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373.167.1:811.111
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ISBN 978-5-222-28543-5

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373.167.1:811.111
ISBN 978-5-222-28543-5 81.2-92

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Training Test 1
GAMES OF STONES

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Task 1
GEMSTONES AND THEIR MAGIC
Let us ask you a question. 1 _______ (STAND) you near glass cases
in a jewelry store admiring multicolored gemstones on display? If it is
so you are no exception. People 2 _______ (MESMERIZE) by pre-
cious stones for millennia. A legend says that once upon a time our sky
was solid substance 3 _______ (MAKE) of glittering crystals. One day
the sky cracked and the shards fell onto the earth as gemstones. Peo-
ple started collecting them so as to be 4 ______ (CLOSE) to heaven.
We still treasure gemstones but for different reasons. For some people
diamonds, rubies, emeralds and sapphires are just a good 5 ______ (IN-
VEST). Others believe that precious stones accumulate positive energy
and are capable of protecting and helping their owners in time of need.
If this idea is true people should bear in mind that gemstones like any
other stones are much 6 _______ (ANCIENT) than human civilization
and should 7 _______ (TREAT) both carefully and respectfully. They
will assist their owners in doing good things but may punish them for
bad deeds. And please, remember to check out the previous owner of
the gemstone you are planning to wear. Youd better be sure he or she
was a good person!

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Training Test 1. GAMES OF STONES

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Task 2
DIAMONDS ARE FOREVER
The diamond is the hardest, the least 8 _____ (PERISH) and the
most brilliant of all minerals. The name itself comes from the Greek
word which meant 9 _______ (CONQUER). Diamonds were first
mined in India and 10 _______ (BODY) the mystery and romance of
this exotic country. They inspired great interest and sparked the imagi-
nation of writers like Wilkie Collins who celebrated their power in his
novel The Moonstone. Diamonds are not only associated with royalty
but have also become an enduring symbol of love. In the Middle Ages
diamond rings were often used to write love messages on window glass.
The most famous diamonds have their own names and stories to tell.
The 11 ________ (NOTORIETY) Shah diamond, currently kept in the
Russian Diamond Fund, was a kind of ransom for the murder of the
12 _______ (STAND OUT) Russian writer and diplomat Griboedov.
The Koh-i-Noor or Mountain of Light diamond decorates one of the
British queens crowns as it is said to bring 13 _______ (FORTUNE)
to its male owners. These days most world diamonds come from South
Africa and some of them are truly remarkable.

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Task 3
DROPS OF THE SUN
Amber has a long history. Millions of years ago pieces of amber were
washed onto the shore for early cave dwellers to find. They 14 ______
if the strange golden stone, warm to the touch, could be solid sunlight.
They carved pieces of amber into the shapes of animals and wore them
on cords around their necks for magical 15 ______. When early Chi-

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nese people found amber, they believed it held the souls of dead tigers
and they 16 _______ it as the source of courage. When ancient Greeks
rubbed amber against cloth to make it glow, they noticed that it would
17 ______ feathers to it. Thus they discovered static electricity. For
hundreds of years people used amber to decorate warriors weapons.
Amber was also ground fine and mixed with honey or oil of roses for
medicinal purposes. Amber mixtures were believed to cure all kinds of
aches and diseases. Later an 18 _____ room was built of amber of many
colors for royal use. It was admired for over 200 years but was lost dur-
ing World War II. Amber is also important for scientific research. Its
pieces with inclusions of early life or gas bubbles are especially valua-
ble. They hold 19 ______ about the early ecology. Besides amber is the
only known 20 _________ which can preserve ancient DNA samples.
Apart from its many uses amber is simply a joy to look at and to wear.

14 1) asked 2) questioned 3) supposed 4) wondered


15 1) defense 2) protection 3) advice 4) help
16 1) held 2) kept 3) treasured 4) used
17 1) push 2) draw 3) lift 4) reject
18 1) entire 2) full 3) whole 4) huge
19 1) answers 2) prompts 3) clues 4) cues
20 1) gem 2) stone 3) mineral 4) fossil

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Task 4
READING PASSAGE ONE
A. There is no other stone that has been a subject, inspiration, or plot
feature of so many artistic works: novels, comics, movies, animations,
video games, and musical compositions. Though, in essence, it is no
stone at all, let alone precious. It is a legendary substance capable of
turning base metals into gold or silver. It is also able to extend ones life
and called the elixir of life, useful for achieving immortality.

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Training Test 1. GAMES OF STONES

B. For centuries, it was the most ambitious goal in alchemy. We are


talking about the philosophers stone, of course. Hundreds upon hun-
dreds of people devoted their lives to the search for the philosophers
stone, and it came to be the central symbol of the mystical terminology
of alchemy. Over the ages, lots of descriptions of the never-found stone
were made.
C. According to some, the stone came in two varieties: one white,
for the purpose of making silver, and one red, for the purpose of making
gold. But if we analyze some linguistic aspects of the legend, interest-
ing observations can be made. For instance, the word elixir (of life),
which is part of the legend, is derived from the Arabic word al-iksir that
means just substance.
D. The Philosophers Stone has always been shrouded in great mys-
tery. One example is the life of a successful French manuscript seller
Nicolas Flamel who died some six hundred years ago. For several cen-
turies after his death he was thought to be the alchemist who had dis-
covered the Philosophers Stone. Surprisingly, one of his houses still
stands in Paris, the oldest stone house in the city. Today, in a typically
French manner, it houses a restaurant.
E. Legend has it that Nicolas Flamel made it his lifes work to un-
derstand the text of a mysterious small book that he had purchased.
Once he traveled to Spain and on his way back he met a sage, who
identified that small book as an ancient treatise on alchemy. Over the
next few years, Flamel and his wife were busy translating rather,
decoding the book.
F. In the end, the couple decoded enough of the book to successfully
replicate its recipe for the Philosophers Stone. They first produced sil-
ver and then gold. They were even rumored to have obtained the elixir
of life. So much for the ability to translate well! But, for some reason,
Flamel achieved legendary status much later.
G. Such greats as Isaac Newton mentioned his work. A number of
later authors wrote about his work and placed him among the outstand-
ing alchemists. Small wonder in the 20th century, with the general in-
terest in medieval practices growing, Flamels name resurfaced again.
Finally, Joanne Rowling recreated his reputation in mass culture depict-
ing him as inspiration for young wizards in the tremendously popular
Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone.

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1. A French Alchemist
2. Flamels Great Secret
3. A Stone and an Elixir
4. Centuries-old Search
5. Reasons for Popularity
6. Two Colors of Mystery
7. What the Alchemists Did
8. Alchemy: Fact and Fiction

A B C D E F G

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Task 5
READING PASSAGE TWO
Though technically pearls are not exactly stones, A ______. Pearls
are considered the first jewelry items used by people. Thousands years
ago, when B ______ looking for seafood they must have come across a
small miracle hidden in a shell. The British Museum displays Aphrodite
Pin with two pearls dating 300 BC. It is one of the oldest objects con-
taining pearls. Now pearls come in many kinds and colors. The finest
pearls have become status symbols and C _______. The word pearl
itself has become a metaphor for something rare and fine.
A few famous pearls natural, cultured, freshwater or saltwater
stand out among the millions of pearls that have been giving joy to
people over the centuries. One of them, named Einstein, is the largest
pink pearl, found in an American river. Its owners were offered 50.000$
for it, but declined the offer. A perfectly round natural American pearl
from the Black River in Arkansas is known as pearl among pearls. It is
larger than a dime and D ____________.
One of the most amazing pearls is called Wanderer. It was found
in 1500 in the Gulf of Panama and E ___________. Since then it has
changed many hands kings, queens, and emperors. Its last proud
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Training Test 1. GAMES OF STONES

owner was Elizabeth Taylor, the great Hollywood star and enthusiastic
pearl collector. But the largest pearl on record is Pearl of Allah, discov-
ered near the Philippines. It is 9.4 inches long and has an extraordinary
shape F _________. Entered into the Guinness Book of Records and
currently valued at $40 million, the pearl is a true miracle of nature.

1. was lost soon after


2. resembling a turbaned head
3. are valued as objects of beauty
4. has a lustrous creamy white color
5. they are no less lovely and valuable
6. our ancestors were roaming the ocean shore
7. brought freedom to the slave-diver who came across it

A B C D E F


(Tasks 15) .
Explain why learning about stones can be a worthwhile
occupation for any young person. Use 200250 words including
some (or all) of the lexis given in the box below.

ancient cost famous


fortune search jewel
valuable precious discover

PLAYING THE GAME OF STONES


Everybody knows ______________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Speaking of jewels _____________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
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However, it is also true that _______________________________


________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
So it seems that ________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

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Training Test 2
SPEAKING OF MUSIC TALENTS

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Task 1
HOW THE SAXOPHONE CAME ABOUT
In 1846, the Belgian-born music instrument designer Antoine-
Joseph Sax was 32 years old and worked in his Paris workshop. He
1__________ (EXPERIMENT) with various musical instruments
since childhood; his parents were designers 2_________ (THEY).
Young Antoine had plenty of opportunity to practice. At the age of 15,
he entered two of his inventions into a competition. He continued in
this vein for many years and finally came up with his most famous
invention, the saxophone. The new instrument 3________ (INITIAL)
gained popularity with French and British military bands. However, the
golden opportunity for the saxophone came after a new genre of music,
jazz, 4________ (ORIGINATE) in North America. The jazz musicians
were fond of 5_________ (IMPROVISE), and the saxophone proved
a perfect tool for that. In fact, it was the jazz musicians who put the
phrase Big Apple City into general circulation. If a jazzman boasted that
he 6_________ (HAVE) a show in the Big Apple, you knew he had an
engagement to play in Manhattan, where the audience was the biggest
and 7________ (APPRECIATE) in the country.

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Task 2
FROM THE LIFE OF A GREAT COMPOSER
Sergei Prokofiev, one of the major composers of the XX centu-
ry, was born in a small town of Krasnoe located in Donetsk Region,
Ukraine. Its not easy just to 8_____________ (NUMBER) all his crea-
tive works seven operas, seven symphonies, eight ballets, five piano
concertos, and many other compositions. Prokofievs 9___________
(BRILLIANT) showed really early as he composed his first piano piece
at the age of five. Most probably, it was his mother who was 10________
(INSTRUMENT) in the shaping of his musical gift. During her sons
early childhood she herself started taking piano lessons. As a result, the
young and 11__________ (IMPRESS) Sergei was inspired by hearing
his mother practicing the piano in the evenings. Thats how he first got
acquainted with the 12__________ (GREAT), Chopin and Beethoven.
Their works didnt fail to produce an impact on him. At nine, the boy
was already composing his first opera. At eleven, the 13____________
(BUD) composer was making his first attempt to write a symphony. Yet
his genius took many forms for he learned to play chess very early and
had at least two world chess champions for friends. He even beat one of
them in a simultaneous exhibition match!

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Task 3
MAKING A FLYING START
The composer Georges Bizet lived a short life, just 37 years, but
he managed to produce a lot. If you count operas only, you have fif-
teen including the world famous Carmen. How did he manage to
be so 14___________? The secret lies in an early start. And a fly-

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.................................................................................3
Training Test 1. GAMES OF STONES ................................................4
Training Test 2. SPEAKING OF MUSIC TALENTS ........................ 11
Training Test 3. AGAINST THE EVIL EYE ......................................18
Training Test 4. SOMETHING ABOUT MUSIC ...............................25
Training Test 5. HOUSES AND HOMES ..........................................32
Training Test 6. THE WONDERS OF THE SKY ..............................39
Training Test 7. TIME WONT WAIT................................................46
Training Test 8. MODERN URBAN LANDSCAPES .......................53
Training Test 9. OF CAPTAINS COURAGEOUS .............................60
Training Test 10. ON FRUIT AND VEGETABLES ..........................67
Training Test 11. SCHOOL CAN BE COOL .....................................74
Training Test 12. COOKING CAN BE AN ART, TOO .....................81
Training Test 13. FASHIONS HIGH AND NOT VERY ....................88
Training Test 14. APPEARANCES DO MATTER ............................95
Training Test 15. ON HOBBIES AND PASTIMES .........................101
Training Test 16. OF KINGS AND QUEENS ..................................108
Training Test 17. MOVIES AND MOVIE STARS .......................... 115
Training Test 18. THE WORLD OF MASS MEDIA .......................122
Training Test 19. ON MYTHS AND LEGENDS .............................129
Training Test 20. MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES ..........................136
Training Test 21. GO GET A VACATION........................................144
Training Test 22. DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTAL
THINKING .................................................................................151
Training Test 23. ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY .................158
Training Test 24. BECOMING PART OF MOBILE
CULTURE ...................................................................................165
Training Test 25. ADVERTISING ALL AROUND US....................172
.................................................................179


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