , .
. . ,

, , - ,
" " , , , , .
, , ( )
,
, .
,
, , , - ,
.
,
- .
, ,
,
, ,
.

" "
.
40
, , , . , ,
, , .
, , .
,
, ,
, .
,
,
,
, ,

!
. ,
. , , , ,
, , ,

, "" . , , ,
, ,
, .
.
, , .
, ?
,
.
,
.

. ,
,
. I
-

, . II ,
. III - ,
.
IV .
,
( )
( ) .
.
V . , , ,
, .
.
.
. , .

, ,
. , -.
VII -


, .

, -, . .
" "
.
" ".
,

. ,
,
, .
" ".
, ,
, .
,
, , , .

!
. , , , , , ,
. ,
,

, .

,

.
, .
, ,


.
, , , .

, ,
. ,
,
1927 .
.
, . ..
, , . ..
" "

. 20-
330 ,
", "
[3, 4].


.
, , .
. :
, , , ,
.
,
, .

. ,
. , .

.



. .

,

.
, , , . ,
,
. , .
,
, ,
( );
( );
,

.
, , .

, , . , ,
, , "" . . , ,
. ,
.
,
. , ,
.
,

, .



,
1500 .
,
. .
"Fabrica Humani Corporis" (" "), 1543 .,
.
, .
: "
, .
, 14 , " [6].
,
,
. , ,
, , , ,
, . ( 1574 .) , ,
" ". ,
( 1660 .). , , ,
.



. XIX .
, .
. XIX .,
.


" " [9]
1889 . . , ,
, " ", "", " ",
" ".

.
, , ,

. ,
, : "... " " ;
,
.
,
,

" [9].


. "
" (1889 .)
1800 . ,
,
. , , , , ,
.
[5]. ,
(. 5), .
,

. 1921 .
(..) .
, ,

-, ,
,
.
,
, . - (..) ,
.
, ,

.




.
, ,
, , . ,
()
, , ..- ,
,

, , .
()
1927 . 1968 .
,
.
,
..,
1941 .


1971 . , .. , "",
1968 ., [2].

XIX .
, 60- XX
. .
,
.
.

,
,
.


.
. .
.
,
, ., .
..
,
, .


. , 60-
. , ( ),

, . 60-

.
,
, , .
.
, .

, . ()

. . . 60- XX .

. ( , -)
( )

, ,
, , . . , ,
, ,
- 6
.
, ,
. .

? , , .

, , . ,

( );
;
;
().

10

.
,
.

, , ,
.
, , ,
, ,
.

,


. . , ,
,
, . , .
. 1.1 ,
()
14 - ~ '
(9 - ~ ').
25 .-~ ' 21 35 (70 95 ).

, .
, , , .
,

. " " 24- . . 1.2
, .
. . 1.2,
, ,
.
.

1.1.
14 ~',

1.2.
, . ~'

, .-

(50 % )
2 (70)
35 (95)

60
70

165
190

, % (2 )
50
90

60
65

165
175

(2 , 50 % )

60
70

165
165

60

165

70

175

(2 , 50 % )
,
3

,
30

, 3

10

10

65

69

73

74

72

69

100
130
179
118

103
131
179
122

109
138
183
129

109
139
184
128

105
135
181
128

104
134
181
125

(1990).

28- ,

;
;
;
;
;
(


11

, ).
,
.

, ,
,
. ,
. (. ; ) ,
() , . .

, .
, , .
(. 1.1), .

: 1) ; 2) ; 3)
; 4) .
, ,

. 1.1.

12

.
, .. , . , , ,
.

, ,
, . .

, .
, , ,
,
.

, , , . ,
; , .
,
,
. . . ,

.
.
,
,
. ,
.
( ). ,
15 , , , ,
, ,

.
, ,
.

. : , ,
"" .
, ,
1 2 . ,
,
, .



,
.
.
,
.
,
.
, , , , . , () , ,
,
. , ( ) , ,
.

,
, ,
, , .
, , , . , ,

. ,
. . ,
.

(. 1.2)
, . ,
, .

.

.


, , , . ,

,
(, ).
.
. , , " ":
"", , (. 1.3,).
,
.
( ), .

. 1.2.

13

. 1.3. " "() ()

, "
" . (. 1.3,6) . :

,
.
, , . , , , , , ,
" ",
.

...
1.
.
2.
(, , , ),

.
3. .

.
4. ,
.
5. ,

. ,
.
6. , , .
.
,
, . , ,
.
7. " "
-


,
,
[8, 10].
10
. (
) . , " ",
11 18 %, , ,
. ,
, - .
14

, . ,
, ,
, .
8.
,

, .

. , ,


. ,

,

.
. .



,
. , ,

. , .
,
, , ,
, , .
,
, .


.


.

, .
, .
,
, .
.

,

. . .

.

,


.
, ,
. , . ,
, . " ". . 13

, .


.
,
.
, .

15


.
,
. , ,
. ,
. ,

.
, 10 68 (150 ),
. 1 2
14 15 (
). , 2,3 (5 ),
8 1 0 . , 1 2
2,3 (5 )
. ,
, .
(
),
.

...
1.
() .
2. ,
,
. - .
3. ,
, . , , , , ,
.
4.
, ,
.


.
5. ,
(, - ), ;
.

,
:
;
;
;
.

, .
, , , ,
, .
, .
, . 1.3
.
10 .
100 %
, 10 .
10 ,
10-. 10- 100 . 90 % 10- (90 ) , 80 % 10- (80 ) . 4.
1.3.

10
10
10

100
90
80


.
. , , 16


. . 1.4,
6 ( ) 400 ;
75 ,
75
. 6 800 , 180

180 .
, .
,

.
, "" [7]:
(
);

;
();
;
.

, ,
. , ,
, .
, , , , . ,
,
. (1 2
),
, .
.
60- . , 60 80 % .

160 -"1 140
. , . ,
, , 24 48 (15 30 )
, 160 320
(100 200 ).
, . ,
3 -"1 (5 -"1), 4 5 -~ '
(7 8 -"1). , , - .

.
, -,

, " " ;
,
,
;


,
.

. .
.
85 95 % (). , 8 (5 ) 3 - ~ ' (5 - -" ')
180 -" ' (, =
= 200 -" ').

,

1.4

,
,

6
6

400
800

75
180

75
180

17

, .
60 80 % ,
. , 5 8 (3 5 ).
,
,
. ,

, .

. "" .
. . 30- XX .
.
45 ,
.
, , .
,
. , .
.
- .

, . 10 . , , , .

.
, . ,
,
- .


.
, , .
, .
40
60 % 30-
, 15 , . ,
30 , , 15 , . 30- .
6 8 . 2 3 .

, . , ,
.


,
, . ,

. .


: . .
.
, .

...
1.
, . , .

18

2.

.
, .
3. . (85 95 %
) ,
.

(60
80 % ) ,
- .
.
4. ( ),
,
,
. ( ).
45 .
5.
, . .
, . - , .
. , ,
- (HDL-C) . .
,
, , :
;
48 (30 ) ;
97 (60 ) ;
145 (90 ) .
, -

.

, ,
-
,
.

, , 12 .
, , 40 , ; 20 , 20 .
12 . 3 . .

,
. , , ,
, - , ,
. - .

, .
, .
. , , -
, . ,

.
,
, .
,

19

.
,
- .

, . , ,
,
,
. , () .
, ,
1,5 (2,4 ). , ,
.


. ,

,
1,5
.
. ,
,
,
(. . 14),
.
. ,
. ,


, .

. , .
.
3. . . ,
. , ,
.
,
, , . , ,
.

. ,
, .
, :
. ,
,
.
I ,
,
. , ,
.

...

1. ?
?
2.
.
?
3.

? ,
.

1.
.
2.
,

20

4. ,

.
5.
? ?
? .
6. ?
.
7. ? ? ?
8. .
9. .
10. ?
.
11.
.
12. .

1. Astrand P.-O. (1991). Influence of Scandinavian scientists
in exercise physiology // Scandinavian Jornal of Medicine and
Science in Sports. 1 3 9 p.
2. Cooper K.H. (1968). Aerobics. New York: Evans.
3. Dill, D.B. (1938). Live, heat and altitude. Cambridge,
UA: Harvard University Press.
4. Dill D.B. (1985). The hot life of man and beast.
Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.
5. Fletcher W.M., & Hopkins F.G. (1907). Lactic acid in
amphibian muscle // Journal of Physiology, 35, 247 254.
6. Foster M. (1970). Lectures on the history of physiology.
New York: Dover.
7. Fox E.L., Mathews O.K. (1974). Interval training conditioning for sports and general fitness. Philadelphia: Saunders.
8. Gergley T.J., McArdle W.D., DeJesus P., Toner M.M.,
Jacobowitz S., Spina R.J. (1984). Specificity of arm training
on aerobic power during swimming and running // Medicine
and Science in Sports and Exercise. 16. 349 354.
9. LaGrange F. (1889). Physiology of bodily exercise.
London: Kegan Paul International, Ltd.
10. Madel J.R., Foglia G.F., McArdle W.D., Gutin .,
Pechar G.C., Katch F.I. (1975). Specificity of swim training
on maximum oxygen uptake. Journal of Applied Physiology,
38, 151 155.


Astrand P.-O., Rodahl K. (1986). Textbook of work physiology (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bainbridge F.A. (1931). The physiology of muscular exercise. London: Longmans, Green.
Bang O., Boje O., Nielsen M. (1936). Contributions to the
physiology of serve muscular work. Scandinavica Archives
of Physiology, 74 (Suppl.). 1 - 208.
BeecherC.E. (1858). Physiology and calisthenics. New York:
Harper & Brothers.
Bergstrom J. (1962). Muscle electrolytes in man.
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical Investigation, 14
(Suppl.), 1 - 1 1 0 .
Brooks G.A., Fahey T.D. (1984). Exercise physiology: Human
bioenergetics and its applications. New York: Wiley.
Consolazio C.F., Johnson R.E., Pecora L.J. (1963).
Physiological measurements of metabolic functions in
man. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Costill D.L. (1985). Practical problems in exercise physiology
research. Research Quarterly, 56, 378 384.
Fox E.L., Bowers R.W., Foss M.L. (1993). The physiological
basis for exercise and sport (5th ed.). Philadelphia:
Saunders.
Hill A.V. (1923). Muscular exercise, lacticacid, and the supply
utilization of oxygen. Quarterly Journal of Medicine,
16, 135 171.
Hill A.V (1927).Muscular movement in man: The factors
governing speed and recovery from fatigue. London:
McGraw-Hill.
Hill A.V. (1970). Firsr and last experiments in muscle
mechanics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University
Press.
MacDougall J.D., Wenger H.A., Green H.J. (1991).
Physiological testing of the high performance athlete (2nd
ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
McArdle W.D., Katch F.L., Katch V.L. (1991). Exercise
physiology: Energy, nutrition, and human performance
(3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
McCurdy J.H., Larson L. (1939). The physiology of exercise.
Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
Reilly ., Brooks G.A. (1990). Selective persistence of
circadian rhythms in physiological responses to exercise.
Chronobiology International, 7, 59 67.
Robinson S. (1938). Experimental studies of physical fitness
in relation to age. Arbeitsphysiologie, 10, 251 327.
Sargent D.A. (1906). Physical education. Boston: Ginn.
Sargent D.A. (1921). The physical test of a man. American
Physical Education Review, 26, 188 194.
Stromme S.B., Ingjer F., Meen H.D. (1977). Assessment of
maximal aerobic power in specifically trained athletes.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 42, 833 837.

, , . ,
, , .
. , . ,
, .
, ,
, , . ,
.

,
.
,
.
, .
, , , .
, .

, , , . , -
"" . 8.
, . , , . ,

.

215 , ,
. , ,
9 .

, .

, , , . ,
, , .


, , ,
. , ,
, .
, . .
. ,
, "" . ,
, . , , ,
. , .
, ,
, .

25


10
80 (), .
. , 35 (14 )!

.

, , .
,
.
, , , , .

,
(. 2.1). , .
,
,
.
.
, , . , , , -

.
, ,
.
. (-),
( ). , , , , (. 2.2). , , : , , .
.
,
().
, (. 2.2). , .
...
1.
.
2. .
3. .
4. -,
'.&

kf'>

V *-W

^^-^.~'':-:
>; -MS? i' - 1 . ' '

-.- i'.'y-* --'? ; W^s* *.

~%.f''

-X.^'^l-t
.
'*

^
**

/,' J':",V|4*'^!

( / * * * " * * i*

. 2.1. () ()

26

'
*

. 2.2

"" -

, ,
.
, .

, a

.
- ,
.


.
. ,
.


3 000 1 500 . , , , . 2.4. /-
. /4- , , -



.
. ,
.
. 2.3, , .
, ,
-, , /-. -,
. /- Z-.
.
, Z-.
, Z- :
/- ( );
- ( );
- ( -);
-;
/-.

. 2.3.

27


2.

. - -, ,
. . - - . - ,
,
"" ,
, .
.
, 3 000 1 500
, .
2/3 .
, .
200 , .

. 2.4


(. 2.5).
, .
,
,
.
.
Z-,
,
.
,
"" .
, , :
, .
.
,
, .
, . ,
; , . ,


. 2.5. ()
()

. 2.6. ,
,

28

(. 2.6). ,
.

,

(- ) .



(. 2.7, ).
,
, "" .

. , ,
,
, ""
(. 2.7, ). "" ,
. ""
, .

...
1.
.
2. , .
3. ,
.
4. ,
.
Z-.


, . , ,
.
- .
. .


? . ,
. ,

.

, (. 2.8). , , .

,

. () , .
, Z-. () ,
- .
, - .


, , . , . 2.7, . ,
.
(),
"" (. 2.7, ). .
.
, . 3.

29

"

"

. 2.7. , :
, , ;
,
; " " 2+ ; 2+
" " ,

, .
,
, , (), ()
. .

,
.
(). ,

30

,
. 5.


, .
"" , , . " ".
,
, . , , .

...
1. .
-

"

, ,
().
.
2.
, .
3. ,
, .
4.
, . , , .
5. . ,
, .
6. ,
. ,
,
, .
. .
.

-
. ,
- ,
?
.
.

, . , ,
,
( 1/4 ) ,
.
(. 2.9, )
.
10
(. 2.9, ), ,

. 2.8. (), () (), ,

31

. 2.9. ();
()

, ,
"" ()
"" (). . 2.10 (10 ) ,
. ; "" , "" . (), .
. -


.
, .
,

.
.



, ,
, .
. , .


.
: () (). , 50 .

. 2.10. .

32

, "
- .
- "".
50 %
25 % - "". 25 %
-
"", - ""
1-3 %.
-,
.
.

-, -. ,
.
. 2.1
. ,
.
. - . -
. ,

-.
. ,
, . , , - .


10 180 .

, 300
800 .
, -

, -.
, ,
- -,
[1].

- -
, ,
.
.
?
, ,
.
. - - , -. , - ,
,

. -
, . -, -.
, .
, , ,
. .
2.10, -, - - . , ,
.


-
,
,

2.1

6
116

. 1 .
. 2 - I,
. 3
. - ( ), ,
( ), 6 ( ).

33

, - .
,
. ,
-
, , . . . , , ,
-.

-. ,
,
. .
-.
.
? " ", .
-
.
, ,
. - ,
. , , -
.

,
,
.
-. , , .

( ), -. ,
, , 5.
^ ,
, . , , , , 1
400 .
34

5- , ,
. ,
. "" , , 100
50 . . 2.2 .

, .. , , -,
5 . ,
. , ,
. , , ,
. ( )
, .
2.2.

,
-

10-180

300-800

300-800

50

110

110

.
"" -, .


()

,
, .
, . , . "
".

, . , " ".

. , . ,

, .

, . 70- XX . . ,
, ,
[5, 6].
...
1.
-, -.
2.
. -
, -.
3. - ,
, .
4.
, . ,

, .
5. ,
.
6. -
.

7. - . -
"" . , , .
. 2.11 ,
6 . , , ,
-.
, ,
, "". , , , ,
,
.

100 % .
, .
.
, , , .
( ) .
. ,
, :
- - "". "" ()
- . , "" - ,
6 -, .
,
26,2
100

80

40

I 20

-

. 2.11.

35

. . , .
. 4 7.
...
1.
" ".

. , . , .
2. , , ,
.
3. -.
-. , ~. .



,
- , , -
""
.
?
, , , . 2.3.
, , .
,
,
, . ,
90 % -. ,

, -

22 % , -.
,
, -. ,
, -
(60 65 %), -

. %

()

24
27
79
69
57
51
67
44
53
60
63

76
73
21
31
43
49
33
56
47
40
37

5,878
3,752
8,342
4,441
6,333
5,487
5,060
5,010
-

6,034
3,930
6,485
4,128
6,116
5,216
8,910
8,450
-

59
71
38
47

41
29
62
53

4,920
6,367
4,722

7,040
6,441
4,709

52

48

3,501

3,141

36

2.3

- -

()
()

(45 55 %),
[2 4].

93 99 % -,

25 % -


.
,

""
. , , ,
, , - . , .


. , ,
. , , .
215
,
. .
, , , ;
, ;
, .
. 2.12, (), (). ()
.
, , . ,
, .
, "" . .

. 2.12. ,

, ,
() () . (),
() ,
.

. ,
.


: ,
.
, , , . .
.
(. 2.13, ). . , 37

. 2.13.
,

(). ,
().
()

, , ( ).
(.
2.13, ), .
.
, ,
- , , , - ,
. , .

, , . , .
, ,
, .
. .
(. 2.13, ).
, . ,
, , .
.


. ,
, 300 ( 136 ),
, . ( )
, , .

;
;
;
;
;

'"*,.
(,

, ,
. ,
,
.
.
, .

38

.
.
.
. ,
.

, , ,
. ,
, , .
. ( ) . .
,
.
. .
,
.
,
,
, 20 % .
,
, .

20 % .
,
,
. - .

,
.
. , ,
, . , .
.
, .
.
, , " "
" ".
.
1/10 ,
.
10 (4,5 ),
10 (100
45 ).
, , ().

.
, ,
, . 100 (45 )
100.

, ,
. . 2.14.
.

. 2.14. (). ,
, 100 (). ()
,

39

;
, .
3.
.
4.
, 20 %.

.
5. ,
, , .

.
6. .

.
(
) .
.

0,8 0,6 0,4


0,2
, -'

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

, -~1

. 2.15.
.
(1985)
.

. ,
. , ,
.
,
, ,
.
.
.

. 2.15. , , (
0,8 - 1 , 0,2 ).


. , . , , . ,
, ,
,
. .

...
1. , ,
( );
();
().
2.
:
, ;
, 40

1. .
2. .
3. ?
4. .
?
5. .
6.

?
7. .

8. : )
; ) 10 ; ) ?
9. , .
10. ?
11. ( ) ( )?


1. Close R. (1967). Properties of motor units in fast and
slow skeletal muscles of the rat. Journal of Physiology
(London), 193, 45 55.
2. Costill D.L., Daniels J., Evans W., Fink W.,
Krahenbuhl G., Saltin B. (1976). Skeletal muscle enzymes
and fiber composition in male and female track athletes.
Journal of Appleid Physiology, 40, 149 154.
3. Costill D.L., Fink W.J., Flynn M, Kirwan J. (1987).
Muscle fiber composition and enzyme activities in elite female
distance runners. International Journal of Sports Medicine,
8, 103- 106.
4. Costill D.L., Fink W.J, Pollock M.L. (1976). Muscle
fiber composition and enzyme activities of elite distance
runners. Medicine and Science in Sports, 8, 96 100.
5. Gollnick P.O., Hodson D.R. (1986). The identification
of fiber types in skeletal muscle: A continual dilemma. Exercise
and Sport Sciences Reviews, 14, 81 104.
6. Gollnick P.O., Piehl K., Saltin B. (1974). Selective
glycogen depletion pattern in human muscle fifers after
exercise of varying intensity and at varying pedal rates. Journal
of Physiology, 241, 45 47.


Blomstrand E., Ekblom B. (1982). The needle biopsy
technique for fiber type determination in human skeletal
muscle A methodological study. Acta Physiologica
Scandinavica, 116, 437 442.
Brobeck J.R. (Ed.) (1979). Best and Taylor's physiological
b'asis of medical practice (10th ed). Baltimore: Williams
Wilkins.

Brooke M.H., Kaiser K.K. (1970). Muscle fiber types: How


many and what kind? Archives of Neurology, 23, 369
379.
Buchthal F., Schmalbruch H. (1970). Contraction times
and fiber types in intact muscle. Acta Physiologica
Scandinavica, 79, 435 452.
Burke R.E. Edgerton V.R. (1975). Motor unit properties
and selective involvement in movement, Exercise and
Sport Sciences Reviews, 3, 31 81.
Edington D.W., Edgerton V.R. (1976). The biology of
physical activity (pp. 51 72). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Essen-Gustavsson ., Borges O. (1986). Histochemical and
metabolic characteristics of human skeletal muscle in
relation to age. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 126,
107- 114.
Essen-Gustavsson ., Henriksson J. (1984). Enzyme levels in
pools of microdissected human muscle fibres of identified
type. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 120, 505 515.
Gordon ., Pattullo M.C. (1993). Plasticity of muscle fiber
and motor unit types. Exercise and Sport Sciences
Reviews, 21, 331 362.
Karlsson J. (1977). Skeletal muscle fibres and muscle enzyme
activities in monozygous and dizygous twins of both sexes.
Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 100, 385 392.
Komi P.V., Karlsson J. (1979). Physical performance,
skeletal muscle enzyme activities, and fibre types in
monozygous and dizygous twins of both sexes. Acta
Physiologica Scandinavica, (Suppl. 462), 1 28.
Lexell J. Taylor C.C. (1989). Variability in muscle fibre
areas in whole human quadriceps muscle: How to reduce
sampling errors in biopsy techniques. Clinical Physiology,
9, 333 - 343.
Lexell J., Taylor C, Sjostrom M. (1985). Analysis of sampling
errors in biopsy techniques using data from whole muscle
cross sections. Journal of Applied Physiology, 59, 1228
1235.
MacLaren D.P.M., Gibson H., Parry-Billings M., Edwards
R.H.T. (1989). A review of metabolic and physiological
factors in fatigue. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews,
17,29-66.
Roy R.R., Baldwin K.M., Edgerton V.R. (1991). The plasticity
of skeletal muscle: Effects of neuromuscular activity.
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 19, 269 312.
Simoneau J.-A., Bouchard C. (1989). Human variation in
skeletal muscle fiber-type proportion and enzyme activities.
American Journal of Physiology, 257, E567 E572.
Wickiewicz T.L., Roy R.R., Powell P.L., Perrine J.J.
Edgerton V.R. (1984). Muscle architecture and forcevelocity relationships in humans. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 57, 435 443.

, , , ,
, .
. , ,
, . , .
.
.
,
, .
, ,
, . ,

, .
, .
, ,
,
.

.



. . , . , -

,
.
.

,
. 3.1, . , ,
.
. .
;

q:"-| pf'$^*

W^F*!*-"-*'

<$*!*

^*
>%*
. 3.1.

, , .
.
. , ,
,
.
, , .
, . , , .
, ,
. (), , (
).


, , , ,
,
().
.
, .

. , ,
. - 70 .



,
, , .
, . ,

70 , . Na+.
. . .
,
, . : . , .


.
, .
, ,
, ,
. , ,
. , . .
.

, , ,
.
, (
), , . , , .
, , , -

70 . , ,
, ,
70 , , .

(). .
.
(+), (Na+). , - ,
.
, , - , 3 Na+, 2 + .
,
, . , 4 ,
. 43

,
,
. , .

.
, ,
1 . 70 +30 , .
?
" ". .
,
15
20 , . , 70
50 55 , . ,
,
. 15 20
. , -

70 60 , 10
, . ,
. " ".

.
(. 3.2):
1.
Na+. + - .
. .

, , , ,
.
(), , 70 +30 (. 3.2,6).
2. . . "", . ,
.
3. .
. -

, .
, , ,
-70 .
(. 3.2,).
,

,
.
f
Na . f
K
. ,
, +
, ..
. ,
-
,
(. 3.2,<).

, , .
.
.

, ,
.

...
1.
-70
, - .
2. , ,
. ,
, .
, .
3. 1520
, .
, .
4. :
;

;
.
5.
, ""
(
).
5 50
,
.
6.
.


,
, ,
. : .
.
, .
.
,

. . ,
,
. , ,
.

120 -'1 ( 250 /), .. 5 50
,

.
, .
?

.
.
, .


, , -
. , , , -

45

, , . ,
5 20 % , [2].

,
, .
,

. , . ,
.

-
. 3.3.
( )


,
- . - , . - :
, . - .
- (. 3.4). .
. .

. 3.3,
: , ; .
, , , - . ,
, .
. .

: -

. 3.4. -

46

,
,
, . ,
, ,
, . , ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
. , .

40 . - ,
(. 3.1).
,
.
, . ,
, . , , ,
, , . , ,
, .
3.1.

I

II
: , ,
,
III
: -
, ,

- (, , )
(, -, )
, (, , -)
(, II,
)

, .
, ,
.

,
,
. , .
, ,
. . ,
, . , . .
, , 1 . ,

, 15 20 . ,
, ,
,
. ,
.
, .
, .

...
1.
.
2.
47

;

;
( ).
3. , , .
4.
.
5.
, ,
,

.
6. () ()
, .
7. - .
,

. - .
8.

.

. , .

. .
. ,
.
,
.
, , ,
. , .
.

48

...
1.
.
.
2.

. , .
3. . , .
.

, ,

.
(. 3.5).


()


()

()

()

. 3.5.

, , .
.
, , .
,
(. 3.7). :
1) ;
2)
;
3) ;
4)
.
, , ,
;
;
() .

. 3.6.


100

.
(. 3.6):
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .

, , .

, . -

. .
( )

.
.
,
, , ,
.
:
(



, ,

. 3.7

49

, , , , ..);
;
;
;
;
;
;
.

.

.

, (. 3.8)
, .
,
. 10 12
. ,
- .
,
. : )
; ) ;
) -
; ) ( ).

, . $- ,
, . ,

. 3.8.

( )
. ()
(, ).

...
1.
.
2. :
, ,
.
3. .
4. ,
, , .
5. , , .
6. , .
7. ,

.


()

.
,

. ()

43 : 12 , ,
31 , 50

()

. 3.9.

. 2) , "" . - ;
(. 3.9).
3) , ;
, 4) , ; - , . - ;
5) , . , , , , ( .
, , , ..).


: . - . .
.
, , , . ,

,
. .
() - .
; ; (, , , , ); , , .
. :

, , ; - ,
- , . , - , , ;
-
, . ;
- , - , .
.

:

1) ,
, , , ;

51

. , , ,
. ,
, -,
.


,

,
. .
;
;
;
.
: . , .
, .



, " ", .. " ". , ,
. , , , , ,
.
:
;
,
;


;

;
,
;
, ;
, -

,
, ;
,
;
;
, ( , ), , .

.

. , , , .
, .
.

;
;
.
. 3.2.

...
1.
43 : 12 31 .
2. : . .
3.
,
,
.
4. .
5.
, " " , "". , .
52

3.2

, ,

,

,
,
,

4) (. 3.10,);
5)
(. 3.10,) .

, , ,
. , , ,
? , , ?
.
, , . 3.10.
,
:
1) (. 3.10,);
2) (. 3.10,6);
3)

(. 3.10,);

.
. , ""
. , , . ,
, .
.
:
,
() , .
53

>-,

. 3.10. -

,
. "" .
, . , , ,
.
. 3.11 ,
.

,
;
, ,
, .
, ;
,
, . , -, , ,
.
.
;
, , ;

,
.
, ( ),
,


, , "" .
, () , : 1)
; 2) ; 3) .

, .
54

'


(,
)


()


()

'.

. 3.12.

.
, . ,
.
.

.
, , - , . , ,
-
, .
,
, ,
. ,

. 3.11.

, ,
. . 3.12.
.
,
.

, ? -, , .
, (), 55

,
.

.
-
,
.
- .
- (. 3.13)
,
( ) . - 20 24 ,
( ),
( , ).
- .
- . -
() .
,

. 3.13. -

56

. ,
. , , , .
, - , ,
. - , , .
.
, . -
.
,
( ), ,
, .
, - . , .
- ,
. , .
-
, . -
.
- . -
-

. -

.
. , - .
,
, - ,
.
,
, .

, . "" , , ,
.


, :
;
;
.
.

-
-
, -
. (. 3.14). 5 25 , , . -
, . ,
. ,

, . () .
,
-
, .
, ,

.



. .
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
, , "" . ,
,
,
.
,
.
- , . .



.
-


. ,
.
.
;
(, ), , , , .
, .

: \

.-


. , ,
.

. 3.14. -

57

,
. "" ,
.

, ,
,
. , , , ,
. , , .
,
, , , .
,
.

, .
, ,
, , .

, , .


.
. ,
, . ?
"" . , , , .

, .

.

, ,
.
2.
. .
3. . .
.
4. - ""
.
5. - ""
, , .
6. , , .
7.
( ),
.
8. ,
.
,
, .
9.
,
.


, , ,
.

, -
.
, . ,

.
, .
,
(, ), -

...
1. - ,
, , -

58

. ,
,
.
. , , -,
. 2, ,
[1, 3].

-
. ,
,
,
. ,
, ,
25 %.

, ( )
1:15, , 15 . ,
1:2 000

...
1. ; .
2. .
3. :

.
4. (), ().



, , , .
,
. , , ,
, 200 ,
1 200. ,
1.
2, 3, 4 .. , 50 70 % .

.
, , ,
. , .
,
( ). , , -



. :

,
;
, ;
,
;
, ,
.
,
,

. , -

59


. ,
, , .

- .


1. .
2. , . ? ?
3. .
? .
4.
. - .
5. ?
6. ? ?
7.
?
?
8. ? ?
9. , ?
10. - .
11. -
?
12. ?

1. Edstrom L., Grimby L. (1986). Effect of exercise on
the motor unit. Muscle and Nerve, 9, 104 126.
2. Guyton A.C. (1991). Textbook of medical physiology
(8th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
3. Pette D., Vrbova G. (1985). Neural control of
phenotypic expression in mammalian muscle fibers. Muscle
and Nerve, 8, 676 689.


Astrand P.-., Rodahl K. (1986). Textbook of work
physiology (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Brooks G.A., Fahey T.D. (1984). Exercise physiology: Human
bioenergetics and its applications. New York: Wiley.
Christensen N.J., Galbo H. (1983). Sympathetic nervous
activity during exercise. Annual Review of Physiology,
45, 139- 153.
Edington D.W., Edgerton V.R. (1976). The biology of
physical activity. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Emonet-Denand F., Hunt C.C., Laporte Y. (1988). How
muscle spindles signal changes of muscle lenght. News
in Physiological Sciences, 3, 105 109.
Enoka R.M. (1988). Neuromechanical basis of kinesiology.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Enoka R.M., Stuart D.G. (1984). Henneman's size principle':
Current issues. Trends in NeuroSciences, 7, 226 227.
Fox E.L., Bowers R.W., Foss M.L. (1993). The physiological
basis for exercise and sport (5th ed.). Dubuque, IA: Brown
& Benchmark.
Gielen C.C.A.M., Denier van der Gon J.J. (1990). The
activation of motor units in coordinated arm movements
in humans. News in Physiological Sciences, 5, 159 163.
Ginzel K.H. (1979). Interaction of somatic and autonomic
functions in muscular exercise. Exercise and Sport
Sciences Reviews, 4, 35 86.
Goodwin G.M. (1977). The sense of limb position and
movement. Exersice and Sport Sciences Reviews, 4, 87
124.
Hasan Z., Enoka R.M., Stuart D.G. (1985). The interface
between biomechanics and neurophysiology in the study
of movement: Some recent approaches. Exercise and
Sport Sciences Reviews, 13, 169 234.
Henneman E., Mendell L.M. (1981). Functional
organization of motoneuron pool and its inputs. In
Handbook of physiology. The nervous system: Motor
control (pp. 423 507). Bethesda, MD: American
Physiological Society.
McArdle W.D, Katch F.I., Katch V.L. (1991). Exercise
physiology: Energy, nutrition, and human performance
(3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
O'Donovan M.J. (1985). Developmental regulation of motor
function: an uncharted sea. Medicine and Science in
Sports and Exercise, 17, 35 43.
Roy R.R., Baldwin K.M., Edgerton V.R. (1991). The plasticity
of skeletal muscle: Effects of neuromuscular activity.
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 19, 269 312.
Sale D.G. (1987). Influence of exercise and training on motor
unit activation. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews,
15,95- 151.
Seals D.R., Victor R.G. (1991). Regulation of muscle
sympathetic nerve activity during exercise in humans.
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 19, 313 349.

. , , .

,
.



. ,
90 , ,
? 9-
, 2 ?
,
, ? -
?
, . ,

, ,
, . , .
,
.

- .
.
, ,
, , .
- .
, , ,
( ) , . 60-
70- , ,
.
. ,

- , , .

, , . , , , 300
, , 150 .
, , , .
1-.

, :
= ( )/.
. -

W * .

61

. 4.1. ,
250 , ,

, , 250 . ,
, . . 4.1.

, , , . , , 1- 450 , () ,
1- 350 , 1- . 100 ,

.

, . ,

. ,

200
200 ,
2 0,5 ,
800 --~'
10
150

.
.


,

.
, ,
,

, , (), . ,
, 1-. , -

400
400 ,
2 2 ,
1
400 --"
10
300

400
400 ,
2 1 ,
800 --"'
5
300

* (1-). ,
"" 1-.
( ) , ,
1-. ,
75 % 1-. , 1986 ( ).

62

4.1
,

.
, , , . ,
-
.
, . .

, , 200 ,
, ,
, , , 75 % (150
).

() .
7,
10.
. 4.1 , . .



. ,

, .
. 29 2 1/2
1968 . 2
! ,
, . . 1991 .

...
1.
.
2.
.
, , , .
3. .


. 3
6 25 100 %
. ? ,
, ?

,

(). , ,
, . ,

()


,
, , . ,
(. . 19). , ,
. , .
,
.
,
,
(. 4.2). (, ,
) .
, , ,
,
.
?

63

. ,
"".
. - . ()
- , . .
,
() .

,
. , , .
, .
,
,
.


[30]. . 4.3. , . 6- ,
,
, ,
, ,
[21].
,


, , ,
.
:
;
;
.

, ? , ,
, ,

() (. . 6).



. , .

20

40

60
,

80

100

. 4.3.
. 820 .
,
,
. (1988)

65




,
[27]. , . 4.4.
()


,/J

- ,
, , .
,
(. 4.4,6). (. 4.4,), ,
.
. 4.4,
() ().
,
, , .
:
Mr =

xl00% ;
f~T
D


; ; .
,
, 8-
( )
( 22 )
( 70 )
[28]. 8-
.
4
, 4
. ,

.

. 4.4.
, (), ()
(). (1980):
1 ; 2

.
,
, ,
.
, - ,
(. 4.4,).

,
, .

, . , -

. ,
(. . 14).
,
.

66

, .
?
: . ""
. , , (),
, () .
,
, . .

.


()
(). , , .

, . , ,

[15].
, ; (. 4.6). .


, "" -

,
.
,
.

;

;
;
;
^ .
. 4.5,
.
, ,
, ,
,
. , .
. 4.5. ,
2 , () 6
().

,
, , 5*

67

^:*5!

Mill



. 4.6.
. (1980)

.
(. 4.7).
, , , ,
[13, 14, 38]. . .
, , . ,
,

[16]. , 101 , , 57 %
.
11 %. , 9 %- , .
"" . ""
.

.


,

68

. 4.7. .
(). ,
- (1977)

. ,
. ..

, , , , . ,

[37].
, , .
, ,
[25]. , ,
, .


, . .
, [31].
: 8,400 2 ; 6,200 4,400 2 .
. ,
,
, ,
[23].
,

, , .
. . , [17].
.
, ,
, . ,
,
[39]. . 16-
:
66 %-
;
18 %- "" ;
17 %- ;
26 %- .

69


, , ,
(. 13). 6
. , , , .
, .
, 3 4 %
[2]. ,
-
.
-.
, z- , -. -.
, -
- [2].

. , , , .
.
20 ,
30 32 . 6
[34].
, . (. 4.8).
20- 6- . .

-. ,
- (. 4.9).
, ( )

150

6000

120

5000

90
60
30

1000

350

20

300

. 4.9. , :
1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - 6+6. 6 - . . (1991)

250
200

150
100

50

20

12 , .
,
,
,

, , .

75
60
45
30
15
20

20

?

, (), () [7, 12].
,
, , -
().
, , ,

,
, . ,

[29]. -

. 4.8.
, (),
() (). 20,
20 20
; 6 ; 6
6- .
. (1991).

10 18 , 12 ,
[18].

21,4 %. , , 68 %- . ,
, . ,
70

15 : - -
, - [19]. 6 ,
- .

[35].
20-
,
, ,
. 6- , .
, 1990 ., ,
[1].




;
12 48 ;
, .

,
, ,
- .
3. "",

.
.
4.
.
5. , -,
( ), (
).
6. (, ) , .. .
7.
, (,
) .
8. . ,

.




, , , , +,
,
. "" .

, .

1 2
,
, .
,
. , .
, "" . ,
,
.

[36].

...
1.
, .
2. , 71

,
45 . " ", (10 %)
[32, 33].
24 48 ,
, ,
, .
W

.


. 2 10 .
, .

, .
, .
. 4.10
[20]. ,
. ,
.
. 4.11 Z- . , Z .
.
. 4.11,6 ( ),
Z- .

, ,
, ,

.
,


.

, , . ,
, , .
, .
.
, ,
,
[24]. ,

.
.

. 4.10. .
. . (1984)

72

&Sa,l*.*J?... *,*1 >* 3FU -

. 4.11.
Z- ();
Z-, (). . (1984)




1984 .

[3]. ,
;
(
);

.
,
.
1. -
.
2.

,
, 48
.
3. ,
(,
+) . , 73

.

.
,
, ,
, [4]. ,

.
"" , , , , , ,
. "" .
, .



. ,
, ,

.
,
,

. , .
,
, , [9].

...
1.
.
2.
1 2
. "" , -,
.
3. .
4.

;
, ;
;
.

5.

;
;
,

, .


50
. . 22.

.
,


(),
.
,
(. 4.12).

(, ) -

. 4.12. ,

74

, , . 4.14. ,
.
,
( ) 0 ( )
300-"' .

.

,


[11].

?
?

. 4.13.

.
100

, ..
10 , 10 .
. . 4.13

. 100, 60 (
) 180 ( ).

. .
, ,
.

. 4.14. ,

75

?
, ?
.
;
;
;

;
().
. , , , ,
.


( )
. , 1- , .. ,
. , 25- . ,
.
,
,

. ,
, ,
, , .
.
, . ,

.

(, ), 8 12-,
3 6 () 10 15 (). , , 90 [11].
76


, ,
. , .
, .
( ) .
, . ,
, , - .

, . .
-
. . 4.2 .
. .

:
I () ;
II ;
III ;
IV .


. .
,

, ,
XX .,
50- , . ,
, ,

, .
,
-

,
, . , .

,
[5, 11]. , ,

[8, 22].

, , 70-
80- . ,
. , -

18 , , , "" ,
- (. 4.15).

, ,
, ..
, , ,
[6].

, 25 .
,
, .

,
,
, . , , .

,
. ()
,
.

( ),
. ,
, ,
.
, , ,

,
.

,
, .

30 % ,
.
.
, -

4.2

II

III

IV

3-5
8-20

3-5
2-6

3-5
2-3

3-5
1 -3

(1987).

77

1,

.
, .
,
,
.
. ,
. ,
. , .. , .
. , ,

,

.
.

,
,
.

...

. 4.15. :
, " "

, , ,
.
3.

,
.
4. , ,
. ,
,
. , .
5.
.
,
.

1. . , ,
.
2. -

,
, .
, ,
.

78

,
, .

,
, , , .

. , , ,
.
,

. ,
.
, , .
,
.
,
.

, . , . 70-
, ,
,
. . , , -, . 19.

. . , ,
,
.
, . ,

(. . 17).


.
,
,
. ,
,
.

? , .
,
(. . 18).

, , , , .

...
1. , ,
.
2.

.
.

. , ,
, .
.

79

"" ,

, .
:
;
;
;
;
;
.
, . , , , .
, .
. 60 70 %

. ,
?

. , . ,
- -, .
.
, "".
"" ,
.
, . .
, ,
, . ,
.
1978 . , ,
(
),

72 . ,

.
. ,
24
,
,
, 18x21 .
, 24 , 9 000 ,

70- , 200 , .

. ,
(),
.
, , , .

, . , .

, , , .

85


(). , 1 , 1 1 15 .
, 0,5 ,
1 4,0 .

""
. ,
,

.
, , 2+
.
.

, , 2.


, , , , , .
,
. ,

.

().

;
2 000 . ,
32 (20 ).
70 000
,
.
, . ,
. ,
, ,
,
().
, ,

. ,
.
.


. , . . 5.1, .
,

:
. .

5 . 1 . ""

, , .
" "
.
.
.

,
.

7,800
0,161
7,961

.
65 12 %.

86

70,980
1,465
72,445

. 5.1,
' : 9 4 '.
,
.

...
1. 60 70 % .
.
2. , .
3.
.
4. 4 1 , 9 1 , , , .
.

.
. .
5 10 % , .

.

, . .
, .
.


. ()
(. 5.2). , -. , , , ().
, , .
, .

1 6,

(
)
1 ,.;

. 5.1. 1
1

. 5.2.
()

87

= | ~| (PJ

1~\}(PJ + ( . ) +

,
, . ,
.

, .
(. 5.4).
( )
,
, .
, -
. , , .


,
,

(. 5.5).

.
,
, , . 3 15 -

(. 5.3,) ( ,
), ().
, (7,6 --1 ).
() (. 5.3,6).
?
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
: ,
.

-
. , (). , ,

. 5.3

()

()

(
. 5.4

88


12 . . 3 .
, 2
, -6-.

. ,

.
.
,
. 1 2 ,
1 ( )
25 - 1 . , . ,
.
-

100
.

* 80
60

6
8
,

10

12

14

. 5.5.

. :
.

() . , , ..

(. 5.6).
99 % ,
.
.
, .

, . ,
-1-.

, ,
-6-.

. -6 -1- . ,
-6-.
. ,
"" ,
.
,
, .
.
, ,
, -

-6-

. 5.6.

89


.
363. .
+,
, Na+ +, . ,
. -

200
, .

.

. .


, .

. ,
, , .
,
. .
, .

.
, , .
.

2. .
, .
, . 1 1
.
3.
,
.
, . 1 2 ,
1 3 .
4.


.

(. 5.7)
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

, . , , . ""
. , 3
1 . , -
(-).
. -
( )
, -. 2 , (, ,
) ,
(2), ,

( R - + ,).

...
1.
:
;
;
.

. , , .
. ,
90

. 5.7

()
-6-
3

N*. .

34


. ?

, . + ,
.
, ,
, , .
, .

5.2

, 1

(

)

. 39
. , 38 (,

-). . 5.2
.

22
34

39

* , *
.

,
.

1 200 2 000 ,
,
, 70 000 75 000 .

, , , -

,
. ,
, -- --, -

91

. 5.8

/
>
- | 1

-2

()

, .

' .
, :
.
.
, .
(), ,
,

.

. .
(3-.
, , . 5.8. ,
, . () .
-.

. ,
16- , (3- 8 . -.


, .
-, -, . ,
,
-, .
, , 2 .
, ,
, .
5,6 2, 6,3 2.
,


, , - , ,
- , .

, .

92

, ,
16- .
,

129 (. 5.3),

38 39 . , 40 % ,
,
, .
60 % .

.
12 24 .

( ,
5 10 % ),

.

,
. ,
. , , . Q0
. , .

5.3.
(16322)
, 1

-2

(3-

35
88

121

129

.

.
, .
,

. , , , . . 5.9

. , , ,
, [2, 3, 5].


, . , , , .
( ).

(,
-), .
, , ,
, .
, .
, ,
.

5,65 ~' .


5,20 ~' , .. 8 % .
, , -


. 3, - ,
,

93

.
, . ,
.
. , ,
, ,
. ,
, , .

18

Q.T
.

16

S-i 14

fl
Ss

_ ^
3
5 5

Qo2. (-'--')-10

. 5.9.
(Q0j)

...
1. .
,
- .
2. ,
. 2, , 38
39 .
3. -
, :
. , , , , .
4. ,
() ,
. , .
5.
, .

. - . , , .
,
-,

, [5, 6].
,
, ;
,
, .
(3-,

.
,

-. , -

, -.


,
. ,
.
.
-

.
.

XX . .
.

94

,

.
. .
.

, 40 % , , . 60 % ,

,
. .
XIX .
(. 5.10),
.
, . , , ,
. , , . , .
, .
, ,
. , .


,
2, 2
. 2 2 ,
. ,
, . , , 2
2 2 . 5.11. ,
,
, ..

. 5.10.

95

.,

2
2, 23 :
16 + 162
162
32 + 802-> 1620
24 2 1 2,

23 2
16 ,,, 16
2 129 :
. 5.11. ,
2


, , , (, ).
, .
, , .
2
(Fco2) (
). ().
,
, . , (6126)
.
6
6 2, 6 2 38
:
2
2,
, 1,0:

6,
_2_ _
= 1,0
6,

, . 2 6,3
(38 6 2), 5,6 (129
23 2).
5.4.

0,71
0,75
0,80
0,85
0,90
0,95
1,00

, - ' Oj

4,69
4,74
4,80
4,86
4,92
4,99
5,05

, %

0
15,6
33,4
50,7
67,5
84,0
100,0

100
84,4
66,6
49,3
32,5
16,0
0

,
,
. , .
0,70:

,
. 5.4, , . , ,
1,0,
, 5.05 .

. 5.4, , .
, , . ,
, , 163,02. -

96

4,69 -"' 2 ,
4,46 -~' 2.
, , 2
,
1
10,1 -" (2 -~'-5,05 ).

1,0 ,
, 2
, . . ,
2,

2. 2 ,
2. , 1,0,

, . ,

0,70. ,

,
.

,
.


. , 2 2 , .
( 98 %)
. ,
, , ,
, . ,
.
2 ; , . 2,
,
. ,
.

. ,
,
.
.
, .
,
,

. ,
10 %.
, ,
. . 0,78 0,80.
, . .
1,0.



, . ,
, .
.

.
() ( ). , -12 (12) 12
. . -14 (14), , 12, 14. -14
.
-13 ( 13 ) 1 %
. ,
, -14. ,
.
-13 , , -

97

-2 (, 2 ) , .. .
.
30 ,

.

, (2218). ( 2 ) ,
-18 (18) , (
, ).
,
,
.
2 , , .
,
.
,
. ,
( 98 %) ,
.
,

.

...
1.
,
.
2. 2 2,
(
)

.
3. 0,78 0,80.
4. .
. 2 .

98


, . () ?

, . .



. , ( )
. ,
, .
, (. 5.12) . ,
, . ,
- .
, , . ,
(. 5.12).
,
, .
" ".
.
, : , , ,
, . .
-

. 5.12

:
;

0
;

,
.

: . , , ,
, .
, .
, .
,

,
2 2,
, .
, . ,
.
, , ,
. ,

( ). . , .
2 . ,
, . .
, , . -


, .
, .
, . . (. 5.13)
, .
1,4 -" 1
.
.
,
12

2
5

10
8

I6


^
0,8

1,0

/ \\
/

1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0


,-"1

2,2

. 5.13.
( )

99

.
,
, .
.
,
. , ,
, , . , .
2,0 4,0
,
.
.


50 60 % .
, , ,
70- 80%
.
3. , ,
, 1.
4. , , , , ,
.



, .


, .

, . , 80 %

60 % .
,
, ,
.

...
1.
,
.
2. ,
,
.


,
, . ,
. 0,3 ' 1 , 18 -' 1 ,
432 -'1.
, . ,
. 0,80
, .
0,80 4,80 --' 2 (. . 5.4). , (
) :
= 2, , , 2,
1
= 432 2--'-4,80 -' :
= 2,074 --'.
1

, 2,0 4,0
1

100


70 (154 ). ,
,
.

, .. ,
8
12 .
,

.


. ,
. , ,
. , ,
,
.

. ,
,
. 1 2
.
,

.
. :
: ;
: ;
: , , ,
;
:
.
" ", ,
.
1 200 2 400 -" 1 .
1 800 3 000 .

,
, 10 000 -"'!




. . , . ,
. 5.14,
(V 2 )
, . ,
. ,
.
,
, ,
, , ,
,
[4].

. ,
[1].
, -

101

\ 60
:
1
&40

20

>
.

4
6
8
, -~

10

12

. 5.14.
()
,
(1) (2)

812 ,
, . ,
,
. .
,
42 (26,2 ) , 75 80 %
[1].
, 70
1
-^'-" .
2 8 .
86 % . , .
.
, , ,
. , , , , ,
, , . ,
,
.
, , ,
, (-- 1 )-

, , .

, (-~').

18 22 38 42 --'-"' () 44 50
-'--' (). 25 30
,
1 % . , .
, ,
, . :
( , , )
( ,
). ,

102


80 84-~'-~' .
1
1
94 -' -' . 74 -~'-~'.
20 -~'-"'

, .
19.


-
, . . 5.15
.
200 -~' (7,5 -~'),
, .
(64 65 -'-" 1 ), ,
,
.

. ,
85 % .
13
. , , , ,
-

60

!^
!? 40

I I 30

Q.
20
|
VD

,-

10

. 5.15.
,
.
(64 65 '~''~'), I

. , , .
, ,
,
, . , ,
5 10 % ,
. ,
(10 19 -~', 6 1 2
1
-" )- ,
,
.

.
, , 1 1 1 9 -~'
(7 12 -" 1 ), . , ,

(1500 ).

. , , , ,


. ,
, "",
.
. 5.16 , -

i 5
;

I
5

_ 3h

1 /EV-

vo

-2

0,6

.

.

,
. ,

, , , .
2,1 2,3 -' 1
400 ,
5,0 - 1 . .

, .

,
. , , , , :
;
;

;
.

, ,
' ;
'
;

0,8
1,0
1,2
,-"1

1,4

. 5.16.

, ,
.

,
.
, (--1) -

103

. ,
300 100 .
, 300,
400 .

0,20 0,35 . 1,0 1,8 -~', 60
1
108 -~', 1,44 2,592 -" . ,
.
. ,

;
;
;
;
;
.

.


. ,
, ,
. ,
. , 25 -"1 (15,5 -"1)
29 -"1, .
11 -~' (7 -~')
14,5 -"1, .. -

, --'
7,0
10,0

, -"1
7,5
10,0


(, 3,0 -~')

, 3,5 -~'

,
-"'

. , .
. 5.5
. , , ,
, ,
( ).

...
1. , .
.
,
.
2.
1 200 2 400 -~'. 1 800 3 000 -"1.
3. , . .
4.
.

,
-"'

,
-~'-~'

8,6

6,8

0,123

5,0
7,5

3,9

0,071
0,107
0,157

11,0

5,9
8,6

14,0
18,2

11,0
14,3

1,7
1,2
1,8

1,3
0,9
1,4

20,0

15,7

7,1
5,0
8,2

5,5
3,9
6,4

13,1

10,3

0,200
0,260
0,024
0,017
0,026
0,285
0,101
0,071
0,117
0,187

. 154 (70 )
121 (55 ). .

104

5.5

150
125
100
75

50
25

. 5.17.
() ()
3-
70 % . (1986)


90 . (
) .

, , . -

, .
,

. 29 35- (18
22- ) " ".
.
. .
.
, , .
. 5.18
,
30 . . 5.18,
- -.
- . . 5.18, ,
. () , .
.
- . 5.18,5
( ) .
- . , -
, ,
, , 30 .

. 5.18. () ()
30 .

106

- . , - .
-. , 6-. , .
. 5.19 ,
-, - 6

. (40 60 %
) -.
(75 90 %
) -,
-.
, , , - , , ,
- ""
. .
- , - ,
, . ,

, .

- -,

. , ,
,
, 2 "
70 % . (. 5.20),
, , ,
.
, - ,
, .
, .


.
, , -

. -

70

2 75

||
8220-

.
2

10 40

50

60
70

80

90

50

250

1I
213
1.1. 2,

. 5.20. ,
(1),
(2) (3)

. 5.19. - (]), - (2)


6- (3)
60 40, 60, 75 90 % .
(1988)

107

, . ,
. ,
.
,
.
,

. ,

, .
, ,

.



, .
, , 15.
, (
) . , -, ,
, +, .

(, , ) . . ,
, ,
, , - , .

, ,
,
. ,
,
+
. , , , (3~),
+
.
+
, 1,5 . +
.
,
7,1 6,6 6,4 .

. 6,9 , . 6,4
+
,
. , +
,

7,1 -



, . ,
,
. , , , ,
. ,
, .

108

5
10 15 20 25
,

35

. 5.21.

. , , , .
. 5.21,

30 35 .
.

7,0 6 7 -'1, .. 4 5
.



, . ,
. + , ,
. , ,
.
,
.
-

, .
,
. .
3,
,
. , , , .
,
.

, -

. , , .
:

,

,
;
,
, , ,
;

(), , ;
;
, ;
,
.
- - (, ), . , -,
, .
-.
.

()
.
, . ,

, ,
.
,
. , , . ,

109


.

. .
, "" . ,
.
,
, , .
, ,
.

1. ?
2.
.
3.
?
4. ?
5. , .
6. ?
.
7. ?
8. ?
9. () ?
10.
,
, , ?
11.

(--" 1 )?
12.
15- 30 2 - 4 .

...
1. . .
2.
"" . ,
FT . + ,

.
3.

, .
4.
, , -, . , ,
;
.

, . . ,
,
. , .

,
.


1. Costill D.L. (1970). Metabolic responses during
distance running. Journal of Applied Physiology, 28, 251
255.
2. Costill D.L., Daniels L, Evans W., Fink W.,
Krahenbuhl G., Saltin B. (1976). Skeletal muscle enzymes
and fiber composition in male and female track athletes.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 40, 149 154.
3. Costill D.L., Fink W.J., Flynn M., Kirwan J. (1987).
Muscle fiber composition and enzyme activities in elite female
distance runners. International Journal of Sports Medicine,
8, 103 106.

4. Costill D.L., Fox E.L. (1969). Energetics of marathon


running. Medicine and Science in Sports, 1(2), 81 86.
5. Gollnick P.D., Armstrong R., Saubert C, Piehl K.,
Saltin B. (1972). Enzyme activity and fiber composition in
skeletal muscle of untrained and trained men. Journal of
Applied Physiology, 33, 312 319.
6. Ivy J.L., Withers R.T., Van Handel P.J., Elger D.H.,
Costill D.L. (1980). Muscle respiratory capacity and fiber
type as determinants of the lactate threshold. Journal of
Applied Physiology, 48, 523 - 527.

Armstrong R.B. (1979). Biochemistry: Energy liberation and
use. In R.H.Strauss (Ed.), Sports medicine and
physiology. Philadelphia, PA: W.B.Saunders.
Bergstrom J. (1967). Local c h a n g e s of ATP and
phosphocreatine in human muscle tissue in connection

110

with exercise. In Physiology of muscular exercise


(Monograph N 15), pp.191 196. New York: American
Heart Association.
Blom P., Vollestad N.K., Costill D.L. Factors affecting
changes in muscle glycogen concentration during and
after prolonged exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica,
128: (Suppl. 556).
Brooks G.A. (1987). Amino acid and protein metabolism
during exercise and recovery. Medicine and Science in
Sports and Exercise, 19 (5), S150 - S156.
Brooks G.A., Brauner K.E., Cassens R.G. (1973). Glycogen
synthesis and metabolism of lactic acid after exercise.
American Journal of Physiology, 224, 1162 1166.
Coggan A.R., Coyle E.F. (1991). Carbohydrate ingestion during
prolonged exercise: Effects on metabolism and performance.
Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 19, 1 40.
Costill D.L., Coyle E., Dalsky G., Evant W., Find W.,
Hoopes D. (1977). Effects of elevated plasma FFA and
insulin on muscle glycogen us age during exercise. Journal
of Applied Physiology, 43, 695 - 699.
Costill D.L., Gollnick P.O., Jansson E.D., Saltin ., Stein
E.M. (1973). Glycogen depletion pattern in human
muscle fibers during distance running. Acta Physiologica
Scandinavica, 89, 374 - 383.
Costill D.L., Jansson E., Gollnick P.D., Saltin B. (1974).
Glycogen utilization in leg muscles of men during level
and uphill running. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 91,
475 - 481.
Farrell P.A., Wilmore J.H., Coyle E.F., Billing J.E., Costill
D.L. (1979). Plasma lactate accumulation and distance
running performance. Medicine and Science in Sports,
11, 338-344.
Henriksson J., Reitman J. (1976). Quantitative measures of
enzyme activities in type I and type II muscle fibers of
man after training. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 97,
392 _ 397.

Ingjer F. (1991). Maximal oxygen uptake as a predictor of


performance ability in women and men elite crosscountry skiers. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine &
Science in Sports, 1, 25 30.
Ivy J.L.. Costill D.L., Maxwell B.D. (1980). Skeletal muscle
determinants of maximum aerobic power in man.
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 44 (1), 1 8.
Katz A. Sahlin K. (1990). Role of oxygen in regulation of
glycolysis and lactate production in human skeletal muscle.
Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 18, 1 28.
Medbo J.I., Mohn A.-C., Tabata I., Bahr R., Vaage O.,
Sejersted O.M. (1988). Anaerobic capacity determined
by maximal accumulated O-, deficit. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 64 (1), 50 60.
Needham D.M. (1971). The biochemistry of muscular
contraction in its historical development. Cambridge,
MN: University Press.
Pernow ., Saltin B. (1986). Muscle metabolism during
exercise (pp. 67 74). New York: Plenuth Press 1971.
Scott C.B., Roby F.B., Lohmann T.B., Bunt J.C. (1991).
The maximally accumulated oxygen deficit as an indicator
of anaerobic capacity. Medicine and Science in Sports
and Exercise, 23 (5), 618 - 624.
Simonson E. (1971). Physiology of work capacity and fatigue.
C.C.Thomas: Springfield, IL.Spogaard G. (1991). Role
of exercise-induced potassium fluxes underlying muscle
fatigue: A brief review. Canadian Journal of Physiology
and Pharmacology, 69, 238 245.
Vandewalle G.P., Monod H. (1987). Standart anaerobic
exercise tests. Sports Medicine, 4, 268 289.
Vollestad N.K., Bloom P.C.S. (1988). Effect of varying
exercise intensity on glycogen depletion in human muscle
fibers. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 125, 395 405.
Zuntz N. Hagemmann O. (1898). Untersuchungen uber
den Stroffwechsel des Pferdes bei Rune und Arbeit (p.
438). Parey: Berlin.


. . , , .
.
,
.
,
. , .
.
,
, , . ,
.
,
.
1972 . (..) (.) 16 (10 )
. ,
(30
35, 86 95), , .
3 4 (6,6 8,8 ) , .
( , ) . ,
, . , -

, . , ?
?
, ,
, .
. , .

, ""

.
,
.
,
, .

, . . 6.1.

.
.

-.
,
-.
, ,
,
. -

112

(
)

. ,
(,
);
( );
();
( ).
, .
: , ,
.
( )
( ).
, , .

. 6.1.

, - -.

,
. , .
.


: .

. -

,

. -?

-.
()
(), . -.
2 000 10 000
.
, .
() , , ,
, .
.
.

,

.
. 6.2. ,
.
, . -

113

""

. 6.2. ,

. .
.
, ;
, ;
, .

,

, .
, , -

,
(""). ""

(). . 6.3.

, .
.

, :
;
;
;
;
.


(),

- ,** '

()
()
_

()

()
,

. 6.3.
()

114

, ,
, ,
.


,
, ,
.
, ( ).
, ?

.
, , ,
. ,
(). ,
. ,
. ,
.
""
"" .
- - , ,


,
. . , ,
.
, ,
.

,
, .
. , ,
, .
, . ,
,
.
, .
, , ,
.
, . ,
.
. ,
.

...
1. .
.
,
.
2. , ,
,
-. " "
,
-.
3. , . , , .
4.
,
, .
"" ,
, ,
.

115

5.
.
6. . ,
. .

,
, .
.
"" "", . ,



,
. . 6.1,
, ,
. , .
,
. , .
.

, . ,
""
, ,
. -

, (. 6.4).
; ,
.

. .

(, ) . ,
.
.
, , .
. ,
, , , .

. ,

, ,
.
. ,
, ,
, .
,
,
.
, . -

,
.
. , , (
)
. .
, , , .

116

6.1. , , -

,

,
,
;
;
,

,


, ,


()
()


( )

(,
)

, ,

()

()


, ,

117

;
;
;


; ; ,

,



, ;

, ;

;


(, , );
, ;

6.1.

;
,

. ,
.

, .
.
. 6.5 .

, . . .
, .

, ,
, , .


, ,


(). ,
. , . 6.2. ,

.
, , , ..
.
. . -

6.2.

()
()

()

()

()

118


,
,


;

;
(
)

. 6.4




2. ,

3.

4.

1.

5.

6.
,


7. ,

. 6.5.

119

, . , (),
, .

.

),
. .

,
.
.
. ,
.


, .
,
, (3) (4),
, .


, , . () . ,
.

.


:
60 100 %.

(,
);
;
;
;
,
.
()
, , , .

,
. ,
( )
, .


. , (, -


2+ , 2+
. , , .


, . . ,
. , , .

. ,
. ,
,
.

. , , .

120


,
.
, 80 % 20 % . , .
, , .
, ,
,
. , " ".
.
, ""
. :
;
;
( ) ;

;
(
);
;
.

,
, , -

2,0

. . 6.6, .
50 % .
,
60 70 % . ( 3 ) 60 %
(. 6.6,6).
,
.


30 , . , , :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ( ).
. , . .

.
, ;
, . , -

2,0

0,9

1,5

0.6

1,5

0 1*

0,5

0,5
5

0,4

1,5

0,3
0,2

1,5

0,1

0,5^

()

50

75

100

60

120

180

30

,%

. 6.6. (1) (2)


() (),
60 % ()

121

+, ,

.
, ,
,
.
. .
. . ,
.
(95 %). :
, ;

, ;
,
;
, "" ;
;
;
,
.
.
.
.
,

. , .
, .
,
.


. , . (), , ,
.
:
,


;
;
.
, .
, .
(), , , , .
() .
,
.
30 , , (. 6.7),
. ,

,
.
,
. , , .

.

, .
. 6.7,
, , .

.
, .. . , .
,
. . , ,

. , -

122

250

200

150

i_

100

60

120

180

18

14

60

120

, , . ,
.
. , ,
, , , ,
, , .
, ,
.
14.

180



. 6.3. , ,
,
.

3
(

60

120

180

,
. 6.1. ,

: 1 , 2

. ,

.
14.
.
,
, ,
. ()
, , .

,


. , ,
. .
,
. .
, ,
.



:
123

6.3. ,



, > ,



;

- ()
;



;

1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
.
,
. .

, ( ) -

. ,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
, . ,
,
( ), .
, ,

124


. .
, .
. 6.8 "" .
60- ( )
, , . ?
, . , .
, . ,
, .
.
, "" . , , , ,
. ,
, .
-

250
^ 200
150
10
1

i 50

50

30

60

90
120
,

150

180

. 6.9. (I),
(2), (3), (4)
(5) 3-

65 %

,
.
.
, .
. , .
. 6.9 , , ,
3 .

,
.
. ,
.
, .

120
,

180

240

. 6.8.
1


, , .
, .
. ,
.
(. 6.10),
.

125

6,0 5,8
7

_0

5,4
5-5,2

- 16

\\

5,6

18

/\

5,0

12

"~~"

^^^^^^^^^^^^*

jf

"^^.

10 i

^ 4,8 _

4,6 '

. 6.10. (1)
(2)

65-70%

, ,
.
, .
[5, 6]. , ,
:
,

. ,

. ,
.


, , ,
, ,
, .

.

( )
(),
.

.
,

. , , .


. . ,
,

[1]. ,


.

, , ,
: ; ;
.
,
,
.
(. 6.11) 30 45
, .
. ,
. , , . .
6.11,5,
,
. .
,

,
.

126

...
1.
, , . ,
, .

.
2. , . , ,
. , ,
.
3. . , , .
4. , ,
. ,

. , .

400 -

20

2,0

16

t
_

1,6 |

12

1,2

- . [2, 3].
. , .
. , , , ,
. .
. , 75 %

5 10 %. ,
.

, . , . -

^ 300

g
fe200
m

is
I

& 8

g 100
2

60

90

120

150

/
_^^^ t^*

"*

11
--

-'

/***.'' /
0

30

0,8
>

100

180

20

40

60
80 100
,

120

140

. 6.11. (1) (2) (),


(3), (4), (5) (6)
()

127

, . .

-

,
. : , . "" ,
.

2.

20 ,0

1.


.

. 6.12. -.

. , ,
, I, II,
. -,
.

, . -, II -

30

3.

.
I,
II

4, II

5.
Na' ,

6.

. 6.12. -

128

10

fl

VD

0)

s-

10

,
,
. , ,
.

8_

20
20

20

I IIJ_ _ _ _ _i

40 60 80
,

100 120 140

. 6.13. (1)
(2)
2-


.
,
.
, .
, .
2 . 6.13.

12 48
. [3, 4].
, , . ,
.
. 6.14, ,
,
+20 -

+16

,
,
.
.
.
.
. , , .
. ,
, , . ,
, ,
.

. , ,

+12
+8
+4

S-4
-8
12
-16
-20

5 6

10

. 6.14.
. :
1 ; 2 " " 20;
3 ; 4 +

129

5.
, . , .
.

()
. ,
.


.

.
,
.
.


,
. , . ,
. , .

,
,
. ,

()

1. -

?
2. .
3. ,
?
4. ?
5. .
6. , , .
7. ?
8.
?
9. .

,
?
10. .
11.
?

, , ,
, Na+ .

...
1.
.
2. , , , I, II.
, .
3. , II

. , , , ,
.
4.
.
, ,
,
.


1. Costill D.L., Coyle E., Dalsky G., Evans W., Fink
W., Hoops D. (1977). Effects of elevated plasma FFA and
insulin on muscle glycogen usage during exercise. Journal
of Applied Physiology, 43, 695 699.
2. Costill D.L., Fink W.J. (1974). Plasma volume changes
following exercise and thermal dehydration. Journal of
Applied Physiology, 37, 521 525.

130

3. Dill D.B., Costill D.L. (1974). Calculation of percentage


changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in
degydration. Journal of Applied Physiology, 37, 247 248.
4. Edington D.W., Edgerton V.R. (1976). The biology
of physical activity. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
5. Krotkiewshi M., Gorski J. (1986). Effect of muscular
exercise on plasma C-peptide and insulin in obese non-diabetics
and diabetics, Type II. Clinical Physiology, 6, 499 506.
6. Sutton J.R., Farrell P.A. (1988). Endocrine responses
to prolonged exercise. In D.Lamb and R.Murray (Eds.),
Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine: Prolonged
exercise (Vol. 1). Indianapolis, IN: Benchmark Press.

Costill D.L., Branam G., Fink W., Nelson R. (1976).
Exercise induced solium conservation: Changes in plasma
renin and aldosterone. Medicine and Science in Sports,
8,209-213.
Costill D.L., Cote R., Miller E., Miller ., Wynder S.
(1975). Water and electrolyte replacement during repeated
days of work in heat. Aviation, Space, and Environmental
Medicine, 46, 795 - 800.
Farrell P.A., Gates W.K., Morgan W.P., Pert C.B. (1983).
Plasma leucine enkephalin-like radioreceptor activity and
tension-anxiety before and after competitive running. In
H.G.Khuttgen J.A. Vogel, Poortmans (Eds.), Biochemistry of exercise (pp. 637 644). Champaign, IL:
Human Kinetics.
Galbo H. (1983). Hormonal and metabolic adaptation to
exercise. New York: Thieme-Stratton.

9*

Ginzel K.H. (1977). Interaction of somatic and autonomic


functions in muscular exercise. Exercise and Sport
Sciences Reviews, 4, 35 86.
Grossman A., Bouloux P., Price P., Drury P.L., Lam K.S.L.,
Turner ., Thomas J., Besser G.M., Sutton J. (1984).
The role of opioid peptides in the hormonal responses
to acute exercise in man. Clinical Science, 67, 483
491.
Shangold M.M. (1984). Exercise and the adult female:
hormonal and endocrine effects. Exercise and Sport
Sciences Reviews, 12, 53 79.
Shephard R.J., Sidney K.H. (1975). Effects of physical
exercise on plasma growth hormone and cortisol levels
in human subjiects. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews,
3, 1 - 30.
Sutton J.R., Farrell P.A., Harber V.J. (1990). Hormonal
adaptations to physical activity. In C.Bouchard,
R.Shephard, T.Stephens, J.Sutton, B.McPherson (Eds.),
Exercise fitness and health. Champaign, IL: Human
Kinetics Publishers.
Terjung R. (1979). Endocrine response to exercise. Exercise
and Sport Sciences Reviews, 7, 153 180.
Vander A.J., Sherman J.H., Luciano D.S. (1980). Human
physiology: The mechanisms of body function (3rd ed.).
New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wade C.E. (1984). Response, regulation, and actions of
vasopressin during exercise: A review. Medicine and
Sciences in Sports and Exercise, 16, 506 511.
Winder W.W. (1985). Regulation of hepatic glucose
production during exercise. Exercise and Sport Sciences
Reviews, 13, 1 31.

, , ,
, . ?
?
,

. ,
.
,
. ,
.
,
, 37
.
. ,
.


, 6
. 8 ,
.
"" , . ,
, 60 70
.
, 2 45
, 3 % 9 540
. ,
, ,

.
,
, .

,

. , ,
,
.
- .
,
, , .



, ,
, . , ,
- ,
. , , (
10).



. 4,

132

.
, , ;
; ;
; .

, ,
, "" .
7 22 % ,
- [5].
.
-, -. ,
, , -, .
, , , ,
.
, , -

, - -. , -. 6 -,
, , "", .
, "". , , , ,
6-
. ,
. ,
- "" ""
- .


,
, .
. 7.1, , -

. 7.1. ,
() ()

133

, .


, .


5,
.
, , , ,
.

, . ,
, .

, 5 10 % ,
[9, 11]. , ( 15 %) [9]. , .


.
.

,
.


,

, 27 15 %
[10].
35 %.
, .


, ,
, .
.
-, ( , ). - ,
( )
, . , ,
.
,
.

.
- .
. ,
, 75
80 %.


.
. 5, . ,
.
. 7.2


7 .
, , 6
. ,

,
.

134

fe g

If

03
n
i-
i
<D

20

16
12

8
4

10000
Si '
3

; 8000

&t- 6000
? | 4000

2000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
,
. 7.2. ( )

,
. . 7.3,
, . 21

. ]/) 4) ,
, . , p,jffl ;/ 20
^ %; 25 %.
; (60 90 ) 2,6 .
$>1

1
.
;^ no/ie /-^, . .
, - . , . ,
.


, "" . ,

, . [8, 14].
, (
). ,
. ,
,
80
70

18
60
15

50
40
30
20
10
1

. 7.3. (1),
(2) (3) .
() () ,
. . (1979)

135

, peak.
je - "
. , ,
.

...

,
. , .

- .-

1. , %_
11
, !
. . - - , 6- -.
2. ,
, .
3. 75 80 % ,
. .
4. , ,
.
5. .
6. , ,

, .

,

. ,

,
, , , .


, . ,
, (400
550 "1),

,
. .
15.


, ( )
. ,

,
, , 8 1,8 [7]. ,

. 7.4
(),

()

()

136

. 7.4, , , , , .

.
, , - .
, ? , ,
30 %- .
.

,
, [12]. ,


[3, 13].
, ,
, , .

, ,



.
, ,
. ( , ) . ,
, , .

, .
,
, . ,

. , , ,
Q02. , Q0i ( V0,MK, ).
, . 7.5, ,
Q^
1,5
(-^"1). ,
,-~'-~

...

69

52

1. ( )
.
2. , ().
3. , - , . ,
, ,
, .

;
,
<

44

1
=10

. 7.5. (Q^J (1), (2) (3). Q0? . (1986)

137


. ,
, , ,
. .
, , . , ,
,
. . 7.6,

. (40 ) . , 80 .
. 1
350 (217 ) , [2].


.

, 1 000 ,

. ( 13.)

,
, , 25 40
( 1 500 2 500 ),
<20i 2,7 -^"1, 1,8 ,
. ,
5 000 ( 80 ), Q0i
4,0 -~'~', .. 2,7 ,
.


(QoJ . \ Qo, (5,2 --'-') , 10 000 [1]
, . ? , , , .



. , , ,
, 5 000 6 000 ( 7 1 5 860 ).
80 95
[2].
4 000 6 000
[6]. ,
, . , ,
.

, , , .
,

70

50

40

50
100 150 200 250 300 350
,

. 7.6.
. 40 80 ,
.
(1986)

138

, ,
, . ( 13).

, , . , ,
, ,
, , ,
,
.
, . .



. , , .


.
, , ,
.

, . (30 5 ; 50 400 )
, , (5
15 ). ,
.
. 7.1
.

,

. 20
400 8 000
( 5 ). 10 ,
8 10 400 .
, 8 000 .
, 10 15 , ,
" ".
7.1.
10

10 ,
:

46 : 00
43 : 00
40 : 00
37 : 00
34 : 00

20
20
20
20
20

400
400
400
400
400

10-15
10-15
10-15
10-15
10-15

2
1
1
1
1

: 00
: 52
: 45
: 37
: 30


, , .
.
,
.

...
1. 5 000 6 000
. , , .
2.
.
; , ,
,
.
3.

-

139

,
, . ,

, ^
.

5 [16]. , ,
, , .
,
. , , 60- "
" , [4].

.
, ,
, , , .
4. , ,
.
5.
.
,


,
, ,
( ).

.


-
,
, , ,

. 6
.


.
1979 . [4].
. 6 ( ), 10 .
.

30 , .
( 14 %) . .
7.7, 30- .
, 6- ,
. , (6 ) -

(30 )

. , , . 10 25 %
30-
-

00:30

15

00:30

0)

|10

^
I

m
s

0
i

S-5

00:06
|
\ \ \ N \\1
L\

00:06
N
>i\ \ \ >
MM

. 7.7. () ()
6- 30-

140

(6-) ,
[4].

, ,
.
, . 7.8, 60- ,
. (
) 6- 30- . , ,
, .



,
. , , ,
, .

300


6
30

260
220

,



() ? ,

,
;
;
.

,
,
.
(. 2),
,
, , .

.


. , ,
30 , . ,
(,
30- )

[4, 14]. ,

.

180

i 140

60
"

10

20

30

40

50

60

. 7.8. 60 6- 30-

,
.
5, , , + , ,
. (,
), , -

141

; , .

,
, . , + , ,
.
, +
.
, (
)
,
. ,
, . . 7.2
.
, ,
. ,
.

, 8
12 50 % [15].

. , ,
.
7.2.

8,1

8,0

20,8*

...
45,5

46,0

65,5*

1,5

1,5

2,3*

609,0

702,0*

589,0

309,0

350,0*

297,0*

5,3
19,9

5,8
29,2*

3,7*
18,9

766,0

811,0

621,0

1.
,

.
2.
, .
3. ,
, ,
, ,
, , , .
4.
,
.
4 , , .

142


.
,
. , ,
. ,
.
, , , .. .
,
.
.
,
.

,
,
.

.
( ).
. 7.9, ,
, 14
12

( ). ,
.
, , , ,
, .
,
.
. 30 60 . . ,
.
, .
.
,
.

. ,

. , 200 .
.
, , . 7.10. 4
V
12

|8

10

I.
1

s 8


. 6

0
40

50

60

70
80
,%

90

100

. 7.9. ,
, :
1 ; 2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
,

. 7.10.
200 .

143

. , ,

.

,
.

. 5 . 6 , . , ,

, , .
. 8 -
, ,
.

7- .
, ,
, ,
.

,
. , . ,
.

? ? ,
, .


1.
?
2.
?
3. ?
4.
((?0,)
?
5. , ,
.
6. ,
, ?
7.

?
?
8. ? .

...
1. , .
,
.
2.

.
3. ,
, -,
, , , -


1. Costill D.L. (1985). Practical problems in exercise
physiology research. Research Quanterly, 56, 379 384.

144

- ,
, ,
, ,
.
, . , -
, . , ,
,
.

, -
.
,
. , -
, . , ,
.
- . . - :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) .
.
.
.

,
. - , , ,
.
,
-

.
- , , .

-
- .
.
:
1) (); 2) ( ); 3) (). .

(. 8.1) , , , . . .

,
, -

149

. 8.1

,
. .
,
,
,

,

. , ,

.
, . . -



, .
.
. . , ,
,
( ).

.
.
.


. , (6 17% ),
, , ,
.

"" , .
,
, , , .

150


. ,
. .
.


. .
. , .
, , , .

()

.

, ,
. , , ,
, , ,
. ,
.
- ,
.
, (. 8.2).
, , "" . , .

: .
, ,
. .

. 8.2. () ()
. ,


(
).
70 80 () . .
(. 8.3)
:
1) () ;
2) () ;
3) ;
4) .

() - , .
60
80 /, - (),
.
, -,
-,
.

151

. 8.3

()

,

.
-
. , -, 0,13
. , , . .
.
.

, .
.

, .

.


( ),
. :
1) ;
2) ;

,
. .
,
, .
- . -
, -,
.
-,
3) ().
, 3 6.
, (-) .
. , , ,

152

. 20 30 -"1,
. , .

,
. , , . 250 .-" 1 .
, . ,
. .

,

.
.
, , .
""
.

60 85 -"' .

35 -" 1 .

28 -"1. , ( ),
, , .

. ,
-.
,
200 400 -"1, ,
,
( ) . , ..
, ,
,
. , . . ,

, . ,
,
.
, , ,
, . , ,
, , .
,
.





.
.
. .
60 -"1. " ".
100 -"1. ,

. , .
.
, , .
. ,

, -

()

. :
.

, . ,
, , (. 8.4).
: ; QRS .

,
- -. QRS , -

153

;
( );
;
(Q)
.

()
() .
.

. . , , 74 -"1.
0,81 .
0,50 , 62 % , 0,31 ,
38 %.
.
,
. 8.4,.

. 8.4. (),
(),
,
()
()

. . , ( QRS).

. .


, .

.
,
.


, ,

:

_ 100
40
= 60

60%

Q =

80 "1

4800
4,8

. 8.5. (),
- () - ()
(), () ()
(Q) ()

154

. ()
QRS . ()
.
, , () ,
.
.

. , ,
(. 8.5,). , ,
,
. , , . , , - . ,
, . , , - .
, . ,
- - .

, . ; 60 %.
, 60 % , , , 40 % .
. (Q),
. 8.5,, , 1
. 60
80 . , 80
-"', 4,8 6,4 -~'.
5 .
() .

- ,
. ,
.
= - -
.
= ( /
- ) 100

...
1. ,
.
2. , , .
3. .
.
4.
() , .
5. .
6. . .
. , , . . S.5,6,
- .
, , -


,
:
;
;
;
;
.
, , ,
, . .

. , .
,
155


. ,
, ,
, .
,
. 20.
, , .
,
.
,

. , , , .

( )
, - ,
. : , , .
, ,

. , .
,
, .



.
. ( 27 22 %),
15 %.
,
.
, ,
,
80 %
. -

( ) 25 .
. 8.6
.

, .
, ,
,
. , . , ,
- ,
, .
. . -,
,
. -,
, . .
. ,
. , .
, .. ,

.
.
.
.
,
, , . ,
(2, +, +, ) . , .
. , ,
- ,
, .

156

66

~~~^

60
sP

*1

50

8Q.

w-Aww

10

I 40

IS

30

27

22

20
10 -

' '

15

14

- '

4
$&|
8|

*~

/ /fg888jj888i

pSwssssSs^l

' -

5
V^

V / \

&&88

6
1

'

1 ' '

15

/.

,^~^

//.

SISSSSSDl

17,0

16,5

16,0

4,0
3

3,0
i
I

'

1,0 _

0,7

1.0
0,2

0,2

J.

0,3

0,3

0,5

. 8.6. (\/ / \)
. () ()

.
, , , ,
.

.
.

,
, ,
, .

, () ,
. () .

, .
,
, . ,
, ,
. .
. , .

" ", -

157

.
,
, .
.
,
.
, . (. 8.7).
, , . ,
() , .
,
.

,
. ,
, ,

.

9 %

13%


, ,
. , " ".
:
. .
. ,
. . , ,
.
, .
:
= + [0,333-( )]
, 120 .., 80 ..,
: 80 +
+ [0,333-(120 - 80)] = 93 .. ,
. , , ,
, , .
,
, .

, . , ,

. 90 %
. , ,
, ,
.
20.

7 % ,
. 8.7.

1. .
, .
2. -

158

.
.
3. .
, .
4.
,
( , ,
).
5.
. .
.

.
,
.
.
()
.
,
, .
, , , .
,
, , .
, .
- . .


. .
.
: -

; - .
.
.

(. 11).

,
, ,
(. 9).



.

, , .
(
)
5 6 () 4 5
().
( )
(. 8.8).
55 60 % .
10 %

159

(A H

55 %
90 % 2
7 %
3 %

45 %
99 %
1 %

. 8.8.

, . 90 % , 7 %
, 3 % , , , ,
.
, 4 0 4 5 % ,
, . 99 %
, 1 % . , , .
40 45 %.
,
(),
. 1 3 7 000
.
. , . () ,
. .

,
. . 4 ,
. ,
" " .
, , , .
. ,
. ,


.
, . . ,
. 250
,
4 . -

160

,
! 15 /100 .
1,33 , , 100
20 .

, , . ,
.
, . ,
, .
, , .
,
, . , 60 % .

, , , (). ,
,
, .
,
" ",
. . .
,


500 8 10 %
,
. . , , ,

24 48 .

,
,
. ,
,

, ,

- .
10.

...
1. , .
2. , .
,
, .
3. 55 60 %
40 45 % .
4.
.
5.
.
-


- ,
,

, . : ;
,
. , .
, .
- .
:
, .
,

- . ,
;
;
;
;
;
.

. 8.9. () ()

161

210 -



- .
,
(. 8.9). , ,
. , .

190

^ 170

I
150

|130
0110

90
70

60 80 -"1. , ,
,
100 -" 1 .
, , , 28 40 -"1. .

, ,
.
, ,
.
.
. -, .
, , ,
, ,
.
.

. 8.10.

, .
.

(. 8.10)
(). . , .

, . ,

.
, , , 1015
. 220 .
, , ,

. , 40-

180 -~ ( = 220 - 40).



,
(. 8.10).
,
. (, ),
. , ,

1
2
3
4
, -"'

= 220 - ()

40- 68 %
168
192 -"1 ( + ), 95 %
156 204 -"1 ( 2 -

162

). .
.

,
, . 1 - 2 .
, .

,
. , -
. ,
,
.
,
:
.

,
, ,
.
, ( ).

,
,
. ,
, ,
, , .
, .

,
.


.
, ,
40 60 % . ,

(. 8.11)
.
,
,
. ,
, 50 60 100
120 .
, -


, . ,

.
, .
:
1) , ;
2) ;
3) ;
4)
(,
).

, , 11*

160
140
>.
;

,=- 120
,0

vo

100
80
60
40

,-~
. 8.11.

163

, ,
80 110
160 200 .

(, )
, 20
40 %. , ?
, . ,
().
.
, ,
, ,
.
.



, , .
,

,
, : ,
. ,
, , . ,
.
.

- . ?

-
.
, ,

.

, .
. 8.12 , , .
:
; ;
[13].

. 8.12. - (I), (II) - (III)


, ,
() (). . (1980)

164

-
( )
, - (
) .

, .
,
. .
,
.
-
. 500 700 150

( 150 200 -"') [17].


,
,
,
, . -
.

, ,
, . , .

. ,
, . ,
, . .



, 40 60 %
, , , . , 60- 90- XX .,
40
60 %. , - .
50 % ,
[1, 3, 8, 12, 16].
, ,
[3, 5, 7, 14].

.
,
40 60 % VO 2max , , .

, .
, .
, , . , ,


40 60 %
, , . ,
,
,

, . .

165

30

20

.
\
3

1
2
3
4
,-"'

. 8.13.

-

,
, , .
,
,
, . 8.13.
5,0 -"1.
20 40 -"1.
.

, .

= , ,
. (
,
.
. . .
, , .
? ,
, -
,
.
50 -"1,
55,
60 -"1. ?
,
. , , , . .

, , = .
, 60 90 -" 1 .
140, 180
-"' . , I

7 150

| 150
vo

90

|2
| 90
;^
60
5

i 120

I 25
8 20
.
vo

i 15
10

30

. 8.14. (), () ()
: J ; 2 ;
3 5,0 -'1; 4 7,5 -^1

166

8.1
,

,
- '

,
- '

60
190
60
185
55
170

70

4,2

130
70
120
95
135

24,7
4,2
22,2

,
' '

5,2
22,9

* .

. ,
. . 8.14.


.
40 60 %
,
, . , .
,

. 8.1.
, ,
. ,
.

, - , . -
, .
, , . .

...
1. . ,
.
2. , , .
3.
.
, ,
. , ,
.


.
, , ,
.

15 20 %,
80 85 %. , ,
..
, ,
.
, . , ,

167

,
.

, , . , ,
, .

,
,
(, ). , .

, . ,
.
,
. , [2] . ,
.
( ) ( ),
, , , .

. (
)
. , ""
, .
, .
. , , , .
-
, -

,
. .


. , , ,
(-
; = - - ).
,
( = ).
- ,
.

,
, .


, "" . , "" .
, -

[11].
.
14 17,
90 120 30 45
. 65 %.

18 %
, . ,
23 % - .
. ,
-
,
[18]. ,
,
.
,

168

, .
,
.
, , .
.


, ,
-. , , .
, 120
.., 200 .. . ,

240 250 ..

, . . ,
, , . ,
.

210
190

0.170
5

| 150

|130
0)

110
90
70
20

40

60
,%

80

100

. 8.15. . . (1965)

,
, ,
. ,
"" . , , ,
. 15 ..

,
.
. 8.15

.

, , .
.
, .
, ,
,
(
, = ).

, , .
480/350 .. [10].
, , ,
.

, .
, ,
(. 8.15). ,

.
,
, , .

. -

169

. ( =
). ,
,
.

. (. 8.16).
. ,
.
, 2 4 100
. , , ,
, ,
. ,
.
;

[4].

,
- ,
.
,
. , . , ,
.


20 100
14 100 .
(20 14 = 6 )

( - VO2 ).
,
.
-

20

m i

12

"1

2
3
4
,-"1

. 8.16. - (-0) -:
1 ; 2 02 ; 3 02 .
(1986)




. -,
.
.
() .
,
,
.
10 20 % .
(15 20 %) 1 [15]. ;
40 %
7,7 %, 70 %- 13,9 %.

,
.

,
. , .
,
, ,
()
,
.

170

, .
,

,
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, 60%.

,
,
.
, .

.
11.


. ,
,
(. 8.17),
. -

20 25 %.
40 50 %. , -, .
,
.
, , .
, .
,
.
,
, . ,
. 50 60- XX .
,
,

. , 50 . , ,
[6]. .
.
.

...

. 8.17. ();
20 (),
, ()

,
. .
1.
, .
2. . () ()
, -
. -

171

,
. .

.
3. () .
,
, .
4.
,
, 7,4 ()
7,0 .
.
.

,
.
, ,
,
,
. ,
, .

1. ,
,
. , , ?
2. ? ?
3.
?
4.
? ?
5. ,
.
6. ? ?
() ?
7. .
8. () - ?
9. - ?

?
10. .
11.
? ?



. , ()
7,0, , ,
7,0, 7,0 (. 9).

7,4 .
50 %
. 50 %, , . ,
. 7,0
.

6,5.


.


- , ,

.
,
, .
,

1. Astrand P.-O., Cuddy .., Saltin ., Stenford J.


(1964). Cardiac output during submaximal and exercise work.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 19, 170 174.
2. Collins M.A., Cureton K.J, Hill D.W., Ray C.A.
(1989). Relation of plasma volume change to intensity of
weight lifting. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exescise.
21, 178- 185.

3. Crawford M.H., Petru M.A., Rabinowitz C. (1985).


Effect of isotonic exercise training on left ventricular volume
during upright exercise. Curculation, 72, 1237 1243.
4. Dempsey J.A (1986). Is the lung built for exercise?
Medicine and Scince in Sports and Exescise. 18, 143 155.

172

5. Ekblom ., Hermansen L. (1968). Cardiac output in


athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 25, 619 625.
6. Flamm S.D., Taki J., Moore R., Lewis S.F., Keech
F., Maltais F., Ahmad M., Callahan R., Dragotakes S.,
Alpert N., Strauss H.W. (1990). Redistribution of regional
and organ blood volume and effect on cardiac function in
relation to upright exercise intensity in healthy human
subjects. Circulation, 81, 1550 1559.
7. Hermansen L., Ekblom ., Saltin B. (1970). Cardiac
output during submaximal and maximal treadmill and bicycle
exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 29, 82 86.
8. Higginbotham M.B., Morris K.G., Williams R.S.,
McHale P.A., Coleman R.E., Cobb F.R. (1986). Regulation
of stroke volume during submaximal and maximal upright
exercise in normal man. Circulation Research, 58, 281 291.
9. Laub M., Hvid-Jacobsen K., Hovind P., Kanstrup I.L.,
Christensen N.J., Nielsen S.L..(1993). Spleen emptying and
venous hematocrit in humans during exercise. Journal of
Applied Physiology, 74, 1024 1026.
10. MacDougall J.D., Tuxen D., Sale D.G., Moroz J.R.,
Sutton J.R. (1985). Arterial blood pressure response to heavy
resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 58, 785
790.
11. McKirman M.D., Gray C.G., White F.C. (1991).
Effects of feeding on muscle blood flow during prolonged
exercise in miniature swine. Journal of Applied Physiology,
70, 1097 1104.
12. Plotnick G.D., Becker L.C., Fisher M.L.,
Gerstenblinth G., Renlund D.G., Fleg J.L., Weisfeldt M.L.,
Lakatta E.G. (1986). Use of the Frank-Starling mechanism
during submaximal versus maximal upright exercise.
American Journal of Physiology (Heart and Circulation
Physiology), 251, H1101 H1105.
13. Poliner L.R., Dehmer G.J., Lewis S.E., Parkey R.W.,
Blomqvist C.G., Willerson J.T. (1980). Left ventricular
performance in normal subjects: A comparison of the
responses to exercise in the upright and supine position.
Circulation, 62, 528 534.
14. Scruggs K.D., Martin N.B., Breeder C.E., Hofman
Z., Thomas E.L., Wambsgans K.C., Wilmore J.H. (1991).
Stroke volume during submaximal exercise in endurancetrained normotensive subjects and in untrained hypertensive
subjects with beta-blockade (propranolol and pindolol).
American Journal of Cardiology, 67, 416 421.
15. Sejersted O.M., Vollestad N.K., Medbo J.I. (1986).
Muscle fluid and electrolyte balance during and following
exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 128 (Suppl.556),
119- 127.
16. Stenberg J., Astrand P.-O., Ekblom ., Royce J.,
Saltin B. (1967). Hemodynamic response to work with
different muscle groups, sitting and supine. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 22, 61 70.
17. Turkevich D., Micco A., Reeves J.T. (1988).
Noninvasive measurement of the decrease in left ventricular
filling time during maximal exercise in normal subjects.
American Journal of Cardiology, 62, 650 652.
18. Waaler B.A., Eriksen M., Janbu T. (1990). The
effect of a meal on cardiac output in man at rest and during
moderate exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 140,
167 - 173.

Astrand P.-O., Ekblom ., Messin R., Saltin ., Stenberg
J. (1965). Intraarterial blood pressure during exercise
with different muscle groups. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 20, 253 256.

Carlsten A., Grimby G. (1966). The circulatory response to


muscular exercise in man. Springfield, IL: Charles
Thomas.
Clausen J.P. (1977). Effect of physical training on cardiovascular adjustments to exercise in man. Physiological
Reviews, 57, 779 815.
Costill D.L., Fink W. (1974). Plasma volume changes
following exercise and thermal dehydration. Journal of
Applied Physiology, 37, 521 525.
Cummin A.R.C., lyawe V.I., Mehta N.. Saunders K.B.
(1986). Ventilation and cardiac output during the onset
of exercise, and during voluntary hyperventilation, in
humans. Journal of Physiology, 370, 567 583.
Dowell R.T. (1983). Cardiac adaptations to exercise. Exercise
and Sport Sciences Reviews, 11, 99 117.
Guyton A.C. (1991). Textbook of medical physiology (8th
ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
Hossack K.F., Bruce R.A., Green ., Kusumi F., DeRouen
T.A., Trimble S. (1980). Maximal cardiac output during
upright exercise: Approximate normal standards and
variations with coronary heart disease. American Journal
of Cardiology, 46, 204' 212.
Hossack K.F., Kusumi F., Bruce R.A. (1981). Approximate
normal standarts of maximal cardiac output during upright
exercise in women. American Journal of Cardiology, 47,
1080 - 1086.
Laughlin M.H., Armstrong R.B. (1985). Muscle blood flow
during locomotory exercise. Exercise and Sport Sciences
Reviews, 13, 95 - 136.
Pivarnik J.M., Montain S.J., Graves J.E., Pollock M.L. (1988).
Alterations in plasma volume, electrolytes and protein during
incremental exercise at different pedal speeds. European
Journal of Applied Physiology, 57, 103 109.
Rowell L.B. (1974). Human cardiovascular adjustments to exercise and thermal stress. Physiology Reviews, 54, 75 159.
Rowell L.B. (1986). Human circulation: Regulation during
physical stress. New York: Oxford University Press.
Saltin B. (1985). Hemodynamic adaptations to exercise.
American Journal of Cardiology, 55, 42D 47D.
Saltin ., Rowell L.B. (1980). Functional adaptations to
physical activity and inactivity. Federation Proceedings,
39,1506-1513.
Senay L.C., Jr., Pivarnik J.M. (1985). Fluid shifts during
exercise. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 13, 335
387.
Smith E.E., Guyton A.C., Manning R.D., White R.J. (1976).
Integrated mechanisms of cardiovascular response and
control during exercise in the normal human. Progress
in Cardiovascular Diseases, 18, 421 443.
Steingart R.M., Wexler J., Slagle S., Scheuer J. (1984).
Radionuclide ventriculographic responses to graded
supine and upright exercise: Critical role of the FrankStarting mechanism at submaximal exercise. American
Journal of Cardiology, 53, 1671 1677.
Stone H.L., Dormer K.J., Foreman R.D., Tlies R, Blair
R.W. (1985). Neural regulation of the cardiovascular
system during exercise. Federation Proceedings, 44,
2271 - 2278.
Sullivan M.J., Cobb F.R., Higginbotham M.B. (1991).
Stroke volume increase by similar mechanisms during
upright exercise in normal men and women. American
Journal of Cardiology, 67, 1405 1412.
Vanoverschelde J.-L., Essamri ., Vanbutsele R., D'Hondt
A.-M., Cosyns J., Detry J.-L.R., Melin J.A. (1993).
Contribution of left ventricular diastolic function to
exercise capacity in normal subjects. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 74 (5), 2225 - 2233.

.
,
5, , . , ,

. ,
, , .
;
.

2 .
, - .
,
. .
, ,
. ,

. , ,
- ,
.

, ,
. 1963 . (..)
. ,
. ,
, , .

(50 , 46 ). , ""
. , 3 4 ( 1 ),

. -
. ,
,
15 20 . ,
"".
-

.
:
1) (),
;
2)
;
3)
;
4) .

,
.
, .
,
: ,
. ,
.
.

, ,
.

174

. 9.1. , , ;
,
,
.
,
, ( ).
,
. , ,
.
, , ,
,
. .
,

, ""
, .
, .

, ,
,
.
,
.
.

, .
. 9.2.
. . .
, ,
. .
, , ,
(. 9.2,).
( )
, .
, , . .
: (, ) --,
, .
,
.

, ,
. ,
(760 ..) ( )
3 .. , , ,

80 100 ..!

. 9.1.

, , ,
(. 9.3,).

175



, ,
{ )

( ) ( )

:
=

V17

"" ,

,
:
:
,
<

.....

V '

. 9.2. : ;
;
.

, . ,
,
. . 9.3,5,

, .
.
. .
.
,


. , , .

, , :
1) , ,
;

176

,

,

,
. =


,
. >

:
,

* '..'Vvl*':.v:4:.'
. ..VV:^x->::V..\
....vs*-<... .

. 9.3. : ,
;

,
. ,
.
. , ""
. . " ",

2) .

, ,
, .
, .
12,

...
1. () , .
.
2. , , ,
. .
3. , , .
, ,

.

.
4. , ,
, .
()
.
,

177

.
. ,

, .
.


( ,
- ). (. 9.4) ;
.
0.5
4.0 . 300

.
. , .

, , . ,
. . ,
.
, . 79,04 % (N2),

20,93 % (2) 0,03 % (2). ,


, ( ) 760 ..
.
100 %. ,
760 ..,
(PNJ
600,7 .. (79,04 %
760 ..).
(0,) 159,0 .. (20,93 % 760
"..), (,) 0,3
.. (0,03 % 760 ..).
, , .
, ,
. , . ,

.


.

'

. 9.4.
178

.
,

. .
.


. P0-i
104 .. ,
, ,

, .

. 1 .. 23 .

45 -" 1 -" 1 ,
, , 80 4 ~'-~'.
, "" ,

.

,

.


^ 159 ..
100 105 ..
,
; , . , , ,
,
.

.
, ,
0^
40 45 .. (. 9.5). 55
65 .. , ^ .
, , , 55
65 .. ,

,
.
0 104 ..
0^
40 ..,
. -


40 . .


, , . -,
,

.


,=104 .


POj=l04 . .

. 9.5. ,

12*

W * ,


, , . . 9.6, (,) , , , 45 ..
40 ..

( 5 ..), .

20 ,
, 2
. , , . 9.1.

179

, 2 20 ,
,
.

* 4 . .

[
-PCQs=41''MM"pT. .- -



, , ,
.
, .

,
, 4''-^'*'*'- '
.

,=40 . .



(> 98 %)
(< 2 %). 1
3 . ,
3 5 , , 9 15 . ,
. 250 (
). , , 4 6 , 70 .

. 9.6.
,
9.1.
( )
-

, ..

,
%

100,00

760,00

760

760

0
20,93
0,03
79,04

0
159,1
0,2
600,7

47
104
40
573

47

40
45
573

0
64

2
2
2
N2

5
0

...

1. .
2.
.
.

. , , .
3. . , .
4. , -


4 , ;
, , . P0i .
. 9, -,
^. 0 " , ..
. 0 .
. , , ,
. ,

. (. 9.7,6)

[6]. , , ,
, , ""

180

. 9.7. - () ()
() : 1 ( PCOJ;
2 ( ,);
3 ( ,)

100

80

60

40

20

20

40

60

80

100

100

V
vo

L_
<D

. ,
,
.
"" , .
. . 9.7,, ,
"" . , ,
"" . , ,
.

80

(+) ,

60

40

I
2

20

20

40

60

80

100

100

10 C

20 C

30 C

43 C

80

60

40

20

20

40
60
2, . .

80

100


,
.
.
100
14 18 , 12
16 . 1,34 ; , 16 24 /100
. , ,

0,75 . ,
.
98 %.

(, ) . ,
, -
, . -

181

(
), , .

- . ,
PCOi , + , ,

+ + :
23

2 .
.
XT


.

: 1) ; 2)
, ; 3) .
.

,
, . ( 7 1 0 %). , ,
.
.


( 60
70 %) . , , (23).
, (+), (~)

23

-.

+ , , ,
- .

,
"" . ,
+ .

l<%V^V^r-i

^-s*^S~

, ,
, . , , , .

, ,
.
( , )
2 (
). , , ^ ,
, .

...
1. , (
),
.
2.
;
;
.
.
"" .
3. , , 98 %. , ,
.
4.
.
,
+
,

182

.

.

W * 45 /100 1516 /100


.
,


, , - ,
, ( ).
, .
.



20 /100 . . 9.8,, 1516 /100 ,
.
(2). 4 5 /100
. ,
. , 2 . ,
,
. 9.8,6, 2
15 16 /100 .

I
20 2

100

j
100

ABP-O
ABP-0,2

I 45 O,
11
O2 11516
,

20 2

100

100

-08

I 15 2 ' 5 QJ
100
100

. 9.8.
(^ () (6)


, ^
, .
,

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
,
,
.
,
98 %. .
8, .
, 100 (
, ). , .

. ,
. ,


. ""
,
.
, " " ,
. .
183


- .
.
,
. .


""
.
, , , ,
. , .
, ,
,
,
. . 9.9.

...
1. 2
.
.
2.
, .
3. , , , "" ,
, ,
.


0 , ?

, =159
PCOj=0,3

=40
,=45

2=40
.,=45

02=104
,=40

0=104

,=40

.^104
=40

=40
=45

. 9.9.

, ,
, , ( ).
, .
. . ,

+. ,

, +. , ( )
(), 0>
, + CO-i . ,
, , , . , 2 ,
, +.
(
). , ,
, , , ,
.
184

. , .
. ,
. .

. ""
. -

5 . , ,
+
,
.
, . 9.10,
.
,
. .
, .


{ )


(
)


( )

(Q,. 0, )

. 9.10. ,

185

, , , ,
. ,
. , ,
, , ,
.



.
, .
. 9.11.
, . ,
,

, ;
. , ,
.


. ,
+. ""
,
,

, +.

120 -

, , .
, .
. . 200 -~1,

100 -~1


, .

.
,

.
, ,
- ,

.

-2 -1

2 3 4
,

. 9.11. ,


,
. , .

, ,
.
.

186


,
,
+
. ,

.
, , ,
^
+
. , -,
. , .


.
,

,
. , .
. , .
, PCOi 55 .. ,
, ,

, 2 " " .
,
.

,
, .
.
^ 40
.. 15
..
, +, . . , ,
98 % ,
.
"" , .

.
.
.

, . 8 10 ,
,
, .

,
, .
:
1) ;
2)

;
3)
.
.
, .
, . , , , ,
.

,
. ,
-
,
.

...
1. , ,
.
2. -

187

+.
.
3. ,
,
, 2 +.

+ 2 , .
4. ,
. , .
5.
, .
.
6. , , ,
.


, ,
. , . ,
.

. ,

. , , , FE/
,
.


.

(. 9.12). 55 70 % , .
, . ,
, , . , , . ,


. 9.2,
.
160
140

120

J.100


(FE) ( ) .
/
. , (
),
( ).
VE/
23
28 .

, , .

VE/

30 / . VE/
-

^
2

80

60

40
20

160

180

200

220

240

, -"1

260

. 9.12.
, : 1 ; 2 ; 3

188

9.2.

24,0 -

V 0

23,6 .

, - '

23,0

160
180
200
220
240
260

V\

22,8

21,5
20,0
20,4
20,3
24,9
33,3

22,4

25

21,6

20,8


,
( , , ,
). , 1 (FCCb). 5,
()
. , .
, FCOi
, .
- ,
, 2
[10]. , , .
.

(FE/
) -

20,0
150

/ '

'
22

*"""\^
4

Ve/Vo,

"*"
f

\
\

"""""

21

--

-3-^/"

20,4

W * . ,

23

21,2

:
VE /0 .

Ve/Vco2

22,0

24

i
200

250

- 20
^

300

, - '

. 9.13.
(VE/
) (V^/
)

(FE/
).
2. FE/

VE/
[2] (. 9.13). ,
F E /
, , 2,

,


. [1].
, , , + .
, , ,

189

.
.

...
1.
.
(FE/
).
2. .

.
3. ,
VE/
, FE/
.
.



,
, .
.
2 % ,
, .
. 15 % ,
, , .
, 9 12 % .
,
0 .
,

.
().
,

[3].
, (,
) . ,
"" .
, , ,
, . ,
( ) 2 3 ,
. ,
,
.

.
10 20 ,
,
( ).
, ,
. ,
,
. , ,
, .

.
,
0^ ,



. , .
. , -

190

, . , ,


, , . [4, 9].

...
1. 15 %
, .
2.
, .
.
3. -,
"" , .
4. , ,
.
5.
.

+ -> -.

(, , )
, .
7,1 7,4
. (
) * 6,9 7,5 (. 9.14). +
,
.
- , .
(3), () .
, , .
. 9.3
+
. , , ,
,
. ,
, . 2 , .
9.3.

18,0
8,0
1,7
0,3
28,0

,
7,4 7,0.

,
+.
, .
- , ,
-
.
, , , (+).
5, , , , , + . +
, , , +:

14

6,6
'I

, 6,8 . V 7,0
I '
I
t

* . 7,2 ,
I

7,4
I

1
. 9.14. () () .
:
I
(6,9 7,5); 2 (6,63);
3 (7,10)

191

, +,
.
7,4
7,0, 60 % ,
.
,
,
,
+ .
,
, , ()
, .
.


+ . . ,
, .
, + . + 2.
+ . ,
, -


20 , .
, , .

, ,
. , .
() ,
,
. 240 , , "" .
.
.
,
, 4,3 %;
2,7 % [5, 8]. 15 % 60 % .
(3) . -

192

, , ,
.. , , .
.


2 0,75 D.
, ,

.
(SO2). .
1,0 %,

[8].
.

, . ,
.

. , .
,
.


. +

+
.
. +
.

() +
,
7,08, , 6,70.
. 9.4, 400
6,63 1
1,2 19,7 - .
,
.
+
, . + 60 ,
, 400 ,

5 1 0 . 5 (.
9.4) 7,10,
12,3 -"1, 7,40
1,5 -"1 .

,
-"'

,
'"'

1
2
3
4

61,0
57,1
65,0
58,5

6,68
6,59
6,59
6,68

19,7
20,5
20,2
18,2

7,12
7,14
7,02
7,10

12,6
13,4
13,1
10,1

60,4

6,63

19,7

7,10

12,3


, , , 1 2 .
. 9.15, ,
[7].
( ),
50 % .

, -

13,

120

, , ,
.
1 2 , + 30 40 .
2.

...

40
60
80
100
,

. 9.15. : 1 ; 2 ; 3

9.4.
400

20

1. + ( ) .
2. -
.
3. +
.
+ 2.

. , .
4. +
2, +, .

...
8 ,
- . -

193

. , . -
. ,
.


\. , .
2. ,

.
3.
, ,
?
4. ?
5.
? ? ?
6.
?
7. ? 2?
8.
.
9. , ?
?
10. - ?
11. ( )
? ?
?
12. ?
13. ?

1. Anderson G.S., Rhodes E.G. (1989). A review of blood
lactate and ventilatory methods of detecting transition thresholds.
Sports Medicine, 8, 43 55.
2. Davis J.A. (1985). Anaerobic threshold: Review of the
concept and directions for future research. Medicine and Science
in Sports and Exercise, 17, 6 18.

3. Dempsey J.A., Vidruk E.H., Mitchell G.S. (1986). Is


the lung built foe exercise? Medicine and Science in Sport and
Exercise, 18, 143155.
4. Eggleston P.A. (1986). Pathophysiology of exerciseinduced asthma. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise,
18, 318 321.
5. Folinsbee L.J., Raven P.B. (1984). Exercise and air
pollution. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2 57 75.
6. Guyton A.C. (1991). Textbook of medical physiology
(8th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
7. Hermansen L. (1981). Effect of metabolic changes on
force generation in skeletal muscle during maximal exercise.
In R.Porter and J.Whelan (Eds.). Human muscle fatigue:
Physiological mechanisms (pp. 75 88). London: Pitman
Medical.
8. Raven P.B. (1979). Heat and air pollution: The cardiac
patient. In M.L. Pollock D.H.Schmidt (Eds.), Heart disease
and rehabilitation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
9. Sly R.M. (1986). History of exercise-induced asthma.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 18, 314 317.
10. Wasserman K., Mcllroy M.B. (1964). Detecting the
threshold of anaerobic metabolism in cardiac patients during
exercise. American Journal of Cardiology, 14, 844 852.

Brooks G.A. (1985). Response to Davis manuscript. Medicine


and Science in Sports and Exercise, 17, 1 9 2 1 .
Brooks G.A., Fathey T.D. (1985). Exercise physiology:
Human bioenergetics and its applications (pp. 221
278). New York: Wiley.
Comroe J.H. (1974). Physiology of respiration (2nd ed.).
Chicago: Year Book Medical.
Costill D.L. (1970). Metabolic responses during distanse
running. Journal of Applied Physiology, 28, 251 255.
Costill D.L., Barnett A., Sharp R., Fink W.J., Katz A. (1983).
Leg muscle pH following sprint running. Medicine and
Science in Sports and Exercise, 15, 325 329.
Costill D.L., Verstappen F., Kuipers H., Janssen E., Fink
W. (1984). Acid-base balance during repeated bouts of
exercise: Influence of HCO. International Journal of
Sports Medicine, 5, 228 231.
Dempsey J.A., Vidruk E.H., Mastenbrook S.M. (1980).
Pulmonary control systems in exercise. Federation
Proceedings, 39, 1498- 1505.
Dempsey J.A., Vidruk E.H., Mitchell G.S. (1985).
Pulmonary control systems in exercise. Federation
Proceedings, 44, 2260 2270.
Dempsey J.G. (1985). Exercise and chemoreception.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, 129, 31 34.
Powers S.K., Howley E.T. (1990). Exercise physiology:
Theory and application to fitness and performance.
Dubuque, IA: Brown.
Sharp R.L., Costill D.L., Fink W.J., King D.S. (1986).
Effects of eight weeks of bicycle ergomrter sprint training
on human muscle buffer capacity. International Journal
of Sports Medicine, 7, 13 17.
Sutton J.R., Jones N.L., Toews C.J. (1981). Effect of pH
on muscle glycolysis during exercise. Clinical Science,
61, 331-338.

10


- ,
. , , , ,
, . ,
. ,
, ,
. - ,
.
78- " " .
21- , 3 934 (2 445 ), 101
1 20 .
38 / 24 /.
,
, - . . ? , .
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
. ,
13*

, . , . ,
?
, , ,
, ,
, . , ,
, .
, "", ,
.
40
60 (37 55 ), ,
.
, .
,
"" .
""
.
:
;
, , ;
, , , .
,
, 15 , I

195

.
. ,
, , .

"" , .
, .

(, 100 200 ). , . .
, . , .
, , ,
, .
,
, .
, ,
, 12 .
.

, , , . ,
. ,
.
, , .

. , , .
, , , ""
.


, , .
:
V0 (),
,
. 5, .
()
.
, , . ,
:
, .

, , .
, ,
.
6- 20 % [30].
,
.

"" , [21].

7 .

196 *

- . ,
, .

( V0
.). (
) , , , 1 .
,
, , . .

=
Va .

, , .


.

, .
.


-

- .
:
;
;
;
;
;
;
.

, , ,
, -

.
, . , ,
" ", ,
,
, . ,

,
.


. ,
,
, . ,
,
. , . , ,
.
,
, , ,
,
- . ( ,
, ,
.)
, ,
. , [25].
,

, ,
[9, 22]. .,
, ,
, , [24].
.
,
, . , -

197

,
: ; ; - .

...
1. .
.
2.

.
3. , , .

.
= V
2
.
4. , , .
5.
.
6. , .
1400
2 1200

16

. ,
[37].
90,1 ,
68,7 . (
)
, , , .
. 10.1.

( )
, , .

, , .
.
,
. 10.1.
? . , ,
.
- . ,
,
.
10.1.

,

14

.
g

1000

800

VO

600

i 400

8 ,5

200

. 10.1. (1) (2), ,


. (1989)



55 75
80 90
100 120

80110
130150
160 220

, , .
. -

198

| 200 vo 180 _
0

84

50 \
|

76
2

S 40
s

68

^W^^ fc,^^^^^^"^^^"^ '

"*"*

i 120

J 60

- *^

140

92

70

2
2"

8 160

60

,*

J*

//1

0 100

120

140

160

i i i i i i i i
0 100
120
140
160

' //i

100

120

140

160

. 10.2. - (), - () ()
(1) (2)
. . (1991)

- ,

.

,

,
. ,

, ,
.

, , [9]. -
. 1 (4
) , . 60
80 % , 90 % .

, -,
,
,
. 10.2, - .

, - . . 23 %,
.
. .

. . , .

...
1. , , ,
.
2. - , , , .
3. ,
.

, , . , 199

, , ,
. , ,
, . , .

180
160
7
i 140
m

1120

"
^100

80

, ,
.
80
1
-" ,
1 -"1
. , 10
,
, 80 70
-"1. ,
, ; -,
, .
, ,
, 40-'1, 30 -'1

60

4
5
6
, -"'

. 10.3.
:
1 ; 2
20 40 -
; .
,
. ,

, .

8,
60 -"1. ,
, .
, , , , .



(. 10.3). , ,
,
, . 6- , ,


(), , .
, .
,
180 -"1,
. ,
,
, ,
. ?


,
.
,

200

,
. , , , [36]. ,
180 -""1, 1 .
0,33 . 0,15 .
. .
, , . ,
,
,
, ,
,
.
.
. , , : ?
.

. , , .

.

8,

. . . , ,
, .
,
. 10.4, .
, .

210
190
7i 170
1 150
|130
0110

90
70
50

. 10.4.
, :
1 ; 2

,
,
,
. , , . ,
. ,
. ,
.
.
.



, . ,
, , jjoKoe ,
.
, ,
, -

201

. ,
[33]:
;
;
;
;
, .
,
, . , , .

...
1. , .
1 -"1 . ,
, , 40 -"1, .
2. ,
, ,
20 40 -"1 6 .

.
3. ,
. , ,
.
4.
,


.

.
5. , ,
, .

(
)
, ,
: . ,
, , , . ?
,
,
. ( , , 1,5 2-"'),

, .


(. 10.5).
, ,
. 14 16 -"1, 20
1
25 -" , , ,
, 40 -" 1 .



, .


, 15 .
,

. ! -

.
,

.
,

.
.

202

30

I
s
" 20

.
\D
3

is
3

ICD

20

40

60
,%

80

100

. 10.5.
, : 1 ; 2

...
1.
.
2. .
.


- ,
,
. .
,

. ,
. 10.2

- ,
.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

.
.
. . 10.2

.

, ,
. , , , ,
, .

.

, . , , . ,
, , ,
,
.

. -

2
,

, 2

640
611

440
414

1,5
1,6

20,1
20,3

600
599

557
576

1,1
1,0

20,3
20,5

. ,
. , 50 %
.
. (1971).

203

,
( ) ,
[1]. () , .
, ,
.
. .

2. :
;
;
.
3. , , , , .
4. , ,
.


, ,
[5].


, , .
, . 11 .. ( ) 8 .. ( )
[14, 35]. , ,
.
, ,
(. 8),
, ,
, , [33]. , , . -

. . 5 , [15].
, , , .

...
1. , , .

, ,
. ,
, . -,
() . ( 6),
. -, ,
. , .
,
;
. ,
.


, [13].
, , . , , . . 10.6

, . ,
.

, ,
( ).

. -

204

. 10.6.
, : ;
. , (% ) 43 37 %,


, . ,
.
( )
,
.
. .
10.3

, .
,

, , . ,

* . , ,
.

10.3.

,
,

, . ,
. . , . ,
.
,
, ,
, ,

6 %- [18]. : ,
20
(5)
[6, 12].

...
1. ,
,
.
2. , , .
3. , ,
, .
4.
, .
5.
,
. , .

25

180

80.1

7.4

4.8

2.6

35.1

24

178

80.8

5.6

3.2

2-4

42.9

205

,
%

: .





- , ,
, , . , ,
, - .
-
, ,
. .


. ,
.
, , . . . , ,

, . , , .

,
,
, , , 240-~', ..
, !
, , , ,
.
, , ,
- [7].


. , , . (,
) , , . .
, , . , .
.

, ,
,
.
, ,
.
.

.
,
.

, - . . . ,
. -I
- ,
: - , ,
120 150 -" 1 , - . 180 -" 1 . 206

, ( ).
, ,
. , . ,
,
,
.

14
12
10

s
* 8

&

t

4

0,9

1.
. ,
, .
2.

,
.
3. .
4. , ,

.
5. -
, , ,
,
.

, , -
, . 7
,
:
;
;
.

,
, -

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,5

, -~'

...

1,0

. 10.7. (I, II) (1) 5 (2).



()

. ,

,
,
(. 10.7); , .
,
, , , ,
.

. , ,

.
, .
, , '
. ,
.

4, () . ,
.

, .

207

.
7.
,

,
.
2
, , , .


, , .
,
, , , [27]. V0 ,
. V0^ ,
(
) .
V02 , , . ,
F 0 j , -, .
, -

, , .
"" , ,
,
, .
, .
V0 , , . ,

V0
,
, -
.

,
, . , ,
, , .
4 93 % [28]. ,
, 75 %
30 6 ,
15 - 20 % [28].
, , 35 42 -~'-~1.
, , , , ,
. 70
94 -'-"1.

,
.
, , ,
,
, ,
.
,
.
8 1 8
, , .. , . , [11].
.

, ,
,
. -

208

. , .
. , , , .
, , ,
, .
, .
, ,
, .
, ,

. .
. , , .
, , ,

, ( ), .
.
.
( ) [26]. , .
15 % , .
15 20 % .
[10].
4 , , . ( ,
) ,
.
. ,
.
,
14,

, , . ,
, [32]. ,
,
.
, ,
[17].
. 10.4 , , ,

, , .
...
1. , , ,

, .
.
2.
,
, .
3.
.
4.
,
. .

,
18
, -

209

-
, -""'
, -"1
, '
, 2
, -"1
, "'
,
,
, ..
, ..
, ..
, ..

71
185
65
120
4,6
22,2
750
4,7
135
210
78
82

59
183
80
140
4,7
25,6
820
5,1
130
205
76
80

36
174
125
200
4,5
34,8
1,200
6,0
120
210
65
65

0,5
2,75
5,8
1,4

6
135
0,5
3,0
6,0
1,2

6
195
0,5
3,5
6,2
1,2

6,0

6,0

6,0

14,5

15,0

16,0

3,5
40,5
1,0
7,5

3,5
49,8
1,0
8,5

3,5
76,7
1,0
9,0

79
12,6
66,4
16,0

77
9,6
67,4
12,5

68
5,1
62,9
7,5

, -"
, -"1
,
,
,
,

10. 4

,
- 100 "1

, - 100 "'
1' , -"1 -"'
, -~'-~'
, -"'
, -"'

,
,
,
, %
1 ' .
2

; , , .
, , , ,
.
, , ,

52,0 -~'-~'.

71 - ' - ' .
, . 10.8, 6- (9,7 ) 75
% (0,75 71,0 = 53,3 -'-"').

,
88 % (0,88
71,0 = 62,5 -^'-"1). ,

62,5 -'-""1,
.

210

75
65

70

60

65

55

50

60
55
50

45

45

40

40

35

35
8

10
1

, -""

11

30
25

. 10.8.
,



, V .


, . ,
. .

. .

. ,
,
.
,
0 .
,
60- 70- ,
[4, 19]. ,
()
,
() (.
10.9).
, .
. ,

14*

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60
1

65

70

75

, -~ -~

. 10.9. - -. ,:
; ;
-

, 90- ""
.
, 25 50 % [3]. ,
, , 1/4 1/2
. , , , , . 85
65 -^-" 1 , .
, , .
, -, , ,
,
. - ,
XX ., , !

.
, ,
. . 10.10
.

211

10.5.
1
, ~'

70

60

I
5

\5

30

25

35

45
55
65

75

85

. 10.10.
,
.
10 . .
(1987): 1 ; 2

, [29].
. ,

. ,
, , [20].
18.

( 20 25 %)
, .
, , ,
( 10 %).
19. . 10.5
,
.

20-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
70-79
18-32
18-30
18-26
22-28
20-36
18-22
10-30
20-40
20-60
20-35
20-35
18-30
20-28
18-24
22-28
18-24

47-56
43-52
39-48
36-44
34-41
31-38
28-35
48-56
40-60
62-74
55-67
42-60
52-58
50-63
50-60
47-53
55-62
60-72
57-68
65-95
58-63
54-64
56-73

, 38-46
33-42
30-38
26-35
24-33
22-30
20-27
52-57
43-60
47-57
48-52

10-25

50-70

40-60

18-39
40-75
22-30
22-30
18-22
20-30
20-30

60-85
40-60
42-55
40-46

50-75

10-19

* 40

36-50

46-60
50-60
58-65
50-55
60-75

44-55

40-56

38-52
52-65

50 -

40

5 30

>

20

10

60


. . 10.11, -

62

64
66
,

68

70

72

. 10.11.
(1) (2) , . . (1991)

212

16

40
R=.74

R=.82

35

14

, 30

I 12

I 25

i8

^
<D

1 20

5 15

1C

ra

10

2 4
*

10

5

4
6
8
10
12
14
1
, 2-"'-~

10

16

15
20
25
30
,%

35

40

. 10.12. 20- ,
() (). (1990)

9 1 2
[20].
43 %, , .
, .

, .

.

.
,
,
.
.

, [2].
. 10.12.
. , , ,
, -

( )
(
).
, , ,
. .




. ,
,
. . ,
, .

, , . , , .

:

[34]. . 10.13,

. , .

213

, ,
, .

.
"", "",
""
"", "" "" [31]. ,
,
"" .
, , . , ,
,
.

85
80

, 75

;
2
65

60
55
50
' 50

55

60 65 70 75
, -'-"1

80

85

. 10.13. " "



. . (1977):
; ; , ; -; -

. ,
, .

, . [23].
(1 , 3
10 ).

.
10
11,2 %, 1,5 %.
, ,

!
,
.

,


(, , , ) . , ,
, , , ,
, .

. ,
, .
, , .
, , ,
, .
, ,
, [8]. : , ,

. ,
.

214

,
.
. . , ,
,
,
.
:
;
;
- ;
;
.

, .
,
. ,
, ,
.

, ,
.
.
,
, ,
. VII .
,
,
, . ,
,
, . , . ,
, , , 3 (5 )
. ;
.

-

. ,
, ,
, . ,
,
.

...
1. , , ,
.
2. ,
25 50 % ()
. .
3. .
4. ,
, , 10 % ,
-,, ,
.
5.
, , . .
6. -1
, , - .
7.
.

,
. , .

. , ,
'

215

. ,

, ,
,
.


1. ?
2.
(^,.)?
. ?
3. V0lKaa. ()
, ?
4. , ?
5. , ,
,
?
6.
,
?
7. , ? ? ?
8. ?
9. ,
, , ?

1. Armstrong R.B., Laughlin M.H. (1984). Exercise
blood flow patterns within and among rat muscles after
training. American Journal of Physiology, 246, H59-H68.
2. Bouchard C. (1990). Discussion: Heredity, fitness,
and health. In C.Bouchard, R.J.Shephard, T.Stephens,
J.R.Sutton, B.D.McPherson (Eds.). Exercise, fitness, and
health (pp. 147 153). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
3. Bouchard C., Dionne F.T., Simoneau J.-A., Boulay
M.R. (1992). Genetics of aerobic and anaerobic performances. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 20, 27 58.
4. Bouchard C., Lesage R., Lottie G., Simoneau J.A.,
Hamel P., Boulay M.R., Perusse L., Theriault G.A., Leblanc
C. (1986). Aerobic performance in brother, dizygotic and
monozygotic twins. Medicine and Science in Sports and
Exercise, 18, 639 646.
5. Clausen J.P. (1977). Effect of physical training and
cardiovascular adjustments to.exercise in man. Physiological
Reviews, 57, 779 816.
6. Coyle E.F., Hemmert M.K., Coggan A.R. (1988). Effects
of detraining on cardiovascular responses to exercise: Role of blood
volume. Journal of Applied Physiology, 60,95 99.
7. Dempsey J.A. (1986). Is the lung built for exercise?
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 84, 143 155.

8. Dodley G.A., Fleck S.J. (1987). Strenght and training:


Are they mutually exclusive? Sports Medicine, 4, 79 85.
9. Ehsani A.A., Ogava ., Miller T.R., Spina R.J., Jilka
S.M. (1991). Exercise training improves left ventricular
systolic function in older men. Circulation, 83, 96 103.
10. Ekblom ., Goldbarg A.M., Gullbring B. (1972).
Response to exercise after blood loss and reinfusion. Journal
of Applied Physiology, 33, 175 180.
11. Fahey T.D., Del Valle-Zuris A., Oehlsen G., Trieb
M., Seymour J. (1979). Pubertal stage differences in hormonal
and hematological responses to maximal exercise in males.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 46, 823 827.
12. Gaffney F.A., Nixon J.V., Karlsson E.S., Campbell
W., Dowdey A.B.C., Blomqvist C.G., (1985). Cardiovascular
deconditioning produced by 20 hours of bedrest with headdown tilts (5) in middle-aged healthy men. American
Journal of Cardiology, 56, 634 638.
13. Green H.J. Sutton J.R., Coates G., Ali M., Jones S.
(1991). Response of red cell and plasma volume to prolonged
training in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 70, 1810
- 1815.
14. Hagberg J.M. (1990). Exercise, fitness, and hypertension. In C. Bouchard, R.J. Shephard, T. Stephens, J.R.
Sutton, B.D. McPherson (Eds.), Exercise, fitness, and health
(pp. 455 466). Champaing, IL: Human Kinetics.
15. Hagberg J.M., Ehsani A.A., Goldring D., Hernandez
A., Sinacore D. R., Holloszy J.O. (1984). Effect ofweigtht
training on blood pressure and hemodynamics in hypertensive
adolescent. Journal of Pediatrics, 104, 147 151.
16. Hickson R.C.,Dvorak B.A., Gorostiaga E. M.,
Kurowski T.T., Foster C. (1988). Potential for strength and
endurance training to amplify endurance performance.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 65, 2285 2290.
17. Holloszy J.O., Coyle E.F. (1984). Adaptations of
skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic
consequences. Journal of Applied Physiology, 56, 831 838.
18. Hopper M.K., Coggan A.R., Coyle E.F. (1988).
Exercise stroke volume relative to plasma-volume expansion.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 64, 404 408.
19. Klissouras V. (1971). Adaptability of genetic variation.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 31, 338 344.
20. Kohrt W.M., Malley M.T., Coggan A.R., Spina R.J.,
Ogawa ., Ehsani A.A., Bourey R.E., Martin W.H.III,
Holloszy J.O. (1991). Effects of gender, age and fitness level
on response of ' 0] to training in 6071 yr olds. Journal
of Applied Physiology, 71, 2004 2011.
21. Kraemer W.J., Deschenes M.R., Fleck S.J. (1988).
Physiological adaptations to resistance exercise: Implications
for athletic conditioning. Sports Medicine, 6, 246 256.
22. Landry F., Bouchard C., Dumesnil J. (1985). Cardiac
dimension changes with endurance training. Journal of the
American Medical Association, 254, 77 80.
23. Magel J.R., Foglia G.F., McArdle W.D., Gutin .,
Pechar G.S., Katch F.I. (1975). Specificity of swim training
on maximum oxygen uptake. Journal of Applied Physiology,
38, 151 - 155.
24. Miliken M.C., Stray-Gundersen J., Peshock R.M.,
Katz J., Mitchell J.H. (1988). Left ventricular mass as
determined by magnetic resonance imaging in male
endurance athletes. American Journal of Cardiology, 62,
301 - 305.
25. Morrison D.A., Boyden T.W., Pamenter R.W., Freund
B.J., Stini W.A., Harrington R., Wilmore J.H. (1986). Effects
of aerobic training on exercise tolerance and echocardiographic
dimensions in untrained postmenopausal women. American Heart
Journal, 112, 561 -567.
26. Pirnay F., Dujardin J., Deroanne R., Petit J.M.

216

(1971). Muscular exercise during intoxication by carbon


monoxide. Journal of Applied Physiology, 31, 573 575.
27. Poehlman E.T., Melby C.L, Goran M.I. (1991).
The impact of exercise and diet restriction on daily energy
expenditure. Sports Medicine, 11, 78 101.
28. Pollock M.L. (1973). Quantification of endurance
training programs. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 1,
155- 188.
29. Pollock M.L., Foster C.; Knapp D., Pod J.L.,
Schmidt D.H. (1987). Effect of age and training on aerobic
capacity and body composition of master athletes. Journal
of Applied Physiology, 62, 725 731.
30. Pollock M.L., Wilmore J.H. (1990). Exercise in
health and disease: Evaluation and prescription for prevention
and rehabilitation (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
31. Saltin ., Nazar K., Costill D.L., Stein E., Jansson
E., Essen ., Gollnick P.D. (1976). The nature of the training
response; peripheral and central adaptations to one-legged
exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 96, 289 305.
32. Saltin ., Rowell L.B. (1980). Functional adaptations
to physical activity and inactivity. Federation Proceedings,
39, 1506- 1513.
33. Stone M.H., Fleck S.J., Triplett N.T., Kraemer
W.J. (1991). Health- and performance-related potential of
resistance training. Sports Medicine, 11, 210 231.
34. Stromme S.B., Ingjer F., Meen H.D. (1977).
Assessment of maximal aerobic power in specifically trained
athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 42, 833 837.
35. Tipton C.M. (1991). Exercise, training and
hypertension: An update. Exercise and Sport Sciences
Reviews, 19, 447 505.
36. Turkevich D., Micco A., Reeves J.T. (1988).
Noninvasive measurement of the decrease in left ventricular
filling time during maximal exercise in normal subjects.
American Journal of Cardiology, 62, 650 652.
37. Urhausen A., Kindermann W. (1989). One- and twodimensional echocardiography in body builders and endurancetrained subjects. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 10,
139 - 144.


Dowell R.T. (1983). Cardiac adaptations to exercise. Exercise
and Sport Sciences Reviews, 11, 99 117.
Fisher A.G., Adams .., Yanowitz F.G., Ridges J.D.,
Orsmond G., Nelson A.G. (1989). Noninvasive
evaluation of world class athletes engaged in different
modes of training..American Journal of Cardiology, 63,
337-341.
George K.P., Wolfe L.A., Buggraf G.W. (1991). The
"athletic heart syndrome:" A critical review. Sports
Medicine, 11, 300 331.
Gergley T.J., McArdle W.D., DeJesus P., Toner M.M.,
Jacobowitz S., Spina R.J. (1984). Specificity of arm
training on aecobic power during swimming and running.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 16, 349
-354.
Ginzton L.E., Conant R., Brizendine M., Laks M.M. (1989).
Effect of long-term high intensity aerobic training on
left ventricular volume during maximal upright exercise. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 14,
364-371.
Hermansen L., Wachtlova M. (1971). Capillary density of
skeletal muscle in well-trained and untrained men.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 30, 860 863.
Hudlicka O. (1977). Effect of training on macro- amd
microcirculatory changes in exercise. Exercise and Sport
Sciences Reviews, 5, 181 230.
MacRae H.S.-H., Dennis S.C., Bosch A.N., Noakes T.D.
(1992). Effects of training on lactate production and
removal during progressive exercise in humans. Journal
of Applied Physiology, 72, 1649 1656.
Rowell L.B. (1986). Human circulation regulation during
physical stress. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sexton W.L., Korthuis R.J., Laughlin M.H. (1988). Highintensity exercise training increases vascular transport
capacity of rat hindquarters. American Journal of
Physiology, 254, H274-H278.

11

,
.
.
,
,
.
, ,
, .
.

. "" , .
,
. ,
.

.
, , ,
.

,
1,0
(1,8). ,

36,1 - 37,8 (97,0 - 100,0").

. . 5,
, ,
. ,
. , .
,
,
, (. 11.1). .

,

, ..
.

. 11.1. ""
( 92)

221


,
" "
. () , : , , .
. 11.1 11.2.


. , , , ,
. .
,
, , .
.
,
. ,
, , .

( , ), .



.
,
, ,

10
20 %.
, , 26
, .

.
( 21 25, 69,8 77) 60 % "" . , .

: , , , ,
, .
, .
.

. 11.2. .
,

.
80 % , 20 %. , , .
,
,
, ,
, (
, ), .

10 %. , ,
, .
.
,

222

. , .

11.1. (
1,5 -) 70 % (
15 -1), % -1


, , . , ,
,

20
60
20

0,3
0,9
0,3

15
5
80

2,2
0,8
12,0



. 11.1.

, 1,5
-~',
70 % , 10 15 -~'.
,
,
. . 11.3
,

( ), .

, .

. , . , .

.
.
, , .

^_
*"

_

. 11.3.

223

. : , 32,2
(90,0"), 10 %;
, , 90 %. , , .
, 90 % .
,
.

,
,
40 (104),
42 (107,6). .
( 40, 104)
, . ?

,
. ,

, .
, . , ,
. , .
, . ,
,
.

...
1. , ..
, 36,1 37,8
(97,0 - 100,0).
2. , , .

, .
3.
.

()
37 (99).
, -

, ,
, ,
.
.
,
. () , .
. , , .
. 11.4.

.
, .
( 0,0)
. , , ,
, .
,
, . ,
, ,
.
. ,
. ,

224

"
4^


, ,




, ,

. 11.4.


.
,

,
, :
1) ;
2) , ;
3) ;
4) .
, .
. , .
,
15

. , , .
, .
, ,
. .
, , , .
.
, .

.

. , -

225

.
,

. .
. . ,
.

.
100 %. , ,
() . ,
.



.
, ,
. , . ( ), ,
.
,


- (-



. , . , ,
.

,
, .


, ,
.
(
),

.
. , , ()
(), (.), () (),
:

= (.! )+ (-6 T T ) + (0.2 ) + (0,1 ) .



, .
:

= (']

32

') + (> 6

33

> ) +

+ (0,2 32,5) + (0,1 31,5);

4 ') -1-

~ '4

\
(0,6 1
/).

) - (0,6 )

, . , 37,0,

32 7

' )



(), () .
. ,
.

, .
5,
, , , 1 . , 1,0
-~'-~1. . 0,83 -~'-~'. , 50 (110 )
0,83
,
41,5 (0,83 -~' 50 ).
(0,83
-~'-~|),
= 0,83 ( ).
. , 50 35,3

226

( 95,5).
:
= 0,83 (50 35,3);
= 1,465 .
, 50
1,465 .


. , ,

, ,
100 %,
.. . ,
,
.
, , ,
.

1,25 1,50 -~'.


75 90 -"1. ,

.

.
15
-~' (900 -""1). , , .
. 580 , 1,55 -~'
, (900
/580
= 1,55 ).






,
.
-

, , 21 26 (70
80), , . ,
, .
, .

...
1. . ,

.
2.
. ()
.
.
3. .
() . .
, , , ;

. , , ,
,
.
4.
.
5.
( ), .

8 , , - .
, - .
, ,
,

227

. , ,

.
: , .
, , . . , .
, , .
, .
.

. - .

, :
, . , , - ,

. ,

. ,
.

, .,
,
, , ,

[6]. . 11.5,, (15 ) , (40, 104)

, (9, 48).
, -
. ,
,
, , .
. 11.5,6,


. ,
, ,
, .


"" .
,
,


"" - .
, .
, , , , .
, .

- .

,
, -
. , , . 27
(36, 96,8) (20, 68)
, .

. ,

228

,
. ,

(. 11.6).
. , .
, .
, .

, .
.
. 11.2, .
, . ,

.
, , , , .

3
2

I 2

17

160
150
I 140
^

130

120

15

25

40

50

65

;
j

100

85
70
55
40
25

10

20

40

60

'

. 11.5. (40,
15 %- ) (9, 55 %- )
()
(): 1 ,
2 . . (1975)

, ,

.

.
.

. 11.6. ,

229

,

. , ,
, .
10 20 %.
, .
.

, . ,
.

11.2. ,

, ~'

Na+

90
35

60
30

4
4

105
62

98
47

4
4

, .



2
1 -~' 1 . , ( ) (
50 75 ) 1,5 2,5
2 4 % .
.

...
1.

""
. "" .
2. , , .
3.

.
4.
. ,
, .


2 3 -'1, , ,
.

10 15
. , , , ,
,
,
.
6 10 %
.
, . 15.
(). ,
, . 6, ,

. -


.
: , , -

230


. .


.
. , ()
,

,
23 (73,4),
,
,
,
.
30 32 (86 89) ,
.
,
?



. 1970 .
(), , , .
.
:
, .
(). .
() ,
,
. . 100 %-
,
. -

,

. . ,
() .
= 0,1()

0,7() + 0,2()


, :


, , .
,



: , .


,
, .
, , . , -, ,
-
.
.

, , , , ,
, (
), , . . -

231

- . ,

"" . , .
, ,
,
.

, , , . ,
.

, 39
(102,2).

.
,

. ,
.
, . , .

, . :
40
(104");
;
;
;
( );
;
.
,
.
,
.

. -



.


.
,
,
" ", ,
. , ,
! ,

, . 40,5
(105) ,
(, 70 30 % ) [4, 18]. , . 1937 .
4 (105,8) ,
14 , , 5 000 .
10 000 , 29,5 (85) 80 % , , 43 (109,4) [3].
. ,
- .

. ,

( ). ,
. , , . 11.3. -

232

40 (104)
, , , ,
, , ,
,
.
11.3. ,


.

, . , ,
.
, ,
[2]. . 11.4.
11.4.

, ,

(104 - 105)
, (" ")
40,5 - 41, , (105 - 106') ,
41,1 - 41,7 ,
(106 - 107)
42,2 (108
)

1. 10
, ,
28 (82)
2.
, 8 18 ,

.
3. ,
2 3 .
100 200 .
4.
, .
5. : ; ;
; .
6. .

.
7.
.

(1986).


, . 28 (82,4),

. , , , ,
. . 10 20
.

. ,
, ,
,
.
, ( ) .
, . , , .
.
, , , 100 %- ,

:
(1987).


?
,

233

? .
, , ,
, , .

...
1. ,
. -,

,

, , .
2. , ,
.
3. -

.
,
.
, .
4. .

.
5.

:
( 28
(82,4), , , , .





. . -


. ,

, . , ,
, .
. ,
, .
,
, . ,
,
, ,
.
,
, (. .7,). ,
. 11.7,5, .
. .
, , -, ,
.
,

,
. ,


, . , ,
.

50 60 %, , .

234

(, ) .

? ,
,
,

. ,

. ,
, ,
. , .

40

39

37
30

60

90

180
170
i 160

( ),
1 5 1 0
. - , ,
3 5 , 10

150

^140

8^

130

120

30

60

90

. 11.7. ()
() ( 1)
( 2)
. . (1985)





.
:

;

;
.
,

.


, .
,
,
.
5 1 0 .
60 70 % . ,
, , .
.

...
1.
-

235

() , . :
;
;
.
, ,
.
,

4 5 .

.
.

,
. ,

. ,
.

.
.
2.
,
, , .
, .
3.
.
.
4.
, .
5. ,
.
6. ,
, ,
.

, ,
, , , ,
. , ,
. , , , .
, , , ,
.
.
, 37 (99),

.

, .
.
(, , ),



,
, .
,
. ,

,
( ). -

236

,
. ,

, .
, . .


. [7]. . (
) , .
, , .


,
. ,
. ,
85 %
.
2 3
[13, 15]

. , . . 11.5,
, .

.
11.5. , ,


, 1

85
25

183
100

210
79

2,47
3,16


. , ,
, . , [8].

,
, .

,
, .
,
.
, , . , 10 (50)
.
,
, . .
11.6 .


, , , .
, , .
. , 26 , . ,
26 , . (, , , ) 4
, .
, ,
, ,
32 ( 90).
,
,
[10, 11]. ,
, . ,

237

,
-"1

5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

50

40

30

20

10

50
48
40
36
32
30
28
27
26

40
37
28
22
18
16
13
11
10

30
27
16
9
4
0
-2
-4
-6

20
16
4
-5
-10
-15
-18
-20
-21

10
6
-9
-18
-25
-29
-33
-35
-37


40-~'

11.6

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

-10
-15
-33
-45
-53
-59
-63
-67
-69

-20
-26
-46
-58
-67
-74
-79
-82
-85

-30
-36
-58
-72
-82
-88
-94
-98

-40
-47
-70
-85
-96
-104
-109
-113
-116

-50
-57
-83
-99
-
-118
-125
-129
-132

-60
-68
-95
-112
-124
-133
-140
-145
-148

0
0
-5
-24
-32
-39
-44
-48
-51
-53

-100


(
,)

" " (1973).

15 (59),
2, (3,8).
4 (39),
3,2 (5,8)
[12].
,
.
, .. .
,
, 3 , ( 2 ,
69,8) [14].
, ( 30 % )
6 50 ,
11,8 (56,8) - .
( 10 %)
33,7 (92,7) 30
.
, ,
.
- . , ( ) ,

. . 11,8,,
( 8 %)
, , 17,4 (63,3), 15 -~'. . 11.8
,
17 ()
! , . 23,9 27,8 (75 82).






,

. ,
.


.

[5]. , .

238

. 11.8

()

()

.
17

"
+1,0

^^^^-^^.

+0,8 _
-X

+0,6

^-^
^-^-^

+0,4

-0,2
-0,4

^^^

"
34

30
28
26
24
22
20
18

""""^^*^'^^

^ ^^

32

^^^^

^*^^- ^

+0,2

77 /7 V
JJ,
,-

2-26,8 ';
3 - 17,4.


. (1967)

I
2

I
4

I
6

/+1.*,-,......

I
8

1
2

I
I
I
1
1
10 12 14 16 18 20

. ...

i_

' ^ - 1

s'

!\

1
1
1 1
10 12 1415

_.,

-)

1
8

^ 2

4\ 4
-1| ^^

- V

1
6

"

Rnr^PTII 1 *1 ILIf 11*1 *\/1 1 1*

1
4

^2

^f

10 12 14 16 18 20
,

, .
25 (77) , ,
35 (95),
.
, .
, , ,
, .
. , . ,
, . , , ,
. . .

^"~ "~" "~"

/
i

i i

10 12 1415


, .
,
, ( ) . ,


.

. ,
( ),
,
,
.

,
. (-

239

), ,
.
. ,
.
[19]. ,
,
- .


,

.






, ,
,
. , . ,
.

...
1. (
)
, .
2.

,
, .
3. , ,
.
4. .

. ,
, ,
.
5.
,

.
6. .
.
7. , .
8. , , , .
9. ,
.

,
, ,
0 24,2 25,7
(75,6 78,3) [1]. , , , , ,
23 25 (72,4 77),

18 (64,4) [11]. 1958 .
9 (48,2) , , 60 [12].
34,5
(94) .

29,5
(85) 1/2 10.
.




-
. .

240

. .
1912 . , -
[9].

.
,
. , , ,
-25 (-13) [17].
, 5 (2 ) , 15 (59). . 11.9,
, , , ; ,
, .
,
.

, . . .

,

(0, 32). ,
( ),
, , ,
29 (20).
,
. ,

,
. . ,
. , , .

,
.
,,.

...
1.
,
34,5 (94, ).
2. - , ,
, , .
3.
.
4. .
5.
.
, . .

. 11.9.

16

.
,

[8].

241

: , .

, , , ,
[16].
, .
. ,
,
.
, , , .
,
, , . , ,
, . , .
. ,

,
.


1. ?
2.
?
?
3. ?
4.
?
?
5. ()? ?
6.
,
?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. ,
?

...
1. ,
.
2.

,
.

. ,
. ,
, , .

1. Alexander L. (1946). Treatment of shock from


prolonged exposure to cold especially in water (Item No.
24, File No. 26-37). Washington, DC: Combined Intelligence
Objectives Sub-committee.
2. American College of Sports Medicine. (1987).
Prevention of thermal injuries during distance running.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19, 529
533.
3. Costill D.L. (1986). Inside running: Basics of sports
physiology. Indianapolis: Benchmark Press.
4. Costill D.L., Kammer, W.F., Fisher, A. (1970). Fluid
ingestion during distance running. Archives of Environmental
Health, 21, 520-525.
5. Faulkner J.A., Claflin D.R., McCully K.K. (1987).
Muscle function in the cold. In J.R. Sutton, C.S. Houston,
G. Coates (Eds.), Hypoxia and cold (pp. 429 437). New
York: Praeger.
6. Fink W., Costill D.L., Van Handel P., Getchell L.
(1975). Leg muscle metabolism during exercise in the heat
and cold. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 34, 183
190.
7. Hayward M.G., Keatinge, W.R. (1981). Roles of
subcutaneous fat and thermoregulatory reflexes in determining
ability to stabilize body temperature in water. London Journal
of Physiology, 320, 229 251.
8. Kang B.S., Song S.H., Suh C.S., Hong S.K. (1963).
Changes in body temperature and basal metabolic rate of
the ama. Journal of Applied Physiology, 18, 483 488.

242

9. Knowlton P.P., Starling E.H. (1912). The influence of


variations in temperature and blood-pressure on the performance
of the isolated mammalian heart. Journal of Physiology, 44,
206-219.
10. Molnar G.W. (1946). Survival of hypothermia by
man immersed in the ocean. Journal of the American Medical
Association, 131, 1046- 1050.
11. Newburgh L.H. (1949). Physiology of heat regalation.
Philadelphia: Saunders.
12. Niazi S.A., Lewis F.J. (1958). Profound hypothermia
in man. Annals of Surgery, 147, 264 266.
13. Pendergast D.R. (1988). The effect of body cooling
on oxygen transport during exercise. Medicine and Science
in Sports and Exercise, 20(Suppl.), S 171 S 176.
14. Pugh L.G., Edholm D.G. (1955). The physiology
of channel swimmers. Lancet, 2, 761 767.
15. Rennie D.W. (1988). Tissue heat transfer in water:
Lessons from the Korean divers. Medicine and Science in
Sports and Exercise, 20, S177.
16. Scholander P.P., Hammel H.T., Hart J.S., Lemessurier D.H. Steen J. (1958). Cold adaptation in Australian
aborigines. Journal of Applied Physiology, 13, 211 218.
17. Webb P. (1951). Air temperature in respiratory tracts
of resting subjects in the cold. Journal of Applied Physiology.
4, 378 - 382.
18. Wyndham C.H. (1973). The physiology of exercise
under heat stress. Annual Review of Physiology, 35.193 220.
19. Young A.J., Sawka M.N., Neufer P.O., Muza S.R.,
Askew E.W., Pandolf K.B. (1989). Thermoregulation during
cold water immersion is unimpaired by low muscle glycogen
levels. Journal of Applied Physiology. 66, 1809 1816.

Armstrong L.E., Dziados J.E. (1986). Effects of heat
exposure on the exercising adult. In D.B. Bemhardt
(Ed.), Sports physical therapy. New York: Churchill
Livingstone.
Armstrong L.E., Maresh C.M. (1991). The induction and
decay of heat acclimatisation in trained athletes. Sports
Medicine, 12, 302 312.
Clarke R.S.J., Hellon R.F., Lind A.R. (1958). The duration
of sustained contractions of the human forearm at
different muscle temperatures. Journal of Physiology,
143, 454 _ 473.
Doubt T.J. (1991). Physiology of exercise in the cold. Sports
Medicine, 11, 367 381.
Edwards R.H.T., Harris R.C., Hultman E., Kaijser L., Koh
D., Nordesjo L.O. (1972). Effect of temperature on muscle
energy metabolism and endurance during successive isometric
contractions, sustained to fatigue, of the quadriceps muscle
in man. Journal of Physiology, 220, 335 352.
Ferretti G., Veicsteinas A., Rennie D.W. (1988). Regional heat

16*

flows of resting and exercising men immersed in cool water.


Journal of Applied Physiology, 64, 1239 1248.
Fox E.L., Bowers R.W., Foss M.L. (1993). The physiological
basis for exercising and sport (5th ed.) (pp. 795).
Philadelphia: Saunders.
Gisolti C.V., Wenger C.B. (1984). Temperature regulation
during exercise: Old concepts, new ideas. Exercise and
Sport Sciences Reviews, 12, 339 372.
Greenleaf J.E. (1979). Hyperthermia in exercise. In D.
Robertshaw (Ed.), International review of physiology:
Environmental physiology III: Vol. 20. Baltimore:
University Park Press.
Keatinge W.R. ( 1969). Survival in cold water (p. 131 ).
Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.
Kenney W.L., Anderson R.K. (1988). Response of older
and younger women in dry and humid heat without fluid
replacement. Medicine and Science in Sports and
Exercise, 20, 155.
King D.S., Coslill D.L., Fink W.J., Hargreaves M., Fielding
R.A. (1985). Muscle metabolism during exercise in the
heat in unacclimatized and acclimatized humans. Journal
of Applied Physiology. 59, 1350 1354.
Laufman H.(1951). Profound accidental hypothermia.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 147,
1201 - 1212.
Nadel E.R. (Ed.) (1977). Prohlems with temperature
regulation during exercise. New York: Academic Press.
Neuffer P.O. (1986). Effects of exercise and carbohydrate
conposition on gastric emptying. Medicine and Science
in Sports and Exercise, 18, 656.
Sawaka M.N., Wegner C.B. (1988). Physiological responses
to acute-exercise heat stress. In K.B. Pandolf (Ed.),
Human performance physiology and environmental
medicine at terrestrial extremes. Indianapolis: Benchmark
Press.
Siple P.A., Passel C.F. (1945). Measurement of dry
atmospheric cooling in subfreezing temperatures.
Proceedings of The American Physiological Society, 89,
177- 199.
Toner M.M., McArdle W.D. (1988). Physiological
adjustments of a man to cold. In K.B. Pandolf (Ed.),
Human performance physiology and environmental
medicine at terrestrial extremes. Indianapolis: Benchmark
Press.
Wegner C.B. (1988). Human heat acclimatization. In K.B.
Pandolf (Ed.), Human performance physiology and
environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes. Indianapolis: Benchmark Press.
Young A.J. (1990). Energy substrate utilization during exercise
in extreme environments. In K. Pandolf J.O. Holloszy
(Eds.), Exercise and sport sciences reviews: Vol. 18.
Baltimore: Williams, Wilkins.

12

,
, .
, ,

,
"".
.
, , .
, .

,
. , , .
, , . ,
, XIX
1968 . ,
2 290 (7 500 ) .
,
,
.
2 ,

400 . 20 , , , ""
.

, ,
, 760
..,
159 . . .
, .
,
, , .
.
. , , .
( ). ,
. , .
,
.
, (.. ). ,
, .
,

. -

244

, ,
, , , ,

.

, . , , . , ,
.

:


, , 400 . ..
[40], , , . ,

,
. ( 1644)
, .
(1648) [40]. (1777)
, [40].
,
(),
1800 . [1]. 1968 . 2 290 (1,4
) .
1 500 (4 921 ) ,
, .


,
,
.
, (
) .

.
.
, , ,
( 24 , 38,6 ),
, 760 .. (8 848 ,
29 028 )
250 .. ( )
. 12.1.
. , , . , ,
243 ..
255 .. .
,
,
. ,
, , , , .
12.1.
(.) (/',,)
, ..
,

'.

0 ( )
1000
2000
3000
4000
9000

760
674
596
526
462
231

159.2
141.2
124.9
110.2
96.9
48.4

, , ,
, . 20,93 % , 0,03 79,04 % . .
. 12.1, ,

. .



150 ( 490
) .

40, ,
245

8900 :
= 250 . .
2 = 48,4 . .
= 40 *

. 12.1. 8 900
, 15.

.
12.2.

,

0 ( )
1 000

2000
3000
4000
9000

15 ,0
8,5
2 ,0
-4 ,5
-10 ,9
-43 ,4

-
. . (100 %- ), ,
, .
20 17 ..
20
1 ..
.
-

246


(
).

.


,
, :
20,93 %, 0,03, 79,04 %.
.

,
.
, .


.
-, ,
. , . -,
, , ,


. .

, , 9, ,
.
. , . ,
.
. , ,
, ( ).
, .

...
1. .
1 500 (4 921 ) .
2.
, .
3.
.
, .
.
4. , .


, .
, ,
- , .
.

, .



.
. "" ,

, , .
.
, , . , . ,
, . ,

. .

. ,
, .
, 0 ,
0 . .
, ,
0
.
, (
) 159 ..
2 439 (8 000 ) 125 ..
.
98 % 92 % 2 439 (8 000 ).

247

, 15 %,

. , ,
.
.
94 .., 20 .., ,
,
2

74 .. 2 439
(8 000 )
60 .., 20 .. , 74 40 ..
50 %- .
,
5 %- .
. (. 12.2).
, PQ
125 .. 1 600 (5 248 ), . .

, 750

Pe

1 600 (5 248 )

, . 1600, 11 %
1 000
(3 281 )
. 12.3, 1981 . 62 (
) 15 -~'-~' . 5 -~'-~',
. , .,
, 50 -~'-~'
,
5 -^'-"1.
50 --1-""'

,
, . .

, . .
600
500

650
125


[41]. ,
() .

100

75

60

100

1981 .

& 90

80

70

30

60

I
50

20

10

-103
3

-10

3
4

10

20

15

. 12.2. ()
(P0j .
. (1967)

50
100
150
, . . "

. 12.3. ,
. (1983),
(1994)

248

-

-
.
- . .
. , .
,
.
, ,
, . . ,
, .
, , , .
. , , , , . ,
.

. , , ,
.



( ).

.

.
( ),
, ,
. , 10


,
, [15].


,
. .
. ,
, .
.
. ,
[16,
23]. ,
, ,
[16].



, ,
.
, . , .
[14, 36]. , , . .



. 1924 .
..
8 600 (28 208 ) : " .
, 20 ,
, , , , ,
13 " [27]. -

249

6.
,
. .

,
.


,

.
10 25 %
. .
, , ,

- , ,
. , 1978 .
. ,
.

,
,
,
,
, , ( ) ,
. ,
,



7.

.
,

. , , - ,
, .

...
1. ( )

. ,
, , .
,
.
2. ,
.
3. ,
,
,
,
. , ,
.
4.

.
, .
5.

,
.


1 (,
).
.

.
,
.
1968 . , ,
, ,
() .



,

250

. ,
,
, . , 30- XX ., (7,9 - ~ '
1,9 -~' 5 340 , 17 515 )
.

, .

...
1.
, ,
.
2. , , ,
1 .
3. ,
1968 . .

:


.
, . , ,
.
, ,
, ,
, .
, .
, .



.

, . 3 ,
24 48 [44]. 6
4 000 (13 120 )
9 10 % , [28].
, , .
( 4 540 , 14 891 )
65 %.
, , , , 48 %. ,
6

59 %.
.
. 12.4,
.

.



. ,
,
. ,
20 -

19
18
~

\
17

I- 16
15
14

__]_

500

1500
,

2500

3500

. 12.4. , ,

251

. - 1992 .
6 (13,2 ).
, . . 12.3,
-, . ,


. , .

( 2 500 , 8 200
). (- ) 3 4
( ). ,
, ,
, . , ,
, - .


, , ,
,
.
,

. ,

.


, , ,
. . 12.3
, 4 6
. ,
. ,

. , .
.
12.3.

( 4 6 )

,

1 2

-

, %

11- 13

21 -25
19
13

25
21
32
48






, .
. 4 000
(13 100 )
50 % . , , 2 .


.
. -

252

.
1 8 5 7 [4, 15]. ,
, ,
. ,
""
, . ,
. 0
"
, .


, ,
, ,
.

?



, ,
, ( ) ?
. ,
,

.
,
,
.
,
, .
, . . ,


.

, , .
-
(, , ..), ,
, ,

, ,
. -, (
). ,
. ,


.
, .
,
.
,
, ,
. , . , ,
(
, ).

,

,
, ?
?
, , , .
24 .
,
. 24

253



, , .

2 .
, 4 6 . , (, )
, .
,
.
, ,
1 500 (4 921 ), , , 3 000 (9 843
)
.
.
60 70 % ; , 10 14 .
,
, . ,
(1 2 )
2 ,
,
.
, , 2 287
(7 503 ) (
),
[12]. 11
, .
,

,
, , , , . , , ,
. , -

, 6 96
. ,
,

.
.
.
,
, .

...
1.
,
. , . , , .

.

.
2.
. ,
.
3.
, .
4. .
5. ,
, .
, ,
, ,

. .
6. ,
, , 24 ,
.
7. , ,
, -

254

, 1 500 (4 921 ) 3 000 (9 843 )


2 .
.



,
[17]. .
0,1
53 % 3 000 - 5 500 (9 840 - 18 044
). , 80 % ,
-
(4 205 , 13 796 ) , [13].
2 500 3 500 (8 200
11 480 ),
.
6,5 % 22,2 % (
) [36].
, ,


[18, 22, 25]. . ,

.

, ;
,
[42].
, -,
.
, .
, 24 %
, 2 440 (8 005
), 40 % 4 270 (14 009 )
100 % 6 300 (20 669 )
[39, 43].
?
,
,
. -

,

.
,
,
. (
300 ), 3 000
(9 843 ), ,
.
:
,
. , , .


,
, .. , . . , 2 700
(8 858 ).
,
.
,
.

, , .
.



,
. , . 4 300 (14 106 ).
.
.

...
1. , , ,
, , , , -

255

25 % .
, , 10 , ,
.
().
(33 )
,
. , , ,
( , ).
,
, . .

6 96
.
2. ,
, .
3. ( 300 ,
984 , ) 3 000
(9 843 ) .
.
4. ,
, .
.


:


. (. 11),
.
,
, , -
. , .



. , ,
(1 ,
760 .. ).
10 (33 )
,
760 ..

( ) , 6 000
(19 685 ).
, :
. .
12.5, , , 10 .
. , 30 (98,4 )

12.4.
(0 )
( ), ..
,

760

159

600

10
20
30

1,520
2,280
3,040

318
477
636

1,201
1,802
2,402

,
.
,
(, ), . 10

(. 12.4). 30
4 , . ,
.
,

. , . .

...
1. .

256

. 12.5.

2.
, , , .
3.
, , .
-

- .
,
, , - . , ,
. ,
, 1
5 8 -" . ,
17,

.

, .
(, )
() 90 %.
50 % [34]. ,
1
70 -" ,
40 50 -"1. , [21].
. ,

. ,
, , , , , ,
1
10 12 -" ,
, (. 12.6).

257

180

160
140
120

100
80
60

1
2
3
1
, -~

. 12.6.
(1)
(2)



, .
" ", .
, , , ,
9,
.
, ()
.
[26]. ,
. , ,
. , ,
2
[11].
, , , (,
, , ..).
1 2

. ,
.
.

, ,
,
.
, . ,
, , ..
, . ,
,
.

() ().

4 : 1 5 : 1 .
20 30 ,
.
. , , , ( ).
73 .
,
12 , .
, , , . , .
,

. ,
5 (16 ), , ,

.

()
,
, . , (. 12.7).
1943 . .
:
1) 5,74 8,61 -~ 2 (2 000
3 000 );
2) , -

258

...

. 12.7. :
1 , ; 2
; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ;
6 ; 7 3 000

, ,
( 0,40 -~2, 140
);
3) , ( ),
;
4) ,
.
, . :
, , . , ,
,
. , ,

60 70 (197 230 ),
6 7 (20 23 ) 30 40 .
17*

1. - . . .
.
2. .
,
.
3. 1 2 (3 6 ) . ,
.
4.

. ,
, .
5. , , ,
.
,



.
.
.
, ,
, . ,
, 2 .

318
1 500 .. ,
-

259

[5, 33]. 0
,
.
,
.
, ,
, . , , 318 .. ( 2 2
),
,
. , ,
, .
0 , . , , .



.
,
,
.
. , , , . ,
.

. 12.8.

(. 12.8). , .
.
, ""
.
,
(. 12.9). , ,
50 ( 15
) 1 , .
1 100 ( 30 ), . ,
.
" "
, ,

180 160 1 140 2

1120
100

80
60 40
20

. 12.9

10

20

30

40
50
60
70
80
90
,

260

100

110

120

. 12.10

( )

, , , .
,
.
, , . , .
, 15
"", .
30 ,
. , .

1 2
,
. , 2 ,

, , .
,
, , ,
.

(. 12.10).
, , "" , . , ,
,
. , ,
.


,
, , . (
). ,
, .
.

-

261





.
,
,
,
.

( ) .

,
,
.
,
.
,
.

; ""


, ,
, , ,
,
. ,
, ,

:


.

, , , . ,


"", - , 60 260 30
. , . ,

(, ), , . 24
.
,

.
, .

100 .
"" I, II III , . .
, (
,
). ,

-
[19].
[19, 20].

262

, .
1 g (g , ). , .. ,
, (
1 g). , 17 % , , 0,17 g.
""
, , 0 g.

...
1. ,
.
2. PQ
318 ..

.
, . PQ , .
3.
.
, , , , ,
. ,
, , . , ,

. .
4. " " ( )

. . ,
.
5. ,
.

, , ,
,

,
, , ,
,
, ,
. .
,
.


. ,
, , . , 8 000
(12 872 ) 25 %
. 210 000
(337 890 ) , 0 g.
,
( ).
. - .
, ,
.
,
,
, ,
- ,
.

263

.
,
.
. ,
- .


, , . [30]. 35 % 50 %
,
[2, 37].
. , , -

, ,
-,
,
[8] (. 12.11).
, . "" ,

[38]. ,
. , .
, , .


-25 -20 -15-10
, %

-5

20

15

10

. 12.11. ,
30 28 ();
-
30
(): 1 28 " 2"( = 3);
230 ( = 8);
3 -, 4
. (1991)


.
,
(18
) , , ,
[9]. "", "" ""

. , .
, "-

264

, : 2 15 % ; 3
25 % 3 16 % .
, ,
. "-14" "16" ,
"15" (5 6 %) [29]. ""
, 4 %, ..
, .
.
, , (4 %) ,

,
, .
, , . . ,
,

.
, , ,
, ..
.
-

,
,
.
,
,
1 g, . , .
,
. .
, , -



,

, .

""
.

,
. , , ,
, , . ()
, .

,
1 g,
. , -
,

, ,

-
"-1" (23 ) "-4" (63 )
. 13- 21- 56-
.
,
,
(. 12.5). , 5-

"-4"
. "",

[7].
. 12.6
140- -

265

"-7" 23-


,
U
91-

"-4", 63-


,
56-

, -"'
,
, -"'
, .
, ..
, ..

, -~'
, .

645
94+3
6,00,5
1137
733
864
4,40,4

655
969
6,10,1
1224*
802*
942*
4,90,1*

653

653

845
5,50,3
1205
864
974
6,50,6

90+2
5,90,3
1306*
861
1012
6,40,6

15,02,7

16,92,0*

18,6+1,7

16,91,2

12.5

"-1"
"-4",

. 12.6 *
, . (1987).

"-6". 5 .

, ,
,
, .

.
, , . "-4",
84-
(. 12.12) [31]. , , . ,
.
, , -

.
. : - 1 ,

[3]. - 7 1 4 . , , .
., [10].
,
,
- . ,
.

, , - .

12.6. - (750 -')


140- "-6", -/, =2
,

, - '
,
, -~'
, .
, ..

, -~'
, .

39

41

62

97

119

1135
13619
15,31,5
1562
704
7,50,6

1134
13320
15,01,7
1579
69+2
7,20,8

12412*
13430
16,2+2,2*
1561
703
7,50,9

1168
12026*
13,72,1*
1492*
68+5
7,90,9*

1227*
131134*
15,83,2
1444*
73+2
7,80,7*

12813*
11220*
14,11,2*
1463*
691
8,51,5*

13,62,1

12,8+0,9

10,7+2,0*

266

12,42,9*

60

55

"L 50
*

45

40

35
10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

. 12.12.
" 4" 83 .
. (1975)

, ,
.

,

. 33 "" 3,5 ,
9 ,
"", 2,7 .
: 0,1 5,9 [24]. 1 3 . 12 50 %
, 50 % . ""
[24].
2,7 , 1,1
; 1,2 ; 0,3 ; 0,1 . , ,
.

, .

, ,
.
, .
, :
? ,
, ,
.

, . "",
[31, 38].
,
, , 1 g [ 6 ] .
, , ,
.
,
,
.
, , , [8].
, .

, -,
,

267

9. ?
10. ? 1 g>.
\ \.
?
?
12. ? ?
13. , , ?
14. ? , .
15.
?

. ,
,
.
.

.
, , ,

. , . ,
.
, ,

.
,
.
, , .


\.
, .
2. ?
3. .
4. , ,
( ) ? ?
5.
?
6. ?
?
7. , .
8.
, ,
30 .


1. Bert P. (1943). La pression b a r o m e t r i q u e .
(M.A.Hitchcock F.A.Hitchcock, Trans.). Columbus, OH:
College Book Co.
2. Booth F.W. (1982). Effect of limb immobilization on
skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology, 52, 1113
1118.
3. Bungo M.W., Goldwater D.J., Popp R.L., Sandier
H. (1987). Echocardiographic evaluation of space shuttle
crewmembers. Journal of Applied Physiology, 62, 278
282.
4. Buskirk E.R., Kollias J., Piconreatique E., Akers R.,
Prokop E., Baker P. (1967). In R.E.Goddart (Ed.), The
effects of altitude on physical performance (pp. 65 71).
Chicago: Athletic Institute.
5. Clark J.M., Lambertsen C.J. (1971). Pulmonary
oxygen toxicity: A review. Pharmacology Review, 23, 37
133.
6. Convertino V.A. (1987). Potential benefits of maximal
exercise just prior to return from weightlessness. Aviation,
Space, and Environmental Medicine, 58, 568 572.
7. Convertino V.A. (1990). Physiological adaptations to
weightlessness: Effects on exercise and work performance.
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 18, 119 166.
8. Convertino V.A. (1991). Neuromuscular aspects in
development of exercise countermeasures. The Physiologist,
34, S125-S128.
9. Convertino V.A., Adams W.C. (1991). Enhanced
vagal barroflex response during 24 h after acute exercise.
American Journal of Physiology, 260, R570-R575.
10. Convertino V.A., Doerr D.F., Stein S.L. (1989).
Changes in size and compliance of the calf after 30 days of
simulated microgravity. Journal of Applied Physiology, 66,
1509 1512.
11. Cotes J.E. (1968). Lung function: Assessment and
application in medicine (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Davis.
12. Daniels J., Oldridge N. (1970). Effects of alternative
exposure to altitude and sea level on world-class middle-distance
runners. Medicine and Science in Sports, 2, 107 112.
13. Forster P.J.G. (1985). Effects of different ascent
profiles on performance at 4200 m elevation. Aviation, Space,
and Environmental Medicine, 56, 785 764.

268

14. Green H.J., Sutton J., Young P., Cymerman A.,


Houston C.S. (1989). Operation Everest II: Muscle energetics
during maximal exhaustive exercise. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 66, 142 - 150.
15. Grover R., Reeves J., Grover E., Leathers J. (1967).
Muscular exercise in young men native to 3,100 m altitude.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 22, 555 564.
16. Groves B.M., Reeves J.T., Sutton J.R., Wagner P.D.,
Cymerman A., Malconian M.K., Rock P.., Yound P.M.,
Houston C.S. (1987). Operation Everest II: Elevated highaltitude pulmonary resistance unresponsive to oxygen. Journal
of Applied Physiology, 63, 521 530.
17. Hackett P.H., Rennie D., Levine H.D. (1976). The
incidence, importance, and prophylaxis of acute mountain
sickness. Lancet, 2, 1149 1154.
18. Hackett P.H., Roach R.C., Schoene R.B., Harrison
G.L., Mills Jr., W. S. (1988). Abnormal control of ventilation
in high-altitude pulmonary edema. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 64, 1268- 1272.
19. Hochachka P.W. (1981). Brain, lung, and heart
functions during diving and recovery. Science, 212, 509
514.
20. Hochachka P.W., Storey K.B. (1975). Metabolic
consequences of diving in animals and man. Science, 187,
613-621.
21. Hong S.K., Song S.H., Kim P.K., Suh C.S. (1967).
Seasonal observations on the cardiac rhythm during diving
in the Korean ama. Journal of Applied Physiology, 23, 18
22.
22. King A.B., Robinson S.M. (1972). Ventilation
response to hypoxia and acute mountain sickness. Aerospace
Medicine, 43, 419-421.
23. Kronenberg R.S., Safar P., Lee J., Wright F., Noble
W., Wahrenbrock E., Hickey R., Nemoto E., Severinghaus
J.W. (1971). Pulmonary artery pressure and alveolar gas
exchange in man during acclimatization to 12,470 ft. Journal
of Clinical Investigation, 50, 827 837.
24. Leonard J.I., Leach C.S., Rambaut P.C. (1983).
Quantitation of tissue loss during prolonged space flight.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 38, 667 679.
25. Mathews L., Gopinathan P.M., Purkayastha S.S.
(1983). Chemoreceptor sensitivity and maladaption to high
altitude in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology,
51, 137 144.
26. Mithoefer J.C. (1965). Breath-holding. In W.O.Fenn,
H.Rahn (Eds.), Handbook of physiology: Section 3. Vol. II
(pp. 1011 1025). Washington, DC: American Physiological
Society.
27. Norton E.G. (1925). The fight for Everest: 1924.
London: Arnold.
28. Pugh L.C.G.E. (1964). Muscular exercise at great
altitudes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 19, 431.
29. Rambaut P.C., Smith M.C., Mack P.B, Vogel J.M.
(1975). Skeletal response. In R.S.Johnston, L.F.Dietlein,
C.A.Berry (Eds.). Biomedical results of Apollo (pp. 303
322). (NASA SP-368). Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
30. Rennie M.J., Edwards R.H.T., Emery P.W., Halliday
D., Lundholm K., Millward D.J. (1983). Depressed protein
synthesis is the dominant characteristic of muscle wasting
and cachexia. Clinical Physiology, 3, 387 398.
31. Sawin C.F., Rummel J.A., Michel E.L. (1975).
Instrumented personal exercise during longduration space
flights. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 46,
394 _ 400.
32. Schaefer K.E., Allison R.D., Dougherty Jr., J.H.,
Carey C.R., Walker R., Yost F., Parker D. (1968).

Pulmonary and circulatory adjustments determining the limits


of depth in breath-hold diving. Science, 162, 1020 1023.
33. Smith J.L. (1899). The pathological effects due to
increase of oxygen tension in the air breathed. London
Journal of Physiology, 24, 19 35.
34. Song S.H., Lee W.K., Chung Y.A., Hong S.K.
(1969). Mechanism of apneic bradycardia in man. Journal
of Applied Physiology, 27, 323 327.
35. Sutton J., Lazarus L. (1973). Mountain sickness in
the Australian Alps. Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 545
546.
36. Sutton J.R., Reeves J.T., Wagner P.O., Groves B.M.,
Cymerman A., Malconian M.K., Rock P.., Young P.M.,
Walter S.D., Houston C.S. (1988). Operation Everest II:
Oxygen transport during exercise at extreme simulated
altitude. Journal of Applied Physiology, 64, 1309 1321.
37. Thomason D.B., Booth F.W. (1990). Atrophy of
the soleus muscle by hindlimb unweighting. Journal of
Applied Physiology, 68, 1 12.
38. Thornton W.E., Rummel J.A. (1977). Muscular
deconditioning and its prevention in space flight. In
R.S.Johnston, S.F.Dietlein (Eds.), Biomedical results from
Skylab (pp. 191 - 197) (NASA SP-377). Washington, DC:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
39. Waggener T.B., Brusil P.J., Kronauer R.E., Gabel
R.A., Inbar G.F. (1984). Strength and cycle time of high
altitude ventilation patterns in unacclimatized humans.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 56, 576 581.
40. Ward M.P., Milledge J.S., West J.B. (1989). High
altitude medicine and physiology. Philadelphia: University
of Pennsylvania Press.
41. West J.B., Boyer S.J., Graber D.J., Hackett P.H.,
Maret K.H., Milledge J.S., Peters Jr., R.M., Pizzo C.J.,
Samaja M., Sarnquist F.H., Schoene R.B., Winslow R.M.
(1983). Maximal exercise at extreme altitude on Mount
Everest. Journal of Applied Physiology, 55, 688 698.
42. West J.B., Lahiri S., Gill M.B., Milledge J.S., Pugh
L.G.C.E., Ward M.P. (1962). Arterial oxygen saturation
during exercise at high altitude. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 17,617-621.
43. West J.B., Peters R.M., Aksnes G, Maret K.H.,
Milledge J.S., Schoene R.B. (1986). Nocturnal periodic
breathing at altitudes of 6300 and 8050 m. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 61,280-287.
44. Wolfel E.E., Groves B.M., Brooks G.A., Butterfield
G.E., Mazzeo R.S., Moore L.G., Sutton J.R., Bender P.R.,
Dahms .., McCullough R.E., McCullough R.G., Huang
S.-Y., Sun S.-F., Grover R.F., Hultgren H.N., Reeves J.T.
(1991). Oxygen transport during steady-state submaximal
exercise in chronic hypoxia. Journal of Applied Physiology,
70, 1129- 1136.

Adams W.C., Bernauer E.M., Dill D.B., BomarJ.B. (1975).
Effects of equivalent sea level and altitude training on
V0 and running performance. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 39, 262 - 266.
Balke B. (1968). Variation in altitude and its effect on exercise
performance. In H.B.Falls (Ed.). Exercise physiology.
New York: Academic Press.
Bender P.R., Grove B.M., McCullough R.E., McCullough
R.G., Trad L., Young A.J., Cymerman A., Reeves J.T.
(1989). Decreased exercise muscle lactate release after
high altitude acclimatization. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 67, 1456 1462.

269

Blomqvist C.G. (1983). Cardiovascular adaptation to


weightlessness. Medicine and Science in Sports and
Exercise, 15,428-431.
Bungo M.W., Johnson P.C. (1983). Cardiovascular
examinations and observations of deconditioning during
the space shuttle orbital flight test program. Aviation,
Space, and Environmental Medicine, 54, 1001 1004.
Buskirk E.R., Kollias J., Akers R., Prokop E., PiconReategue E. (1967). Maximal performance at altitude
and on return from altitude in conditioned runners.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 23, 259 266.
Cerretelli P. (1980). Gas exchange at high altitude. In
J.B.West (Ed.), Pulmonary gas exchange: Vol. II. New
York: Academic Press.
Convertino V.A. (1991). Carotid-cardiac baroreflex: Relation
with orthostatic hypotension following simulated
microgravity and implications for development of
countermeasures. Acta Astronautica, 23, 9 17.
Convertino V.A. (1992). Effects of exercise and inactivity
on intravascular volume and cardiovascular control
mechanisms. Acta Astronautica, 24, 1 7.
Convertino V.A., Goldwater D.J., Sandier H. (1986).
Bedrest-induced peak V0 reduction associated with age,
gender, and aerobic capacity. Aviation, Space, and
Environmental Medicine, 57, 17 22.
Fulco C.S., Cymerman A. (1990). Human performance
and acute hypoxia. In K.Pandolf, M.Sawka, R.Gonzalez
(Eds.). Human performance physiology and environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes (pp. 467
495). Indianapolis: Benchmark Press.
Gaffney F.A., Nixon J.V., Karlsson E.S., Campbell W.,
Dowdey A.B.C., Blomqvist C.G. (1985). Cardiovascular
deconditioning produced by 20 hours of bedrest with
head-down tilt (5) in middle-aged healthy men.
American Journal of Cardiology, 56, 634 638.
Greenleaf J.E. (1986). Mechanism for negative water balance
during weightlessness: An hypothesis. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 60, 60 62.
Greenleaf J.E., Bulbulian R., Bernauer E.M., Haskell W.L.,
Moore T. (1989). Exercise-training protocols for
astronauts in microgravity Journal of Applied Physiology,
67, 2191 - 2204.
Grover R.F., Weil J.V., Reeves J.T. (1986). Cardiovascular
adaptation to exercise at high altitude. Exercise and Sport
Sciences Reviews, 14, 269 302.
Harrison M.H. (1986). Athletes, astronauts and orthostatic
tolerance. Sports Medicine, 3, 428 435.
Heath D., Williams D.R. (1989). High altitude medicine
and pathology. London: Butterworths.
Herbison G.J., Talbot J.M. (1985). Muscle atrophy during
space flight: Research needs and opportunities. The
Physiologist, 28, 520 527.
Hoffler G.W., Wolthuis R.A., Johnson R.L. (1974). Apollo
space crew cardiovascular evaluations. Aerospace
Medicine, 45, 807 820.
Johnson P.C., Leach C.S., Rambaut P.C. (1973). Estimates
of fluid and energy balances of Apollo 17. Aerospace
Medicine, 44, 1227 1230.
Johnstone R.S., Diettein L.F., Berry C.A. (Eds.) (1975).
Biomedical results of Apollo. (NASA SP-368).
Washington. DC: National Aeronautics and Space
Administration.
Kirby C.R., Ryan M.J., Booth F.W. (1992). Eccentric
exercise training as a countermeasure to nonweight-

bearing soleus muscle atrophy. Journal of Applied Physiology,


73, 1894-1899.
Lenfant C., Sullivan K. (1971). Adaptation to high altitude.
New England Journal of Medicine, 284, 1298 1309.
Margaria R. (Ed.). (1967). Exercise of altitude. Amsterdam:
Excerpta Medica Foundation.
Mizuna M., Juel C., Bro-Rasmussen ., Mygind E., Schibye
., Rasmussen ., Saltin B. (1990). Limb skeletal muscle
adaptation in athletes after training at altitude. Journal
of Applied Physiology, 68, 496 502.
Musacchia X.J, Steffen J.M., Fell R.D. (1988). Disuse
atrophy of skeletal muscle: Animal models. Exercise and
Sport Sciences Reviews, 16, 61 87.
Muza S.R. (1990). Hyperbaric physiology and human
performance. In K.Pandolf, M.Sawka, R.Gonzalez
(Eds.). Human performance physiology and environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes (pp. 565
589). Indianapolis: Benchmark Press.
Nicogossian A.E., Huntoon C.L., Pool S.L. (Eds.) (1989).
Space physiology and medicine (2nd ed.). Philadelphia:
Lea & Febiger.
Pigman E.G. (1991). Acute mountain sickness: Effects and
implications for exercise at intermediate altitude. Sports
Medicine, 12, 71 79.
Saltin ., Blomqvist G., Mitchell J.H., Johnson Jr., R.L.,
Wildenthal K., Chapman C.B. (1968). Response to
submaximal and maximal exercise after bed rest and
training. Circulation, 38 (Suppl. 7), 75.
Stegemann J., Essfeld D., Hoffmann U. (1985). Effects of
a 7-day headdown tilt (6) on the dynamics of oxygen
uptake and heart rate adjustment in upright exercise.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 56, 410
414.
Thompson C.A., Tatro D.L., Ludwig D.A., Convertino
V.A. (1990). Baroreflex responses to acute changes in
blood volume in humans. A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l of
Physiology, 259, R792-798.
Torricelli E. (1981). Letter of Torricelli to Michelagelo Ricci.
In J.B.West (Ed.), High altitude physiology. Stroudsburg,
PA: Hutchinson Ross. (Letter written 1644).
Volicer L., Jean-Charles R., Chobanian A.V. (1976). Effects
of headdown tilt on fluid and electrolyte balance.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 47,
1065- 1068.
West J.B. (1984). Spacelab the coming of age of space
physiology research. Journal of Applied Physiology, 57,
1625- 1631.
West J.B. (1992). Life in space. Journal of Applied Physiology,
72, 1623- 1630.
Wronski T.J., Morey E.R. (1983). Alterations in calcium
homeostasis and bone during axtual and simulated space
flight. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 15,
410-414.
Young A.J., Young P.M. (1990). Human acclimatization
to high terrestial altitude. In K.Pandolf, M.Sawaka,
R.Gonzalez (Eds.), Human performance physiology and
environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes (pp. 497
543). Indianapolis: Benchmark Press.
Zernicke R.F., V a i l a s A.C., Salem G.J. (1990).
Biomechanical response of bone to weightlessness.
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 18, 167 192.
Zuntz N., Loewy A., Muller F., Caspari W. (1906).
Hohenklima und Bergwanderrungen in ihret Wirkung
auf den Menschen. Berlin: Bong.

13


, , , . .
, , - . , , ,
,
,
. . ,
,
, , , .
, ,
, , ,
.
. , ,
, , . , ,

.
, 4 , 8,5 (13,7 )
. ,
200 (183 ) , . 2 15
,

. 1985 . . 18

2 ,
2,8 3,0 (4,5 4,8 ) .
. 3
2 10 .
, 3- ( 1 ).
,
2 1 .
1 57,7
. , , "" ,
.
,
,
.
, , 6 1 0 . , , ,
, , . .
-

273

. ,
-, , , .

.
, , .

.

, "" .
, ,
, , , ,

.
.
.
, ,
- . ,
, .

. ,
, . .
,
. .
,
( , )
. ,
, .
,

. ,
-

,
. , 4 6 , ,

,
. .

, , , , , , ,
.
, . , 3 4-
5 6 ,
1 1/2- [6].
.
, , [5, 20, 25].
. . 13.1,
.
, 6 25- . .
5- 10- .
[5].

. -
. ,
, -
, .
. , 10 000 (10 936 ),

(. 13.2).
100 (91 )
4- . , 10 000 ,

274

1,0

16

0,8

t 14
j

1 12
s"
m

a.
10

0,6
>

0,4

0,2

10

15

20

25

. 13.2. ,
10 000 ,
5 000
, , ?
,
.

10

15

20

25

. 13.1. ()
() 366
(400 ) ,
( 1) ( 2).
5- 10-
0,8 %

, 5 000
(5 468 ) .
200, 500 1 650 .
, , ( ), ,
( ), .
, , ,

, . 2 .
3 4- , -

18*

,
- . , , .

, - : , .
.
, , ,

, , , ,
.
, -

275

,
,
30 V
"
8 %. , . ,
,
, .

V
. ,
(10 20 % V
), , . ,

. ,
50 90 % V0 1 .
, V
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
, . 13.3.

30
25
20

f 15
;

> 10

20
40
60
80
100
120
,%

. 13.3. ,
.

. ,
, .
, .
.

. , , ,
, (
).
, [19]. 3 4-
,
. ,
.
: " - , "",
?"

...
1. , . ,
.
2.
. ,
( ),
.
3. .
,

276

, , ,
, ,
,
. , ,

.
, , .
4.
50 90 % V-)
.


.
, .
.
, ,
() ().

,
. ,
,
, .
, , .
,
, .

:

, , " ".
. , , ,
, -

.
.
, .
:
;
;
, ,
;
;
;
;
.


. ,
,
[23]. , , ,
, ..
.
.
.

,
, .
, ,
,
,
. -

,
. ,
, .


, -

277

. , "" ,

,
. :
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
[16]. ,
,

.
:
;
;
;
.
, , . ,
.
.
. ,


,
[21].


,

.
. 13.4, -
,
,
[14, 15]. ,
-

30

20

ii
<D
X

I0

-10

-20

-10 1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0

. 13.4. ,

: 1 ;
2 ; 3

, , , , ,
[16].

, .
, , , , , . ,
, .

[14]. .
,
. , , , .
,
. .
. , , .

278


" " , ,
. (,
) . , ( ). ,

.

, -, .
, ,
[17, 18].
,
,
[1].
.
, .
,
, . ,

, .


,
; ,
. ,
. ,
-

. ,
.
, ,
- .
.

. ,
. ,
.
,
.




. ,
,
--
.
,
,
, .

2 10 . ,
. 4,
,
.
,
,
. . ,
,
. , -

279

, ,

.

,
. ,
.

,
, .


, , , . ,
. . . 13.5

, , ,
.
, 10 %, . , .
.



.
. 13.6
1
6 (10 ).


, ,
, .


() . , . 8,
.

. , . ,
[5].
,

75

65
X

80%

55

70%

45

35

-2

1
. 13.5. 10 (1), ,
(2),
. . (1986)

4
6
,

10

. 13.6. 1
(1), (2)
(3).
(1986).

280

. , 3 5
. ,
, .

, , .
,
.
, 1 2
.
1 2
( ) .
_ , ,
(,
, ) . .
,

.
, .

. 13.7. . , , ,
,
.

-
. ( ), ,
. (. 13.7)
"" . [24].

, ,
,
.

...
1.
,
. .
2.
, .
3.
, , .
4. ,
,
:

281

,
;
, ;
, ;

;
-
;

. , , , ,
,
.






. , , .

, . , ,
,

. , 2 .


, , ,
. ,


() . ,
,
10 , -

[10]. ,
. -
-.
,

,
.
, ,
, .
. ,

"" ,
,

.
,

.

.
,
, V0
, " . V0 1.
2 2/3 [11].
, 60 % 15 21
, V0 1, , [4, 13].
. ,

3,1 %, 17,7 24,6 %.
, -

282

[12]. , 81 24 , V0 ,
.
5 % ( ). ,
,

, .
,
, ,
.

...
1. ,
,
,
. .
2. .
3. .

, , , ?

" ". 2 5 ,
, .
?
, ,
. , ,
, . , ,

.
,

,
.
.
. , , , :
;
;
, ;
.


.

.
.
. . ,

, .
,

.

.
4 3- [5].
45 %- , 12- ;
.
, ,
, , 4-
. ,

, ,
4
1 3 .
, 4
8- 13,5 %.

283

, , ,
. ,
" ", " ",
( " " 1).
,
. 13.8, , , ,
. 4-
,
, , . : " "" ".
, , .
, . ,

. ,
, ,
.
,

6 . +4

CD

12
16
0

. 13.8. (1)
(2) 4
. " " ,
" "

, 10 14 .
,
,
.

,
, . . ,

.
.
, ,
, , , ,
. , ,
, - , ..,
.
,
, .
.


.
, , ,
- .
, .

,
. , 1 2 40 60 %. ,
. 13.9, ,
, .
, ,
, , V0
.
,

284

0
10

sO
1*

20
i

*
1

150
*
j

*"~^^^

"*'

I 100

^2
*

>s 50
2

,.

40

50

*""

0
i

. 13.9. (1), (2) (3) 6



, ,
4 . 84 . , 60 % [8]. ,

,
.
,
, 2
.

, . .
,
, ,
. 4
40 % [3]. . 13.10, 4-
, .

.
,
. ,
, ,
200 (183 )

. 13.10. (1) 4 . , , (2)


90 % 5
4-
(. 13.1). , ,
. 4- - .
().
,

,
-, .
()
1 2 .
13.1. ,
(;)
200 ( ) ,
,

285

, *

, -"'

^, -~'
(),

4,2

6,3

7,259

7,237
19,5**

6,8
9,7**
7,236 7,183**
16,1** 16,3**

130,1

130,5

21,1
130,6

130,0

* 0 , 5- ;
1, 2 4 , 1, 2 4
.
** ,
0.


.
- -, . . .

. , . , , , . .

,


, ,
, ,
- . , , .
,
. , , , -
. , ,
, ,
. ,
, .


,
. , .
, . , .
.

,
. - .
, , .
[22]. - 21
. 21
: ; 25 %;
27 %.

V
, , , , ,
, , -

40

286

50

60

. 13.11


20-

. (1968)

, .
, V0 ]
( V)
(. 13.11). ,
()
( ,
) 10 ,

40
. , ,
. ,
,
.
, - , ,
[7].
2 4
9 %,
12 %.
V0 . ,. 5,9 %.
(), ,
.
. 13.2,
- \ '0 ,,
,
.

7

,
. ,
.
3

[9].

, . 3- V

15,5 %. 2 V

.
, ^
VQ ,
? ,
,
. , , [2]. 5
5
.
4 (1, 2, 3 4
), , . , ,
3 ,
- ; ,
1 2 , .

,

*,

13.2

5,177
166

4,692
146**

5,412
164

4,42
9,13

4,16**
8,44

4,28
8,06***

' .
" ( )
( ).
"" ( ).
(1986).

287

,
. , .
2. ,

.


.
3.
2 . :
;
;
- ;
.
4.

.
.
5. , ,
.
6. 3 70 % .


,
.
- . ,

^
70 %
,
2/3 . ,
, ,

.
.,
70 % V
*-.
"I*
,
,
,
[11]. ,
10 ,
1/3 15 V ,
( 80 % V0 ) . 2
(48
) .
, ,
, .

,
, , , 1 2 , .

,
.
,
.
V

...
1.
.

()

()
. , ""

. ,
.
-

:
13 24 %;
25 %;
V 4 %.
15 V
. " , -
9 % ,

288

.
.
,
) ,
* .

,

. , .

. ,

, ( 20 60),
4 .
, -
,
16 .
,
,

.

.

20 60

, .


.

, .
3.

.
4.
, .

,
. ,
() . , .
, ""

- . (), , .
,
,

?
, .

...
1. .
, .
2. ,
, -

19

289


1. ?
?
?
2.


,
?
3. ,
?
4. ?
( )?
5. , ?
6. -
?

14

,
,

, ,
. ,
, , .
, .
, . ,
.
,
, .


. .
,
(, ). .
, , ( ). .
:
;


, ;
, ;

.
,
, .
-


, , . .
, .
, , ,
, .
, , ,
, , . , , . ,
, ,
[19].
, , !
, , , . ,
. , ,
. 14.1 ,
, . .
,
, , .
. 14.2 ,
,
, .

292

14.1. ,

14.2.
,

, . 15. ,
",

" [44].
,

,
-
.

, ,

.


,


,
,

. (1988)

,
,
. -
,
. , .
,
, -

293

, , ,
.

, ,
. , ,
.
[4]. 15 ,
, , .
, , 14- (),
480 460
440

0 420

5 140

1 120

1 140

120

90
70

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4
,


.

8 .
, 4 .
,
10 ( ),
.
.
7-
4- , . ,
, .
!
. 14.1,
10,2 (2 %) 45,1 (10 %)
!
1,5
11,3 , .. 10 ! , ,
.
- .
, ,
, -, ,


.
-, - . ,
6
, .
, ,

. 14.1.
: ;
; 1 ;
2 ; 3 ;
4 " "; 5 .
(1972)

294

,
.

,
,
, . ,
, , ,
.


. (),
,
() () ,

. ,

,

. , - , , - ,
- . . , ,
- . , - . , .
.
,
- .
.
;
;
. -;
,
;
, ;
. ;
. ;
, , .

, ,
, ,
, -
.
. - ,
. (7 ~'), - , " , , " , . , ,
. - .
- - :
, , [45].
, . ,

,
, .


, , - . ,
. - , .
:
,
1. .
.
2. .
3. .
-

295

:
; ( ); ; ;
- . , ,
, [45].

, ,
, .
,
, ,
.
,

, , ,
.

. , ,
.

, , , ,
.

, .
, .
.



,

, . ,

, ,
. ,
.
() 1982 .
" ",
, ,
[1]. :
1. : , , ,
.
2. -

,

, , ,
, , , , , ,
.
.
3. , , , , - .
4. , , . , ,
, , ,

.
5. , ,
, , ,
, ,
.

296

,

, ,
. , ,
. , .
. , -


.
(),
. , ,
-
(. 14.2). ,

.

.
,
.

...
1.

2.
,

1. .
.
2. - .
,
, ,
,
.
3. , .
4. ,
.

3.

,


;

4.

. 14.2. ,

. . ,
.
.

.
" ", , .

. , -

297

. . ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
,

, , ,
. , ,
.

,
, ,
, .
, ,
,
. , , ;
,
;
, ; [28].
? ,


, ()

,
,
, 10
30- , -~2
, -~'
,
, -"1
, -"'

, ,
, ,
, , [14, 28, 42].
. 14.3 [12]. , 15
70 - 2
.
, , , .

, [12].
,
.
.
, , . ,
,
.
.
,

, , , .
.
- .
. , , -, ,

, %

681
1,264

724
1,550

623
1,11
2,89
3,96
427
12 ,3
191

642
1,11
3,00
3,97
446
14,4

195

43

6,3

286

22,6*

19
0

3,0
0,0

0,11
0,01

3,8*

19
1
4

4,4*
8,3*
2,1*

,
. (1980)

298

14.3

,
.
,
.
14.4.

(
)

,
. ,
,

,
.

()

(1989)


.

,
. , ,
.
, , . . 14.4
[42].
-


,
. ,
, , -. : -
-.
- , , , -
.
. --


"" ( "
"), , -
, . - , , .
( ),

. , .
,

. -
. ,
,
.
, , [45]. , -
- . ,
-
. ,
-
,
,
-

.

- .
-. 20- 190 -"1; - 130
-"1. , .
-

299

-. ,

- .
-: -1- -2-.
- , -1
-1-.
-1-
, -1
. -2-
, , , . - ,
, ;
, . - , -,
.
, - :
, ,
;

;
;
, ,
;
, [47].
,
, , .
-
10- [3]. 35,8 , 10
. - 41,0 ( 14,5 % ),

-1- 39,2 ( 0,5 % ).
- , -,
,
( ,
2 ) [45]. , ( ), ( )
(, ,
).

,
-
-. ,

.
.

.
, ,
, - .
, , ,
.

, ,
, ,
[14].
, . , , . . 14.5
.

300

14.5.
*


,
No Doz,
6 ,

6 ,



6
6
6
12 -
12
12 " "
8
2
1

280
200

100 - 200
181
125

30 - 128
65 - 107

70-75
54-75
32-65
54
51
48
45
45

250 .
(1991) -

, ,
, , , .
, ,
. ,
, , .

[4, 13]. ,
. ,
- ,
.
,

, ,
, , , , , .
,
, . ,
. ,
. , , .

,
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
, ,
. , ,

, , , .
, , , , , [15, 29]. ;
- .

.
( - ) , .
, , , , , .
. , [25, 40].
, - .
, , , ,
...
. , 1. , , . , , ,

, , , .
2. ,
. - , ,
[17].
, -, - , , - , .

301

3. , .
.
,
.
4. - -, .
5. -
,
, ,
, ,
.

,
(
).
6. - , , , ,
. . , -
.
7. . ,
, .
8.
, ,
, , , .
9. , , , ,
.

. . , .
,
, ,
. "" ,

.


,
.
, , .
,

,
,
, , . ,
,
- [11, 14, 33, 42].
.
, , , , ,
. , , , .
,
. , ,
, . ,
. , ,
. .
,
.
,
. , , . , , ,
. . ,
. .

302


, .
, , ( ),
..

, , . , .

[48].
,
,
.

, ,
,
,
.
[42].


, .
.
, . , ,
. ,

, .
, .
, . .
, . , .

.
, [45]. ,
.


, . ,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
,
.

[19]. ,
,

. ,
,
.

.
,
.

;
;
;
;
[42].

,
, . , , .

. ,
, . , ,
-

303

.
.
, .
.
. ,
. , .
? .

.
, -
.
,


. . ,
,
, , ,
.
, ,
,
.

.
, ,
, , .
,
. ,
, , .

, .
,

,
. ,

, ,
.

- .

,
.

, , ,
.

.
,
. , . ,
"" .


, ,
. , ; ,
. (
) , .
, ,
,
, ,
, , -

1. .
, , , . , .
2. . ,

, .
3.
,
. ,
.
4. ,

304

, , , .
,
.
5. ,
, .
6. , , . (- ),
, ,
, .
7.
, ,
. ,
.
8. .
, . ,
,
, .
9. .
-,
,
, .
10. - .
,
. ,
.
, .
,
.
,

,

, . 20


.
, , , . ,
, , , . - ,
.


40- 50- .
1950 1980 . . 80-
, ;
- , ,
.
.

.
. ,

.
, , , .

,
(. 6). ()


. .

305


, () .

, .
, . ,
:
;
,
, ;
;
.
.
. 14.3.
[22]. "" . 140 ,
125 .
19,2 , 10 .

[22].
,
( 1 2
) .

. ,
,
,
, . , , , ,

. ,


.


.
,
.

+12

+8

-4

+4 -

.
. -
, ,
.


, . 5 10
. ,
. , . .
. ,

. 7 [27]. , 6 ,
, 6-
.

+16 -

lag

IIlisa PL

i
dT

1
s ilI

. 14.3. , () (). . (1981)

306


. ;
.
1987 .

- [2]. , , ,


. , ,



.
[34, 42].
.
.

.

. ,
, ,

.
,

[2]. , , ,


, .
.
, .
,
,
,
,
. , .
,



, .
20*

,

.
,

. , , . ,
, .

? , ,
, .
.
, , , , , .
, , 80 % , ,
, , ,

, , ,
? ,
. , . ,
, , , . , ( ).
,
.
. ,
,

307

. ,

, , ,
.


. , , , .
, ,
( ).
-
75 % ,

(. 14.4). , .. .
(. 20).
,
.
. ,
. ,
. , , ,
.



, [2, 6,
34, 42, 51]. , ,
,
.
,
.

...
1.
,
() () . .
2.
, ,
.
3. , . .
.
4. . ,
,
, . ,
,
, , - .

. 14.4. - : 1, 2, 3 ; + ;
* .
. (1984)


(), .
1985 . ,
. 80- ,
- .
,
.

308


. ,
.


:
1)
;
2) (),
( );
3) ,
;
4) ;
5) .
,
,
.
,
.
, .


, . .
61 81
. 6- , 12 ,
, 9 %; 14 %;

2 %. (9 )

[38].
.
.
, [50].
12
; ; ;
( ). ,
,
,
, .

, -

,

, , .
. , , ;
. ,
. ,
. . , , .

, .


, .
- ,
. , . ,

( ) 3 5 .
(
).


,

, [39].



, ( ) .

309

. 10

.
3 .


.
.

, , , , , ,
.


.
. .
.

, .
, ,
,
.
,
, , . , , . ,
.
, :
;
;
;
;
;
.

, .

:
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
.

...
1.
,
, (
),
, .
2. . .
(
) .
3. ,
,
, ,
.
4.
.
5.
, , , .
6. -



,
. ,
. ,
, ,
() ,
().

, , ,
, -

310

11


5,8

10

5,6

5,4
5,2
5,0
4,8
s

I"

| 10

5,4

iI-

5,2
5,0

Q.

4,8

4,6

4,4

=7=

. 14.5. .
1 ; 2 ; 324 ; 47 ; 516 ; 616 ; 717 ;
3 7 . . (1980)

,
,
.

. , , , .

70- XX .
[21].
800 1 200 , 4
.
(9 %)
(23 %)
.

, .,
.

,
1980 . . [9]. 11 -


: 1)
; 2)
,
; 3) 50
(); 4) 900

; 5) ,
.
. 14.5,
(
), -
( ).
16 ,
, , 7 .
. . ?
[23, 24].
, , .

311

, 3
4 . , 900 ,

. , , .
. ,
, 5 6, , 10 , ,
.
.
. 5 . , 40 % .
.
, ,
15 % .
,
, , [23, 24]: , , 900 ;
5 6 ;
. ,
,
.
.
,
, ?
. 5 (8 ) 12
.
(), [46]. , 2,5 (4 ). 2,5 (4 )
33 (3,7 %), 51
(2,7 %), .
, 3 (4,8 )
, 23,7
.
" " [25].

0 80

I
1 60

>
i

|40

20

6
8
,

10

12

. 14.6.
11
, .
(1991)

-
. .
14.6 11 .
,


,
, .
-
, ,
, , .
,
, ,
. , , . ,
, . , ,
. , ().
,
, , ,
.

, ,
-

312

, .
, . .
,

.

. ,
.

,
. ""
, , , ,
100 %- , . , ?


, ,
.. ,
.


1991 ., .

[20].
6 10 %; 6 8 %

13- 17%.
15 4 . .
,

. 90-
,
, , .
, . , , .
, .

, ,
, .
,
,


.
.
.


XX .
1932 .
,
. .
.
, ,
, ,
.
, , ,
,
, ,

[7].
1
4 .

, ,

.

.

313

, .
.

,
.

, 2 2
.

.
. ,
, .
, . ,
,
.

-
. , . , ,
,

60 .
2-
. 60- .

,
, . .
14.7. ,
, [49].


, .

.
:

?
,
.
,

,
. ,
.

80

,

,
. ,
,
, .

> S 60

< .

s 40

...

20

. 14.7. 60- , 2 .
(60 100 %) : 1 100% 2; 2 60% 2; 3 ;
4

1.
.
,
, .
2. . ,
, -

314


.
3.
, .
,
.
4. ,
. , , , .
5. .
.
6.
, . ,
.
7. , ,
.

.
8. (2 3 ) -
.

,
. .
. , .

75 % V0 . 1[. , [35].
. : .
.
, .

, .
,


, .
, ,
.

9 , - . ,
,
,
, .

,
( ) ,
.

, , , ,
, . ,

,
.
, , .

.
,

315

.
,
2 ,

2 , +
( , ) .
1990 . ,
[37].
, , ,

.

, 2 .
, , .
,
, ,
[32].
,
1
7 ,
, 1 7 , .

, ,
. 300 -~'

,
. , 300 ~'


1 7 .
, . 14.8.

1 (. 14.8,) [16].
42 %!

+
,
(. 14.8,6), . , +
, . 6 , 1990 .,
,
, . [16, 37].

,


.
, 90

30

80

|24

\
-

21

Jeo

-18
I
a 15
LQ

-7

&50

125 %

40

9
15
21
27
,

125%

9
15
21
27
,

. 14.8. (3~) () (+) (), ,


5
(NaHCO3). 5- . 3
+ , .
. (1984)

316

, ,
-
, ,
. ,
,
1
300 " 5
1 2 [32].

, - [30, 36].

XX .

-

. , .

,
: - ,
,
.
, 2,3 .
.
[42].
- , , ,
.


.
[10, 31, 41], [8,
18]. ,
, .

,
, .

...
1. ,
. ,

, , .
2.
.

.
3.
,
.
4.
, , , . .
5. 300 ~'
1 7
.
6.
- ,
, .
7.
-
.
,
,
, - ,

.
8.

.
-

317

10. ,
? ?
11. ?
12. ?
?
13.
?
14.
, ?
15.
,
?

,
,
.

, , ,
.
, , , .
. , , . ,
. - ; ,

,
.
,
, .

.


1. ", "? ?
2. - , , ?
3.
?
4. ?
?
5. - ,
? ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. :
? ?
9. ? ?


1. American College of Sports Medicine Position Statement.
(1982). The use of alcohol in sports. Medicine and Science in
Sports and Exercise, 14, ix-xi.
2. American College of Sports Medicine Position
Statement. (1987). The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids
in sports. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19,
534 - 539.
3. Anderson R.L., Wilmore J.H., Joyner M.J., Freund
B.J., Hartzell A.A., Todd C.A., Ewy G.A. (1985). Effects
of cardioselective and nonselective beta-adrenergic blockade
on the performance of highly trained runners. American
Journal of Cardiology, 55, 149D 154D.
4. Anselme F., Collomp K., Mercier ., AhmaDdi S.,
Prefaut C. (1992). Caffeine increases maximal anaerobic
power and blood lactate concentration. European Journal
of Applied Physiology, 65, 188 191.
5. Ariel G., Saville W. (1972). Anabolic steroids: The
physiological effects of placebos. Medicine and Science in
Sports and Exercise, 4, 124 126.
6. Bahrke M.S., Yesalis C.E., Wright J.E. (1990).
Psychological and behavioural effects of endogenous testosterone levels and anabolic-androgenic steroids among males:
A review. Sports Medicine, 10, 303 337.
7. Bannister R.G., Cunnigham D.J.C. (1954). The effects
of the respiration and performance during exercise of adding
oxygen to the inspired air. Journal of Physiology, 125, 118
137.
8. Bredle D.L., Stager J.M., Brechue W.F., Farber M.O.
(1988). Phosphate supplimentation, cardiovascular function,
and exercise performance in humans. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 65, 1821 - 1826.
9. Buick F.J., Gledhill N., Froese A.B., Spriet L., Meyers
E.G. (1980). Effect of induced erythrocythemia on aerobic
work capacity. Journal of Applied Physiology, 48, 636
642.
10. Cade R., Conte M., Zauner C., Mars D., Peterson J.,
Lunne D., Hommen N., Packer D. (1984). Effects of
phosphate loading on 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and maximal
oxygen uptake. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,
16. 263 - 268.
11. Cantwell J.D., Rose F.D. (1986). Cocaine and
cardiovascular events. The Physician and Sportsmedicine,
14(11), 77-88.
12. Chandler J.V., Blair S.N. (1980). The effect of
amphetamines on selected physiological components related to
athletics success. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,
12,65-69.
13. Collomp R., AhmaDdi S., Chatard J.C., Audran M.,

318

15


. , ,
,
,
, ,
. ,
. , , ,
, - ""
, .
, , , . ,
, . "" .
, ,
. ,
. , ,
,

""
.
1970 .
, ,
,
.
2 , .
: 50 % , 35 %
15 % . 2 -

32 (20 ),
.

, . ? ,

.
?
. ( , 10- ) () (),

.
, , .

. , .
12 000 /. ,

, , ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
,
, ,
.

321


, ,
55 60 %;
30 % ( 10 % );
10 15 %.

, ,
,
. .


.

:
,
;
;
;
.
, , , . ,
.
, , , .



,
,
, . 6 , .
1. .
2. ().
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .

-, - .
(, ),
. (, ) . , ( ) . .
, , , . , ,
, . -



,
,
. , ,
, .
. 15.1, ,
(40 % ),
. , (70 % ),

22 . , .
,
,
( 55 % ), -

_ 120

100

80

5 60
40
20

,.

I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1
12

24

36
,

48

322

60

72

. 15.1



:
]
; 2-
.

(1980)

200

150

1100

V
Q.

50

-th

50
100
150
200
1
, -'

. 15.2.
:
] ; 2 ; 3

100 1
. , 15 %

53 -"1 , , (60 70 %), 205 -"1.
75 %

(. 15.2).

.

50 % .
,
, ,
55 65 %


.
, .
. ,
12 24 (, ..),
.
"" ,
,
. , ,

,
. , , .
, -,
.
,
,
, , , ,

. , , ,
48 , . ,
, , , , .


, . , (
), , ,
.
6 12 , "" , 21*

() ,
, , .

.
.
"" ,
. , , ( ) , -

323

.
, , , ,

. .
. ,
,
.
, , ,
, .
,

. , , .
, .


, ,
, (. 15.3).
,

. ,
.
,
. , ( 1 ), ,
5 ; 2 (
),
.

15 45
, . . 15.4,
,
. , .
, 1545
.
-


,

.
, ,
, 1 ,
""
.
, ,
3 , ,

[1]. ,
75 % . , " ", ,

.
.
()
, .

1 4 [13].
-

11000

10000

9000

. 8000

30

60

90

120

. 15.3. (1) (2)


2 . 90- 120- ,

324

120
110

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
-30

30
,

60

90

. 15.4.
.
45
: 1
; 2 .
. (1977)

?

, , .

,

.

,
.


, .
,
:
;
,
70 %
;
"" ;

;
;
.
, .

.
() ()
; .
, , .

.
, , ,
. ,
, . ,
.
,
. .

, ,
,
.
:
, , . ,

. .
,
, ,
- ( 20), -

325



(, 1992)
86 %
81 %
66 %
48 %
48 %
40 %
32 %
28 %
26 %
19 %
18 %
15 %


, ,
, ,
.
30 % ,
, , .
. . 15.1
. ,
8,15 ,
3,3 % .
, 30 %
, 3,3 %
, .
5, 1
1
9 . 8,15 9 " , , , , 73,4 . :
?
(73,4 : 244),
48,9 %, 30 %!

14 %
13 %
11 %
10 %
6 %

, .
.
35 45 % . XX .
30 % , , 10 %.

. , (
)
. ,
, , , . , ,
,
. ,
. , , .
, , .


, , , ,
. .


35 45 % , (30 %), ,


,
. , , ,
. 30 %,
, 3
/100 ,
3 /100 9 "1 =
= 27 /100
= 27 % .


2 %-
1 %-

244
244
244
245

HjO,
%

88
89
90
91

150
121
102
86

8,15
4,78
2,54
0,44

3,3
2,0
1,0
0,2

73,4
43,0
22,9

48,9
35,6
22,4

4,0

4,6

326

15.1


.
, , , 1
.
- . ( 14),
. , , , .

,
, .
:
;
, "" ;
, ;
;

;.
.

22 (. 15.2). 11 12
,
. 8
9 -

, , .

, ,
.
,
,
. , , , .
, , ,
. ,
.


5 15 % .
, 2 3
.
. 15.3.
. , , , , , ,
.
0,8 / .
15.3.


()*

' ,
,
.

45
58 63

*,

46
44 50

*,

*
1989 .,
.

15.2.

, , ? " " , .

. ,
. ,
,
.
? , -

327

[17].
,
5 000 /
().
? ,
,
,
, .
, , , ,
, , 0,8 2,4
1
- ,
, ,
, [21].
.

2 .
,
, 0,8 -"1 , . 2,4 .
(1,4 2,8 ~'
) [8].
.
, , , 1,6 -"1 [20].
.
,
, ,
,
, 0,9 -"1 .
,
.

,

. 12 15 % , .

...
1. . -,

- . ,
.
2. , .. ,
,
.
3.
, ,
.
, , .

. .
4. ,

, ,
.

,
, .
5. . , .
.
. , .
6. ,
-, , ,
.

.

,
.
.
.
.
, "" , .
: . A, D,
;

(). ,
. -
. -

328

15.4.

[()
>-()
1

()

, ; , , ,


,
,

,
, , ,

800
1000

Bj ()

, ,

- ( ),

1,1

1,5

82 ()

, ,
,

--
(),

,
,

1,3

1,7

(
BjKOMiuieKca)

, , , ,

,

,

4 7

83 ()

, , , ,
, ,
,

,
--- ,
(),

15

19

Bg ()

, , , ,

,
,

1,6

,
(),


( )

180

200

2,0

^)

,
, ,

( )

, ,

60

D (,
)

,
, ; D,

, ;
;

10

(-)

,

, , ,

329

10

. 15.4

()
-()

(),



()

, , ,

, ,
,
, ,

,
,
,

,
0,3 - 1,0

65 80

. , 1989 .
.


.
,
. . 15.4
, , , , .

:

,
;
D
, , . ,

- ;
"" ,
.
-, , .
.
-
- . -.

.

,

. . , ()

-. 2 () , . 3 () .
,2
, .
- ,
.
.
,
-
.
,
-
[3, 6]. -, , .
.

( )
"" ,
, ,

, . ,
. , , . : , ,
, ( ) .

330

,
, .
.
,
, .
,
,
.

.
. ,
, . . ""
( ), , .
, .
"" ,
, , , , , .
,
. , ,
, 400
, .
, ,
,

. , ,

.


.
4 % . . , , .

. , -

()
, .
,
100 . , . . 15.5 17 , , .

, . ,
.
.

, 40 % .
,
. , ,
,
. . 2,

.
-, .

. , .
,
, ,
.
, , ,

.

.
22 %.
80 %
( ), . , ( ).

331

15.5.

,
, ,

- ;

,

12;

;

;

;

;
;

; ,


;
;

1200


50 200

1,5 - 3,0

1,5 - 4,0

150

,
,


,

10
15
280
350
2,5 - 5,0

75 - 250
1200

,
;

, , ,

,
;

55
70
,
,
2500

12
15

, 1989 . .

5, , .

(35 50
/. ).
: ,
. ,
,

. , ,
.

. , 25 %
. ,
, , , . , ..
-

332

, . , ,
, , , , .

.
11 100
. 22 %
17 44 ,
. , 22 25 %
10 % .
, -, .
.
31 % ,
[23].
,
, . , , .

,
, .
, . . , ,
(. 3). ,
, , -
() .

, . ,

.
, , , .

. , ! ,
, .

...

1.
. . -

, ,
.
2. A, D, . . - . ,
. - .
3. 100 . , , .
4.
,
, , . , .
, .
5. , -,
.
, , .

,
. .
60 % , 50 %.
40 % ,
, 9 12 %
.

912%


. 15.5. 6065 %
. . . .
, ,
, .

:

, ;
, ;

333

, , - .

= 70

60 % =
( 42 )


. ,
. ,
, .


' +
( 42 )

:
2/3 2
( 28 )

:
1/3 20
, ,

( 14 )

. 15.5.

2 , , , ;
,
,

;
,
;
, ;
.
, , - .

.

...
1. .
,
.
2. ( ) ( ) . , , .
3. :
,

, .. . 60 %
, 30 % . 10 %
( 5 , ).
150 250
: ,
. ( ) 33 -"1 . 70 (154 ) 2,31 .
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
.
,
. ,
, , , .

.
. 30 % .

(60 %) ,
. 50 60 .
5 % ( ) 5 %
. . 15.6
.

334

. 15.6


(60%)

' *,- ' .-; '



{30 %)

(30%)

.
,
,

(. 15.6). ,
. . , , ,
, . 1
70 245 .
146 .

1500 , .. 10 .
, ,
.


. ,
, , ,
. ,

.
15.6.


-~'

500 2 3


,
.
.
,

14,6
14,6

15
15

4,2

5
60
5

58,3

4,2
95,9 -~'

'"'

15
100
1200

7,5

10

0,8
0

1,1
90,6

1325 -"

. , , ,
. ,
, ,

335

100

6 10 %,

0)
OQ

95

90

I80
I75

. 2 3 (

11).

03

70

1
2
3
4
, %





, .
.

[1, 7].
,
2 % 1 %
. , 10 000 35 , 2 48 (
8 % ) 4 %.
-
. . , , , .
.
, . ,
2 % ,

. 4 5 % , 20 30 %,
. 15.7.
. , ,

,

85

. 15.7.
.
(1988)

.
, ,
(, ). ,
,
,
.
,
. . 15.7.
,
,
.
15.7. ()

336



,
. ,
.
.
, , ,
. .

...
1. .
2. .
, , .
. , , .
3. , .
4.
, , , . ,
,
.
5. 2 %
,
.
.

,
: ^, , , ,
.
,
. 99 % .
. . 15.8,
1/3
5 , . , .. (, 22.

) .
.
,
.
, , , ,

, .
4,1
(9 ), 5,8 %. , 5 7 %.
, , 1 %.
.
15.8.
,
2-

, - '

-"'

40-60
140

30-50
101

4-6
4

1,5-5,0
1,5

80-185
295

162

31

295


.
, . +, ,

. . ,
, .


-

337

,
.

.
, .
. . ,
.

-. , , 250 (NaCl),
, .
, . , , .
,

.
, ,

.

,
,
.
.
48 72 .

...
1.
,
, 99 % .
2.
.
.
3. ,
,
.
4. Na+ 1~,
. ,
, .

, . , .
,
. ?

. . . ,
.

.
.
,
. 24 48 ,
.
, 10 %

, .
, ,
.



,

.



,
,
.
,
- .
. 15.8,
( )

338

180
170
160

:iso
o"
^140
130
120

3
4
,

. 15.8. , (1),
(2) (3)

(40) . 6- .
,
,
. ( )
,
, .

, ,
? , .
136 143 -"1. : , , .
?
,
, .
3 5 ,
22*

2 3 , , . , 25 40 ,
,
.
30 % , 3 4
8 [9].
,

( 42 , 26,2
). 1983 . ,
160 (100 ), ,
140 ()
1
123 118 -" [15]. , .
,
, , .
, ., ,
7
6
( 3,9 -~') [2].

,
, , .
, , 25 -"1, "", ,

. .

...
1.
.
2. ,
, .
3.

- .
4. ,
, -

339

( ),
, .

.
.
. ,
,
.
.
15.9. 22

, - '
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
A, ME
BL
2,
,
12,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,


.
)

3 012

(2 000)

375

(250)

112
42
64
122
377
7
10,814
1,9
2,5
2,2
3,8
230
27,3
5,3
205
5,2
25
4,3
1 300
400
200
2 600

(70)
(26)
(54)
(66-100)
(300)
(3-6)
5000
1,5
1,7
2,0
2,0
200
19,0
4-7
60
10
15

1,200
350
800-1 200
(2 500)*

.

,
. , ,
, .
. .

, .

(. 15.9). 22
(11 ) ,
.

.
, ,
,
.
,
. 50 % , 36 % 14 % .
, .
. 50 % ,

( 65,8 , 145 ),
,
.
.
, , . .
[2.
.

. , , 13,7 (8,5 )
3,7 (2,3 ). "" , 3 012 3 730 .
5 000 /,
,
. , 2 526 /,
3 "730 /.
1 204
(0,45) (1
3 500 ). , , ,
, , ""
.
, , , . , ,
.

340



,
. ,
. - , .
? ! ,
, , ,
2, D, , , .
. . . ,
.
,


. , ,
, ""
, , , . , , ,
, . , ,
. , "" .
( ) . ,
?
,
, , ,
. 200

250
, , . , ,
, . 2 . ,
.
, , , ,
, . , . 1 . ,
.

,
.

, -
,
.
, ,

, .
.
, 60- ,
[1] . ,
,

7 . 3 ,
, , .
, .
, . .

6 ,


.
,
. -

341

3 . ,
.

,
. , 7


,
. .

, , .
,
55 % , ,
3 .
3
, 10 15- , . (. 15.9),
200 -"1
, .. , ,
.


.

L 225

1 175

350
I

S125

3
I 75

15

25

. 15.9.
: 1,2 ; 3 ;
4 .
(1979), . (1981)

, 24 ,
. 1 55 %. ,


. , ,
. , ,
, .
2,6 . ,
1 3
(0,45 1,36 ).
,
.

,
.
, , , .
2 70 % , , ,
.
, , , , ,
(. 15.10) [4, 24]. , 80- ,
,
50 ( 0,7 --1 ) 2 [5, 19].
. 2

7 8 % (7 7 -~'
), 5 6 %
[18]. , ,
, .

342

200

20

1 1 150

15

0
!_ 100

10

, , , () [10].
S

15.10.

If

50

S
(0

- 1
3
5
7

. 15.10. ;

:
1 ; 2

,
, .
, -
. "" ?


, , , , ,
.
.
( ).
, , . . 15.10,
; ;
; .
,

? ,

.

?
.

( 70
80 % )
. 1833 . ,
.
,
( 2 3 , 3,2
4,8 )
. ,
, . . , ,
,
, ,
, . ?
,
.
70 80 % , [11, 22]. , ,

- , -

343

.
120
,
.

,
15 120 .
,
. . ,
;
[10].
, -
.

, . , , (
).
, , .
,
, ,
2 (3,2 ) . ,
,
. ,
, .

(2- )
[11]. , .
,
( 2 ) , .
, ,
80 % .

,
. , ,

38 % , [22].
, [10].
20 120 ,
[10].

, ,
20-
-

, .
,
, 5
7 . ,
.
,
.
.
,

. , .
6
[16]: 2 ; 1,5
; 5,5 - ( ). 60 %

, 20 % 15 % .
.
? , .
. , 75 % , , -

344

[14].
,
.

- , ,
, . .
( ), -,

. , .
, , ,
.

, .
- , ( ) .
,
, . , Na+, +
.
,
[14, 16].

,
, "" ,
. ,

. ,
.
. ,

,
.
,

?
, . , , ( 5 100 )
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
200 -"1
.
, ,
. , , ,
. , , .

,
[11, 12, 14]. , , , .
,
. . 15.11, . , 400
(139 -"1)
20 , (834 -"1) 2 .
, ,
.
. 15.11,
, ,
.

345

, 11 100 . , , .
, ""
,
.

20

CD

X
0)

139
278
556
834
, -~'
. 15.11.

,
2,5 100 ,
. ,
.
200
15 ,
20 "1.
,
50 "1.
6 8 100 .
, , 625 833
,
.

270
1
450 -" . -

, -"
, -~'
, -~'
, 100


. , ,
.
, ,
.
, ,

.
,
,
, .

, . ,
.
.

, .

, , . ,
. , ,
, ,

5 /100

10 /100

23
0,7
0,1
0,0
4,76

87
7,9
4,11
0,0
2,05
32

266
1,5
0,11
5,0
3,50
-

245
18,6
5,21
3,3
2,29
52

532
1,9
0,10
10,0
3,46
-

434
14,5
3,63
6,5
2,40
65

346

15.11


20

.
,

60 .
50
.

.
, ?

.
,
. 4 8 100
.
100 150 1015 , . , ,
.
, .
, ,

.


.
6. - ,
-
. ;
, , .

...
6
.
.

. , .
,
. , , .


...
1. .
2. .
"" ,
.
.
3. . , , ,
, , . .
4. ,
.
.
5. , . -

1. 6 ?
2.
, ?
3.
? ?
4.
- .
5. ?
6. ?
?
7.
?
8. ?
9. ( ).
10.

3 4 .
.
, .
12. ?

347

16


, . , .
.

, ,
, "" , "
". , , , . . , , ,
""
,
. ""
, ..,
.

, .
,
.
, , "" , .
, , .


.
,
. 5 , 100

(152 , 45 )
6 9 , 325 (206 , 147 ). ,
. , , , .

, .
, .
.
,


, .
, .
. ,
, ,
. , , , 218 82
,
. - , ,
, [5].
.
, , , . .

351

^
^ %

. 16.1

:
1 ,
2 - ;
3
;
4 .

(1992)

, . , 6 3 (190,5 )
.
230 (104 ) , .
.
. 16.1 .
;
, . .
, ,
, ,
.. , [8].
, . , (
) .
.
, .. , . , .

...
1.
: , .
2. .
3. .
: .

, , ,


. , 6 3
(190,5 ), 200 (91 ),
? , 10
( 5 ) 200
(91 ) , 190
(86 ) ,
.
5 % ,
. , .
,
,
. ,
(200 , 91 ) 50 (23 ) , 25 % . ,

.
. ,

, .
,

,
.
,

352


, .
, ,
,

.
, , , . , , ,

1942 .,
[21].
25 17 - .
17 "" 11
. "" , .
9,3 %.
,
. ?


. (D) :
D = :
. ,
,
. , -

, ,
, .

. , - ,
, ( 100 ) . ,
, ( 1500 1200 ) .
. 16.2 ,
. . 16.1
.
,
, . 10 %, 1 ( 0,5 ), 20
(8,7 ).


. , ,
.
.

,
. [12].
.


:
% = (495 : >) - 450.
-

16.1


23




10 %

188 (74 )
93 (205 )
6,5
86,5
1,075 "
10,5%
9,7 (21,4 )
83,3 (183,6 )
92,6 (204,2 )
0,4 (0,8 )

188 (74 )
93 (205 )
5,0
88,0
1,057 "1
18,4%
17,1 (37,7 )
75,9 (167,3 )
84,3 (185,9 )
8,7 (19,1 )

: = - ; :

353

. 16.2

'
,


. ,

. 0,9007 ~3.
(/)), , , 1,1.
, : 1) , ,
; 2)
(, ,
17 % ).



, .
, .
. 16.2,

[22].
1,06, ,
,

, 17 %.
, Z>HMT 1,1.


21,8 %(,0 = 1,115) 11,5%(/> =
= 1,085) . ,

11,5 21,8 %.
,

1,1 ~3.
, -

1,065
1,350
1,030

46
17
37

4,

0,490
0,229

1,065
1,350
1,030

41
22
37

0,381
1,100

0,437
0,297
0,381
1,115

1,065
1,260
1,030

46
17
37

0,490
0,214
0,381
1,085

. Z>r ; % ;
Da ( D^ %(100)); Dioa ,
.

354

16.2

1,10



.
,

1,09
1,08
I 1,07

g 1,06

[10, 16]. -
, 11-
. D4m,

, (1,115)
(1,085)
.
.
,
[10].

|S 1,05

8
|1,04

1,03
1,02
1,01
"30

60

90 120 150 180 210 240 270


,

. 16.3. .
()
() .
(1978)



. , , , (
), .

.
,
.
[3, 11].

, , ,
,
. ,
,


.
, ,
. , .

, . , ,

.

[14].
, . 23*

, . ,
, . 16.3.

0,90 0,96.

80-
. , 5 . , ,

355

. 16.4.

(. 16.4). ( )
( ). .
.

. , .
, ..
. ,
, .
, , , .
,
,
, (= 0,90 0,94).


, , . , .


,
.
,
.
, ,
. , .
.
,
. , , .

...
1.
,
.
2.
, .
, , .
.
3. 1,1 ~3 ;
,
, .
4.
,
. ,

.

356

,
, .
. ,
.

, , , .
16.3.


,

.
,
, , .
- , ,
, ,
.
, .
, , ,
.
, ,
,
,

. ,
,
.



. ,
,
. ,
, . ,
, ( , ).

.
,
[15] ,
(. 16.3).

75 ,
220 ,

, *



2

(< 10 %)

(10 - 15 %)

(> 15 %)

9,8
29,3

10,1
31,6

10,7
35,0

23,8

22,7

20,2

43,4

41,6

36,2

' . . (1958).

,
,
, , . ,
.
, ,
. , , ,
,
[23].
, ,

15 , [13].


, .
, ,
,


, 12-
[6]. ,
, -

357

170

.
. ,
. ,

.
-,
. 284
1 2 1 7 [19]. "" ,
100 , ,
. ,
,
, .

"
*

8 60
Q.

g 50
0)

\
40

2
5 30

s
" 4
6
8
10
12
14
16
,

161

70
5
3

188 215 241 268 295


1
, -~

322~

"
"

60

...

" 50
vo

40

1.
. , , ,
.
2.
, ,
,
, .
3. ,
. , , .
-, , , .

30

" 4
6
8
10
12
14
16
,

161

188 215 241 268 _295


, -"1

322

. 16.5. ( ), ,
- (

(. 16.5).
""
, . ,

, .
, , -, , ,
-



.
""
-, , .
,
40- 50-

358

,

.
1 .
.


.

, . .
70- [23]. , . . 16.6.

12 %.
6 %.
, .

, ,

6 12 %.
40 -

30



. ,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
, . . ,
,
,
5 %.
,
,
, ,
. , , ,
, .

. .

17 %.
, 37 %, 6
50 !

12 %,
.

.
10 15

,
. , .

" ": ,

6 %

10

20
30

40

50

. 16.6.
:
1 ; 2
; 3
; 4 .
. (1977)

-
,
.
""
. , ,
. 1986 . ,
63 , 15 -

359

[20].
10,9 . 13,5
;
15 . 15,8
(7,2 ).
9,7
(4,4 ). , ,
, .

. 16.4.
, ,

1976 .
" " [1].
, ..
,

.
, . ,
.

.
16.4. ,







(1984).

"
"

"
"

, . ,
,
-
, , ,
,
.
- .
2 4 %

.
, 15, :

;

;
;
.


. ,
. , . .

,
( 13).

. ,
. , .
,
[2, 9].

. .
. , 2 000 .
( ) . , ,

360

,
. [18]. ,

, [4].

,
, .
. ,
.

, , ,
. , , . . , .
, , .

. 90 % , , . , ,
, , ,
, , . , , , , 50 %. ,
.
19
.
,
.
,

, , -, , , .

, . (
), ( ) ( ),
,
. ,
,
.
[17].

. .

(. 19) ,
, .


[7].
1984 .
, ,
.
, ,
, [7].
.


,

361

16.6.
,
, %

. .
.
,

. , 160 (72,5 ) 25 %
18 % (. 16.5).
18 % 82 % . ,
18 %, 82 %, .. , . (120 , 54,4 , 0,82),
146 (66,3
). , 14 (6,4 ).

16.5.

160

25%

40 (160 0,25)

120 (160 - 40

)
%
18 % (= 82 % )

146 (= 120 /0,82)

14

,

.
, ?
,
,
.
,
,
. , ,
. 16.6.

.
,
, .
,

8 - 14.,
6-12
5-8
6-12
5-11
8-12
6-18
10- 16
5-12
6-12
8-16
5-12

6-14
6-14
6-16
5-12
7-15
7-15
6-14
6-12

6-14

12- 18
10- 16

6-12
10- 16
8-15
10- 16

12-20
8-16
10- 16
12- 18
8-16
8-15
10- 18
8-16

8-16
10- 18
10- 18
10- 18
10- 18
10- 18
10-20

5-12
8-18
5- 12
7-15
5-12
5-16

8-15
12-20
8-15
10- 18
10- 18

.
( )

1 3 %. ,


.
.
6- .
, ,
,

362

.


,

.
, , , .

...
1. , ,

. ,
,
, "" .
2.
, , , , .
3. ,

, , .
.
4. , , ,
.
5. , ,
.



,
, , . 25- , , 20 (9 ),

4 .
,
500
.
, 9 12 .
?


,
5 (
2 ), , ,
6 8 ( 3 ) .
. ,

, ,
.
20 4
.
. ,
(500
)
,
60 % 40 % .
,
.
, , .
.

3 . 800 , , 2 400 ,
5 ( 2,4 ).
,
.
,
, .

.
. 16.7 , , 30 . . .
. 2 3-
.
4 ( 2 )
.
. (

363

.

, , ,
.

2000 -

. 16.7. 30 :
1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4
) 3500 ,
,
1 (0,45 ), 3500
.
25 000
/. 25 000 /. ,
0,7 (0,3 ) (25 000 3500 , 7716 ). , ,
20 25 %.
20 % 2 000
, 0,6 ( 0,3
) . 4 ( 2 )!
, .
, . ,
, -

. .

100 / ( ),
10 ( 4,5 ). "" 0,25 0,5
(0,1 0,2 ) ,
(,
),
23 36 ( 10
16),
!
,
, 1 2
( 1 ) . ,
. ,
. 1 ( 0,5 ) , .
-
, .
200
500 /
1 ( 0,5 ) ,
. ,

. .
, , , , ""
. ,
, ,
, ,
1 2 , , ,
.

364

, .
, .
. .
.
.
,
.
, ( ) ,
.
, , , 1 2
( 1 ) , . 200 500


, , . , .
,
.

.
4.
1 2 ( 0,5
1,0 ) , .
1
( 0,45 )
.
.

200 500 / .
5.

.
, .

...
.

. ,
, , , ,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
( ) .
.
17 .

...

1. "" ( ) ,
, .
2.
,
. ,
.
,
.
3. -

1. , .
2. ?
3. ?
?
?
4. ? ?
5.
?
6.

365

17


.
"", " ",
,
" ". , , , ,
.
.
? ,
?
. , .
.
, , ,

.

. , . ,
. , ,

,
.
;
;
.

24,



.
.

. , ,
.
: , , .

.


, . .

, , , .
.
, .
. 17,1,,
. 2
50 % . ; , .

, -

369

30

2 2,5 ,

.
, , () .
. 14 22

. .

20
"

10 12

14

8 10 12 14
.

16

18

20

16

18

20

. 17.1. ()
() : 1 ;
2

16,5 () 18,0 ().



12,0 , 14,0
. . 17.1,6 . , 12- ,
14,5 .

, ,
.
, , "" . . -

. , .
, , (. 17.2).
, ,
.
,
.

(), ( ) (, ). , .

, . . ,
, , "" .
.

. . . , .

.

, . , .
, ,
.

370

. 17.2

(
)

,
. 17- , () 20. 2 3 . , , ; , 10- 20 .

.

. ,
, . , . . ,
.
, ,
. .

. , 24*

. . ,
.
.
, ,

.

, , ,
.
,

, , ,
. -

371

.
() .
, , ,

. ,
.
, 23 %
.
[13].
( ) , .
"" , . 12-
80 -~', 129 -"1. ,
,
(. 17.3).

.
, 1965 . ,
80
() 162 [1].
,
, ,
.
.
1 338
. 28 % 15 [14].


6 %. ,
, .
,
, .
, , .
( ) ( ).
" " . , ,
.

...
1. . 50 % .
.
2. 12,0 , 14,0 . , , 16,5 , 18,0 .
3. , .
12,0 , 14,5 .
4. , () () .
5.
.
6.
,
. .

. 17.3.

.

25 % 40 %
, 372


.

. ( 10 ) .

, .
(. 19).

( )
( ) (
).
. (
) .
1620 , 1825 ,

, .

.
!
,
, .
, .
. , " "

10 12 %
. 15 %
25 % . . ,
, . . 17.4
,
(
18

..4


.
.
, .
, ,
.
, [4]. ,


, -

s 12

i
18

8
10 12 14
,

16

18

20

. 17.4.
218: 1 , ; 2 , ;
3 , ;
4 , .

373

,
.

, , , ,
- ,
, , .

80

70
60

2 50

5 40

30

...
10

11

13

15

17 19 21 23 25 27 29
,

. 17.5.
828:
1 ; 2 . (1972)

)
.
. . 17.5

8 28 . ,
,
.


, , .
. (. 3).
, .
,
, ,
( ) .

1.
.
2. ,
.

.
3.
, , .
4. 16 20 , 1 8 2 5 ,
.
5. .
6. , .
7.

15 %, 25 %.
.
8.
, .
9. ,
.




. -

. 17.6, , , 18 ,

. ,

374

30

15
4

26

422

of

1 11

I18

.
m12

14

13

10

14

6
<6

10 12 14 16 18

<6

10 12 14 16 18

S38

22

10 12 14 16 18

<6 8

10 12 14 16 18

4'6'
4'0'
'1
''

9,5

6,5

10,0

7,0

28

10,5

7,5

29

11,0

8,0

30

| 11,5

8,5

I31
1 32

33

12,0

9,0

12,5

9,5

13,0

10,0

35

13,5

10,5

36

14,0

11,0

<6

10 12 14 16 18
.

10 12 14 16 18

its'O'

26

<6 8

|'0'
.-,_,
56

34

<6

10 12 14 16 18

8'0'
7'6'
7'0'
6'6'

10
9
8

S7

<6

34

<6

10 12 14 16 18
.

<6

10 12 14 16 18
.

. 17.6. 6 17 (1 , 2 ):
; , ; 1 ; ;
; ;
( ); 50 ; 2 .
(1985)

, - , .
, , -

. ,

.

375

12 ( ).
.

, , .
, -, .
,
,
. . ,
. ,
,
.

...
1. 18 ;
, , ,
,
, .
2.
.
3.
,
( ) .

, . 20 ,
20 30 . , , ,
.
,
[5]. ,
. ,
.
. 17.7
, . 7- 18- [6].
1600
1400

11200
&
" 1000

I 800
* 600


. ,
. ,
,
( VE ' VE ^ ; . , V- ^ 4 6- 40 - , 140 -~'.
,
,
, , .
.

400

200
10

12
14
,

16

18

20

. 17.7. , 12 .
12 16 .
(1971)

.
, .

376


, , . ,
. :
, , .

, . .
, .

,
, .
(,
) , ,
.


. ,
.
,

. ,
. - ( 2),
. 2, , :
.
. 17.8. 8- .
18

200
180

160

14
.

140

VO

s**

IS.

8 120

10

100
80
0,5

16

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

0,5

120

15

110

14

.100

!90

2,0

2,5

S 12

s 80

9s

i11

70

10

g 60

0,5

1,5

13

>S

50

1,0

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

0,5

,-~

1,0
1,5
2,0
,-~

2,5

. 17.8. (), (), ()


() 8- (1) (2)

377

...


, , . 10
210 -~',
20-
195 -^1. , . , ,
0,5 -~' . ,
.


,
, . ,
,
.
, ,
, ,

( )

. ,
,
. , (, 100 )
. ,

, . , , 25 (55 ) ( )
,
90 (200 ),

.

1.
.
2.
.
3. . ,

, .
4. ,
.
.
5. ,
,
. 2
.
,
, .

-
. ,

() . 1938 . ,
6 91 [19]. ,
17 21 ,
. .
,
, 12 15 (. 19), , "" .
,
-" 1 , 17.9,.
(-^-" 1 )
(. 17.9,6). 6
.
613 . 13

378

60

i 50
2
;

N
40

11

13

15

17

19

30,

11

13

15

17

19

. 17.9. . -~' ()
-~'-~' (): 1 ; 2

.

-
, .
,
, - , , F0 /.
-, ,
,
,
. 14-
1 (1,6 ), 5- ,
, , , [21]. -,
, , , . -,
.
,

[22].

...
1. - .

2. , - ', 1 7 2 1 , 1 2 1 5 .
3.
, 6 25 ,
13 . , . ,
,
.
(),

, 1

,
. ,
, .

1

4. (-" )
, ,
, ,
.
5. , ,
, ,
, ,

.

379



? , , ,
. , , ,
, , , ,
, .

, , . , .

(
), . ,
,
.
,
,
[7, 12].
, ,
,

[21]:
;
;
- ;

;
;
;
;
;
.

8 2 0 ,
.



.

,
,

. , . ,
, ,
.
, ,




. 1,10,
1,00, ,
, 1,10 1,15.
,
2, , ,
.
, (30- ),
, .
. 17.10, 306 ,
[10].

30- . 5-
. , ,
(-"1).
-Op 9 1 6 ; 18
,
100 %- [2]. , ,
. 17.11.
, ,
.
; .

380

750

750

650-

650

|{> 550

550

|
| 450

450

350
5

150
t
10

50

/11

QQ

250

250
.

150
20

30

40

50

10

20

30

50

40

10 -

10

..** **..
-.. .*
* 4

/V "

'

|
2

()

i
10

i
20

i
30

i
40

i
50

2
"0

.//""

10

20

30

40

50

,
. 17.10. ,
(, ) -~' (, ): 1 ; 2
; 3 -'1; 4 -~!. - (1986)

...

. , -

1. . , ,
.
2.
,
.
3. ,
.

L2
* <

110

II

100

fi
8

10

,
, .
, -

12
14
,

16

. 17.11. (1) (3)


(2) (4) 9 16 .
- (1983)

381

[3]. .
,
, ,

. .


. ,
,
, . ,
.
, ,
, ,
. : ,

[3].

...
1. , , .
2.
( ).
3.
,
. .
4.
,
.
5. ,
,
.



, ,
.
. ,
? , .
, ,
. ,
, ,
.




.
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
, , .
. . ,
. ,
,
, .
[11].
,
80- , , .
, -

382

, 9-
.
25 30 .
42,9 % 9,5 % . 16 6 1 1
14- ,

, 10 [25].
18 37 %,

.
. ,
6 , . ,
.

33 , . 9
,
.

[17]. , , , .
,
.
? ,
, , , :

-
[23]. ,
, ,
,
, , [18]:
;
;
.


.
,
,



. 17.12. , , : 1 (); 2 ; 3 ;
4 ; 5
. (1993)

[11]; . 17.12. ,
, - . ,
- .
, , , .
(. 17.1)
1985 . , 8 : ,
, , , ,
,

. ,

(. 17.2
[11]).
[9, 11, 23].
, . , -

383


.

.

17.2.

, -

17.1.

1. .
2.
.
3. , .
.
4. , .

8 10


1. "" .
2.
, .
3.
,
,
, .
4. ,

.
5.
.
6.
.
7. .
8. .
9.
.

11 13

14 15

16

( )
;
;
;
;
.
;
; ; ; ;
.
;
; ; .

;
; ; .

.

:
, ,
()
,
..
(1992).

1.
2 3 20 30 .
2. () . 6 1 5
; 1 3
.
3.
1 3 ,
15 .


- ?
, -

[20]. ,
. .
,
,
. .

. ,
,
-

384

, , .
. [2, 8]:
,
;
;
.
10
14- , [15].



,
. , [16].
, .
, ,

;
. , , ,

.
,

.
,
. ( ) . :
" , -, ,
.
,
, " [16].

2. .
, .
3.
;
;

.

.
4. , , , .
.
5.
.
6.
;
;
.
7. .

...


. ,

.
, . ,
. .
?

.

...

1. , ?
2.
?
3. ?

1. , ,
, , .
25,

385

18

20
, .
"" , , , ,
. ,
. ,
, .

,
40 50 .
, ,
?

?
?
.
, , , ,
, .
, , .

. ,
. . 18.1, 28
29 ( 46 ) , 2 4 (-

3 6 ) [14].
.

.

(), .
,
.
, ,
, ""
.
,
? , , , , -, ,
.

388

45

|
m

15

10

14

20
24
28
,

32

36

. 18.1.
: 1 ; 2 ;
3 . . (1985)

18.1. , 20 50



, ,
.
,



.
?

50
100
200
400
1 500

,
. . 18.2, 100 10 1 % , 25 60.

50

27,2
62,7
147,8
318,8
1 403,0

26,5
60,3
137,7
288,9
1 227,0

2,6
3,8
6,8
9,4
12,5

60
2 % . ( ) 560 30
70 8,5 % 10 [23].
, .

, . . 18.3,
100 1 %
25 75 .
, ,

16

20

.
SO , ,
18 21
. ,
20 1 500 ,
50 2 500 .
, .


, , ,
30 . ,
-, ,
. ,
,
. ,
.

, %

70

15

I 60

0 14

50

1 13

40

12

1
5

11

30

10
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

20

"
,

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

. 18.2. 100 () 10 ()
(1) (2)

389

80

900

140

800

120

>s" 700

100
re

| 600

<D

Q.

>-500

80

CO

^400

60
300

40

20

40

60
,

80

200
20

100

. 18.3.
100
-: 1 ; 2

30

40

50
60
70
,

80

90

. 18.4.
-. ( , )

- 45 50 . , .
18.1, ,
20 50 . 30- ,
,
50 . , , ,
,
.

,
25 35 . ()
40 20 %
( 0,6 %) . 20 .
12 ( 0,7 %) , 20
65.

,
25 35 .

, ,
1 2 % , 20 35

, . 18.4, 3
12,1 ( 1,8 %) .
, , . , , 60- ,
, .
, .
, - .
.


.
- ,
, .

. ,
.
-

390

(
).

...
1. , , , 30 .
2. . , ,
-
40 50 .
3. ,
.


[3, 8, 12]. , ,
. , , 10 % 10 (0,4 -~'-"'
) .
,
, : 0,2
0,5 -^-" 1 [5].


[6, 31]. , 35 , 21 0,44 -" 1 -" 1 , .. ,
. ,

.



30- .
, , , 25
75 (. 18.2). , 1 % (10 % 10 ).

, , . 11 ,
70 ,
[5]. ,
0,8 1,1 % .
18.2.

,

25
35
45
52
63
75

, - -

47,7
43,1
39,5
38,4
34,5
25,5

25 , %

-9,6
-17,2
-19,5
-27,7
-46,5

, . ,
, -

10 % 10 ,
20 ,
25.

, ,
. , ,
,
, . ,
. , 0,5 -~'-~' ,
30 -~'-~',
, 50
-"1-"1.
. :
=


:100.



1 % .

, ,
.

391

80

.
.

. , ,
10 16 . ,
. 24 (
50 82 ), 10- [24]. 11
- . 13 . ,
. ,
:
7 -"1;
70,0 68,9 ;

: 13,1 15,1 %.
, ,
. .

,
,
, , , ,
10 15

. 18.5 , ,
. , , , , -,

.
, ,
.

60

'I

; 40
5

20

10

20

30 40 50
,

60

70

80

. 18.5. (1), (2) (3)

.
(), 25 (.,
). , 1825 .
,
.
, . 18.3, . 69,0 64,3 -~'-~',

2,1 . , (-~') 25-
3,6 %, 0,14 %
(1,4 % 10 ).
18.3.
()
-
(10 ),
,

,
-" '

21,3+1,6
46,31,3

67,9+2,2
66,00,6

.,,
-

4,410,9
4,250,5

69,01,4
64,30,8

1896
1806


,
, . , 1992 .

392

46 2 29 , 1
4 11 .
1966 . ,
, .
?

, ? , , .
18.4.

,
50
50
50
20

66
60
60
30

, - -
48
36
34
44


, ..
[9].
1936 . 2 (8 58 ). , , 49 , ,
45 . ,
81,4 (24 ) 54,4 -^-"1
(49 ), .. 33 %. , , . 43 % 23 50 ( 70 40 -'-').
,

,
.

. ,
: ? ? -

, ,
.- . 63
50 66 ,
20 30 [ 1 ].
. 18.4.
,

,
.

...
1.

.
2.
10 % 10 .
3.


, ,
, , . , .
4. , .
5. , . ,
, .



?
, . 20
30- ( ,
), ,
1 ( , 1- ).
( ,
)
.

( : ), ,
. 20

393

18 22 % , 50 30 % .
.
. (
, 1 )

.
1
40 -" 4 6 ,
1
110 140 -" 60 80 -~'
60 70 .
, , , .
, , .
,
.
,
.
, - ,
.
, ,
. ,
, .

. ,

, -
(97 %) [27]. ,
, .
.
2 , .

: ,
.
2. .
3. . .
, , .
, 2 ,
.


-

. 18.6, - .
.
200 -"1, 60- 160 -"1. ,
1 -"1 .
:
= 220 - .

,
. , 50-
,
,
- .
, ,

, --

...

105 100

It
5

JS

"

2 90
*

S5
J3

1. .
.

394

95

fl)

80

75
70
20

30

40

50

60

. 18.6. (1),
(2) (3)

, [19]. ,
-1- ,
.

|.:
= 220 .
.
20
~' . , , 60-1
160 , 1
140 180


.
, ,
,
,
, . , , ,
51
5-~' (21 %) , [26].

.

.

, , .
,
[26].
,
, , , [28]. . , -
, ,
[12]. ,
, ,
.

, , ,
, . ,
10 15 % ,
(. 18.7) [17, 32].
2 (
). ,

,

.
? , .
. , ,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
.
,
-

1
2
3
, -~1

. 18.7. (1) , (2)


.
(1986)

395

. , ,

-
. ,
. , -
, 20- .

,
.

...

, 2.
.
,
.
2 , , (
,
).
, ,
- , , ,
, . , -
10 % 10 ,
25- .
,

5 % 10 . , -, , , 1 2 % 10
50 . , 55 65 ,
- .



, ,
.
, ,

, .
,
50 , 80
. ,
, ,
. , 92 %
40 60 . 60
[27]. 71
80 32 % .

...
1.
1 -"1 .
= 220 .
2. .
, , ,
, .
3. ; 2.
4. , -
. ,
,
.
, .
18.8,
.
45 50 .
-

60 ,
.

396

200
2 180

160

140

| 120
s

80
I
* 60
s

40
20

20

30

40

50
60
70

80

90

. 18.8.
(1) (2) ,


. , ,
. . 18.9 57-
(78 80 ), . , ,
, ,
. , , ,
,
,
, . , ,
.
. 18.9

57-

,
: 1
; 2 ;
3 .

(),
()
()


- -
. 15 83 , [16].
.
, 18 , ,
,
[30]. ,
1974 1992 ., ,

18- (.
18.10).
- .

, ,
-. , (
)
.
, , ,
-, . ,
-. , , . .

38,4 2

54,0 5

31,8 '

20,9 2

397

80

70

60

050

40

30

11

. 18.10.
(),
- () ()
1974 (1) 1992 (2)

. 50

10 % 10 [20].

. ,
-, -. .
,
. ,

, .

. , ,

.
, ,
[26].
. , ,
10 15 % , .
, , ,
, . , ,
.

...
1.
.
2. .
3. , ,
, , -.
4.

; .
5.

.
6.
, .

-
, , ;
. , , ,
-

, , , .


()
. ,

398

,
.



. , !
, .



()
,
,
. ,
.
70 90 [4].
4 500 , 52-
(8 848 29 030 ).
12, . 6 96
, , , ,
.
,
. , 20 ,
[15, 29]. , , 50 100 000 140 100 000
14 [29]. ,
. ,
.





. , ,
[2, 13]. ,
. ,

, .
,
,
.

.
. .
, , ,
-
.

...
1. , ,
.
2.
.
.

, .
3.
, ,
.



,
, ,
. 16,
,

. . 18.11,

399

^ 30

30

20

20
d

110

,_100
00

10

80

1
60
30

. 18.11.
(1), (2),
- (3)

: .
, : , .
30
, , . , , .

20 70
,
.
. . 18.12
,
35 75 .

,
.

,
,
, .
45- , , 11 % () 18 % () .

40

50
60
,

70

80

. 18.12.
,


19 26 %. , , ( 50 , 43 ), ,
, , : 15 % 23 % .
,
. ,
, ,

.


.
, .

(21 25 ) (60 71 ) [18, 22].

,
5,5 6,0 -~~'
. ,

21 % 19 %
912 , , 4

400

( 6 ) . , ,
,
20
70 ,
, . , , ,
, .

...
1.

;
;

.
2. 30

, ,
,
.
3. "" .
,
, , , .
, .

, ,
.
,
. , ,
,

, , 26,

.
, , ,
. ,
12 80 % (
)
107 %, 227 %
60 72 [10].
(, , ). -
33,5 %, - 27,6%.

( 72 ),
50 ,
6 %. ,
(29 %)
- [7]. ,
, ,
.

.
, ?

, , , .

15 % , [11]. , ,
[14]. , , . , ,

, 10 %
, , .
, , . , ,

-
, ,

401

, , . ,


, ( 2 ).

2. - ?
?
3. . ?
4. ?
, 10, : ?
5. , ?
?
6.
? ?
7. ? ?
8. ?
9. .
10.
?
11. .

...
1. , , ,
.
2. , ,
,
.
3. -,
.

...!
. . , ,
. , , , .
, ,
. , ,
.

, , ,
.

,
,
-.


\. .


1. Anderson ., Hermansen L. (1965). Aerobic work
capacity in middle-aged Norwegian men. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 20, 432 436.
2. Applegate W.B., Runyan J.W., Brasfield L., Williams
M.L., Konigsberg C., Fauche C. (1981). Analysis of the
1980 heat wave in Memphis. Journal of the American
Geriatrics Society, 29, 337 342.
3. Astrand I., Astrand P.-O., Hallback I., Kilbom A.
(1973). Reduction in maximal oxygen intake with age. Journal
of Applied Physiology, 35, 649 654.
4. Balcomb A.C., Sutton J.R. (1986). Advanced age and
altitude illness. In J.R. Sutton & R.M. Brock (Eds.), Sports
medicine for the mature athlete. Indianapolis, IN: Benchmark
Press.
5. Buskirk E.R., Hodgson J.L. (1987). Age and aerobic
power: The rate of change in men and women Federation
Proceedings, 46, 1824 1829.
6. Cempla J., Szopa J. (1985). Decreas of manmum
oxygen consumption in men and women during the fourth
to sixth decades of life, in the light of cross-sectional studies
of Cracow population. Biology in Sport, 2, 45 59.
7. Cress M.E., Thomas D.P., Johnson J., Kasch F.W.,
Cassens R.G., Smith E.L., Agre J.C. (1991). Effect of training
on v
o m thigh strength, and muscle morphology in
septuagenarian women. Medicine and Science in Sports and
Exercise, 23, 752 - 758.
8. Dill D.B., Alexander W.C., Myhre L.G., Whinnery
J.E., Tucker D.M. (1985). Aerobic capacity of D.B. Dill,
1928 1984. Federation Proceedings, 44, 1013 (abst).
9. Dill D.B., Robinson S., Ross J.C. (1967). A
longitudinal study of 16 champion runners. Journal of Sports
Medicine and Physical Fitness, 7, 4 27.
10. Frontera W.R., Meredith C.N., O'Reilly K.P.,
Knuttgen W.G., Evans W.J. (1988). Strength conditioning
in older men: Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improved
function. Journal of Applied Physiology, 64,1038 1044.
11. Goodrick C.L. (1980). Effects of long-term voluntary

402

19

, ,
, " " ..,
, , - . ,
,
,
. :
,
.

, .

,
. , ,
, , . .
, . . ,
, , , , , ,
; ,
.
1991 . ,
100 6,4 %, 1 500 11,0 %
;
14,3 % ;
400 8,4 % .
? , -

?
,
. - .


12 14 , , ,
.
609
7,5 20,5 [15]. 1213
,
20 . 1516 ,
18 20 . ,
, 72 % , .
. 19.1.




. ,

.
7 25
, [25]. , , , , -

405

70


,
. - ,
, ,
.
,

.

- , ,
,

60
*

50

2
40

30

20

11

13
15

17

19

. 19.1. : 1 ; 2 .
(1972)

. .

, .
, ( ).
.
, .
. ( ) ,
. -
, .
: , , , . -
.
. - ()
,
. - " ",
.

,
2 4
.
,
.
, .
:
13 (5 ) ;
14 18 (30 40 ) ;
18
22 (40 50 );
3 6
( 7 1 3 );
(6 10 %) .
, . 19.1. , ,
,
, .
( 25 )
,
. , 3 % 10 ( 0,6
) [16]. ,
, ,

0,1 0,2
(0,3 0,5 ) .

406

. ,
. . 19.2

.

1 8 2 4 6
10% (2025 % 13 16 % ). , .
,
, ,

,
*
(128 .)

.*

,
,*
(133 .)

.**

19.1

13,2
12,8
10,7
17,2
15,1
31,8
7,0
55,0
31,8
101,9
85,2
87,8
75,3
95,9
57,0
36,1
35,1
21,1
30,7
27,2
25,0
23,5
14,9
19,0
14,9
36,5
42,1
25,8
32,1
28,4
8,9
6,3
6,0
4,9
165,8
24,1
17,3

(83 .)

15,3
18,8
13,3
14,0
15,3
22,8
28,8
17,4

(60 .)

17,3
22,2
16,9
14,0
17,3
29,6
33,1
17,3

99,7
84,6
87,7
75,0
93,1
56,5

100,9
87,1
90,8
82,7
97,5
57,6

33,9
20,8

34,4
20,8

27,0

28,6

23,8
14,8

24,4
15,1

36,8
41,4
27,8
34,0
29,9
9,3

36,7
41,8
28,6
35,3
31,2
9,6

5,1

5,2

14,1
7,9
11,7
19,3
16,0
14,9
5,3
57,5
38,5
117,0
97,4
84,0
96,9
58,0
37,7
37,6
22,7
36,3
33,2
29,1
27,6
17,0
19,9
15,5
40,4
47,6
28,3
32,9
28,4
9,5
7,1
7,0
5,6
181,7
26,7
19,1

* , (1969 1970); ** . (1975 1976).

407

(95 .)

(84 .)

13,9
13,6
15,5
11,4
15,2
20,6
17,4

20,2
18,5
24,8
20,6
22,0
30,0
22,2

112,5
91,4

114,8
96,3

81,0
94,4
57,1

91,1
98,4
59,0

36,5
22,1

36,9
22,1

32,6

34,0

28,3
16,7

29,2
17,4

41,1
46,9
31,8
33,6
29,6
9,8

41,5
47,4
33,0
35,1
31,4
10,1

5,9
6,0

- ;
;
.

19.2.

,

15- 19

20-24
22-25
24-30
27-33
30-36
30-36

13- 16

20-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69

15-20
18-26
23-29
26-33
29-33


,
.
10 %
(. 16).
,
: 160 (100 )
. , .

,
.

...
1.
.
2.
, . , , ,
, .
3. , ,
.

, , . , 43 63 %, 25 30 %,
. (
/ ),
( /
).
5 15 %,

(. 19.2). , () .

,
.
.
, , .
, ,

X
0)

*
35
2

, ,

, . , :
- ;

. 19.2. (1)
, (2)
(3) :
; , ;

408

.
.
- (. 4).
, ,

. ,
.



,
, , ,

, (. 19.3),
(> 90 % > 90 % ).
[7, 14]. - (90 96 % 92 98 % ),
: 69 %, 79 %.
- - ( < 45 000 2
> 80 000 2 ).

25

20
X

<

I15

, , . ,
, .
. , , ,
,
, , , :
1) , , , , ;
2) ;
3) , , .
, ,
. 50 % , , , , , , .
.

2, , -,

.
,

.

= 70

- 10

20

40
60
-,%

80


, ,
.

100

. 19.3. -
.
. (1977)

409

,
,
. , . ,
,
, .




.

.

, , ,

.
, ,
, .

125 -"1, 150
, 250 -"1! .

77 1
"1.
94 1 -'!

[33].
15 30 %. ,
,
. ,
. 19.4, , , .
, .
,
.
-


, ,
. ,

, . 1 3 1 5 , 18 22 .
70 75 % .

.
,
1965 ., ,
[21]. 20 30 . : -, -, -.
. 76 %
47 % ,
22 % 7 % [10]. , ,
.
,
-

90
A 1

80

7
i?0


A. A
A.
A AT

!*r *.

i '

50
40
30

10

20

30
,

40

50

. 19.4. (1) (2)


(3) (4). (1938); (1960);
(1980); (1977); ., (1987);
(1984)

410

8 12% .
,

.

, .
[9], 10
,
. , . ,
,
.

(32 %);
,
(38 %);
(65 96).
, .
,
, , ,
.
10 11 , [8].
,
.
,
.
, , , 1
1
" , , .


,
,


(F0 ),

. , , , .

,
.
, , , , , . ,
45 % ,
8,8 12,9 -"1
[28, 29]. .
,
, ,
, .
. .



,

. , ,

.


:
;
;
;
.

...
1.

.
2.

411

.


,
.
3.
, ,
. ,
, , .
4.
2,
,
. .
5.
.
6.
70 75 %
. , ,
.
, .
7.
.
, , , .

, . , ,
,
.
. , ,

, .
, -, ;
, .
.
, ,
,
, , ,


.


.


-
70-
. ,

. , ,
. 60-
70- ,

, . ,
, .
47
26
.
10 ,
40 . :
29 % 17 % ;
30 %
26 % .
, [39].
, ,
.
.

, ,
. ? , . ,

.
,
, - [35].

, , , (. 19.5).

412

9 ^ 380
^
>

5 300

.'
>S

II

220

140

rflOO
150
200
250

2
( ) ()
. 19.5.
( ) :
-; ;

.
, .
,

. .
-,
. , , ,
.
, ,
, .
,
,
.

(20 40 %)
,
.
, -,
,
, ,

, ,
-
.
. , ()
, . -
( ) ,
.
, - ( )
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
50 -"1 .
36 -"1.
- .
,
,
,
,
[34].

, , , , .
,
, -. ,

1,69 , 1,11 [23].


2,5 [7]. -

413

.
, ,
,
.


,
,

, . : .

, ,
, , . ,
, .
, .

10 40 %.
. ; , ,
.
(
10 40 %)


,
.
,
, , , . ,

.
, .
, , , -

. , ,
.

...
1.
, ; , ,
, .
2.
.
3. ,
,
-
.
4. ,
,

, .


.
, , .
400
1924 .
16 % ,
, 1948 . 11,6 %, 1984 .
6,9 %. 800 1979 .
1972 .! ,
. .
, ,
,
, , ..
, 70-
.

.

, , . -

414

54

11,5

u
S

2"

52

50
48

I 10,5

,46
44

9,

1960

1970

1980

42
1960

1990

1970

1980

1990

16,0
4,4

x
s
5

. 4,2

| 15,0

14,5

4,0

,
3,4

1960

\ --- 2

14,0

13,5

..2

3,8
1=1

15,5

13,0
1970

1980

12,5
1960

1990

1970

1980

1990

1970

1980

1990

160

34
i

I 32

150

30

130

^ 28
1960

1970

1980

120

1990

1960

. 19.6. (1) (2) ,


1960 1991 .

. 19.6, 1975
1991 . . 400
10 13 %.
,
,
.



, .
:
; ; ; .

415

, : " ?" "


?" .
. 19.7 .
4 5 ,
()
. , 10 . , , .
. ,
, ().
()
.
. 10
14 . ,
, .

.
28 .


. , .
, , , , .
. .
.
, 15- ,
, 14- .
, .
, .

,
.
,

800

600 -

400 200 -

800 600 -

;
s 400

200 8

10

12

14

16

18

416

20

22

24

26

28

. 19.7

(
,
):
1 ;
2 ;
3 - ;
4-

[3].
[1]. ,
[31].

,
.
. ,
,
.
,

,

,
.
( ),

. ,
. 14.

( ) ,
,
, .
12,8
, 15
. , 5
, [17]. , ,
, ,
,
, ,
[27]. , , ,
, .
27,

: "
,
, ?"
., ,
, , , [38].
,
, ,
, .

,
. . .
18 .


, , , , , ,
. .

5 40 % . 2 3 %, 10 12 %.
,
, ,
.

, , ,
, . ,

, , , , ,
. ,
, .
,
-

417

. ,
, ,
:
;
;
;
;
;
.
.

.
.
54,5 % , , 15,5 % 13,3 %
. , , .
, , , , , .
().
, , [36]. , -
,
.., .
.
, . ,
,
. , .
. , [2, 4].

, 18 , [2]. ,
4 28
. : -

, , [4].
6
. ,
, , , , .
.


. .
. , . , 1/3
10 15 % . ,

, . ,
[18].

. , , . ,
[19]. ,
, 17 %,
22 % [37].
.
,

. ,
, .
.
, .
, , , .

. -

418

8 13
, 19 [20]. 7 9
, ,
, , 5 [41]. ,

.

,
. , -,
,

. (
) ( ). ,

. () ().
, .
.

.
, ,
, [24].

,

,
[26].

[42, 43].

11*

1. , (
), ( ).
2. (
),

.
3. ,


.
4. .
.

25 %
. , . ,
2 , ,
. , , .
,

, .


. (
)
, .
[43]. ,
,
,
.

. , , , -

419


. , .
1
5,3 4,6 ,
, 32- [6].




.
. ,
,
19.3.

(
,
,
) -

, .



(. 19.3),
19.4.

1. .
2. ,
(, , ,.
, , ).
3.
.
4. 3 .
5. , ,
.
6.
,
.
7.

.
8.
.
9.
,
.
10. ,

.
11.
.

(
)
-

. (1989).

. (1989).

420


. . ,
[43], . 19.4. ,

, , .

...
1.
. ,
, , . , , ,
.
2. ,
, .
, , ; ,
,
.
3. ,
.
.
, . , ,
,
, .
4. - ; .
5.
.
,
.

, .
40 . 2 5 . , ,
:
;
;
.
, .
, , ,
,
. , , [32].
.
, [5].

14 , , 14
( ) [12]. ,
. , , 24,9 , , 51,2 .
,
- , ,

[13]. 4
[].

,
[30].
,
,
. ,
,

,
.
-

, ,
, (. 19.8).

421

,

;
;
;
.
1 2 2 1 .

1 %.
. 19.5.

200

.
)

|100

I
.

19.5.

1. , ,
, , 15 % ,
, , 15 % .
2.
.
3. ,
, , ,
"", , , - " " ..
4. (
). (,
,
, , .)

. 19.8. (1), (2),


, (3)
(4),

, , -, .
, ,
, , , .
, , ,
. ,
, , . 1,5
2 ,
, .


. ,
,



.


80- . 10 % .
XIX .,
1976 .
:

(1987).

, , :
;

;
,
, .

. 19.6.
( ) 5 %, 1 %.
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
3 .
?
, ,
, .

422

, ,
.
, ,

, , 50 %.

19.6.
()
1. (
).
2.
.
3. ( , ),
, , .
4. , , 3 .
5.
.


. , 50 % , ,

(1987).

.
. ,

. , ; . :
1) ,
, , , ;
2) , ..;
3) , ,
.
.
110 , ,

.
18 .
14
,
[41]. 7 : 4 , 2 . .
, ,
- , .
, ,
.

, .

, . , , , ( 5 000 25 000 .
),
.., , ,
-.
1990 . , ,
, , .
-

423

19.7.

1. .
2. , .
3. .
4. "", .
5. .
6. , .

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
. - .
.
(1990).

(. 19.7).

. , , , .
,
. ,
, .
.

),
. , ,
, . ,
,
.
,
,
.




(. 11, 12). ,
.
,
, ,
. ,
.
() ,
, .
, (-

, , .
, -, .


.

,
, .
, .
, .

, .

-
90-

;
;
.
" " [40]. ,
. ,


, ,
. , ,
.
.

424

, ,

. () .


.
- .


...
1. ,
, : , .
2. , , , .
3. , , , , , ,
. ,
,
.
4. ,
. , -, .
5.

,

.
6. .

...
. .
, , ,
. , ,
, .

,
.

1. , .
2.
?
3.
. . .
?
4.
?
?
5. -

? ?
6.
?
7. ?
8.

?
9.
?
?
10.
?
?
11.
?
?
?
12.
?
?

1. Bale P., Nelson G. (1985). The effect of menstruation
on performance of swimmers. Autralian Journal of Science
and Medicine in Sport, 19, 19 22
2. Boyden T.W., Pamenter R.W., Stanforth P., Rotkis
., Wilmore J.H (1983). Sex steroids and endurance running
in women. Fertility and Sterility, 39, 629 632.
3. Brooks-Gunn J., Gargiulo J.M., Warren M.P. (1986).
The effect of cycle phase on the adolescent swimmers.
Physician and Sportsmedicine, 14(3), 182 192.
4. Bullen B.A., Skrinar G.S., Beitins O.Z., von Mering
G., Turnbull B.A., McArthur J.W. (1985). Induction of
menstrual disorders by strenuous exercise in untrained women.
New England Journal of Medicine, 312, 1349 1353.

425

20


, - . , , , ,
, , . ,

. ,
.
;
;
;
( ) ;
;
.
,
, , ,
.
- ; , , .

-
.
- [1]
70 ;
1 ( 1990 .);
"" ,
12
.
. 20.1, - , -

,
, , , ,
!
60-


100 000 . ,

. 1993 .

1,5 ;
500 000
;
- .
-
, 2 5
.
1980 1990 .
- 26,7 %, , 60- , 90- 50 %
,
-
60-
(. 20.2). , -, :
;
;
;
-

431

. 20.1

-
43,0 %

23,1 %

6,8%


4,7%


1990 .

(1993)

13,1 %



3,9 %
/
3,6 %

'4%

19,4%

1,0%

;

;
,
.
,
- .
-

. ,

.

,
,
(. 20.3).
, .
.
,

S240

200

|120

--
40

.....4

1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1989
. 20.2. 100 000 .,
.
, : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ;
4 / .

432

. 20.3. , ();
();
(),
()

. ,
. , . , ,
, .
, ,
.


,
,
, ,
().
28

.
,
.
, ,
, .

. , ,
,
, [16]. , , 3 5-
. 10-
, 20 433

() ,
40 50
.

, . ,
,
,
, ,
, , . 30 40 . ,
. .
,
: 77 % ( 22,1 )
[8]
. . 45 % , , 5 %
[22].

. , , , , .
,
. 90 95
. ,
.

,
(.
20.1) -

[15].
, ,
. ,
. , .
, ,
,
.
20.1.
, ..

< 85
85 89
90 -104
105 114
> 114


90 ..
< 140
140 159
> 159


, .

1990 . 63,6
[1]. 25 %
. 46 %
, 67 % [1].

21,6 % 1980 1990 ., 33 000 1990 . .
, -, .

, 1989 . [1]:
6,2 100 000
4,6 100 000
, 28,7
100 000
, 21,4
100 000.

- , , .
434

. 20.4.

()

()

500 000 , 150 000


[1]. 1980 1990 . 32 %.

(. 20.4,),

, , , ;
,
( , ,
, )
-
;
, .


.

,
.
,
.
,
""
,
.
,
. . ,
, , . ,
.
,
(. 20.2).

20.2.

(. 20.4,6).
, , ,
. 28*


,
,
. , , . , ,
.

. , (). () ( ), .

, , .
435

- :
;
;
;
.
.
, .
. (),
.
.

,
, , .
.

,
.
, , 5 1 5 . ,
, , .
,,
:
.

, . : ,
.. ;
; ,

.
,
- ,
.

...
1.
. () .

2. ,
, ( ),


.
3.
,
.
4. , .
5. ,
. ,
, . .
6. , , .
7. .
, .
8. .

- .
,
.
.



? ,
. 20.5, : , . ,
. () .
,
, , "-

436

. , .
, , (.
20.6,). , (. 20.6,).

[33].

, -,
, . ,

()

. 20.5. : ,
" . ,
""
.
, (. 20.6,5), -

,
-
. . . "" ,
[33].
,
.


()

. 20.6. ,
,

437


.
90 % (). ,
, :
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.

...
1.
.
2. ,

. , , ,
, , . ,
,
.
3. ,
,
. , .
4. .
5. 90 %
. : ,
, ,
, , .

,

. , .
. , ,

.

. () , . ,
, .
.


( ) . -

438



,

, : , , ,
(. 20.3). (
),
. :
( );
;
;
;
;
;
.
20.3.

(
)

.
. 20.4 ,
.

, ,
.
, ,

,

. , ,

.
1992 . , 80- ,
, -, -

,
.
.
. ,
,
. :
. , ,
,

, ..

, "'
:

, -1
, "1
, %

<70

120
76
5

130-140
82-88
10-20

150-160
94-100
30-40

>170
>106

<180
<3.0

<200
<4.0

220-240
<4.5

260-280
>5.2

>300
>7.0

<50
<80

<100

130
100-110

200
120-130

>300
>140

12
16
<25

16
20
25-30

25
30
30-40

30
35
>40

>35
>40

240
120
0

180-120
90
0

100
30
0,05

80-60
0
0,10

0,20

3+

<30

40

50

60

>70

<110

90

>50

20.4

, -
6 -"' (5 )**
60 %

( S-T[mV])***

(
)****

<30
0

* .= () / 1 (). : .
- , 56:67-71, 1987
** = . , , 3,5 -~'-~'
1,2 -~'.
*** , .
**** 60 .
(1990).

439

60 . , .
,
.

. , , -,

.
, , ,
.
,
.
?
, ,
.

,
. , , ,
-

, , , -,
.
5,0 , 3,0

. 3,0 ,
5,0 , . ,
225 1, , , 45 ~', 5,0 (225 : 45 = 5,0), ,
, 75 -"1, 3,0 (225 : 75 = 3,0).

,
,
,
.
96 8 1 2
[41]:
19,8 % 200 ~';
5,2 %
;
37,5 % 20 % ;
.

13 15 [40]. . 20.5. ,
- ,
,
.
" ", -
26
. 35 ( , )

, , [27].
, .


, ,
, .

440

.
.

. ,
,
.

20.5.
8 15



> 200 /100

,

<, 36 /100

Z 100 /100

>90-

>90-

10


S 25 %

<, 42 -" ' -
60

, %

13-15

8-12
(96 .)

(308)

20,0

11,0

14,6

8,4

25,0

0,0

13,0

0,0

4,9

0,0

0,0

0,0

1,3

12,6

14,9

3,2

18,8

33,7

30,9

36,0
46,0
14,0

29,9
35,4
22,1
10,7


, ,
,

,
. .
, [11, 12, 34, 37, 38].

...

3,0
1,0

1,9

.
.

(
), (

). :
;
;
( );

;
.
-,
, . , , .

, , II
, -

1. ( ), , .
, , , ,
, , , . ,
. , ,
.
2. , , ,
.

, .
,
, "",
.
3. , , -,
.

441

3,0
, 5,0 .
4.
, .
,
, ( ), .


,
. , :
;

, ;

.


.

,
.

100
. ,
, ,
, 2 3 ,
(-
) [32]. , , , 50-

. [25].
,
,
,
, , -

, , , .
. , 20 , :
,
, .
, .
70- .
, , ( 2 3 ),
, .. [24, 26]. , ,
[2, 3, 7, 20, 21, 30]. [32].

, 80-
() [32]. .
,
1,5 2,4,
1,9, ,

,
. , , , , ,
. , , ,
, , .. ,
.
,
1992 .
.

442

,
. ,
, . !
80- .

[19]? ,
.
80-
, .
, , ( ) .
[19]. ,
,
, , , , , ,
.
[3, 20, 21]. , , , .

,
.
.
.


[18].
:
1) ,
;
2) , ( ),
, , ;
3) ,
.
, . , ,
,
(. 20.7).
-


. , 10,
, , ,
.
.
.

. 20.7.
() () , . . (1981)

443

2 3 ,
.


.
,
,
,
.


, . ,
.

,

.
, , .


. ,
, ,
10 .. [11, 12, 34, 37,
38], . ,
,
, .

,
, ---
,
.
, ,

[10, 13, 14, 39]. ,
,
, -

( ,
10 %), ,
, . ,
, ,
, , ,
. .
, , ,
. ,

,
,
. , ,
,
, ,
, , , .

, .

( ),
, . , , , ( 10).
, , , . ,
. ,
, .
,
,
( 21). ,
,
, [17, 31]. , [5].

444


. , .

. .
, -,
. ,

,

. 1700
( 16 ) ,
, .
, [23]. 3 000
3 900 ,
[4, 9].
. ,
, 1,5
[2].
,
.

,


, , ,
. ,
, . ,
, , ,

, , . ,
10,
. ,

,
, .

,
.


.



,
.
, ,
, .

.
.

...
1. , , , 2 3 ,
, 2 .
2. ,

445





, , ,
.
, .
? ,

-*

|\

-*

- 10

, , ,
.
3. , , .
4. . , , ,
,
, , ,
, .
5.
,
, .
6.
.
7.
, .
8.
, ,
;
.
9.
,
. ,

.

'

. 20.8.
24 : 1
; 2
24
; 3 24
, .
. (1984)

7 620
[36].
,
[35]. . 20.8.
30
, ,
. , 30
(
, ,
),
( ).

,

,
, ,
, ? , , , .
, .

, .

2.

. , , , ,

446


, , , , , [6].
,
, , - ,
. ,
,
,
, , . ,

,
, .
, , ,
. ,
, ,
. ,

[28, 29]. , ,

.

...
1. ,
.
2. 30
, ,
.
3. 30 , ,
,
.

,
- , , -

.
,

. ,
,
.


1.
?
2. ,
?
3. ,
?
4. ? ? ?
5. ? ?
6. , ?
?
7. ?
8. , ,
?
9.
,
?
10. ,
.
11. , ,
?
12. , ?
13. ,
?

1. American Heart Association. (1993).1993 heart and
stroke facts. Dallas: American Heart Association.
2. Blair S.N., Goodyear N.N., Gibbons L.W., Cooper
K.H. (1984). Physical fitness and incidence of hypertension
in healthy normotensive men and women. Journal of the
American Medical Association, 252, 487 490.
3. Blair S.N, Kohl H.W., Paffenbarger R.S., Clark D.G.,
Cooper K.H., Gibbons L.W. (1989). Physical fitness and
all-cause mortality: A prospective study of healthy men and
women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262,
2395 - 2401.
4. Cooper K.H., Pollock M.L., Martin R.P, White S.R.,
Linnerud A.C., Jackson A. (1976). Physical fitness levels vs.
selected coronary risk factors: A cross-sectional study. Journal
of the American Medical Association, 236, 166 169.

447

21


,
. ,
.

, 12 . . ,
,
.
,
. ,
, .


. ,
,
, . ,
, .
, .
,
;
;
;
.

.

" " "" ,


. ,
, .
(. 21.1)
1959 ., -
.

1983 .,
, , ,
.
. , ,
. ,
,
,
, , ,
(. 16).
, ,

.
.
(. 16).

. 25 % , 35 %, .

20 25 % () 30 35 % ().

450


,
. ,
""
"" .
, (
) , . 100 . , . 21.1, ,
230 (104 )
6 (183 ) 142 % [(230 : 162 )
100 = 142 %]. 162 (73 )
, 6 (183 )
(154 - 170 70 77 ).
. ,
. ,
230 (104 ) 6
(183 ) 32 /2.
, .
, , , .
,
, -

30 . , 1976
1980 .
, , 28,4 % 25 74 [13]. 13
26 % (12 17 ), 4 - 12 %
(
; , ) [6]. , , 39 % 19661970 .
54 % 6 1 1 , .
25 %
, ,


1 (0,45 ), 25 . , 55
30 (14 ).
0,5 .
,
1,5 (0,7 )
. , 30

25


1 ,

5
5
5
5
5
5

21.1

(1959)





29*

5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6

2
3
4

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
0
1
2
3
4

25



1 ,

112-120
115-123
118-126
121-129
124-133
128-137
132-141
136-145
140-150
144-154
148-158
152-162
156-167
160-171
164-175

118-129
121-133
124-136
127-139
130-143
134-147
138-152
142-156
146-160
150-165
154-170
158-175
162-180
167-185
172-190

126-141
129-144
132-148
135-152
138-156
142-161
147-166
151-170
155-174
159-179
164-184
168-189
173-194
178-199
182-204

10
11
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

92-98
94-101
96-104
99-107
102-110
105-113
108-116
111-119
114-123
118-127
122-131
126-135
130-140
134-144
138-148

96-107
98-110
101-113
104-116
107-119
110-122
113-126
116-130
120-135
124-139
128-143
132-147
136-151
140-155
144-159

104-119
106-122
109-125
112-128
115-131
118-134
121-138
125-142
129-146
133-150
137-154
141-158
145-163
149-168
153-173

4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6

7
8
9
10
11
0

. , , 5 7
() 2 4 ().

451

45 (20 ).
,
.

3000

2500


,
,
. . 2 500 1
.
1,5 (0,7 ) 5 250 (3 500 1 0,45 ).
15 . 1,5 (0,7
)
. !

,
,
. , [10].

, .

, .
1 0 1 5 , !
, .
25 %;

[11]. 15 25 %,

[17].
? .

(. 21.1):

2000
s
s

.
1500

1000

500

. 21.1.
24 : 1 -15 30 %;
2 -10%; 3
-60 70 %. (1989)

1)
;
2) ;
3) .

( 8 ).
,
,
,
.
.
, 5,
, . 60 75 %
, .
, , , . 10 %
. , , .
(
) ,
, , "", .
, -

452

,
, 10 . 15 30 %
.


, -

:
,

6. .
7. ,
. ,
.

, . .
. (20
30 % )
. , ,
.
. , , , , . .

...
1. , . :
25 % 35 % .
2. .
3. ,

.
, ,
.
4. ,
30 . .
5. 25
1 (0,45 ), 0,5 ,
1,5 (0,7 ) .

,
. -
, ,
. ,
, , .

, . ,
- .
, ,
() .
,
,
, [18,
19, 20].
, [2]. 12 , () ,
, 24- 120 . 14
. 100 6 7
1 000 .
7- . ,
84 100
1 000 .
.
, . 21.2,
4,3 13,3 . (.. )
, .
, .

.

453

,
, .

14

12

<

CD

6
8
10
12
,

14

. 21.2. 1000 84 100- . .


. (1990)

, ,
. , ..
.


- (
)
,
, . ,
. , -, , -
, . , ,

,
,
,
. .

, [22]:
"" "" ,
;

.
. 21.3.
;

: (< 15 ),
(15 85 ), (>
85 ). ;
, .

, ,
( 4),
( 5). .
,
.

. . 21.4,
.
, 30 /2.
,
, :
;
;
;
;
.

454

. 21.3





.
(1985)

< 15

< 14

> 14 537,9

238

<21

221 <51.9

>52

< 21
<24

/
/

> 21 527,9
>24 533,9

> 28
> 34

>85

1t^ 10

>15 < 85

:
;
;

;
.


. , , , -

300
250


20 29
30 39

200

150

;
50

15

20

25

30

, -"2

35

40

. 21.4. : 1 ; 2 ;
3 . (1985)

455

, , (
)
. ,
. , , , .
.



. (.
20). , ,
. II
( ).
. 40-
. , , , (. 21.5).

, , ,
.
, 70-
80- , ,

[1]

;
;
;
;
.
,

, .
, . , 1,0
. 0,8.


.


. .

. 21.5. () ;
()

456

, ,
, .
; , ,

, , :
;
;
;
( );
;
;
.


.
, .
, ,
.
, ,

. , , ,

.



. ,
,
, .. , . , ,
, ,
, .

:
. ,
-

, ,

[2].
. ,
, .
.
, , 1 2 ( 1 )
.

.
1 (0,45 )
52 (24 ) ! .
. ,
,
. " " , . , ,
20 (9 ),
2,5 5 .
, , , , , .
"" . ,
, . , , (350 500 ) .

, . , ,
.
, . ,
, .
,
,
, . ,
, ,
,

457

. , 250 500
, .
,
. , , ,
: () , ; ,
.

.
,
.

, .
, . , . ,

,
: " !" - .
,
, ( ).


.

...
1. , ; -
.
2.
. , , , , ,
.
3. .
4. , , ,
.
5.
-

. ,
, , ,
. ,
,
.
6.
;
, ,
, .
7. , - .
8.
1 2 ( 1 ) . ,
,
.



.
, , ! ,
, .
,
.



.
,
,
, ,

.
. ?
,
30 7 -~' (11 -"1)
( 8,5 -"1, 5,3 -~'), 14,5 -"1,
435 . 1 305 ,

0,33 (0,14 )
. 52

458

17 (8 ) .

- ,
. ,
7,5 -""1, 1 450 . 0,13
(0,06 ) (450 :
: 3 500 -~' = 0,13 ).


,
.

, .
(, ),
(, ),
12 24
( , ).

,
.

,



. [26]
,
.
, , 500
16- . () 500 ; .
() 500 ,
. () 250
250 . . 21.6.
, , ,
. ,
,
.
. 21.7
, 72

, - , 4

2,0

. , ,
0,05 -~',
0,25 -"1 15 -"1.
5 , 75 , , , .
. , , 375
0,1 (0,05 )
, 1,0 (0,45 ) 10 .

f-4

| -6

-10
-12
14

11,7

10,6
12,6

. 21.6. (1), (2) (3) (),


() ().
(1976)

459

40

65
^

z
835

8 60

IS

155

I
CD

20

50

. 21.7. () ()
, : ] ; 2 .
. (1985)

. ,
, , , ,
.
,
,
[15].
,
. :
;
;
.

,
.
,
. , .
,

,
, .
: :

= + +
+


1 2 (
1 ) ,
( 300
500 ).
,

.
-

,
.
, , , 5 % .
.

460

.
,
,
, ,
. 1954 . ,
, , ,
20 1 , , [12]. , ,
, ,
( ) .
, ,
, , . ,
.
,
. ,
,
, .
,
, ,
, . , ,
,
,
,
[14].
.
, ( ) .
, ,
. ,

,
"" .
-

, , , , .
,

.
80- 90- . ,

, 60 75 % .
, 25- 2 700 ,
60 %
(0,60 2 700 =
1 620 ),
1 %
16 5 840 /.
1,7 (0,8 )
.

.
,
. [16].
,

.
, [3].

( ),
, , .
.


. ,
, .
, -

461

,
, .

,
24 ; , [21].

.
.
, .
. ,


. .
, , , .
, .


, , ,
,
. , , .
, ;
,
,
.
. , ,
: ""
, "" [7].
, , ""

, "". "" ,

, .
27- ,

.

, [9].

( ). ,
,
.
. , .

,
,

.
65 % . 80- .
,
, . ,
.

.

.
,

,

. 21.2. 23- 3,0 -"1


30 -

462

21.2
,


30

-50%
-75%

V0

. ' '

1,50
2,25

0,85
0,90

50 % , 30 75 % .

30 .

50 % .

:
. , ,

50
67

50
33

222

110

220
332

, , ,

.
.
,
,
. : II
, -. -

. 21.8. , , ,
:
" II "
;
-
;
-
,

463

""
2 3 (5 8 ) 3 7
,
, (. 21.8). ,
- [24, 25].
, , ;
- ,
. !

...
1.

.
2.
,

, .
3.
,
.

,
.
4.
=
+ + .
5. .
6. ,
.
7.
,

.
8. .
9. .
,
, .

, , ,

() ().
.
:
1) , I ;
2) , II .
12 ; 10 15 % I , 85 90 % II . . 85
25 % .

I II . I
- ,
, - -.
I .
.
II
. II :
1) ; 2) ( ) , ; 3)
.
II . - , ,
. , -
, .


, , . :

464

' ;
;
;
;
;
;
, .

. , .

,

, ,
, .

,
, .
, ,

80- , , II . (
) , -, ,
, , (
).

, .
.
, . , ,
,
.
, , ,
.
,
.
, , , , , .
, , , .
, II ,

30


(
) ,
I , .
I II
, I
. , ,
, , .
,
.
, I .


, , [23].

, I ,
, .

2 3 ,
. ,


.
, I , ,
. , I
, .
, -

465

I , , ,
. . 21.3
, .
21.3.

I

1. (15 30 ) 30
.
2. ,
,
.
3. :

30 35 %
;


;
30 35 % ,

;


,
.
4. ,

, 1 .
5.
.

. 21.9.

. (1988).

, , ,
, ,
( ), .
,
, .
[4].
,
.

, ,
, ,

.
,
(. 21.9). , , . ,
,
, . ,
,
. , .
.
,
, .

, ,
.
II

,
II .
, , ,
; - ( ).

,

466

. ,

[8].
, ,
, . , , , II . , ,
II .
:

.
, ,
.
, , .

...
1. ,
. .
2. I
- , .
II , , ,
.
3. ( ),
.
4. , I , ,

.
, .
5. , I ,
,
.
30*

6. , I , , ,
.

.
7. , II , . ,
.


, ,
. ,
, ,
.
, , .
.


1.
?
2. ?
3. ? ?
4. ?
5. ? ?
? ?
6.
?
7. , ,
?
8. .
?
9. ?
10. ?
11. -

467

22

. , , . ,
. 70 80- 10 %

, . ,
.

-
, ,
.

. , .
. ,
, .
""
(. )
60- . , ,
.
70-
, 80-,


.
,
!
1983 . " "

, [14].

, ,
, . , " " [10].
, 15 36 %
[11,12,
20]. , ,
7,5 %

,
[2, 6].
, , .
5 (8 ) , .

, ""
, , , . ,
?
.
.

. :

470


.
;
;
, , , , ,
;
,
, ;


, ,
- , , .


, .
-, ; -,

.
, , .
, [2, 3,
8]. ,
(. 22.1), (. 22.2).


:
40 ;
50 ;
.


, ,
,

.
[2].

, . ,
, ,
,
, , .
, , . , ,

.

22.1.

22.2.

1. ;
160 ..;
90 ..;
.
2.
6,20 -""1 ( 240 -"1).
3. .
4. *.
5.
/ 55 .

1. .
2. ,
.
3. , .
4. ( ).
5. .
6. ().
7. .
8. .

' 30
15 , ,
35 ,
.
(1991).

.
,
.
(1991).

471



. 22.1,

. , , ( ,
) ( , ). 1 3
.

ST, .

, , ,
. , ,
.
, ,
.
,
.
, -

.
.
.
22.3.
:
. :
, .

, ,
.
,
100 %-, , ,
. . : , ( ).
. . 22.3 , , . 100
6 , 10 ,
4 80 .
6 % (6
100 ).
,
, ,
.


. 22.1.

, ,
. , 50 80 %, ,
50 80 % . , 20 50 %
" ". 80 90 %,

472

22.3. (), ()
()

()*

(00)***
= [ + )] 100

()**

()****
= [/( + )] 100

= [ + )] 100

. , ST ,
.
* . ** . ***
. **** .

, 80 90 %
. , , 10 20 %
" ".
. . 22.4
5 50 % 1000 . ,
, , 60 %, 90%. 5 %
24,0 %.
, 24 %
.
, , -

22.4


5 50 %

60%

90%

,
!

50 %, 87,5 %.
10-

3
-
2 - [19]. - . , 10 500 ,
5 000 - .


, -

(%)


, (%)

5 %
950 (95)
95 (10 %) *
50 (5)
30 (60 %) ***


, (%)

855 (90 %) **
20 (40 %) ****

1000 (100)
125 (12,5 %)
875 (87,5 %)
= [30/(30 + 95)] = 24,0 %

50 %

500 (50)
50 (10 %)
450 (90 %)

500 (50)
300 (60 %)
200 (40 %)

1000(100)
350(35%)
650(65%)
= [ + 50)] = 85,7 %
, .
. ST ,
.

473



.
,
,

.
,

.
. , :
150 350 . ,
. ,

-
.
-
,
.

[2]. ,
,
, 60 .
, 60 % .
,
[4, 15, 16, 17]. , , , , , ,

, .

...
1. 40
50 , -


.
2. ; -

.
3.
,
.
.
4. .
, .

.
5.

.

.
1.
.
2. .
3.
.
4. .
,

, .
, ,
,
.

. ,
, . , ,

. .

474

;
;
;
.

,
, , . , ,
.. (. 22.2).

,
. ,


60 90 %
50 85 % [1]. ,

50 % ,

, 85 % .
, ; , , .

()

, , , .
;
;
;

, , ,
.
, ""

,
, ,
.
, -, .,
, -

. 22.2

(),
,
()
..

475

. , ,
, "" - (), ,

,
.

, .
,
. . .
.
, , .
.
, , .

, , ,
, . , 3 5 . , , , 6
7 , 3 5
. 3 4 5 ,
. ,
, ,

. , 3 4 , .

20 30 .
"" . , . ,
, .
10- 30- .


.
, ?
.
,
45 % .

60 % .
, . , , ,


[15].
. ,
. 10 %
,

[6]. ,
.



- 5
10 . , -

...
1. (), , .

476


,
.
2.
, - .
, , .
3.
, .
4. 3 5
,
. 3 4 , .
5.
20 30
;
.
6. . 60 % .
.




(),
() ().
.


[13].
llfC"
TV-'V^

UfC*
UV/V-'
.

= - .
,
. . 75 %
:
% = 4- 0,75 ( -

-).
[7]. , 75 %
, 75 % .

, . , ,
, .
,
, . , . . 40-
60 -

50



^2
(. 22.3).
F0 .
, ,
. , 75 % , V0 75 % ( 0,75) , F0 ,
. , ,
,
,
. , 75 % 86 %
(. 22.3).

1 40
30

> 20
10

80

100

120
140
160
, -"1

180

200

. 22.3.
, (75 %)

477

75 -"1,
180 -""1.
60 75 % .
60% = 75 + 0,60 (180 - 75) =
= 75 + 63 = 138 "
75 % = 75 + 0,75 (180 - 75) =
= 75 + 79 = 154 "

(220 )
.
. , , .

,
, . ,

,

,
9 -"1 (6 - -""1).


, .
,
.
. ,
.



(). , , .
3,5
(2,2 ) (-"
'~'). 1,0 .

. , 2,0 ,
, 7 -~'-~', , 4,0 , ""
14 -^-" 1 . . 22.5 . , .
, , .

, ( )
,

, , .

478

22.5.










, 2,5 -""'


, 3,5 -"1










(115 ,
2,5 -"1)

1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
2,0
2,0
2,0
3,0
3,5
4,5
5,5
6,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
2,0
2,5
2,5
2,5
3,0
3,5
4,0
4,0
5,5
6,5

. 22.5

, 23 -"1
(1 30 )
, 5,5 -'1
(1 10 54 )
, 6 -~'
(1 10 )
, 2,5 -""1
(1 24 )
3 -'1
(1 20 )

, 9,7 -~'
(1 6 18 )
, 1 -'1
, 3,5 -"1
(1 17 )
4,0 -"1
(1 15 )
, 5,0 -"1
(1 12 )
, 13 -"1
(1 4 37 )
, 7,5 -"1
(1 8 )
, 2 -"1
, 8,5 -"1
(1 7 )
10,0 -"'
(1 6 )
2,5 -"1
3,0 -"1
, 12 -"1 (1 5 )
15 -"1 (1/4 1 )
3,5 -"1




1
, 2,5 -"

, 6


. 22.5

6,5
7,0
7,5

2,5
3,0
3,5

4,5
5,0
5,0
5,5
6,5
7,5
9,0
9,0
10,0
12,0
15,0
15,0
20,0
20,0
30,0
30,0
1,5
2,0
2,0
2,5
2,5
3,0
3,0
3,5
3,5
4,0
4,0
4,5
4,5
4,5
4,5
6,0
6,5
6,5
8,0

8,0
8,5
9,0
9,0
9,0
10,0
10,0

3,5
4,5

.


, , .
.
, 6 2 0 (. 22.6), 12 13 (
) 15 16 ().
. 22.7
. . ,
60 79 %. ,
50 74 %
, . ( ),
12 13.
.

...
1. , .
2. ,
. ,

.

, , .

479

15-

0
0,5

15-

10-

8
9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20

1
2
3
4

5
6

()

7
8
9
10

22.6

(1982), (1990).

3.
,
.
4. . V0
3,5 -^'-"1, 1,0 .

.
5.

. .

, ,
.

,
, .
.

22.7.
,

20 60

, %

..^

35

30

35-59
60-79
80-89

30-49
50-74
75-84
285

10- 11
12-13
14- 16
16

90

(1990).

:
;
;
, ;
, ;
;
.
, , 3 4 . -

480


. , ,
, ,
; .
.




, (. 22.4).
, ,
, .
,
, . ( 5 1 0 )
( 5 1 0 ),
. , ,


5 1 0 .

, - , .

,
. ,
. , , , ,
, ,
, . , , , , ,
. , ,
.
.

,

,
, .
. , , .
,
. ,
, .
, .

. 22.4.

()


,
,
()
31

481

(. 22.5),
, , . , , ,
.
.

.
,
. , , , , , ,
,
.

1, ,
,
1 . , ,

1 . 10 .

, , .
, .
8 ,


.

8 10- ,
.
,
. 2 3 , 2 3
.
,
, , . 15 ,
.
.



. , .
[1].

:
. 22.5.
,


.
, , , ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
[24].
, , - .

,
, ,
.
. -

482


, ,
. ,

.
, ,

.
, , .
.
, ,
-
- - .
, . , , - .

. ,
.
,

, , . .
, ,
.
. ( ) ,
,
.

. ,
, , , . , , , .
31*


:


?

?
, ?
,
?
.

, .
, , , , ,


. . , , , .

...
1.
,
, -, .
2. ,
, 3
4 .
3. , ,
.
4.
, .
5. , 1 . 10
, , .
10 , , 8 .

483

6. .


, . , 50- .


-
, - " ".

, ,
, , , , .

,
,
.
,
.

, ,
,

, , , , , .
2.
, .


. , . ,
: () ; () ,
. .
, . ,
.
, , ,
- . , - ,
. ,
. ,
, .

,
,
.
, [5, 9, 18, 21, 22, 23].

...
1.
.
, -

1. ? ?
2.
? ?
3. ,
. , ,
?
4. ? ?
5.
? ?
6. , -

.
,
,

,
, ; .
.
,
.
() () .
, .
"" ; .
( ) ,
.
,
.
.
, , , ,
, .
, -

, , ,
,
.
- (
2) , , .
, , .
, , ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.

,
.
( ) .
( )
, ,

().
,
,
,
, .

486

.
- , ; ,
.
- ((3-) ,
.
- (-)
,
.


.
, .

.
,
,

.
. .
,
- .

.
(-)
; ,
.

. .
, . ,
.

, .

(FE ' _) ~ (FE)
(Fco ).
(FE/F0 )

(FE)
(V0 ); .


,
. ,
, .
,
() . .

,

.
35 40 % , ,
, , , .


, .

.
60 65 %
.

.
,
.
""
, , ,
.
, -

487


.
.
,
"" , .

, , .
, .

,
.

; .

.
( )
,
.

.

, .
, , . ,
, , ( ),
. , .
,
.

.
.
.

; 140 ..
90 ..
.

.

.
.
.
: 136 143 -"1.
.
( , ).
.

, .
.
.
.
.
.
,
-.
, , , .
, , , .

488


, .

.
.
,

; .
.
.
, .
I
. ,
; .
II . .
,
.

, ( ).
.
, .
, .

( ) .

.

.

.
, 32,

, ,
.


. ,

, .
, , , .
. ,
.
, ,
.
()

.


.

()
, .

.
.

, .
11 12 , .
, ,
,
; -

489

,
,
.
, , .


.
(,^)
() ()
; .
, -
, .
, ,
.


.
.
(, ) .
.

,
.

.
; .
, , ,
,
.

, ,
, ( , ).
- , .
,
; .

, , .
-
,
.
- ,
,
.
.

.
, , .
() , ,
.
.

; ,
40 60 % 30 ,
15-
.
, .
.

490

,
,
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
.


.

, 100 .

() .

(FE. ) .
()
. : ,
, .

,
.
(-)
, , .

,
.
, .
.
28
, , .
32*


( ) . 3,5 2-~1'~1.


. , .

.
"" ( )
:
, , .
- . ,
I, ,
, II.
"" .
,
, .
,
""
.
.
, .
, 100
.
,
, ; .
.
.

491

.
.

.
.
, , .

;
, .
, .
, 2,0 4,0
-"1, .
, (
) .
8 9 , ,
, , .
, ""
.

,
, .
, 85 - 95 % .

,
.
-
,
.
- ""
.

-
, .
, ;
,
.
, , ,

.
,
.
,
.

.
, .
.

: 25 %
35 % .
()
, : ,
.
()
, :
, , .

, ;
.
(Q Oj )

.

. : .
.
,

492

, .

,
.
(, ) .
, .
: , , , .
.
() , .
,
.
,
,
, ;

, , .
, ,
, ; .
, , ,
( ) 100.

, .
:
.
.

,
,
, ; ,
, , .
,
1 2
.

.
( ) 18- .


.

, , ,
, .

, .

.
,
.

,
, , .

.
, .
, -

493

, , , .
, "" , ,
, ; , .


.
,
.


, ,
.
.
.
, ,

.
(-) ( ),
.

. , .
, , .
, .
, -

, .
.
,

.
,

, .
,
.
,
,
.
,
( ).


.
, , .
,
.

.
% =
[( - ) /
] 100.



,
.
. -

494

, -
.
.

.

.
; ,
.
.


, ,
, ..;

.
.
.

, , .

.
,
,
. .
, .
,
,
.

.
.

.
.
.
,
.
,
()
().

.

, .
-

.
- ,
. .
(Q) , 1 . Q =

.

.
, ,
. ,
.
.
.
,
, .

,

495

. ()
,
.
, . ,
, .
.

- , .
,
;
- - .

, .

.
8- .
( ), ,
()
.
, .
- -
.

() .

- .
.

.


, .
,
.

, .
.
, ; .
.

,
.
() .
,
,
( ). : .
,

; , .


.
.
24- .

( ) .
-

496

, ,
,
.
.
, :
.
, .
,
- ; ,
, , , .

, .
105 (40,5),
, ,
.
,
.

, , , , .
, .
,

.
, , , .
, , .
.
-


,
.


.

, ,
.
, , -
.
, ,
.
, (, 60 80 %
) , .
, , .

.

,

. , 75 % , V0 75 % ,
F0 , .
, , .
,

.

497

,
, , ,

.
,
.

.

.



.
.

, , .
, , , , .
,

.
, .
,
, , .
, ,
-
100.

, , ""
,
.

, ,
, , .
,
, ,
,
.
, . . .
, ; ,
.
,
-
2 (), , ,
, 2 2.
60 80 .
, , , ,
.
, , ,
(
).

(, )
; .
() , .

,
.

498

()
.
() .

.
, .
, ,
, .
,
.
, "" . .
, .


.
,
.
.
.
, () .
, .
.
.
(), .


, .
(), (), (),
(), ().
(),
().
(), ().
(), (), (),
().
().
( ), ( ), " ( ).
(), (), ().




1 = 1 000
1 = 1 000
1 = 22,4 ( )
1 ( ) = 44,6
= :
= / ()
= /
= ()
= ()

1 = 0,0254 () = 2,54 () =
= 25,4 ()
1 = 12 = 0,304 = 30,48 = 304,8
1 = 3 = 0,9144
1 5 280 = 1 760 = 1609,35 =
= 1,61
1 () = 0,3937
1 () = 100 = 1000 = 39,37 =
= 3,28 = 1,09
1 () = 0,62
1 () = 10~6 = 1Q-3

1 () = 1 000 () =
= 4 184 () = 4,184 ()

1 = 0,2522 =
= 1,055
1 = 5,05 = 21,1

1 () = 1 000 () = 106
() = 109 () = 2,205
1 () = 1 000 = 0,03527
1 () = 1 000
1 = 16 = 453,6 = 0,454
1 = 28,35
1 1

1 () = 0,0143 --' = 1 /--' =


= 60 -"1 = 60 -/ (N--1) =
= 6,118-1
1 --1 = 69,78

= 1 () =
= 760 ..

( ) = 0,555 () - 32
= 1,8 (") + 32
= + 273

1 (/) = 16,7 -1 = 0,28 1 =


= 0,91 "1 = 0,62 /
1 (/) = 88 -"1 = 1,47 ' = 1609,3 --> = 26,8 -1 = 0,447 --1 =
= 1,6093 /

6
1 () = 1 000 () = 10
()
1 () = 1 000
1 () = 1,057
1 = 0,9463 = 946,3 = 2 = 32
1 = 4 =128 = 3785,2 = 3,785
1 = 16 = 2 = 473,1
1 = 8 = 236,6
1 = 29,57 = 2 = 6
1 = 3 =
15
1 = 5

1.





7
7
8
10
15
18

I

2.




3.




()
-

4. -

25
25
32
42
42
48
50
53
58
61
61

6.











7.




,



71
74
78

85

85
88
94
100
105
112
113
116
123
123
127
132
132
137
140
143

III

63

II
,

5.

8. -


-

161

9.

174
174

501

149
149










-
10. -

180
183
184
188

12.

,


:



:


:

190
191
195
196
196
197

209
211
215

13.


()
14. ,
,

,



.221
.221

.227

.230

.233
.236

.238

240
241

244

245

256
262

206
207

IV

.

,






















176

15.




-


16.

,




502

273
274
277
282
283
288

292
293
295
305
310
321
322
334
340
343
345
351
351
352
357
358
363

VI




17.
-





18.








19.
-







369
369
374
382
388
389
390
396
399
400
405
405
408
411
414
415

VII



20. -

-





21. ,

22.










431
432
436
438
442
450
450
464

470
470
474
477
480
484
486